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Sample records for attenuates kidney fibrogenesis

  1. Nox-2 Is a Modulator of Fibrogenesis in Kidney Allografts

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    Djamali, A; A Vidyasagar; Adulla, M.; Hullett, D.; Reese, S.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the role of classical phagocytic NADPH oxidase (Nox) in the pathogenesis of kidney allograft tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Immunofluorescence studies showed that Nox-2 and p22phox (electron transfer subunits of Nox) colocalized in the tubulointerstitium of human kidney allografts. Tubular Nox-2 also colocalized with α -SMA in areas of injury, suggestive of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Interstitial macrophages (CD68+) and myofibroblasts (α -SMA+) expressed Nox-2 while ...

  2. Pharmacological activation of cannabinoid 2 receptor attenuates inflammation, fibrogenesis, and promotes re-epithelialization during skin wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhao, Rui; Li, Jiao-Yong; Li, Shan-Shan; Liu, Min; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Meng-Zhou; Dong, Wen-Wen; Jiang, Shu-Kun; Zhang, Miao; Tian, Zhi-Ling; Liu, Chang-Sheng; Guan, Da-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies showed that cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor is expressed in multiple effector cells during skin wound healing. Meanwhile, its functional involvement in inflammation, fibrosis, and cell proliferation in other organs and skin diseases implied CB2 receptor might also regulate skin wound healing. To verify this hypothesis, mice excisional wounds were created and treated with highly selective CB2 receptor agonist GP1a (1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-6-methyl- N-piperidin-1-yl-4H-indeno[1,2-c]pyrazole-3-carboxamide) and antagonist AM630 ([6-iodo-2- methyl-1-(2-morpholin-4-ylethyl)indol-3-yl]-(4-methoxyphenyl)methanone) respectively. The inflammatory infiltration, cytokine expression, fibrogenesis, and wound re-epithelialization were analyzed. After CB2 receptor activation, neutrophil and macrophage infiltrations were reduced, and expressions of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1, Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A were decreased. Keratinocyte proliferation and migration were enhanced. Wound re-epithelialization was accelerated. Fibroblast accumulation and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transformation were attenuated, and expression of pro-collagen I was decreased. Furthermore, HaCaT cells in vitro were treated with GP1a or AM630, which revealed that CB2 receptor activation promoted keratinocyte migration by inducing the epithelial to mesenchymal transition. These results, taken together, indicate that activating CB2 receptor could ameliorate wound healing by reducing inflammation, accelerating re-epithelialization, and attenuating scar formation. Thus, CB2 receptor agonist might be a novel perspective for skin wound therapy. PMID:27268717

  3. Lack of the matricellular protein SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine attenuates liver fibrogenesis in mice.

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    Catalina Atorrasagasti

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC is a matricellular protein involved in many biological processes and found over-expressed in cirrhotic livers. By mean of a genetic approach we herein provide evidence from different in vivo liver disease models suggesting a profibrogenic role for SPARC. METHODS: Two in vivo models of liver fibrosis, based on TAA administration and bile duct ligation, were developed on SPARC wild-type (SPARC(+/+ and knock-out (SPARC(-/- mice. Hepatic SPARC expression was analyzed by qPCR. Fibrosis was assessed by Sirius Red staining, and the maturation state of collagen fibers was analyzed using polarized light. Necroinflammatory activity was evaluated by applying the Knodell score and liver inflammatory infiltration was characterized by immunohistochemistry. Hepatic stellate cell activation was assessed by α-SMA immunohistochemistry. In addition, pro-fibrogenic genes and inflammatory cytokines were measured by qPCR and/or ELISA. Liver gene expression profile was analyzed in SPARC(-/- and SPARC(+/+ mice using Affymetrix Mouse Gene ST 1.0 array. RESULTS: SPARC expression was found induced in fibrotic livers of mouse and human. SPARC(-/- mice showed a reduction in the degree of inflammation, mainly CD4+ cells, and fibrosis. Consistently, collagen deposits and mRNA expression levels were decreased in SPARC(-/- mice when compared to SPARC(+/+ mice; in addition, MMP-2 expression was increased in SPARC(-/- mice. A reduction in the number of activated myofibroblasts was observed. Moreover, TGF-β1 expression levels were down-regulated in the liver as well as in the serum of TAA-treated knock-out animals. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA analysis suggested several gene networks which might involve protective mechanisms of SPARC deficiency against liver fibrogenesis and a better established machinery to repair DNA and detoxify from external chemical stimuli. CONCLUSIONS: Overall our data suggest that

  4. Attenuation of acute nitrogen mustard-induced lung injury, inflammation and fibrogenesis by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a toxic vesicant known to cause damage to the respiratory tract. Injury is associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In these studies we analyzed the effects of transient inhibition of iNOS using aminoguanidine (AG) on NM-induced pulmonary toxicity. Rats were treated intratracheally with 0.125 mg/kg NM or control. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue were collected 1 d–28 d later and lung injury, oxidative stress and fibrosis assessed. NM exposure resulted in progressive histopathological changes in the lung including multifocal lesions, perivascular and peribronchial edema, inflammatory cell accumulation, alveolar fibrin deposition, bronchiolization of alveolar septal walls, and fibrosis. This was correlated with trichrome staining and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) was also increased in the lung following NM exposure, along with levels of protein and inflammatory cells in BAL, consistent with oxidative stress and alveolar-epithelial injury. Both classically activated proinflammatory (iNOS+ and cyclooxygenase-2+) and alternatively activated profibrotic (YM-1+ and galectin-3+) macrophages appeared in the lung following NM administration; this was evident within 1 d, and persisted for 28 d. AG administration (50 mg/kg, 2 ×/day, 1 d–3 d) abrogated NM-induced injury, oxidative stress and inflammation at 1 d and 3 d post exposure, with no effects at 7 d or 28 d. These findings indicate that nitric oxide generated via iNOS contributes to acute NM-induced lung toxicity, however, transient inhibition of iNOS is not sufficient to protect against pulmonary fibrosis. -- Highlights: ► Nitrogen mustard (NM) induces acute lung injury and fibrosis. ► Pulmonary toxicity is associated with increased expression of iNOS. ► Transient inhibition of iNOS attenuates acute lung injury induced by

  5. Attenuation of acute nitrogen mustard-induced lung injury, inflammation and fibrogenesis by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaviya, Rama; Venosa, Alessandro [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Hall, LeRoy [Drug Safety Sciences, Johnson and Johnson, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States); Gow, Andrew J. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a toxic vesicant known to cause damage to the respiratory tract. Injury is associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In these studies we analyzed the effects of transient inhibition of iNOS using aminoguanidine (AG) on NM-induced pulmonary toxicity. Rats were treated intratracheally with 0.125 mg/kg NM or control. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue were collected 1 d–28 d later and lung injury, oxidative stress and fibrosis assessed. NM exposure resulted in progressive histopathological changes in the lung including multifocal lesions, perivascular and peribronchial edema, inflammatory cell accumulation, alveolar fibrin deposition, bronchiolization of alveolar septal walls, and fibrosis. This was correlated with trichrome staining and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) was also increased in the lung following NM exposure, along with levels of protein and inflammatory cells in BAL, consistent with oxidative stress and alveolar-epithelial injury. Both classically activated proinflammatory (iNOS{sup +} and cyclooxygenase-2{sup +}) and alternatively activated profibrotic (YM-1{sup +} and galectin-3{sup +}) macrophages appeared in the lung following NM administration; this was evident within 1 d, and persisted for 28 d. AG administration (50 mg/kg, 2 ×/day, 1 d–3 d) abrogated NM-induced injury, oxidative stress and inflammation at 1 d and 3 d post exposure, with no effects at 7 d or 28 d. These findings indicate that nitric oxide generated via iNOS contributes to acute NM-induced lung toxicity, however, transient inhibition of iNOS is not sufficient to protect against pulmonary fibrosis. -- Highlights: ► Nitrogen mustard (NM) induces acute lung injury and fibrosis. ► Pulmonary toxicity is associated with increased expression of iNOS. ► Transient inhibition of iNOS attenuates acute

  6. ACEI attenuates the progression of CCl4-induced rat hepatic fibrogenesis by inhibiting TGF-β1, PDGF-BB, NF-κB and MMP-2,9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Li; Ying Meng; Xi-Shan Yang; Ling-Fei Mi; Shao-Xi Cai

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Angiotensin Ⅱ has pro-fibrotic function in the liver.Blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) attenuates hepatic fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanism of angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) on the progression of rat hepatic fibrosis.METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were divided into three groups. Model group (Mo): The rats were injected subcutaneously with 40% of CCl4 0.25 mL/100 g. Perindopril group (Pe): The rats were injected subcutaneously with administrated. Control group (Nc): the rats were treated with olive oil only. After 4 and 6 wk, the rats were killed.The liver sections were stained with Masson. The protein expressions of AT1R, TGF-β1 and PDGF-BB were examined by Western blot. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) DNA binding activity was examined by EMSA (Electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay). Matrix metalloproteinase-2,9(MMP-2,9) activity was assessed by zymography. Serum laminin (LN) and hyaluronic acid (HA) were measured using radioimmunoassays.RESULTS: Using Western blot, we clearly provided direct evidence for the expression of AT1R in liver. The expression was up-regulated when fibrogenesis occurred. Perindopril treatment significantly reduced mean fibrosis score,protein levels of AT1R, TGF-β1 and PDGF-BB, serum levels of HA and LN, and the activity of MMP-2,9. NF-κB DNA binding activity markedly increased in model group, perindopril treatment considerably reduced NF-κB DNA binding activity.CONCLUSION: Perindopril attenuates CCl4-induced hepatic fibrogenesis of rat by inhibiting TGF-β1, PDGF-BB,NF-κB and MMP-2,9.

  7. Herbal medicine Gan‑fu‑kang downregulates Wnt/Ca2+ signaling to attenuate liver fibrogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yujie; Yuan, Lijun; Xu, Tingting; Li, Hanshu; Yang, Guang; Jiang, Miaona; Zhang, Caihua; Li, Cong

    2016-06-01

    The present study was designed to verify the effect of the Chinese prescription Gan‑fu‑kang (GFK) on the treatment of liver fibrosis, and to investigate its underlying mechanisms. Liver fibrosis was established in rats by the subcutaneous administration of 0.5 mg/kg carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) twice a week for 8 weeks. Subsequently, the rats were divided into four CCl4 groups, which were treated daily with vehicle and GFK (31.25, 312.5 and 3,125 mg/kg/day) orally between weeks 9 and 20. The inhibitory action of GFK‑medicated serum on platelet‑derived growth factor (PDGF)‑stimulated HSC‑T6 cells was also investigated. Biochemical parameters, hydroxyproline (Hyp) content and histological changes to the liver were measured. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to examine the expression of α‑smooth muscle actin (α‑SMA), PDGF‑BB, PDGF receptor β, collagen type I and II, and the Wnt/Ca2+ signaling pathway. The results showed that GFK significantly alleviated the histological changes, decreased the content of Hyp in the liver and improved liver function in rats. In addition, GFK and GFK‑medicated serum effectively inhibited collagen deposition, reduced the expression of α‑SMA and downregulated the Wnt/Ca2+ signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro, respectively, as well as cell viability (P<0.05). These results indicated that GFK was effective in attenuating liver injury and fibrosis through downregulation of the Wnt/Ca2+ signaling pathway. PMID:27082862

  8. Vitamin D Receptor Attenuates Renal Fibrosis by Suppressing the Renin-Angiotensin System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan; Kong, Juan; Dilip K. Deb; Chang, Anthony; Li, Yan Chun

    2010-01-01

    Analogs of vitamin D attenuate renal injury in several models of kidney disease, but the mechanism underlying this renoprotective effect is unknown. To address the role of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in renal fibrogenesis, we subjected VDR-null mice to unilateral ureteral obstruction for 7 days. Compared with wild-type mice, VDR-null mice developed more severe renal damage in the obstructed kidney, with marked tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Significant induction of extracellular ...

  9. EPOXYEICOSATRIENOIC ACID ANALOG ATTENUATES ANGIOTENSIN II HYPERTENSION AND KIDNEY INJURY

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    Md. Abdul Hye Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs contribute to blood pressure regulation leading to the concept that EETs can be therapeutically targeted for hypertension and the associated end-organ damage. In the present study, we investigated anti-hypertensive and kidney protective actions of an EET analog, EET-B in angiotensin II (ANG II-induced hypertension. EET-B was administered in drinking water for 14 days (10mg/kg/d and resulted in a decreased blood pressure elevation in ANG II hypertension. At the end of the two-week period, blood pressure was 30 mmHg lower in EET analog-treated ANG II hypertensive rats. The vasodilation of mesenteric resistance arteries to acetylcholine was impaired in ANG II hypertension; however, it was improved with EET-B treatment. Further, EET-B protected the kidney in ANG II hypertension as evidenced by a marked 90% decrease in albuminuria and 54% decrease in nephrinuria. Kidney histology demonstrated a decrease in renal tubular cast formation in EET analog-treated hypertensive rats. In ANG II hypertension, EET-B treatment markedly lowered renal inflammation. Urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 excretion was decreased by 55% and kidney macrophage infiltration was reduced by 52% with EET-B treatment. Overall, our results demonstrate that EET-B has anti-hypertensive properties, improves vascular function, and decreases renal inflammation and injury in ANG II hypertension.

  10. RACK1-mediated translation control promotes liver fibrogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Min; Peng, Peike; Wang, Jiajun [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wang, Lan; Duan, Fangfang [Institute of Biomedical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Jia, Dongwei, E-mail: jiadongwei@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Ruan, Yuanyuan, E-mail: yuanyuanruan@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Gu, Jianxin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Institute of Biomedical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2015-07-31

    Activation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the central event of liver fibrosis. The translational machinery is an optimized molecular network that affects cellular homoeostasis and diseases, whereas the role of protein translation in HSCs activation and liver fibrosis is little defined. Our previous report suggests that up-regulation of receptor for activated C-kinase 1(RACK1) in HSCs is critical for liver fibrogenesis. In this study, we found that RACK1 promoted macrophage conditioned medium (MCM)-induced assembly of eIF4F and phosphorylation of eIF4E in primary HSCs. RACK1 enhanced the translation and expression of pro-fibrogenic factors collagen 1α1, snail and cyclin E1 induced by MCM. Administration of PP242 or knock-down of eIF4E suppressed RACK1-stimulated collagen 1α1 production, proliferation and migration in primary HSCs. In addition, depletion of eIF4E attenuated thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis in vivo. Our data suggest that RACK1-mediated stimulation of cap-dependent translation plays crucial roles in HSCs activation and liver fibrogenesis, and targeting translation initiation could be a promising strategy for the treatment of liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • RACK1 induces the assembly of eIF4F and phosphorylation of eIF4E in primary HSCs. • RACK1 stimulates the translation of collagen 1α1, snail and cyclin E1 in HSCs. • RACK1 promotes HSCs activation via cap-mediated translation. • Depletion of eIF4E suppresses liver fibrogenesis in vivo.

  11. RACK1-mediated translation control promotes liver fibrogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the central event of liver fibrosis. The translational machinery is an optimized molecular network that affects cellular homoeostasis and diseases, whereas the role of protein translation in HSCs activation and liver fibrosis is little defined. Our previous report suggests that up-regulation of receptor for activated C-kinase 1(RACK1) in HSCs is critical for liver fibrogenesis. In this study, we found that RACK1 promoted macrophage conditioned medium (MCM)-induced assembly of eIF4F and phosphorylation of eIF4E in primary HSCs. RACK1 enhanced the translation and expression of pro-fibrogenic factors collagen 1α1, snail and cyclin E1 induced by MCM. Administration of PP242 or knock-down of eIF4E suppressed RACK1-stimulated collagen 1α1 production, proliferation and migration in primary HSCs. In addition, depletion of eIF4E attenuated thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis in vivo. Our data suggest that RACK1-mediated stimulation of cap-dependent translation plays crucial roles in HSCs activation and liver fibrogenesis, and targeting translation initiation could be a promising strategy for the treatment of liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • RACK1 induces the assembly of eIF4F and phosphorylation of eIF4E in primary HSCs. • RACK1 stimulates the translation of collagen 1α1, snail and cyclin E1 in HSCs. • RACK1 promotes HSCs activation via cap-mediated translation. • Depletion of eIF4E suppresses liver fibrogenesis in vivo

  12. Lacidipine Attenuates Apoptosis via a Caspase-3 Dependent Pathway in Human Kidney Cells

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    Aiqi Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI is common in hospitalised patients and has a poor prognosis. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are anticipated. Lacidipine, a novel third-generation dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, has been demonstrated effective for hypertension. However, its potential effect on renal injury remains unknown. In the present study, an in vitro model of renal ischemia reperfusion (I/R injury was used to investigate the protective effect and underlying mechanisms of lacidipine on human kidney cell (HKC apoptosis. Methods: HKCs were subjected to adenosine triphosphate (ATP depletion and recovery (0.01 µM AA, depletion for 2 h and recovery for 30 min, with or without lacidipine (1 µM and 10 µM, 24 h, then cell viability and apoptosis were determined using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8 assay and Annexin V flow cytometry. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, and cytochrome c (cyt c was examined by western blot. Results: Antimycin A (AA was found to induce apoptosis of HKCs. The proportion of early apoptosis and activity of caspase-3 peaked at 30 min after ATP depletion and recovery and were attenuated by lacidipine. The expression of cyt c and Bax was decreased, while that of Bcl-2 was increased significantly in lacidipine treated group. Conclusion: We conclude that lacidipine protects HKCs against apoptosis induced by ATP depletion and recovery by regulating the caspase-3 pathway.

  13. Transcriptional profiles of multiple genes in the anterior kidney of channel catfish vaccinated with an attenuated Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 22 uniquely expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified from channel catfish anterior kidney subtractive cDNA library at 12h post vaccination with an attenuated A. hydrophila (AL09-71 N+R). Of the 22 ESTs, six were confirmed to be significantly (P<0.05) induced by the vaccination. Of 8...

  14. Tanshinone IIA Attenuates Renal Fibrosis after Acute Kidney Injury in a Mouse Model through Inhibition of Fibrocytes Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunming; Shao, Qiuyuan; Jin, Bo; Zhang, Miao

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with an increased risk of developing advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Yet, effective interventions to prevent this conversion are unavailable for clinical practice. In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of Tanshinone IIA on renal fibrosis in a mouse model of folic acid induced AKI. We found that Tanshinone IIA treatment significantly attenuated the folic acid elicited kidney dysfunction on days 3, 14, and 28. This effect was concomitant with a much lessened accumulation of fibronectin and collagen in tubulointerstitium 28 days after folic acid injury, denoting an ameliorated renal fibrosis. The kidney protective and antifibrotic effect of Tanshinone IIA was likely attributable to an early inhibition of renal recruitment of fibrocytes positive for both CD45 and collagen I. Mechanistically, Tanshinone IIA treatment not only markedly diminished renal expression of chemoattractants for fibrocytes such as TGFβ1 and MCP-1, but also significantly reduced circulating fibrocytes at the acute phase of kidney injury. These data suggested that Tanshinone IIA might be a novel therapy for preventing progression of CKD after AKI. PMID:26885500

  15. Chongcao-Shencha Attenuates Liver and Kidney Injury through Attenuating Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Response in D-Galactose-Treated Mice

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    Li, Cailan; Mo, Zhizhun; Xie, Jianhui; Xu, Lieqiang; Tan, Lihua; Luo, Dandan; Chen, Hanbin; Yang, Hongmei; Li, Yucui; Su, Ziren; Su, Zuqing

    2016-01-01

    The Chongcao-Shencha (CCSC), a Chinese herbal compound formula, has been widely used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. The present study investigated the possible effect of CCSC in alleviating the liver and kidney injury in D-galactose- (D-gal-) treated mice and the underlying mechanism. Mice were given a subcutaneous injection of D-gal (200 mg/kg) and orally administered CCSC (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) daily for 8 weeks. Results indicated that CCSC increased the depressed body weight and organ index induced by D-gal, ameliorated the histological deterioration, and decreased the levels of ALT, AST, BUN, and CRE as compared with D-gal group. Furthermore, CCSC not only elevated the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, and GPx but also upregulated the mRNA expression of SOD1, CAT, and GPx1, while decreasing the MDA level in D-gal-treated mice. Results of western blotting analysis showed that CCSC significantly inhibited the upregulation of expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, p-p65, p-IκBα, COX2, and iNOS and inhibited the downregulation of IκBα protein expression caused by D-gal. This study demonstrated that CCSC could attenuate the liver and kidney injury in D-gal-treated mice, and the mechanism might be associated with attenuating oxidative stress and inflammatory response. PMID:27340415

  16. Expression of apolipoprotein B in the kidney attenuates renal lipid accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krzystanek, Marcin; Pedersen, Tanja Xenia; Bartels, Emil Daniel;

    2010-01-01

    tubular epithelium. Mouse kidney expressed both the apoB and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein genes, which permit lipoprotein formation. To examine de novo lipoprotein secretion, kidneys from human apoB-transgenic mice were minced and placed in medium with (35)S-amino acids. Upon sucrose gradient...

  17. Cellular and molecular mechanisms in liver fibrogenesis.

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    Novo, Erica; Cannito, Stefania; Paternostro, Claudia; Bocca, Claudia; Miglietta, Antonella; Parola, Maurizio

    2014-04-15

    Liver fibrogenesis is a dynamic and highly integrated molecular, tissue and cellular process, potentially reversible, that drives the progression of chronic liver diseases (CLD) towards liver cirrhosis and hepatic failure. Hepatic myofibroblasts (MFs), the pro-fibrogenic effector cells, originate mainly from activation of hepatic stellate cells and portal fibroblasts being characterized by a proliferative and survival attitude. MFs also contract in response to vasoactive agents, sustain angiogenesis and recruit and modulate activity of cells of innate or adaptive immunity. Chronic activation of wound healing and oxidative stress as well as derangement of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are "major" pro-fibrogenic mechanisms, whatever the etiology. However, literature has outlined a complex network of pro-fibrogenic factors and mediators proposed to modulate CLD progression, with some of them being at present highly debated in the field, including the role of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and Hedgehog signaling pathways. Hypoxia and angiogenesis as well as inflammasomes are recently emerged as ubiquitous pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic determinants whereas adipokines are mostly involved in CLD related to metabolic disturbances (metabolic syndrome and/or obesity and type 2 diabetes). Finally, autophagy as well as natural killer and natural killer-T cells have been recently proposed to significantly affect fibrogenic CLD progression. PMID:24631571

  18. Fibrogenesis and carcinoid tumor - a case report

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    Eduardo Fonseca Alves Filho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoid tumors are rare. They may appear in the entire gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, with single or multiple occurrences. Prognosis is dependent on the size and location. Symptoms may appear in carcinoid syndrome, related to active substances, especially serotonin. One important aspect associated with these tumors and usually ignored is fibrogenesis. This is a case report of a patient with carcinoid tumor of the terminal ileum, treated by laparoscopy, associated with fat and fibrosis infiltration.Tumores carcinoides são pouco frequentes, podem surgir em todo o trato gastrointestinal e respiratório, podem ser únicos ou múltiplos. O prognóstico depende do tamanho e da localização do tumor. Podem ocorrer sintomas relacionados à síndrome carcinoide, decorrente da produção de substâncias ativas, em especial serotonina. Um aspecto comumente ignorado associado a estes tumores é a estimulação da fibrogênese. Relatamos um caso de tumor carcinoide de íleo, tratado por videolaparoscopia, associado à infiltração fibroadiposa.

  19. Minocycline Attenuates Kidney Injury in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongping; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Bo-Yin; Zhao, Dongxu

    2016-01-01

    The effects of minocycline on the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats were evaluated in this study. The diabetes rats with DN were induced by STZ (55 mg/kg) injection. The experiment included 5 groups 1) normal, 2) normal plus minocycline for 16 weeks, 3) DN plus vehicle, 4) DN plus minocycline 16 weeks and 5) DN plus minocycline for 8 weeks. The pathological changes were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and the apoptotic cells were stained by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining. The mRNA expression of caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 in the kidney tissues was detected by quantitative RT-PCR. The biochemical parameters of blood and urine were determined by biochemical analyzer. Treatment with minocycline reduced the urine volume, 24-h urine protein, serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) but not blood alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the DN rats. Furthermore, treatment with minocycline improved the pathological score of STZ-injured kidney and reduced the numbers of apoptotic cells in the kidney of DN rats. Moreover, minocycline mitigated the expression of caspase-3 and Bax mRNA, but increased Bcl-2 expression in the kidney of DN rats. These data indicated that minocycline improved the STZ-induced kidney damages, at least partially by protection form long-term hyperglycemia-induced kidney cell apoptosis. PMID:27476934

  20. Sodium-Glucose Linked Cotransporter-2 Inhibition Does Not Attenuate Disease Progression in the Rat Remnant Kidney Model of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanling; Thai, Kerri; Kepecs, David M.; Gilbert, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological inhibition of the proximal tubular sodium-glucose linked cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) leads to glycosuria in both diabetic and non-diabetic settings. As a consequence of their ability to modulate tubuloglomerular feedback, SGLT2 inhibitors, like agents that block the renin-angiotensin system, reduce intraglomerular pressure and single nephron GFR, potentially affording renoprotection. To examine this further we administered the SGLT2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin, to 5/6 (subtotally) nephrectomised rats, a model of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) that like CKD in humans is characterised by single nephron hyperfiltration and intraglomerular hypertension and where angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are demonstrably beneficial. When compared with untreated rats, both sham surgery and 5/6 nephrectomised rats that had received dapagliflozin experienced substantial glycosuria. Nephrectomised rats developed hypertension, heavy proteinuria and declining GFR that was unaffected by the administration of dapagliflozin. Similarly, SGLT2 inhibition did not attenuate the extent of glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis or overexpression of the profibrotic cytokine, transforming growth factor-ß1 mRNA in the kidneys of 5/6 nephrectomised rats. While not precluding beneficial effects in the diabetic setting, these findings indicate that SGLT2 inhibition does not have renoprotective effects in this classical model of progressive non-diabetic CKD. PMID:26741142

  1. Cellular and molecular mechanisms in kidney fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis is a characteristic feature of all forms of chronic kidney disease. Deposition of pathological matrix in the interstitial space and within the walls of glomerular capillaries as well as the cellular processes resulting in this deposition are increasingly recognized as important factors amplifying kidney injury and accelerating nephron demise. Recent insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrogenesis herald the promise of new therapies to slow kidney disease progression. This review focuses on new findings that enhance understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrosis, the characteristics of myofibroblasts, their progenitors, and molecular pathways regulating both fibrogenesis and its resolution. PMID:24892703

  2. Vitamin D Attenuates Kidney Fibrosis via Reducing Fibroblast Expansion, Inflammation, and Epithelial Cell Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfian, Nur; Muflikhah, Khusnul; Soeyono, Sri Kadarsih; Sari, Dwi Cahyani Ratna; Tranggono, Untung; Anggorowati, Nungki; Romi, Muhammad Mansyur

    2016-01-01

    Kidney fibrosis is the common final pathway of chronic kidney diseases (CKD). It is characterized by myofibroblast formation, inflammation, and epithelial architecture damage. Vitamin D is known as a renoprotective agent, although the precise mechanism is not well understood. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of vitamin D in fibroblast expansion, inflammation, and apoptosis in kidney fibrosis. We performed unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in male Swiss-Webster background mice (3 months, 30-40 grams) to induce kidney fibrosis. The mice (n=25) were divided into five groups: UUO, 3 groups treated with different oral vitamin D doses (0.125 µg/kg (UUO+VD1), 0.25 µg/kg (UUO+VD2), and 0.5 µg/kg (UUO+VD3), and a Sham operation (SO) group with ethanol 0.2% supplementation. We sacrificed the mice on day14 after the operation and harvested the kidney. We made paraffin sections for histological analysis. Tubular injury and fibrosis were quantified based on periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Sirius Red (SR) staining. Immunostaining was done for examination of myofibroblasts (αSMA), fibroblasts (PDGFRβ), TLR4, and apoptosis (TUNEL). We did RNA extraction and cDNA for Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) experiment for measuring MCP-1, ICAM-1, TLR4, and collagen 1 expression. TGFβ1 level was quantified using ELISA. We observed a significantly lower levels of fibrosis (pexpression of collagen1, as well as inflammation-mediator expression (MCP-1, ICAM-1, TLR4) in the UUO+VD-1 group compared with the SO group. Vitamin D reduces kidney fibrosis through inhibition of fibroblast activation, and ameliorates epithelial cell architecture. PMID:27578035

  3. Orally Active Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acid Analog Attenuates Kidney Injury in Hypertensive Dahl Salt–Sensitive Rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khan, M. A. H.; Neckář, Jan; Manthati, V.; Errabelli, R.; Pavlov, T. S.; Staruschenko, A.; Falck, J. R.; Imig, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 5 (2013), s. 905-913. ISSN 0194-911X Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : kidney * hypertension * oxidative stress * inflammation * arachidonate epoxygenase Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 7.632, year: 2013

  4. Inhibition of Aerobic Glycolysis Attenuates Disease Progression in Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliana Riwanto

    Full Text Available Dysregulated signaling cascades alter energy metabolism and promote cell proliferation and cyst expansion in polycystic kidney disease (PKD. Here we tested whether metabolic reprogramming towards aerobic glycolysis ("Warburg effect" plays a pathogenic role in male heterozygous Han:SPRD rats (Cy/+, a chronic progressive model of PKD. Using microarray analysis and qPCR, we found an upregulation of genes involved in glycolysis (Hk1, Hk2, Ldha and a downregulation of genes involved in gluconeogenesis (G6pc, Lbp1 in cystic kidneys of Cy/+ rats compared with wild-type (+/+ rats. We then tested the effect of inhibiting glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose (2DG on renal functional loss and cyst progression in 5-week-old male Cy/+ rats. Treatment with 2DG (500 mg/kg/day for 5 weeks resulted in significantly lower kidney weights (-27% and 2-kidney/total-body-weight ratios (-20% and decreased renal cyst index (-48% compared with vehicle treatment. Cy/+ rats treated with 2DG also showed higher clearances of creatinine (1.98±0.67 vs 1.41±0.37 ml/min, BUN (0.69±0.26 vs 0.40±0.10 ml/min and uric acid (0.38±0.20 vs 0.21±0.10 ml/min, and reduced albuminuria. Immunoblotting analysis of kidney tissues harvested from 2DG-treated Cy/+ rats showed increased phosphorylation of AMPK-α, a negative regulator of mTOR, and restoration of ERK signaling. Assessment of Ki-67 staining indicated that 2DG limits cyst progression through inhibition of epithelial cell proliferation. Taken together, our results show that targeting the glycolytic pathway may represent a promising therapeutic strategy to control cyst growth in PKD.

  5. Mortality and kidney histopathology of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha exposed to virulent and attenuated Renibacterium salmoninarum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, C L; Elliott, D G; Landolt, M L

    2000-12-21

    An isolate of Renibacterium salmoninarum (strain MT 239) exhibiting reduced virulence in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was tested for its ability to cause bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, a salmonid species more susceptible to BKD. Juvenile chinook salmon were exposed to either 33209, the American Type Culture Collection type strain of R. salmoninarum, or to MT 239, by an intraperitoneal injection of 1 x 10(3) or 1 x 10(6) bacteria fish(-1), or by a 24 h immersion in 1 x 10(5) or 1 x 10(7) bacteria ml(-1). For 22 wk fish were held in 12 degrees C water and monitored for mortality. Fish were sampled periodically for histological examination of kidney tissues. In contrast to fish exposed to the high dose of strain 33209 by either injection or immersion, none of the fish exposed to strain MT 239 by either route exhibited gross clinical signs or histopathological changes indicative of BKD. However, the MT 239 strain was detected by the direct fluorescent antibody technique in 4 fish that died up to 11 wk after the injection challenge and in 5 fish that died up to 20 wk after the immersion challenge. Viable MT 239 was isolated in culture from 3 fish that died up to 13 wk after the immersion challenge. Total mortality in groups injected with the high dose of strain MT 239 (12%) was also significantly lower (p < 0.05) than mortality in groups injected with strain 33209 (73 %). These data indicate that the attenuated virulence observed with MT 239 in rainbow trout also occurs in a salmonid species highly susceptible to BKD. The reasons for the attenuated virulence of MT 239 were not determined but may be related to the reduced levels of the putative virulence protein p57 associated with this strain. PMID:11206735

  6. Cellular and molecular mechanisms in kidney fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis is a characteristic feature of all forms of chronic kidney disease. Deposition of pathological matrix in the interstitial space and within the walls of glomerular capillaries as well as the cellular processes resulting in this deposition are increasingly recognized as important factors amplifying kidney injury and accelerating nephron demise. Recent insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrogenesis herald the promise of new therapies to slow kidney disease progressi...

  7. Attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial injury in kidney with ischemic postconditioning application and trimetazidine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfoudh-Boussaid Asma

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondria have been implicated in the pathology of renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R. In the present study, we investigated whether the use of ischemic postconditioning (IPostC and trimetazidine (TMZ separately or combined could reduce ER stress and mitochondria damage after renal ischemia. Methods Kidneys of Wistar rats were subjected to 60-min of warm ischemia followed by 120-min of reperfusion (I/R group, n = 6, or to 6 cycles of ischemia/reperfusion (10-s each cycle just after 60-min of warm ischemia (IPostC group, n = 6, or to i.p. injection of TMZ (3 mg/kg 30-min before ischemia (TMZ group, n = 6, or to the combination of both treatments (IPostC+TMZ group, n = 6. The results of these experimental groups were compared to those of a sham-operated group in which rat renal pedicles were only dissected. Sodium reabsorption rate, creatinine clearance lactate deshydrogenase (LDH activity in plasma, and concentration of malonedialdehyde (MDA in tissue were determined. In addition, Western blot analysis was performed to identify the amounts of cytochrome c, c-JunNH2-terminal kinase (JNK, voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC, glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK3-β, and ER stress parameters. Results IPostC or/and TMZ significantly decreased cytolysis, oxidative stress and improved renal function in comparison to I/R group. IPostC but not TMZ significantly attenuated ER stress parameters versus I/R group. Indeed, it down-regulated the glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78, the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4, the RNA activated protein kinase (PKR-like ER kinas (PERK, the X box binding protein-1 (XBP-1 and the caspase12 protein levels. TMZ treatment significantly augmented GSK3-β phosphorylation and reduced levels of cytochrome c and VDAC phosphorylation in comparison to IPostC application. The combination of both treatments gave a synergetic effect. It significantly

  8. Olmesartan Attenuates Tacrolimus-Induced Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes in Rat Kidney Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif O. Al-Harbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor, is clinically used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ transplantation, but its use is limited due to its marked nephrotoxicity. The present study investigated the effect of olmesartan (angiotensin receptor blocker on tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. A total of 24 rats were divided into four groups, which included control, tacrolimus, tacrolimus + olmesartan, and olmesartan groups. Tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity was assessed biochemically and histopathologically. Tacrolimus significantly increased BUN and creatinine level. Treatment with olmesartan reversed tacrolimus-induced changes in the biochemical markers (BUN and creatinine of nephrotoxicity. Tacrolimus significantly decreased GSH level and catalase activity while increasing MDA level. Olmesartan also attenuated the effects of tacrolimus on MDA, GSH, and catalase. In tacrolimus group histological examination showed marked changes in renal tubule, mitochondria, and podocyte processes. Histopathological and ultrastructural studies showed that treatment with olmesartan prevented tacrolimus-induced renal damage. These results suggest that olmesartan has protective effects on tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity, implying that RAS might be playing role in tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity.

  9. Pyrroloquinoline-quinone suppresses liver fibrogenesis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwei Jia

    Full Text Available Liver fibrosis represents the consequences of a sustained wound healing response to chronic liver injuries, and its progression toward cirrhosis is the major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, anti-fibrotic treatment remains an unconquered area for drug development. Accumulating evidence indicate that oxidative stress plays a critical role in liver fibrogenesis. In this study, we found that PQQ, a natural anti-oxidant present in a wide variety of human foods, exerted potent anti-fibrotic and ROS-scavenging activity in Balb/C mouse models of liver fibrosis. The antioxidant activity of PQQ was involved in the modulation of multiple steps during liver fibrogenesis, including chronic liver injury, hepatic inflammation, as well as activation of hepatic stellate cells and production of extracellular matrix. PQQ also suppressed the up-regulation of RACK1 in activated HSCs in vivo and in vitro. Our data suggest that PQQ suppresses oxidative stress and liver fibrogenesis in mice, and provide rationale for the clinical application of PQQ in the prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis.

  10. Garlic Attenuates Plasma and Kidney ACE-1 and AngII Modulations in Early Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: Renal Clearance and Blood Pressure Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qattan, Khaled K.; Jayasree, Divya; Ali, Muslim

    2016-01-01

    Raw garlic aqueous extract (GE) has ameliorative actions on the renin-angiotensin system in type-1 diabetes mellitus (DM); however its effects on plasma and kidney angiotensin I converting enzyme type-1 (ACE-1) and angiotensin II (AngII) require further elucidation. This study investigated the effect of GE on plasma and kidney ACE-1 and AngII concentrations and in relation to systemic and renal clearance indicators significant to blood pressure (BP) homeostasis in early streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type-1 DM. Normal rats (n = 10) received 0.5 mL normal saline (NR/NS), diabetic rats (n = 10) received 0.5 mL NS (DR/NS), and treated diabetic rats (n = 10) received 50 mg/0.1 mL/100 g body weight GE (DR/GE) as daily intraperitoneal injections for 8 weeks. Compared to NR/NS, DR/NS showed a significant increase in plasma ACE-1 and AngII and conversely a decrease in kidney ACE-1 and AngII. These changes were associated with an increase in BP and clearance functions. Alternatively and compared to DR/NS, DR/GE showed normalization or attenuation in plasma and kidney ACE-1 and AngII. These GE induced rectifications were associated with moderation in BP elevation and renal clearance functions. Garlic attenuates modulations in plasma and kidney ACE-1 and AngII, in addition to BP and renal clearance function in type-1 DM. PMID:27293465

  11. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonists Attenuate Septic Acute Kidney Injury in Mice by Suppressing Inflammation and Proteasome Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Prodyot K.; Yeboah, Michael M.; Oonagh Dowling; Xiangying Xue; Powell, Saul R.; Yousef Al-Abed; Metz, Christine N

    2012-01-01

    Sepsis is one of the leading causes of acute kidney injury (AKI). Septic patients who develop acute kidney injury (AKI) are at increased risk of death. To date there is no effective treatment for AKI or septic AKI. Based on their anti-inflammatory properties, we examined the effects of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists on renal damage using a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI where localized LPS promotes inflammation-mediated kidney damage. Administration of nicotine...

  12. Redox mechanisms in hepatic chronic wound healing and fibrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novo Erica

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS generated within cells or, more generally, in a tissue environment, may easily turn into a source of cell and tissue injury. Aerobic organisms have developed evolutionarily conserved mechanisms and strategies to carefully control the generation of ROS and other oxidative stress-related radical or non-radical reactive intermediates (that is, to maintain redox homeostasis, as well as to 'make use' of these molecules under physiological conditions as tools to modulate signal transduction, gene expression and cellular functional responses (that is, redox signalling. However, a derangement in redox homeostasis, resulting in sustained levels of oxidative stress and related mediators, can play a significant role in the pathogenesis of major human diseases characterized by chronic inflammation, chronic activation of wound healing and tissue fibrogenesis. This review has been designed to first offer a critical introduction to current knowledge in the field of redox research in order to introduce readers to the complexity of redox signalling and redox homeostasis. This will include ready-to-use key information and concepts on ROS, free radicals and oxidative stress-related reactive intermediates and reactions, sources of ROS in mammalian cells and tissues, antioxidant defences, redox sensors and, more generally, the major principles of redox signalling and redox-dependent transcriptional regulation of mammalian cells. This information will serve as a basis of knowledge to introduce the role of ROS and other oxidative stress-related intermediates in contributing to essential events, such as the induction of cell death, the perpetuation of chronic inflammatory responses, fibrogenesis and much more, with a major focus on hepatic chronic wound healing and liver fibrogenesis.

  13. Eplerenone attenuates pulse wave reflection in chronic kidney disease stage 3-4--a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesby, Lene; Elung-Jensen, Thomas; Strandgaard, Svend;

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity associated with increased arterial stiffness. Plasma aldosterone levels are increased in CKD, and aldosterone has been found to increase vascular inflammation and fibrosis. It was hypothesized that...

  14. Heat Shock Protein 72 Antagonizes STAT3 Signaling to Inhibit Fibroblast Accumulation in Renal Fibrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Cao, Shirong; Li, Huiyan; Peng, Xuan; Wang, Yating; Fan, Jinjin; Wang, Yihan; Zhuang, Shougang; Yu, Xueqing; Mao, Haiping

    2016-04-01

    Heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) has been shown to attenuate unilateral ureteral obstruction-induced kidney fibrosis. It remains unknown whether HSP72 has direct effects on fibroblast proliferation in the renal fibrotic evolution. Herein, we first confirmed that increased HSP72 expression occurred in fibrotic human kidneys. Using three different animal models of kidney fibrosis, pharmacological down-regulation or genetic deletion of endogenous HSP72 expression exacerbated STAT3 phosphorylation, fibroblast proliferation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In contrast, treatment with geranylgeranyl acetone, a specific inducer of HSP72, reduced phosphorylated STAT3 and protected animals from kidney fibrosis. In cultured renal interstitial fibroblasts, overexpression of HSP72 blocked transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced cell activation and proliferation, as evidenced by inhibiting expression of α-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, and collagen I/III, as well as by reducing cell numbers and DNA synthesis. Mechanical studies showed that overexpressed HSP72 attenuated TGF-β-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT3 and its downstream protein expression. However, siRNA knockdown of HSP72 increased TGF-β-induced STAT3 activity and fibroblast proliferation. Ectopic expression of a constitutively active STAT3 conferred resistance to HSP72 inhibition of fibroblast proliferation. Thus, HSP72 blocks fibroblast activation and proliferation in renal fibrosis via targeting the STAT3 pathway and may serve as a novel therapeutic agent for chronic kidney disease regardless of the etiology. PMID:26851345

  15. Attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial injury in kidney with ischemic postconditioning application and trimetazidine treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahfoudh-Boussaid Asma; Zaouali Mohamed; Hauet Thierry; Hadj-Ayed Kaouther; Miled Abdel-Hédi; Ghoul-Mazgar Sonia; Saidane-Mosbahi Dalila; Rosello-Catafau Joan; Abdennebi Hassen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria have been implicated in the pathology of renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). In the present study, we investigated whether the use of ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) and trimetazidine (TMZ) separately or combined could reduce ER stress and mitochondria damage after renal ischemia. Methods Kidneys of Wistar rats were subjected to 60-min of warm ischemia followed by 120-min of reperfusion (I/R group, n = 6), or to 6 cycles of isch...

  16. Astaxanthin Attenuates Early Acute Kidney Injury Following Severe Burns in Rats by Ameliorating Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial-Related Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Xue Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Early acute kidney injury (AKI is a devastating complication in critical burn patients, and it is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. The mechanism of AKI is multifactorial. Astaxanthin (ATX is a natural compound that is widely distributed in marine organisms; it is a strong antioxidant and exhibits other biological effects that have been well studied in various traumatic injuries and diseases. Hence, we attempted to explore the potential protection of ATX against early post burn AKI and its possible mechanisms of action. The classic severe burn rat model was utilized for the histological and biochemical assessments of the therapeutic value and mechanisms of action of ATX. Upon ATX treatment, renal tubular injury and the levels of serum creatinine and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin were improved. Furthermore, relief of oxidative stress and tubular apoptosis in rat kidneys post burn was also observed. Additionally, ATX administration increased Akt and Bad phosphorylation and further down-regulated the expression of other downstream pro-apoptotic proteins (cytochrome c and caspase-3/9; these effects were reversed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Moreover, the protective effect of ATX presents a dose-dependent enhancement. The data above suggested that ATX protects against early AKI following severe burns in rats, which was attributed to its ability to ameliorate oxidative stress and inhibit apoptosis by modulating the mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway, regarded as the Akt/Bad/Caspases signalling cascade.

  17. Phenylbutyric acid protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrogenesis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian-Qing [School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Second Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230601 (China); Chen, Xi [First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022 (China); Zhang, Cheng [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Tao, Li [First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022 (China); Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Qian [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Xu, Yuan-Bao [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022 (China); Wang, Hua [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Li, Jun, E-mail: lijun@ahmu.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Xu, De-Xiang, E-mail: xudex@126.com [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China)

    2013-01-15

    A recent report showed that the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling was activated in the pathogenesis of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced hepatic fibrosis. Phenylbutyric acid (PBA) is a well-known chemical chaperone that inhibits endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling. In the present study, we investigated the effects of PBA on CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. All mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with CCl{sub 4} (0.15 ml/kg BW, twice per week) for 8 weeks. In CCl{sub 4} + PBA group, mice were i.p. injected with PBA (150 mg/kg, twice per day) from the beginning of CCl{sub 4} injection to the end. As expected, PBA significantly attenuated CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic ER stress and UPR activation. Although PBA alleviated, only to a less extent, hepatic necrosis, it obviously inhibited CCl{sub 4}-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Moreover, PBA inhibited CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 translocation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. Interestingly, CCl{sub 4}-induced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker for the initiation phase of HSC activation, was significantly attenuated in mice pretreated with PBA. Correspondingly, CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic collagen (Col)1α1 and Col1α2, markers for the perpetuation phase of HSC activation, were inhibited in PBA-treated mice. Importantly, CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis, as determined using Sirius red staining, was obviously attenuated by PBA. In conclusion, PBA prevents CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis through inhibiting hepatic inflammatory response and HSC activation. Highlights: ► CCl{sub 4} induces hepatic ER stress, inflammation, HSC activation and hepatic fibrosis. ► PBA alleviates CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic ER stress and UPR signaling activation. ► PBA inhibits CCl{sub 4}-induced

  18. Phenylbutyric acid protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrogenesis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent report showed that the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling was activated in the pathogenesis of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis. Phenylbutyric acid (PBA) is a well-known chemical chaperone that inhibits endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling. In the present study, we investigated the effects of PBA on CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. All mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with CCl4 (0.15 ml/kg BW, twice per week) for 8 weeks. In CCl4 + PBA group, mice were i.p. injected with PBA (150 mg/kg, twice per day) from the beginning of CCl4 injection to the end. As expected, PBA significantly attenuated CCl4-induced hepatic ER stress and UPR activation. Although PBA alleviated, only to a less extent, hepatic necrosis, it obviously inhibited CCl4-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Moreover, PBA inhibited CCl4-induced hepatic nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 translocation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. Interestingly, CCl4-induced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker for the initiation phase of HSC activation, was significantly attenuated in mice pretreated with PBA. Correspondingly, CCl4-induced hepatic collagen (Col)1α1 and Col1α2, markers for the perpetuation phase of HSC activation, were inhibited in PBA-treated mice. Importantly, CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis, as determined using Sirius red staining, was obviously attenuated by PBA. In conclusion, PBA prevents CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis through inhibiting hepatic inflammatory response and HSC activation. Highlights: ► CCl4 induces hepatic ER stress, inflammation, HSC activation and hepatic fibrosis. ► PBA alleviates CCl4-induced hepatic ER stress and UPR signaling activation. ► PBA inhibits CCl4-induced hepatic NF-κB activation and ERK and JNK phosphorylation. ► PBA effectively protects

  19. Contribution of intestinal smooth muscle to Crohn's disease fibrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Severi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal cells transdifferentiation and extracellular matrix deposition are involved in the fibrotic process of Crohn’s disease (CD. Mesenchymal smooth muscle cells (SMCs de-differentiation, driven by Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF that counteracts Transforming growth factor (TGF-β has been studied in vascular muscle. The role of SMCs in intestinal fibrogenesis is still not clearly elucidated. Aim of the study was to evaluate the possible myogenic contribution to CD fibrotic process through the comparative analysis of histological, morphometric and molecular alterations occurring in human smooth muscle. Full thickness specimens were obtained from CD (non-involved and stenotic tracts and healthy (control ileum. Tissues were processed for histological and immunohistochemical (IHC analyses and SMCs were isolated from the muscularis propria for morphofunctional and molecular (qPCR analyses. CD stenotic ileum showed a significant increased thickness of all layers compared to CD non-involved and control ileum. IHC revealed an overexpression of α-smooth muscle actin and collagens I-III throughout all intestinal layers only in stenotic tracts. The two growth factors, PDGF and TGF-β, showed a progressive increase in expression in the muscle layer from CD non-involved to stenotic tracts. Freshly isolated SMCs presented alterations in CD non-involved tracts that progressively increased in the stenotic tracts consisting in a statistical increase in mRNA encoding for PDGF-β and collagen III, paralleled to a decrease in TGF-β and Tribbles-like protein-3 mRNA, and altered morphofunctional parameters consisting in progressive decreases in cell length and contraction to acetylcholine. These findings indicate that intrinsic myogenic alterations occur in CD ileum, that they likely precede stricture formation, and might represent suitable new targets for anti-fibrotic interventions.

  20. Endoglin in liver fibrogenesis: Bridging basic science and clinical practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steffen; K; Meurer; Muhammad; Alsamman; David; Scholten; Ralf; Weiskirchen

    2014-01-01

    Endoglin, also known as cluster of differentiation CD105, was originally identified 25 years ago as a novel marker of endothelial cells. Later it was shown that endoglin is also expressed in pro-fibrogenic cells including mesangial cells, cardiac and scleroderma fibroblasts, and hepatic stellate cells. It is an integral membranebound disulfide-linked 180 kDa homodimeric receptor that acts as a transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) auxiliary co-receptor. In humans, several hundreds of mutations of the endoglin gene are known that give rise to an autosomal dominant bleeding disorder that is characterized by localized angiodysplasia and arteriovenous malformation. This disease is termed hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type Ⅰ and induces various vascular lesions, mainly on the face, lips, hands and gastrointestinal mucosa. Two variants of endoglin(i.e., S- and L-endoglin) are formed by alternative splicing that distinguishes from each other in the length of their cytoplasmic tails. Moreover, a soluble form of endoglin, i.e.,sol-Eng, is shedded by the matrix metalloprotease-14 that cleaves within the extracellular juxtamembrane region. Endoglin interacts with the TGF-β signaling receptors and influences Smad-dependent and-independent effects. Recent work has demonstrated that endoglin is a crucial mediator during liver fibrogenesis that critically controls the activity of the different Smad branches. In the present review, we summarize the present knowledge of endoglin expression and function, its involvement in fibrogenic Smad signaling, current models to investigate endoglin function, and the diagnostic value of endoglin in liver disease.

  1. Determination of representative renal depth for accurate attenuation corred in measurement of glomerular filtration rate in transplanted kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure reliable glomerular filtration rate by using the representative values of transplanted renal depths, which are measured with ultrasonography. We included 54 patients (26 men, 28 women), with having both renal scintigraphy and ultrasonography after renal transplantation. We measured DFR with Gates' method using the renal depth measured by ultrasonography, and median and mean ones in each patient. We compared GFR derived from ultrasonography-measured renal depth with GFR derived from median and mean renal depths. The correlation coefficients were obtained among GFR derived from ultrasonography-measured renal depths, median and mean renal depth under linear regression analysis. We determined whether GFR derived from median or mean renal depth could substitute GFR derived from ultrasonography-measured renal depth with Bland-Altman method. We analyze the expected errors of the GFR using representative renal depth in terms of age, sex, weight, height, creatinine value, and body surface. The transplanted renal depths range from 3.20 cm to 5.96 cm. The mean value and standard deviation of renal depths measured by ultrasonography are 4.09±0.65 cm in men, and 4.24±0.78 cm in women. The median value of renal depths measured by ultrasonography is 4.36 cm in men and 4.14 cm in women. The GFR derived from median renal depth is more consistent with GFR derived from ultrasonography-measured renal depth than GFR derived from mean renal depth. Differences of GFR derived from median and ultrasonography-measured renal depth are not significantly different in the groups classified with creatinine value, age, sex, height, weight and body surface. When median value is adapted as a representative renal depth, we could obtain reliable GFR in transplanted kidney simply

  2. Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit attenuates cadmium-induced liver and kidney damage through modulation of oxidative stress and glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, C H; Subastri, A; Suyavaran, A; Subbaiah, K C V; Valluru, L; Thirunavukkarasu, C

    2016-04-01

    Increased levels of environmental pollutants are linked to almost all human disorders; the efficient method to manage the human health is through naturally available dietary molecule. Solanum torvum (ST) Swartz (Solanaceae) commonly called Turkey Berry is found in Africa, Asia, and South America. Its fruit, part of traditional Indian cuisine, is a widely consumed nutritious herb, acclaimed for its medicinal value. ST aqueous extract (STAe) (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg b.w., 6 days; oral) against acute Cadmium (Cd) (6.3 mg/kg b.w., single dose; oral) toxicity was evaluated in rats. Protective effect was assessed using serum markers, tissue antioxidants, oxidant derivatives, glycoprotein, and histopathological studies. The activities of serum marker enzymes were increased (40-60 %); antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and CAT, GSH, and its metabolic enzyme activities were decreased (50-80 %) in the liver and kidney upon Cd intoxication. During STAe pre-treatment, at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w., the above changes were brought to near normal (25-63 %). Tissue 4-hydroxynonenal, 3-nitrotyrosine, and protein carbonyls were increased (8-15 fold) in Cd-alone-treated rats, whereas pre-supplementation of STAe significantly decreased their levels and inhibited the protein glycosylation effectively. The pharmacological effect of STAe was confirmed by histopathological observations. Based on previous literature and present investigation, we conclude that ST may serve as a potential functional food against environmental contaminant such as heavy metal-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26762936

  3. Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information > Health Communication Programs > National Kidney Disease Education Program > Learn About Kidney Disease > Living With Kidney Disease > Kidney Failure | Share External Link Disclaimer Living With Kidney Disease ...

  4. Paraquat induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like cellular response resulting in fibrogenesis and the prevention of apoptosis in human pulmonary epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Yamada

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying delayed progressive pulmonary fibrosis, a characteristic of subacute paraquat (PQ poisoning. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT has been proposed as a cause of organ fibrosis, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β is suggested to be a powerful mediator of EMT. We thus examined the possibility that EMT is involved in pulmonary fibrosis during PQ poisoning using A549 human alveolar epithelial cells in vitro. The cells were treated with various concentrations of PQ (0-500 μM for 2-12 days. Short-term (2 days high-dose (>100 μM treatments with PQ induced cell death accompanied by the activation of caspase9 as well as a decrease in E-cadherin (an epithelial cell marker, suggesting apoptotic cell death with the features of anoikis (cell death due to the loss of cell-cell adhesion. In contrast, long-term (6-12 days low-dose (30 μM treatments with PQ resulted in a transformation into spindle-shaped mesenchymal-like cells with a decrease of E-cadherin as well as an increase of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA. The mesenchymal-like cells also secreted the extracellular matrix (ECM protein fibronectin into the culture medium. The administration of a TGF-β1 receptor antagonist, SB431542, almost completely attenuated the mesenchymal transformation as well as fibronectin secretion, suggesting a crucial role of TGF-β1 in EMT-like cellular response and subsequent fibrogenesis. It is noteworthy that despite the suppression of EMT-fibrogenesis, apoptotic death was observed in cells treated with PQ+SB431542. EMT-like cellular response and subsequent fibrogenesis were also observed in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE cells exposed to PQ in a TGF-β1-dependent manner. Taken together, our experimental model reflects well the etiology of PQ poisoning in human and shows the involvement of EMT-like cellular response in both fibrogenesis and resistance to cell death during

  5. Comparison of trichostatin A and valproic acid treatment regimens in a mouse model of kidney fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising new compounds for the therapy of fibrotic diseases. In this study we compared the effect of two HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A and valproic acid, in an experimental model of kidney fibrosis. In mice, doxorubicin (adriamycin) can cause nephropathy characterized by chronic proteinuria, glomerular damage and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, as seen in human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Two treatment regimens were applied, treatment was either started prior to the doxorubicin insult or delayed until a significant degree of proteinuria and fibrosis was present. Pre-treatment of trichostatin A significantly hampered glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as did the pre-treatment with valproic acid. In contrast, the development of proteinuria was only completely inhibited in the pre-treated valproic acid group, and not in the pre-treated trichostatin A animals. In the postponed treatment with valproic acid, a complete resolution of established doxorubicin-induced proteinuria was achieved within three days, whereas trichostatin A could not correct proteinuria in such a treatment regimen. However, both postponed regimens have comparable efficacy in maintaining the kidney fibrosis to the level reached at the start of the treatments. Moreover, not only the process of fibrosis, but also renal inflammation was attenuated by both HDAC inhibitors. Our data confirm a role for HDACs in renal fibrogenesis and point towards a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors. The effect on renal disease progression and manifestation can however be different for individual HDAC inhibitors. - Highlights: • Valproic acid is a potent antiproteinuric drug, whereas trichostatin A is not. • Trichostatin A and valproic acid reduce kidney fibrosis in doxorubicin nephropathy. • Both valproic acid and trichostatin A attenuate renal inflammation

  6. Comparison of trichostatin A and valproic acid treatment regimens in a mouse model of kidney fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Beneden, Katrien, E-mail: kvbenede@vub.ac.be [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Geers, Caroline [Department of Pathology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Pauwels, Marina [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Mannaerts, Inge [Department of Cell Biology, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Wissing, Karl M. [Department of Nephrology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Van den Branden, Christiane [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Grunsven, Leo A. van, E-mail: lvgrunsv@vub.ac.be [Department of Cell Biology, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-09-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising new compounds for the therapy of fibrotic diseases. In this study we compared the effect of two HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A and valproic acid, in an experimental model of kidney fibrosis. In mice, doxorubicin (adriamycin) can cause nephropathy characterized by chronic proteinuria, glomerular damage and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, as seen in human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Two treatment regimens were applied, treatment was either started prior to the doxorubicin insult or delayed until a significant degree of proteinuria and fibrosis was present. Pre-treatment of trichostatin A significantly hampered glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as did the pre-treatment with valproic acid. In contrast, the development of proteinuria was only completely inhibited in the pre-treated valproic acid group, and not in the pre-treated trichostatin A animals. In the postponed treatment with valproic acid, a complete resolution of established doxorubicin-induced proteinuria was achieved within three days, whereas trichostatin A could not correct proteinuria in such a treatment regimen. However, both postponed regimens have comparable efficacy in maintaining the kidney fibrosis to the level reached at the start of the treatments. Moreover, not only the process of fibrosis, but also renal inflammation was attenuated by both HDAC inhibitors. Our data confirm a role for HDACs in renal fibrogenesis and point towards a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors. The effect on renal disease progression and manifestation can however be different for individual HDAC inhibitors. - Highlights: • Valproic acid is a potent antiproteinuric drug, whereas trichostatin A is not. • Trichostatin A and valproic acid reduce kidney fibrosis in doxorubicin nephropathy. • Both valproic acid and trichostatin A attenuate renal inflammation.

  7. Cathepsin B inactivation attenuates hepatic injury and fibrosis during cholestasis

    OpenAIRE

    Canbay, Ali; Guicciardi, Maria Eugenia; Higuchi, Hajime; Feldstein, Ariel; Bronk, Steven F.; Rydzewski, Robert; Tanai, Makiko; Gores, Gregory J.

    2004-01-01

    Although a lysosomal, cathepsin B–dependent (Ctsb-dependent) pathway of apoptosis has been described, the contribution of this pathway to tissue damage remains unclear. Our aim was to ascertain if Ctsb inactivation attenuates liver injury, inflammation, and fibrogenesis after bile duct ligation (BDL). In 3-day BDL mice, hepatocyte apoptosis, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values were reduced in Ctsb–/– versus Ctsb+/+ animals. Likewise, R-3032 (a C...

  8. Platelet-derived growth factor-D promotes fibrogenesis of cardiac fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Tieqiang; Zhao, Wenyuan; Chen, Yuanjian; Li, Victoria S.; Meng, Weixin; Sun, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-D is a newly recognized member of the PDGF family with its role just now being understood. Our previous study shows that PDGF-D and its receptors (PDGFR-β) are significantly increased in the infarcted heart, where PDGFR-β is primarily expressed by fibroblasts, indicating the involvement of PDGF-D in the development of cardiac fibrosis. In continuing with these findings, the current study explored the molecular basis of PDGF-D on fibrogenesis. Rat cardiac ...

  9. Peptidyl arginine deiminase inhibitor effect on hepatic fibrogenesis in a CCl4 pre-clinical model of liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliadis, E.; Veidal, Sanne Skovgård; Kristiansen, M. N.; Hansen, C.; Jorgensen, M.; Leeming, D. J.; Karsdal, M.

    2013-01-01

    Having previously shown that levels of the citrullinated vimentin peptide VICM are raised in liver fibrosis in rats, we aimed to investigate whether inhibition of citrullination as measured by VICM levels could affect fibrogenesis. METHODS: Fibrogenesis was evaluated by quantitative histology and...... same period, with N-a-benzoyl-N5-(2 Chloro-1-iminoethyl)-L-Ornithine amide, a known PAD inhibitor. RESULTS: All 40 CCl4 treated animals showed a statistically significant increase in total collagen (p0.05). In PAD-treated animals VICM levels were 51% (P...

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid-enriched fish oil attenuates kidney disease and prolongs median and maximal life span of autoimmune lupus-prone mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh V. Halade; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Barnes, Jeffery; Chandrasekar, Bysani; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of individual components of fish oils (FO) in various human inflammatory diseases still remains unresolved, possibly due to low levels of n-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or lower ratio of DHA to EPA. Since FO enriched with DHA (FO-DHA) or EPA (FO-EPA) has become available recently, we investigated their efficacy on survival and inflammatory kidney disease in a well-established animal model of human Systemic Lupus Erythematosu...

  11. Gamma Amino Butyric Acid Attenuates Liver and Kidney Damage Associated with Insulin Alteration in γ-Irradiated and Streptozotocin-Treated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the inhibitory neurotransmitters that may have the ability to relive the intensity of stress. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the role of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) in modulating insulin disturbance associated with liver and kidney damage in γ-irradiated and streptozotocin-treated rats. Irradiation was performed by whole body exposure to 6 Gy from a Cs-137 source. Streptozotocin (STZ) was administered in a single intraperitoneal dose (60 mg/kg body weight). GABA (200 mg/Kg body weight/day) was administered daily via gavages during 3 weeks to γ-irradiated and STZ-treated-rats. The results obtained showed that γ-irradiation induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance (similar to type 2 Diabetes), while STZ-treatment produced hyperglycemia, insulin deficiency with no insulin resistance detected (similar to type 1 Diabetes). In both cases, significant increases of alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) activities, urea and creatinine levels were recorded in the serum. These changes were associated with oxidative damage to the liver and kidney tissues notified by significant decreases of superoxide dismutase (SOD ), catalase and glutathione peroxidase ( GSH-Px) activities in parallel to significant increases of malondialdehyde (MDA) and advanced oxidation protein products ( AOPP) levels. The administration of GABA to irradiated as well as STZ-treated rats regulated insulin and glucose levels, minimized oxidative stress and reduced the severity of liver and kidney damage. It could be concluded that GABA could be a useful adjunct to reduce some metabolic complications associated with insulin deficiency and insulin resistance

  12. Knockout of Na-glucose transporter SGLT2 attenuates hyperglycemia and glomerular hyperfiltration but not kidney growth or injury in diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Vallon, Volker; Rose, Michael; Gerasimova, Maria; Satriano, Joseph; Platt, Kenneth A.; Koepsell, Hermann; Cunard, Robyn; Sharma, Kumar; Thomson, Scott C.; Rieg, Timo

    2012-01-01

    The Na-glucose cotransporter SGLT2 mediates high-capacity glucose uptake in the early proximal tubule and SGLT2 inhibitors are developed as new antidiabetic drugs. We used gene-targeted Sglt2 knockout (Sglt2−/−) mice to elucidate the contribution of SGLT2 to blood glucose control, glomerular hyperfiltration, kidney growth, and markers of renal growth and injury at 5 wk and 4.5 mo after induction of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) diabetes. The absence of SGLT2 did not affect renal mRNA expressi...

  13. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate combined with alpha lipoic acid attenuates high glucose-induced receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE expression in human embryonic kidney cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Gang Leu

    Full Text Available The anti-oxidant effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG and alpha lipoic acid (ALA have been demonstrated in previous studies. The kidney protection effects of EGCG and ALA in patients with kidney injury are still under investigation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of EGCG and ALA on high glucose-induced human kidney cell damage. EGCG inhibited high glucose(HG-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in human embryonic kidney (HEK cells. Both EGCG and ALA decreased HG-induced receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE mRNA and protein expressions in HEK cells. EGCG and ALA also recovered HG-inhibited superoxide dismutase production and decreased ROS expressions in HEK cells. The synergism of EGCG and ALA was also studied. The effect of EGCG combined with ALA is greater than the effect of EGCG alone in all anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant experiments. Our studies provide a potential therapeutic application of EGCG and ALA in preventing progression of diabetic nephropathy.Os efeitos antioxidantes de galato de epigalocatequina (EGCG e ácido alfa lipóico (ALA foram demonstrados em estudos anteriores. Os efeitos renais da proteção de EGCG e ALA em pacientes com lesão renal ainda estão sob investigação. A finalidade deste estudo é investigar os efeitos anti-inflamatórios e antioxidantes de EGCG e ALA em lesão de células de rim humano induzida pela alta glicose. EGCG inibiu a produção de TNF-α e IL-6 induzida por HG em células de rim embrionário humano (HEK. Ambos EGCG e ALA diminuíram o mRNA do receptor de produtos finais de glicação avançada (RAGE induzida por HG e a expressão de proteínas em células HEK. EGCG e ALA também recuperaram a produção de superóxido dismutase inibida por HG e diminuíram a expressão de ROS em células HEK. O sinergismo de EGCG e ALA também foi estudado. O efeito de EGCG combinado com ALA é maior do que o efeito de EGCG sozinho

  14. Fibrogenesis and Carcinogenesis in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH): Involvement of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinase (TIMPs)

    OpenAIRE

    Isao Okazaki; Takuji Noro; Nobuhiro Tsutsui; Eigoro Yamanouchi; Hajime Kuroda; Masayuki Nakano; Hiroaki Yokomori; Yutaka Inagaki

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is emerging worldwide because life-styles have changed to include much over-eating and less physical activity. The clinical and pathophysiological features of NASH are very different from those of HBV- and HCV-chronic liver diseases. The prognosis of NASH is worse among those with nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD), and some NASH patients show HCC with or without cirrhosis. In the present review we discuss fibrogenesis and the relationship between f...

  15. Matrix metalloproteinase-9-mediated type III collagen degradation as a novel serological biochemical marker for liver fibrogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne S; Vassiliadis, Efstathios; Barascuk, Natasha;

    2010-01-01

    During fibrogenesis in the liver, in which excessive remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) occurs, both the quantity of type III collagen (CO3) and levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), including MMP-9, increase significantly. MMPs play major roles in ECM remodelling, via their...... activity in the proteolytic degradation of extracellular macromolecules such as collagens, resulting in the generation of specific cleavage fragments. These neo-epitopes may be used as markers of fibrosis....

  16. Electroacupuncture attenuates liver and kidney oxidative stress in anesthetized rats Eletroacupuntura atenua o estresse oxidativo no fígado e no rim em ratos anestesiados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agamenon Honório Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Investigate the effects of a single electroacupuncture (EA session at acupoints Zusanli (ST-36 and Zhongwan (CV-12 combined in regulating oxidative stress in liver and kidney in anesthetized rats. METHODS: Eighteen healthy rats randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=6 were anesthetized intraperitoneally with ketamine (90mg kg-1 body weight + xylazine (10mg/kg body weight: G-1: Control (anesthesia, G-2: anesthesia+EA10Hz and 10 mA, 10 Hz applied to right ST-36 and CV-12 acupoints for 30 minutes. G-3 was likewise treated, using a tenfold higher frequency (100 Hz. G6PDH activity, malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels were assayed spectrophotometrically. RESULTS: Liver MDA and GSH concentrations increased significantly in rats submitted to EA 10Hz (pOBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos de uma única sessão de eletroacupuntura (EA aplicada nos acupontos Zusanli (E-36 e Zhongwan (RM-12 simultaneamente, na regulação do estresse oxidativo no fígado e rins em ratos anestesiados. MÉTODOS: Dezoito ratos sadios, distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos (n = 6, foram anestesiados com cetamina (90mg/kg de peso + xilazina (10mg/kg de peso: G-1: Controle (anestesia, G-2: anestesia + EA10Hz e G-3: anestesia + EA100Hz. Os ratos do grupo G-2 foram submetidos à EA (ondas quadradas pulsadas, 10 mA, 10 Hz aplicada aos acupontos ST-36 direito e VC-12 por 30 minutos. Nos ratos do grupo G-3 utilizou-se uma freqüência dez vezes maior (100 Hz. A atividade da enzima G6PDH e as concentrações de malondialdeído (MDA e glutationa (GSH foram verificadas por espectrofotometria. RESULTADOS: As concentrações hepáticas de MDA e GSH aumentaram significativamente nos ratos submetidos à EA, utilizando 10Hz (p <0,01 e 100Hz (p <0,001, comparado com o controle. A atividade de G6GPH diminuiu significativamente no G-2 (p <0,01 e G-3 (p <0,001 no fígado e no rim em comparação ao grupo G-1 em ratos tratados com 100Hz. CONCLUSÃO: Uma única sessão de EA 10

  17. DNMT1-mediated PTEN hypermethylation confers hepatic stellate cell activation and liver fibrogenesis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Er-Bao; Huang, Cheng; Ma, Tao-Tao; Tao, Hui; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Chang; Lv, Xiong-Wen; Li, Jun, E-mail: hunkahmu@126.com

    2012-10-01

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation is an essential event during liver fibrogenesis. Phosphatase and tension homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a tumor suppressor, is a negative regulator of this process. PTEN promoter hypermethylation is a major epigenetic silencing mechanism in tumors. The present study aimed to investigate whether PTEN promoter methylation was involved in HSC activation and liver fibrosis. Treatment of activated HSCs with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-azadC) decreased aberrant hypermethylation of the PTEN gene promoter and prevented the loss of PTEN expression that occurred during HSC activation. Silencing DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) gene also decreased the PTEN gene promoter methylation and upregulated the PTEN gene expression in activated HSC-T6 cells. In addition, knockdown of DNMT1 inhibited the activation of both ERK and AKT pathways in HSC-T6 cells. These results suggest that DNMT1-mediated PTEN hypermethylation caused the loss of PTEN expression, followed by the activation of the PI3K/AKT and ERK pathways, resulting in HSC activation. Highlights: ► PTEN methylation status and loss of PTEN expression ► DNMT1 mediated PTEN hypermethylation. ► Hypermethylation of PTEN contributes to the activation of ERK and AKT pathways.

  18. Hepatic stellate cell-expressed endosialin balances fibrogenesis and hepatocyte proliferation during liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogler, Carolin; Wieland, Matthias; König, Courtney; Hu, Junhao; Runge, Anja; Korn, Claudia; Besemfelder, Eva; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Komljenovic, Dorde; Dooley, Steven; Schirmacher, Peter; Longerich, Thomas; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2015-03-01

    Liver fibrosis is a reversible wound-healing response to injury reflecting the critical balance between liver repair and scar formation. Chronic damage leads to progressive substitution of liver parenchyma by scar tissue and ultimately results in liver cirrhosis. Stromal cells (hepatic stellate cells [HSC] and endothelial cells) have been proposed to control the balance between liver fibrosis and regeneration. Here, we show that endosialin, a C-type lectin, expressed in the liver exclusively by HSC and portal fibroblasts, is upregulated in liver fibrosis in mouse and man. Chronic chemically induced liver damage resulted in reduced fibrosis and enhanced hepatocyte proliferation in endosialin-deficient (EN(KO)) mice. Correspondingly, acute-liver-damage-induced hepatocyte proliferation (partial hepatectomy) was increased in EN(KO) mice. A candidate-based screen of known regulators of hepatocyte proliferation identified insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) as selectively endosialin-dependent hepatocyte mitogen. Collectively, the study establishes a critical role of HSC in the reciprocal regulation of fibrogenesis vs. hepatocyte proliferation and identifies endosialin as a therapeutic target in non-neoplastic settings. PMID:25680861

  19. Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... build up in the body. Kidney Function and Aging Kidney function may be reduced with aging. As ... more sensitive to certain medicines. For example, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and some antibiotics may harm ...

  20. Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... York Golf Classic The 11th Annual New York Golf Classic Each August, supporters in our Northeast Region hit the links in support of AKF. Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Learn about our signature outreach event. Free health screenings ...

  1. Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other mineral levels. Common Kidney Conditions in Teens Sometimes, the kidneys aren't able to do ... conditions is a renal ultrasound . Like the ultrasound pictures that pregnant women get of their fetuses, a ...

  2. Kidney School

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    ... licensing agreement Kidneys: How They Work, How They Fail, What You Can Do For people at any ... Kidney School is a program of the Medical Education Institute, Inc. , a 501(c)(3) organization, © 2002– ...

  3. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Kidney Problems Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & ... The kidneys also help maintain body fluids at normal levels. In addition, the kidneys play important roles in controlling blood pressure and ...

  4. Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Kidney Transplant Click to watch a video on this topic Click to watch a video on Hemodialysis When kidneys fail, there ... 05/2016 - 10:00am Philadelphia, PA Kidney Camp Sun, 07/17/2016 - 6:00pm Ingleside, IL Register ...

  5. (Z-5-(4-methoxybenzylidenethiazolidine-2,4-dione protects rats from carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury and fibrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Zhi Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the hepatoprotective roles of (Z-5-(4-methoxybenzylidenethiazolidine-2,4-dione (SKLB010 against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced acute and chronic liver injury and its underlying mechanisms of action. METHODS: In the first experiment, rats were weighed and randomly divided into 5 groups (five rats in each group to assess the protective effect of SKLB010 on acute liver injury. For induction of acute injury, rats were administered a single intraperitoneal injection of 2 mL/kg of 50% (v/v CCl4 dissolved in olive oil (1:1. Group 1 was untreated and served as the control group; group 2 received CCl4 for induction of liver injury and served as the model group. In groups 3, 4 and 5, rats receiving CCl4 were also treated with SKLB010 at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively. Blood samples were collected at 6, 12 and 24 h after CCl4 intoxication to determine the serum activity of alanine amino transferase. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At 24 h after CCl4 injection,liver fibrogenesis was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining and immunohistochemical analyses. Cytokine transcript levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the liver tissues of rats were measured using a reverse transcriptase reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique. In the second experiment, rats were randomly divided into 2 groups (15 rats in each group, and liver injury in the CCl4-administered groups was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 2 mL/kg of 50% (v/v CCl4 dissolved in olive oil (1:1. The SKLB010-treated groups received oral 100 mg/kg SKLB010 before CCl4 administration. Five rats in each group were sacrificed at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h after CCl4 intoxication and small fortions of livers were rapidly frozen for extraction of total RNA, hepatic proteins and glutathione (GSH assays. In the hepatic fibrosis model group, rats

  6. Emodin protects rat liver from CCl-induced fibrogenesis via inhibition of hepatic stellate cells activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-Xian Dong, Yan Jia, Ying-Bo Zhang, Cheng-Chong Li, Yu-Tao Geng, Li Zhou, Xue-Yan Li, Ji-Cheng Liu, Ying-Cai Niu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the role of emodin in protecting the liver against fibrogenesis caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rats and to further explore the underlying mechanisms.METHODS: Rat models of experimental hepatic fibrosis were established by injection with CCl4; the treated rats received emodin via oral administration at a dosage of 20 mg/kg twice a week at the same time. Rats injected with olive oil served as a normal group. Histopathological changes were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST in serum and hepatic hydroxyproline content were assayed by biochemical analyses. The mRNA and protein relevant to hepatic stellate cell (HSC activation in the liver were assessed using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS: The degree of hepatic fibrosis increased markedly in the CCl4 group compared to the normal group (P < 0.01, and decreased markedly in the emodin group compared to the CCl4 group according to METAVIR scale (P < 0.01 compared with those in the normal control group (51.02 ± 10.64 IU/L and 132.28 ± 18.14 IU/L. The activities of serum ALT and AST were significantly higher in rats injected with CCl4 (289.25 ± 68.84 IU/L and 423.89 ± 35.67 IU/L, both P < 0.05. The activities of serum ALT and AST were significantly reduced by administration of emodin (176.34 ± 47.29 IU/L and 226.1 ± 44.52 IU/L, both P < 0.05. Compared with the normal controls (54.53 ± 13.46 mg/g, hepatic hydroxyproline content was significantly higher in rats injected with CCl4 (120.27 ± 28.47 mg/g, P < 0.05. Hepatic hydroxyproline content was significantly reduced in the rats treated with emodin at 20 mg/kg (71.25 ± 17.02 mg/g, P < 0.05. Emodin significantly protected the liver from injury by reducing serum AST and ALT activities and reducing hepatic

  7. Four danger response programs determine glomerular and tubulointerstitial kidney pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Renal biopsies commonly display tissue remodeling with a combination of many different findings. In contrast to trauma, kidney remodeling largely results from intrinsic responses, but why? Distinct danger response programs were positively selected throughout evolution to survive traumatic injuries and to regenerate tissue defects. These are: (1) clotting to avoid major bleeding, (2) immunity to control infection, (3) epithelial repair and (4) mesenchymal repair. Collateral damages are acceptable for the sake of host survival but causes for kidney injury commonly affect the kidneys in a diffuse manner. This way, coagulation, inflammation, deregulated epithelial healing or fibrosis contribute to kidney remodeling. Here, I focus on how these ancient danger response programs determine renal pathology mainly because they develop in a deregulated manner, either as insufficient or overshooting processes that modulate each other. From a therapeutic point of view, immunopathology can be prevented by suppressing sterile renal inflammation, a useless atavism with devastating consequences. In addition, it appears as an important goal for the future to promote podocyte and tubular epithelial cell repair, potentially by stimulating the differentiation of their newly discovered intrarenal progenitor cells. By contrast, it is still unclear whether selectively targeting renal fibrogenesis can preserve or bring back lost renal parenchyma, which would be required to maintain or improve kidney function. Thus, renal pathology results from ancient danger responses that evolved because of their evolutional benefits upon trauma. Understanding these causalities may help to shape the search for novel treatments for kidney disease patients. PMID:22692229

  8. Kidney biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Goodpasture syndrome IgA nephropathy Interstitial nephritis Lupus nephritis Medullary cystic kidney disease Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis Membranous nephropathy Minimal change disease Nephrotic ...

  9. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain proper fluid ... marrow and strengthen the bones. The term kidney (renal) failure describes a situation in which the kidneys have ...

  10. Your Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you to go to the bathroom. When you pee, the urine goes from the bladder down another tube called the urethra (say: yu-REE-thruh) and out of your body. The kidneys, the bladder, and their tubes ...

  11. Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  12. Keep Your Kidneys Clear: Kicking Kidney Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Kidneys Clear Keep Your Kidneys Clear Kicking Kidney Stones Some say that passing a kidney stone is like delivering a baby made of razor ... is that, although they can be excruciatingly painful, kidney stones rarely cause permanent damage, and you may be ...

  13. Kidney Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urinary tract defects. 2 1 Swiatecka-Urban A. Multicystic renal dysplasia. Medscape website. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/982560- ... 27, 2013. Accessed July 14, 2014. 2 Fetal multicystic dysplastic kidney. Anne & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago ...

  14. L-FABP: A novel biomarker of kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yao; Xie, Yuanyuan; Shao, Xinghua; Ni, Zhaohui; Mou, Shan

    2015-05-20

    Human liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (hL-FABP), which is found in both the normal and the diseased human kidney, has been observed to bind free fatty acids. Recently, the predictive and prognostic value of L-FABP in kidney diseases has attracted considerable attention. Numerous studies have demonstrated that L-FABP is a promising biomarker of several kidney diseases, and it has also been shown to attenuate renal injury. We performed a literature review regarding the ability of L-FABP to identify patients at risk of developing kidney diseases, including acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to protect the kidneys in the course of kidney disease. PMID:25797895

  15. Four danger response programs determine glomerular and tubulointerstitial kidney pathology: clotting, inflammation, epithelial and mesenchymal healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Renal biopsies commonly display tissue remodeling with a combination of many different findings. In contrast to trauma, kidney remodeling largely results from intrinsic responses, but why? Distinct danger response programs were positively selected throughout evolution to survive traumatic injuries and to regenerate tissue defects. These are: (1) clotting to avoid major bleeding, (2) immunity to control infection, (3) epithelial repair and (4) mesenchymal repair. Collateral damages are acceptable for the sake of host survival but causes for kidney injury commonly affect the kidneys in a diffuse manner. This way, coagulation, inflammation, deregulated epithelial healing or fibrosis contribute to kidney remodeling. Here, I focus on how these ancient danger response programs determine renal pathology mainly because they develop in a deregulated manner, either as insufficient or overshooting processes that modulate each other. From a therapeutic point of view, immunopathology can be prevented by suppressing sterile renal inflammation, a useless atavism with devastating consequences. In addition, it appears as an important goal for the future to promote podocyte and tubular epithelial cell repair, potentially by stimulating the differentiation of their newly discovered intrarenal progenitor cells. By contrast, it is still unclear whether selectively targeting renal fibrogenesis can preserve or bring back lost renal parenchyma, which would be required to maintain or improve kidney function. Thus, renal pathology results from ancient danger responses that evolved because of their evolutional benefits upon trauma. Understanding these causalities may help to shape the search for novel treatments for kidney disease patients. PMID:22692229

  16. Platelets drive smooth muscle metaplasia and fibrogenesis in endometriosis through epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transdifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Duan, Jie; Liu, Xishi; Guo, Sun-Wei

    2016-06-15

    Smooth muscle metaplasia (SMM) and fibrotic tissues are frequently seen in endometriotic lesions, yet the mechanisms underlying their formation are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the roles of activated platelets in driving epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transdifferentiation (FMT) in endometriosis. Through in vitro experimentations, we found that activated platelets, through the release of TGF-β1 and the induction of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway, promoted EMT and FMT in endometriosis, resulting in increased cell contractility, collagen production, and ultimately to fibrosis. TGF-β blockade reversed these processes. Prolonged exposure of endometriotic stromal cells to activated platelets induced increased expression of α-SMA as well as markers of differentiated smooth muscle cells. Consequently, endometriotic lesions and their microenvironment contain all the necessary molecular machinery to promote SMM and fibrogenesis. Our results suggest that endometriotic lesions are wounds that undergo repeated injury and healing, highlighting the importance of platelets in the development of endometriosis. PMID:26992563

  17. Fibrogenesis and Carcinogenesis in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH: Involvement of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs and Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinase (TIMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Okazaki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is emerging worldwide because life-styles have changed to include much over-eating and less physical activity. The clinical and pathophysiological features of NASH are very different from those of HBV- and HCV-chronic liver diseases. The prognosis of NASH is worse among those with nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD, and some NASH patients show HCC with or without cirrhosis. In the present review we discuss fibrogenesis and the relationship between fibrosis and HCC occurrence in NASH to clarify the role of MMPs and TIMPs in both mechanisms. Previously we proposed MMP and TIMP expression in the multi-step occurrence of HCC from the literature based on viral-derived HCC. We introduce again these expressions during hepatocarcinogenesis and compare them to those in NASH-derived HCC, although the relationship with hepatic stem/progenitor cells (HPCs invasion remains unknown. Signal transduction of MMPs and TIMPs is also discussed because it is valuable for the prevention and treatment of NASH and NASH-derived HCC.

  18. KIDNEY ANOMALIES: HORSE SHOE KIDNEY

    OpenAIRE

    Hemalatha; Komarabattina; Nageshwar Rao; Kotikala Prabhakara

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : Horse Shoe Kidney was first recognized during an autopsy by De Carpi in 1521. This anomaly consists of two distinct renal masses lying vertically on either side of the midline and connected at their respective lower poles by a parenchymatous or fibrous isthmus that crosses the mid pl ane of the body. This isthmus lies at the level of 4th lumbar vertebra just beneath the origin of inferior mesenteric ...

  19. Dietary extra virgin olive oil attenuates kidney injury in pristane-induced SLE model via activation of HO-1/Nrf-2 antioxidant pathway and suppression of JAK/STAT, NF-κB and MAPK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio-Soto, Marina; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Cárdeno, Ana; Rosillo, María Ángeles; Sánchez-Fidalgo, Susana; Utrilla, Jose; Martín-Lacave, Inés; Alarcón-de-la-Lastra, Catalina

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by a widespread organ involvement. Recent studies have suggested that extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) might possess preventive effects on this immunoinflammation-related disease. However, its role in SLE remained unknown. In this work, we evaluated the effects of EVOO diet in a pristane-induced SLE model in mice. Three-month-old mice received an injection of pristane or saline solution and were fed with different experimental diets: sunflower oil diet or EVOO diet. After 24weeks, mice were sacrificed, spleens were collected and kidneys were removed for immunoinflammatory detections. The kidney expression of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) and nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways were studied by western blotting. In addition to macroscopic and histological analyses, serum matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) levels and proinflammatory cytokines production in splenocytes were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunoassay. We have demonstrated that EVOO diet significantly reduced renal damage and decreased MMP-3 serum and PGE2 kidney levels as well as the proinflammatory cytokines production in splenocytes. Our data indicate that Nrf-2 and HO-1 protein expressions were up-regulated in those mice fed with EVOO and the activation of JAK/STAT, MAPK and NF-κB pathways were drastically ameliorated. These results support the interest of EVOO as a beneficial functional food exerting a preventive/palliative role in the management of SLE. PMID:26525667

  20. Kidney Stones in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Stones in Children Page Content On this page: What is a ... the ureters. [ Top ] Are kidney stones common in children? No exact information about the incidence of kidney ...

  1. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes and Kidney Disease What are my kidneys and ... urine until releasing it through urination. How can diabetes affect my kidneys? Too much glucose , also called ...

  2. Injury - kidney and ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney stone disease Radiation to the belly area Trauma ... Emergency symptoms may include: Abdominal pain and swelling Severe ... one kidney is affected and the other kidney is healthy, you may ...

  3. Inhibitory effects of saikosaponin-d on CCl4-induced hepatic fibrogenesis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang-Suo Dang; Bao-Feng Wang; Yan-An Cheng; Ping Song; Zhen-Guo Liu; Zong-Fang Li

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the suppressive effect of saikosaponin-d (SSd) on hepatic fibrosis in rats induced by CCl4 injections in combination with alcohol and high fat, low protein feeding and its relationship with the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukins-6 (IL-6).METHODS: Hepatic fibrosis models were induced by subcutaneous injection of CCl4 at a dosage of 3 mL/kg in rats. At the same time, rats in treatment groups were injected intraperitoneally with SSd at different doses (1.0,1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg) once daily for 6 wk in combination with CCl4, while the control group received olive oil instead of CCl4. At the end of the experiment, rats were anesthetized and killed (except for 8 rats which died during the experiment; 2 from the model group, 3 in high-dose group, 1 in medium-dose group and 2 in lowdose group). Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Van Gieson staining were used to examine the changes in liver pathology. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglyeride (TG), albumin (ALB), globulin (GLB),hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin (LN) in serum and the content of hydroxyproline (HYP) in liver were measured by biochemical examinations and radioimmuneoassay,respectively. In addition, the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in liver homogenate was evaluated by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the levels of NF-κBp65 and I-κBα in liver tissue were analyzed by Western blotting.RESULTS: Both histological examination and Van Gieson staining demonstrated that SSd could attenuate the area and extent of necrosis and reduce the scores of liver fibrosis. Similarly, the levels of ALT, TG, GLB, HA, and LN in serum, and the contents of HYP, TNF-α and IL-6 in liver were all significantly increased in model group in comparison with those in control group. Whereas,the treatment with SSd markedly reduced all the above parameters compared with the model group, especially in the medium group (ALT: 412 ± 94

  4. Cyclooxygenase-2 and kidney failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Amelia; Vargas-Robles, Hilda; Gámez-Méndez, Ana Maria; Escalante, Bruno

    2012-08-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent prostaglandins are necessary for normal kidney function. These prostaglandins are associated with inflammation, maintenance of sodium and water homeostasis, control of renin release, renal vasodilation, vasoconstriction attenuation, and prenatal renal development. COX-2 expression is regulated by the renin-angiotensin system, glucocorticoids or mineralcorticoids, and aldosterone, supporting a role for COX-2 in kidney function. Indeed, COX-2 mRNA and protein levels as well as enzyme activity are increased, along with PGE2, during kidney failure. In addition, changes in COX-2 expression are associated with increased blood pressure, urinary volume, sodium and protein and decreased urinary osmolarity. Intrarenal mechanisms such as angiotensin II (Ang II) production, increased sodium delivery, glomerular hypertension, and renal tubular inflammation have been suggested to be responsible for the increase in COX-2 expression. Although, specific COX-2 pharmacological inhibition has been related to the prevention of kidney damage, clinical studies have reported that COX-2 inhibition may cause side effects such as edema or a modest elevation in blood pressure and could possibly interfere with antihypertensive drugs and increase the risk of cardiovascular complications. Thus, administration of COX-2 inhibitors requires caution, especially in the presence of underlying cardiovascular disease. PMID:22119250

  5. Hippo signaling in the kidney: the good and the bad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jenny S; Meliambro, Kristin; Ray, Justina; Campbell, Kirk N

    2016-08-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved kinase cascade, playing multiple roles in embryonic development that controls organ size, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. At the center of this network lie the Hippo kinase target and downstream pathway effector Yes-associated protein (YAP) and its paralog TAZ. In its phosphorylated form, cytoplasmic YAP is sequestered in an inactive state. When it is dephosphorylated, YAP, a potent oncogene, is activated and relocates to the nucleus to interact with a number of transcription factors and signaling regulators that promote cell growth, differentiation, and survival. The identification of YAP activation in human cancers has made it an attractive target for chemotherapeutic drug development. Little is known to date about the function of the Hippo pathway in the kidney, but that is rapidly changing. Recent studies have shed light on the role of Hippo-YAP signaling in glomerular and lower urinary tract embryonic development, maintenance of podocyte homeostasis, the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier, regulation of renal tubular cyst growth, renal epithelial injury in diabetes, and renal fibrogenesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the Hippo-YAP signaling axis in the kidney under normal and disease conditions. PMID:27194720

  6. Kidney Disease Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injury . This can occur in a person with normal kidneys or in someone who already has kidney problems. ... attack. What your kidneys do. You have two kidneys. They are bean-shaped and about the size of a fist. They are located in the ...

  7. Simple Kidney Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cysts do not enlarge the kidneys, replace their normal structure, or cause reduced kidney function like cysts do in people with PKD. ... the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located near the ...

  8. Rotary antenna attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.; Hardy, J. C.

    1969-01-01

    Radio frequency attenuator, having negligible insertion loss at minimum attenuation, can be used for making precise antenna gain measurements. It is small in size compared to a rotary-vane attenuator.

  9. The LIM-only protein FHL2 attenuates lung inflammation during bleomycin-induced fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaleem Alnajar

    Full Text Available Fibrogenesis is usually initiated when regenerative processes have failed and/or chronic inflammation occurs. It is characterised by the activation of tissue fibroblasts and dysregulated synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. FHL2 (four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 2 is a scaffolding protein that interacts with numerous cellular proteins, regulating signalling cascades and gene transcription. It is involved in tissue remodelling and tumour progression. Recent data suggest that FHL2 might support fibrogenesis by maintaining the transcriptional expression of alpha smooth muscle actin and the excessive synthesis and assembly of matrix proteins in activated fibroblasts. Here, we present evidence that FHL2 does not promote bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, but rather suppresses this process by attenuating lung inflammation. Loss of FHL2 results in increased expression of the pro-inflammatory matrix protein tenascin C and downregulation of the macrophage activating C-type lectin receptor DC-SIGN. Consequently, FHL2 knockout mice developed a severe and long-lasting lung pathology following bleomycin administration due to enhanced expression of tenascin C and impaired activation of inflammation-resolving macrophages.

  10. The LIM-Only Protein FHL2 Attenuates Lung Inflammation during Bleomycin-Induced Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schied, Tanja; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth; Loser, Karin; Vogl, Thomas; Ludwig, Stephan; Wixler, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Fibrogenesis is usually initiated when regenerative processes have failed and/or chronic inflammation occurs. It is characterised by the activation of tissue fibroblasts and dysregulated synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. FHL2 (four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 2) is a scaffolding protein that interacts with numerous cellular proteins, regulating signalling cascades and gene transcription. It is involved in tissue remodelling and tumour progression. Recent data suggest that FHL2 might support fibrogenesis by maintaining the transcriptional expression of alpha smooth muscle actin and the excessive synthesis and assembly of matrix proteins in activated fibroblasts. Here, we present evidence that FHL2 does not promote bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, but rather suppresses this process by attenuating lung inflammation. Loss of FHL2 results in increased expression of the pro-inflammatory matrix protein tenascin C and downregulation of the macrophage activating C-type lectin receptor DC-SIGN. Consequently, FHL2 knockout mice developed a severe and long-lasting lung pathology following bleomycin administration due to enhanced expression of tenascin C and impaired activation of inflammation-resolving macrophages. PMID:24260575

  11. Morphological aspects of the myocarditis and myositis in Calomys callosus experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi: fibrogenesis and spontaneous regression of fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia G. Andrade

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Calomys callosus a wild rodent, is a natural host of Trypanosoma cruzi. Twelve C. callosus were infected with 10(5 trypomastigotes of the F strain (a myotropic strain of T. cruzi. Parasitemia decreased on the 21 st day becoming negative around the 40th day of infection. All animals survived but had positive parasitological tests, until the end of the experiment. The infected animals developed severe inflammation in the myocardium and skeletal muscle. This process was pronounced from the 26 th to the 30th day and gradually subsided from the 50 th day becoming absent or residual on the 64 th day after infection. Collagen was identified by the picro Sirius red method. Fibrogenesis developed early, but regression of fibrosis occurred between the 50th and 64th day. Ultrastructural study disclosed a predominance of macrophages and fibroblasts in the inflammatory infiltrates, with small numbers of lymphocytes. Macrophages had active phagocytosis and showed points of contact with altered muscle cells. Different degrees of matrix expansion were present, with granular and fibrilar deposits and collagen bundles. These alterations subsided by the 64th days. Macrophages seem to be the main immune effector cell in the C. callosus model of infection with T. cruzi. The mechanisms involved in the rapid fibrogenesis and its regression deserve further investigation.

  12. Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  13. Functional CT of the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsushima, Yoshito. E-mail: yoshito@xa2.so-net.ne.jp

    1999-06-01

    The iodinated contrast agents used for computed tomography (CT) are filtered at the glomerulus and not reabsorbed by the tubules and have pharmacokinetics comparable to inulin. They can thus measure physiological indices such as contrast clearance per unit volume, which is closely related to glomerular filtration rate per unit renal volume of kidney, after due allowance for the difference between blood and plasma clearance. In this review, we show how dynamic CT can be used to measure both regional and global blood clearance of contrast material. A single slice of kidney is scanned sequentially after bolus intravenous (i.v.) injection of contrast material. Next, time-attenuation curves are constructed and contrast clearance per unit volume is calculated using a Patlak graphical analysis. CT determination of renal volume is made and global contrast clearance can be then also calculated. In normal kidneys, clearance/volume averaged 0.49{+-}0.11 ml min{sup -1} ml{sup -1} (mean {+-}S.D.), and these values agreed with literature data obtained using other techniques. A negative correlation between patient's age and clearance/volume was seen. A strong correlation was observed between creatinine whole blood clearance and the global contrast clearance (the product of renal volume determined by CT and contrast clearance/volume). Dynamic CT can provide quantitative renal physiological information on a regional basis non-invasively.

  14. National Kidney Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign up for our FREE magazine, Kidney Living Organ Donation & Transplantation Be an Organ Donor Living Donation Donor ... Giving Primary menu Home Prevention Kidney Disease Patients Organ Donation & Transplantation Professionals Events Advocacy Donate Search Search Header ...

  15. About Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign up for our FREE magazine, Kidney Living Organ Donation & Transplantation Be an Organ Donor Living Donation Donor ... Giving Primary menu Home Prevention Kidney Disease Patients Organ Donation & Transplantation Professionals Events Advocacy Donate Search Search Header ...

  16. Pregnancy and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign up for our FREE magazine, Kidney Living Organ Donation & Transplantation Be an Organ Donor Living Donation Donor ... Giving Primary menu Home Prevention Kidney Disease Patients Organ Donation & Transplantation Professionals Events Advocacy Donate Search Search Header ...

  17. American Kidney Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... York Golf Classic The 11th Annual New York Golf Classic Each August, supporters in our Northeast Region hit the links in support of AKF. Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Learn about our signature outreach event. Free health screenings ...

  18. Tests for Kidney Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... York Golf Classic The 11th Annual New York Golf Classic Each August, supporters in our Northeast Region hit the links in support of AKF. Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Learn about our signature outreach event. Free health screenings ...

  19. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... York Golf Classic The 11th Annual New York Golf Classic Each August, supporters in our Northeast Region hit the links in support of AKF. Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Learn about our signature outreach event. Free health screenings ...

  20. HIV and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheets Permission to Use Fact Sheets Sponsors and Advertising Privacy Policy Project ... Disease WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT KIDNEY DISEASE? WHAT IS NORMAL KIDNEY FUNCTION? HOW DO I KNOW IF THERE ARE PROBLEMS ...

  1. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many foods contain extra iron (liver, beef, pork, chicken, lima and kidney beans, iron-fortified cereals). Talk to your provider or dietitian about which foods with iron you can eat because of your kidney disease.

  2. Kidney Disease of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a healthy kidney from a donor. Most U.S. citizens who develop kidney failure are eligible for federally ... Budget & Legislative Information Strategic Plans & Reports Advisory & Coordinating Committees Research Areas Jobs at NIDDK FAQs Visit Us ...

  3. Kidney transplant - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... functions that both kidneys perform in healthy people. Kidney transplant recipients are required to take immunosuppressive medications for the rest of the lives, to prevent immune rejection of the transplanted organ.

  4. Kidney transplant - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donor kidneys are obtained from either brain-dead organ donors, or from living relatives or friends of the ... the lower right quadrant of the abdomen. The donor kidney is transplanted into the right lower pelvis of the recipient.

  5. Targeted Recombinant Fusion Proteins of IFNγ and Mimetic IFNγ with PDGFβR Bicyclic Peptide Inhibits Liver Fibrogenesis In Vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, Ruchi; Prakash, J.; Ruiter, de Marieke; Poelstra, Klaas

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), following transdifferentiation to myofibroblasts plays a key role in liver fibrosis. Therefore, attempts to attenuate this myofibroblastic phenotype would be a promising therapeutic approach. Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a potent anti-fibrotic cytokine, but its pleiotrop

  6. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Download the AfiniTRAC patient support brochure . National Kidney Foundation: www.kidney.org Kidney and Urology Foundation: www.kidneyurology.org Polycystic Kidney Disease Foundation: www. ...

  7. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you can see the left kidney here and right kidney here. And we generally use the left ... that the vein to the kidney of the right kidney. Here is another CT angiogram image, and ...

  8. Keeping Your Single Kidney Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for kidney problems? Certain treatments for childhood cancer can sometimes cause kidney problems. These include radiation to the kidney , chemotherapy that can affect the kidney (cisplatin, carboplatin, methotrexate and/or ifosfamide), or other medications that can ...

  9. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to kidney impairment and even kidney failure, requiring dialysis or transplantation. Lastly, renal cell carcinoma, the least ... kidney failure occurs, renal replacement therapy such as dialysis or transplantation is necessary. How kidney cysts develop ...

  10. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can maintain normal kidney function. Additional Resources Afinitor® www.afinitor.com | Download the AfiniTRAC patient support brochure . National Kidney Foundation: www.kidney.org Kidney and Urology Foundation: www.kidneyurology. ...

  11. DC attenuation meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Douglas L.

    2004-09-14

    A portable, hand-held meter used to measure direct current (DC) attenuation in low impedance electrical signal cables and signal attenuators. A DC voltage is applied to the signal input of the cable and feedback to the control circuit through the signal cable and attenuators. The control circuit adjusts the applied voltage to the cable until the feedback voltage equals the reference voltage. The "units" of applied voltage required at the cable input is the system attenuation value of the cable and attenuators, which makes this meter unique. The meter may be used to calibrate data signal cables, attenuators, and cable-attenuator assemblies.

  12. The senile kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisova Т.Р.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The given work summarizes external data and self-obtained results on development and diagnostic of kidney involution modifications. Article discusses definition of "senile kidney" as a clinical and pathomorphological term. Major statements on pathophysiological causes of age-associated renal disorders and their prognosis, specifics of chronic kidney disease in elderly and senile patients have been reviewed. Phenomenon of renal "multimorbidity" in eldely maximizes worsening risk of unmodifiable kidney function.

  13. Myofibroblasts in Fibrotic Kidneys

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Naoki; Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosis of the kidney glomerulus and interstitium are characteristic features of almost all chronic kidney diseases. Fibrosis is tightly associated with destruction of capillaries, inflammation, and epithelial injury which progresses to loss of nephrons, and replacement of kidney parenchyma with scar tissue. Understanding the origins and nature of the cells known as myofibroblasts that make scar tissue is central to development of new therapeutics for kidney disease. Whereas many cell lineag...

  14. Chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enable JavaScript. Chronic kidney disease is the slow loss of kidney function over time. The main job of the kidneys is to remove wastes and excess water from the body. Causes ... over months or years. You may not notice any symptoms for some time. The loss of function may be so slow that you ...

  15. Amyloidosis and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a physical exam urinalysis blood tests a kidney biopsy Medical and Family History Taking a medical and family history may help ... of the kidneys with a medical and family history a physical exam urinalysis blood tests a kidney biopsy A health care provider diagnoses dialysis-related amyloidosis ...

  16. Sulfasalazine inhibits inflammation and fibrogenesis in pancreas via NF-κB signaling pathway in rats with oxidative stress-induced pancreatic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ya-Ru Wang,1,* Fei-Long Tian,2,* Ming-Xian Yan,1 Jin-Hua Fan,1 Li-Yun Wang,1 Rong-Guang Kuang,1 Yan-Qing Li3 1Department of Gastroenterology, Shandong Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, 2Shandong University School of Medicine, 3Department of Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Ji’nan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Pathogenesis and effective therapeutics of chronic pancreatic inflammation and fibrosis remain uncertain.Purpose: To investigate the effects of sulfasalazine (SF on pancreatic inflammation and fibrogenesis.Methods: Chronic pancreatic injury in rats was induced by diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC and interfered by SF through intraperitoneal injection. The rats were divided into five groups: group N, normal control group, rats were treated with dilated water only; group DS1, rats received SF (10 mg/kg 2 hours before DDC treatment; group DS2, rats were treated with DDC and then SF (100 mg/kg, twice a week; group DS3, rats were treated with DDC, then SF (100 mg/kg, thrice a week; and group DDC, rats were treated with DDC only. Pancreatic inflammation and fibrosis were determined by hematoxylin and eosin staining and Sirius red staining. The genes and proteins related to NF-κB pathway and fibrogenesis including NF-κB/p65, TNF-α, ICAM-1, α-SMA, and Con 1 were detected by immunohistochemical staining, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting.Results: Rats in the DDC and DS1 groups showed the highest histological scores after DDC treatment, but the scores of DS2 and DS3 groups decreased significantly when compared with the DDC group. Sirius red staining showed collagen formation clearly in DDC and DS1 rats rather than in DS2 and DS3 rats. NF-κB/p65, ICAM-1, and α-SMA were strongly expressed in DDC and DS1 rats, while DS2 and DS3 rats showed mild to moderate expression by immunohistochemistry. Reverse tran

  17. Myofibroblasts in Fibrotic Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Naoki; Duffield, Jeremy S

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosis of the kidney glomerulus and interstitium are characteristic features of almost all chronic kidney diseases. Fibrosis is tightly associated with destruction of capillaries, inflammation, and epithelial injury which progresses to loss of nephrons, and replacement of kidney parenchyma with scar tissue. Understanding the origins and nature of the cells known as myofibroblasts that make scar tissue is central to development of new therapeutics for kidney disease. Whereas many cell lineages in the body have become defined by well-established markers, myofibroblasts have been much harder to identify with certainty. Recent insights from genetic fate mapping and the use of dynamic reporting of cells that make fibrillar collagen in mice have identified with greater clarity the major population of myofibroblasts and their precursors in the kidney. This review will explore the nature of these cells in health and disease of the kidney to underst and their central role in the pathogenesis of kidney disease. PMID:24187654

  18. Dynamic expression of desmin, α-SMA and TGF-β1 during hepatic fibrogenesis induced by selective bile duct ligation in young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonçalves, J.O.; Tannuri, A.C.A.; Coelho, M.C.M.; Bendit, I.; Tannuri, U. [Laboratório de Pesquisa em Cirurgia Pediátrica (LIM-30), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    We previously described a selective bile duct ligation model to elucidate the process of hepatic fibrogenesis in children with biliary atresia or intrahepatic biliary stenosis. Using this model, we identified changes in the expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) both in the obstructed parenchyma and in the hepatic parenchyma adjacent to the obstruction. However, the expression profiles of desmin and TGF-β1, molecules known to be involved in hepatic fibrogenesis, were unchanged when analyzed by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Thus, the molecular mechanisms involved in the modulation of liver fibrosis in this experimental model are not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate the molecular changes in an experimental model of selective bile duct ligation and to compare the gene expression changes observed in RT-PCR and in real-time quantitative PCR (qRT‐PCR). Twenty-eight Wistar rats of both sexes and weaning age (21-23 days old) were used. The rats were separated into groups that were assessed 7 or 60 days after selective biliary duct ligation. The expression of desmin, α-SMA and TGF-β1 was examined in tissue from hepatic parenchyma with biliary obstruction (BO) and in hepatic parenchyma without biliary obstruction (WBO), using RT-PCR and qRT‐PCR. The results obtained in this study using these two methods were significantly different. The BO parenchyma had a more severe fibrogenic reaction, with increased α-SMA and TGF-β1 expression after 7 days. The WBO parenchyma presented a later, fibrotic response, with increased desmin expression 7 days after surgery and increased α-SMA 60 days after surgery. The qRT‐PCR technique was more sensitive to expression changes than the semiquantitative method.

  19. Dynamic expression of desmin, α-SMA and TGF-β1 during hepatic fibrogenesis induced by selective bile duct ligation in young rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously described a selective bile duct ligation model to elucidate the process of hepatic fibrogenesis in children with biliary atresia or intrahepatic biliary stenosis. Using this model, we identified changes in the expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) both in the obstructed parenchyma and in the hepatic parenchyma adjacent to the obstruction. However, the expression profiles of desmin and TGF-β1, molecules known to be involved in hepatic fibrogenesis, were unchanged when analyzed by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Thus, the molecular mechanisms involved in the modulation of liver fibrosis in this experimental model are not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate the molecular changes in an experimental model of selective bile duct ligation and to compare the gene expression changes observed in RT-PCR and in real-time quantitative PCR (qRT‐PCR). Twenty-eight Wistar rats of both sexes and weaning age (21-23 days old) were used. The rats were separated into groups that were assessed 7 or 60 days after selective biliary duct ligation. The expression of desmin, α-SMA and TGF-β1 was examined in tissue from hepatic parenchyma with biliary obstruction (BO) and in hepatic parenchyma without biliary obstruction (WBO), using RT-PCR and qRT‐PCR. The results obtained in this study using these two methods were significantly different. The BO parenchyma had a more severe fibrogenic reaction, with increased α-SMA and TGF-β1 expression after 7 days. The WBO parenchyma presented a later, fibrotic response, with increased desmin expression 7 days after surgery and increased α-SMA 60 days after surgery. The qRT‐PCR technique was more sensitive to expression changes than the semiquantitative method

  20. Pressure surge attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Alan M.; Snyder, Kurt I.

    1985-01-01

    A pressure surge attenuation system for pipes having a fluted region opposite crushable metal foam. As adapted for nuclear reactor vessels and heads, crushable metal foam is disposed to attenuate pressure surges.

  1. Photonic Crystal Fiber Attenuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo Beom Eom; Hokyung Kim; Jinchae Kim; Un-Chul Paek; Byeong Ha Lee

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel fiber attenuator based on photonic crystal fibers. The difference in the modal field diameters of a conventional single mode fiber and a photonic crystal fiber was used. A variable optical attenuator was also achieved by applying macro-bending on the PCF part of the proposed attenuator

  2. Increased circulating miR-21 levels are associated with kidney fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Glowacki

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of noncoding RNA acting at a post-transcriptional level to control the expression of large sets of target mRNAs. While there is evidence that miRNAs deregulation plays a causative role in various complex disorders, their role in fibrotic kidney diseases is largely unexplored. Here, we found a strong up-regulation of miR-21 in the kidneys of mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction and also in the kidneys of patients with severe kidney fibrosis. In addition, mouse primary fibroblasts derived from fibrotic kidneys exhibited higher miR-21 expression level compared to those derived from normal kidneys. Expression of miR-21 in normal primary kidney fibroblasts was induced upon TGFβ exposure, a key growth factor involved in fibrogenesis. Finally, ectopic expression of miR-21 in primary kidney fibroblasts was sufficient to promote myofibroblast differentiation. As circulating miRNAs have been suggested as promising non-invasive biomarkers, we further assess whether circulating miR-21 levels are associated with renal fibrosis using sera from 42 renal transplant recipients, categorized according to their renal fibrosis severity, evaluated on allograft biopsies (Interstitial Fibrosis/Tubular Atrophy (IF/TA. Circulating miR-21 levels are significantly increased in patients with severe IF/TA grade (IF/TA grade 3: 3.0±1.0 vs lower grade of fibrosis: 1.5±1.2; p = 0.001. By contrast, circulating miR-21 levels were not correlated with other renal histological lesions. In a multivariate linear regression model including IF/TA grade and estimated GFR, independent associations were found between circulating miR-21 levels and IF/TA score (ß = 0.307, p = 0.03, and between miR-21 levels and aMDRD (ß = -0.398, p = 0.006. Altogether, these data suggest miR-21 has a key pathogenic role in kidney fibrosis and may represent a novel, predictive and reliable blood marker of kidney fibrosis.

  3. Therapeutic role of sirolimus in non-transplant kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Gopala K; Nguyen, Tina; Mainra, Rahul; Succar, Lena; Schwensen, Kristina G; Burgess, Jane S; Ho, Kok On

    2009-08-01

    Sirolimus is a member of a novel class of immunosuppressant drug that potently suppresses T cell proliferation and expansion by inhibition of the Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1) protein kinase. Sirolimus also has anti-proliferative effects on intrinsic cells of the kidney, and increasing evidence suggests that it may have a therapeutic role in non-transplant renal diseases. In the normal kidney, sirolimus is considered to be non-nephrotoxic. In the diseased kidney, sirolimus may be beneficial or detrimental, depending on the type of renal injury. In polycystic kidney disease, TORC1 activation mediates renal tubular epithelial cell (TEC) proliferation and cyst growth in animals, and Phase III clinical trials are underway to determine the effect of sirolimus in attenuating disease progression in humans. In contrast, in acute kidney injury, sirolimus transiently impairs proximal TEC regeneration and delays renal recovery. In animal models of lupus nephritis and diabetic kidney disease, sirolimus prevents disease progression. However, the efficacy of sirolimus in human glomerulonephritis as well as in diabetic chronic kidney disease remains unclear, as it paradoxically exacerbates renal dysfunction when the baseline glomerular filtration rate is low ( 300 mg/day). This may, in part, be due to inhibition of compensatory glomerular capillary repair through the suppression of endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenic growth factor production by podocytes. Therefore, at present, polycystic kidney disease is the most promising therapeutic application for sirolimus in non-transplant renal diseases, and further studies are needed to clarify its role in other situations. PMID:19374918

  4. Diabetes and kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic nephropathy; Nephropathy - diabetic; Diabetic glomerulosclerosis; Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease ... Diabetic kidney disease is a major cause of sickness and death in people with diabetes. It can ...

  5. Importance of Attenuation Correction (AC for Small Animal PET Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik H. El Ali

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a correction for annihilation photon attenuation in small objects such as mice is necessary. The attenuation recovery for specific organs and subcutaneous tumors was investigated. A comparison between different attenuation correction methods was performed. Methods: Ten NMRI nude mice with subcutaneous implantation of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 were scanned consecutively in small animal PET and CT scanners (MicroPETTM Focus 120 and ImTek’s MicroCATTM II. CT-based AC, PET-based AC and uniform AC methods were compared. Results: The activity concentration in the same organ with and without AC revealed an overall attenuation recovery of 9–21% for MAP reconstructed images, i.e., SUV without AC could underestimate the true activity at this level. For subcutaneous tumors, the attenuation was 13 ± 4% (9–17%, for kidneys 20 ± 1% (19–21%, and for bladder 18 ± 3% (15–21%. The FBP reconstructed images showed almost the same attenuation levels as the MAP reconstructed images for all organs. Conclusions: The annihilation photons are suffering attenuation even in small subjects. Both PET-based and CT-based are adequate as AC methods. The amplitude of the AC recovery could be overestimated using the uniform map. Therefore, application of a global attenuation factor on PET data might not be accurate for attenuation correction.

  6. [Cardiovascular risk in polycystic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Adelaide; Stallone, Giovanni; Infante, Barbara; Grandaliano, Giuseppe; Schena, Francesco Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Hypertension is common and occurs in the majority of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients prior to loss of kidney function. Hypertension relates to progressive kidney enlargement, and is a significant independent risk factor for progression to end-stage renal disease. The pathogenesis of hypertension in ADPKD is complex and depends on many factors that influence each other. High expression of PKD1 and PKD2 genes is present in the cilia of tubular epithelial cells, in endothelial cells and in vascular smooth muscle cells. Decreased or absent polycystin-1 or -2 expression is associated with abnormal vascular structure and function. PKD1/PKD2 deficiency results in reduced nitric oxide levels, altered endothelial response to shear stress with attenuation in vascular relaxation. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system occurs in ADPKD due to decreased nitric oxide production as well as bilateral cyst expansion and intra-renal ischemia. With increasing cyst size, further activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system occurs, blood pressure increases and a vicious cycle ensues with enhanced cyst growth and hypertension ultimately leading to end-stage renal disease. Inhibition of the angiotensin-aldosterone system is possible with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and seems to be the first-line treatment for hypertension in these subjects. As suggested by the HALT-PKD study, an aggressive blood pressure control is safe and recommended and is associated with preservation of kidney function and a reduction in total kidney volume over time. A collaborative multidisciplinary approach between nephrologists and cardiologists is necessary for the monitoring of kidney and heart complications. PMID:26418387

  7. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidneys. There is plenty of room for the new kidney. We actually put it down in part ... to both remove their kidneys and put a new one in, so that’s not necessary. We now ...

  8. Eating Right for Kidney Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eating Right for Kidney Health Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) National Kidney Disease Education Program hat ... eat healthier. These tips will help you eat right as you manage your CKD. The First Steps ...

  9. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased blood pressure, but usually they do not cause discomfort. However, sometimes the kidney is filled with cysts, and this can lead to kidney impairment and even kidney failure, requiring dialysis or transplantation. Lastly, renal cell carcinoma, ...

  10. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... painful, we have really excellent visualization of the anatomy of the kidney and organs around the kidney. ... which gives us an excellent view of the anatomy of the kidneys, including the blood vessels. And ...

  11. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood pressure can accelerate the loss of kidney function when the kidneys are filled with cysts. If ... surgical removal can lead to loss of kidney function. As of April 26, 2012, adults with TSC ...

  12. Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    11.1.Kidney function2005391 Increased levels of advanced oxidationproducts are associated with atherosclerosis in chron-ic kidney disease.YANG Xiaobing(杨小兵),et al.Dept Nephrol,Nanfang Hops,1st Milit Med Univ,Guangzhou.Chin J Intern Med 2005;44(5):342-346.Objective:Accumulation of advanced oxidation protein

  13. Acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Joanna; Zuber, Kim; Davis, Jane

    2016-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) complicates up to 20% of all hospital admissions. Responding to the increase in admissions, complications, mortality, morbidity, and cost of AKI, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes convened an expert panel to study the issue, review the literature, and publish guidelines to evaluate and treat patients with AKI in the acute setting. This article reviews those guidelines. PMID:27023656

  14. [Promoting Living Kidney Transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiu-Chu

    2016-04-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best approach for treating patients with end stage renal disease, offering patients the best chance of returning to normal health. While the techniques used in kidney transplantation surgery are mature and highly successful, there is a severe shortage of donor organs. Statistics show a serious imbalance between organ donations and patients on the waiting list for organ transplantation. Moreover, evidence from empirical studies has shown a better transplantation outcome for patients who receive living donor transplantation than for those who receive organs from cadavers. Although using relatives as donors offers an effective way to reduce the problem of organ shortage, this strategy faces many challenges and many other factors affect the promotion of living donor transplantation. This article elaborates how cultural and psychological factors, kidney transplantation awareness, and ethics and laws impact upon living kidney donations and then proposes coping strategies for promoting living kidney transplantation. PMID:27026555

  15. Variable laser attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprng one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength.

  16. Determination of kidney function with 99mTc-DTPA renography using a dual-head camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus J; Møller, Michael L; Zerahn, Bo;

    2013-01-01

    Single-head gamma camera renography has been used for decades to estimate kidney function. An estimate of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) can be obtained using Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-DTPA). However, because of differing attenuation, an error is introduced when the kidney...

  17. National Kidney Disease Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Keeping Your Kidneys Healthy Testing for Kidney Disease Diet and Lifestyle Changes Medicines and Kidney Disease Treatment for Kidney Failure ​ Identify & M​anage Patients Managing CKD in Primary Care Promoting Patient Self Management CKD and Nutrition​​ Training for CDEs, RDs, and ...

  18. Testing for Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... statement, and the Director's Update newsletter Offices & Divisions Organizational structure and descriptions ... kidney disease usually does not have signs (a change in your body) or symptoms (a change in ...

  19. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury ...

  20. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hospital emergency room. To make a diagnosis of kidney stones, the doctor will ask about the symptoms and how long they've been going on; your child's diet; factors that could be causing dehydration; any family ...

  1. Kidney Disease (Nephropathy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers ... Other symptoms of kidney disease include loss of sleep, poor appetite, upset stomach, weakness, and difficulty concentrating. ...

  2. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including diabetes, high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis, and cys tic kidney diseases. Participants in clinical trials can play ... Life Options Rehabilitation Resource Center c/o Medical Education Institute, Inc. 414 D’Onofrio Drive, Suite 200 ...

  3. Diet and Kidney Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of kidney stone is a uric acid stone. Red meat and shellfish have high concentrations of a natural ... cut down on high-purine foods such as red meat, organ meats, and shellfish, and follow a healthy ...

  4. Kidney Disease of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  5. Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  6. Kidney-Pancreas Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day or so in the intensive care unit (ICU) for close watching to make sure both kidney ... worker at your center for information about the rehabilitation services provided through your state's Department of Vocational ...

  7. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NKF Newsroom Contact Us You are here Home » Diabetes - A Major Risk Factor for Kidney Disease Diabetes ... of your body. Are there different types of diabetes? The most common ones are Type 1 and ...

  8. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this special diet to limit the buildup of waste products in the body. Limiting fluids between dialysis ... up when the kidneys no longer function well. Dangerous heart rhythms may result, which can lead to ...

  9. Kidney Stones in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may also help prevent kidney stones, such as orange juice or lemonade. Talk with your health care ... perform a physical exam and take a medical history. The health care provider may perform urine, blood, ...

  10. Medullary cystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the blood), especially with end-stage kidney disease Hypokalemia (too little potassium in the blood) Infertility Menstrual problems Miscarriage Pericarditis Peripheral neuropathy Platelet dysfunction with easy bruising Skin color ...

  11. Kidney Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Kidney Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 26,2016 One of the more ... thereafter.) This content was last reviewed January 2016. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  12. Sulfadiazine for kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, R.R.; Bernier, A.F.; Whipple, W.J.; Burrows, R.E.

    1951-01-01

    The blueback salmon fingerlings (Oncorhynchus nerka) at the U.S. Fish-Cultural Station at Winthrop, Washington, underwent an infection that was caused by a very short, Gram-positive, nonmotile, rod-shaped bacterium. A further description is impossible at this time, as the organism has not been grown satisfactorily for proper identification. The disease was characterized by white, raised areas of dead tissue mainly in the kidney: for this reason it is referred to as kidney disease. Belding and Merrill (1935) described a disease among the brook, brown, and rainbow trout at a State hatchery in Massachusetts which, from the description, might be the same as kidney disease. J.H. Wales of the California Division of Fish and Game described (unpublished manuscript, 1941) a disease in hatchery trout in California which seems to be identical to kidney disease.

  13. Pediatric Kidney Transplantation 2011

    OpenAIRE

    N. K. Kanzelmeyer; Lehner, F; Pape, L.

    2011-01-01

    As recently as 50 years ago, children suffering from renal insuffiency were dying due to a lack of adequate treatment. Nowadays providing different kinds a dialysis modalities, e. g. peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis, as well as kidney transplantation have nearly become routine therapeutic options in children. Today, dialysis treatment or kidney transplantation can even be performed in infants.Patient survival of 20 years and near-normal mental and physical development is observed in more ...

  14. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  15. RADIO FREQUENCY ATTENUATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, S.

    1963-11-12

    A high peak power level r-f attenuator that is readily and easily insertable along a coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer annular conductor without breaking the ends thereof is presented. Spaced first and second flares in the outer conductor face each other with a slidable cylindrical outer conductor portion therebetween. Dielectric means, such as water, contact the cable between the flares to attenuate the radio-frequency energy received thereby. The cylindrical outer conductor portion is slidable to adjust the voltage standing wave ratio to a low level, and one of the flares is slidable to adjust the attenuation level. An integral dielectric container is also provided. (AFC)

  16. Ablation and Other Local Therapy for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  17. Role of adiponectin in liver fibrogenesis: progress in basic and clinical research%脂联素在肝纤维化发生中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美娟; 马红

    2011-01-01

    脂联素(ADN)具有多种生物学作用.近年研究表明其可抑制肝纤维化的发展.一些动物实验显示ADN基因敲除(ADN-KO)鼠易发生纤维化,可能与ADN具有抗氧化应激及抗炎作用有关.肝星状细胞(HSC)在肝纤维化中起核心作用,ADN可抑制HSC增殖、迁移,促进其凋亡.临床研究报道ADN与慢性肝病的纤维化进展有关,为肝纤维化的无创性诊断提供新的方向.进一步分析ADN的抗肝纤维化机制有重要意义.%Adiponectin possesses many biological effects. Recent studies have found that adiponectin can inhibit the development of hepatic fibrosis. Some animal experiments demonstrate that adiponectin-knockout (ADN-KO)mice tend to develop severe hepatic fibrosis which may be associated with anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin. Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) play a central role in liver fibrogenesis. Studies showed that adiponectin can inhibit proliferation, migration of HSC and promote its apoptosis. Clinical researches also reported that adiponectin was related to progression of hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver diseases, which is a new way for the non-invasive diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis. It is necessary to investigate the precise mechanism of adiponectin on hepatic fibrosis.

  18. Attenuator And Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Carson, Richard F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; Kemme, Shanalyn Adair; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.

    2006-04-04

    An apparatus and method of attenuating and/or conditioning optical energy for an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module is disclosed. An apparatus for attenuating the optical output of an optoelectronic connector including: a mounting surface; an array of optoelectronic devices having at least a first end; an array of optical elements having at least a first end; the first end of the array of optical elements optically aligned with the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices; an optical path extending from the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices and ending at a second end of the array of optical elements; and an attenuator in the optical path for attenuating the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices. Alternatively, a conditioner may be adapted in the optical path for conditioning the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices.

  19. Kidney Stones and the Risk for Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rule, Andrew D.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Li, Xujian; Amy L. Weaver; Lieske, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Kidney stones lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in people with rare hereditary disorders (e.g., primary hyperoxaluria, cystinuria), but it is unknown whether kidney stones are an important risk factor for CKD in the general population.

  20. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transplantation would be indicated. Renal Cell Carcinoma (Kidney Cancer) Over the past 20 years, there have been at least 25 published reports of kidney cancer occurring in individuals with TSC. Drs. Bjornsson, Short, ...

  1. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... here and right kidney here. And we generally use the left kidney because the vein for the ... of the renal vein. We’re going to use this ligature device, again, to basically heat this ...

  2. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidney disease can develop in infancy or early childhood and renal failure most often occurs in early ... should be performed by a team with TSC experience, many individuals with TSC can maintain normal kidney ...

  3. Flu Season and Your Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign up for our FREE magazine, Kidney Living Organ Donation & Transplantation Be an Organ Donor Living Donation Donor ... Giving Primary menu Home Prevention Kidney Disease Patients Organ Donation & Transplantation Professionals Events Advocacy Donate Search Search Header ...

  4. Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... year-old white gentleman who's got at least three stones in his left kidney. He's been having ... patient with Lithotripsy. Now the stones -- there are three stones here in the pelvis of the kidney, ...

  5. National Kidney Disease Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... campuses in Maryland and Arizona Research Resources Protocols, repositories, mouse models, plasmids, and more Technology Advancement & Transfer ... chronic kidney disease Pharmacy Working Group Increase pharmacists' knowledge of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and provide them ...

  6. Staying Fit with Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign up for our FREE magazine, Kidney Living Organ Donation & Transplantation Be an Organ Donor Living Donation Donor ... Giving Primary menu Home Prevention Kidney Disease Patients Organ Donation & Transplantation Professionals Events Advocacy Donate Search Search Header ...

  7. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with cysts. If kidney failure occurs, renal replacement therapy such as dialysis or transplantation is necessary. How kidney cysts develop is not known. The TSC genes are tumor suppressor genes. Normally, tumor suppressor genes ...

  8. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prior to putting the patient on the immunosuppressive medicines to take care of their new kidney. But ... Absolutely. All of our patients take three immunosuppressive drugs to keep them from rejecting the kidney. Even ...

  9. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...

  10. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get Involved RENAL (KIDNEY) MANIFESTATIONS IN TSC Download a PDF of this information. The majority of individuals ( ... the least common renal association with TSC, is a cancerous growth of the kidney. Although it is ...

  11. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hospitals in the America for patients with kidney disease, and only one other hospital in the State ... as diabetes, which in turn can cause kidney disease, but also because of risks perioperatively such as ...

  12. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the kidneys are filled with cysts. If kidney failure occurs, renal replacement therapy such as dialysis or transplantation is ... can develop in infancy or early childhood and renal failure most often occurs in early adulthood. Renal Angiomyolipomas ...

  13. Aging changes in the kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004010.htm Aging changes in the kidneys and bladder To use ... in the reproductive system can affect bladder control. Aging Changes and Their Effects on the Kidneys and ...

  14. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... problems such as diabetes, which in turn can cause kidney disease, but also because of risks perioperatively ... the diseased kidneys really don’t tend to cause any problem. They actually get smaller and smaller ...

  15. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Absolutely. All of our patients take three immunosuppressive drugs to keep them from rejecting the kidney. Even ... the recipient that the recipient could have fewer drugs to take to keep from rejecting the kidney. ...

  16. Simple Kidney Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ended or closed at one end; some newer machines are designed to allow the person to lie in a more open space. Like CT scans, MRIs can show cysts and tumors. [ Top ] How are simple kidney cysts treated? Treatment is not needed for ...

  17. Kidneys and urinary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine studies, through primarily concerned with the functional aspects of the organ, can also provide useful information about the anatomy. An understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the kidneys and urinary system greatly helps in the interpretation of data from radionuclide studies

  18. KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    11.1 Kidney function2003454 Effects of protein kinase C on type 1 inosi-tol 1,4, 5-triphosphate receptor expression in smooth muscle cells of rat glomerular afferent arterioles.WANG Jingyan(王静艳), et al. Dept Infect DLs, 2nd Affili Hosp, China Med Univ, Shenyang 110004. China World J Digestol 2003; (11)6:705-707.

  19. KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    11.1 Kidney function2004416 The role of adhesion molecules and dendritic cells in hepatic/renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and the effect of antiadhesive treatment in rats.ZHOU Tong(周同), et al. Dept Nephrol, Ruijing Hosp Shanghai 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai 200025. Chin J Emerg Med 2004; 13(5):315 -318.

  20. Medullary Sponge Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... see bones, tissues, and organs inside the body. Health care providers commonly choose one or more of three imaging techniques to diagnose medullary sponge kidney: intravenous pyelogram computerized tomography (CT) scan ultrasound A radiologist—a doctor who specializes in medical imaging—interprets ...

  1. Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more common kidney and urinary tract problems include: Congenital problems of the urinary tract. As a fetus develops in the womb, any part of the urinary tract can grow to an abnormal size or in an abnormal ... congenital abnormalities (meaning abnormalities that exist at birth) is ...

  2. Connexins and the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanner, Fiona; Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    Connexins (Cxs) are widely-expressed proteins that form gap junctions in most organs, including the kidney. In the renal vasculature, Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45 are expressed, with predominant expression of Cx40 in the endothelial cells and Cx45 in the vascular smooth muscle cells. In the tubules...

  3. Everolimus in kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper JE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available James E Cooper¹, Uwe Christians², Alexander C Wiseman¹¹Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, Transplant Center, ²iC42 Integrated Solutions in Systems Biology for Clinical Research and Development, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USAAbstract: Everolimus is a novel target of rapamycin (mTOR-I analog that has recently been approved in combination with cyclosporine A and steroids for use in the prevention of organ rejection in kidney transplant recipients. Compared with rapamycin, everolimus is characterized by a shorter half-life and improved bioavailability. Prior to US Food and Drug Administration approval, a number of Phase II and III clinical trials were undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of everolimus in combination with calcineurin inhibitors for preventing acute rejection and promoting allograft survival in kidney transplant recipients. In this report, we review the pharmacokinetic properties of everolimus, the clinical efficacy studies that led to its approval for use in kidney transplantation, as well as reported data on patient safety and tolerability associated with its use.Keywords: mTOR inhibitors, kidney transplantation, everolimus

  4. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of non-steroidal medications like ibuprofen, which can affect kidney function. And then about four weeks after ... for you? “How does having only one kidney affect a patient’s life? Is kidney function still normal?” ...

  5. Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from our online catalog. Alternate Language URL Español Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines: What You Need to Know Page ... What you need to know Because you have chronic kidney disease, you should take steps to protect your kidneys. ...

  6. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can arise including hematuria (bloody urine) and nephrolithiasis (kidney stones). Often the best drugs to use to lower the blood pressure in this situation are either angiotensin converting enzyme ... the loss of kidney function when the kidneys are filled with cysts. ...

  7. Is Progressive Chronic Kidney Disease a Slow Acute Kidney Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowgill, Larry D; Polzin, David J; Elliott, Jonathan; Nabity, Mary B; Segev, Gilad; Grauer, Gregory F; Brown, Scott; Langston, Cathy; van Dongen, Astrid M

    2016-11-01

    International Renal Interest Society chronic kidney disease Stage 1 and acute kidney injury Grade I categorizations of kidney disease are often confused or ignored because patients are nonazotemic and generally asymptomatic. Recent evidence suggests these seemingly disparate conditions may be mechanistically linked and interrelated. Active kidney injury biomarkers have the potential to establish a new understanding for traditional views of chronic kidney disease, including its early identification and possible mediators of its progression, which, if validated, would establish a new and sophisticated paradigm for the understanding and approach to the diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of urinary disease in dogs and cats. PMID:27593574

  8. Differential effects of Smad3 targeting in a murine model of chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellenberger, Terese; Krag, Søren; Danielsen, Carl Christian;

    2013-01-01

    genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism. This study analyzes the hypothesis that blockade of Smad3 attenuates the development of TGF-β1-driven renal fibrosis. This was examined in vivo in a transgenic model of TGF-β1-induced chronic kidney disease with Smad3 or without Smad3 expression......Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of progressive kidney diseases that are characterized by fibrosis. The main intracellular signaling pathway of TGF-β1 is the Smad system, where Smad2 and Smad3 play a central role in transcriptional regulation of target...... in the kidney....

  9. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.; Agrawal, Anoop; Hall, Simon B.

    2009-11-10

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  10. Homoarginine and progression of chronic kidney disease: results from the Mild to Moderate Kidney Disease Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Drechsler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Homoarginine is an amino acid derivative mainly synthesized in the kidney. It is suggested to increase nitric oxide availability, enhance endothelial function and to protect against cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate the relation between homoarginine, kidney function and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD. METHODS: We measured plasma homoarginine concentrations in baseline samples of the Mild to Moderate Kidney Disease (MMKD Study, a prospective cohort study of 227 patients with CKD in Europe. Homoarginine concentrations were available in 182 of the baseline samples and in 139 of the prospectively-followed patients. We correlated homoarginine concentrations to parameters of kidney function. The association between homoarginine and progression of CKD was assessed during a follow-up of up to seven years (median 4.45 years, interquartile range 2.54-5.19 using Cox regression analysis. Progression of CKD was defined as doubling of baseline serum creatinine and/or end-stage renal disease. RESULTS: Study participants were at baseline on average 47±13 years old and 65% were male. Mean±standard deviation of homoarginine concentrations were 2.5±1.1 µmol/L and concentrations were incrementally lower at lower levels of GFR with mean concentrations of 2.90±1.02 µmol/L (GFR>90 ml/min, 2.64±1.06 µmol/L (GFR 60-90 ml/min, 2.52±1.24 µmol/L (GFR 30-60 ml/min and 2.05±0.78 µmol/L (GFR<30 ml/min, respectively (p = 0.002. The age- and sex-adjusted risk to reach the renal endpoint was significantly higher by 62% with each decrease by one standard deviation (1.1 µmol/L of homoarginine (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.16-2.27, p = 0.005. This association was independent of proteinuria (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.11-2.20, p = 0.01, and was slightly attenuated when adjusting for GFR (HR 1.40 (95% CI 0.98-1.98, p = 0.06. CONCLUSIONS: Homoarginine concentrations are directly correlated with kidney function and are significantly

  11. Anorexia nervosa and the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquegneau, Antoine; Dubois, Bernard E; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie; Delanaye, Pierre

    2012-08-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a common psychiatric disorder that disproportionately affects adolescents and young adults and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Anorexia nervosa can affect the kidney in numerous ways, including increased rates of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease, electrolyte abnormalities, and nephrolithiasis. Additionally, the diagnosis and treatment of anorexia nervosa-associated kidney diseases are challenging, reflecting complications such as refeeding syndrome, as well as the limitations of serum creatinine level in this population to estimate kidney function and the psychosocial challenges inherent with treating systemic manifestations of psychiatric conditions. In this review, we discuss kidney diseases and kidney-associated conditions that occur in individuals with anorexia nervosa, summarizing many of the challenges in treating patients with this disease. PMID:22609034

  12. ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Karoline; Titlestad, Kjell; Baudier, Francois;

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to shortage of donor kidneys in Denmark, there is a need to expand the possibilities for donation. At the Odense University Hospital (OUH), we have introduced ABO-incompatible ......INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to shortage of donor kidneys in Denmark, there is a need to expand the possibilities for donation. At the Odense University Hospital (OUH), we have introduced ABO......-incompatible kidney transplantation. We used antigenspecific immunoadsorptions to remove blood group antibodies and anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab) to inhibit the antibody production. The aim of introducing the ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation at the OUH was to increase the rate of living donor kidney...

  13. Pathophysiology and Clinical Work-Up of Acute Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, Mario; Nalesso, Federico; Petrucci, Ilaria; Samoni, Sara; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI), also known in the past as acute renal failure, is a syndrome characterized by the rapid loss of kidney excretory function. It is usually diagnosed by the accumulation of end products of nitrogen metabolism (urea and creatinine) or decreased urine output or both. AKI is the clinical consequence of several disorders that acutely affect the kidney, causing electrolytes and acid-base imbalance, hyperhydration and loss of depurative function. AKI is common in critical care patients in whom it is often secondary to extrarenal events. No specific therapies can attenuate AKI or accelerate renal function recovery; thus, the only treatment is supportive. New diagnostic techniques such as renal biomarkers might improve early diagnosis. Also ultrasonography helps nephrologists in AKI diagnosis, in order to describe and follow kidney alterations and find possible causes of AKI. Renal replacement therapy is a life-saving treatment if AKI is severe. If patients survive to AKI, and did not have previous chronic kidney disease (CKD), they typically recover to dialysis independence. However, evidence suggests that patients who have had AKI are at increased risk of subsequent CKD. PMID:27169469

  14. Pressure surge attenuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pressure surge attenuation arrangement comprises crushable metal foam disposed adjacent regions adapted to be expanded by a pressure surge. In a pipe system such region consists of a thin walled inner pipe surrounded by a housing with crushable metal foam disposed in the space between the housing and the inner pipe. (author)

  15. Tritium Attenuation by Distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing

  16. Natural attenuation of herbicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, Nina; Højberg, Anker Lajer; Broholm, Mette Martina;

    2002-01-01

    A field injection experiment in a sandy, aerobic aquifer showed that two phenoxy acids MCPP (mecoprop) and dichlorprop were degraded within I in downgradient of the injection wells after an apparent lag period. The plume development and microbial measurements indicated that microbial growth gover...... observations may be important for application of natural attenuation as a remedy in field scale systems....

  17. Kidney Transplantation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Einollahi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation in patients with end stage renal diseaseis preferred to dialysis because transplantation provides a betterquality of life and improved survival. However, the gapbetween the supply and demand for a renal allograft is wideningand the waiting time is increasing. Iranian protocol, a controlledtransplant program supported by the government forliving unrelated donors, was initiated for solving the problemof organ shortage. Although this system might experiencechallenges, clearly it has advantages over other organ procurementsystems primarily that thousands in need do not diewhile waiting for a compatible donor.In the present review I discuss the history of renal transplantationin Iran, "Iranian model" protocol, the situation ofIran’s kidney transplantation from either living or deceaseddonors compared with the Middle East countries, and our experiencesof unrelated renal transplantation.

  18. Fibrogenesis in progressive renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baelde, H.

    2005-01-01

    Molecular biology offers new opportunities for experimental and clinical medicine. Promising clinical applications for patient care include identification of mRNA expression patterns (gene profiling) in diseased organs in correlation with diagnosis, prognosis, and responsiveness to different treatme

  19. Kidney injury and heme oxygenase-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-xing MAI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available     Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is one of the main pathways to degrade heme in mammals, and the main degradation products are free iron (Fe2+, carbon monoxide (CO, and bilirubin. Heme plays an important role in promoting cell survival, circulation of intracellular substrates, and immune regulation. Previous studies suggest that HO-1 pathway is an important internal factor in determining the susceptibility and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI. The induction of HO-1 expression can attenuate the severity of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI, and the inhibition of HO-1 expression will aggravate IRI. The present article summarizes the latest advances in research abroad and at home on protective mechanism by which HO-1 prevents AKI to further deepen our understanding of the role of HO-1 in the treatment of AKI.   

  20. Ligustrazine attenuates oxidative stress-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells by interrupting platelet-derived growth factor-β receptor-mediated ERK and p38 pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatic fibrosis represents a frequent event following chronic insult to trigger wound healing reactions with accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the liver. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the pivotal event during liver fibrogenesis. Compelling evidence indicates that oxidative stress is concomitant with liver fibrosis irrespective of the underlying etiology. Natural antioxidant ligustrazine exhibits potent antifibrotic activities, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Our studies were to investigate the ligustrazine effects on HSC activation stimulated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an in vitro model mimicking the oxidative stress in liver fibrogenesis, and to elucidate the possible mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that H2O2 at 5 μM significantly stimulated HSC proliferation and expression of marker genes of HSC activation; whereas ligustrazine dose-dependently suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in H2O2-activated HSCs, and attenuated expression of fibrotic marker genes. Mechanistic investigations revealed that ligustrazine reduced platelet-derived growth factor-β receptor (PDGF-βR) expression and blocked the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 kinase, two downstream effectors of PDGF-βR. Further molecular evidence suggested that ligustrazine interruption of ERK and p38 pathways was dependent on the blockade of PDGF-βR and might be involved in ligustrazine reduction of fibrotic marker gene expression under H2O2 stimulation. Furthermore, ligustrazine modulated some proteins critical for HSC activation and ECM homeostasis in H2O2-stimulated HSCs. These data collectively indicated that ligustrazine could attenuate HSC activation caused by oxidative stress, providing novel insights into ligustrazine as a therapeutic option for hepatic fibrosis. Highlights: ► Ligustrazine inhibits oxidative stress-induced HSC activation. ► Ligustrazine reduces fibrotic marker genes in HSCs under

  1. Dexmedetomidine preconditioning ameliorates kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempiäinen, Juha; Finckenberg, Piet; Mervaala, Elina E; Storvik, Markus; Kaivola, Juha; Lindstedt, Ken; Levijoki, Jouko; Mervaala, Eero M

    2014-01-01

    Kidney ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a common cause of acute kidney injury. We tested whether dexmedetomidine (Dex), an alpha2 adrenoceptor (α2-AR) agonist, protects against kidney I/R injury. Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (1) Sham-operated group; (2) I/R group (40 min ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion); (3) I/R group + Dex (1 μg/kg i.v. 60 min before the surgery), (4) I/R group + Dex (10 μg/kg). The effects of Dex postconditiong (Dex 1 or 10 μg/kg i.v. after reperfusion) as well as the effects of peripheral α2-AR agonism with fadolmidine were also examined. Hemodynamic effects were monitored, renal function measured, and acute tubular damage along with monocyte/macrophage infiltration scored. Kidney protein kinase B, toll like receptor 4, light chain 3B, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), sirtuin 1, adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expressions were measured, and kidney transciptome profiles analyzed. Dex preconditioning, but not postconditioning, attenuated I/R injury-induced renal dysfunction, acute tubular necrosis and inflammatory response. Neither pre- nor postconditioning with fadolmidine protected kidneys. Dex decreased blood pressure more than fadolmidine, ameliorated I/R-induced impairment of autophagy and increased renal p38 and eNOS expressions. Dex downregulated 245 and upregulated 61 genes representing 17 enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, in particular, integrin pathway and CD44. Ingenuity analysis revealed inhibition of Rac and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 pathways, whereas aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway was activated. Dex preconditioning ameliorates kidney I/R injury and inflammatory response, at least in part, through p38-CD44-pathway and possibly also through ischemic preconditioning. PMID:25505591

  2. [Kidney diseases: new issues].

    OpenAIRE

    Ronco, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects two to four million people in France and most of them are not aware of their disease. CKD is a major, independent risk factor of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity; the cardiovascular risk increases with the severity of renal failure. Evaluation of renal function (GFR) relies on MDRD and CKD-EPI equations. The French CKD-REIN cohort with more than 3000 patients followed for 5 years, will hopefully provide substantial advances in the knowledge of CKD ep...

  3. Everolimus in kidney transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper JE; Christians U; Wiseman AC

    2011-01-01

    James E Cooper¹, Uwe Christians², Alexander C Wiseman¹¹Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, Transplant Center, ²iC42 Integrated Solutions in Systems Biology for Clinical Research and Development, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USAAbstract: Everolimus is a novel target of rapamycin (mTOR)-I analog that has recently been approved in combination with cyclosporine A and steroids for use in the prevention of organ rejection in kidney...

  4. Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>2015225 Systolic blood pressure and progression of renal dysfunction in the elderly patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease:a cohort study from a tertiary hospital.ZHAO Hui(赵慧),et al.Renal Div,Dept Med,Peking Univ 1st Hosp,Instit Nephrol,Peking Univ,Beijing 100034.Chin J Intern Med 2015;54(3):181-187.

  5. A case of infantile Dubin-Johnson syndrome with high CT attenuation in the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of Dubin-Johnson syndrome (DJS) with severe infantile cholestasis and elevated computed tomography (CT) attenuation of the liver. Increased levels of urinary coproporphyrin I were found as well as pigment granules in the hepatocytes and hepatosteatosis. The CT attenuation was markedly higher in the liver of this patient at the ages of 3 and 7 months than in the spleen or kidneys. This high attenuation may be a finding specific to infantile DJS and, therefore, abdominal CT may be helpful in the diagnosis. (orig.). With 3 figs

  6. Trasplante renal Kidney transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martín

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available El trasplante renal es la terapia de elección para la mayoría de las causas de insuficiencia renal crónica terminal porque mejora la calidad de vida y la supervivencia frente a la diálisis. El trasplante renal de donante vivo es una excelente alternativa para el paciente joven en situación de prediálisis porque ofrece mejores resultados. El tratamiento inmunosupresor debe ser individualizado buscando la sinergia inmunosupresora y el mejor perfil de seguridad, y debe adaptarse a las diferentes etapas del trasplante renal. En el seguimiento del trasplante renal hay que tener muy en cuenta los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y los tumores puesto que la muerte del paciente con injerto funcionante es la segunda causa de pérdida del injerto tras el primer año del trasplante. La función alterada del injerto es un factor de mortalidad cardiovascular independiente que requerirá seguimiento y control de todas sus complicaciones para retrasar la entrada en diálisis.The kidney transplant is the therapy of choice for the majority of the causes of chronic terminal kidney insufficiency, because it improves the quality of life and survival in comparison with dialysis. A kidney transplant from a live donor is an excellent alternative for the young patient in a state of pre-dialysis because it offers the best results. Immunosuppressive treatment must be individualised, seeking immunosuppressive synergy and the best safety profile, and must be adapted to the different stages of the kidney transplant. In the follow-up to the kidney transplant, cardiovascular risk factors and tumours must be especially taken into account, given that the death of the patient with a working graft is the second cause of loss of the graft following the first year of the transplant. The altered function of the graft is a factor of independent cardiovascular mortality that will require follow-up and the control of all its complications to postpone the entrance in dialysis.

  7. Fragmentation of kidney stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Fragmentation, i.e. the breaking of particulate materials into smaller pieces is abundant in nature and underlies several industrial processes, which attracted a continuous interest in scientific and engineering research over the past decades. In industrial applications, fragmentation processes are mostly used for the comminution of ores in various types of mills. Kidney stone is a well known human dis- ease which embitters the life of many people (in a country like the USA about 106 cases are registered yearly). In order to extract large kidney stones (diameter ≥ 1 cm) from the human body without operation, one of the most efficient treatment is the fragmentation of kidney stones by the so-called extracorporal shock wave lithography method: a shock wave penetrating the human body is generated by an electric pulse. The repeated application of the shock wave gradually fragments the stones into pieces of size ≤ 2 mm which then leave the body through the urine system. Recently, a novel type of lithographic method has been suggested by using widely focused shock waves which fragment the stones by a squeezing mechanism. Laboratory experiments showed that the widely focused squeezing waves achieve a higher fragmentation efficiency than the frequently used shock waves of sharp focus. Based on this method a novel medical treatment can be introduced which is less demanding for the patients. Before the application of the method in the clinical practice a detailed understanding of the fragmentation mechanism of kidney stones due to shock waves is required. Since analytic theoretical methods have serious limitations in this field, we develop a realistic model of the mechanical behavior of kidney stones and a simulation code which makes possible to study the mechanism of breakup under various external conditions. Computer simulations in two dimensions have revealed a peculiar way of crack formation, i.e. the crack which finally breaks

  8. Sirolimus and kidney growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, A. L.; Poster, D.; Kistler, A.D.; Krauer, F.; Raina, S; Young, J.; Rentsch, K M; Spanaus, K S; Senn, O; Kristanto, P; Scheffel, H.; Weishaupt, D; Wüthrich, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), aberrant activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is associated with progressive kidney enlargement. The drug sirolimus suppresses mTOR signaling. METHODS: In this 18-month, open-label, randomized, controlled trial, we sought to determine whether sirolimus halts the growth in kidney volume among patients with ADPKD. We randomly assigned 100 patients between the ages of 18 and 40 years to receive either ...

  9. Kidney volume and function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Higashihara, Eiji; Nutahara, Kikuo; Okegawa, Takatsugu; Shishido, Toshihide; Tanbo, Mitsuhiro; Kobayasi, Kuninori; Nitadori, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Background The significance of total kidney volume (TKV) as a biomarker of kidney function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is controversial and has been reappraised. Methods Between 2007 and 2012, 64 patients were followed with a mean 39.7-month observation period. TKV measurements by magnetic resonance imaging and estimation of renal function with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation and 24-h urine creati...

  10. A compact rotary vane attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, D. L.; Otosh, T. Y.; Stelzried, C. T.

    1969-01-01

    Rotary vane attenuator, when used as a front end attenuator, introduces an insertion loss that is proportional to the angle of rotation. New technique allows the construction of a shortened compact unit suitable for most installations.

  11. Photon attenuation by intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photon attenuation by intensifying screens of different chemical composition has been determined. The attenuation of photons between 20 keV and 120 keV was measured by use of a multi-channel analyzer and a broad bremsstrahlung distribution. The attenuation by the intensifying screens was hereby determined simultaneously at many different monoenergetic photon energies. Experimentally determined attenuations were found to agree well with attenuation calculated from mass attenuation coefficients. The attenuation by the screens was also determined at various bremsstrahlung distributions, simulating those occurring behind the patient in various diagnostic X-ray examinations. The high attenuation in some of the intensifying screens form the basis for an analysis of the construction of asymmetric screen pairs. Single screen systems are suggested as a favourable alternative to thick screen pair systems. (Author)

  12. Nonlinear 3-D simulation of high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy in the kidney

    CERN Document Server

    Suomi, Visa; Treeby, Bradley; Cleveland, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Kidney cancer is a severe disease which can be treated non-invasively using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy. However, tissue in front of the transducer and the deep location of kidney can cause significant losses to the efficiency of the treatment. The effect of attenuation, refraction and reflection due to different tissue types on HIFU therapy of the kidney was studied using a nonlinear ultrasound simulation model. The geometry of the tissue was derived from a computed tomography (CT) dataset of a patient which had been segmented for water, bone, soft tissue, fat and kidney. The combined effect of inhomogeneous attenuation and sound-speed was found to result in an 11.0 dB drop in spatial peak-temporal average (SPTA) intensity in the kidney compared to pure water. The simulation without refraction effects showed a 6.3 dB decrease indicating that both attenuation and refraction contribute to the loss in focal intensity. The losses due to reflections at soft tissue interfaces were less than 0....

  13. Mineral and bone disorder after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taweesedt, Pahnwat T; Disthabanchong, Sinee

    2015-12-24

    After successful kidney transplantation, accumulated waste products and electrolytes are excreted and regulatory hormones return to normal levels. Despite the improvement in mineral metabolites and mineral regulating hormones after kidney transplantation, abnormal bone and mineral metabolism continues to present in most patients. During the first 3 mo, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) and parathyroid hormone levels decrease rapidly in association with an increase in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D production. Renal phosphate excretion resumes and serum calcium, if elevated before, returns toward normal levels. FGF-23 excess during the first 3-12 mo results in exaggerated renal phosphate loss and hypophosphatemia occurs in some patients. After 1 year, FGF-23 and serum phosphate return to normal levels but persistent hyperparathyroidism remains in some patients. The progression of vascular calcification also attenuates. High dose corticosteroid and persistent hyperparathyroidism are the most important factors influencing abnormal bone and mineral metabolism in long-term kidney transplant (KT) recipients. Bone loss occurs at a highest rate during the first 6-12 mo after transplantation. Measurement of bone mineral density is recommended in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate > 30 mL/min. The use of active vitamin D with or without bisphosphonate is effective in preventing early post-transplant bone loss. Steroid withdrawal regimen is also beneficial in preservation of bone mass in long-term. Calcimimetic is an alternative therapy to parathyroidectomy in KT recipients with persistent hyperparathyroidism. If parathyroidectomy is required, subtotal to near total parathyroidectomy is recommended. Performing parathyroidectomy during the waiting period prior to transplantation is also preferred in patients with severe hyperparathyroidism associated with hypercalcemia. PMID:26722650

  14. Hyperphosphatemia of Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hruska, Keith A.; Mathew, Suresh; Lund, Richard; Qiu, Ping; Pratt, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Observational studies have determined hyperphosphatemia to be a cardiovascular risk factor in chronic kidney disease. Mechanistic studies have elucidated that hyperphosphatemia is a direct stimulus to vascular calcification, which is one cause of morbid cardiovascular events contributing to the excess mortality of chronic kidney disease. This review describes the pathobiology of hyperphosphatemia that develops as a consequence of positive phosphate balance in chronic kidney disease and the me...

  15. Downhole pressure attenuation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a process for preventing damage to tool strings and other downhole equipment in a well caused by pressures produced during detonation of one or more downhole explosive devices. It comprises adding to a tool string at least one pressure attenuating apparatus for attenuating the peak pressure wave and quasi-static pressure pulse produced by the explosive devices, the pressure attenuating apparatus including an initially closed relief vent including tubing means supporting a plurality of charge port assemblies each including an explosive filled shaped charge and a prestressed disc, the shaped charges interconnected by a detonating cord, the amount of explosive in each shaped charge being sufficient to rupture its associated disc without damaging surrounding tubular bodies in the well, and a vent chamber defined by the tubing means and providing a liquid free volume, and opening the relief vent substantially contemporaneously with downhole explosive device detonation by detonating the shaped charges to rupture the discs of the charge port assemblies

  16. Knowledge-based segmentation of pediatric kidneys in CT for measuring parenchymal volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew S.; Feng, Waldo C.; Hall, Theodore R.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Churchill, Bernard M.

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop an automated method for segmenting pediatric kidneys in contrast-enhanced helical CT images and measuring the volume of the renal parenchyma. An automated system was developed to segment the abdomen, spine, aorta and kidneys. The expected size, shape, topology an X-ray attenuation of anatomical structures are stored as features in an anatomical model. These features guide 3-D threshold-based segmentation and then matching of extracted image regions to anatomical structures in the model. Following segmentation, the kidney volumes are calculated by summing included voxels. To validate the system, the kidney volumes of 4 swine were calculated using our approach and compared to the 'true' volumes measured after harvesting the kidneys. Automated volume calculations were also performed retrospectively in a cohort of 10 children. The mean difference between the calculated and measured values in the swine kidneys was 1.38 (S.D. plus or minus 0.44) cc. For the pediatric cases, calculated volumes ranged from 41.7 - 252.1 cc/kidney, and the mean ratio of right to left kidney volume was 0.96 (S.D. plus or minus 0.07). These results demonstrate the accuracy of the volumetric technique that may in the future provide an objective assessment of renal damage.

  17. Ultrasound in Acute Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, Mario; Nalesso, Federico; Petrucci, Ilaria; Samoni, Sara; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Kidneys' imaging provides useful information in acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis and management. Today, several imaging techniques give information on kidneys anatomy, urinary obstruction, differential diagnosis between AKI and chronic kidney disease (CKD), renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. Ultrasound is a safe, non-invasive and repeatable imaging technique so it is widely used in the first level work-up of AKI. The utility of contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in AKI or in AKI during CKD is limited because of renal toxicity associated with contrast agents used. PMID:27169556

  18. Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Scott S., E-mail: sshsieh@stanford.edu [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Pelc, Norbert J. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not requirea priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current

  19. Flexible graphene based microwave attenuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Kisik; Ju Park, Yong; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Min, Byung-Wook

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate flexible 3 dB and 6 dB microwave attenuators using multilayer graphene grown by the chemical vapor deposition method. On the basis of the characterized results of multilayer graphene and graphene-Au ohmic contacts, the graphene attenuators are designed and measured. The flexible graphene-based attenuators have 3 dB and 6 dB attenuation with a return loss of less than -15 dB at higher than 5 GHz. The devices have shown durability in a bending cycling test of 100 times. The circuit model of the attenuator based on the characterized results matches the experimental results well. PMID:25590144

  20. Flexible graphene based microwave attenuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate flexible 3 dB and 6 dB microwave attenuators using multilayer graphene grown by the chemical vapor deposition method. On the basis of the characterized results of multilayer graphene and graphene–Au ohmic contacts, the graphene attenuators are designed and measured. The flexible graphene-based attenuators have 3 dB and 6 dB attenuation with a return loss of less than −15 dB at higher than 5 GHz. The devices have shown durability in a bending cycling test of 100 times. The circuit model of the attenuator based on the characterized results matches the experimental results well. (paper)

  1. Polycystic kidney disease: The cadence of kidney growth in ADPKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Arlene

    2009-06-01

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease is characterized by the development and expansion of cysts, which ultimately results in kidney failure. The rate of this expansion can now be quantified within a short period of time, which has implications for assessing the risk of renal failure in affected patients. PMID:19474826

  2. Estimation of kidney depth effective renal plasmatic flux and absorbed dose, from a radio isotopic renogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for the estimation of kidney depth is described. It is based on a comparison between the measurements obtained in a radioisotopic renogram carried out for two specific energies and the same measurements made with a phanto-kidney at different depths. Experiments performed with kidney and abdomen phantoms provide calibration curves which are obtained by plotting the photopeak to scatter ratio for 131I pulse height spectrum against depth. Through this technique it is possible to obtain the Hippuran-131I kidney uptake with external measurements only. In fact it introduces a correction in the measurements for the depth itself and for the attenuation and scattering effects due to the tissues interposed between the kidney and the detector. When the two kidneys are not equidistant from the detector, their respective renograms are different and it is therefore very important to introduce a correction to the measurements according to the organ depth in order to obtain the exact information on Hippuran partition between the kidneys. The significative influence of the extrarenal activity is analyzed in the renogram by monitoring the praecordial region after 131I-human serum albumin injection and establishing a calibration factor relating the radioactivity level of this area to that present in each kidney area. It is shown that it is possible to obtain the values for the clearance of each kidney from the renogram once the alteration in efficiency due to the organ depth and to non-renal tissue interference in the renal area is considered. This way, values for the effective renal plasma flow were obtained, which are comparable to those obtained with other techniques, estimating the total flow of the kidneys. Finally the mean absorbed dose of the kidneys in a renography is also estimated. (Author)

  3. Risk Factors for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Webinars Tips & Stories Links & Resources Learn About Chronic Kidney Disease Kidney Glossary Ask Our Expert Toll-Free Helpline: ... Questions What You Can Do Download all the chronic kidney disease information presented here. Preview Our CKD Booklets Stage ...

  4. Methodological effects in kidney dosimetry in Lu177 radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. The aim of this study was to calculate the absorbed radiation dose in Lu177 DOTATATE treatments to the kidneys of patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumours and compare the radiation doses obtained with small volume and kidney volumetric analysis. Methods: For 40 patients (23 males, 17 females) in 120 treatments absorbed doses to both kidneys were calculated. One patient had 5 cycles, 19 patients four cycles, 8 patients three cycles, 3 patients two cycles and 9 patients one cycle. Each patient received amino acid solution 30 minutes before and 8 hours after treatment to reduce the kidney dose. The injected activity was 7.4 GBq (88 treatments) or 3.7 GBq (32 treatments) and therapy cycles were repeated every eighth week. SPECT/CT studies were made 24 h, 48 h, 72 h (or 120 h) and 168 h after injection with Siemens Symbia T2. The window was set over the 208 keV photopeak. Attenuated and scatter corrected counts from kidney volumes were registered with volumetric analysis both from right and left kidney and also with small volume (4 cm3) technique. Dosimetric calculations were done with OLINDA/EXM software using mono-exponential time activity curve fitting. Results: the mean radiation dose for kidneys (67-208 cm3) in one cycle was 2.9 Gy (0,48 mGy/MBq) range 0.8-7.7 Gy using kidney volumetric analysis and 4.8 Gy (0.80 mGy/MBq) range 1.3-15.4 Gy using small volume analysis. 20 patients received four cycles. In this group radiation dose to the kidneys in the first cycle was 2.8 Gy (range 1.0-5.3 Gy) in second 2.5 Gy (range 0.7-3.9 Gy), in third 3.2 Gy (range 1.3-6.4 Gy) and in fourth cycle 3.2 Gy (range 1.5-7.7 Gy). Small volume technique yielded 1.7 times (range 1.0-2.2) higher radiation doses compared with volumetric analysis. The cumulative administered doses in 4 cycle treatments were 14.0-29.3 GBq. The effective half live for kidneys was 45 h (range 30-110 h). The highest kidney dose was 20,5 Gy and this patient received

  5. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little different about kidney transplants compared to, say, heart transplants or liver transplants is it’s not necessary to ... our time. “Are doctors using manmade kidneys for transplant?” That ... artificial heart and ventricular assist device that have been successful. ...

  6. Dual kidney transplantation: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidas, Zeljko; Kocman, Branislav; Knotek, Mladen; Skegro, Dinko

    2010-06-01

    Chronic shortage of kidney transplants worldwide has led to the use of organs from so called marginal or borderline donors, now termed "expanded-criteria donors". There has been an emerging practice of dual kidney transplantation (DKT) to compensate for sub optimal nephron mass of such kidneys. We performed DKT in "Merkur" University Hospital in August 2005. The donor was a 72-year old female with a history of long-term hypertension, aneurysm of the posterior cerebral artery, cerebrovascular insult (CVI), and with normal creatinine values and kidney function at the time of explantation. Initial biopsy of donor kidneys revealed acute tubular damage, with connective changes in 22% and 11% of glomeruli in the left and the right kidney, respectively. The recipient was a 60-year old male diagnosed with the IgA nephropathy on the last biopsy in 1999, and on dialysis since November 2003. Postoperative course was uneventful without any surgical complications. A triple immunosuppressive protocol was used. On follow-up ultrasonography 4 years posttransplantation both kidneys appeared of normal size and parenchymal pattern and with no signs of dilatation of the canal system, and color Doppler examination demonstrated normal flow in both kidneys. In conclusion, the use of DKT ie. donors by the expanded-criteria will continue to increase, and further studies of the results will, with no doubt, support this method. PMID:20698157

  7. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Can someone receive a transplant before going into kidney failure?” Absolutely. That’s call a “preemptive transplant.” There are ... donor cleared, and to get everybody together before kidney failure actually occurs. But we do do preemptive transplants ...

  8. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cells, which surround a fluid-filled cavity. Some children and adults with TSC and severe cystic kidneys can have mutations (changes in the DNA) of both the TSC2 gene on chromosome 16 and the gene for polycystic kidney disease (PKD1), which lies right next to the TSC2 gene. Mutations in the ...

  9. Tubulocystic carcinoma of the kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Podduturi, Varsha; Adair, Carol F.; Zhang, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    Tubulocystic carcinoma (TCC) of the kidney is a unique, rare, and recently recognized neoplasm. Although originally considered a low-grade collecting duct carcinoma, TCC is now considered to be a distinct entity. TCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic renal neoplasms. We report a case of TCC arising in the left kidney.

  10. Cancer rates after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Ulrik; Bistrup, Claus; Marckmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated a 3-5-fold increased cancer risk in kidney allograft recipients compared with the general population. Our aim was to estimate cancer frequencies among kidney allograft recipients who were transplanted in 1997-2000 and who were immunosuppressed according to a more...

  11. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate reduces the progression of total kidney volume and cyst enlargement in experimental polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Michelle H T; Rao, Padmashree; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh; Foster, Sheryl F; Peduto, Anthony; Harris, David C H; Rangan, Gopala K

    2014-12-01

    Heterocyclic dithiocarbamates have anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects in rodent models of chronic kidney disease. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) reduces the progression of polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Male Lewis polycystic kidney (LPK) rats (an ortholog of Nek8/NPHP9) received intraperitoneal injections of either saline vehicle or PDTC (40 mg/kg once or twice daily) from postnatal weeks 4 until 11. By serial magnetic resonance imaging at weeks 5 and 10, the relative within-rat increase in total kidney volume and cyst volume were 1.3-fold (P = 0.01) and 1.4-fold (P < 0.01) greater, respectively, in LPK + Vehicle compared to the LPK + PDTC(40 mg/kg twice daily) group. At week 11 in LPK rats, PDTC attenuated the increase in kidney weight to body weight ratio by 25% (P < 0.01) and proteinuria by 66% (P < 0.05 vs. LPK + Vehicle) but did not improve renal dysfunction. By quantitative whole-slide image analysis, PDTC did not alter interstitial CD68+ cell accumulation, interstitial fibrosis, or renal cell proliferation in LPK rats at week 11. The phosphorylated form of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB subunit, p105, was increased in cystic epithelial cells of LPK rats, but was not altered by PDTC. Moreover, PDTC did not significantly alter nuclear expression of the p50 subunit or NF-κB (p65)-DNA binding. Kidney enlargement in LPK rats was resistant to chronic treatment with a proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib. In conclusion, PDTC reduced renal cystic enlargement and proteinuria but lacked anti-inflammatory effects in LPK rats. PMID:25501440

  12. Epidemiology of Kidney Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borque

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Some tumors are known to have a definite cause-effect etiology, but renal cell carcinoma (RCC is not one of them precisely. With regard to RCC we can only try to identify some clinical and occupational factors as well as substances related to tumorigenesis. Smoking, chemical carcinogens like asbestos or organic solvents are some of these factors that increase the risk of the RCC. Viral infections and radiation therapy have also been described as risk factors. Some drugs can increase the incidence of RCC as well as other neoplasms. Of course, genetics plays an outstanding role in the development of some cases of kidney cancer. Chronic renal failure, hypertension, and dialysis need to be considered as special situations. Diet, obesity, lifestyle, and habits can also increase the risk of RCC. The aim of this review is to summarize the well-defined causes of renal cell carcinoma.

  13. Wars, disasters and kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameire, N

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes the impact that wars had on the history of nephrology, both worldwide and in the Ghent Medical Faculty notably on the definition, research and clinical aspects of acute kidney injury. The paper briefly describes the role of 'trench nephritis' as observed both during World War I and II, supporting the hypothesis that many of the clinical cases could have been due to Hantavirus nephropathy. The lessons learned from the experience with crush syndrome first observed in World War II and subsequently investigated over many decades form the basis for the creation of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology. Over the last 15 years, this Task Force has successfully intervened both in the prevention and management of crush syndrome in numerous disaster situations like major earthquakes. PMID:25409904

  14. Perioperative acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvert Stacey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI is a serious complication in the perioperative period, and is consistently associated with increased rates of mortality and morbidity. Two major consensus definitions have been developed in the last decade that allow for easier comparison of trial evidence. Risk factors have been identified in both cardiac and general surgery and there is an evolving role for novel biomarkers. Despite this, there has been no real change in outcomes and the mainstay of treatment remains preventive with no clear evidence supporting any therapeutic intervention as yet. This review focuses on definition, risk factors, the emerging role of biomarkers and subsequent management of AKI in the perioperative period, taking into account new and emerging strategies.

  15. Acquired cystic kidney disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choyke, P.L. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2000-11-01

    Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), also known as acquired renal cystic disease (ARCD,) occurs in patients who are on dialysis for end-stage renal disease. It is generally accepted that ACKD develops as a consequence of sustained uremia and can first manifest even before dialysis is initiated while the patient is still in chronic renal failure. The role of immune suppression, particularly in transplant recipients, in the development of ACKD, is still under investigation. The prevalence of ACKD is directly related to the duration of dialysis and the risk of cancer is directly related to the presence of cysts. Herein we review the current understanding of the pathophysiology and imaging implications of ACKD. (orig.)

  16. Acquired cystic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), also known as acquired renal cystic disease (ARCD,) occurs in patients who are on dialysis for end-stage renal disease. It is generally accepted that ACKD develops as a consequence of sustained uremia and can first manifest even before dialysis is initiated while the patient is still in chronic renal failure. The role of immune suppression, particularly in transplant recipients, in the development of ACKD, is still under investigation. The prevalence of ACKD is directly related to the duration of dialysis and the risk of cancer is directly related to the presence of cysts. Herein we review the current understanding of the pathophysiology and imaging implications of ACKD. (orig.)

  17. Ultrasonic Attenuation in Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the relationship between Zircaloy-4 grain size and ultrasonic attenuation behavior was studied for longitudinal waves in the frequency range of 10-90 MHz. The attenuation was analyzed as a function of frequency for samples with different mechanical and heat treatments having recrystallized and Widmanstatten structures with different grain size. The attenuation behavior was analyzed by different scattering models, depending on grain size, wavelength and frequency

  18. Chopping-Wheel Optical Attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    1988-01-01

    Star-shaped rotating chopping wheel provides adjustable time-averaged attenuation of narrow beam of light without changing length of optical path or spectral distribution of light. Duty cycle or attenuation factor of chopped beam controlled by adjusting radius at which beam intersects wheel. Attenuation factor independent of wavelength. Useful in systems in which chopping frequency above frequency-response limits of photodetectors receiving chopped light. Used in systems using synchronous detection with lock-in amplifiers.

  19. LINE-ABOVE-GROUND ATTENUATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilds, R.B.; Ames, J.R.

    1957-09-24

    The line-above-ground attenuator provides a continuously variable microwave attenuator for a coaxial line that is capable of high attenuation and low insertion loss. The device consists of a short section of the line-above- ground plane type transmission lime, a pair of identical rectangular slabs of lossy material like polytron, whose longitudinal axes are parallel to and indentically spaced away from either side of the line, and a geared mechanism to adjust amd maintain this spaced relationship. This device permits optimum fineness and accuracy of attenuator control which heretofore has been difficult to achieve.

  20. Acute Kidney Injury due to Crescentic Glomerulonephritis in a Patient with Polycystic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Maggard, Reuben; Makary, Raafat; Monteiro, Carmela l.; James, Leighton R.

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease is an inherited condition, characterized by the development of cysts in the kidney, as well as in other organs. Patients with polycystic kidney can suffer from the same causes of acute kidney injury as the general population. Nephritic syndrome is an uncommon cause of acute kidney injury in the general population and less common in patients with polycystic kidney disease. We report the second case of crescentic glomerulonephritis, causing acute kidney injury, in a pa...

  1. Mild systemic thermal therapy ameliorates renal dysfunction in a rodent model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Yoshihiro; Kuwabara, Takashige; Hayata, Manabu; Kakizoe, Yutaka; Izumi, Yuichiro; Iiyama, Junichi; Kitamura, Kenichiro; Mukoyama, Masashi

    2016-06-01

    Thermal therapy has become a nonpharmacological therapy in clinical settings, especially for cardiovascular diseases. However, the practical role of thermal therapy on chronic kidney disease remains elusive. We performed the present study to investigate whether a modified thermal protocol, repeated mild thermal stimulation (MTS), could affect renal damages in chronic kidney disease using a mouse renal ablation model. Mice were subjected to MTS or room temperature (RT) treatment once daily for 4 wk after subtotal nephrectomy (Nx) or sham operation (Sh). We revealed that MTS alleviated renal impairment as indicated by serum creatinine and albuminuria in Nx groups. In addition, the Nx + MTS group showed attenuated tubular histological changes and reduced urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin excretion approximately by half compared with the Nx + RT group. Increased apoptotic signaling, such as TUNEL-positive cell count and cleavage of caspase 3, as well as enhanced oxidative stress were significantly reduced in the Nx + MTS group compared with the Nx + RT group. These changes were accompanied with the restoration of kidney Mn-SOD levels by MTS. Heat shock protein 27, a key molecular chaperone, was phosphorylated by MTS only in Nx kidneys rather than in Sh kidneys. MTS also tended to increase the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and Akt in Nx kidneys, possibly associated with the activation of heat shock protein 27. Taken together, these results suggest that modified MTS can protect against renal injury in a rodent model of chronic kidney disease. PMID:27029428

  2. Acute kidney injury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merouani, A; Flechelles, O; Jouvet, P

    2012-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects 5% of critically ill hospitalized children and is a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality. The current review focuses on new definitions of acute kidney injury, standardized to reflect the entire spectrum of the disease, as well as on ongoing research to identify early biomarkers of kidney injury. Its also provides an overview of current practice and available therapies, with emphasis on new strategies for the prevention and pharmacological treatment of diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. Furthermore, a decision-making algorithm is presented for the use of renal replacement therapies in critically ill children with AKI. PMID:22495187

  3. Fiber optic attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzetti, Mike F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A fiber optic attenuator of the invention is a mandrel structure through which a bundle of optical fibers is wrapped around in a complete circle. The mandrel structure includes a flexible cylindrical sheath through which the bundle passes. A set screw on the mandrel structure impacts one side of the sheath against two posts on the opposite side of the sheath. By rotating the screw, the sheath is deformed to extend partially between the two posts, bending the fiber optic bundle to a small radius controlled by rotating the set screw. Bending the fiber optic bundle to a small radius causes light in each optical fiber to be lost in the cladding, the amount depending upon the radius about which the bundle is bent.

  4. Evaluation of a conjugate view method for determination of kidney uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain better quantitation of kidney uptake, this study is to evaluate a conjugate view method (CVM) using a geometric mean attenuation correction for kidney uptake and to compare it to Gate's method. We used a Monte Carlo code, SIMIND and a Zubal phantom, to simulate kidney uptake. SIMIND was both simulated with or without scatter for the Zubal phantom. Also a real phantom test was carried out using a dual-head gamma camera. The activity of 0.5 mCi was infused into two small cylinder phantoms of 5 cm diameter, and then, they were inserted into a cylinder phantom of 20 cm diameter. The results by the CVM method were compared with ideal data without both of attenuation and scatter and with Gate's method. The CVM was performed with or without scatter correction. The Gate's method was performed without scatter correction and it was evaluated with regards to 0.12 cm-1 and 0,15 cm-1 attenuation coefficients. Data were analyzed with comparisons of mean counts in the regions of interest (ROI), profiles drawn over kidney images and linear regression. Correlation coefficients were calculated with ideal data, as well. In the case of the computer simulation, mean counts measured from ideal data, the CVM and the Gate's method were (right: 998 ± 209, left: 896 ± 249), (right: 911 ± 207, left: 815 ± 265), and (right: 1065 ± 267, left: 1546 ± 267), respectively. The ideal data showed good correlation with the CVM and the correlation coefficients of the CVM, Gate's method were (right: 0.91, left: 0.93) and (right: 0.85, left: 0.90), respectively. The conjugate view method using geometric mean attenuation correction resulted in better accuracy than the Gate's method. In conclusion, the conjugate view method independent of renal depths may provide more accurate kidney uptake

  5. Late Kidney Dysfunction in a Kidney Transplant Recipient

    OpenAIRE

    Josephson, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Late kidney transplant dysfunction may be a harbinger of graft failure. For many years, calcineurin inhibitor toxicity was felt to be the main cause for graft dysfunction with fibrosis and transplant loss. Recently this idea has come into question. With the observation that peritubular capillary C4d staining in kidney allografts may indicate antibody-mediated injury in conjunction with biopsy study findings, an appreciation for antibody-mediated rejection as a major cause of late graft dysfun...

  6. When Your Child Needs a Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... One example is polycystic kidney disease, in which normal kidney tissue is replaced by fluid-filled sacs. Glomerular ... kidney will be needed. In some cases, donor kidneys come from a close relative ... whose organs are similar in size to the child's. If a living donor can' ...

  7. Adjustable Optical-Fiber Attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzetti, Mike F.

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable fiber-optic attenuator utilizes bending loss to reduce strength of light transmitted along it. Attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss. Relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Potential applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal-distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  8. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... make it so that a person who has antibodies against another person, that recipient can be treated with treatments that will bind up their antibodies and allow them to accept a kidney from ...

  9. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... re quite secure. They have been tested in animal models and have shown to have high, what ... them a kidney, first we will do compatibility testing, see who is the best match in terms ...

  10. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... methods to diagnosis these renal abnormalities include renal ultrasonography, CT scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These ... in almost every major medical center. The renal ultrasound provides the least detailed image of the kidney, ...

  11. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in TSC: renal cysts, renal angiomyolipoma and renal cell carcinoma . Renal angiomyolipomata, or angiomyolipomas, are usually the ... kidney failure, requiring dialysis or transplantation. Lastly, renal cell carcinoma, the least common renal association with TSC, ...

  12. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and lead to bleeding. About 20% of the time this bleeding is life-threatening. Approximately 80 percent ... with TSC will experience angiomyolipomas. Most of the time both kidneys are involved. Renal cysts are often ...

  13. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... severe kidney disease can develop in infancy or early childhood and renal failure most often occurs in early adulthood. Renal Angiomyolipomas Angiomyolipomas are named because they ...

  14. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abdominal or back pain, nausea and vomiting and fever. For the individual who is non-verbal, this ... significant back or abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and fever. If these growths involve both kidneys, renal failure ...

  15. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the tumor suppressor genes are inactivated by mutations, cell growth is unchecked, leading to tumors. Cysts ... with TSC and severe cystic kidneys can have mutations (changes in the DNA) of both the TSC2 ...

  16. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also some basic medical tests ... steroidal medications like ibuprofen, which can affect kidney function. And then about four weeks after surgery, I’ ...

  17. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... monofilament suture like fishing line. We wear magnifying lenses while we sew it in, and here you ... and you can see the ureter, which the tube that drains the urine down from the kidney ...

  18. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iliac vein of the recipient actually has the big clamp on it, and you can see the ... kilos in size, just so that they’re big enough to accommodate the kidney. I know there’s -- ...

  19. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the 50 best hospitals in the America for patients with kidney disease, and only one other hospital ... these since then. The procedure is beneficial to patients because the incisions are less painful, we have ...

  20. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... followed in several studies that angiomyoliopama in TSC patients continued to grow. The risk of hemorrhage appears ... MRI if possible, or a CT to identify patients with kidney involvement. Then, depending on the size ...

  1. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lesions that lack the fat component. The kidneys should be scanned, preferably with MRI, at the time ... are identified, then the growth of these lesions should be followed using repeated MRI every year or ...

  2. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a machine, have a better quality of life. It ended up not happening until 2001. It ... Since I’ve become a kidney donor, my life really hasn’t changed. My health is just ...

  3. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... KIDNEY) MANIFESTATIONS IN TSC Download a PDF of this information. The majority of individuals (greater than 80 ... lead to bleeding. About 20% of the time this bleeding is life-threatening. Approximately 80 percent of ...

  4. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or two, unless symptoms develop or the lesion has an unusual growth pattern. For individuals with TSC ... kidney lesions are present and/or if there has been a change in any of the existing ...

  5. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Norfolk General was started in 1972. Since that time, over 1,800 kidneys have been transplanted, and ... that came in. They would come in three times a week, so basically you become their family. ...

  6. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased blood pressure, but usually they do not cause discomfort. However, sometimes the kidney is filled with ... ultrasound until adulthood. Usually the cysts do not cause symptoms, but can lead to hypertension (high blood ...

  7. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... day as well. It takes about four to five hours to remove the kidney in terms of ... does occasionally happen, but it is less than five percent of the time, whereas with the deceased ...

  8. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... History Database Tissue Donation Audio & Video Archives Brochures, Books, & Booklets Information Sheets Perspective Magazine Archives Life Stages ... Scientific Advisory Board 2015 International TSC Research Conference Text Size Get Involved RENAL (KIDNEY) MANIFESTATIONS IN TSC ...

  9. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... renal (kidney) disease during their lifetime. There are three particular renal disorders in TSC: renal cysts, renal ... at the time of diagnosis, and at 2-3 year intervals if no cysts or angiomyolipomas are ...

  10. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to do the surgery if we ran into something like that, which has happened on two occasions ... year survival of the kidney. At five years, something like 55 or 60 percent, depending on what ...

  11. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... must be kept in mind. Diagnosis The current methods to diagnosis these renal abnormalities include renal ultrasonography, ... cells, which surround a fluid-filled cavity. Some children and adults with TSC and severe cystic kidneys ...

  12. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need dialysis after the operation?” One of the advantages of living donation is that these kidneys essentially ... were removed from the donor. One of the advantages of living donor is that time is from ...

  13. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cells, which surround a fluid-filled cavity. Some children and adults with TSC and severe cystic kidneys ... vomiting. However, bleeding or rupture rarely occurred in children; larger tumors occurred at an older age (greater ...

  14. How Is Kidney Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people find disturbing. Some centers provide headphones with music to block this noise out. MRI scans are used less often than CT scans in people with kidney cancer. They may be done in cases where CT ...

  15. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 800 kidneys have been transplanted, and 441 of these have been living donor transplants, and that will ... John Hopkins, and we have done hundreds of these since then. The procedure is beneficial to patients ...

  16. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the spleen and the colon fall into that space, and the patient doesn’t really notice that. ... the liver and the colon would fill the space where the kidney was located. 7 And this ...

  17. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prior to putting the patient on the immunosuppressive medicines to take care of their new kidney. But ... days, I think. And then they gave you medicine through the IV after that. Right. So the ...

  18. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Mission Statement/History Annual and Financial Reports Strategic Plan Results Reporting Staff Directory Board of ... years, there have been at least 25 published reports of kidney cancer occurring in individuals with TSC. ...

  19. [Ascites and acute kidney injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Salvatore; Tonon, Marta; Angeli, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis. Ascites develops as a consequence of an abnormal splanchnic vasodilation with reduction of effecting circulating volume and activation of endogenous vasoconstrictors system causing salt and water retention. Patients with ascites have a high risk to develop further complications of cirrhosis such as hyponatremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and acute kidney injury resulting in a poor survival. In recent years, new studies helped a better understanding of the pathophysiology of ascites and acute kidney injury in cirrhosis. Furthermore, new diagnostic criteria have been proposed for acute kidney injury and hepatorenal syndrome and a new algorithm for their management has been recommended with the aim of an early diagnosis and treatment. Herein we will review the current knowledge on the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of ascites and acute kidney injury in patients with cirrhosis and we will identify the unmet needs that should be clarified in the next years. PMID:27571467

  20. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a kidney is safe. It has an excellent safety record both here and nationwide. To ensure that, ... ve had a lot of talk about the safety for the living donors. The donor for that ...

  1. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with cysts. If kidney failure occurs, renal replacement therapy such as dialysis or transplantation is necessary. How ... significant and occasionally life threatening. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment guidelines have been proposed to initially identify which ...

  2. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some ... if they were, let’s say, to develop a cancer in one of their kidneys, and certainly that ...

  3. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gene for polycystic kidney disease (PKD1), which lies right next to the TSC2 gene. Mutations in the ... Disclaimer • Privacy Policy . © 2016 Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance - All Rights Reserved. Website by Teramark

  4. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vasodilator or a tissue -- or a fluid that increases blood flow through the arteries to keep them ... a little line on the kidneys just to help me maintain the orientation when I put them ...

  5. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to three days until they can eat solid foods. A few images of the procedure show this ... if they were, let’s say, to develop a cancer in one of their kidneys, and certainly that ...

  6. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical condition, such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity ... long-term risks for health problems such as diabetes, which in turn can cause kidney disease, but ...

  7. End-stage kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transplantation: Principles and Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 3. Inker LA, Astor BC, ... Primer on Kidney Diseases . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 53. Taal M. Risk factors ...

  8. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ever be a donor?” No. The recipient, by definition, had end-stage kidney disease and certainly can’ ... And you had that PCA pump for pain control to where you push the button to help ...

  9. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... choose one donor over another? There are several factors go into that. If somebody’s fortunate enough to have more than one person who is willing to donate them a kidney, ...

  10. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... individuals (greater than 80 percent) with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) will develop some form of renal (kidney) ... intended to provide basic information about tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). It is not intended to, nor does ...

  11. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a cancerous growth of the kidney. Although it is very rare, such a lesion must be ... older age (greater than 10 years of age). It appeared in the limited number of individuals followed ...

  12. Pyelonephritis (Kidney Infection) in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Urinary Tract Infections in Adults Vesicoureteral Reflux Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800- ... or both kidneys. This problem, which is called vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), happens when the valve mechanism that normally ...

  13. Kidney Failure and Vascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... narrows due to plaque buildup (stenosis) and blood flow is restricted to even one kidney, high blood pressure (hypertension) ... can be detected by physical examination or special tests: A physician’s ... through narrowed renal arteries. An Abdominal Ultrasound examination ...

  14. Adiponectin effects on the kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Sweiss, Natalie; Sharma, Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is a 30-kDa polypeptide secreted primarily by adipose tissue and plays a key role in kidney disease. In obesity, reduced adiponectin levels are associated with insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease and obesity related kidney disease. The latter includes microalbuminuria, glomerulomegaly, overt proteinuria and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Adiponectin levels in type 2 diabetics also negatively correlate with early features of nephropathy. However, in patients with establ...

  15. Claudins and the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jianghui; Rajagopal, Madhumitha; Yu, Alan S L

    2013-01-01

    Claudins are tight junction membrane proteins that regulate paracellular permeability of renal epithelia to small ions, solutes, and water. Claudins interact within the cell membrane and between neighboring cells to form tight junction strands and constitute both the paracellular barrier and the pore. The first extracellular domain of claudins is thought to be the pore-lining domain and contains the determinants of charge selectivity. Multiple claudins are expressed in different nephron segments; such differential expression likely determines the permeability properties of each segment. Recent evidence has identified claudin-2 as constituting the cation-reabsorptive pathway in the proximal tubule; claudin-14, -16, and -19 as forming a complex that regulates calcium transport in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle; and claudin-4, -7, and -8 as determinants of collecting duct chloride permeability. Mutations in claudin-16 and -19 cause familial hypercalciuric hypomagnesemia with nephrocalcinosis. The roles of other claudins in kidney diseases remain to be fully elucidated. PMID:23140368

  16. Pediatric kidney transplantation: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Amit Sharma, Rajesh Ramanathan, Marc Posner, Robert A Fisher Hume-Lee Transplant Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Abstract: Pediatric kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for children with end-stage renal disease. The most common indications for transplantation in children are renal developmental anomalies, obstructive uropathy, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Living donor kidney transplants are often performed pre-emptively and offer excellent graft function. Policy changes in deceased-donor kidney allocation have increased the proportion of such transplants in pediatric recipients. Adequate pretransplant workup along with evaluation of urologic abnormalities is imperative in achieving good outcomes. Overall, patient and graft outcomes after kidney transplantation have improved, with five-year deceased donor and living donor graft survivals of 78.8% and 84.3%, respectively. Improvements in induction and maintenance immunosuppression have contributed to the gradual improvement in outcomes. Unique challenges in pediatric recipients include increased graft thrombosis, adverse growth, and abnormal development relating to immunosuppression, increased rejection due to nonadherence, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and post-transplant malignancy. This review focuses on the current practices and outcomes in pediatric kidney transplantation in North America. We discuss the indications for transplantation, the evaluation process, some key surgical and immunologic considerations, and the common risk factors for graft dysfunction. Keywords: pediatric kidney transplantation, end-stage renal disease, dialysis, organ donors, immunosuppression

  17. The three-kidney rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In contrast to the numerous research into the adaption of renal function when nephons are lost, much less attention has been paid to the effects of an extra kidney. Through the availability of inbred rat strains, techniques to transplant rat kidneys, and methods to measure total and individual kidney function repeatedly in the same animal, it became possible to study the renal function in rats with three kidneys. Adult male rats of a highly inbred Wistar strain were used. Nine recipients of a third kidney (3-K) were compared with 5 sham operated control (2-K) rats. The total GFR, as measured by the plasma clearance of Cr-5l EDTA, was taken 1,3,6,9, and 15 weeks after operation. The contribution of each kidney to the total renal function was determined by a Tc-99m DTPA scan performed at weeks 10 and 16. After transplantation the total GFR of 3-K rats was, in general, not different from the value before transplantation or from that of 2-K rats. The lack of increase of the GFR of 3-K rats was not the result of a non-functioning graft

  18. Radiological imaging of the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaia, Emilio (ed.) [Trieste Univ. Ospedale di Cattinara (Italy). Ist. Radiologia

    2011-07-01

    This book provides a unique and comprehensive analysis of the normal anatomy and pathology of the kidney and upper urinary tract from the modern diagnostic imaging point of view. The first part is dedicated to the embryology and normal radiological anatomy of the kidney and anatomic variants. The second part presents in detail all of the imaging modalities which can be employed to assess the kidney and the upper urinary tract, including ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography. Patient preparation and investigation protocols are accurately described, and the principal fields of application of each imaging modality are clearly highlighted. The entire spectrum of kidney pathologies is then presented in a series of detailed chapters. Each pathology is illustrated by high-quality images obtained with state of the art equipment and the most advanced imaging modalities, as well as by figures showing macroscopic and microscopic specimens. The latest innovations in interventional radiology, biopsy procedures, and parametric and molecular imaging are also described, as is the relationship between contrast media and kidney function. This book will be of great interest to all radiologists, oncologists, and urologists who are involved in the management of kidney pathologies in their daily clinical practice. (orig.)

  19. Novel Imaging Techniques in Acute Kidney Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kalantarinia, Kambiz

    2009-01-01

    Imaging of the kidneys can provide valuable information in the work up and management of acute kidney injury. Several different imaging modalities are used to gather information on anatomy of the kidney, to rule out obstruction, differentiate acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease and to obtain information on renal blood flow and GFR. Ultrasound is the most widely used imaging modality used in the initial work up of AKI. The utility of contrast enhanced computerized tomography a...

  20. Seismic attenuation in fractured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prime objective of this paper is to quantitatively estimate seismic attenuation caused by fractures with different physical parameters. In seismic wave simulation, the fractured media are treated as the anisotropic media and fractures are represented by frequency-dependent elastic constants. Based on numerical experiments with three different parameters, namely viscosity, porosity and the Lamé parameters, this paper has the following observations. First, seismic attenuation is not affected by the viscosity within fractures, although it increases with the increase of porosity and decreases with the increase of the Lamé parameters within fractures. Among the latter two parameters, seismic attenuation is more sensitive to the Lamé parameters than to the porosity. Second, for the attenuation anisotropy, low frequencies have more anisotropic effect than high frequencies. For example, a 50 Hz wavefield has the strongest anisotropy effect if compared to 100 and 150 Hz wavefields. The attenuation anisotropy for low frequency (say 50 Hz) is more sensitive to the viscosity than the porosity and the Lamé parameters have the weakest effect among these three parameters. These observations suggest that low-frequency seismic attenuation, and especially the attenuation anisotropy in low frequency, would have great potential for fluid discrimination within fractured media. (paper)

  1. Current Bioengineering Methods for Whole Kidney Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichiro Yamanaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney regeneration is likely to provide an inexhaustible source of tissues and organs for immunosuppression-free transplantation. It is currently garnering considerable attention and might replace kidney dialysis as the ultimate therapeutic strategy for renal failure. However, anatomical complications make kidney regeneration difficult. Here, we review recent advances in the field of kidney regeneration, including (i the directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells/embryonic stem cells into kidney cells; (ii blastocyst decomplementation; (iii use of a decellularized cadaveric scaffold; (iv embryonic organ transplantation; and (v use of a nephrogenic niche for growing xenoembryos for de novo kidney regeneration from stem cells. All these approaches represent potentially promising therapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease. Although many obstacles to kidney regeneration remain, we hope that innovative strategies and reliable research will ultimately allow the restoration of renal function in patients with end-stage kidney disease.

  2. Fetal Kidney Anomalies: Next Generation Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Maria; Sunde, Lone; Nielsen, Marlene Louise;

    undergone postmortem examination. The approximately 110 genes included in the targeted panel were chosen on the basis of their potential involvement in embryonic kidney development, cystic kidney disease, or the renin-angiotensin system. DNA was extracted from fetal tissue samples or cultured chorion villus...... the nephronophthisis associated gene, TMEM67 and six fetuses had mutations in kidney developmental genes. For these fetuses kidney histology is presented. Conclusion and Perspectives In eight (14%) fetuses we identified a likely genetic cause of the kidney anomalies. Ten fetuses from eight families......, in which no mutations were identified, have been selected for exome sequencing in order to uncover novel genes associated to fetal kidney anomalies....

  3. Evaluation of live attenuated measles vaccines prepared in human diploid cells for reimmunization.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirchamsy, H.; Shafyi, A; Nazari, P.; Ashtiani, M. P.; Sassani, A.

    1988-01-01

    Two live attenuated measles vaccines developed in baby calf kidney cells, a similar vaccine produced in chick embryo chorioallantoic cells and five vaccines prepared from human diploid cells (HDC) have been studied by subcutaneous injection in groups of susceptible and immune children in three field trials. The results indicated that the vaccine developed in chick embryo cells which caused mild clinical reactions, had induced a lower seroprotection rate in susceptible children and only a low ...

  4. Premature Aging of the Microcirculation in Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Thang, Oanh H.D.; Serné, Erik H; Grooteman, Muriel P.C.; Smulders, Yvo M.; ter Wee, Piet M.; Tangelder, Geert-Jan; Nubé, Menso J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing age and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are both associated with an attenuated vasodilator response of the skin microcirculation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of aging on microvascular reactivity in patients with advanced CKD. Methods Acetylcholine (ACh)-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-mediated endothelium-independent vasodilation were assessed by iontophoresis combined with laser Doppler flowmetry. Mic...

  5. The exposome for kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, David S

    2016-02-01

    The exposome is the assembly and measure of all the exposures of an individual in a lifetime. An individual's exposures begin before birth and include insults from environmental and occupational sources. The associated field is called exposomics, which relies on the application of internal and external exposure assessment methods. Exposomics has not yet been thoroughly applied to the study of kidney stones although much is known about how diet and fluid intake affect nephrolithiasis. Some other novel exposures that may contribute to kidney stones are discussed including use of antibiotics, urbanization and migration to urban heat islands, and occupation. People whose school and jobs limit their access to fluids and adequate bathroom facilities may have higher prevalence of stones. Examples include athletes, teachers, heathcare workers, and cab drivers. Occupational kidney stones have received scant attention and may represent a neglected, and preventable, type of stone. An exposomic-oriented history would include a careful delineation of occupation and activities. PMID:26615595

  6. Computational analysis of kidney scintigrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrincianu, D.; Puscasu, E.; Creanga, D. [University Al. I. Cuza, Faculty of Physics, 11 Blvd. Carol I, 700506, Iasi (Romania); Stefanescu, C. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy Gr. T. Popa, Iasi (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    The scintigraphic investigation of normal and pathological kidneys was carried out using specialized gamma-camera device from nuclear medicine hospital department. Technetium 90m isotope with gamma radiation emission, coupled with vector molecules for kidney tissues was introduced into the subject body, its dynamics being recorded as data source for kidney clearance capacity. Two representative data series were investigated, corresponding to healthy and pathological organs respectively. The semi-quantitative tests applied for the comparison of the two distinct medical situations were: the shape of probability distribution histogram, the power spectrum, the auto-correlation function and the Lyapunov exponent. While power spectrum led to similar results in both cases, significant differences were revealed by means of distribution probability, Lyapunov exponent and correlation time, recommending these numerical tests as possible complementary tools in clinical diagnosis.

  7. Radiation-Associated Kidney Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kidneys are the dose-limiting organs for radiotherapy to upper abdominal cancers and during total body irradiation. The incidence of radiotherapy-associated kidney injury is likely underreported owing to its long latency and because the toxicity is often attributed to more common causes of kidney injury. The pathophysiology of radiation injury is poorly understood. Its presentation can be acute and irreversible or subtle, with a gradual progressive dysfunction over years. A variety of dose and volume parameters have been associated with renal toxicity and are reviewed to provide treatment guidelines. The available predictive models are suboptimal and require validation. Mitigation of radiation nephropathy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and other compounds has been shown in animal models and, more recently, in patients.

  8. VASCULAR COMPLICATIONS AFTER KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sh. Khubutia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: evaluation of the incidence and the pattern of vessel complications, efficacy of the prophylactic anticoagulation therapy after kidney transplantation. Materials and methods. From March 2007 till January 2013 421 patients: 230 men (54,6% and 191 women (45,4%; mean age 43,07 ± 11,62 undergone 429 kidney transplantations in the department of pancreas and kidney transplantation of the Scientific-Research Institute of Emergency Care named after N.V. Sklifosovsky. In order to evaluate the condition and the function of the kidney transplant ultrasound investigation (daily andacquisition(weekly wereused. In cases of kidney dysfunction and assumption of vessel complications we used computerized tomography. Besides, we used daily analysis of biochemical and clinical parameters of blood and urine. Results. The most common vessel complication was the thrombosis of the microvasculature of the kidney transplant due to acute humoral and combined rejection resistant to antirejection therapy (n = 9; 2,1%; in 4 cases there was a breakage of the transplant due to the acute rejection and the urgent transplantatectomy in an effort to save the patient; thrombosis of the transplantat artery occurred in 1 case (0,23%; we observed 2 cases (0,46% of the artery stenosis and 2 cases (0,46% of venous thrombosis. Conclusion. Summary frequency of vessel complications in our clinic, including thrombosis due to rejection, was 3,49%. It fully corresponds with data obtained from the global medical community. The incidence of great vessel thrombosis was less than 1% which indicates the adequate prophylactic anticoagulation therapy. For the benefit of early diacrisis of complications Doppler sonography is needed. In case of assumption of vessel complications urgent acquisition, computerized tomography and/ or angiography are to be held. 

  9. Myeloperoxidase in Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Madhusudhana Rao, A; Anand, Usha; Anand, C. V.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous lines of evidence implicate a role of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is a well accepted fact that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk for CVD. MPO is a pro-oxidant enzyme which could be involved in the increased susceptibility of these patients to CVD. Hence, the levels of plasma MPO was determined in healthy controls as well as in patients with CKD [stratified with the level of their kidney failure as CKD...

  10. Kidney care beyond our borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jane; Zuber, Kim

    2015-11-01

    Whether it is the heartland of America or a remote village in a developing country, one overriding theme to providing care for kidney patients is person power--or the lack of it. In the developed countries, notably the U.S., Australia, New Zealand and Europe, medical schools prepare advanced practitioners who can then fill the gap left by the lack of nephrologists. However in areas where physicians are in short supply, nurses often have only basic training and trained APs are not available. In the meantime, kidney disease is taking its toll on the best and the brightest. PMID:26677594

  11. C-phycocyanin attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Beom Jin; Jeong, Jin Young; Chang, Yoon-Kyung; Na, Ki-Ryang; Lee, Kang Wook; Shin, Young-Tai; Choi, Dae Eun

    2012-01-01

    Although cisplatin is a highly effective antineoplastic agent, nephrotoxicity is its major clinical problem. Recently, it was reported that Spirulina, a blue-green algae, has potent antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to establish the possible protective role of C-phycocyanin (PC), one of the active ingredients of Spirulina, against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. This study was carried out using human kidney-2 (HK-2) cells and male C57BL6 mice. Cells and mice were divided into four groups; untreated control group, PC-treated control group, cisplatin-treated group, and PC plus cisplatin-treated group. The molecular, functional, and structural parameters were measured. PC significantly attenuated blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, renal histological damages, and apoptotic cell death in cisplatin-treated mice. The cisplatin-induced cell death was significantly attenuated in cells pretreated with PC. PC also significantly attenuated the elevation of p-ERK, p-JNK, and p-p38 induced by cisplatin treatment. The expression of Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3 in cisplatin-treated cells were also decreased by PC treatment. In conclusion, PC ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and, at least in part, suppression of p-ERK, p-JNK, p-p38, Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3 may be involved in this mechanism. PMID:22681485

  12. Collecting Duct Carcinoma of the Kidney Mimicking Invasive Transitional Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Joo Nam; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Lim, Sung Chul [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Approximately 100 cases of collecting duct carcinoma have been reported in the medical literature. We herein report on a case of collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney in a 75-year-old patient. The abdominal sonography depicted a relatively poorly defined 7x6 cm sized, isoechoic mass lesion, as compared to the normal parenchyma, at the left kidney lower pole and the affected kidney showed preservation of the reniform shape. CT revealed a heterogeneous poorly defined low-attenuation mass that was mainly located in the medulla with involvement of the cortex and the lower half of the renal pelvis. Retrograde ureter opyelography showed a filling defect at the lower renal pelvis and severe narrowing of the left proximal ureter. We initially thought this lesion was invasive transitional cell carcinoma. Subsequent surgery confirmed a collecting duct carcinoma

  13. Why kidneys fail in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, Jared J; Mulamalla, Sumanth; Swenson-Fields, Katherine I

    2011-10-01

    The weight of evidence gathered from studies in humans with hereditary polycystic kidney disease (PKD)1 and PKD2 disorders, as well as from experimental animal models, indicates that cysts are primarily responsible for the decline in glomerular filtration rate that occurs fairly late in the course of the disease. The processes underlying this decline include anatomic disruption of glomerular filtration and urinary concentration mechanisms on a massive scale, coupled with compression and obstruction by cysts of adjacent nephrons in the cortex, medulla and papilla. Cysts prevent the drainage of urine from upstream tributaries, which leads to tubule atrophy and loss of functioning kidney parenchyma by mechanisms similar to those found in ureteral obstruction. Cyst-derived chemokines, cytokines and growth factors result in a progression to fibrosis that is comparable with the development of other progressive end-stage renal diseases. Treatment of renal cystic disorders early enough to prevent or reduce cyst formation or slow cyst growth, before the secondary changes become widespread, is a reasonable strategy to prolong the useful function of kidneys in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. PMID:21862990

  14. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Kidneys Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fund National Kidney Foundation American Diabetes Association JDRF Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Español Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your kidneys healthy Page Content On ...

  15. Do We Know What Causes Kidney Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Can kidney cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes kidney cancer? Although many risk ... genes − the instructions for how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are ...

  16. Study Links Climate Change to Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... policy. More Health News on: Chronic Kidney Disease Climate Change Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Chronic Kidney Disease Climate Change About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  17. Working with Kidney Disease: Rehabilitation and Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign up for our FREE magazine, Kidney Living Organ Donation & Transplantation Be an Organ Donor Living Donation Donor ... Giving Primary menu Home Prevention Kidney Disease Patients Organ Donation & Transplantation Professionals Events Advocacy Donate Search Search Header ...

  18. Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159032.html Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests Researchers say ... 25, 2016 WEDNESDAY, May 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking may pose a significant risk to kidney health ...

  19. Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159032.html Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests Researchers say ... 25, 2016 WEDNESDAY, May 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking may pose a significant risk to kidney health ...

  20. Acute kidney injury after pediatric cardiac surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sarvesh Pal Singh

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is a common complication after pediatric cardiac surgery. The definition, staging, risk factors, biomarkers and management of acute kidney injury in children is detailed in the following review article.

  1. Coming Soon: A Wearable Artificial Kidney?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_159246.html Coming Soon: A Wearable Artificial Kidney? Small trial suggests device might be ... themselves of clunky machines, moving about with a "wearable artificial kidney" instead. That's the promise of a ...

  2. Isorhamnetin attenuates liver fibrosis by inhibiting TGF-β/Smad signaling and relieving oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Hye; Kim, Sang Chan; Kim, Kyu Min; Jang, Chang Ho; Cho, Sam Seok; Kim, Seung Jung; Ku, Sae Kwang; Cho, Il Je; Ki, Sung Hwan

    2016-07-15

    Hepatic fibrosis is considered integral to the progression of chronic liver diseases, leading to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the dominant event in hepatic fibrogenesis. We investigated the ability of isorhamnetin, the 3'-O-methylated metabolite of quercetin, to protect against hepatic fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. Isorhamnetin inhibited transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and collagen in primary murine HSCs and LX-2 cells. The TGF-β1- or Smad-induced luciferase reporter activity of Smad binding elements was significantly decreased by isorhamnetin with a concomitant decrease in Smad2/3 phosphorylation. Isorhamnetin increased the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in HSCs and increased antioxidant response element reporter gene activity. Furthermore, isorhamnetin blocked TGF-β1-induced reactive oxygen species production. The specific role of Nrf2 in isorhamnetin-mediated suppression of PAI-1 and phosphorylated Smad3 was verified using a siRNA against Nrf2. To examine the anti-fibrotic effect of isorhamnetin in vivo, liver fibrosis was induced by CCl4 in mice. Isorhamnetin significantly prevented CCl4-induced increases in serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels, and caused histopathological changes characterized by decreases in hepatic degeneration, inflammatory cell infiltration, and collagen accumulation. Moreover, isorhamnetin markedly decreased the expression of phosphorylated Smad3, TGF-β1, α-SMA, and PAI-1. Isorhamnetin attenuated the CCl4-induced increase in the number of 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine-positive cells, and prevented glutathione depletion. We propose that isorhamnetin inhibits the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway and relieves oxidative stress, thus inhibiting HSC activation and preventing liver fibrosis. PMID:27151496

  3. Garlic decreases liver and kidney receptor for advanced glycation end products expression in experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qattan, Khaled K; Mansour, Mohamed H; Thomson, Martha; Ali, Muslim

    2016-06-01

    The up-regulation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been implicated as a major mediator in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy and hepatic fibrogenesis. The present study was designed to investigate the potential of garlic (Allium sativum L.) to modulate the level of expression of RAGE in renal and hepatic tissues of diabetic rats. Three groups of rats were studied after 8 weeks following diabetes induction: normal, streptozotocin-induced diabetic (control diabetic), and garlic-treated diabetic rats. A polyclonal antibody of proven specificity to RAGE indicated in immunohistochemical assays that RAGE labeling was significantly increased in renal and hepatic tissues of control diabetic rats compared to the normal group. The increased RAGE labeling involved mesangial cells in glomeruli exhibiting signs of mesangial expansion, mesangial nodule formation and glomerulosclerosis. In the liver, a significant up-regulation of RAGE was observed in hepatocytes and bile ducts and vessels in portal tracts. In 2-dimensional Western blots, RAGE expression in both tissues was dominated by heterogeneous charge variants, represented by 46-50kDa isoforms with more basic pIs compared to their counterparts in normal rats. Compared to control diabetic rats, RAGE labeling in the garlic-treated diabetic group was significantly reduced throughout renal and hepatic regions and was marked by the expression of 43-50kDa acidic charge variants comparable to those observed in normal rats. The capacity of garlic to modulate diabetes-induced up-regulation of selective RAGE polymorphic variants may be implicated in attenuating the detrimental consequences of excessive RAGE signaling manifested by diabetes-associated disorders. PMID:26968224

  4. Estimation of Water Vapour Attenuation And Rain Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Kalyana Srinivas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation due to and water vapour and rain can severely degrade the radio wave propagation at centimeter or millimeter wavelengths. It restricts the path length of radio communication systems and limits the use of higher frequencies for line-of-sight microwave links and satellite communications. The attenuation will pose a greater problem to communication as the frequency of occurrence of heavy rain increases.In a tropical region, like Malaysia, where excessive rainfall is a common phenomenon throughout the year, the knowledge of the rain attenuation at the frequency of operation is extremely required for the design of a reliable terrestrial and earth space communication link at a particular location.

  5. An assessment of chronic kidney diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, José; Rosário Martins, M.; Vilhena, João; Neves, João; Gomes, Sabino; Abelha, António; Machado, José Manuel; Vicente, Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Kidney renal failure means that one’s kidney have unexpectedlystoppedfunctioning,i.e.,oncechronicdiseaseis exposed, the presence or degree of kidney dysfunction and its progression must be assessed, and the underlying syndrome has to be diagnosed. Although the patient’s history and physical examination may denote good practice, some key information has to be obtained from valuation of the glomerular filtration rate, and the analysis of serum biomarkers. Indeed, chronic kidney sickness depicts...

  6. Kidney Research National Dialogue Overview and Commentary

    OpenAIRE

    Rys-Sikora, Krystyna E.; Ketchum, Christian J.; Star, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) asked the scientific community to formulate and prioritize research objectives to improve understanding of kidney function and disease. The Kidney Research National Dialogue welcomed all interested parties to submit, discuss, and prioritize ideas via an interactive website. More than 1600 participants posted approximately 300 ideas and assigned them to 12 topic areas (AKI, CKD, diabetic nephropathy, National Kidney D...

  7. Imaging of horseshoe kidneys and their complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horseshoe kidney is the most common renal fusion anomaly and the patients are prone to a variety of complications, such as stone disease, pelviureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction, trauma, infections and tumours. As result of the abnormal anatomy of a horseshoe kidney, imaging and treatment pathways vary substantially from the normal kidney. In this review, we describe the role of modern imaging in depicting horseshoe kidneys and their complications, in tandem with the role the interventional radiologist plays in treating these patients.

  8. Acute Kidney Injury in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Kader, Khaled; Palevsky, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The aging kidney undergoes a number of important anatomic and physiologic changes that increase the risk of acute kidney injury (formerly acute renal failure) in the elderly. This article reviews these changes and discusses the diagnoses frequently encountered in the elderly patient with acute kidney injury. The incidence, staging, evaluation, management, and prognosis of acute kidney injury are also examined with special focus given to older adults.

  9. Controversies in Chronic Kidney Disease Staging

    OpenAIRE

    Polkinghorne, Kevan R

    2011-01-01

    In 2002, a new chronic kidney disease staging system was developed by the US National Kidney Foundation. The classification system represented a new conceptual framework for the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (moving to a schema based on disease severity defined by the glomerular filtration rate). While the introduction of the staging system stimulated significant clinical and research interest in kidney disease, there has been vigorous debate on its merits. This mini-review aims to summ...

  10. CKD-MBD after kidney transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine; Bacchetta, Justine

    2011-01-01

    Successful kidney transplantation corrects many of the metabolic abnormalities associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, skeletal and cardiovascular morbidity remain prevalent in pediatric kidney transplant recipients and current recommendations from the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) working group suggest that bone disease—including turnover, mineralization, volume, linear growth, and strength—as well as cardiovascular disease be evaluated in all patients with ...

  11. Ritonavir-induced acute kidney injury: kidney biopsy findings and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Shafi, T.; Choi, M.J.; Racusen, L. C.; Spacek, L. A.; Berry, C; Atta, M.; Fine, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Ritonavir therapy is not generally considered nephrotoxic. We report a case of acute kidney injury secondary to ritonavir, with kidney biopsy demonstrating extensive acute tubular injury. This is the first report of a kidney biopsy and pathology in acute kidney injury associated with ritonavir. A review of published medical literature on the topic is also presented.

  12. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a little while and my child is grown and I don’t have to take care of her so much, I would donate my kidney to help somebody get off of a machine, have a better quality of life. It ended up not happening until 2001. It was 20 years ...

  13. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient doesn’t really notice that. On the right side it would be the liver and the colon would fill the space where the kidney was located. 7 And this question I’ll give you to ...

  14. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the kidney, they are admitted the same day as the surgery, and the recipient’s admitted that day as well. It takes about four to five ... Patients are generally in the hospital about three days. Occasionally they’re ready to go home in ...

  15. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidney, I would say if that’s where you heart is at, because it’s a wonderful feeling to ... to do. Make sure that it’s in your heart to do that, and then just do it. ...

  16. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease Page Content On this ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in which the body ...

  17. Kidney stones - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and preventing all types of kidney stones. Staying hydrated (having enough fluid in your body) will keep your urine diluted, which makes it harder for stones to form. Water is best. You can also drink ginger ale, lemon-lime sodas, and fruit juices. Drink enough liquids throughout ...

  18. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of work for a little while and my child is grown and I don’t have to ... possible to transplant an adult kidney to a child?” Certainly. Our team here works with children’s hospital ...

  19. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an adult kidney to a child?” Certainly. Our team here works with children’s hospital the King’s Daughters with their ... members of the team. We have a great team here at Norfolk General, particularly Amy who works so hard with the living donors, but really ...

  20. Ageing and kidney: a primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneetha P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is an inevitable process that affects all organs and kidneys are no way an exception. There is an urgent need to understand ageing as a holistic process. The changes occurring in ageing kidneys resemble to those occurring in chronic kidney disease. However, many differences exist between them. Old age is a risk factor for acute kidney injury and increased risk of urinary tract infections and asymptomatic bacteriruria, Serum creatinine is a suboptimal indicator of renal function in the elderly because loss of muscle mass in elderly decreases creatinine production. Serum cystatinc measurement, with reference values adjusted for age represents a promising marker to measure renal function in the elderly. The default management strategy for renal failure in elderly is more of conservative in developing countries when compared to developed countries where there is changing trend from conservative to initiation of renal replacement therapy. The decision when to initiate renal replacement therapy is more challenging. Haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis each has its own advantages and disadvantages.

  1. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of individuals (greater than 80 percent) with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) will develop some form of renal ( ... muscle (“myo”) and fat (“lipoma”). Usually angiomyolipomas are multiple and occur in both kidneys. The presence of ...

  2. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Urology Foundation: www.kidneyurology.org Polycystic Kidney Disease Foundation: www.pkdcure.org Reviewed and updated by Elizabeth Petri Henske, M.D., Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, John J. Bissler, M. ...

  3. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Urology Foundation: www.kidneyurology.org Polycystic Kidney Disease Foundation: www.pkdcure.org Reviewed and updated by Elizabeth Petri Henske, M.D., Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, John J. Bissler, M. ...

  4. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to begin to feel like your kidney was working normally? Well, it’s funny, even right after the surgery, I was still -- I mean I was still in pain and recovering, but it’s funny, I already could ...

  5. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... renal abnormalities include renal ultrasonography, CT scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These are all non-invasive procedures that are ... least detailed image of the kidney, while the MRI provides the most detailed. In general, the ultrasound ...

  6. Bacterial kidney disease (Renibacterium salmoninarum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD), caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, is a prevalent disease of salmonid fish that impacts sustainable production for consumption and species conservation efforts. The disease is chronic in nature and mortality most often occurs in juvenile salmonids and prespawning a...

  7. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Kidney Stones In most children and teens, kidney stones are due to the diet and/or amount of fluid the child drinks. ... prevent new stones from forming. All children with kidney stones should: Drink a lot ... the salt in their diet Limit the amount of soda or soft drinks ...

  8. What Is Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many people in the United States are living normal, healthy lives with just one kidney. Some people do not have any working kidneys ... the same treatments that are also used for kidney cancers, such as surgery, ... on many factors, such as the size of the tumor and if it is causing ...

  9. Clinical implications of the solitary functioning kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westland, R.; Schreuder, M.F.; Goudoever, J.B. van; Sanna-Cherchi, S.; Wijk, J.A. van

    2014-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract are the major cause of ESRD in childhood. Children with a solitary functioning kidney form an important subgroup of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract patients, and a significant fraction of these children is at risk for progress

  10. Kidney regeneration and repair after transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Franquesa (Marcella); M. Flaquer (Maria); J.M. Cruzado; J. Grinyo (Josep)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE OF REVIEW: To briefly show which are the mechanisms and cell types involved in kidney regeneration and describe some of the therapies currently under study in regenerative medicine for kidney transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: The kidney contains cell progenitors that under specif

  11. What Happens After Treatment for Kidney Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Kidney Cancer (Adult) - Renal Cell Carcinoma + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » After Treatment TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » What happens after treatment for kidney cancer? Can I get another cancer after having kidney ...

  12. Beta-2 Microglobulin Kidney Disease Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ordered to monitor people who have had a kidney transplant to detect early signs of rejection. It may also be ordered to monitor people ... urine B2M in a person with a kidney transplant may indicate early kidney rejection. Increases in someone who is exposed to high ...

  13. Renal Cell Carcinoma in Transplanted Kidney

    OpenAIRE

    M. Naroienejad; Salouti, R

    2005-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs are prescribed routinely to kidney transplant recipients to prevent rejection. These medications are associated wi th an increased risk of secondary malignancies,including renal cell carcinoma in the transplanted kidney itself. We present a case of renal cell carcinoma in a transplanted kidney.

  14. The attenuation and the attenuators: strategies and tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Briz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is inscribed in a research project (ES.POR.ATENUAÇÃO that seeks to analyze and explain the attenuator activity in different regional varieties of Spanish and Portuguese, in order to perform, subsequently, different contrastive intralinguistic and interlinguistic studies. In this article, we explain some of the theoretical and methodological principles on which are based the qualitative and quantitative analysis. And especially, we will refer to the concept of attenuation (Briz 1995, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2007a, 2012.

  15. BARTERING FOR A COMPATIBLE KIDNEY USING YOUR INCOMPATIBLE, LIVE KIDNEY DONOR: LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES RELATED TO KIDNEY CHAINS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Evelyn M

    2016-01-01

    Kidney chains are a recent and novel method of increasing the number of available kidneys for transplantation and have the potential to save thousands of lives. However, because they are novel, kidney chains do not fit neatly within existing legal and ethicalframeworks, raising potential barriers to their full implementation. Kidney chains are an extension of paired kidney donation, which began in the United States in 2000. Paired kidney donations allow kidney patients with willing, but incompatible, donors to swap donors to increase the number of donor/recipient pairs and consequently, the number of transplants. More recently, transplant centers have been using non-simultaneous, extended, altruistic donor ("NEAD") kidney chains--which consist of a sequence of donations by incompatible donors--to further expand the number of donations. This Article fully explains paired kidney donation and kidney chains and focuses on whether NEAD chains are more coercive than traditional kidney donation to a family member or close friend and whether NEAD chains violate the National Organ Transplant Act's prohibition on the transfer of organs for valuable consideration. PMID:27263265

  16. Creatinine-Based Estimations of Kidney Function Are Unreliable in Obese Kidney Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Aggarwal; Porter, Anna C.; Tang, Ignatius Y. S.; Becker, Bryan N.; Sanjeev K. Akkina

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of kidney function by measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is essential to the risk assessment of prospective living kidney donors. We evaluated the performance of various estimating equations for creatinine clearance (Cockcroft-Gault), GFR (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration), and 24-hour urine collections for creatinine clearance in obese potential kidney donors. We evaluated 164 potential kidney donors inc...

  17. Platelet-derived growth factor-D modulates extracellular matrix homeostasis and remodeling through TIMP-1 induction and attenuation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinase activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkham-Kamphorst, Erawan, E-mail: ekamphorst@ukaachen.de; Alexi, Pascal; Tihaa, Lidia; Haas, Ute; Weiskirchen, Ralf, E-mail: rweiskirchen@ukaachen.de

    2015-02-13

    Platelet-derived growth factor-D (PDGF-D) is a more recent recognized growth factor involved in the regulation of several cellular processes, including cell proliferation, transformation, invasion, and angiogenesis by binding to and activating its cognate receptor PDGFR-β. After bile duct ligation or in the carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis model{sub ,} PDGF-D showed upregulation comparable to PDGF-B. Moreover, adenoviral PDGF-D gene transfer induced hepatic stellate cell proliferation and liver fibrosis. We here investigated the molecular mechanism of PDGF-D involvement in liver fibrogenesis. Therefore, the GRX mouse cell line was stimulated with PDGF-D and evaluated for fibrotic markers and PDGF-D signaling pathways in comparison to the other PDGF isoforms. We found that PDGF-D failed to enhance Col I and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) production but has capacity to upregulate expression of the tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease 1 (TIMP-1) resulting in attenuation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinase activity as indicated by gelatinase zymography. This phenomenon was restored through application of a PDGF-D neutralizing antibody. Unexpectedly, PDGF-D incubation decreased both PDGFR-α and -β in mRNA and protein levels, and PDGF-D phosphorylated typrosines specific for PDGFR-α and -β. We conclude that PDGF-D intensifies fibrogenesis by interfering with the fibrolytic activity of the TIMP-1/MMP system and that PDGF-D signaling is mediated through both PDGF-α and -β receptors. - Highlights: • PDGF-D signals through PDGF receptor type α and β. • PDGF-D modulates extracellular matrix homeostasis and remodeling. • Like PDGF-B, PDGF-D triggers phosphorylation of PLC-γ, Akt/PKB, JNK, ERK1/2, and p38. • PDGF-D induces TIMP-1 expression through ERK and p38 MAPK. • PDGF-D attenuates MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinase activities.

  18. Ligustrazine attenuates oxidative stress-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells by interrupting platelet-derived growth factor-β receptor-mediated ERK and p38 pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Ni, Chunyan [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); The First People' s Hospital of Changzhou, Changzhou 213003 (China); Kong, Desong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhu, Xiaojing; Chen, Li [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Lu, Yin [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Pharmacology and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046 (China); National First-Class Key Discipline for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046 (China); Zheng, Shizhong, E-mail: nytws@163.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Pharmacology and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046 (China); National First-Class Key Discipline for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Hepatic fibrosis represents a frequent event following chronic insult to trigger wound healing reactions with accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the liver. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the pivotal event during liver fibrogenesis. Compelling evidence indicates that oxidative stress is concomitant with liver fibrosis irrespective of the underlying etiology. Natural antioxidant ligustrazine exhibits potent antifibrotic activities, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Our studies were to investigate the ligustrazine effects on HSC activation stimulated by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), an in vitro model mimicking the oxidative stress in liver fibrogenesis, and to elucidate the possible mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at 5 μM significantly stimulated HSC proliferation and expression of marker genes of HSC activation; whereas ligustrazine dose-dependently suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-activated HSCs, and attenuated expression of fibrotic marker genes. Mechanistic investigations revealed that ligustrazine reduced platelet-derived growth factor-β receptor (PDGF-βR) expression and blocked the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 kinase, two downstream effectors of PDGF-βR. Further molecular evidence suggested that ligustrazine interruption of ERK and p38 pathways was dependent on the blockade of PDGF-βR and might be involved in ligustrazine reduction of fibrotic marker gene expression under H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stimulation. Furthermore, ligustrazine modulated some proteins critical for HSC activation and ECM homeostasis in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-stimulated HSCs. These data collectively indicated that ligustrazine could attenuate HSC activation caused by oxidative stress, providing novel insights into ligustrazine as a therapeutic option for hepatic fibrosis. Highlights: ► Ligustrazine inhibits oxidative stress-induced HSC activation.

  19. Sound attenuation in magnetorheological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, J.; Elvira, L.; Resa, P.; Montero de Espinosa, F.

    2013-02-01

    In this work, the attenuation of ultrasonic elastic waves propagating through magnetorheological (MR) fluids is analysed as a function of the particle volume fraction and the magnetic field intensity. Non-commercial MR fluids made with iron ferromagnetic particles and two different solvents (an olive oil based solution and an Araldite-epoxy) were used. Particle volume fractions of up to 0.25 were analysed. It is shown that the attenuation of sound depends strongly on the solvent used and the volume fraction. The influence of a magnetic field up to 212 mT was studied and it was found that the sound attenuation increases with the magnetic intensity until saturation is reached. A hysteretic effect is evident once the magnetic field is removed.

  20. Renoprotective mechanisms of chlorogenic acid in cisplatin-induced kidney injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Chlorogenic acid attenuated cisplatin-induced renal oxidative stress by reducing the expression of 4-HNE, HO-1 and CYP2E1. • The inhibition of inflammatory response was achieved through the reduction of TNF-α and COX-2 expression. • The expression of p53, Bax, active caspase-3 and LC3B was suppressed, suggesting the inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy. • Attenuation of Mrp1 and Mrp2 expression and the increase in Oct2 expression indicated reduced burden of tubular cells. • The recovery of kidneys form cisplatin injury was accompanied by the suppression of cyclin D1 and augmented PCNA expression. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the renoprotective activity of chlorogenic acid (CA) in a murine model of cisplatin (CP)-induced kidney injury. Male BALB/cN mice were gavaged daily with CA at 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg for two successive days, 48 h after intraperitoneal injection of CP (13 mg/kg). On the fifth day, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were significantly increased in CP-intoxicated mice, which was recovered by CA. Renal oxidative stress, evidenced by increased 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) expression, was significantly reduced with CA. Simultaneously, the overexpression of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and cytochrome P450 E1 (CYP2E1) was attenuated. The inhibition of inflammatory response by CA was achieved through the reduction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Additionally, CA significantly suppressed p53, Bax active caspase-3, cyclin D1 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 isoform B (LC3B) expression, suggesting the inhibition of both apoptosis and autophagy. The expression of multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrp1 and Mrp2) increased and organic cation transporter 2 (Oct2) decreased by CP, protecting the kidneys from nephrotoxicity by reducing the burden of tubular cells. CA dose-dependently restored Mrp1, Mrp2 and Oct2 expression. The recovery

  1. Evaluation Of Coenzyme Q10 Role In Reducing Kidney Damage In Rats Induced By Acetaminophen And GAMMA Radiation Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of coenzyme Q10 role in reducing kidney damage in rats induced by acetaminophen (APAP) and gamma radiation exposure was undertaken in the present study. Seven groups of adult male Wister albino rats were used in the present study. Renal function indicators (creatinine, blood urea and uric acid) levels were measured in the blood serum of rats. MDA, NO and LDH levels in kidney tissue were estimated. The antioxidants GSH and SOD were also examined. Histopathological changes and mast cells presence were investigated in kidney tissue. APAP and/or gamma radiation exposure revealed significant increases in MDA, NO and LDH levels. Also, significant decrease in GSH and SOD levels as compared with the control group was detected. Histological changes included tubular necrosis, hydropic degeneration, presence of interstitial inflammatory cells and atrophied glomeruli were observed in kidney tissue. Mast cells expressions in kidney tissue were detected after one day of APAP treatment for 2 weeks. Exposure of rats to gamma radiation revealed unpronounced effect on kidney tissue. Administration of coenzyme Q10 post-treatment of rats with APAP and/or gamma radiation exposure for one week apparently attenuated the levels of renal function indicators; MDA, NO and LDH.Also, a significant amelioration in GSH and SOD was observed. An improvement was detected in kidney tissue and mast cells expression of rats after treatment with coenzyme Q10. In conclusion, coenzyme Q10 apparently protects rats from the dangerous effect of APAP and gamma radiation exposure.

  2. Pelvic kidney in organ donation: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkov, Yuriy; Giudice, Anthony

    2009-12-01

    An ectopic kidney is a rare congenital anomaly that occurs when the kidney fails to ascend to its normal position. Often an ectopic kidney is asymptomatic and the kidney is an unexpected finding during organ recovery. The kidney described in this case report had normal function and could have been used for transplantation, if it had been recovered without 2 renal arteries being damaged because of anatomic variation. The renal vasculature in this type of abnormality usually ascends from the iliac vessels, and this variation in anatomy should be taken into consideration by the recovering surgeon during arterial cannulation for organ flushing. PMID:20050461

  3. Kidney stones and kidney function loss: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, R Todd; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Wiebe, Natasha; Bello, Aminu; Morgan, Catherine; Samuel, Susan; Klarenbach, Scott W; Curhan, Gary C.; Tonelli, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the presence of kidney stones increase the risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD) or other adverse renal outcomes. Design A registry cohort study using validated algorithms based on claims and facility utilisation data. Median follow-up of 11 years. Setting Alberta, Canada, between 1997 and 2009. Participants 3 089 194 adult patients without ESRD at baseline or a history of pyelonephritis. Of these, 1 954 836 had outpatient serum creatinine measurements and we...

  4. Evaluation of gamma camera-based measurement of individual kidney function using iodine-123 orthoiodohippurate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the accuracy of these techniques, we measured RUR by an optimized procedure and compared it with standard ERPF. Iodine-123 orthoiodohippurate (OIH) scintigraphy and simultaneous para-aminohippurate clearance study for measuring standard ERPF were performed in three hospitals in 24 patients with normal or mildly impaired renal function. 123I-OIH was injected intravenously and 10-s consecutive imaging of the kidneys was started when the abdominal aorta was seen. The attenuation coefficient for 123I was measured in each hospital using the same water-equivalent absorption materials and used for the attenuation correction. After subtracting background radioactivity, RURs were defined as the count ratios of fractional renal uptakes based on the integral from 1 to 2, 2 to 3, 1.5 to 2.5 and 1 to 3 min after the injection of 123I-OIH in relation to injected doses using the following three procedures in respect of attenuation correction: (1) RUR without attenuation correction, (2) RUR with fractional renal uptake corrected by the measured attenuation coefficient, (3) RUR with the total injected dose corrected by the absorption material. To decide upon the appropriate correction method and time interval, RURs were compared with standard ERPF. Among the three correction methods, procedure 2 showed the highest correlation between RUR and standard ERPF, but the correlation coefficient was low (r=0.75). No significant difference was observed among the RURs of each time interval. Individual kidney function measured from early renal uptake may be inaccurate even when appropriate correction is made for attenuation, background activity or time lag between injection and data acquisition. Gamma camera-based measurement of renal function using 123I-OIH is limited with regard to accuracy and reproducibility, though it is convenient and non-invasive. (orig.). With 2 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Adult stem-like cells in kidney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keiichi Hishikawa; Osamu Takase; Masahiro Yoshikawa; Taro Tsujimura; Masaomi Nangaku; Tsuyoshi Takato

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent cells are promising for treatmentfor kidney diseases, but the protocols for derivationof kidney cell types are still controversial. Kidneytissue regeneration is well confirmed in several lowervertebrates such as fish, and the repair of nephronsafter tubular damages is commonly observed after renalinjury. Even in adult mammal kidney, renal progenitorcell or system is reportedly presents suggesting thatadult stem-like cells in kidney can be practical clinicaltargets for kidney diseases. However, it is still unclearif kidney stem cells or stem-like cells exist or not. Ingeneral, stemness is defined by several factors suchas self-renewal capacity, multi-lineage potency andcharacteristic gene expression profiles. The definiteuse of stemness may be obstacle to understand kidneyregeneration, and here we describe the recent broadfindings of kidney regeneration and the cells thatcontribute regeneration.

  6. Protective effects of exogenous β-hydroxybutyrate on paraquat toxicity in rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • β-Hydroxybutyrate inhibits paraquat-induced toxicity in rat kidney. • β-Hydroxybutyrate inhibits lipid peroxidation and caspase-mediated apoptosis. • β-Hydroxybutyrate increases the activities of SOD and CAT. • The study describes a novel finding for the renoprotective ability of β-hydroxybutyrate. - Abstract: In this study, we demonstrated the protective effects of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) against paraquat (PQ)-induced kidney injury and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. By histological examination and renal dysfunction specific markers (serum BUN and creatinine) assay, β-HB could protect the PQ-induced kidney injury in rat. PQ-induced kidney injury is associated with oxidative stress, which was measured by increased lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decreased intracellular anti-oxidative abilities (SOD, CAT and GSH). β-HB pretreatment significantly attenuated that. Caspase-mediated apoptosis pathway contributed importantly to PQ toxicity, as revealed by the activation of caspase-9/-3, cleavage of PARP, and regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax, which were also effectively blocked by β-HB. Moreover, treatment of PQ strongly decreased the nuclear Nrf2 levels. However, pre-treatment with β-HB effectively suppressed this action of PQ. This may imply the important role of β-HB on Nrf2 pathway. Taken together, this study provides a novel finding that β-HB has a renoprotective ability against paraquat-induced kidney injury

  7. Protective effects of exogenous β-hydroxybutyrate on paraquat toxicity in rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Teng; Tian, Wulin; Liu, Fangning; Xie, Guanghong, E-mail: xiegh@jlu.edu.cn

    2014-05-16

    Highlights: • β-Hydroxybutyrate inhibits paraquat-induced toxicity in rat kidney. • β-Hydroxybutyrate inhibits lipid peroxidation and caspase-mediated apoptosis. • β-Hydroxybutyrate increases the activities of SOD and CAT. • The study describes a novel finding for the renoprotective ability of β-hydroxybutyrate. - Abstract: In this study, we demonstrated the protective effects of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) against paraquat (PQ)-induced kidney injury and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. By histological examination and renal dysfunction specific markers (serum BUN and creatinine) assay, β-HB could protect the PQ-induced kidney injury in rat. PQ-induced kidney injury is associated with oxidative stress, which was measured by increased lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decreased intracellular anti-oxidative abilities (SOD, CAT and GSH). β-HB pretreatment significantly attenuated that. Caspase-mediated apoptosis pathway contributed importantly to PQ toxicity, as revealed by the activation of caspase-9/-3, cleavage of PARP, and regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax, which were also effectively blocked by β-HB. Moreover, treatment of PQ strongly decreased the nuclear Nrf2 levels. However, pre-treatment with β-HB effectively suppressed this action of PQ. This may imply the important role of β-HB on Nrf2 pathway. Taken together, this study provides a novel finding that β-HB has a renoprotective ability against paraquat-induced kidney injury.

  8. Superoxide dismutase derivative prevents oxidative damage in liver and kidney of rats induced by exhausting exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radák, Z; Asano, K; Inoue, M; Kizaki, T; Oh-Ishi, S; Suzuki, K; Taniguchi, N; Ohno, H

    1996-01-01

    To prevent oxidative tissue damage induced by strenuous exercise in the liver and kidney superoxide dismutase derivative (SM-SOD), which circulated bound to albumin with a half-life of 6 h, was injected intraperitoneally into rats. Exhausting treadmill running caused a significant increase in the activities of xanthine oxidase (XO), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in addition to concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in hepatic tissue immediately after running. There was a definite increase in the immunoreactive content of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) 1 day after the running. Meanwhile, the TBARS concentration in the kidney was markedly elevated 3 days after running. The activities of GPX, and catalase in the kidney increased significantly immediately and on days 1 and 3 following the test. The immunoreactive content of Mn-SOD also increased 1 day after running. The exercise induced no significant changes in immunoreactive Cu, Zn-SOD content in either tissue. The administration of SM-SOD provided effective protection against lipid peroxidation, and significantly attenuated the alterations in XO and all the anti-oxidant enzymes, measured. In summary, the present data would suggest that exhausting exercise may induce XO-derived oxidative damage in the liver, while the increase in lipid peroxidation in the kidney might be the result of washout-dependent accumulation of peroxidised metabolites. We found that the administration of SM-SOD provided excellent protection against exercise-induced oxidative stress in both liver and kidney. PMID:8820884

  9. Josephson tunnel junction microwave attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Shchukin, A. V.;

    1993-01-01

    A new element for superconducting electronic circuitry-a variable attenuator-has been proposed, designed, and successfully tested. The principle of operation is based on the change in the microwave impedance of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junction when dc biased...

  10. Compact plasmonic variable optical attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Rosenzveig, Tiberiu; Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon;

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate plasmonic nanowire-based thermo-optic variable optical attenuators operating in the 1525-1625 nm wavelength range. The devices have a footprint as low as 1 mm, extinction ratio exceeding 40 dB, driving voltage below 3 V, and full modulation bandwidth of 1 kHz. The polarization...

  11. Attenuation of Vrancea events revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New aspects of the frequency-dependent attenuation of the seismic waves traveling from Vrancea subcrustal sources toward NW (Transylvanian Basin) and SE (Romanian Plain) are evidenced by the recent experimental data made available by the CALIXTO'99 tomography experiment. The observations validate the previous theoretical computations performed for the assessment, by means of a deterministic approach, of the seismic hazard in Romania. They reveal an essential aspect of the seismic ground motion attenuation, that has important implications on the probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard from Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes. The attenuation toward NW is shown to be a much stronger frequency-dependent effect than the attenuation toward SE and the seismic hazard computed by the deterministic approach fits satisfactorily well the observed ground motion distribution in the low-frequency band (< 1 Hz). The apparent contradiction with the historically-based intensity maps arises mainly from a systematic difference in the vulnerability (buildings eigenperiod) of the buildings in the intra- and extra-Carpathians regions. (author)

  12. Kidney involvement in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lazzarini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is a widespread disease and its renal involvement, relatively common, is clinically significant because worsens course and mortality of the primary disease. There is still no agreement on the prevalence of renal disorders in RA: data analysis originates from different sources, as death certificates, autopsies, clinical and laboratory findings and kidney biopsies, each with its limitations. Histoimmunological studies on bioptical specimens of patients with RA and kidney damage, led to clarify prevalent pathologies. In order of frequency: glomerulonephritis and amyloidosis (60-65% and 20-30% respectively, followed by acute or chronic interstitial nephritis. Kidney injury during RA includes secondary renal amyloidosis, nephrotoxic effects of antirheumatic drugs and nephropathies as extra-articular manifestations (rheumatoid nephropathy. Amyloidosis affects survival, increases morbidity and is the main cause of end stage renal disease in patients with RA and nephropathy. Strong association between RA activity and amyloidosis needs the use of immunosuppressive and combined therapies, to prevent this complication and reduce risk of dialysis. Long-lasting and combined RA pharmacotherapy involves various renal side effects. In this review we describe NSAIDs and DMARDs (Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs nephrotoxicity, particularly by gold compounds, D-penicillamine, cyclosporine A and methotrexate. Rare cases of IgA glomerulonephritis during immunomodulating therapy with leflunomide and TNF blocking receptor (etanercept are reported; real clinical significance of this drug-related nephropathy will be established by development of RA treatment. In RA nephropathies, mesangial glomerulonephritis is the most frequent histological lesion (35-60 % out of biopsies from patients with urinary abnormalities and/or kidney impairment, followed by minimal change glomerulopathy (3-14% and p-ANCA positive necrotizing crescentic

  13. Peripheral neuroepithelioma of the kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, K W; Ha, D. H.; Jung, W. H.

    1995-01-01

    Peripheral neuroepithelioma is a rare tumor, comprising less than 1% of all soft tissue malignancies arising from the peripheral nonautonomic nervous system. Most peripheral neuroepitheliomas reported were located in the extremities, thoraco-pulmonary region, and pelvic areas, and as many as 30% of cases were associated with peripheral nerve. We report one case of peripheral neuroepithelioma arising in the kidney, mimicking renal cell carcinoma on the CT scan.

  14. Lithium-Associated Kidney Microcysts

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Tuazon; David Casalino; Ehteshamuddin Syed; Daniel Batlle

    2008-01-01

    Long-term lithium therapy is associated with impairment in concentrating ability and, occasionally, progression to advanced chronic kidney disease from tubulointerstitial nephropathy. Biopsy findings in patients with lithium-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy include tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis interspersed with tubular cysts and dilatations. Recent studies have shown that cysts are seen in 33––62.5% of the patients undergoing lithium therapy. MR imaging is highly ca...

  15. Carnosine, carnosinase and kidney diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Kiliś-Pstrusińska

    2012-01-01

     Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is an endogenously synthesized dipeptide which is present in different human tissues, including the kidney. Carnosine is hydrolyzed by the enzyme carnosinase. There are two carnosinase homologues: serum secreted carnosinase and non-specific cytosolic dipeptidase, encoded by the genes CNDP1 and CNDP2 respectively and located on chromosome 18q22.3. Carnosine functions as a radical oxygen species scavenger and as a natural angiotensin converting enzyme inhibi...

  16. Stormwater Attenuation by Green Roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, A.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Robinson, C. E.; Smart, C. C.

    2014-12-01

    Innovative municipal stormwater management technologies are urgently required in urban centers. Inadequate stormwater management can lead to excessive flooding, channel erosion, decreased stream baseflows, and degraded water quality. A major source of urban stormwater is unused roof space. Green roofs can be used as a stormwater management tool to reduce roof generated stormwater and generally improve the quality of runoff. With recent legislation in some North American cities, including Toronto, requiring the installation of green roofs on large buildings, research on the effectiveness of green roofs for stormwater management is important. This study aims to assess the hydrologic response of an extensive sedum green roof in London, Ontario, with emphasis on the response to large precipitation events that stress municipal stormwater infrastructure. A green roof rapidly reaches field capacity during large storm events and can show significantly different behavior before and after field capacity. At field capacity a green roof has no capillary storage left for retention of stormwater, but may still be an effective tool to attenuate peak runoff rates by transport through the green roof substrate. The attenuation of green roofs after field capacity is linked to gravity storage, where gravity storage is the water that is temporarily stored and can drain freely over time after field capacity has been established. Stormwater attenuation of a modular experimental green roof is determined from water balance calculations at 1-minute intervals. Data is used to evaluate green roof attenuation and the impact of field capacity on peak flow rates and gravity storage. In addition, a numerical model is used to simulate event based stormwater attenuation. This model is based off of the Richards equation and supporting theory of multiphase flow through porous media.

  17. NAFLD and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Marcuccilli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries and it is now considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Evidence linking NAFLD to the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD is emerging as a popular area of scientific interest. The rise in simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation as well as the significant cost associated with the presence of chronic kidney disease in the NAFLD population make this entity a worthwhile target for screening and therapeutic intervention. While several cross-sectional and case control studies have been published to substantiate these theories, very little data exists on the underlying cause of NAFLD and CKD. In this review, we will discuss the most recent publications on the diagnosis of NAFLD as well new evidence regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD and CKD as an inflammatory disorder. These mechanisms include the role of obesity, the renin-angiotensin system, and dysregulation of fructose metabolism and lipogenesis in the development of both disorders. Further investigation of these pathways may lead to novel therapies that aim to target the NAFLD and CKD. However, more prospective studies that include information on both renal and liver histology will be necessary in order to understand the relationship between these diseases.

  18. Clofarabine-induced kidney toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaveri, Kenar D; Chidella, Shailaja; Allen, Steven L; Fishbane, Steven

    2014-08-01

    Clofarabine is a purine nucleoside analog indicated for treatment of relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children. The drug is also increasingly used, outside of its FDA approved indication, for treatment of relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia in adults. It acts by inhibiting DNA synthesis, the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase and repair and activation of mitochondrial repair processes. We describe a case of a 48-year-old male with refractory acute myeloid leukemia with acute kidney injury associated with clofarabine treatment. We conducted a review of the literature and utilized the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System to identify spontaneous reporting of renal adverse events with this drug in 29 other cases. Since clofarabine inhibits ribonucleotide reductase, we postulate by extrapolation from the animal studies that collapsing glomerulopathy or severe tubular injury or a combination of both may be the mechanism of acute kidney injury observed with this agent. This would be consistent with the observed severe acute kidney injury and proteinuria in humans. PMID:24081220

  19. Chronic Kidney Disease and Endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Rebić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The endothelial cell layer is responsible for molecular traffic between the blood and surrounding tissue, and endothelial integrity plays a pivotal role in many aspects of vascular function. Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the main cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD and its incidence and severity increase in direct proportion with kidney function decline. Non-traditional risk factors for CVDs, including endothelial dysfunction (ED, are highly prevalent in this population and play an important role in cardiovascular (CV events. ED is the first step in the development of atherosclerosis and its severity has prognostic value for CV events. Several risk markers have been associated with ED. Reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide plays a central role, linking kidney disease to ED, atherosclerosis, and CV events. Inflammation, loss of residual renal function, and insulin resistance are closely related to ED in CKD. ED may be followed by structural damage and remodelling that can precipitate both bleeding and thrombotic events. The endothelium plays a main role in vascular tone and metabolic pathways. ED is the first, yet potentially reversible step in the development of atherosclerosis and its severity has prognostic value for CV events.

  20. Pregnancy in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellanki, Kavitha

    2013-05-01

    Despite vast improvements in fetal outcomes, pregnancy in women with CKD is fraught with hazards; worsening of renal function and complications like preeclampsia and premature delivery are common. To date, there is no accurate formula to calculate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Also, whether the current CKD classification is better than the older classification at predicting outcomes in pregnant women with CKD is unknown. Women with an estimated GFR ≥1.4 mg/dL are at increased risk of progressive worsening of renal function regardless of the cause of the underlying kidney disease. Preeclampsia is difficult to diagnose in pregnant women with underlying CKD, and serum markers such as soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) and placental growth factor (PIGF) may lead the way for definitive diagnosis. New-onset lupus or lupus flare is an indication for kidney biopsy during pregnancy; cyclosporine is safe and is the most effective agent that can be used during pregnancy. Women with adult polycystic kidney disease are at increased risk of hypertension and preeclampsia during pregnancy, as well as hepatic cysts later in life, the latter occurring with multiple pregnancies. Strict blood pressure control is important in pregnant women with diabetic nephropathy. A multidisciplinary team that includes nephrologists and obstetricians who deal with high-risk pregnancies should be involved in the care of pregnant women with CKD for successful pregnancy outcomes. PMID:23928386

  1. Controversies in kidney paired donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Sommer E; Montgomery, Robert A; Segev, Dorry L

    2012-07-01

    Kidney paired donation represented 10% of living kidney donation in the United States in 2011. National registries around the world and several separate registries in the United States arrange paired donations, although with significant variations in their practices. Concerns about ethical considerations, clinical advisability, and the quantitative effectiveness of these approaches in paired donation result in these variations. For instance, although donor travel can be burdensome and might discourage paired donation, it was nearly universal until convincing analysis showed that living donor kidneys can sustain many hours of cold ischemia time without adverse consequences. Opinions also differ about whether the last donor in a chain of paired donation transplants initiated by a nondirected donor should donate immediately to someone on the deceased donor wait-list (a domino or closed chain) or should be asked to wait some length of time and donate to start another sequence of paired donations later (an open chain); some argue that asking the donor to donate later may be coercive, and others focus on balancing the probability that the waiting donor withdraws versus the number of additional transplants if the chain can be continued. Other controversies in paired donation include simultaneous versus nonsimultaneous donor operations, whether to enroll compatible pairs, and interactions with desensitization protocols. Efforts to expand public awareness of and participation in paired donation are needed to generate more transplant opportunities. PMID:22732046

  2. Carnosine, carnosinase and kidney diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kiliś-Pstrusińska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available  Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine is an endogenously synthesized dipeptide which is present in different human tissues, including the kidney. Carnosine is hydrolyzed by the enzyme carnosinase. There are two carnosinase homologues: serum secreted carnosinase and non-specific cytosolic dipeptidase, encoded by the genes CNDP1 and CNDP2 respectively and located on chromosome 18q22.3. Carnosine functions as a radical oxygen species scavenger and as a natural angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. Carnosine inhibits advanced glycation end product formation and reduces the synthesis of matrix proteins such as fibronectin and collagen type VI of podocytes and mesangial cells. In experimental studies it was shown that carnosine reduces the level of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines. It is suggested that carnosine is a naturally occurring anti-aging substance in human organisms with a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system.This paper reports the results of studies concerning carnosine’s role in kidney diseases, particularly in ischemia/reperfusion induced acute renal failure, diabetic nephropathy, gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and also in blood pressure regulation. The correlations between serum carnosine and serum carnosinase activity and polymorphism in the CNDP1 gene are analyzed. The role of CNDP1 gene polymorphism in the development of diabetic nephropathy and non-diabetic chronic kidney disease is discussed. Carnosine is engaged in different metabolic pathways. It has nephroprotective features. Further studies of carnosine metabolism and its biological properties, particularly those concerning the human organism, are required.

  3. [Renal failure and cystic kidney diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correas, J-M; Joly, D; Chauveau, D; Richard, S; Hélénon, O

    2011-04-01

    Cystic kidney diseases often are discovered at the time of initial work-up of renal failure through ultrasound or family history, or incidentally at the time of an imaging test. Hereditary diseases include autosomal dominant or recessive polycystic kidney disease (PKD), tuberous sclerosis (TS) and medullary cystic kidney disease (MCKD). Autosomal dominant PKD is characterized by large renal cysts developing in young adults. Renal failure is progressive and becomes severe around 50-60 years of age. Atypical cysts (hemorrhagic or hyperdense) are frequent on CT and MRI examinations. Imaging plays a valuable role in the management of acute complications such as cyst hemorrhage or infection. Autosomal recessive PKD is often detected in neonates, infants or young adults. It is characterized by renal enlargement due to the presence of small cysts and liver disease (fibrosis and biliary ductal dilatation). Late manifestation or slow progression of autosomal recessive PKD may be more difficult to distinguish from autosomal dominant PKD. These cystic kidney diseases should not be confused with non-hereditary incidental multiple renal cysts. In tuberous sclerosis, renal cysts are associated with angiomyolipomas and sometimes pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Renal failure is inconstant. Other hereditary cystic kidney diseases, including MCKD and nephronophtisis, are usually associated with renal failure. Non-hereditary cystic kidney diseases include multicystic renal dysplasia (due to complete pelvi-ureteric atresia or hydronephrosis), acquired multicystic kidney disease (chronic renal failure, chronic hemodialysis) and varied cystic kidney diseases (multicystic renal disease, glomerulocystic kidney disease, microcystic kidney disease). PMID:21549887

  4. Gender Disparity in Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghibi Orode

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender discrimination in benefiting from medical treatment is a worldwide pro-blem. Kidney transplantation, as the ideal treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD, is not an exception. Considering the unique kidney donation patterns and different family styles in the Middle East, studying this problem in Iran seemed justifiable and necessary. In addition to comparing the numbers of female and male recipients, which has been done in other similar studies, considering the critical effect of waiting time on the outcome, we assessed and compared the waiting times also. The data of age, gender, nationality, donor type and waiting time before transplantation of 1426 (61.85% male, 38.14% female recipients who underwent transplantation in Imam Reza Hospital in the northeast of Iran from 1990 to 2003, was analyzed. Recipients were categorised into three groups based on donation patterns: those receiving kidney from live unrelated, live related and cadaver donors. The number of patients in each group was 1057 (61.96% male, 38.03% female, 232 (67.24% male, 32.75% female and 137 (51.82% male, 48.17% female respectively. The mean overall waiting time was 708 days. Comparing waiting time of male and female recipients in each of these groups did not show significant difference. In all categories of donors, females were less likely than males to be recipients. Furthermore, waiting time for females was longer than males when receiving kidney from sisters and children. For spousal donations, males were recipients more frequently than females although female recipients in this group waited less than their male counterparts to receive the kidney. Generally, our results are in accordance with results of similar researches. In all three mentioned groups, males com-prised the majority while the waiting time does not show significant difference between genders. We suggest some reasons for this phenomenon, of which the two main ones are: fewer females

  5. Ferrite attenuator modulation improves antenna performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, J. C.; Larson, S. G.; Shorkley, F. H.; Williams, B. T.

    1970-01-01

    Ferrite attenuator inserted into appropriate waveguide reduces the gain of the antenna element which is causing interference. Modulating the ferrite attenuator to change the antenna gain at the receive frequency permits ground tracking until the antenna is no longer needed.

  6. Genome Sequence of Classical Swine Fever Virus Genotype 1.1 with a Genetic Marker of Attenuation Detected in a Continuous Porcine Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Tomar, N.; Gupta, A; Arya, R. S.; Somvanshi, R.; Sharma, V.; Saikumar, G.

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequencing and analysis of a classical swine fever virus (CSFV) detected in a porcine kidney cell line revealed a close relationship with genotype 1.1 viruses circulating in India and China. The presence of consecutive T insertions in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR), as seen in vaccine strains of CSFV, suggested some degree of attenuation.

  7. ENHANCEMENTS TO NATURAL ATTENUATION: SELECTED CASE STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K; W. H. Albright, W; E. S. Becvar, E; C. H. Benson, C; T. O. Early, T; E. Hood, E; P. M. Jardine, P; M. Lorah, M; E. Majche, E; D. Major, D; W. J. Waugh, W; G. Wein, G; O. R. West, O

    2007-05-15

    In 2003 the US Department of Energy (DOE) embarked on a project to explore an innovative approach to remediation of subsurface contaminant plumes that focused on introducing mechanisms for augmenting natural attenuation to achieve site closure. Termed enhanced attenuation (EA), this approach has drawn its inspiration from the concept of monitored natural attenuation (MNA).

  8. Bilateral Supernumerary Kidney: A Very Rare Presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To our knowledge, bilateral supernumerary kidney is a very rare renal abnormality and there are five cases presented in the literature. It is difficult to diagnose supernumerary kidney and clinicians have not detected most cases preoperatively. Laboratory and imaging studies were acquired and carefully examined. The normal laboratory tests were found. Emergency ultrasonography was performed and they revealed no signs of parenchymal abnormality in both kidneys. Serial imaging study including enhanced computed tomography (CT) was performed. An imaging study identified bilateral supernumerary kidney with expanded collecting systems. On each side, significant rotation anomaly was found. In addition, there were two different renal arteries originating from the aorta. This report presents radiological determinations of supernumerary kidney bilaterally in a young man. We think that CT commonly appears to be enough for the diagnosis of supernumerary kidneys

  9. Dapagliflozin, SGLT2 Inhibitor, Attenuates Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yoon-Kyung; Choi, Hyunsu; Jeong, Jin Young; Na, Ki-Ryang; Lee, Kang Wook

    2016-01-01

    Dapagliflozin, a new type of drug used to treat diabetes mellitus (DM), is a sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor. Although some studies showed that SGLT2 inhibition attenuated reactive oxygen generation in diabetic kidney the role of SGLT2 inhibition is unknown. We evaluated whether SLT2 inhibition has renoprotective effects in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) models. We evaluated whether dapagliflozin reduces renal damage in IR mice model. In addition, hypoxic HK2 cells were treated with or without SGLT2 inhibitor to investigate cell survival, the apoptosis signal pathway, and the induction of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) and associated proteins. Dapagliflozin improved renal function. Dapagliflozin reduced renal expression of Bax, renal tubule injury and TUNEL-positive cells and increased renal expression of HIF1 in IR-injured mice. HIF1 inhibition by albendazole negated the renoprotective effects of dapagliflozin treatment in IR-injured mice. In vitro, dapagliflozin increased the expression of HIF1, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and ERK and increased cell survival of hypoxic HK2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, dapagliflozin attenuates renal IR injury. HIF1 induction by dapagliflozin may play a role in renoprotection against renal IR injury. PMID:27391020

  10. Exploring metabolic dysfunction in chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Slee Adrian D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Impaired kidney function and chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to kidney failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a serious medical condition associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and in particular cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. CKD is associated with multiple physiological and metabolic disturbances, including hypertension, dyslipidemia and the anorexia-cachexia syndrome which are linked to poor outcomes. Specific hormonal, inflammatory, and nutritional-metabol...

  11. Nephronophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease complex

    OpenAIRE

    Stanišić Marijana; Hrvačević Rajko; Paunić Zoran; Petrović Stanko

    2005-01-01

    Background. Nephronophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease complex refers to the genetic heterogeneous group of inherited tubulointerstital nephritis. Nephronophthisis comprises at last 3 clinical manifestations, has the autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance, appears early in life and is the most frequent inherited kidney disease that causes terminal renal failure in childhood, while medullary cystic kidney disease has the autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, is less frequent...

  12. The cell cycle and acute kidney injury

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Peter M.; Safirstein, Robert L.; Megyesi, Judit

    2009-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) activates pathways of cell death and cell proliferation. Although seemingly discrete and unrelated mechanisms, these pathways can now be shown to be connected and even to be controlled by similar pathways. The dependence of the severity of renal-cell injury on cell cycle pathways can be used to control and perhaps to prevent acute kidney injury. This review is written to address the correlation between cellular life and death in kidney tubules, especially in acute ki...

  13. Basics of kidney biopsy: A nephrologist's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, S. K.; Sethi, S; A K Dinda

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the kidney biopsy is one of the major events in the history of nephrology. Primary indications of kidney biopsy are glomerular hematuria/proteinuria with or without renal dysfunction and unexplained renal failure. Kidney biopsy is usually performed in prone position but in certain situations, supine and lateral positions may be required. Biopsy needles have changed with times from Vim–Silverman needle to Tru-cut needle to spring-loaded automatic gun. The procedure has also...

  14. Epidermal nevus syndrome and dysplatic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Nickavar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal nevus syndrome is a rare congenital disorder, characterized by epidermal nevi and multiple organ involvement. Multicystic kidney disease has been very rarely reported in this syndrome. Here is the report of a boy presented with multiple epidermal nevi, cardiac anomaly, seizure attack, hemi hypertrophy, and multicystic dysplastic kidney complicated with Wilms' tumor. According to this association, it is suggested to search for dysplastic kidney disease in patients with neurocutaneous disorders.

  15. Kidney biomimicry--a rediscovered scientific field that could provide hope to patients with kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenvinkel, Peter; Johnson, Richard J

    2013-11-01

    Most studies on kidney disease have relied on classic experimental studies in mice and rats or clinical studies in humans. From such studies much understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of kidney disease has been obtained. However, breakthroughs in the prevention and treatment of kidney diseases have been relatively few, and new approaches to fight kidney disease are needed. Here we discuss kidney biomimicry as a new approach to understand kidney disease. Examples are given of how various animals have developed ways to prevent or respond to kidney failure, how to protect themselves from hypoxia or oxidative stress and from the scourge of hyperglycemia. We suggest that investigation of evolutionary biology and comparative physiology might provide new insights for the prevention and treatment of kidney disease. PMID:24220764

  16. Creatinine-Based Estimations of Kidney Function Are Unreliable in Obese Kidney Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of kidney function by measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR is essential to the risk assessment of prospective living kidney donors. We evaluated the performance of various estimating equations for creatinine clearance (Cockcroft-Gault, GFR (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration, and 24-hour urine collections for creatinine clearance in obese potential kidney donors. We evaluated 164 potential kidney donors including 49 with a BMI of 30–35 and 32 with a BMI >35 that have completed a routine living donor evaluation with a measured GFR. All the estimating equations performed poorly in obese donors. While 24-hour urine collections performed better, only 15% had an adequate 24-hour urine collection. Since obese kidney donors may be at higher than average risk for kidney failure, accurate assessment of kidney function in these donors is crucial to ensure their long-term health postdonation.

  17. The metabolism of parathyroid hormone in kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the mechanism and localization of parathyroid hormone (PTH), the degradation and the effects of calcium ion to PTH degradation in kidney, bovine PTH (b-PTH 1 - 84) and its synthetic N-terminal peptide (b-PTH 1 - 34) labeled with 125I by Chloramine T methods (125I-b-PTH 1 - 84 and 125I-b-PTH 1 - 34) or labeled with horse radish peroxidase (125I-POX-b-PTH 1 - 84 and 125I-POX-bPTH 1-34) were used to study the disappearance from the blood stream and degradation and retention in the kidney after intravenous injections in male Wistar rats, weighing approximately 350 - 450 g. Degradation of PTH was studied in vitro, using isolated cells and homogenates of the kidney, and the effects of calcium ion to PTH degradation were furthermore studied, using our kidney perfusion system. PTH labeled with 125I and POX was less degraded by the kidney than PTH labeled with 125I alone. PTH 1 - 34 was more delayed in blood stream than PTH 1 - 84. Isolated intact kidney cells degrade PTH less efficiently than homogenates, indicating the prominance of microsomal degradative system in the kidney. The degradation of PTH in kidney was supposed to be controlled by calcium ion in our kidney perfusion system. (author)

  18. Optical Coherence Tomography in Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Peter M.; Wierwille, Jeremiah; Chen, Yu

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with both high mortality rates and an enormous economic burden [1]. The preferred treatment option for ESRD that can extend patients' lives and improve their quality of life is kidney transplantation. However, organ shortages continue to pose a major problem in kidney transplantation. Most kidneys for transplantation come from heart-beating cadavers. Although non-heart-beating cadavers represent a potentially large pool of donor kidneys, these kidneys are not often used due to the unknown extent of damage to the renal tubules (i.e., acute tubular necrosis or "ATN") induced by ischemia (i.e., lack of blood flow). Also, ischemic insult suffered by kidneys awaiting transplantation frequently causes ATN that leads to varying degrees of delayed graft function (DGF) after transplantation. Finally, ATN represents a significant risk for eventual graft and patient survival [2, 3] and can be difficult to discern from rejection. In present clinical practice, there is no reliable real-time test to determine the viability of donor kidneys and whether or not donor kidneys might exhibit ATN. Therefore, there is a critical need for an objective and reliable real-time test to predict ATN to use these organs safely and utilize the donor pool optimally. In this review, we provided preliminary data indicating that OCT can be used to predict the post-transplant function of kidneys used in transplantation.

  19. Frontiers in Research: Chronic Kidney Diseases: The pivotal role of pericytes in kidney fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kida, Yujiro; Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2011-01-01

    Kidney pericytes were recently identified as collagen-Iα1 producing cells in healthy kidney, but the developmental, physiological and pathological roles of kidney pericytes remain poorly understood. Pericytes are stromal-derived cells that envelop, and have intimate connections with adjacent capillary endothelial cells (ECs). Recent studies in eye and brain have revealed that pericytes are crucial for angiogenesis, vascular stability and vessel integrity.In response to kidney injury, pericyte...

  20. On the occasion of world kidney day 2016; work together to better protect the kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Nasri, Hamid; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Context: World kidney day is a yearly global alertness and education ceremony, held on the second Thursday in March. Evidence Acquisition: Directory of open access journals (DOAJ), EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO, and Web of Science have been searched. Results: Once again we reached to March 14, the world kidney day of 2016. This is the 10th anniversary of world kidney day, a program of the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) and the International Federation of Kidney Foundations ...

  1. Antibody-Mediated Rejection of the Kidney after Simultaneous Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual, Julio; Samaniego, Milagros D.; Torrealba, José R.; Odorico, Jon S.; Djamali, Arjang; Becker, Yolanda T.; Voss, Barbara; Leverson, Glen E.; Knechtle, Stuart J.; Sollinger, Hans W.; Pirsch, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence, risk factors, and outcome of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) of the kidney after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation are unknown. In 136 simultaneous pancreas-kidney recipients who were followed for an average of 3.1 yr, 21 episodes of AMR of the kidney allograft were identified. Eight episodes occurred early (≤90 d) after transplantation, and 13 occurred later. Histologic evidence of concomitant acute cellular rejection was noted in 12 cases; the other nine had evi...

  2. Expression of decoy receptor 3 in kidneys is associated with allograft survival after kidney transplant rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Shuo-Chun Weng; Kuo-Hsiung Shu; Ming-Ju Wu; Mei-Chin Wen; Shie-Liang Hsieh; Nien-Jung Chen; Der-Cherng Tarng

    2015-01-01

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) expression in kidneys has been shown to predict progression of chronic kidney disease. We prospectively investigated a cohort comprising 96 renal transplant recipients (RTRs) undergoing graft kidney biopsies. Computer-assisted quantitative immunohistochemical staining value of DcR3 in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) was used to determine the predictive role of DcR3 in kidney disease progression. The primary end point was doubling of serum creatinine and/or graft...

  3. Acute kidney injury in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peco-Antić Amira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a clinical condition considered to be the consequence of a sudden decrease (>25% or discontinuation of renal function. The term AKI is used instead of the previous term acute renal failure, because it has been demonstrated that even minor renal lesions may cause far-reaching consequences on human health. Contemporary classifications of AKI (RIFLE and AKIN are based on the change of serum creatinine and urinary output. In the developed countries, AKI is most often caused by renal ischemia, nephrotoxins and sepsis, rather than a (primary diffuse renal disease, such as glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, renovascular disorder and thrombotic microangiopathy. The main risk factors for hospital AKI are mechanical ventilation, use of vasoactive drugs, stem cell transplantation and diuretic-resistant hypervolemia. Prerenal and parenchymal AKI (previously known as acute tubular necrosis jointly account for 2/3 of all AKI causes. Diuresis and serum creatinine concentration are not early diagnostic markers of AKI. Potential early biomarkers of AKI are neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, cystatin C, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, interleukins 6, 8 and 18, and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP. Early detection of kidney impairment, before the increase of serum creatinine, is important for timely initiated therapy and recovery. The goal of AKI treatment is to normalize the fluid and electrolyte status, as well as the correction of acidosis and blood pressure. Since a severe fluid overload resistant to diuretics and inotropic agents is associated with a poor outcome, the initiation of dialysis should not be delayed. The mortality rate of AKI is highest in critically ill children with multiple organ failure and hemodynamically unstable patients.

  4. [Acute kidney injury in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amira-Peco-Antić; Paripović, Dusan

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a clinical condition considered to be the consequence of a sudden decrease (> 25%) or discontinuation of renal function. The term AKI is used instead of the previous term acute renal failure, because it has been demonstrated that even minor renal lesions may cause far-reaching consequences on human health. Contemporary classifications of AKI (RIFLE and AKIN) are based on the change of serum creatinine and urinary output. In the developed countries, AKI is most often caused by renal ischemia, nephrotoxins and sepsis, rather than a (primary) diffuse renal disease, such as glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, renovascular disorder and thrombotic microangiopathy. The main risk factors for hospital AKI are mechanical ventilation, use of vasoactive drugs, stem cell transplantation and diuretic-resistant hypervolemia. Prerenal and parenchymal AKI (previously known as acute tubular necrosis) jointly account for 2/3 of all AKI causes. Diuresis and serum creatinine concentration are not early diagnostic markers of AKI. Potential early biomarkers of AKI are neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin C, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), interleukins 6, 8 and 18, and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP). Early detection of kidney impairment, before the increase of serum creatinine, is important for timely initiated therapy and recovery. The goal of AKI treatment is to normalize the fluid and electrolyte status, as well as the correction of acidosis and blood pressure. Since a severe fluid overload resistant to diuretics and inotropic agents is associated with a poor outcome, the initiation of dialysis should not be delayed. The mortality rate of AKI is highest in critically ill children with multiple organ failure and hemodynamically unstable patients. PMID:25033598

  5. Metformin in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heaf, James

    2014-01-01

    Metformin has traditionally been regarded as contraindicated in chronic kidney disease (CKD), though guidelines in recent years have been relaxed to permit therapy if the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is > 30 mL/min. The main problem is the perceived risk of lactic acidosis (LA). Epidemiological...... reduction, including weight loss, which are beneficial to patients. The risk of death and cardiovascular disease is reduced by about a third in non-CKD patients. Since metformin intoxication undoubtedly causes LA, and metformin is renally excreted, inappropriate dosage of metformin will increase the risk of...

  6. Restructuring the National Kidney Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, J L

    2000-04-01

    The National Kidney Foundation reorganized its governance structure for the first time in its 50-year history. Following a 2-year review, which involved all constituents of the Foundation and took advantage of the advice of professional consultants, the NKF delegated governance responsibilities to the Board of Directors and created a General Assembly of affiliate leaders and professional staff. NKF national and affiliate leaders agreed on this course of action so that power would be more appropriately shared between the national organization and the affiliates and the overall organization would be better positioned to succeed in the NKF's first national fund raising campaign. PMID:10766005

  7. Curcumin, a diferuloylmethane, attenuates cyclosporine-induced renal dysfunction and oxidative stress in rat kidneys

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Background In India, Curcumin (CMN) is popularly known as "Haldi", and has been well studied due to its economic importance. Traditional Indian medicine claims the use of its powder against biliary disorders, anorexia, coryza, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorder, rheumatism and sinusitis. This study was designed to examine the possible beneficial effect of CMN in preventing the acute renal failure and related oxidative stress caused by chronic administration of cyclosporine (CsA) in rats...

  8. Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Du, Zhen-Xian; Li, De-Tian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Liu, Bo; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bian, Xiao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    BAG3 regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of BAG3 in renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of BAG3 during renal fibrosis, and to investigate the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on renal fibrosis. A rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established, and t...

  9. Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Du, Zhen-Xian; Li, De-Tian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Liu, Bo; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bian, Xiao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    BAG3 regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of BAG3 in renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of BAG3 during renal fibrosis, and to investigate the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on renal fibrosis. A rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established, and the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, and the efficacy of C. sinensis on renal fibrosis induced by UUO were examined. The results showed that UUO led to collagen accumulation, which was significantly suppressed by C. sinensis. UUO increased the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, a mesenchymal marker, while UUO induced BAG3 and α-SMA expression was significantly inhibited by C. sinensis. In addition, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that BAG3 immunoreactivity was restricted to tubular epithelium. In conclusion, BAG3 is a potential target for the prevention and/or treatment of renal fibrosis, and C. Sinensis is a promising agent for renal fibrosis. PMID:26175854

  10. Attenuation of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure is associated with less apoptotic cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H; Miyaji, T; Kato, A; Fujigaki, Y; Sano, K; Hishida, A

    1999-12-01

    To clarify the pathophysiologic role of apoptosis in acute renal failure (ARF), we examined whether the attenuation of cisplatin-induced ARF is associated with the change in the degree of apoptotic cell death. The administration of cisplatin (CDDP) (6 mg/kg body weight) in rats induced ARF at day 5, as manifested by a significant increase in serum creatinine (Scr) and tubular damage. CDDP-induced apoptotic cell death was confirmed by electron microscopic examination, agarose gel electrophoresis, and increased cells positive for TaT-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) in the outer medulla of the kidney. Treatment with dimethylthiourea (DMTU)--a scavenger of hydroxyl radicals--or glycine abrogated CDDP-induced increases in Scr, the tubular damage score, and the number of TUNEL-positive cells. Pretreatment with uranyl acetate (UA) induced a significant expression of Bcl-2 in the kidney and ameliorated CDDP-induced increases in Scr, the tubular damage score, and TUNEL-positive cells in the outer stripe of the outer medulla. Our findings indicate (1) that the attenuation of CDDP-induced ARF was associated with less apoptotic cell death and (2) that the induction of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 attenuated apoptosis and tubular damage. Our results suggest that apoptotic cell death may play an important role in the development of cisplatin-induced ARF. PMID:10595794

  11. Attenuation in silica-based optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandel, Marie Emilie

    2006-01-01

    absorption peaks in order to investigate the cause of an unusual high attenuation in a series of transmission fibers. Strong indications point to Ni2+ in octahedral coordination as being the cause of the high attenuation. The attenuation of fibers having a high core refractive index is analyzed and the cause...... well as the viscosity profile a lower attenuation of high index fibers can be obtained. The design of dispersion compensating fibers using the super mode approach is described, the object being to design dispersion compensating fibers for dispersion compensating fiber modules having a low attenuation......, described by a high figure of merit. The major trade offs encountered when designing dispersion compensating fibers with high figure of merit are to obtain a very negative dispersion, low attenuation and low micro bend loss at the same time. The model for predicting the attenuation of high index fibers is...

  12. Kidney Function and Plasma Copeptin Levels in Healthy Kidney Donors and Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zittema, Debbie; van den Berg, Else; Meijer, Esther; Boertien, Wendy E.; Muller Kobold, Anneke C.; Franssen, Casper F. M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Navis, Gerjan; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Plasma copeptin, a marker of arginine vasopressin, is elevated in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and predicts disease progression. It is unknown whether elevated copeptin levels result from decreased kidney clearance or as compensation for impair

  13. Acute-on-Chronic Kidney Injury in Thyroid Hormone Withdrawal: A Case with Possible Implications for Radioactive Iodine Planning

    OpenAIRE

    McAninch, Elizabeth A.; Lagari, Violet S.

    2015-01-01

    The association between renal dysfunction and hypothyroidism is of increasing clinical importance as thyroid hormone replacement may attenuate decline in renal function and improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although multiple mechanisms for the induction of renal insufficiency in hypothyroidism have been described, the renal impact of short-term, acute hypothyroidism is unknown, which has possible implications for thyroid cancer patients preparing t...

  14. Sleep disorders in kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santo, R M; Perna, A; Di Iorio, B R; Cirillo, M

    2010-03-01

    Sleep disorders are common in patients with end stage renal disease receiving hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. However also a well functioning renal graft does not cure the poor sleep pattern which now emerges as a problem even in early chronic kidney disease (CKD). When patients are made aware for the first time of a disease such as CKD, which may brink to dialysis or at the best to a renal transplant patients begin to experience a disordered sleep. Sleeping disorders include insomnia (I), sleep apnoea (SAS), restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), excessive daily sleeping (EDS), sleepwalking, nightmares, and narcolepsy. Disordered sleep did not meet the clinical and scientific interest it deserves, in addition and we do not have a well defined solution for sleeping complaints. However, awareness that a poor sleep is associated with poor quality of life and carries an increase in mortality risk has recently stimulated interest in the field. There are many putative causes for a disordered sleep in chronic kidney disease and in end-stage renal disease. For a unifying hypothesis demographic factors, lifestyles, disease related factors, psychological factors, treatment related factors, and social factor must be taken into consideration. PMID:20424573

  15. Isotopic scintigraphy in kidney grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic explorations of kidney transplants were performed on sixty-six patients. Three scintigraphic techniques were used: labelled ferrous ascorbate scintigraphy, sequential 99m technetium DTPA scintigraphy and the 131I hippuran nephrogram. The aim of this study is to analyse the results obtained under different pathological circumstances affecting the transplant, to discuss the advantages of the techniques and to propose a working procedure. The most reliable and accurate technique is the 131I hippuran nephrogram combined with sequential 99mTc DTPA, by which renal vascularisation may be judged labelled ferrous ascorbate on the other hand is too insensitive. Although the information supplied is mostly contained in the scintigraphic images, the nephrographic curves and the blood radioactivity decay time and rad V/rad R ratio measurements are very helpful in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of complications affecting the transplant. The proper use of isotopic scintigraphy in kidney grafting should provide optimum conditions for better survival of the transplant at minimum risk to the patient

  16. Lithium-Associated Kidney Microcysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Tuazon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term lithium therapy is associated with impairment in concentrating ability and, occasionally, progression to advanced chronic kidney disease from tubulointerstitial nephropathy. Biopsy findings in patients with lithium-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy include tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis interspersed with tubular cysts and dilatations. Recent studies have shown that cysts are seen in 33––62.5% of the patients undergoing lithium therapy. MR imaging is highly capable of defining renal morphological features and has been demonstrated to be superior to US and CT scan for the visualization of small renal cysts. The microcysts are found in both cortex and medulla, particularly in the regions with extensive atrophy and fibrosis, and can be multiple and bilateral. They tend to be sparse and do not normally exceed 1–2 mm in diameter. The renal microcysts in the image here reported are subtle, but consistent with lithium-induced chronic nephropathy. An MRI of the kidneys provides noninvasive evidence that strengthens the diagnosis of lithium-induced nephropathy.

  17. Nephrology Update: Acute Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabu, Nagaraju; Rahman, Mahboob

    2016-05-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) refers to any acute decrease in glomerular filtration rate, regardless of etiology. Staging of AKI has been recommended to stratify AKI patients according to severity of the condition, based on serum creatinine level and urine output. Classification of AKI into prerenal, intrinsic renal, and postrenal etiologies is helpful in differential diagnosis and management. AKI in hospitalized patients typically occurs due to decreased renal perfusion. Drug-induced, contrast-associated, postoperative, and sepsis-associated AKI also can occur. Clinical assessment of a patient with AKI involves a medical record review, thorough history and physical examination, urinary and blood tests, renal imaging, and, in some instances, renal biopsy. Contrast-induced nephropathy is a common iatrogenic etiology of AKI associated with administration of intravenous iodinated contrast media. Measures to prevent AKI should be taken before administration of intravenous iodinated contrast. AKI can result in many short- and long-term complications, including chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Appropriate treatment of AKI patients involves management of the underlying etiology, when possible, and use of nondialytic and dialytic therapies. PMID:27163760

  18. ET-1 deletion from endothelial cells protects the kidney during the extension phase of ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arfian, Nur [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Emoto, Noriaki, E-mail: emoto@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe (Japan); Vignon-Zellweger, Nicolas; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Yagi, Keiko [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe (Japan); Hirata, Ken-ichi [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) induced increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IRI was accompanied by tubular injury and remodeling of renal arteries. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IRI increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Genetic suppression of ET-1 in endothelial cells attenuates IRI in the kidney. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanisms include the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation. -- Abstract: Background: The prognosis of patients after acute kidney injury (AKI) is poor and treatment is limited. AKI is mainly caused by renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). During the extension phase of IRI, endothelial damage may participate in ischemia and inflammation. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) which is mostly secreted by endothelial cells is an important actor of IRI, particularly through its strong vasoconstrictive properties. We aimed to analyze the specific role of ET-1 from the endothelial cells in AKI. Methods: We used mice lacking ET-1 in the vascular endothelial cells (VEETKO). We induced IRI in VEETKO mice and wild type controls by clamping both kidneys for 30 min. Sham operated mice were used as controls. Mice were sacrificed one day after IRI in order to investigate the extension phase of IRI. Kidney function was assessed based on serum creatinine concentration. Levels of expression of ET-1, its receptor ET{sub A}, protein kinase C, eNOS, E-Cadherin and inflammation markers were evaluated by real time PCR or western blot. Tubular injury was scored on periodic acid Schiff stained kidney preparations. Lumen and wall area of small intrarenal arteries were measured on kidney slices stained for alpha smooth muscle cell actin. Oxidative stress, macrophage infiltration and cell proliferation was evaluated on slices stained for 8-hydroxy-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine, F4/80 and PCNA, respectively. Results: IRI induced kidney failure and increased ET-1 and

  19. ET-1 deletion from endothelial cells protects the kidney during the extension phase of ischemia/reperfusion injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) induced increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression. ► IRI was accompanied by tubular injury and remodeling of renal arteries. ► IRI increased oxidative stress and inflammation. ► Genetic suppression of ET-1 in endothelial cells attenuates IRI in the kidney. ► The mechanisms include the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation. -- Abstract: Background: The prognosis of patients after acute kidney injury (AKI) is poor and treatment is limited. AKI is mainly caused by renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). During the extension phase of IRI, endothelial damage may participate in ischemia and inflammation. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) which is mostly secreted by endothelial cells is an important actor of IRI, particularly through its strong vasoconstrictive properties. We aimed to analyze the specific role of ET-1 from the endothelial cells in AKI. Methods: We used mice lacking ET-1 in the vascular endothelial cells (VEETKO). We induced IRI in VEETKO mice and wild type controls by clamping both kidneys for 30 min. Sham operated mice were used as controls. Mice were sacrificed one day after IRI in order to investigate the extension phase of IRI. Kidney function was assessed based on serum creatinine concentration. Levels of expression of ET-1, its receptor ETA, protein kinase C, eNOS, E-Cadherin and inflammation markers were evaluated by real time PCR or western blot. Tubular injury was scored on periodic acid Schiff stained kidney preparations. Lumen and wall area of small intrarenal arteries were measured on kidney slices stained for alpha smooth muscle cell actin. Oxidative stress, macrophage infiltration and cell proliferation was evaluated on slices stained for 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, F4/80 and PCNA, respectively. Results: IRI induced kidney failure and increased ET-1 and ETA receptor expression. This was accompanied by tubular injury, wall thickening and reduction of lumen area/wall area ratio of small

  20. Scintigraphic determination of kidney volume for assessment of individual kidney function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuemichen, C.; Vogt, H.; Schmitt, E.; Pohle, W.; Gaede, J.

    1980-09-01

    The right to left ratio in kidney function was evaluated in 145 patients by means of the secretory phase of the renogram as well as by means of the scintigraphically determined kidney volume. A good and linear correlation was found between both parameters, as far as there was no considerable obstructive uropathy. In this cases the right to left ratio in kidney volume can be directly used for judging the individual function of each kidney. The method seems to be most suitable for determining the functional portion of dystopic kidneys.

  1. Study of Kidney Tumors in Younger Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-17

    Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Congenital Mesoblastic Nephroma; Diffuse Hyperplastic Perilobar Nephroblastomatosis; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor

  2. [Causes of removal of kidney allotransplants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental', R L; Il'inskiĭ, I M; Tikhomirova, T E; Bitsans, Ia B; Luse, L Ia

    1983-07-01

    The most frequent causes of cessation of the functioning of 60 kidney transplants was an acute rejection reaction and thrombosis of main vessels of the transplanted kidney. The authors believe the attraction of the cytological analysis of the urine, instrumental and roentgen-radiological examinations as well as biochemical data to improve the diagnosis of pathological changes in the transplant. PMID:6353738

  3. A Review of Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, C D W; Bholah, R; Bunchman, T E

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is complex in both adults and children, but the disease is far from the same between these populations. Here we review the marked differences in etiology, comorbidities, impact of disease on growth and quality of life, issues unique to adolescents and transitions to adult care, and special considerations of congenital kidney and urinary tract anomalies for transplantation. PMID:26766175

  4. Renal acidification defects in medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1988-01-01

    Thirteen patients with medullary sponge kidney underwent a short ammonium chloride loading test to investigate their renal acidification capacity. All but 1 presented with a history of recurrent renal calculi and showed bilateral widespread renal medullary calcification on X-ray examination. Nine...... renal calculi in medullary sponge kidney, have considerable therapeutic implications....

  5. Plasma adiponectin before and after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Thomas; Hornum, Mads; Bjerre, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    The role of plasma adiponectin (ADPN) in patients with impaired kidney function and following kidney transplantation (Tx) is debated. We aimed to: (i) determine whether pretransplant ADPN level is an independent risk factor for deterioration of glucose tolerance including development of new...

  6. [Efficacy and safety of selective estrogen receptor modulators in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Kentaro

    2016-09-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators(SERMs)have beneficial effects on the improvement of bone mineral density of the spine and hip, and decrease the vertebral fracture in postmenopausal women. Similar to patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, including dialysis patients, however, SERMs cannot decrease the risk of hip fracture, which is extremely high in Japanese dialysis patients. One of the most important disadvantages of SERMs is an increase in the risk of venous thromboembolic events and fatal stroke in high-risk groups of the Framingham Stroke Risk Score. On the other hand, SERMs may be used in unique osteoporosis drugs for reducing the incidence and progression of breast cancer. Moreover, SERMs attenuate oxidative stress and may lessen the deterioration of kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease. The evidences for the efficacy and safety of SERMs in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease are insufficient, and knowledge concerning the selection and indication of osteoporosis drugs for those patients need to be developed. PMID:27561348

  7. The innate immune response in ischemic acute kidney injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Hye Ryoun; Rabb, Hamid

    2008-01-01

    Kidney ischemia reperfusion injury is a major cause of morbidity in both allograft and native kidneys. Ischemia reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury is characterized by early, allo-antigen independent inflammation. Major components of the innate immune system are activated and participate in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury, plus prime the allograft kidney for rejection. Soluble members of innate immunity implicated in acute kidney injury include the complement system, cytokines, an...

  8. Haptoglobin Phenotype Predicts a Low Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, My; Strandhave, Charlotte; Krarup, H.B.;

    F-PO1096 Haptoglobin Phenotype Predicts a Low Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease My Svensson,1 Charlotte Strandhave,1 Henrik My Svensson,1 Charlotte Strandhave,1 HenrikKrarup,2 Jeppe H. Christensen.1 1Department of Nephrology, Aalborg Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 2...... phenotype-dependent antioxidant capacity where Hp 2-2 exhibits a low antioxidant ability, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. An attenuated heart rate variability (HRV) may be an important predictor of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the present study, we examined......Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark. Introduction Three major phenotypes for the haptoglobin (Hp) gene has been identified: Hp 1-1, Hp 2-2, and the heterozygous Hp 2-1. Hp 2-2 is associated with a poor outcome in patients with cardiovascular disease. This may be due to a...

  9. Efficacy of cellular vaccines and genetic adjuvants against bacterial kidney disease in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Linda D; Rathbone, Cindra K; Corbett, Stephen C; Harrell, Lee W; Strom, Mark S

    2004-04-01

    DNA adjuvants and whole bacterial cell vaccines against bacterial kidney disease (BKD) were tested in juvenile chinook salmon. Whole cell vaccines of either a nonpathogenic Arthrobacter spp. or an attenuated Renibacterium salmoninarum strain provided limited prophylactic protection against acute intraperitoneal challenge with virulent R. salmoninarum, and the addition of either synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides or purified R. salmoninarum genomic DNA as adjuvants did not increase protection. However, a combination of both whole cell vaccines significantly increased survival among fish naturally infected with R. salmoninarum, and the surviving fish treated with the combination vaccine exhibited reduced levels of bacterial antigens in the kidney. This is the first demonstration of a potential therapeutic effect of a whole cell vaccine against BKD. PMID:15123289

  10. Imaging Rayleigh wave attenuation with USArray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xueyang; Dalton, Colleen A.; Jin, Ge; Gaherty, James B.; Shen, Yang

    2016-07-01

    The EarthScope USArray provides an opportunity to obtain detailed images of the continental upper mantle at an unprecedented scale. The majority of mantle models derived from USArray data to date contain spatial variations in seismic-wave speed; however, in many cases these data sets do not by themselves allow a non-unique interpretation. Joint interpretation of seismic attenuation and velocity models can improve upon the interpretations based only on velocity and provide important constraints on the temperature, composition, melt content, and volatile content of the mantle. The surface wave amplitudes that constrain upper-mantle attenuation are sensitive to factors in addition to attenuation, including the earthquake source excitation, focusing and defocusing by elastic structure, and local site amplification. Because of the difficulty of isolating attenuation from these other factors, little is known about the attenuation structure of the North American upper mantle. In this study, Rayleigh wave traveltime and amplitude in the period range 25-100 s are measured using an interstation cross-correlation technique, which takes advantage of waveform similarity at nearby stations. Several estimates of Rayleigh wave attenuation and site amplification are generated at each period, using different approaches to separate the effects of attenuation and local site amplification on amplitude. It is assumed that focusing and defocusing effects can be described by the Laplacian of the traveltime field. All approaches identify the same large-scale patterns in attenuation, including areas where the attenuation values are likely contaminated by unmodelled focusing and defocusing effects. Regionally averaged attenuation maps are constructed after removal of the contaminated attenuation values, and the variations in intrinsic shear attenuation that are suggested by these Rayleigh wave attenuation maps are explored.

  11. Acute Kidney Injury Associated with Linagliptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandikanti, Deepak K; Gosmanova, Elvira O; Gosmanov, Aidar R

    2016-01-01

    Linagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. About 5% of linagliptin is eliminated by the kidneys and no dose adjustment is recommended in kidney impairment. We report a first case of linagliptin-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) in a patient with preexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesize that AKI was due to renal hypoperfusion from linagliptin-induced natriuresis and intravascular volume contraction in the setting of concomitant lisinopril use, which is known to impair autoregulation and potentiate hypotension-induced AKI. It may be prudent to exert caution and closely monitor kidney function when initiating linagliptin in combination with ACE-inhibitors in CKD patients. PMID:26981294

  12. Acute Kidney Injury Associated with Linagliptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak K. Nandikanti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Linagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. About 5% of linagliptin is eliminated by the kidneys and no dose adjustment is recommended in kidney impairment. We report a first case of linagliptin-associated acute kidney injury (AKI in a patient with preexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD. We hypothesize that AKI was due to renal hypoperfusion from linagliptin-induced natriuresis and intravascular volume contraction in the setting of concomitant lisinopril use, which is known to impair autoregulation and potentiate hypotension-induced AKI. It may be prudent to exert caution and closely monitor kidney function when initiating linagliptin in combination with ACE-inhibitors in CKD patients.

  13. The multicystic dysplastic kidney in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W T; Chen, H C; Peng, H C

    1993-05-01

    Multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) is the most common renal cystic disease in infancy and the second most common neonatal abdominal mass. It represents an extreme form of renal dysplasia. The key features in MCDK include variability in size, loss of kidney shape, absence of function and obstruction of ureter. Current management is still controversial. The prognosis is largely depended upon the problems of associated anomalies and the condition of the contralateral kidney. From September '82 to September '91, twelve patients with multicystic kidney have been treated at Taichung Veterans General Hospital. Ten of them received elective nephrectomy. The postoperative condition was uneventful. However, there was a high frequency of associated anomalies (41.6%) and pathologic contralateral kidney (50%). Two patients who refused operation were put on close observation and follow-up with ultrasound. During the surgical patients' follow-up period, one suffered from repeated urinary tract infection and the other died of multiple congenital anomalies. PMID:8334562

  14. De Novo Kidney Regeneration with Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yokote

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported on techniques to mobilize and activate endogenous stem-cells in injured kidneys or to introduce exogenous stem cells for tissue repair. Despite many recent advantages in renal regenerative therapy, chronic kidney disease (CKD remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality and the number of CKD patients has been increasing. When the sophisticated structure of the kidneys is totally disrupted by end stage renal disease (ESRD, traditional stem cell-based therapy is unable to completely regenerate the damaged tissue. This suggests that whole organ regeneration may be a promising therapeutic approach to alleviate patients with uncured CKD. We summarize here the potential of stem-cell-based therapy for injured tissue repair and de novo whole kidney regeneration. In addition, we describe the hurdles that must be overcome and possible applications of this approach in kidney regeneration.

  15. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Deliver Exogenous MicroRNA-let7c via Exosomes to Attenuate Renal Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Yao, Kevin; Huuskes, Brooke M; Shen, Hsin-Hui; Zhuang, Junli; Godson, Catherine; Brennan, Eoin P; Wilkinson-Berka, Jennifer L; Wise, Andrea F; Ricardo, Sharon D

    2016-08-01

    The advancement of microRNA (miRNA) therapies has been hampered by difficulties in delivering miRNA to the injured kidney in a robust and sustainable manner. Using bioluminescence imaging in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), we report that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), engineered to overexpress miRNA-let7c (miR-let7c-MSCs), selectively homed to damaged kidneys and upregulated miR-let7c gene expression, compared with nontargeting control (NTC)-MSCs. miR-let7c-MSC therapy attenuated kidney injury and significantly downregulated collagen IVα1, metalloproteinase-9, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and TGF-β type 1 receptor (TGF-βR1) in UUO kidneys, compared with controls. In vitro analysis confirmed that the transfer of miR-let7c from miR-let7c-MSCs occurred via secreted exosomal uptake, visualized in NRK52E cells using cyc3-labeled pre-miRNA-transfected MSCs with/without the exosomal inhibitor, GW4869. The upregulated expression of fibrotic genes in NRK52E cells induced by TGF-β1 was repressed following the addition of isolated exosomes or indirect coculture of miR-let7c-MSCs, compared with NTC-MSCs. Furthermore, the cotransfection of NRK52E cells using the 3'UTR of TGF-βR1 confirmed that miR-let7c attenuates TGF-β1-driven TGF-βR1 gene expression. Taken together, the effective antifibrotic function of engineered MSCs is able to selectively transfer miR-let7c to damaged kidney cells and will pave the way for the use of MSCs for therapeutic delivery of miRNA targeted at kidney disease. PMID:27203438

  16. Influenza virus infection, ozone exposure, and fibrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, G J; Bassett, D J

    1990-05-01

    Oxidant exposure following chemically induced lung injury exacerbates the tendency to develop pulmonary fibrosis. Influenza virus pneumonitis causes severe acute lung damage that, upon resolution, is followed by a persistent alveolitis and parenchymal changes characterized by patchy interstitial pneumonia and collagen deposition in the affected areas. To determine whether oxidant exposure exacerbates the virus-induced alveolitis and residual lung damage, mice were infected by aerosol inhalation with influenza A virus and continuously exposed to 0.5 ppm ozone or ambient air. Noninfected control mice were exposed to either ambient air or ozone. On various days during the first month after infection, groups of mice were sacrificed and their lungs assessed for acute injury (lung lavage albumin, total and differential cell counts, wet/dry ratios, and morphometry). At 30, 60, 90, and 120 days after infection, groups of mice were sacrificed for total and differential lavage cell counts, lung hydroxyproline content, and morphometric analysis. Ozone exposure did not alter the proliferation of virus in the lungs as quantitated by infectious virus titers of lung homogenates at 1, 4, 7, 10, and 15 days after virus infection but mitigated the virus-induced acute lung injury by approximately 50%. After Day 30 a shift in the character of the pulmonary lesions was observed in that continuous exposure to ozone potentiated the postinfluenzal alveolitis and structural changes in the lung parenchyma. Additional studies suggest that the mechanism for the enhanced postinfluenzal lung damage may be related to the oxidant impairing the repair process of the acute influenzal lung damage. These data demonstrate that ozone exposure mitigates acute virus-induced lung injury and potentiates residual lung damage. PMID:2339849

  17. Relative length of human kidney as more precise measuring of normal kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malformations in kidney development and kidney diseases are accompanied with changes in their size. For kidney evaluation in clinical practice, the kidney length is the most widely used measurement, since it provides the most precise results and it is easy to perform. Recently, the measurement of relative renal length has become more preferable as it takes into account the body height. The aim of this study was to measure both the absolute and relative length of normal cadaveric kidneys according to the body height, sex and age. Material and methods. In this study, we examined 95 adult cadaveric kidneys, without renal and vascular impairment, their age ranging from 23-87 years. To determine the period of the most abundant changes in kidney length, we separated them into a 10-year range. The relative renal length was calculated using the kidney length anybody height ratio (kidney/body ratio. Results. The absolute and relative length of left kidney in males was longer than the right one, with a statistically significant correlation. In females, the left kidney length was also longer than the right one, however, without a statistical significance. In contrast to the absolute length, the relative length of both kidneys did not show a significant difference between sexes, and did not manifest a significant decrease with age. There was a significant correlation between the kidney length and the subject’s height. Conclusion. The relative renal length represents kidney size better than the absolute renal length because it eliminates sex and height differences until the age of 59 year. From the seventh decade of life, there is a significant decrease in both the absolute and relative renal length.

  18. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  19. Exenatide induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijazi, Ishma; Abdulla, Fadhil M; Zuberi, Beyla J; Elhassan, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Exenatide is an incretin mimetic. It was approved by the federal drug authority in 2005 for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. Since it is a relatively new medicine clinicians have limited experience with regards to its side effects and safety profile. We report a 47 year old lady who presented with exenatide associated acute kidney injury. She had type-2 diabetes for 10 years with mild micro albuminuria and normal renal functions. She was also taking a stable dose of metformin, gliclazide, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and diuretic for over a year and there was no history of any recent use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory medications. One week after starting exenatide, she developed severe vomiting, followed by hypotension. She presented with acute renal insufficiency and severe lactic acidosis and had to be dialyzed on emergency basis. To our knowledge this is probably the first case reported in the local United Arab Emirate (U.A.E) population. PMID:25672206

  20. Chronic kidney disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherucci, Francesca; Roperto, Rosa Maria; Materassi, Marco; Romagnani, Paola

    2016-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health problem worldwide. Although relatively uncommon in children, it can be a devastating illness with many long-term consequences. CKD presents unique features in childhood and may be considered, at least in part, as a stand-alone nosologic entity. Moreover, some typical features of paediatric CKD, such as the disease aetiology or cardiovascular complications, will not only influence the child's health, but also have long-term impact on the life of the adult that they will become. In this review we will focus on the unique issues of paediatric CKD, in terms of aetiology, clinical features and treatment. In addition, we will discuss factors related to CKD that start during childhood and require appropriate treatments in order to optimize health outcomes and transition to nephrologist management in adult life. PMID:27478602

  1. Apparatus for disintegrating kidney stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, E. D. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The useful life of the wire probe in an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is enhanced and prolonged by attaching the wire of the wire probe to the tip of an ultrasonic transducer by means of a clamping arrangement. Additionally, damping material is applied to the wire probe in the form of a damper tube through which the wire probe passes in the region adjacent the transducer tip. The damper tube extends outwardly from the transducer tip a predetermined distance, terminating in a resilient soft rubber joint. Also, the damper tube is supported intermediate its length by a support member. The damper system thus acts to inhibit lateral vibrations of the wire in the region of the transducer tip while providing little or no damping to the linear vibrations imparted to the wire by the transducer.

  2. Imaging in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, Mario; Samoni, Sara; Petrucci, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) diagnosis and staging are based on estimated or calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinalysis and kidney structure at renal imaging techniques. Ultrasound (US) has a key role in evaluating both morphological changes (by means of B-Mode) and patterns of vascularization (by means of color-Doppler and contrast-enhanced US), thus contributing to CKD diagnosis and to the follow-up of its progression. In CKD, conventional US allows measuring longitudinal diameter and cortical thickness and evaluating renal echogenicity and urinary tract status. Maximum renal length is usually considered a morphological marker of CKD, as it decreases contemporarily to GFR, and should be systematically recorded in US reports. More recently, it has been found to be a significant correlation of both renal longitudinal diameter and cortical thickness with renal function. Conventional US should be integrated by color Doppler, which shows parenchymal perfusion and patency of veins and arteries, and by spectral Doppler, which is crucial for the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis and provides important information about intrarenal microcirculation. Different values of renal resistive indexes (RIs) have been associated with different primary diseases, as they reflect vascular compliance. Since RIs significantly correlate with renal function, they have been proposed to be independent risk factors for CKD progression, besides proteinuria, low GFR and arterial hypertension. Despite several new applications, US and color Doppler contribute to a definite diagnosis in <50% of cases of CKD, because of the lack of specific US patterns, especially in cases of advanced CKD. However, US is useful to evaluate CKD progression and to screen patients at risk for CKD. The indications and the recommended frequency of color Doppler US could differ in each case and the follow-up should be tailored. PMID:27170301

  3. Both msa genes in Renibacterium salmoninarum are needed for full virulence in bacterial kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Alison M; Murray, Anthony L; Elliott, Diane G; Rhodes, Linda D

    2006-04-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum, a gram-positive diplococcobacillus that causes bacterial kidney disease among salmon and trout, has two chromosomal loci encoding the major soluble antigen (msa) gene. Because the MSA protein is widely suspected to be an important virulence factor, we used insertion-duplication mutagenesis to generate disruptions of either the msa1 or msa2 gene. Surprisingly, expression of MSA protein in broth cultures appeared unaffected. However, the virulence of either mutant in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by intraperitoneal challenge was severely attenuated, suggesting that disruption of the msa1 or msa2 gene affected in vivo expression. PMID:16597972

  4. Linear attenuation coefficients of tissues from 1 keV to 150 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böke, Aysun

    2014-09-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients and three interaction processes have been computed for liver, kidney, muscle, fat and for a range of x-ray energies from 1 keV to 150 keV. Molecular photoelectric absorption cross sections were calculated from atomic cross section data. Total coherent (Rayleigh) and incoherent (Compton) scattering cross sections were obtained by numerical integration over combinations of F2m(x) with the Thomson formula and Sm(x) with the Klein-Nishina formula, respectively. For the coherent (Rayleigh) scattering cross section calculations, molecular form factors were obtained from recent experimental data in the literature for values of xlinear attenuation coefficients. In general, good agreement is obtained. The molecular form factors and scattering functions and cross sections are incorporated into a Monte Carlo program. The energy distributions of x-ray photons scattered from tissues have been simulated and the results are presented.

  5. Differential dust attenuation in CALIFA galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale Asari, N.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Amorim, A. L.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; Schlickmann, M.; Wild, V.; Kennicutt, R. C.

    2016-06-01

    Dust attenuation has long been treated as a simple parameter in SED fitting. Real galaxies are, however, much more complicated: The measured dust attenuation is not a simple function of the dust optical depth, but depends strongly on galaxy inclination and the relative distribution of stars and dust. We study the nebular and stellar dust attenuation in CALIFA galaxies, and propose some empirical recipes to make the dust treatment more realistic in spectral synthesis codes. By adding optical recombination emission lines, we find better constraints for differential attenuation. Those recipes can be applied to unresolved galaxy spectra, and lead to better recovered star formation rates.

  6. Optimising the management of polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Declan; Maxwell, Alexander P

    2016-02-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is the most common inherited renal disorder that results in chronic kidney disease. PKD has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. The prevalence is between 1:500 and 1:1,000. Up to 10% of adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have a genetic disorder such as PKD. A family history of PKD may be absent in up to 25% of affected individuals. The most common clinical features are visible haematuria, loin pain, UTI and hypertension. The typical clinical course is a progressive increase in the number and size of renal cysts associated with gradual loss of kidney function (falling eGFR). Risk factors for progression include: younger age at diagnosis; large kidney volume; rapid cyst growth; hypertension; male gender; and visible haematuria. Approximately 50% of individuals with PKD will require renal replacement therapy by the sixth decade of life. PKD is a multisystem disorder associated with multiple bilateral renal cysts, slowly increasing kidney size and progressive chronic kidney disease. Diagnosis of PKD is confirmed by ultrasound showing the presence of multiple kidney cysts. More than 80% will also have multiple liver cysts, which can lead to local pressure effects. Cerebral haemorrhage, secondary to rupture of a berry aneurysm, occurs in up to 8% of individuals. Mitral valve prolapse occurs in up to 25% of patients. PMID:27032221

  7. Nephronophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanišić Marijana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nephronophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease complex refers to the genetic heterogeneous group of inherited tubulointerstital nephritis. Nephronophthisis comprises at last 3 clinical manifestations, has the autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance, appears early in life and is the most frequent inherited kidney disease that causes terminal renal failure in childhood, while medullary cystic kidney disease has the autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, is less frequent, and terminal renal failure appears later in life. These two forms have similar clinical and morphological findings but extrarenal manifestations, the median ages of occurrence of terminal renal failure, and siblings presence help us distinguish these diseases. Case report. In this article we illustrated the case of a 20- years old patient with the suspicion of having complex nephornophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease based upon mild renal failure, seen in routinely taken laboratory findings and bilateral cysts in corticomedullary region of the kidneys verified on abdominal ultrasound examination. Conclusion. This disease should rise suspicion in children or adolescents with progressive renal failure, a typical clinical manifestation, blood and urine samples results, bilateral cysts in the corticomedullary region of the kidneys seen during ultrasound examination of the kidneys and family inheritance.

  8. Heat shock proteins in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Rajasree; Van Why, Scott K

    2016-10-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are essential to cell survival through their function as protein chaperones. The role they play in kidney health and disease is varied. Hsp induction may be either beneficial or detrimental to the kidney, depending on the specific Hsp, type of cell, and context. This review addresses the role of Hsps in the kidney, including during development, as osmoprotectants, and in various kidney disease models. Heat shock transcription factor, activated by a stress on renal cells, induces Hsp elaboration and separately regulates immune responses that can contribute to renal injury. Induced Hsps in the intracellular compartment are mostly beneficial in the kidney by stabilizing and restoring cell architecture and function through acting as protein chaperones. Intracellular Hsps also inhibit apoptosis and facilitate cell proliferation, preserving renal tubule viability after acute injury, but enhancing progression of cystic kidney disease and malignancy. Induced Hsps in the extracellular compartment, either circulating or located on outer cell membranes, are mainly detrimental through enhancing inflammation pathways to injury. Correctly harnessing these stress proteins promises the opportunity to alter the course of acute and chronic kidney disease. PMID:26913726

  9. Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney: Four-Year Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna AYTAÇ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Multicystic dysplastic kidney is a relatively common developmental abnormality in infants and children. Additional abnormalities like vesicoureteral reflux, ureteropelvic junction obstruction, and ureterovesical junction obstruction may accompany multicystic dysplastic kidney. In this article, we reviewed the pathogenesis, diagnosis, associated urinary tract anomalies and results of management of multicystic dysplastic kidney in the light of the literature.Material and Method: We retrospectively assessed 20 children with unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney between January 2005 and December 2009. Mean duration of follow-up was 35 ± 8.7 months. All children with multicystic dysplastic kidney underwent nephrectomy. Patient characteristics, the pathology findings, associated urinary tract anomalies and results of management were reviewed.Results: Abdominal ultrasound, voiding cystourethrography and renal scintigraphy revealed vesicoureteral reflux in 3 (15% children, ureteropelvic junction obstruction in 3 (15% children, and a duplex system in the contralateral kidney in 1 (5% child. Blood pressure values, serum urea, creatinine and urinalysis were within normal range in all children during follow-up.Conclusion: A conservative approach to children with multicystic dysplastic kidney has been advocated, but surgical removal is also another management modality on the basis of risk of hypertension, mass effect, potential for malignant change, and cost of repeated ultrasound examination.

  10. The physiognomist's kidney in the fifteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Physiognomy, the art of deciphering a person's character and potential behavior by his or her external appearance, is an ancient body of knowledge which was gradually revived in the Latin West in the twelfth and particularly in the thirteenth century. This is a philological study of the scientific discourse about the physiognomy of the kidney in physiognomic sources from Pseudo-Aristotle's Physiognomonics (third century B.C.) through Pietro d'Abano's Liber compilationis phisonomie (ca 1295) to Rolandus Scriptoris's Reductorium phisonomie (ca 1430). Fifteenth-century learned physiognomists devoted specific chapters to the kidney. The physiognomists analyzed the fleshiness of the body-surface outside the kidneys (i.e. the loins and their vicinity). Firm loins denoted boldness, agility, and good fighting capacity and vice versa. The pre-modern kidney was of interest not only to physicians and surgeons wishing to treat kidney conditions and other pathologies arising from the urinary system. There were learned physicians who examined the body not to diagnose diseases, but to decipher their patient's personality. When engaged in this activity the kidneys, that is, the loins or the external area of the kidneys, were one of the body parts that could provide vital physiognomic information. PMID:15372426

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the transplanted kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new noninvasive means for evaluating pathological changes of kidney transplants. Thirty kidney transplants were examined by MRI study, comparing with 12 donor kidneys as control. Imaging of well functioning grafts using inversion recovery (IR) method displayed a clear figure of corticomedullary differentiation (CMD). Kidneys under acute rejection, chronic rejection, and ciclosporin nephrotoxicity displayed poor CMD. CMD of Kidneys under ATN was poor on IR imaging, but clear on T1 weightened imaging. T1 values of kidney grafts were obtained as the mean value of T1 relaxation time of three areas including upper pole, lower pole, and the middle of the cortex. T1 value of the grafts under chronic rejection was similar to that of well functioning grafts. The value increased in case of acute rejection, ATN, and ciclosporin nephrotoxicity and decreased as the graft function was getting better. Imaging and the estimation of T1 value of kidney transplants of MRI were effective for evaluating graft function but of no use for differentiation of causes of graft deterioration. (author)

  12. Biomarkers and surrogate endpoints in kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Erum A

    2016-03-01

    Kidney disease and its related comorbidities impose a large public health burden. Despite this, the number of clinical trials in nephrology lags behind many other fields. An important factor contributing to the relatively slow pace of nephrology trials is that existing clinical endpoints have significant limitations. "Hard" endpoints for chronic kidney disease, such as progression to end-stage renal disease, may not be reached for decades. Traditional biomarkers, such as serum creatinine in acute kidney injury, may lack sensitivity and predictive value. Finding new biomarkers to serve as surrogate endpoints is therefore an important priority in kidney disease research and may help to accelerate nephrology clinical trials. In this paper, I first review key concepts related to the selection of clinical trial endpoints and discuss statistical and regulatory considerations related to the evaluation of biomarkers as surrogate endpoints. This is followed by a discussion of the challenges and opportunities in developing novel biomarkers and surrogate endpoints in three major areas of nephrology research: acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. PMID:25980469

  13. Mechanisms of Chemical Carcinogenesis in the Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara McMorrow

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical carcinogens are substances which induce malignant tumours, increase their incidence or decrease the time taken for tumour formation. Often, exposure to chemical carcinogens results in tissue specific patterns of tumorigenicity. The very same anatomical, biochemical and physiological specialisations which permit the kidney to perform its vital roles in maintaining tissue homeostasis may in fact increase the risk of carcinogen exposure and contribute to the organ specific carcinogenicity observed with numerous kidney carcinogens. This review will address the numerous mechanisms which play a role in the concentration, bioactivation, and uptake of substances from both the urine and blood which significantly increase the risk of cancer in the kidney.

  14. Plasma adiponectin before and after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Thomas; Hornum, Mads; Bjerre, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    The role of plasma adiponectin (ADPN) in patients with impaired kidney function and following kidney transplantation (Tx) is debated. We aimed to: (i) determine whether pretransplant ADPN level is an independent risk factor for deterioration of glucose tolerance including development of new......-onset diabetes mellitus after Tx, (ii) describe which parameters that influence the ADPN concentration before and after Tx. Fifty-seven nondiabetic kidney allograft recipients and 40 nondiabetic uraemic patients were included. The Tx group was examined at baseline and 3 and 12 months after Tx. The uraemic...

  15. Antiphospholipid Syndrome and Kidney Involvement: New Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Martínez-Flores

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by vascular thromboses and pregnancy morbidity associated with antiphospholipid antibodies: lupus anticoagulant, IgG or IgM anticardiolipin or anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I. The kidney is one of the major target organs in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS. However, beyond the known involvement of the kidney in primary and associated APS, we may be observing a new form of APS within the context of renal failure. This review describes the classical kidney manifestations of APS and provides new considerations to be taken into account.

  16. A simple model for deep tissue attenuation correction and large organ analysis of Cerenkov luminescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, Frezghi; Natarajan, Arutselvan; Paik, David S.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2014-03-01

    Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is an emerging cost effective modality that uses conventional small animal optical imaging systems and clinically available radionuclide probes for light emission. CLI has shown good correlation with PET for organs of high uptake such as kidney, spleen, thymus and subcutaneous tumors in mouse models. However, CLI has limitations for deep tissue quantitative imaging since the blue-weighted spectral characteristics of Cerenkov radiation attenuates highly by mammalian tissue. Large organs such as the liver have also shown higher signal due to the contribution of emission of light from a greater thickness of tissue. In this study, we developed a simple model that estimates the effective tissue attenuation coefficient in order to correct the CLI signal intensity with a priori estimated depth and thickness of specific organs. We used several thin slices of ham to build a phantom with realistic attenuation. We placed radionuclide sources inside the phantom at different tissue depths and imaged it using an IVIS Spectrum (Perkin-Elmer, Waltham, MA, USA) and Inveon microPET (Preclinical Solutions Siemens, Knoxville, TN). We also performed CLI and PET of mouse models and applied the proposed attenuation model to correct CLI measurements. Using calibration factors obtained from phantom study that converts the corrected CLI measurements to %ID/g, we obtained an average difference of less that 10% for spleen and less than 35% for liver compared to conventional PET measurements. Hence, the proposed model has a capability of correcting the CLI signal to provide comparable measurements with PET data.

  17. Ultrasonic attenuation in cuprate superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Gupta; D M Gaitonde

    2002-05-01

    We calculate the longitudinal ultrasonic attenuation rate (UAR) in clean d-wave superconductors in the Meissner and the mixed phases. In the Meissner phase we calculate the contribution of previously ignored processes involving the excitation of a pair of quasi-holes or quasi-particles. There is a contribution ∝ in the regime B ≪ F ≪ 0 and a contribution ∝ 1/ in the regime F ≪ B ≪ 0. We find that these contributions to the UAR are large and cannot be ignored. In the mixed phase, using a semi-classical description, we calculate the electronic quasi-particle contribution to the UAR which at very low , has a independent term proportional to $\\sqrt{H}$.

  18. Attenuation characteristics of gypsum wallboard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased cost of lead is promoting enhanced usage of common building materials for shielding in diagnostic medical and dental facilities where only a few half-value layers (HVLs) are needed. Attenuation of primary beam X-ray photons in gypsum wallboard as a function of kVp, filtration, and wallboard thickness have been measured. Findings, obtained using a Victoreen 555 with an 0.1 DAS probe in poor geometry, are substantially in agreement with the sparse data in the literature but extend to thicker wall configurations and different kVp and filtration parameters. These findings are of value in maximizing the benefit/cost ratio for diagnostic shielding, and strengthen the conviction that, where used for shielding purposes, common building materials must be installed carefully and HVL-depth dependence considered thoroughly. (author)

  19. Magnolia Extract (BL153 Ameliorates Kidney Damage in a High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenpeng Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence demonstrated that obesity is a risk factor for renal structural and functional changes, leading to the end-stage renal disease which imposes a heavy economic burden on the community. However, no effective therapeutic method for obesity-associated kidney disease is available. In the present study, we explored the therapeutic potential of a magnolia extract (BL153 for treating obesity-associated kidney damage in a high fat diet- (HFD- induced mouse model. The results showed that inflammation markers (tumor necrosis factor-α and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and oxidative stress markers (3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal were all significantly increased in the kidney of HFD-fed mice compared to mice fed with a low fat diet (LFD. Additionally, proteinuria and renal structure changes in HFD-fed mice were much more severe than that in LFD-fed mice. However, all these alterations were attenuated by BL153 treatment, accompanied by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α and hexokinase II (HK II expression in the kidney. The present study indicates that BL153 administration may be a novel approach for renoprotection in obese individuals by antiinflammation and anti-oxidative stress most likely via upregulation of PGC-1α and HK II signal in the kidney.

  20. Flavocoxid attenuates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kashef, Dalia H; El-Kenawi, Asmaa E; Suddek, Ghada M; Salem, Hatem A

    2015-12-01

    Gentamicin is a widely used antibiotic against serious and life-threatening infections; however, its usefulness is limited by the development of nephrotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine whether flavocoxid has a protective effect against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. For this purpose, we quantitatively evaluated gentamicin-induced renal structural and functional alterations using histopathological and biochemical approaches. Furthermore, the effect of flavocoxid on gentamicin induced hypersensitivity of urinary bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh) was determined. Twenty-four male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely control, gentamicin (100 mg/kg, i.p.) and gentamicin plus flavocoxid (20 mg/kg, orally). At the end of the study, all rats were sacrificed and then blood, urine samples and kidneys were collected for further analysis. Gentamicin administration caused a severe nephrotoxicity which was evidenced by an elevated renal somatic index (RSI), serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, serum lactate dehydrogenase, and protein in urine with a concomitant reduction in serum albumin and normalized creatinine clearance value as compared with the controls. Moreover, a significant increase in renal contents of malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha with a significant decrease in renal reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activities was detected upon gentamicin administration together with increasing the sensitivity of isolated urinary bladder rings to ACh. Exposure to gentamicin induced necrosis of renal tubular epithelial cells. Flavocoxid protected kidney tissue against the oxidative damage and the nephrotoxic effect caused by gentamicin treatment. In addition, flavocoxid significantly reduced the responses of isolated bladder rings to ACh. The results from our study indicate that flavocoxid supplement attenuates gentamicin-induced renal injury via the amelioration of

  1. Once daily administration of the SGLT2 inhibitor, empagliflozin, attenuates markers of renal fibrosis without improving albuminuria in diabetic db/db mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Linda A.; Ward, Micheal S.; Fotheringham, Amelia K.; Zhuang, Aowen; Borg, Danielle J.; Flemming, Nicole B.; Harvie, Ben M.; Kinneally, Toni L.; Yeh, Shang-Ming; McCarthy, Domenica A.; Koepsell, Hermann; Vallon, Volker; Pollock, Carol; Panchapakesan, Usha; Forbes, Josephine M.

    2016-01-01

    Blood glucose control is the primary strategy to prevent complications in diabetes. At the onset of kidney disease, therapies that inhibit components of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) are also indicated, but these approaches are not wholly effective. Here, we show that once daily administration of the novel glucose lowering agent, empagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor which targets the kidney to block glucose reabsorption, has the potential to improve kidney disease in type 2 diabetes. In male db/db mice, a 10-week treatment with empagliflozin attenuated the diabetes-induced upregulation of profibrotic gene markers, fibronectin and transforming-growth-factor-beta. Other molecular (collagen IV and connective tissue growth factor) and histological (tubulointerstitial total collagen and glomerular collagen IV accumulation) benefits were seen upon dual therapy with metformin. Albuminuria, urinary markers of tubule damage (kidney injury molecule-1, KIM-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NGAL), kidney growth, and glomerulosclerosis, however, were not improved with empagliflozin or metformin, and plasma and intra-renal renin activity was enhanced with empagliflozin. In this model, blood glucose lowering with empagliflozin attenuated some molecular and histological markers of fibrosis but, as per treatment with metformin, did not provide complete renoprotection. Further research to refine the treatment regimen in type 2 diabetes and nephropathy is warranted. PMID:27226136

  2. Once daily administration of the SGLT2 inhibitor, empagliflozin, attenuates markers of renal fibrosis without improving albuminuria in diabetic db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Linda A; Ward, Micheal S; Fotheringham, Amelia K; Zhuang, Aowen; Borg, Danielle J; Flemming, Nicole B; Harvie, Ben M; Kinneally, Toni L; Yeh, Shang-Ming; McCarthy, Domenica A; Koepsell, Hermann; Vallon, Volker; Pollock, Carol; Panchapakesan, Usha; Forbes, Josephine M

    2016-01-01

    Blood glucose control is the primary strategy to prevent complications in diabetes. At the onset of kidney disease, therapies that inhibit components of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) are also indicated, but these approaches are not wholly effective. Here, we show that once daily administration of the novel glucose lowering agent, empagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor which targets the kidney to block glucose reabsorption, has the potential to improve kidney disease in type 2 diabetes. In male db/db mice, a 10-week treatment with empagliflozin attenuated the diabetes-induced upregulation of profibrotic gene markers, fibronectin and transforming-growth-factor-beta. Other molecular (collagen IV and connective tissue growth factor) and histological (tubulointerstitial total collagen and glomerular collagen IV accumulation) benefits were seen upon dual therapy with metformin. Albuminuria, urinary markers of tubule damage (kidney injury molecule-1, KIM-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NGAL), kidney growth, and glomerulosclerosis, however, were not improved with empagliflozin or metformin, and plasma and intra-renal renin activity was enhanced with empagliflozin. In this model, blood glucose lowering with empagliflozin attenuated some molecular and histological markers of fibrosis but, as per treatment with metformin, did not provide complete renoprotection. Further research to refine the treatment regimen in type 2 diabetes and nephropathy is warranted. PMID:27226136

  3. Comparison of Minimal Skin Incision Technique in Living Kidney Transplantation and Conventional Kidney Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Dong Kim; Ji-Il Kim; In-Sung Moon; Sun-Cheol Park

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, the most common incision for kidney transplantation (KT) is an inverted J-shaped incision known as the “hockey-stick.” However, demands for minimally invasive surgery in KT are increasing as in other various fields of surgery. Hence, we evaluated whether there is difference between minimal skin incision technique in kidney transplantation (MIKT) and conventional KT (CKT) . Methods: Between June 2006 and March 2013, a total of 452 living kidney transplant patients were...

  4. Targeted Screening and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease: Lessons Learned from the Kidney Early Evaluation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Vassalotti, Joseph A.; Leslie Gracz-Weinstein; Monica R. Gannon; Wendy Weinstock Brown

    2006-01-01

    The National Kidney Foundation's (NKF) Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) is a public service program that addresses the gaps in chronic kidney disease (CKD) awareness and care. This free, voluntary, community-based program is designed to screen people at risk of CKD and promote CKD awareness among primary healthcare providers and the public. The primary objective of KEEP is to identify individuals at risk of CKD at a time when appropriate intervention has the potential to markedly slow a...

  5. Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of living kidney donors: Impact of different exposure sources,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Most current knowledge on kidney concentrations of nephrotoxic metals like cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb) comes from autopsy studies. Assessment of metal concentrations in kidney biopsies from living subjects can be combined with information about exposure sources like smoking, diet, and occupation supplied by the biopsied subjects themselves. Objectives: To determine kidney concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb in living kidney donors, and assess associations with common exposure sources and background factors. Methods: Metal concentrations were determined in 109 living kidney donors aged 24-70 years (median 51), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Cd and Pb) and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Hg). Smoking habits, occupation, dental amalgam, fish consumption, and iron stores were evaluated. Results: The median kidney concentrations were 12.9 μg/g (wet weight) for cadmium, 0.21 μg/g for mercury, and 0.08 μg/g for lead. Kidney Cd increased by 3.9 μg/g for a 10 year increase in age, and by 3.7 μg/g for an extra 10 pack-years of smoking. Levels in non-smokers were similar to those found in the 1970s. Low iron stores (low serum ferritin) in women increased kidney Cd by 4.5 μg/g. Kidney Hg increased by 6% for every additional amalgam surface, but was not associated with fish consumption. Lead was unaffected by the background factors surveyed. Conclusions: In Sweden, kidney Cd levels have decreased due to less smoking, while the impact of diet seems unchanged. Dental amalgam is the main determinant of kidney Hg. Kidney Pb levels are very low due to decreased exposure.

  6. Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of living kidney donors: Impact of different exposure sources,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barregard, Lars, E-mail: lars.barregard@amm.gu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Fabricius-Lagging, Elisabeth [Department of Nephrology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and Boras Hospital (Sweden); Lundh, Thomas [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital and Lund University (Sweden); Moelne, Johan [Department of Clinical Pathology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Wallin, Maria [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Olausson, Michael [Department of Transplantation and Liver Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Modigh, Cecilia; Sallsten, Gerd [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Most current knowledge on kidney concentrations of nephrotoxic metals like cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb) comes from autopsy studies. Assessment of metal concentrations in kidney biopsies from living subjects can be combined with information about exposure sources like smoking, diet, and occupation supplied by the biopsied subjects themselves. Objectives: To determine kidney concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb in living kidney donors, and assess associations with common exposure sources and background factors. Methods: Metal concentrations were determined in 109 living kidney donors aged 24-70 years (median 51), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Cd and Pb) and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Hg). Smoking habits, occupation, dental amalgam, fish consumption, and iron stores were evaluated. Results: The median kidney concentrations were 12.9 {mu}g/g (wet weight) for cadmium, 0.21 {mu}g/g for mercury, and 0.08 {mu}g/g for lead. Kidney Cd increased by 3.9 {mu}g/g for a 10 year increase in age, and by 3.7 {mu}g/g for an extra 10 pack-years of smoking. Levels in non-smokers were similar to those found in the 1970s. Low iron stores (low serum ferritin) in women increased kidney Cd by 4.5 {mu}g/g. Kidney Hg increased by 6% for every additional amalgam surface, but was not associated with fish consumption. Lead was unaffected by the background factors surveyed. Conclusions: In Sweden, kidney Cd levels have decreased due to less smoking, while the impact of diet seems unchanged. Dental amalgam is the main determinant of kidney Hg. Kidney Pb levels are very low due to decreased exposure.

  7. Role of Carbon Monoxide in Kidney Function: Is a little Carbon Monoxide Good for the Kidney?

    OpenAIRE

    Csongrádi Éva (1969-) (szakorvos); Juncos, Luis A.; Drummond, Heather A.; Vera, Trinity; Stec, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenously produced gas resulting from the degradation of heme by heme oxygense or from fatty acid oxidation. Heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes are constitutively expressed in the kidney (HO-2) and HO-1 is induced in the kidney in response to several physiological and pathological stimuli. While the beneficial actions of HO in the kidney have been recognized for some time, the important role of CO in mediating these effects has not been fully examined. Recent studies us...

  8. Pulmonary infections after kidney transplantation: analysis of CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To review the CT findings in patients with pulmonary infection after kidney transplantation and to determine the characteristic features in different infections. Methods: The medical records were reviewed in 446 patients with pulmonary infection after kidney transplantation and 121 patients who had pulmonary thin-section CT were included in this study. The pattern and distribution of the pulmonary abnormalities were interpreted independently by two thoracic radiologists. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ2 test and the Fisher's exact test. Results: (1) Time course: 65 (14.6%) patients initially had pulmonary infection in the first 30 days, 147 (32.9%) between 1 and 3 months, 91 (20.4%) between 3 and 6 months, 23 (5.2%) between 6 and 12 months, 120 (26.9%)after 12 months of transplantation. In the first month after procedure, bacterial infection (4/5,80.0%) was the most common infection, bacterial (34/41,82.9%), mixed (19/41,46.3%) and vires infections (11/41,26.8%) were seen commonly 1 to 6 months following transplant, the incidence of fungal (14/38, 36.8%) and mycobacterial (5/38,13.2%) infections was increased after 12 months of transplantation. (2)Pathogens: Bacterial (34,28%) and mixed infections (34,28%) were the most common, followed by fungus infection (9, 7%), TB(7,6%)and cytomegalovims (5,4%). (3)CT findings: Ground-glass attenuations (69,57.0%) was the most common findings of pneumonia, followed by reticular or linear opacities (68,56.2%), nodules (66,54.5%), pleural thickening (41,33.9%), consolidations (31,25.6%), tree-in-bud patterns (24, 19.8%), pleural effusion (22,18.2%), and bronchovascular bundle thickening (16,13.2%). Ground-glass attenuation was commonly seen in cytomegalovims pneumonia (4,80.0%), and nodule was commonly observed in bacterial infection (23,67.6%), tree-in-bud pattern was the most common finding in pulmonary tuberculosis(4, P=0.049). There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of

  9. Targeting T helper 17 by mycophenolate mofetil attenuates diabetic nephropathy progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Mi; Lee, Sang-Ho; Lee, Arah; Kim, Dong-Jin; Kim, Yang-Gyun; Kim, Se-Yun; Jeong, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Tae-Won; Ihm, Chun-Gyoo; Lim, Sung-Jig; Moon, Ju-Young

    2015-10-01

    Proinflammatory T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 17 (Th17) cell subsets have been reported to have an immunopathogenic role in metabolic disease. We previously demonstrated that CD4(+) T cells are increased in kidneys in type 2 diabetic patients. However, the role of Th1 and Th17 cells in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy is unclear. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) attenuates diabetic kidney injury by the suppression of renal T-cell proliferation and related cytokines. Four groups of male C57/BL6 mice (8-weeks-old) were studied: (1) untreated controls, (2) MMF-treated controls (30 mg/kg of body weight per day), (3) streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, and (4) MMF-treated STZ-induced diabetes. The interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 17 (IL-17) from renal CD4(+) T cells were analyzed in kidney mononuclear cells by flow cytometry. We found proliferating CD4(+) T cells were significantly increased in the kidney compared with the spleen. There were increases in IFN-γ(+) CD4(+) and IL-17A(+) CD4(+) T cells from the initiation of albuminuria in the kidneys of diabetic mice. We found MMF suppresses only the intrarenal IL-17A(+) CD4(+) T cells from early diabetic nephropathy and improves albuminuria, tubulointerstitial fibrosis independent of glycemic control. Our study results suggest that Th17 may play an independent role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy and modulation of IL-17 has potential as an immunologic therapeutic target. PMID:26001596

  10. Simple parameterization of nuclear attenuation data

    CERN Document Server

    Akopov, N; Akopov, Z

    2007-01-01

    Based on the nuclear attenuation data obtained by the HERMES experiment on nitrogen and krypton nuclei, it is shown that the nuclear attenuation $R_M^{h}$ can be parametrised in a form of a linear polynomial $P_1=a_{11}$ + $\\tau a_{12}$, where $\\tau$ is the formation time, which depends on the energy of the virtual photon $\

  11. Docking-mechanism attenuator with electromechanical damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syromyatnikov, V. S.

    1971-01-01

    Theoretical and practical problems involved in the application of electromechanical damping for spacecraft docking-mechanism attenuation are discussed. Some drawbacks of hydraulic dampers used for the purpose are pointed out. The basic scheme of the attenuator with the electromechanical damper is given.

  12. Theory of standing spin-wave attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exchange attenuation of standing spin waves is calculated for an ultrathin magnetic of the order of exchange length thick. Because of the boundary conditions the wave vectors of spin waves in such films high values that are proportional to the inverse film thickness. The exchange attenuation at such wave vectors becomes dominant and can result in smearing of the standing spin wave spectrum

  13. Precision Model for Microwave Rotary Vane Attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandsen, Tom

    1979-01-01

    A model for a rotary vane attenuator is developed to describe the attenuator reflection and transmission coefficients in detail. All the parameters of the model can be measured in situ, i.e., without diassembling any part. The tranmission errors caused by internal reflections are calculated from...

  14. Lupus and Kidney Disease (Lupus Nephritis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NKF Newsroom Contact Us You are here Home » Lupus and Kidney Disease (Lupus Nephritis) Lupus is a short name for a ... affects only your skin. A Personal Look at Lupus Nephritis What causes lupus? No one knows what ...

  15. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Remember Clinical Trials What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against ... filtering units called nephrons. [ Top ] How does high blood pressure affect the kidneys? High blood pressure can damage ...

  16. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Kidneys Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... back on protein, especially animal products such as meat. Damaged kidneys may fail to remove protein waste ... Training & Career Development Research at NIDDK Research Resources Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Events Health Information Health Topics ...

  17. Overview of Kidney Diseases in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  18. Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  19. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  20. Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  1. Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  2. Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... back on the waiting list for another kidney. Side Effects of Immunosuppressants Immunosuppressants can weaken your immune system, ... patients, over long periods of time, this diminished immunity can increase the risk of developing cancer. Some ...

  3. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy and Chronic Kidney Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sairam, Krish; Scoffone, Cesare M; Alken, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    glomerular filtration rate, including chronic kidney disease stages 0/I/II-greater than 60, stage III-30 to 59 and stages IV/V-less than 30 ml/minute/1.73 m(2). Patient characteristics, operative characteristics, outcomes and morbidity were assessed. RESULTS: Estimated glomerular filtration rate data were...... available on 5,644 patients, including 4,436 with chronic kidney disease stages 0/I/II, 994 with stage III and 214 with stages IV/V. A clinically significant minority of patients with nephrolithiasis presented with severe chronic kidney disease. A greater number of patients with stages IV/V previously...... underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy, ureteroscopy or nephrostomy and had positive urine cultures than less severely affected patients, consistent with the higher incidence of staghorn stones in these patients. Patients with chronic kidney disease stages IV/V had statistically significantly worse...

  4. Travel Tips: A Guide for Kidney Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activities without becoming overtired. Also, be sure to watch your diet and fluid intake. Before you begin ... 05/2016 - 10:00am Philadelphia, PA Kidney Camp Sun, 07/17/2016 - 6:00pm Ingleside, IL Register ...

  5. Spectroscopic Monitoring of Kidney Tissue Ischemic Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S G; Fitzgerald, J T; Michalopoulou, A P; Troppmann, C

    2004-03-11

    Noninvasive evaluation of tissue viability of donor kidneys used for transplantation is an issue that current technology is not able to address. In this work, we explore optical spectroscopy for its potential to assess the degree of ischemic damage in kidney tissue. We hypothesized that ischemic damage to kidney tissue will give rise to changes in its optical properties which in turn may be used to asses the degree of tissue injury. The experimental results demonstrate that the autofluorescence intensity of the injured kidney is decreasing as a function of time exposed to ischemic injury. Changes were also observed in the NIR light scattering intensities most probably arising from changes due to injury and death of the tissue.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aneurysm ) in a large blood vessel called the aorta or in blood vessels at the base of ... Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Educational Resources (8 ...

  7. Vaccination against salmonid bacterial kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has presented challenges for development of effective vaccines, despite several decades of research. The only vaccine against BKD that is commercially licensed is an injectable preparation containing live cells ...

  8. PATHOMORPHOLOGY OF ZERO BIOPSIES OF DONOR KIDNEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Arefjev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is well known fact that kidney transplants from Extended Criteria Donors may increase risk of De- layed Graft Function and Primary Non-Function of transplants. We have collected and tested 65 «zero» kidney biopsies from cadaver donors aged from 19 to 71 years old. In the pool of elderly donors who died from cerebrovascular accident the frequency of nephrosclerosis presentation was higher than in donors of yonger age who died from craniocephalic trauma. Nevertheless in the general donor pool the number of sclerosed glomeruli was no more than 12%. We did not meet at all in the whole volume of material any bi- opsy with the severe degree of arteriosclerosis. The «zero» biopsies of cadaver kidneys is quite usable and unexpensive tool to measure the degree of nephrosclerosis in order to exclude kidneys which are not fitable for transplantation. 

  9. Nutrition in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cereals Bran cereals Egg whites Egg yolks Sorbet Ice cream Source: Phosphorous: Tips for People with Chronic Kidney ... for Scientists Current Funding Opportunities Funded Grants & Grant History Funding Process Research Programs & Contacts Research Training & Career ...

  10. Acute kidney injury secondary to lymphomatous infiltration and the roleof kidney biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a 47-year-old male patient who developed acute kidney injuryrequiring hemodialysis, associated with massive enlargement of both kidneys.A part from intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy, there was no other organ orlymph node involvement. A kidney biopsy established the diagnosis ofnon-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The patient received chemotherapy with good response.This case demonstrates that the kidney could be the primary organ involved inthe non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In addition, we have shown that renal biopsy isadequate to make a diagnosis of lymphoma without the need to do more invasivetesting. (author)

  11. Chlorogenic acid protects d-galactose-induced liver and kidney injury via antioxidation and anti-inflammation effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Yu, Ying-Hua; Wang, Shu-Ting; Ren, Jing; Camer, Danielle; Hua, Yu-Zhou; Zhang, Qian; Huang, Jie; Xue, Dan-Lu; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Liu, Yi

    2016-06-01

    Context Oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated in the aging process and its related hepatic and renal function decline. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is one of the most abundant polyphenol compounds in the human diet. Recently, CGA has shown in vivo and in vitro antioxidant properties. Objective The current study investigates the effects of protective effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on d-galactose-induced liver and kidney injury. Materials and methods Hepatic and renal injuries were induced in a mouse model by subcutaneously injection of d-galactose (d-gal; 100 mg/kg) once a day for 8 consecutive weeks and orally administered simultaneously with CGA included in the food (200 mg/kg of diet). The liver and renal functions were examined. Histological analyses of liver and kidney were done by haematoxylin and eosin staining. The oxidative stress markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the liver and the kidney were measured. Results CGA significantly reduced the serum aminotransferase, serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in d-gal mice (p <0.05). CGA also restored superoxide dismutase, catalase, and malondialdehyde levels and decreased glutathione content in the liver and kidney in d-gal mice (p <0.05). Improvements in liver and kidney were also noted in histopathological studies. CGA reduced tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) protein levels in the liver and kidney in d-gal mice (p <0.05). Discussion and conclusion These findings suggest that CGA attenuates d-gal-induced chronic liver and kidney injury and that this protection may be due to its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26810301

  12. The kidneys in the Bible: what happened?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2005-12-01

    The kidneys, always used in the plural (kelayot), are mentioned more than 30 times in the Bible. In the Pentateuch, the kidneys are cited 11 times in the detailed instructions given for the sacrificial offering of animals at the altar. Whereas those instructions were for purification ceremonies at the Temple, sacrificial offerings were made subsequently in seeking divine intervention for the relief of medical problems. In the books of the Bible that follow the Pentateuch, mostly in Jeremiah and Psalms, the human kidneys are cited figuratively as the site of temperament, emotions, prudence, vigor, and wisdom. In five instances, they are mentioned as the organs examined by God to judge an individual. They are cited either before or after but always in conjunction with the heart as mirrors of the psyche of the person examined. There is also reference to the kidneys as the site of divine punishment for misdemeanors, committed or perceived, particularly in the book of Job, whose suffering and ailments are legendary. In the first vernacular versions of the Bible in English, the translators elected to use the term "reins" instead of kidneys in differentiating the metaphoric uses of human kidneys from that of their mention as anatomic organs of sacrificial animals burned at the altar. This initial effort at linguistic purity or gentility has progressed further in recent versions of the Bible, in which the reins are now replaced by the soul or the mind. The erosion may have begun in the centuries that followed the writing of the Bible, when recognition of the kidneys as excretory organs deprived them of the ancient aura of mysterious organs hidden deep in the body but accessible to the look of God. At approximately the same time, Greek analytical philosophy argued that the brain, which is never mentioned in the Bible, was the most divine and sacred part of the body. This argument gained ground in the past century, when the functions of the brain were elucidated, and

  13. Ultrasound fields in an attenuating medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gandhi,, D; O'Brien,, W.D., Jr.

    Ultrasound fields propagating in tissue will undergo changes in shape not only due to diffraction, but also due to the frequency dependent attenuation. Linear fields can be fairly well predicted for a non-attenuating medium like water by using the Tupholme-Stepanishen method for calculating the...... spatial impulse response, whereas the field cannot readily be found for an attenuating medium. In this paper we present a simulation program capable of calculating the field in a homogeneous attenuating medium. The program splits the aperture into rectangles and uses a far-field approximation for each of...... the rectangles and sums all contributions to arrive at the spatial impulse response for the aperture and field point. This approach makes it possible to model all transducer apertures, and the program can readily calculate the emitted, pulse-echo and continuous wave field. Attenuation is included by...

  14. Soft tissue sarcomas of the kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia Köhle; Dominik Abt; Christian Rothermundt; Christian Öhlschlegel; Christiane Brugnolaro; Hans-Peter Schmid

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are rare mesenchymal tumors. Amongst others, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the kidney and synovial sarcoma of the kidney belong to the group of soft tissue sarcomas. Synovial sarcomas can occur almost anywhere in the body, most frequently, however, in the lower (62%) or upper extremities (21%). Metastases occur in 50-70% of cases, and thus the prognosis is poor. PNETs are rare, highly aggressive neoplastic lesions which mainly occur in the torso or axial skel...

  15. Improvements to the kidney dialysis machine

    OpenAIRE

    Hundley, Robert Wynne

    1992-01-01

    Five changes were suggested to improve the kidney dialysis machine, including a conductivity control feedback system, a positive pressure deaeration system, a balancing system for dialysate flow control, a diaphragm-type blood pump, and an ultrafiltration control system using blood pressure measurement. A kidney dialysis machine was constructed to test the changes for possible use in future dialysis machine designs. Tests were made on each of the five system improvements....

  16. A case of schwannoma in kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yang; Zhu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Schwannoma is a tumor derived from the Schwann cell of the peripheral nerve sheath and frequently occurs in the head, neck, or extremities. Schwannoma is extremely rare in the kidney, which has nonspecific symptoms and limited radiologic features, and is often diagnosed histologically after surgery. In this study, we report a case of a left renal schwannoma which was misdiagnosed as renal cell carcinoma and confirmed after the surgical removal of the affected kidney.

  17. Dermatoglyphics in kidney diseases: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Wijerathne, Buddhika T. B.; Meier, Robert J.; Salgado, Sujatha S.; Agampodi, Suneth B.

    2016-01-01

    Kidney diseases are becoming a major cause of global burden with high mortality and morbidity. The origins of most kidney diseases are known, but for some the exact aetiology is not yet understood. Dermatoglyphics is the scientific study of epidermal ridge patterns and it has been used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool to detect or predict different medical conditions that have foetal origin. However, there have been a limited number of studies that have evaluated a dermatoglyphic relationshi...

  18. Obesity in kidney disease: A heavyweight opponent

    OpenAIRE

    Felizardo, Raphael Jose Ferreira; da Silva, Marina Burgos; Aguiar, Cristhiane Favero; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is an important worldwide challenge that must be faced in most developed and developing countries because of unhealthy nutritional habits. The consequences of obesity and being overweight are observed in different organs, but the kidney is one of the most affected. Excess adipose tissue causes hemodynamic alterations in the kidney that can result in renal disease. However, obesity is also commonly associated with other comorbidities such as chronic inflammation, hypertension and diabe...

  19. Application of Regenerative Medicine for Kidney Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoo, Takashi; Fukui, Akira; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2007-01-01

    Following recent advancements of stem cell research, the potential for organ regeneration using somatic stem cells as an ultimate therapy for organ failure has increased. However, anatomically complicated organs such as the kidney and liver have proven more refractory to stem cell-based regenerative techniques. At present, kidney regeneration is considered to require one of two approaches depending on the type of renal failure, namely acute renal failure (ARF) and chronic renal failure (CRF).

  20. Cake kidney drained by single ureter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano A. Calado

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Cake kidney is a rare congenital anomaly of the urogenital tract, with a few more than 20 cases described in the literature. It can be diagnosed at any age range. Normally, drainage is achieved by 2 ureters, and there are only 5 reports in the literature of cake kidney drained by a single ureter. The authors describe one more case of this rare malformation of the urinary tract.