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Sample records for attenuates chronic morphine-induced

  1. Effect of baclofen on morphine-induced conditioned place preference, extinction, and stress-induced reinstatement in chronically stressed mice

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    Meng, Shanshan; Quan, Wuxing; Xu QI; Su, Zhiqiang; Yang, Shanshan

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objective A stress-induced increase in excitability can result from a reduction in inhibitory neurotransmission. Modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic transmission is an effective treatment for drug seeking and relapse. This study investigated whether baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, had an impact on morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), extinction, and stress-induced relapse in chronically stressed mice. Methods Chronic stress was induced by restra...

  2. α-Terpineol attenuates morphine-induced physical dependence and tolerance in mice: role of nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvardeh, Siavash; Moghimi, Mahsa; Eslami, Pegah; Masoudi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Dependence and tolerance to opioid analgesics are major problems limiting their clinical application. α-Terpineol is a monoterpenoid alcohol with neuroprotective effects which is found in several medicinal plants such as Myrtus communis, Laurus nobilis, and Stachys byzantina. It has been shown that some of these medicinal plants such as S. byzantina attenuate dependence and tolerance to morphine. Since α-terpineol is one of the bioactive phytochemical constituent of these medicinal plants, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of α-terpineol on morphine-induced dependence and tolerance in mice. Materials and Methods: The mice were rendered dependent or tolerant to morphine by a 3-day administration schedule. The hot-plate test and naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome were used to evaluate tolerance and dependence on morphine, respectively. To investigate a possible role for nitric oxide (NO) in the protective effect of α-terpineol, the NO synthase inhibitor, L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and NO precursor, L-arginine, were used. Results: Administration of α-terpineol (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, IP) significantly decreased the number of jumps in morphine dependent animals. Moreover, α-terpineol (20 and 40 mg/kg, IP) attenuated tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. The inhibitory effects of α-terpineol on morphine-induced dependence and tolerance were enhanced by pretreatment with L-NAME (10 mg/kg, IP). However, L-arginine (300 mg/kg, IP) antagonized the protective effects of α-terpineol on dependence and tolerance to morphine. Conclusion: These findings indicate that α-terpineol prevents the development of dependence and tolerance to morphine probably through the influence on NO production. PMID:27081466

  3. Inhibition of Spinal Oxidative Stress by Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction Attenuates the Development of Morphine Induced Tolerance and Hyperalgesia in Mice.

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    Lauro, Filomena; Giancotti, Luigino Antonio; Ilari, Sara; Dagostino, Concetta; Gliozzi, Micaela; Morabito, Chiara; Malafoglia, Valentina; Raffaeli, William; Muraca, Maurizio; Goffredo, Bianca M; Mollace, Vincenzo; Muscoli, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Citrus Bergamia Risso, commonly known as Bergamot, is a fruit whose Essential Oil and Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction have numerous medicinal properties. It is also an excellent antioxidant and in this study, for the first time, its potential effect on morphine induced tolerance in mice has been investigated. Our studies revealed that development of antinociceptive tolerance to repeated doses of morphine in mice is consistently associated with increased formation of superoxide, malondialdehyde and tyrosine-nitrated proteins in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord such as the enzyme glutamine synthase. Nitration of this protein is intimately linked to inactivation of its biological function and resulting increase of glutamate levels in the spinal cord. Administration of Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction (5-50 mg/kg) attenuated tolerance development. This effect was accompanied by reduction of superoxide and malondialdehyde production, prevention of GS nitration, re-establishment of its activity and of glutamate levels. Our studies confirmed the main role of free radicals during the cascade of events induced by prolonged morphine treatment and the co-administration of natural derivatives antioxidant such as Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction can be an important therapeutic approach to restore opioids analgesic efficacy. PMID:27227548

  4. Inhibition of Spinal Oxidative Stress by Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction Attenuates the Development of Morphine Induced Tolerance and Hyperalgesia in Mice.

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    Filomena Lauro

    Full Text Available Citrus Bergamia Risso, commonly known as Bergamot, is a fruit whose Essential Oil and Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction have numerous medicinal properties. It is also an excellent antioxidant and in this study, for the first time, its potential effect on morphine induced tolerance in mice has been investigated. Our studies revealed that development of antinociceptive tolerance to repeated doses of morphine in mice is consistently associated with increased formation of superoxide, malondialdehyde and tyrosine-nitrated proteins in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord such as the enzyme glutamine synthase. Nitration of this protein is intimately linked to inactivation of its biological function and resulting increase of glutamate levels in the spinal cord. Administration of Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction (5-50 mg/kg attenuated tolerance development. This effect was accompanied by reduction of superoxide and malondialdehyde production, prevention of GS nitration, re-establishment of its activity and of glutamate levels. Our studies confirmed the main role of free radicals during the cascade of events induced by prolonged morphine treatment and the co-administration of natural derivatives antioxidant such as Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction can be an important therapeutic approach to restore opioids analgesic efficacy.

  5. Minocycline suppresses morphine-induced respiratory depression, suppresses morphine-induced reward, and enhances systemic morphine-induced analgesia

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    Mark R Hutchinson; Northcutt, Alexis L.; Chao, Lindsey W.; Kearney, Jeffrey J.; Zhang, Yingning; Berkelhammer, Debra L.; Loram, Lisa C.; Rozeske, Robert R; Bland, Sondra T.; Maier, Steven F.; Gleeson, Todd T.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent data suggest that opioids can activate immune-like cells of the central nervous system (glia). This opioid-induced glial activation is associated with decreased analgesia, owing to the release of proinflammatory mediators. Here we examine in rats whether the putative microglial inhibitor, minocycline, may affect morphine-induced respiratory depression and/or morphine-induced reward (conditioned place preference). Systemic co-administration of minocycline significantly attenuated morphi...

  6. Vitamin D receptor activation and downregulation of renin-angiotensin system attenuate morphine-induced T cell apoptosis

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    Chandel, Nirupama; Sharma, Bipin; Salhan, Divya; Husain, Mohammad; Malhotra, Ashwani; Buch, Shilpa; Singhal, Pravin C.

    2012-01-01

    Opiates have been reported to induce T cell loss. We evaluated the role of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in morphine-induced T cell loss. Morphine-treated human T cells displayed downregulation of VDR and the activation of the RAS. On the other hand, a VDR agonist (EB1089) enhanced T cell VDR expression both under basal and morphine-stimulated states. Since T cells with silenced VDR displayed the activation of the RAS, whereas activation of ...

  7. Blockade of Cannabinoid CB1 receptor attenuates the acquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference along with a downregulation of ERK, CREB phosphorylation, and BDNF expression in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus.

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    Zhang, Jianbo; Wang, Na; Chen, Bo; Wang, Yi'nan; He, Jing; Cai, Xintong; Zhang, Hongbo; Wei, Shuguang; Li, Shengbin

    2016-09-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) is highly expressed in the mesocorticolimbic system and associated with drug craving and relapse. Clinical trials suggest that CB1R antagonists may represent new therapies for drug addiction. However, the downstream signaling of CB1R is not fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between CB1R and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and hippocampus in morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), which is used to assess the morphine-induced reward memory. The protein level of CB1R, ERK, CREB, and BDNF were detected by western blotting. Additionally, a CB1R antagonist, AM251, was used to study whether blockade of CB1R altered the CPP and above-mentioned molecules. We found an increase of CB1R expression in the NAc and hippocampus of the mice following morphine CPP, but not those after repeated morphine in home cage without context exposure (NO-CPP). Both morphine CPP and NO-CPP induced an upregulation of ERK, CREB phosphorylation and BDNF expression. Furthermore, pretreatment with AM251 before morphine attenuated the CPP acquisition and CB1R expression as well as the activation of ERK-CREB-BDNF cascade. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that (1) Repeated morphine with context exposures but not merely the pharmacological effects of morphine increased CB1R expression both in the NAc and hippocampus. (2) CB1R antagonist mediated blockade of ERK-CREB-BDNF signaling activation in the NAc and hippocampus may be an important mechanism underlying the attenuation of morphine CPP. PMID:27461790

  8. BK channels in microglia are required for morphine-induced hyperalgesia.

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    Hayashi, Yoshinori; Morinaga, Saori; Zhang, Jing; Satoh, Yasushi; Meredith, Andrea L; Nakata, Takahiro; Wu, Zhou; Kohsaka, Shinichi; Inoue, Kazuhide; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Although morphine is a gold standard medication, long-term opioid use is associated with serious side effects, such as morphine-induced hyperalgesia (MIH) and anti-nociceptive tolerance. Microglia-to-neuron signalling is critically involved in pain hypersensitivity. However, molecules that control microglial cellular state under chronic morphine treatment remain unknown. Here we show that the microglia-specific subtype of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channel is responsible for generation of MIH and anti-nociceptive tolerance. We find that, after chronic morphine administration, an increase in arachidonic acid levels through the μ-opioid receptors leads to the sole activation of microglial BK channels in the spinal cord. Silencing BK channel auxiliary β3 subunit significantly attenuates the generation of MIH and anti-nociceptive tolerance, and increases neurotransmission after chronic morphine administration. Therefore, microglia-specific BK channels contribute to the generation of MIH and anti-nociceptive tolerance. PMID:27241733

  9. Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe) Prevents Morphine-Induced Addictive Behaviors in Conditioned Place Preference Test in Rats

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    Torkzadeh-Mahani, Shima; Nasri, Sima; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Background Consumption of chronic morphine induces neuro-inflammation and addictive seeking behavior. Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe), a well-known spice plant, has been used traditionally in the treatment of a wide variety of ailments. It has been shown that ginger has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and antinociceptive properties. However, its influences on morphine-induced addictive behaviors have not yet been clarified. The aim of the present study was the inhibition of exploratory ...

  10. Orexin Mediates Morphine Place Preference, but not Morphine-Induced Hyperactivity or Sensitization

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    Sharf, Ruth; Guarnieri, Douglas J.; Taylor, Jane R.; DiLeone, Ralph J

    2009-01-01

    Orexin (or hypocretin) has been implicated in mediating drug addiction and reward. Here, we investigated orexin's contribution to morphine-induced behavioral sensitization and place preference. Orexin -/- (OKO) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls (n= 56) and C57BL/6J mice (n=67) were tested for chronic morphine-induced locomotor sensitization or for conditioned place preference (CPP) for a morphine- or a cocaine-paired environment. C57BL/6J mice received the orexin receptor 1 (Ox1r) a...

  11. Quaternary naltrexone reverses radiogenic and morphine-induced locomotor hyperactivity

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    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; Galbraith, J.A.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.

    1984-04-01

    The present study attempted to determine the relative role of the peripheral and central nervous system in the production of morphine-induced or radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the mouse. Toward this end, we used a quaternary derivative of an opiate antagonist (naltrexone methobromide), which presumably does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Quaternary naltrexone was used to challenge the stereotypic locomotor response observed in these mice after either an i.p. injection of morphine or exposure to 1500 rads /sup 60/Co. The quaternary derivative of naltrexone reversed the locomotor hyperactivity normally observed in the C57BL/6J mouse after an injection of morphine. It also significantly attenuated radiation-induced locomotion. The data reported here support the hypothesis of endorphin involvement in radiation-induced and radiogenic behaviors. However, these conclusions are contingent upon further research which more fully evaluates naltrexone methobromide's capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier.

  12. Morphine-induced conditioned place preference in rhesus monkeys: Resistance to inactivation of insula and extinction.

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    Wu, XuJun; Zhao, Ning; Bai, Fan; Li, ChuanYu; Liu, CiRong; Wei, JingKuan; Zong, Wei; Yang, LiXin; Ryabinin, Andrey E; Ma, YuanYe; Wang, JianHong

    2016-05-01

    Drug addicts experience strong craving episodes in response to drug-associated cues. Attenuating these responses using pharmacological or behavioral approaches could aid recovery from addiction. Cue-induced drug seeking can be modeled using the conditioned place preference procedure (CPP). Our previous work showed that conditioned place preference (CPP) can be induced by administration of increasing doses of morphine in rhesus monkeys. Here, we investigated whether expression of morphine-induced CPP can be attenuated by inhibiting activity of insular cortex or by repeated unreinforced exposures to the CPP test. The insula has been demonstrated to be involved in addiction to several drugs of abuse. To test its role in morphine CPP, bilateral cannulae were implanted into the insula in seven adult monkeys. The CPP was established using a biased apparatus by intramuscular injections of morphine at increasing doses (1.5, 3.0 and 4.5mg/kg) for each monkey. After the monkeys established morphine CPP, their insulae were reversibly inactivated by bilateral microinjection with 5% lidocaine (40μl) prior to the post-conditioning test (expression) of CPP using a within-subject design. The microinjections of lidocaine failed to affect CPP expression when compared to saline injections. We subsequently investigated morphine-associated memory during six episodes of CPP tests performed in these monkeys over the following 75.0±0.2months. While the preference score showed a declining trend with repeated testing, morphine-induced CPP was maintained even on the last test performed at 75months post-conditioning. This observation indicated strong resistance of morphine-induced memories to extinction in rhesus monkeys. Although these data do not confirm involvement of insula in morphine-induced CPP, our observation that drug-associated memories can be maintained over six drug-free years following initial experience with morphine has important implications for treatment of drug addiction

  13. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Crocus sativus L. on Morphine-Induced Memory Impairment

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    Sayede Maryam Naghibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of aqueous extracts of saffron on morphine-induced memory impairment was investigated. On the training trial, the mice received an electric shock when the animals were entered into the dark compartment. Twenty-four and forty-eight hours later, the time latency for entering the dark compartment was recorded and defined as the retention trial. The mice were divided into (1 control, (2 morphine which received morphine before the training in the passive avoidance test, (3–5 three groups treated by 50, 150 and 450 mg/kg of saffron extract before the training trial, and (6 and 7 the two other groups received 150 and 450 mg/kg of saffron extract before the retention trial. The time latency in morphine-treated group was lower than control (P < 0.01. Treatment of the animals by 150 and 450 mg/kg of saffron extract before the training trial increased the time latency at 24 and 48 hours after the training trial (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01. Administration of both 150 and 450 mg/kg doses of the extract before retention trials also increased the time latency (P < 0.01. The results revealed that the saffron extract attenuated morphine-induced memory impairment.

  14. "Interaction of different doses of Aspartame with Morphine-induced antinociception in the presence of MK-801, a NMDA antagonist "

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    Abdollahi M

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the relative role of sweetness and comparative effects of different taste sensation of the non - caloric sweetener , aspartame on pain and its interaction with MK - 80] as a non - selective MMDA antagonist by formalin - test in mice. The formalin - test was chosen because it measures the response to a long - lasting nociceptive stimulus and closely resembles to the clinical pain. Morphine induced a dose dependent antinociception in the early and late phases of formalin test. Twelve days pretreatment of animals by aspartame ( 0.08% , 0.16% , 0.32% significantly potentiated morphine - induced (1.5-9 mg/kg analgesia in the early phase but significantly antagonized its analgesic effect in the late phase, dose dependently. Aspartame (0.16% alone showed a reduction in pain response . Naloxone (0.4 mg/kg significantly antagonized the antinociceptive effect of morphine in the presence of aspartame (0-0.32% in the early phase. Increasing the dose of aspartame decreased effects of naloxone. MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg as an N- Methyl - D - Aspartate (NMDA antagonist significantly potentiated the effect of aspartame on morphine - induced antinociception in the early phase. In the late phase, naloxone (0.4 mg/kg increased pain response but MK- 801 (0.1 mg/kg induced anti-inflammatory effect significantly. Treatment of animals with MK- 801 alone, significantly induced analgesia in both phases of formalin - test. This effect was potentiated with aspartame dose - dependently. Possible interaction of aspartame with NMDA receptors and its role to facilitate endogenous opioid system are proposed mechanisms of aspartame in modulating morphine - induced antinociception. Furthermore, the resulting association between morphine and aspartame chronic consumption may be explained as an interactive action rather than simple dose combination of both drugs.

  15. Morphine Induces Albuminuria by Compromising Podocyte Integrity

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    Lan, Xiqian; Rai, Partab; Chandel, Nirupama; Cheng, Kang; Lederman, Rivka; Saleem, Moin A; Mathieson, Peter W.; Husain, Mohammad; Crosson, John T.; Gupta, Kalpna; Malhotra, Ashwani; Singhal, Pravin C.

    2013-01-01

    Morphine has been reported to accelerate the progression of chronic kidney disease. However, whether morphine affects slit diaphragm (SD), the major constituent of glomerular filtration barrier, is still unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of morphine on glomerular filtration barrier in general and podocyte integrity in particular. Mice were administered either normal saline or morphine for 72 h, then urine samples were collected and kidneys were subsequently isolated for im...

  16. Involvement of protein kinase C in the modulation of morphine-induced analgesia and the inhibitory effects of exposure to 60-hz magnetic fields in the land snail, Cepaea nemoralis

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    Kavaliers, M.; Ossenkopp, K.P. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada))

    1990-02-26

    One of the more consistent and dramatic effects of exposure to magnetic fields is the attenuation of morphine-induced analgesia. Results of previous studies have implicated alterations in calcium channel functioning and Ca{sup ++} flux in the mediation of these effects. It is generally accepted that Ca{sup ++}-activated-phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (Protein kinase C; PKC) plays an important role in relaying trans-membrane signaling in diverse Ca{sup ++} dependent cellular processes. In experiment 1 we observed that morphine-induced analgesia in the land snail, Cepaea nemoralis, as measured by the latency of an avoidance behavior to a warmed surface, was reduced by the PKC activator, SC-9, and was enhanced by the PKC inhibitors, H-7 and H-9. In contrast, HA-10004, a potent inhibitor of other protein kinases, but only a very weak inhibitor of PKC, had no effect on morphine-induced analgesia. In experiment 2 exposure of snails for 30 minutes to a 1.0 gauss (rms) 60-Hz magnetic field reduced morphine-induced analgesia. This inhibitory effect of the magnetic field was reduced by the PKC inhibitors, H-7 and H-9, and was augmented by the PKC activator SC-9. These results suggest that: (i) PKC is involved in the modulation of morphine-induced analgesia and, (ii) the inhibitory effects of magnetic fields involve PKC.

  17. Effects of Ondansetron on Morphine-induced Place Preference in Mice and Its Possible Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUMei-Lin; YUJuan; CHENChong-Hong

    2004-01-01

    AIM To elucidate the effect of ondansetron (OND), a5-HT3 receptor antagonist, on the morphine-induced conditioned place preference in mice and its possible mechanism. METHODS Morphine - induced conditioned place preference model in mice was adopted in the present research. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and Nitric oxide (NO) output

  18. Lesions of nucleus accumbens affect morphine-induced release of ascorbic acid and GABA but not of glutamate in rats.

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    Sun, Ji Y; Yang, Jing Y; Wang, Fang; Wang, Jian Y; Song, Wu; Su, Guang Y; Dong, Ying X; Wu, Chun F

    2011-10-01

    Our previous studies have shown that local perfusion of morphine causes an increase of extracellular ascorbic acid (AA) levels in nucleus accumbens (NAc) of freely moving rats. Lines of evidence showed that glutamatergic and GABAergic were associated with morphine-induced effects on the neurotransmission of the brain, especially on the release of AA. In the present study, the effects of morphine on the release of extracellular AA, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu) in the NAc following bilateral NAc lesions induced by kainic acid (KA) were studied by using the microdialysis technique, coupled to high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) and fluorescent detection (HPLC-FD). The results showed that local perfusion of morphine (100 µM, 1 mM) in NAc dose-dependently increased AA and GABA release, while attenuated Glu release in the NAc. Naloxone (0.4 mM) pretreated by local perfusion to the NAc, significantly blocked the effects of morphine. After NAc lesion by KA (1 µg), morphine-induced increase in AA and GABA were markedly eliminated, while decrease in Glu was not affected. The loss effect of morphine on AA and GABA release after KA lesion could be recovered by GABA agonist, musimol. These results indicate that morphine-induced AA release may be mediated at least by µ-opioid receptor. Moreover, this effect of morphine possibly depend less on the glutamatergic afferents, but more on the GABAergic circuits within this nucleus. Finally, AA release induced by local perfusion of morphine may be GABA-receptor mediated and synaptically localized in the NAc. PMID:20731632

  19. Effect of chronic morphine administration on circulating dendritic cells in SIV-infected rhesus macaques.

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    Cornwell, William D; Wagner, Wendeline; Lewis, Mark G; Fan, Xiaoxuan; Rappaport, Jay; Rogers, Thomas J

    2016-06-15

    We studied the effect of chronic morphine administration on the circulating dendritic cell population dynamics associated with SIV infection using rhesus macaques. Animals were either first infected with SIV and then given chronic morphine, or visa versa. SIV infection increased the numbers of myeloid DCs (mDCs), but morphine treatment attenuated this mDC expansion. In contrast, morphine increased the numbers of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) in SIV-infected animals. Finally, chronic morphine administration (no SIV) transiently increased the numbers of circulating pDCs. These results show that chronic morphine induces a significant alteration in the available circulating levels of critical antigen-presenting cells. PMID:27235346

  20. Role of phosphodiesterase inhibitor Ibudilast in morphine-induced hippocampal injury

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    Mohsen Zhaleh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Opioid drugs are used in the treatment of acute post-surgical pain and chronic pain, such as those associated with cancer. Opioid used is associated with complications such as analgesic tolerance, dependence and opioid abuse. The molecular mechanisms of unwanted opioid responses are varied but recent advances have highlighted elevations in pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory glial following chronic administration of morphine. In this study we investigated the neurodegenerative effects of morphine through its effects on Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4 in the male rat hippocampus and evaluated the level of Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β. Then we compared the difference between inhibitory effects on mu opioid receptors (by β-Funaltrexamine, β-FNA and TLR4 (by Ibudilast. Subsequently, we assessed the amount of IL-1β and the number of granular cells in male rat hippocampus. Methods: Adult male rats (n=24 were treated with sucrose, morphine, Ibudilast (7.5 mg/kg and β-FNA (20 mg/kg for 30 days. Their brains were isolated and hemisected with one hippocampus for granular cell and the other used for IL-1 β immunoblotting. Results: Data showed that Ibudilast suppresses IL-1 β expression significantly more than β-FNA. The granular cell count displayed significant differences. Conclusions: Our results suggested that Ibudilast can be used for controlling and treatment of morphine-induced CNS inflammations or traumatic conditions.

  1. Comparison of droperidol and ondansetron prophylactic effect on subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus

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    Fabio Ferreira da Cunha Brião; Marcio Leal Horta; Bernardo Lessa Horta; Guilherme Antônio Moreira de Barros; Ana Paula Behrensdorf; Ingrid Severo; Mariana Antunes Nunes; Roberta Boabaid; André Real

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prophylactic effect of ondansetron on subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus is controversial, while evidence suggests that droperidol prevents pruritus. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of droperidol and ondansetron on subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus.METHODS: 180 ASA I or II patients scheduled to undergo cesarean sections under subarachnoid anesthesia combined with morphine 0.2 mg were randomized to receive, after the child's birth, metocl...

  2. Antagonism of morphine-induced central respiratory depression by donepezil in the anesthetized rabbit

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    MIKI TSUJITA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphine is often used in cancer pain and postoperative analgesic management but induces respiratory depression. Therefore, there is an ongoing search for drug candidates that can antagonize morphine-induced respiratory depression but have no effect on morphine-induced analgesia. Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter in central respiratory control and physostigmine antagonizes morphine-induced respiratory depression. However, physostigmine has not been applied in clinical practice because it has a short action time, among other characteristics. We therefore asked whether donepezil (a long-acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease can antagonize morphine-induced respiratory depression. Using the anesthetized rabbit as our model, we measured phrenic nerve discharge as an index of respiratory rate and amplitude. We compared control indices with discharges after the injection of morphine and after the injection of donepezil. Morphine-induced depression of respiratory rate and respiratory amplitude was partly antagonized by donepezil without any effect on blood pressure and end-tidal C0(2. In the other experiment, apneic threshold PaC0(2 was also compared. Morphine increased the phrenic nerve apnea threshold but this was antagonized by donepezil. These findings indicate that systemically administered donepezil partially restores morphine-induced respiratory depression and morphine-deteriorated phrenic nerve apnea threshold in the anesthetized rabbit

  3. Effects of Estrogen Receptor Modulators on Morphine Induced Sensitization in Mice Memory

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    Mahdieh Anoush

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: In this study, the effects of estradiol valerate and raloxifenea selective estrogen receptor modulator; (SERM on morphine induced sensitization were examined in mice memory, according to the step-down passive avoidance task.  Method:The mice received morphine or estradiol and raloxifene for three days alone or in combination with morphine. After a drug free period of 5 days, the subjects received saline or morphine as pre- training treatments followed by a pre-test saline administration. The memory retrieval was evaluated using step-down passive avoidance test both on the training and test day. Results:The results illustrated that the three- day administration of morphine induced sensitization through the enhancement of memory retrieval (morphine induced sensitization in mice memory. Both the three- day administration of estradiol valerate alone and with morphine (5 mg/kg restored memory. On the other hand, the three- day administration of raloxifene had no effect on memory retrieval alone, but declined morphine induced sensitization in mice memory. Conclusion:The results of the study indicated that there is an interaction between estrogen receptor modulators and morphine induced sensitization in mice memory.

  4. Effects of berberine on acquisition and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference in mice

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    Faezeh Vahdati Hassani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It has been shown that berberine, a major component of Berberis vulgaris extract, modulates the activity of several neurotransmitter systems including dopamine (Da and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA contributing to rewarding and reinforcing effects of morphine. Drug craving and relapsing even after a long time of abstinence therapy are the most important problems of addiction. In the present study, we investigated the alleviating effects of berberine on the acquisition and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP in mice. Materials and Methods: In male NMRI mice, the acquisition of CPP was established by 40 mg/kg of morphine sulphate injection and extinguished after the extinction training and reinstated by a 10 mg/kg injection of morphine.  The effects of different doses of berberine (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg on the acquisition and reinstatement induced by morphine were evaluated in a conditioned place preference test. Results: The results showed that intraperitoneal administration of berberine (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg did not induce conditioned appetitive or aversive effects. Injection of berberine (10 and 20 mg/kg 2 h before the morphine administration reduced acquisition of morphine-induced CPP. In addition, same doses of berberine significantly prevented the reinstatement of morphine-induced CPP. Conclusion: These results suggest that berberine can reduce the acquisition and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference and may be useful in treatment of morphine addiction.

  5. Reversal of morphine-induced respiratory depression by doxapram in anesthetized rats.

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    Haji, Akira; Kimura, Satoko; Ohi, Yoshiaki

    2016-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate whether doxapram, a blocker of tandem pore K(+) (TASK-1/-3) channels, is a useful tool for recovery from morphine-induced ventilatory disturbances. Spontaneous ventilation and the hind leg withdrawal response against noxious thermal stimulation were recorded simultaneously in anesthetized rats. Morphine (1.0mg/kg, i.v.) decreased the minute volume resulting from depression of the ventilatory rate and tracheal airflow. Concomitantly, it prolonged the latency of withdrawal response against the thermal stimulation. Subsequent intravenous injection of doxapram recovered the morphine-induced ventilatory depression. This effect of doxapram declined rapidly after a single injection (1.0-3.0mg/kg, i.v.) but persisted with a continuous infusion (0.33mg/kg/min). Neither single injection nor continuous infusion of doxapram had any detectable effect on the analgesic potency of morphine. The central respiratory activity was recorded from the phrenic nerve in anesthetized, vagotomized, paralyzed and artificially ventilated rats. Morphine (3.0mg/kg, i.v.) induced respiratory depression, characterized by a prolonged plateau-like inspiratory discharge (apneustic discharge) in the phrenic nerve. Doxapram (10mg/kg, i.v.) restored the morphine-induced apneustic discharge to an augmenting inspiratory discharge. This study demonstrated that doxapram counteracted morphine-induced respiratory depression by stimulating the central respiratory network without compromising morphine antinociception. These results support the clinical use of doxapram for amelioration of ventilatory disturbances in patients treated with opioids. PMID:27038521

  6. Morphine Induces Hyperalgesia without Involvement of μ-Opioid Receptor or Morphine-3-glucuronide

    OpenAIRE

    Swartjes, Maarten; Mooren, René A G; Waxman, Amanda R.; Arout, Caroline; van de Wetering, Koen; den Hartigh, Jan; Beijnen, Jos H.; Kest, Benjamin; Dahan, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is a paradoxical increase in pain perception that may manifest during opioid treatment. For morphine, the metabolite morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) is commonly believed to underlie this phenomenon. Here, in three separate studies, we empirically assess the role of M3G in morphine-induced hyperalgesia. In the first study, CD-1 mice injected with morphine (15 mg/kg subcutaneously) after pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (NTX) (15 mg/kg) ...

  7. Severe dopaminergic neuron loss in rhesus monkey brain impairs morphine-induced conditioned place preference

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Ting; Rizak, Joshua Dominic; Wang, Jianhong; Yang, Shangchuan; Ma, Yuanye; Hu, Xintian

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that dopamine (DA) is critical for reward, but the precise role of DA in reward remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine what percentage of dopaminergic neurons in the primate brain is required for the expression of conditioned reward by measuring the performance of DA-deficient rhesus monkeys in a morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Animals with mild Parkinsonian symptoms successfully developed and retained a morphine preference tha...

  8. Severe dopaminergic neuron loss in rhesus monkey brain impairs morphine-induced conditioned place preference

    OpenAIRE

    Ting Yan; Yuanye Ma

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that dopamine is critical for reward, but the precise role of dopamine in reward remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine what percentage of dopaminergic neurons in the primate brain is required for the expression of conditioned reward by measuring the performance of dopamine-deficient rhesus monkeys in a morphine-induced conditioned place preference paradigm. Animals with mild Parkinsonian symptoms successfully developed and retained a morphine preference th...

  9. Effects of Estrogen Receptor Modulators on Morphine Induced Sensitization in Mice Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdieh Anoush; Ali Jani; Moosa Sahebgharani; Mohammad Reza Jafari

    2015-01-01

     Objective: In this study, the effects of estradiol valerate and raloxifenea selective estrogen receptor modulator; (SERM) on morphine induced sensitization were examined in mice memory, according to the step-down passive avoidance task.  Method:The mice received morphine or estradiol and raloxifene for three days alone or in combination with morphine. After a drug free period of 5 days, the subjects received saline or morphine as pre- training treatments followed by a pre-test saline adminis...

  10. Comparison of droperidol and ondansetron prophylactic effect on subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Ferreira da Cunha Brião

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prophylactic effect of ondansetron on subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus is controversial, while evidence suggests that droperidol prevents pruritus. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of droperidol and ondansetron on subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus.METHODS: 180 ASA I or II patients scheduled to undergo cesarean sections under subarachnoid anesthesia combined with morphine 0.2 mg were randomized to receive, after the child's birth, metoclopramide 10 mg (Group I - control, droperidol 2.5 mg (Group II or ondansetron 8 mg (Group III. Postoperatively, the patients were assessed for pruritus (absent, mild, moderate or severe or other side effects by blinded investigators. Patients were also blinded to their group allocation. The tendency to present more severe forms of pruritus was compared between groups. NNT was also determined.RESULTS: Patients assigned to receive droperidol [Proportional odds ratio: 0.45 (95% confidence interval 0.23-0.88] reported less pruritus than those who received metoclopramide. Ondansetron effect was similar to metoclopramide [Proportional odds ratio: 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.49-1.83]. The NNT for droperidol and ondansetron was 4.0 and 14.7, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Ondansetron does not inhibit subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus.

  11. Relative efficacy of some prokinetic drugs in morphine-induced gastrointestinal transit delay in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AD Suchitra; SA Dkhar; DG Shewade; CH Shashindran

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the relative efficacy of cisapride,metoclopramide, domperidone, erythromycin and mosapride on gastric emptying (GE) and small intestinal transit (SIT)in morphine treated mice.METHODS: Phenol red marker meal was employed to estimate GE and SIT in Swiss albino mice of either sex. The groups included were control, morphine 1 mg/kg (s.c. 15min before test meal) alone or with (45 min before test meal p.o.) cisapride 10 mg/kg, metoclopramide 20 mg/kg,domperidone 20 mg/kg, erythromycin 6 mg/kg and mosapride 20 mg/kg.RESULTS: Cisapride, metoclopramide and mosapride were effective in enhancing gastric emptying significantly (P<0.001)whereas other prokinetic agents failed to do so in normal mice. Metoclopramide completely reversed morphine induced delay in gastric emptying followed by mosapride.Metoclopramide alone was effective when given to normal mice in increasing the SIT. Cisapride, though it did not show any significant effect on SIT in normal mice, was able to reverse morphine induced delay in SIT significantly (P<0.001)followed by metoclopramide and mosapride.CONCLUSION: Metoclopramide and cisapride are most effective in reversing morphine-induced delay in gastric emptying and small intestinal transit in mice respectively.

  12. The effect of an endogenous compound 1-methyl-1,2,3,4,-tetrahydroisoquinoline on morphine-induced analgesia, dependence and neurochemical changes in dopamine metabolism in rat brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, A; Romańska, I; Antkiewicz-Michaluk, L

    2007-06-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinolines, among them the most interesting neuroprotective substance, an inhibitor of MAO, 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1MeTIQ), are endogenous compounds present in the central nervous system of mammals and humans. In this study, we investigated the effect of 1MeTIQ on morphine-induced analgesia, tolerance and abstinence syndrome as well as its effect on morphine-induced changes in dopamine metabolism in rat brain structures (nucleus accumbens, striatum, substantia nigra) using HPLC methodology. The experiments were carried out on male Wistar rats. Morphine analgesia was measured in the "hot-plate" test. To induce tolerance, morphine was given chronically (20 mg/kg i.p.) alone or following 1MeTIQ (50 mg/kg i.p.) injection. The development of dependence was assessed in the naloxone (2 mg/kg i.p.) precipitation test, after 10 days of morphine administration. The behavioral studies have shown that an endogenous compound, 1MeTIQ produced strong potentiation of morphine analgesia, prevented the development of morphine tolerance and inhibited expression of morphine abstinence syndrome in morphine-dependent rats. In neurochemical studies, we have demonstrated that 1MeTIQ antagonized morphine-induced changes in dopamine metabolism observed in rat brain structures. The main finding of this study was demonstration for the first time of an anti-abuse effect of an endogenous compound, 1MeTIQ, and its efficiency in counteracting morphine-induced addiction in the way useful from clinical point of view. The obtained results suggested a possibility of clinical application of 1MeTIQ in morphine addiction. PMID:17622694

  13. Endogenous histamine inhibits the development of morphine-induced conditioned place preference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-xia GONG; Min LV; Yong-ping ZHU; Yuan-yuan ZHU; Er-qing WEI; Hong SHI; Qun-li ZENG; Zhong CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Aim:The conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm was used to investigate the effects of endogenous histamine on the processes leading to morphine-induced reward-seeking behavior in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: The model of CPP was used to assess the rewarding effect of morphine. The levels of histamine,glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine (DA) and 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-acetic acid (DOPAC) in rat brains were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography. Immunohistochemistry technique was used to observe the morphological changes of neurons. Results: Intraperitoneal injection of mor-phine (2, 5 or 10 mg/kg) induced the development of CPP in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, morphine administrations (10 mg/kg) decreased the hista-mine content and reduced the number and size of histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TM), as well as markedly increasing the DOPAC/DA ratios in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Intra-peritoneal injection of histidine (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited the development of morphine-induced CPP. Bilateral lesions of the TM, which decreased the histamine levels in the VTA and NAc, potentiated the development of CPP induced by morphine (1 mg/kg, a dose that produced no appreciable effect when given alone) and increased the DOPAC/DA ratios in the VTA and NAc, but did not change the glutamate or GABA levels in these nuclei. Histidine reversed the effects of the TM lesions. Conclusion: These results indicate that endog-enous histamine plays a role in inhibiting the development of morphine-induced reward-seeking behavior, and the inhibition may involve the modulation of dopa-minergic activity.

  14. Abatement of morphine-induced slowing in gastrointestinal transit by Dai-kenchu-to, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tomonori; Sakai, Akiko; Isogami, Issei; Noda, Kazuhiro; Ueno, Koichi; Yano, Shingo

    2002-02-01

    As a way of alleviating severe constipation in cancer patients taking morphine to relieve pain, effects of Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo medicine), on gastrointestinal transit in mice or on the isolated guinea pig ileum were studied in special reference to morphine. Without altering the anti-nociceptive effect of morphine, DKT was significantly effective against morphine-induced disorder of gastrointestinal transit in mice as assessed by the charcoal meal test for the intestine and measurement of transit time for the colon tract. The results of in vitro studies with guinea pig ileum suggest that abatement of morphine-induced disorder of transit by DKT is caused by both moderate contraction of morphine-treated longitudinal muscle and relaxation of morphine-induced tonic contraction of circular muscle. PMID:11928724

  15. Prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) null mice have increased mu opioid receptor levels accompanied by altered morphine-induced antinociception, tolerance and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfy, K; Parikh, D; Lee, D L; Liu, Y; Ferrini, M G; Hamid, A; Friedman, T C

    2016-08-01

    Chronic morphine treatment increases the levels of prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) in brain regions involved in nociception, tolerance and dependence. Thus, we tested if PC2 null mice exhibit altered morphine-induced antinociception, tolerance and dependence. PC2 null mice and their wild-type controls were tested for baseline hot plate latency, injected with morphine (1.25-10mg/kg) and tested for antinociception 30min later. For tolerance studies, mice were tested in the hot plate test before and 30min following morphine (5mg/kg) on day 1. Mice then received an additional dose so that the final dose of morphine was 10mg/kg on this day. On days 2-4, mice received additional doses of morphine (20, 40 and 80mg/kg on days 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively). On day 5, mice were tested in the hot plate test before and 30min following morphine (5mg/kg). For withdrawal studies, mice were treated with the escalating doses of morphine (10, 20, 40 and 80mg/kg) for 4days, implanted with a morphine pellet on day 5 and 3 days later injected with naloxone (1mg/kg) and signs of withdrawal were recorded. Morphine dose-dependently induced antinociception and the magnitude of this response was greater in PC2 null mice. Tolerance to morphine was observed in wild-type mice and this phenomenon was blunted in PC2 null mice. Withdrawal signs were also reduced in PC2 null mice. Immunohistochemical studies showed up-regulation of the mu opioid receptor (MOP) protein expression in the periaqueductal gray area, ventral tegmental area, lateral hypothalamus, medial hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and somatosensory cortex in PC2 null mice. Likewise, naloxone specific binding was increased in the brains of these mice compared to their wild-type controls. The results suggest that the PC2-derived peptides may play a functional role in morphine-induced antinociception, tolerance and dependence. Alternatively, lack of opioid peptides led to up-regulation of the MOP and altered morphine-induced

  16. A new buprenorphine analogy, thenorphine,inhibits morphine-induced behavioral sensitization in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-liZHAO; Ze-huiGONG; Jian-huiLIANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate effects of thenorphine, a new compound of partial agonist of μ-opioid receptor, on the locomotor activity and the behavioral sensitization to morphine in mice. METHODS: Locomotor activity was observed after administration of thenorphine or co-administration of thenorphine and morphine in mice. Mice were induced behavioral sensitization to morphine by intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg morphine once daily for 7 d. Thenorphine was co-administrated with morphine to observe the effects of thenorphine on the development, transfer and expression of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. RESULTS: A single dose of thenorphine (0.0625, 0.25, and 1.0 mg/kg) could dose-dependently inhibit the locomotor activity in mice (P<0.05), repeated administrations of thenorphine, however, were not able to induce locomotor sensitization, but induced tolerance. Pretreatment with thenorphine 30 min prior to morphine effectively inhibited the psychomotor effect of morphine in mice (P<0.01). Co-administration of thenorphine (0.0625, 0.25, and 1.0 mg/kg) could dose-dependently inhibit the development,transfer, and expression of behavioral sensitization to morphine in mice (P<0.05 or P<0.01). CONCLUSION:Thenorphine inhibited morphine-induced behavioral sensitization in mice, suggesting that thenorphine may be effective against the addiction of opioids.

  17. A new buprenorphine analogy,thenorphine,inhibits morphine-induced behavioral sensitization in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-li ZHAO; Ze-hui GONG; Jian-hui LIANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate effects of thenorphine, a new compound of partial agonist of μ-opioid receptor, on the locomotor activity and the behavioral sensitization to morphine in mice. METHODS: Locomotor activity was observed after administration of thenorphine or co-administration of thenorphine and morphine in mice. Mice were induced behavioral sensitization to morphine by intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg morphine once daily for 7 d. Thenorphine was co-administrated with morphine to observe the effects of thenorphine on the development, transfer and expression of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. RESULTS: A single dose of thenorphine (0.0625, 0.25, and 1.0mg/kg) could dose-dependently inhibit the locomotor activity in mice (P<0.05), repeated administrations of thenorphine, however, were not able to induce locomotor sensitization, but induced tolerance. Pretreatment with thenorphine 30 min prior to morphine effectively inhibited the psychomotor effect of morphine in mice (P<0.01).Co-administration of thenorphine (0.0625, 0.25, and 1.0 mg/kg) could dose-dependently inhibit the development,transfer, and expression of behavioral sensitization to morphine in mice (P<0.05 or P<0.01). CONCLUSION:Thenorphine inhibited morphine-induced behavioral sensitization in mice, suggesting that thenorphine may be effective against the addiction of opioids.

  18. Role of L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, in the improvement of morphine-induced amnesia induced by nicotine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Piri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drugs of abuse such as nicotine and morphine used systemically by addicts produce their effects via the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Furthermore, evidence indicates that some behavioral effects of nicotine and morphine are mediated by nitric oxide (NO. Based on these observations, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of intra-nucleus accumbens (NAc injection of a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, on the nicotine’s effect on the morphine-induced amnesia. Methods: As a model of memory assessment, a step-through type passive avoidance task was used. All animals were bilaterally implanted with a chronic cannulae in the NAc shell and trained by using a 1 mA foot shock. Animals were tested 24 h after training to measure step-through latency. Results: Post-training injection of morphine impaired memory performance on the test day. Pre-test administration of the same doses of morphine reversed amnesia induced by post-training administration of morphine. Moreover, administration of nicotine before the test prevented morphine amnesia. Impairment of memory because of post-training injection of morphine was also prevented by pretest administration of L-NAME. Co-administration of an ineffective dose of nicotine with ineffective doses of L-NAME synergistically improved memory that was impaired by morphine. On the other hand, pre-test intra-NAc injection of L-NAME impaired passive avoidance memory by itself. Conclusion: Considering the effects of pre-test intra-NAc injection of L-NAME alone or in combination with ineffective dose of nicotine on morphine amnesia, it may be concluded that nitric oxide system of nucleus accumbens has an important role in the improvement of morphine-induced amnesia and morphine state-dependent memory caused by nicotine.

  19. Modulation of opiate-related signaling molecules in morphine-dependent conditioned behavior: conditioned place preference to morphine induces CREB phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, José A; Gullapalli, Srinivas; Taylor, Chirisse; Gupta, Achla; Gomes, Ivone; Devi, Lakshmi A

    2010-03-01

    Opiate addiction is a chronic, relapsing behavioral disorder where learned associations that develop between the abused opiate and the environment in which it is consumed are brought about through Pavlovian (classical) conditioning processes. However, the signaling mechanisms/pathways regulating the mechanisms that underlie the responses to opiate-associated cues or the development of sensitization as a consequence of repeated context-independent administration of opiates are unknown. In this study we examined the phosphorylation levels of various classic signaling molecules in brain regions implicated in addictive behaviors after acute and repeated morphine administration. An unbiased place conditioning protocol was used to examine changes in phosphorylation that are associated with (1) the expression of the rewarding effects of morphine and (2) the sensitization that develops to this effect. We also examined the effects of a delta-receptor antagonist on morphine-induced conditioned behavior and on the phosphorylation of classic signaling molecules in view of data showing that blockade of delta-opioid receptor (deltaOR) prevents the development of sensitization to the rewarding effects of morphine. We find that CREB phosphorylation is specifically induced upon the expression of a sensitized response to morphine-induced conditioned behavior in brain areas related to memory consolidation, such as the hippocampus and cortex. A similar effect is also observed, albeit to a lesser extent, in the case of the GluR1 subunit of AMPA glutamate receptor. These increases in the phosphorylation levels of CREB and pGluR1 are significantly blocked by pretreatment with a deltaOR antagonist. These results indicate a critical role for phospho-CREB, AMPA, and deltaOR activities in mediating the expression of a sensitized response to morphine-dependent conditioned behavior. PMID:19956087

  20. Morphine-Induced Preconditioning: Involvement of Protein Kinase A and Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, Marianne; Behmenburg, Friederike; Raible, Miriam; Blase, Dominic; Grievink, Hilbert; Hollmann, Markus W.; Heinen, André; Huhn, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Background Morphine induces myocardial preconditioning (M-PC) via activation of mitochondrial large conductance Ca2+-sensitive potassium (mKCa) channels. An upstream regulator of mKCa channels is protein kinase A (PKA). Furthermore, mKCa channel activation regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics and thereby prevents opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Here, we investigated in the rat heart in vivo whether 1) M-PC is mediated by activation of PKA, and 2) pharmacological opening of the mPTP abolishes the cardioprotective effect of M-PC and 3) M-PC is critically dependent on STAT3 activation, which is located upstream of mPTP within the signalling pathway. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomised to six groups (each n = 6). All animals underwent 25 minutes of regional myocardial ischemia and 120 minutes of reperfusion. Control animals (Con) were not further treated. Morphine preconditioning was initiated by intravenous administration of 0.3 mg/kg morphine (M-PC). The PKA blocker H-89 (10 μg/kg) was investigated with and without morphine (H-89+M-PC, H-89). We determined the effect of mPTP opening with atractyloside (5 mg/kg) with and without morphine (Atr+M-PC, Atr). Furthermore, the effect of morphine on PKA activity was tested in isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes. In further experiments in isolated hearts we tested the protective properties of morphine in the presence of STAT3 inhibition, and whether pharmacological prevention of the mPTP-opening by cyclosporine A (CsA) is cardioprotective in the presence of STAT3 inhibition. Results Morphine reduced infarct size from 64±5% to 39±9% (P0.05 vs. Con). Also, atractyloside abolished infarct size reduction of morphine completely (65±9%; P0.05 vs. Con). In isolated hearts STAT3 inhibitor Stattic completely abolished morphine-induced preconditioning. Administration of Stattic and mPTP inhibitor cyclosporine A reduced infarct size to 31±6% (Stat+CsA, P<0.05 vs. Con). Cyclosporine A alone

  1. Protective effect of bacoside-A against morphine-induced oxidative stress in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sumathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of bacoside-A the active principle isolated from the plant Bacopa monniera against oxidative damage induced by morphine in rat brain. Morphine intoxicated rats received 10-160 mg/kg b.w. of morphine hydrochloride intraperitoneally for 21 days. Bacoside-A pretreated rats were administered with bacoside-A (10 mg/kg b.w/day orally, 2 h before the injection of morphine for 21 days. Pretreatment with bacoside-A has shown to possess a significant protective role against morphine induced brain oxidative damage in the antioxidant status (total reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and lipid peroxidation and membrane bound ATP-ases(Na + /K + ATPase. Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ATPases activities in rat. The results of the present study indicate that bacoside-A protects the brain from oxidative stress induced by morphine.

  2. Somatosensory cortices are required for the acquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Meng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sensory system information is thought to play an important role in drug addiction related responses. However, how somatic sensory information participates in the drug related behaviors is still unclear. Many studies demonstrated that drug addiction represents a pathological usurpation of neural mechanisms of learning and memory that normally relate to the pursuit of rewards. Thus, elucidate the role of somatic sensory in drug related learning and memory is of particular importance to understand the neurobiological mechanisms of drug addiction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we investigated the role of somatosensory system in reward-related associative learning using the conditioned place preference model. Lesions were made in somatosensory cortices either before or after conditioning training. We found that lesion of somatosensory cortices before, rather than after morphine conditioning impaired the acquisition of place preference. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that somatosensory cortices are necessary for the acquisition but not retention of morphine induced place preference.

  3. Evidence of an immune system to brain communication axis that affects central opioid functions: muramyl peptides attenuate opiate withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, P M; Drath, D B; Dafny, N

    1987-09-11

    Muramyl peptides are metabolic breakdown products of bacterial cell walls formed in vivo by the reticuloendothelial system. These agents have a variety of immune modulatory and neuropharmacologic effects. It has previously been demonstrated that a variety of immune modifying agents can induce alterations in certain behaviors elicited by opiates. In the present study we investigate possible reciprocal interactions between muramyl dipeptides (MDPs) and central opioid systems using three different experimental models: (1) naloxone-precipitated withdrawal behavior in morphine-dependent rats; (2) the tail immersion assay for determination of morphine-induced antinociception and (3) rectal temperature measurement of the pyrogenic activity of MDP. It is shown that two derivatives of MDP attenuate the severity of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal and morphine-induced antinociception. In addition, it is demonstrated that the pyrogenic activity of a stearoyl derivative of MDP is altered by chronic morphine treatment. These findings suggest both novel neuropharmacologic properties of muramyl dipeptides, as well as demonstrate that yet another immune modifier interacts with centrally mediated opioid phenomena. PMID:2824218

  4. Roles of the Nucleus Accumbens (Shell in the Acquisition and Expression of Morphine-Induced Conditioned Behavior in Freely Moving Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Karimi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Since stimulation of dopaminergic neurons increases tendency to dependence to morphine, therefore in the present study, the stimulation of the NAc suppressed morphine-induced CPP that this shows impairment of learning and memory formation.

  5. Repeated exposure to methamphetamine, cocaine or morphine induces augmentation of dopamine release in rat mesocorticolimbic slice co-cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Nakagawa

    Full Text Available Repeated intermittent exposure to psychostimulants and morphine leads to progressive augmentation of its locomotor activating effects in rodents. Accumulating evidence suggests the critical involvement of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic neurons, which project from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens and the medial prefrontal cortex, in the behavioral sensitization. Here, we examined the acute and chronic effects of psychostimulants and morphine on dopamine release in a reconstructed mesocorticolimbic system comprised of a rat triple organotypic slice co-culture of the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex regions. Tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cell bodies were localized in the ventral tegmental area, and their neurites projected to the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex regions. Acute treatment with methamphetamine (0.1-1000 µM, cocaine (0.1-300 µM or morphine (0.1-100 µM for 30 min increased extracellular dopamine levels in a concentration-dependent manner, while 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (0.1-1000 µM had little effect. Following repeated exposure to methamphetamine (10 µM for 30 min every day for 6 days, the dopamine release gradually increased during the 30-min treatment. The augmentation of dopamine release was maintained even after the withdrawal of methamphetamine for 7 days. Similar augmentation was observed by repeated exposure to cocaine (1-300 µM or morphine (10 and 100 µM. Furthermore, methamphetamine-induced augmentation of dopamine release was prevented by an NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (10 µM, and was not observed in double slice co-cultures that excluded the medial prefrontal cortex slice. These results suggest that repeated psychostimulant- or morphine-induced augmentation of dopamine release, i.e. dopaminergic sensitization, was reproduced in a rat triple organotypic slice co-cultures. In addition, the slice co-culture system revealed that the NMDA

  6. "Interaction of different doses of Aspartame with Morphine-induced antinociception in the presence of MK-801, a NMDA antagonist "

    OpenAIRE

    Abdollahi M; Aghabarati F; Nikfar Sh; Etemad F; Abdoli N

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relative role of sweetness and comparative effects of different taste sensation of the non - caloric sweetener , aspartame on pain and its interaction with MK - 80] as a non - selective MMDA antagonist by formalin - test in mice. The formalin - test was chosen because it measures the response to a long - lasting nociceptive stimulus and closely resembles to the clinical pain. Morphine induced a dose dependent antinociception in the early and late pha...

  7. Morphine-induced antinociception and reward in "humanized" mice expressing the mu opioid receptor A118G polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson-Redmond, Angela N; Yuill, Matthew B; Lowe, Tammy E; Kline, Aaron M; Zee, Michael L; Guindon, Josée; Morgan, Daniel J

    2016-05-01

    The rewarding and antinociceptive effects of opioids are mediated through the mu-opioid receptor. The A118G single nucleotide polymorphism in this receptor has been implicated in drug addiction and differences in pain response. Clinical and preclinical studies have found that the G allele is associated with increased heroin reward and self-administration, elevated post-operative pain, and reduced analgesic responsiveness to opioids. Male and female mice homozygous for the "humanized" 118AA or 118GG alleles were evaluated to test the hypothesis that 118GG mice are less sensitive to the rewarding and antinociceptive effects of morphine. We found that 118AA and 118GG mice of both genders developed conditioned place preference for morphine. All mice developed tolerance to the antinociceptive and hypothermic effects of morphine. However, morphine tolerance was not different between AA and GG mice. We also examined sensitivity to the antinociceptive and hypothermic effects of cumulative morphine doses. We found that 118GG mice show reduced hypothermic and antinociceptive responses on the hotplate for 10mg/kg morphine. Finally, we examined basal pain response and morphine-induced antinociception in the formalin test for inflammatory pain. We found no gender or genotype differences in either basal pain response or morphine-induced antinociception in the formalin test. Our data suggests that homozygous expression of the GG allele in mice blunts morphine-induced hypothermia and hotplate antinociception but does not alter morphine CPP, morphine tolerance, or basal inflammatory pain response. PMID:26521067

  8. Chronic administration of Abarema cochliacarpos attenuates colonic inflammation in rats

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    Maria Silene da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterized by a chronic clinical course of relapse and remission associated with self-destructive inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Active extracts from plants have emerged as natural potential candidates for its treatment. Abarema cochliacarpos (Gomes Barneby & Grimes, Fabaceae (Barbatimão, is a native medicinal plant in to Brazil. Previously we have demonstrated in an acute colitis model a marked protective effect of a butanolic extract, so we decided to assess its anti-inflammatory effect in a chronic ulcerative colitis model induced by trinitrobenzensulfonic acid (TNBS. Abarema cochliacarpos (150 mg/day, v.o. was administered for fourteen consecutive days. This treatment decreased significantly macroscopic damage as compared with TNBS. Histological analysis showed that the extract improved the microscopic structure. Myeloperoxidase activity (MPO was significantly decreased. Study of cytokines showed that TNF-α was diminished and IL-10 level was increased after Abarema cochliacarpos treatment. In order to elucidate inflammatory mechanisms, expression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were studied showing a significant downregulation. In addition, there was reduction in the JNK and p-38 activation. Finally, IκB degradation was blocked by Abarema cochliacarpos treatment being consistent with an up-regulation of the NF-kappaB-binding activity. These results reinforce the anti-inflammatory effects described previously suggesting that Abarema cochliacarpos could provide a source for the search for new anti-inflammatory compounds useful in ulcerative colitis treatment.

  9. Severe dopaminergic neuron loss in rhesus monkey brain impairs morphine-induced conditioned place preference

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    Ting Yan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that dopamine is critical for reward, but the precise role of dopamine in reward remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine what percentage of dopaminergic neurons in the primate brain is required for the expression of conditioned reward by measuring the performance of dopamine-deficient rhesus monkeys in a morphine-induced conditioned place preference paradigm. Animals with mild Parkinsonian symptoms successfully developed and retained a morphine preference that was equivalent to control monkeys. However, these monkeys could not maintain the preference as well as controls when they retained severe Parkinsonian symptoms. On the other hand, monkeys initially in a severe Parkinsonian state developed a preference for morphine, but this preference was weaker than that of the controls. Histological results showed that the loss of dopaminergic neurons in monkeys that had severe Parkinsonian symptoms was about 80% in comparison to the control monkeys. All these data suggest that a severely impaired dopamine system alters rewarding-seeking behavior in non-human primates.

  10. Telmisartan attenuates chronic ciclosporin A nephrotoxicity in a pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cibulskyte, Donata; pedersen, michael; Hørlyck, Arne;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated renal enlargement in pigs treated with ciclosporin A (CsA) 10 mg/kg/day orally for 6 months. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of oral CsA (10 mg/kg/day) for 12 months on kidney structure and function and the potential renoprotective role...... of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor blocker telmisartan on chronic CsA nephrotoxicity in pigs. METHODS: Fourteen Göttingen minipigs aged 12-14 months were included: pigs received either CsA 10 mg/kg/day (n = 7) or CsA 10 mg/kg/day + telmisartan 40 mg/day (n = 7) orally for 12 months. At week 0, 12...

  11. Chronic Nicotine Exposure Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Dopaminergic Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Brock, Paula L; McFadden, Lisa M; Nielsen, Shannon M; Ellis, Jonathan D; Walters, Elliot T; Stout, Kristen A; McIntosh, J Michael; Wilkins, Diana G; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2015-12-01

    Repeated methamphetamine (METH) administrations cause persistent dopaminergic deficits resembling aspects of Parkinson's disease. Many METH abusers smoke cigarettes and thus self-administer nicotine; yet few studies have investigated the effects of nicotine on METH-induced dopaminergic deficits. This interaction is of interest because preclinical studies demonstrate that nicotine can be neuroprotective, perhaps owing to effects involving α4β2 and α6β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). This study revealed that oral nicotine exposure beginning in adolescence [postnatal day (PND) 40] through adulthood [PND 96] attenuated METH-induced striatal dopaminergic deficits when METH was administered at PND 89. This protection did not appear to be due to nicotine-induced alterations in METH pharmacokinetics. Short-term (i.e., 21-day) high-dose nicotine exposure also protected when administered from PND 40 to PND 61 (with METH at PND 54), but this protective effect did not persist. Short-term (i.e., 21-day) high-dose nicotine exposure did not protect when administered postadolescence (i.e., beginning at PND 61, with METH at PND 75). However, protection was engendered if the duration of nicotine exposure was extended to 39 days (with METH at PND 93). Autoradiographic analysis revealed that nicotine increased striatal α4β2 expression, as assessed using [(125)I]epibatidine. Both METH and nicotine decreased striatal α6β2 expression, as assessed using [(125)I]α-conotoxin MII. These findings indicate that nicotine protects against METH-induced striatal dopaminergic deficits, perhaps by affecting α4β2 and/or α6β2 expression, and that both age of onset and duration of nicotine exposure affect this protection. PMID:26391161

  12. Modulating effect of the nootropic drug, piracetam on stress- and subsequent morphine-induced prolactin secretion in male rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Matton, A; Engelborghs, S; Bollengier, F.; Finné, E.; Vanhaeist, L.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effect of the nootropic drug, piracetam on stress- and subsequent morphine-induced prolactin (PRL) secretion was investigated in vivo in male rats, by use of a stress-free blood sampling and drug administration method by means of a permanent indwelling catheter in the right jugular vein. 2. Four doses of piracetam were tested (20, 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1), being given intraperitoneally 1 h before blood sampling; control rats received saline instead. After a first blood sample, rats we...

  13. Complement C3 deficiency attenuates chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen M Bauer

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests a role of both innate and adaptive immunity in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The complement system is a key sentry of the innate immune system and bridges innate and adaptive immunity. To date there are no studies addressing a role for the complement system in pulmonary arterial hypertension.Immunofluorescent staining revealed significant C3d deposition in lung sections from IPAH patients and C57Bl6/J wild-type mice exposed to three weeks of chronic hypoxia to induce pulmonary hypertension. Right ventricular systolic pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy were increased in hypoxic vs. normoxic wild-type mice, which were attenuated in C3-/- hypoxic mice. Likewise, pulmonary vascular remodeling was attenuated in the C3-/- mice compared to wild-type mice as determined by the number of muscularized peripheral arterioles and morphometric analysis of vessel wall thickness. The loss of C3 attenuated the increase in interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in response to chronic hypoxia, but not endothelin-1 levels. In wild-type mice, but not C3-/- mice, chronic hypoxia led to platelet activation as assessed by bleeding time, and flow cytometry of platelets to determine cell surface P-selectin expression. In addition, tissue factor expression and fibrin deposition were increased in the lungs of WT mice in response to chronic hypoxia. These pro-thrombotic effects of hypoxia were abrogated in C3-/- mice.Herein, we provide compelling genetic evidence that the complement system plays a pathophysiologic role in the development of PAH in mice, promoting pulmonary vascular remodeling and a pro-thrombotic phenotype. In addition we demonstrate C3d deposition in IPAH patients suggesting that complement activation plays a role in the development of PAH in humans.

  14. Chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs and the analgesia induced by 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine: attenuation by desipramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danysz, W; Minor, B G; Post, C; Archer, T

    1986-08-01

    The effect of chronic and acute oral or intraperitoneal treatment with the antidepressant drugs, desipramine, amitriptyline, alaproclate and iprindole, upon pain thresholds in the tail flick, hot plate and shock titration tests of nociception in saline- and 5-MeODMT-treated rats was studied. Chronic desipramine treatment increased the pre-test tail flick latencies. In the saline-treated rats, chronic oral desipramine treatment increased tail flick latencies, whereas chronic oral amitriptyline treatment decreased tail flick latencies. In 5-MeODMT-treated rats, chronic oral desipramine treatment attenuated the effects of 5-MeODMT (1 mg/kg) in all three tests of nociception, whereas chronic amitriptyline caused a potentiation in the tail flick and hot plate tests. Chronic oral iprindole treatment attenuated 5-MeODMT-induced analgesia in the hot plate test. Chronic intraperitoneal desipramine treatment attenuated 5-MeODMT analgesia in the tail flick and shock titration tests. In a different chronic treatment experiment, oral desipramine treatment attenuated 5-MeODMT analgesia in the tail flick test and zimeldine did for both the tail flick and hot plate tests, whereas mianserin potentiated 5-MeODMT-induced analgesia in both the tail flick and hot plate tests. In the saline-treated rats, acute treatment with all four drugs, desipramine, amitriptyline, iprindole and alaproclate, elevated the shock thresholds, whereas in 5-MeODMT-treated rats, desipramine and amitriptyline elevated shock thresholds. Two main conclusions can be drawn: chronic desipramine caused a quite consistent attenuation of 5-MeODMT-induced analgesia and the effects of acute treatment differed strongly from that of the chronic treatment. The effects of chronic administration with these antidepressants were compared with other findings using different measures of behavioural and receptor function. PMID:3776549

  15. Appearance of attenuated intestinal polyposis during chronic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh; James; Freeman

    2012-01-01

    Aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) may prevent sporadic colonic neoplasia and reduce the polyp burden in familial adenomatous polyposis. A 41-year-old pharmacologist with no family history of intestinal polyps or cancer chronically consumed daily aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for decades despite recurrent and multiple gastric ulcers. A cancerous polyp in the colon was endoscopically resected. Over the next 2 decades, almost 50 adenomatous polyps were removed from the rest of his colon and duodenum, typical of an attenuated form of adenomatous polyposis. Chronic and habitual use of aspirin or NSAIDS may have important significance in delaying the appearance of adenomas. The observations here emphasize the important implications for clinical risk assessment in screening programs designed to detect or prevent colon cancer.

  16. Bacillus-produced surfactin attenuates chronic inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ping; Jin, Dong; Zhao, Xiuyun; Gao, Zhenqiu; Wang, Shengying; Du, Peng; Qi, Gaofu

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus-produced surfactin can inhibit acute inflammation in vitro and in vivo. However, there is no report whether surfactin could inhibit chronic inflammation in the atherosclerotic lesions. Apoliprotein E deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice (fed on atherogenic diet) were intragastrically administered with surfactin for 9 doses, then the athero-protective effect of surfactin was determined in vivo. The results showed surfactin could induce anti-inflammatory factors such as IgA, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and interleukin (IL)-10 in the intestine. Further investigation discovered that surfactin also systemically induced CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) Tregs in spleen, which could inhibit T cells to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ. The IgG subclass pattern with high titer of IgG1 (Th2-type) but low titer of IgG2a (Th1-type) was also found in the surfactin-treated mice. As a result, the attenuation of chronic inflammation was observed in the surfactin-treated groups accompanying with less TNF-α but more IL-10 in the atherosclerotic lesions. Moreover, surfactin could reduce serum total cholesterol and cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein, and increase serum cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein in mice. Collectively, surfactin could significantly attenuate atherosclerotic lesions on the aorta by restoration of the delicate balance of Th1/Th2 response in mice. PMID:27082998

  17. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates cadmium-induced chronic renal injury and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinglou; Du, Lifen; Li, Jingjing; Song, Hongping

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a serious environmental problem. Kidney is a main target organ of Cd toxicity. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential protective effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) against chronic renal injury and fibrosis induced by CdCl2. Rat model was induced by exposing to 250 mg/L CdCl2 through drinking water. The renal function was evaluated by detecting the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCR). The oxidative stress was measured by detecting the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) and renal enzymatic antioxidant status. Additionally, the renal levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), Smad3, phosphorylation-Smad3 (pp-Smad3), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin and E-cadherin were measured by western blot assay. Renal levels of microRNA-21 (miR-21), miR-29a/b/c and miR-192 were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. It was found that EGCG ameliorated the CdCl2-induced renal injury, inhibited the level of oxidative stress, normalized renal enzymatic antioxidant status and E-cadherin level, as well as attenuated the over generation of TGF-β1, pp-Smad3, vimentin and α-SMA. EGCG also decreased the production of miR-21 and miR-192, and enhanced the levels of miR-29a/b/c. These results showed that EGCG could attenuate Cd induced chronic renal injury. PMID:27474435

  18. Chronic endurance exercise training offsets the age-related attenuation in contraction-induced rapid vasodilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, William E; Ueda, Kenichi; Casey, Darren P

    2016-06-01

    Aging is associated with attenuated contraction-induced rapid onset vasodilation (ROV). We sought to examine whether chronic exercise training would improve ROV in older adults. Additionally, we examined whether a relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and ROV exists in young and older adults. Chronically exercise-trained older adults (n = 16; 66 ± 2 yr, mean ± SE) performed single muscle contractions in the forearm and leg at various intensities. Brachial and femoral artery diameter and blood velocity were measured using Doppler ultrasound. Vascular conductance (VC) was calculated as the quotient of blood flow (ml/min) and mean arterial pressure (mmHg). These data were compared with our previously published work from an identical protocol in 16 older untrained (66 ± 1 yr, mean ± SE) and 14 young (23 ± 1 yr) adults. Peak (ΔVCpeak) and total vasodilator (VCtotal) responses were greater in trained compared with untrained older adults across leg exercise intensities (P 0.05). Comparison of ΔVCpeak in a subset of subjects at an absolute workload in the leg revealed that trained older adults exhibited augmented responses relative to untrained older adults. Exercise capacity (V̇o2 peak) was associated with ΔVCpeak and VCtotal across arm (r = 0.59-0.64) and leg exercise intensities (r = 0.55-0.68, P < 0.05) in older adults. Our data demonstrate that 1) chronic exercise training improves ROV in the arm and leg of trained older adults, such that age-related differences in ROV are abolished, and 2) VO2peak is associated with ΔVCpeak responses in both limbs of older adults. PMID:27032899

  19. Chronic intermittent ethanol induced axon and myelin degeneration is attenuated by calpain inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samantaray, Supriti; Knaryan, Varduhi H; Patel, Kaushal S; Mulholland, Patrick J; Becker, Howard C; Banik, Naren L

    2015-10-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption causes multifaceted damage to the central nervous system (CNS), underlying mechanisms of which are gradually being unraveled. In our previous studies, activation of calpain, a calcium-activated neutral protease has been found to cause detrimental alterations in spinal motor neurons following ethanol (EtOH) exposure in vitro. However, it is not known whether calpain plays a pivotal role in chronic EtOH exposure-induced structural damage to CNS in vivo. To test the possible involvement of calpain in EtOH-associated neurodegenerative mechanisms the present investigation was conducted in a well-established mouse model of alcohol dependence - chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) exposure and withdrawal. Our studies indicated significant loss of axonal proteins (neurofilament light and heavy, 50-60%), myelin proteins (myelin basic protein, 20-40% proteolipid protein, 25%) and enzyme (2', 3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, 21-55%) following CIE in multiple regions of brain including hippocampus, corpus callosum, cerebellum, and importantly in spinal cord. These CIE-induced deleterious effects escalated after withdrawal in each CNS region tested. Increased expression and activity of calpain along with enhanced ratio of active calpain to calpastatin (sole endogenous inhibitor) was observed after withdrawal compared to EtOH exposure. Pharmacological inhibition of calpain with calpeptin (25 μg/kg) prior to each EtOH vapor inhalation significantly attenuated damage to axons and myelin as demonstrated by immuno-profiles of axonal and myelin proteins, and Luxol Fast Blue staining. Calpain inhibition significantly protected the ultrastructural integrity of axons and myelin compared to control as confirmed by electron microscopy. Together, these findings confirm CIE exposure and withdrawal induced structural alterations in axons and myelin, predominantly after withdrawal and corroborate calpain inhibition as a potential protective strategy against

  20. MicroRNA-219-5p Inhibits Morphine-Induced Apoptosis by Targeting Key Cell Cycle Regulator WEE1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Wei; Zhang, Xingwang; Hu, Xiao-Ying; Hu, Ai-Rong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND To identify the effects of microRNA (miR)-219-5p on morphine-induced apoptosis by targeting WEE1. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty Balb/C mice (Toll-like receptor 9, TLR9 knockout) were randomly allocated to the experimental and control groups (20 in each group). The baseline miR-219-5p expression was detected using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). After morphine was injected at 6 h on the 2nd and 6th days, experimental and control groups received miR-219-5p mimics or miRNA-negative control (NC), respectively, compound injection. Tissues and cells were later obtained from subjects in each group separately after mice were killed. TUNEL assay was used to investigate apoptosis in both groups. RAW264.7 cells were treated with miR-219-5p mimics and controls, respectively. After 24 h, 10 μM of morphine was added at 24 h. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometer. The WEE1 and Phospho-cdc2 (Tyr15) expressions were examined by Western blotting. RESULTS MiR-219-5p expression in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). Mice injected with miR-219-5p mimic experienced an evident increase in apoptosis rate compared with the control group (P<0.05). The miR-219-5p NC group and the morphine group both presented an elevated apoptosis rate compared with the blank control group (both, P<0.05). The apoptosis rate in the miR-219-5p mimic group was 10.06%, remarkably lower than in the miR-219-5p NC group and blank control group (both P<0.05). WEE1 and Tyr15 protein expressions in the miR-219-5p NC group and morphine group were obviously stronger than those in the blank control group (all P<0.05). In the miR-219-5p mimic group, WEE1 and Tyr15 protein expressions were significantly lower compared with those in the miR-219-5p NC group and morphine group (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Morphine significantly downregulated the expression of miRNA-219-5p, which targets WEE1 to suppress Tyr15 expressions and activate Cdc2, thus inhibiting

  1. Ligularia fischeri extract attenuates liver damage induced by chronic alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongyeop; Kim, Gyeong-Woo; Lee, Seon-Ho; Han, Gi Dong

    2016-08-01

    Context Ligularia fischeri (Ledebour) Turcz. (Compositae) has been used as a leafy vegetable and in traditional medicine to treat hepatic disorder in East Asia. Objective The present study explores the antioxidant activity of LF aqueous extract on EtOH-induced oxidative stress accompanied by hepatotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Materials and methods In vitro study using the mouse liver NCTC-1469 cell line was conducted to estimate the cytotoxicity as well as the inhibitory effect of LF extract against alcohol-treated cell damage. In vivo study used an alcohol-fed Wister rat model orally administered EtOH (3.95 g/kg of body weight/d) with or without LF extract (100 or 200 mg/kg body weight) for 6 weeks. Serum and liver tissue were collected to evaluate hepatic injury and antioxidant-related enzyme activity. Results The EC50 value for the DPPH radical scavenging capacity of LF extract was 451.5 μg/mL, whereas the IC50 value of LF extract in terms of EtOH-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was 98.3 μg/mL without cell cytotoxicity. LF extract (200 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced the triglyceride content of serum (33%) as well as hepatic lipid peroxidation (36%), whereas SOD activity was elevated three-fold. LF extract suppressed expression of CYP2E1 and TNF-α, and attenuated alcohol-induced abnormal morphological changes. Discussion and conclusion LF extract attenuated liver damage induced by alcoholic oxidative stress through inhibition of ROS generation, down-regulation of CYP2E1, and activation of hepatic antioxidative enzymes. Homeostasis of the antioxidative defence system in the liver by LF extract mitigated hepatic disorder following chronic alcohol intake. PMID:26799831

  2. Combined action of MK-801 and ceftriaxone impairs the acquisition and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference,and delays morphine extinction in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaodong Fan; Haichen Niu; Joshua D.Rizak; Ling Li; Guimei Wang; Liqi Xu; He Ren; Hao Lei; Hualin Yu

    2012-01-01

    Objective It is well established that glutamate and its receptors,particularly the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR),play a significant role in addiction and that the inhibition of glutamatergic hyperfunction reduces addictive behaviors in experimental animals.Specifically,NMDAR antagonists such as MK-801,and an inducer of the expression of glutamate transporter subtype-1 (GLT-1) (cefiriaxone) are known to inhibit addictive behavior.The purpose of this study was to determine whether the combined action of a low dose of MK-801 and a low dose of ceftriaxone provides better inhibition of the acquisition,extinction,and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) than either compound alone.Methods A morphine-paired CPP experiment was used to study the effects of low doses of MK-801,ceftriaxone and a combination of both on reward-related memory (acquisition,extinction,and reinstatement of morphine preference) in rats.Results A low dose of neither MK-801 (0.05 mg/kg,i.p.) nor ceftriaxone (25 mg/kg,i.p.) alone effectively impaired CPP behaviors.However,when applied in combination,they reduced the acquisition of morphine-induced CPP and completely prevented morphine reinstatement.Their combination also notably impaired the extinction of morphine-induced CPP.Conclusion The combined action of a low dose of an NMDAR antagonist (MK-801)and GLT-1 activation by ceftriaxone effectively changed different phases of CPP behavior.

  3. The effect of alpha-interferon, cyclosporine A, and radiation-induced immune suppression on morphine-induced hypothermia and tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, P M; Harper, C; Dafny, N

    1986-12-01

    An interconnection between the immune and the central nervous systems has been suggested by investigators studying the actions of several types of immune modifying agents and procedures upon opiate related phenomena. These studies have included the effects of altering immune system function by administration of either alpha-interferon, cyclosporine or radiation exposure upon naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal and upon opioid antinociceptive effects. The present study extends these earlier investigations by examining the effect of immune modulation upon opiate induced hypothermia. The results demonstrate that interferon and cyclosporine have no effects on baseline temperature or morphine induced hypothermia, while irradiation exposure elicits hyperthermia without affecting morphine-induced hypothermia. Finally, neither cyclosporine nor irradiation affect the development of tolerance to morphine induced hypothermia, while a single injection of the immune system modifier interferon was able to prevent the development of such tolerance. These observations suggest that yet another opiate-related phenomenon may be regulated at least in part by the immune system. These results together with our previous findings are further evidence of a link between the immune system and the CNS mediated through the opioid system. In addition, these studies further support our earlier hypothesis that "Interferon" is one of the endogenous substances which serves to prevent the development of tolerance and dependence to endogenous opioids. PMID:3784774

  4. Changes of CREB in rat hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens during three phases of morphine induced conditioned place preference in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lian-fang; ZHU Yong-ping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes in CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) in hippocampus, PFC(prefrontal cortex) and NAc (nucleus accumbens) during three phases of morphine induced CPP (conditioned place preference) in rats, and to elucidate the role of CREB during the progress of conditioned place preference. Methods: Morphine induced CPP acquisition, extinction and drug primed reinstatement model was established, and CREB expression in each brain area was measured by Western Blot methods. Results: Eight alternating injections of morphine (10 mg/kg) induced CPP, and 8 d saline extinction training that extinguished CPP. CPP was reinstated following a priming injection of morphine (2.5 mg/kg). During the phases of CPP acquisition and reinstatement, the level of CREB expression was significantly changed in different brain areas.Conclusion: It was proved that CPP model can be used as an effective tool to investigate the mechanisms underlying drug-induced reinstatement of drug seeking after extinction, and that morphine induced CPP and drug primed reinstatement may involve activation of the transcription factor CREB in several brain areas, suggesting that the CREB and its target gene regulation pathway may mediate the basic mechanism underlying opioid dependence and its drug seeking behavior.

  5. Nitrosative stress in human skeletal muscle attenuated by exercise countermeasure after chronic disuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Salanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-induced nitric oxide (NO imbalance and “nitrosative stress” are proposed mechanisms of disrupted Ca2+ homeostasis in atrophic skeletal muscle. We thus mapped S-nitrosylated (SNO functional muscle proteins in healthy male subjects in a long-term bed rest study (BBR2-2 Study without and with exercise as countermeasure in order to assess (i the negative effects of chronic muscle disuse by nitrosative stress, (ii to test for possible attenuation by exercise countermeasure in bed rest and (iii to identify new NO target proteins. Muscle biopsies from calf soleus and hip vastus lateralis were harvested at start (Pre and at end (End from a bed rest disuse control group (CTR, n=9 and two bed rest resistive exercise groups either without (RE, n=7 or with superimposed vibration stimuli (RVE, n=7. At subcellular compartments, strong anti-SNO-Cys immunofluorescence patterns in control muscle fibers after bed rest returned to baseline following vibration exercise. Total SNO-protein levels, Nrf-2 gene expression and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling were changed to varying degrees in all groups. Excess SNO-protein levels of specific calcium release/uptake proteins (SNO-RyR1, –SERCA1 and –PMCA and of contractile myosin heavy chains seen in biopsy samples of chronically disused skeletal muscle were largely reduced by vibration exercise. We also identified NOS1 as a novel NO target in human skeletal muscle controlled by activity driven auto-nitrosylation mechanisms. Our findings suggest that aberrant levels of functional SNO-proteins represent signatures of uncontrolled nitrosative stress management in disused human skeletal muscle that can be offset by exercise as countermeasure.

  6. Anti-melanin-concentrating hormone treatment attenuates chronic experimental colitis and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziogas, Dimitrios C; Gras-Miralles, Beatriz; Mustafa, Sarah; Geiger, Brenda M; Najarian, Robert M; Nagel, Jutta M; Flier, Sarah N; Popov, Yury; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Kokkotou, Efi

    2013-05-15

    Fibrosis represents a major complication of several chronic diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Treatment of IBD remains a clinical challenge despite several recent therapeutic advances. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide shown to regulate appetite and energy balance. However, accumulating evidence suggests that MCH has additional biological effects, including modulation of inflammation. In the present study, we examined the efficacy of an MCH-blocking antibody in treating established, dextran sodium sulfate-induced experimental colitis. Histological and molecular analysis of mouse tissues revealed that mice receiving anti-MCH had accelerated mucosal restitution and lower colonic expression of several proinflammatory cytokines, as well as fibrogenic genes, including COL1A1. In parallel, they spared collagen deposits seen in the untreated mice, suggesting attenuated fibrosis. These findings raised the possibility of perhaps direct effects of MCH on myofibroblasts. Indeed, in biopsies from patients with IBD, we demonstrate expression of the MCH receptor MCHR1 in α-smooth muscle actin(+) subepithelial cells. CCD-18Co cells, a primary human colonic myofibroblast cell line, were also positive for MCHR1. In these cells, MCH acted as a profibrotic modulator by potentiating the effects of IGF-1 and TGF-β on proliferation and collagen production. Thus, by virtue of combined anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects, blocking MCH might represent a compelling approach for treating IBD. PMID:23538494

  7. Neuroplastic alteration of TTX-resistant sodium channel with visceral pain and morphine-induced hyperalgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jinghong Chen,1,2,4 Ze-hui Gong,4 Hao Yan,2 Zhijun Qiao,3 Bo-yi Qin41Department of Internal Medicine, Neuroscience Program, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA; 2The Divisions of Pharmacy, Pharmacology core lab, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 3University of Texas-Pan American, Edinburg, TX, USA; 4Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing, China Abstract: The discovery of the tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R Na+ channel in nociceptive neurons has provided a special target for analgesic intervention. In a previous study we found that both morphine tolerance and persistent visceral inflammation resulted in visceral hyperalgesia. It has also been suggested that hyperexcitability of sensory neurons due to altered TTX-R Na+ channel properties and expression contributes to hyperalgesia; however, we do not know if some TTX-R Na+ channel property changes can be triggered by visceral hyperalgesia and morphine tolerance, or whether there are similar molecular or channel mechanisms in both situations. To evaluate the effects of morphine tolerance and visceral inflammation on the channel, we investigated the dorsal root ganglia (DRG neuronal change following these chronic treatments. Using whole-cell patch clamp recording, we recorded TTX-R Na+ currents in isolated adult rat lumbar and sacral (L6-S2 DRG neurons from normal and pathologic rats with colon inflammatory pain or chronic morphine treatment. We found that the amplitudes of TTX-R Na+ currents were signiflcantly increased in small-diameter DRG neurons with either morphine tolerance or visceral inflammatory pain. Meanwhile, the result also showed that those treatments altered the kinetics properties of the electrical current (ie, the activating and inactivating speed of the channel was accelerated. Our current results suggested that in both models, visceral chronic inflammatory pain and morphine tolerance causes electrophysiological changes in voltage

  8. Growth hormone plus resistance exercise attenuate structural changes in rat myotendinous junctions resulting from chronic unloading

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    D. Curzi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Myotendinous junctions (MTJs are specialized sites on the muscle surface where forces generated by myofibrils are transmitted across the sarcolemma to the extracellular matrix. At the ultrastructural level, the interface between the sarcolemma and extracellular matrix is highly folded and interdigitated at these junctions. In this study, the effect of exercise and growth hormone (GH treatments on the changes in MTJ structure that occur during muscle unloading, has been analyzed. Twenty hypophysectomized rats were assigned randomly to one of five groups: ambulatory control, hindlimb unloaded, hindlimb unloaded plus exercise (3 daily bouts of 10 climbs up a ladder with 50% body wt attached to the tail, hindlimb unloaded plus GH (2 daily injections of 1 mg/kg body wt, i.p., and hindlimb unloaded plus exercise plus GH. MTJs of the plantaris muscle were analyzed by electron microscopy and the contact between muscle and tendon was evaluated using an IL/B ratio, where B is the base and IL is the interface length of MTJ’s digit-like processes. After 10 days of unloading, the mean IL/B ratio was significantly lower in unloaded (3.92, unloaded plus exercise (4.18, and unloaded plus GH (5.25 groups than in the ambulatory control (6.39 group. On the opposite, the mean IL/B ratio in the group treated with both exercise and GH (7.3 was similar to control. These findings indicate that the interaction between exercise and GH treatments attenuates the changes in MTJ structure that result from chronic unloading and thus can be used as a countermeasure to these adaptations.

  9. Efficacy of Intramuscular Nalbuphine versus Diphenhydramine for the Prevention of Epidural Morphine-induced Pruritus after Cesarean Delivery

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    Chia-Chih Liao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pruritus is the most common side effect of epidural morphine analgesia.Diphenhydramine is a widely used agent for the treatment of urticarial pruritus.Nalbuphine is a mixed opioid agonist–antagonist and has been reportedto be effective in treating opioid-induced pruritus. We compared the effectivenessof intramuscular diphenhydramine and nalbuphine for the preventionof epidural morphine-induced pruritus after cesarean section.Methods: One hundred and fifty, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical statusI or II, women undergoing cesarean section with epidural anesthesia wererandomly assigned to three groups. Group S, group D, and group N receivedintramuscular normal saline (1 ml; n = 50, diphenhydramine (30 mg/1 ml; n= 50, and nalbuphine (10 mg/1 ml; n = 50, respectively, after delivery of thebaby. The occurrence and the severity of pruritus were assessed at 1, 4, 12,and 24 hours after surgery.Results: The overall incidence of pruritus during the 24 hr follow-up period was 72%,68%, and 44% for group S, group D, and group N, respectively. Pruritusoccurred less frequently in group N than group D (p = 0.027. At 4 and 12hrs postoperatively, the pruritus severity was significantly different (p =0.003 and p = 0.002 and was significantly less in group N than group D inthe intergroup comparison (p = 0.013 and p = 0.012.Conclusion: Nalbuphine proved better than diphenhydramine for prevention of epiduralmorphine-induced pruritus in patients who underwent cesarean section.Prophylactic intramuscular nalbuphine (10 mg is effective in decreasing theincidence and severity of pruritus and does not affect analgesia.

  10. Rapid reversal by naloxone of the chronic effects of morphine on rat liver and brain tryptophan metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Badawy, A. A.; Evans, M.

    1981-01-01

    The chronic morphine-induced inhibition of rat liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity and the resultant increases in tryptophan availability to the brain and brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) synthesis are reversed within 10 min after naloxone administration. The possible involvement of hepatic tryptophan metabolism in morphine dependence is briefly discussed.

  11. Chronic infusion of lisinopril into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus modulates cytokines and attenuates oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla in hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong-Bao [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Ma, Le [Department of Public Health, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Miao, Yu-Wang [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Dong-Mei [Department of Physiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Lu, Yan [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Sanaitang Hospital, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Song, Xin-Ai [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2014-09-01

    The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) play a critical role in the generation and maintenance of sympathetic nerve activity. The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. This study was designed to determine whether inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the PVN modulates cytokines and attenuates oxidative stress (ROS) in the RVLM, and decreases the blood pressure and sympathetic activity in renovascular hypertensive rats. Renovascular hypertension was induced in male Sprague–Dawley rats by the two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) method. Renovascular hypertensive rats received bilateral PVN infusion with ACE inhibitor lisinopril (LSP, 10 μg/h) or vehicle via osmotic minipump for 4 weeks. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and plasma proinflammatory cytokines (PICs) were significantly increased in renovascular hypertensive rats. The renovascular hypertensive rats also had higher levels of ACE in the PVN, and lower level of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the RVLM. In addition, the levels of PICs, the chemokine MCP-1, the subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase (gp91{sup phox}) and ROS in the RVLM were increased in hypertensive rats. PVN treatment with LSP attenuated those changes occurring in renovascular hypertensive rats. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effects of ACE inhibition in the PVN in renovascular hypertension are partly due to modulation cytokines and attenuation oxidative stress in the RVLM. - Highlights: • Chronic ACE inhibition in PVN on renovascular hypertension was investigated. • 2K1C resulted in sympathoexcitation, increased plasma PICs and hypertension. • 2K1C rats had higher levels of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RVLM. • Chronic inhibiting PVN ACE attenuates cytokines and ROS in RVLM in hypertension.

  12. Chronic infusion of lisinopril into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus modulates cytokines and attenuates oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) play a critical role in the generation and maintenance of sympathetic nerve activity. The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. This study was designed to determine whether inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the PVN modulates cytokines and attenuates oxidative stress (ROS) in the RVLM, and decreases the blood pressure and sympathetic activity in renovascular hypertensive rats. Renovascular hypertension was induced in male Sprague–Dawley rats by the two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) method. Renovascular hypertensive rats received bilateral PVN infusion with ACE inhibitor lisinopril (LSP, 10 μg/h) or vehicle via osmotic minipump for 4 weeks. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and plasma proinflammatory cytokines (PICs) were significantly increased in renovascular hypertensive rats. The renovascular hypertensive rats also had higher levels of ACE in the PVN, and lower level of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the RVLM. In addition, the levels of PICs, the chemokine MCP-1, the subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase (gp91phox) and ROS in the RVLM were increased in hypertensive rats. PVN treatment with LSP attenuated those changes occurring in renovascular hypertensive rats. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effects of ACE inhibition in the PVN in renovascular hypertension are partly due to modulation cytokines and attenuation oxidative stress in the RVLM. - Highlights: • Chronic ACE inhibition in PVN on renovascular hypertension was investigated. • 2K1C resulted in sympathoexcitation, increased plasma PICs and hypertension. • 2K1C rats had higher levels of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RVLM. • Chronic inhibiting PVN ACE attenuates cytokines and ROS in RVLM in hypertension

  13. Electrical stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve in conscious rats overcomes the attenuation of the baroreflex in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Tomás O C Teixeira; Lataro, Renata M; Castania, Jaci A; Durand, Marina T; Silva, Carlos A A; Patel, Kaushik P; Fazan, Rubens; Salgado, Helio C

    2016-04-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is characterized by autonomic dysfunction combined with baroreflex attenuation. The hypotensive and bradycardic responses produced by electrical stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve (ADN) were examined in conscious CHF and control male Wistar rats (12-13 wk old). Furthermore, the role of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system in mediating the cardiovascular responses to baroreflex activation was evaluated by selective β1-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor antagonists. CHF was induced by myocardial infarction. After 6 wk, the subjects were implanted with electrodes for ADN stimulation. Twenty-four hours later, electrical stimulation of the ADN was applied for 20 s using five different frequencies (5, 15, 30, 60, and 90 Hz), while the arterial pressure was recorded by a catheter implanted into the femoral artery. Electrical stimulation of the ADN elicited progressive and similar hypotensive and bradycardic responses in control (n= 12) and CHF (n= 11) rats, while the hypotensive response was not affected by methylatropine. Nevertheless, the reflex bradycardia was attenuated by methylatropine in control, but not in CHF rats. Atenolol did not affect the hypotensive or bradycardic response in either group. The ADN function was examined under anesthesia through electroneurographic recordings. The arterial pressure-ADN activity relationship was attenuated in CHF rats. In conclusion, despite the attenuation of baroreceptor function in CHF rats, the electrical stimulation of the ADN elicited a stimulus-dependent hypotension and bradycardia of similar magnitude as observed in control rats. Therefore, electrical activation of the aortic baroreflex overcomes both the attenuation of parasympathetic function and the sympathetic overdrive. PMID:26843582

  14. Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Attenuate Lung Injury in a Murine Model of Neonatal Chronic Lung Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam, Muhammad; Baveja, Rajiv; Liang, Olin D.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Angeles; Lee, Changjin; Mitsialis, S. Alex; Kourembanas, Stella

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Neonatal chronic lung disease, known as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), remains a serious complication of prematurity despite advances in the treatment of extremely low birth weight infants.

  15. Chronic Exposure to Beta-Blockers Attenuates Inflammation and Mucin Content in a Murine Asthma Model

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Long P.; Omoluabi, Ozozoma; Parra, Sergio; Frieske, Joanna M.; Clement, Cecilia; Ammar-Aouchiche, Zoulikha; Ho, Samuel B.; Ehre, Camille; Kesimer, Mehmet; Knoll, Brian J.; Tuvim, Michael J; Dickey, Burton F.; Bond, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Single-dose administration of beta-adrenoceptor agonists produces bronchodilation and inhibits airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and is the standard treatment for the acute relief of asthma. However, chronic repetitive administration of beta-adrenoceptor agonists may increase AHR, airway inflammation, and risk of death. Based upon the paradigm shift that occurred with the use of beta-blockers in congestive heart failure, we previously determined that chronic administration of beta-blockers de...

  16. Valproate attenuates the development of morphine antinociceptive tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobashi, Tamae; Tanabe, Serabi; Jin, Hisayo; Nishino, Takashi; Aoe, Tomohiko

    2010-11-19

    Morphine is a potent opioid analgesic. Repeated administration of morphine induces tolerance, thus reducing the effectiveness of analgesic treatment. Although some adjuvant analgesics can increase morphine analgesia, the precise molecular mechanism behind their effects remains unclear. Opioids bind to the mu opioid receptor (MOR). Morphine tolerance may be derived from alterations in the intracellular signal transduction after MOR activation. Chronic morphine treatment activates glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), whose inhibition diminishes morphine tolerance. Valproate is widely prescribed as an anticonvulsant and a mood stabilizer for bipolar disorders because it increases the amount of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the central nervous system. Although the activation of GABAergic neurons may be responsible for the chief pharmacologic effect of valproate, recent studies have shown that valproate also suppresses GSK3β activity. We examined the effect of valproate on the development of morphine antinociceptive tolerance in a mouse model of thermal injury. Mice were treated with morphine alone or with morphine and valproate twice daily for 5 days. The resulting antinociceptive effects were assessed using a hot plate test. While mice treated with morphine developed tolerance, co-administration of valproate attenuated the development of tolerance and impaired the activation of GSK3β in mice brains. Valproate alone did not show analgesic effects; nevertheless, it functioned as an adjuvant analgesic to prevent the development of morphine tolerance. These results suggest that the modulation of GSK3β activity by valproate may be useful and may play a role in the prevention of morphine tolerance. PMID:20816918

  17. Escin, a novel triterpene, mitigates chronic MPTP/p-induced dopaminergic toxicity by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, Govindasamy Pushpavathi; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Rekha, Karamkolly R; Jayaraj, Richard L; Elangovan, Namasivayam

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, chronic, and debilitating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons due to unknown factors. In the present study, we have evaluated if escin, a triterpene saponin from seeds of horse chestnut tree (Aesculus hippocastanum), offers neuroprotection against chronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid (MPTP/p)-induced toxicity using a mouse model. Chronic administration of MPTP/p deteriorated the loss of TH immunoreactivity in striatum. Subsequently, MPTP/p also enhanced oxidative stress by mitochondrial complex I inhibition, thereby ensuing dopaminergic denervation via modulation of Bcl-2, Bax, Cyto-C, and cleaved caspases expressions. However, we observed that pretreatment with escin (4 mg/kg) significantly attenuated MPTP/p-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Furthermore, behavioral studies and ultrastructural analysis of mitochondria and intracellular components were in support of these findings. Therefore, we speculate that escin might be a promising candidate for the prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction-induced apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders such as PD. PMID:24788336

  18. Vitamin C Attenuates Chronic Chlorpyrifos-induced Alteration of Neurobehavioral Parameters in Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Suleiman F. Ambali; Joseph O. Ayo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress is one of the molecular mechanisms in chlorpyrifos toxicity. The present study was designed to evaluate the attenuating effect of vitamin C on chlorpyrifos-induced alteration of neurobehavioral performance and the role of muscle acetylchloinesterase (AChE), glycogen and lipoperoxidation in the accomplishment of this task. Materials and Methods: Male rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups with the following regimens: soya oil (S/oil), vitamin C (VC), chlorpyrifo...

  19. Chronic caffeine exposure attenuates blast-induced memory deficit in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Lei Ning; Nan Yang; Xing Chen; Zi-Ai Zhao; Xiu-Zhu Zhang; Xing-Yun Chen; Ping Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of three different ways of chronic caffeine administration on blastinduced memory dysfunction and to explore the underlying mechanisms.Methods:Adult male C57BL/6 mice were used and randomly divided into five groups:control:without blast exposure,con-water:administrated with water continuously before and after blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI),con-caffeine:administrated with caffeine continuously for 1 month before and after bTBI,pre-caffeine:chronically administrated with caffeine for 1 month before bTBI and withdrawal after bTBI,post-caffeine:chronically administrated with caffeine after bTBI.After being subjected to moderate intensity of blast injury,mice were recorded for learning and memory performance using Morris water maze (MWM) paradigms at 1,4,and 8 weeks post-blast injury.Neurological deficit scoring,glutamate concentration,proinflammatory cytokines production,and neuropathological changes at 24 h,1,4,and 8 weeks post-bTBI were examined to evaluate the brain injury in early and prolonged stages.Adenosine A1 receptor expression was detected using qPCR.Results:All of the three ways of chronic caffeine exposure ameliorated blast-induced memory deficit,which is correlated with the neuroprotective effects against excitotoxicity,inflammation,astrogliosis and neuronal loss at different stages of injury.Continuous caffeine treatment played positive roles in both early and prolonged stages of bTBI;pre-bTBl and post-bTBl treatment of caffeine tended to exert neuroprotective effects at early and prolonged stages of bTBI respectively.Up-regulation of adenosine A1 receptor expression might contribute to the favorable effects of chronic caffeine consumption.Conclusion:Since caffeinated beverages are widely consumed in both civilian and military personnel and are convenient to get,the results may provide a promising prophylactic strategy for blast-induced neurotrauma and the consequent cognitive impairment.

  20. High Oxidative Capacity Due to Chronic Exercise Training Attenuates Lipid-Induced Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Phielix, Esther; Meex, Ruth; Ouwens, D Margriet; Sparks, Lauren; Hoeks, Joris; Schaart, Gert; Moonen-Kornips, Esther; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.; Schrauwen, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Fat accumulation in skeletal muscle combined with low mitochondrial oxidative capacity is associated with insulin resistance (IR). Endurance-trained athletes, characterized by a high oxidative capacity, have elevated intramyocellular lipids, yet are highly insulin sensitive. We tested the hypothesis that a high oxidative capacity could attenuate lipid-induced IR. Nine endurance-trained (age = 23.4 ± 0.9 years; BMI = 21.2 ± 0.6 kg/m2) and 10 untrained subjects (age = 21.9 ± 0.9 years; BMI = 22...

  1. Miso (Japanese soybean paste) soup attenuates salt-induced sympathoexcitation and left ventricular dysfunction in mice with chronic pressure overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koji; Hirooka, Yoshitaka; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    The hypothalamic mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) pathway is activated in mice with chronic pressure overload (CPO). When this activation is combined with high salt intake, it leads to sympathoexcitation, hypertension, and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Salt intake is thus an important factor that contributes to heart failure. Miso, a traditional Japanese food made from fermented soybeans, rice, wheat, or oats, can attenuate salt-induced hypertension in rats. However, its effects on CPO mice with salt-induced sympathoexcitation and LV dysfunction are unclear. Here, we investigated whether miso has protective effects in these mice. We also evaluated mechanisms associated with the hypothalamic MR-AT1R pathway. Aortic banding was used to produce CPO, and a sham operation was performed for controls. At 2 weeks after surgery, the mice were given water containing high NaCl levels (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) for 4 weeks. The high salt loading in CPO mice increased excretion of urinary norepinephrine (uNE), a marker of sympathetic activity, in an NaCl concentration-dependent manner; however, this was not observed in Sham mice. Subsequently, CPO mice were administered 1.0% NaCl water (CPO-H) or miso soup (1.0% NaCl equivalent, CPO-miso). The expression of hypothalamic MR, serum glucocorticoid-induced kinase-1 (SGK-1), and AT1R was higher in the CPO-H mice than in the Sham mice; however, the expression of these proteins was attenuated in the CPO-miso group. Although the CPO-miso mice had higher sodium intake, salt-induced sympathoexcitation was lower in these mice than in the CPO-H group. Our findings indicate that regular intake of miso soup attenuates salt-induced sympathoexcitation in CPO mice via inhibition of the hypothalamic MR-AT1R pathway. PMID:24908908

  2. Chronic ethanol attenuates circadian photic phase resetting and alters nocturnal activity patterns in the hamster

    OpenAIRE

    Ruby, Christina L.; Brager, Allison J.; Marc A. DePaul; Prosser, Rebecca A.; Glass, J. David

    2009-01-01

    Acute ethanol (EtOH) administration impairs circadian clock phase resetting, suggesting a mode for the disruptive effect of alcohol abuse on human circadian rhythms. Here, we extend this research by characterizing the chronobiological effects of chronic alcohol consumption. First, daily profiles of EtOH were measured in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and subcutaneously using microdialysis in hamsters drinking EtOH. In both cases, EtOH peaked near lights-off and declined throughout the dark...

  3. Forebrain glucocorticoid receptor gene deletion attenuates behavioral changes and antidepressant responsiveness during chronic stress

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Stress is an important risk factor for mood disorders. Stress also stimulates the secretion of glucocorticoids, which have been found to influence mood. To determine the role of forebrain glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in behavioral responses to chronic stress, the present experiments compared behavioral effects of repeated social defeat in mice with forebrain GR deletion and in floxed GR littermate controls. Repeated defeat produced alterations in forced swim and tail suspension immobility in...

  4. Bangpungtongseong-san, a traditional herbal medicine, attenuates chronic asthmatic effects induced by repeated ovalbumin challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Jeon, Woo-Young; Shin, Nara; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2014-04-01

    Airway remodeling is characterized by airway wall thickening, subepithelial fibrosis, increased smooth muscle mass, angiogenesis and increased mucus secretion, which can lead to chronic and obstinate asthma and can obstruct pulmonary function. In this study, the effects of Bangpungtongseong-san water extract (BPTS) on airway remodeling were examined using a murine model of bronchial asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA) challenge. We focused on the effects of BPTS on the regulation of chronic asthma. BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to 5 groups, some of which were sensitized and challenged with OVA for 4 weeks. After the final ovalbumin challenge, typical asthma-like morphological changes were observed in the lung tissue with hematoxylin and eosin staining, periodic acid-Schiff, as well as with Masson's trichrome staining. The levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and Smad3 were assessed by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were also detected by western blot analysis. Our results revealed that BPTS reduced the OVA-induced increase in the infiltration of leukocytes, mucus hyperplasia and collagen deposition. Compared with the OVA-challenged group, the BPTS group had lower expression levels of adhesion molecules, TGF-β1, Smad3 and VEGF proteins in the lung tissues. The results of the current study suggest that BPTS prevents asthma airway remodeling in chronic asthma by inhibiting the activation of the TGF-β1-Smad3-signaling pathway, as well as the expression of VEGF and adhesion molecules. BPTS may thus be a potential drug for the treatment of patients with changes that occur in the airways due to severe asthma. PMID:24535550

  5. Ethanol in low chronic dose level attenuates major organic effects in malnourished rats

    OpenAIRE

    ALINE S DE AGUIAR; GILSON T BOAVENTURA; RAFAEL F ABRAHÃO; THATIANA L FREITAS; Takiya, Christina M; PORPHIRIO J S FILHO; VILMA A DA SILVA

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chronic toxicity of ethanol low blood levels in malnourished rats. Female Wistar rats (220 g) were subjected to either an ad libitum diet (W, well-nourished, n=10) or food restriction (M, malnourished, n=10). Water (WW and MW) or ethanol solution (W5% and M5%) was offered to half of each nutritional group (n=5) as the only fluid source. The treatment was continued for two months. After sacrifice, blood biochemical parameters and macroscopic, hi...

  6. Three kinds of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides attenuate DDC-induced chronic pancreatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Koukou; Yu, Min; Hu, Yang; Ren, Guangming; Zang, Tingting; Xu, Xiuhong; Qu, Juanjuan

    2016-03-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive inflammation of pancreas characterized by irreversible morphologic change and dysfunction. Patients with chronic pancreatitis often present with abdominal pain, diarrhoea, jaundice, weight loss and the development of diabetes. Polysaccharides of Ganoderma lucidum strain S3 (GLPS3) possess antioxidative and immunomodulatory activities. This study was to characterize chemical structures of GLPS3 and determine their effects on diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC)-induced CP in mice. The total sugar content of GLPS3 from fermentation broth (GLPS3-Ⅰ), cultured mycelia (GLPS3-Ⅱ) and fruiting body (GLPS3-Ⅲ) was 90.4%, 92.2% and 91.8% respectively. GLPS3-Ⅰ, GLPS3-Ⅱ and GLPS3-Ⅲ were composed of Glu:Gal:Ara:Xyl, Glu:Gal:Ara:Xyl:Man:Rha, and Glu:Gal:Xyl:Man:Rha:Fuc, with molar ratio of 2.82: 1.33: 1.26: 0.87, 5.84: 2.23: 0.72:1.38: 1.40: 0.51 and 5.34: 2.72: 1.14: 1.10: 0.33: 0.38, respectively. The antioxidative activity of GLPS3-Ⅱfrom cultured mycelia in vitro is higher than other two polysaccharides. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in serum were increased while the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were reversely decreased by GLPS3 treatment. Serum amylase (AMS) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) changes indicated the therapeutic effects of GLPS3. Moreover, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and interferon-gamma (INF-γ) contents were reduced most by GLPS3-Ⅱ. The results revealed that GLPS3 especially GLPS3-Ⅱfrom cultured mycelia were effective for CP therapy and bioactivity difference might be attributed to monosaccharide composition. PMID:26826268

  7. Attenuation of cocaine self-administration by chronic oral phendimetrazine in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czoty, P W; Blough, B E; Fennell, T R; Snyder, R W; Nader, M A

    2016-06-01

    Chronic treatment with the monoamine releaser d-amphetamine has been consistently shown to decrease cocaine self-administration in laboratory studies and clinical trials. However, the abuse potential of d-amphetamine is an obstacle to widespread clinical use. Approaches are needed that exploit the efficacy of the agonist approach but avoid the abuse potential associated with dopamine releasers. The present study assessed the effectiveness of chronic oral administration of phendimetrazine (PDM), a pro-drug for the monoamine releaser phenmetrazine (PM), to decrease cocaine self-administration in four rhesus monkeys. Each day, monkeys pressed a lever to receive food pellets under a 50-response fixed-ratio (FR) schedule of reinforcement and self-administered cocaine (0.003-0.56 mg/kg per injection, i.v.) under a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule in the evening. After completing a cocaine self-administration dose-response curve, sessions were suspended and PDM was administered (1.0-9.0 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d.). Cocaine self-administration was assessed using the PR schedule once every 7 days while food-maintained responding was studied daily. When a persistent decrease in self-administration was observed, the cocaine dose-effect curve was re-determined. Daily PDM treatment decreased cocaine self-administration by 30-90% across monkeys for at least 4 weeks. In two monkeys, effects were completely selective for cocaine. Tolerance developed to initial decreases in food-maintained responding in the third monkey and in the fourth subject, fluctuations were observed that were lower in magnitude than effects on cocaine self-administration. Cocaine dose-effect curves were shifted down and/or rightward in three monkeys. These data provide further support for the use of agonist medications for cocaine abuse, and indicate that the promising effects of d-amphetamine extend to a more clinically viable pharmacotherapy. PMID:26964683

  8. Moringa oleifera Leaves Extract Attenuates Neuropathic Pain Induced by Chronic Constriction Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurairat Khongrum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Neuropathic pain, a challenge of this decade, has been reported to be associated with the diversity conditions including diabetes. At present, there are no conventional analgesics that can effectively treat neuropathic pain with a satisfactory outcome. Due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy, the searching for novel effective remedies in the management of neuropathic pain is required. Approach: Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g were induced diabetes mellitus by Streptozotocin (STZ (single injection, 65 mg kg-1 BW, i.p. Diabetic rats were induced neuropathic pain by Constricting the right sciatic nerve (CCI at permanently. Then, all rats were administered the extract of M. oleifera leaves at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1 BW once daily in a period of 21 days. The analgesic effect of the plant extract was evaluated using Von Frey filament and hot plate tests every 3 days after CCI throughout 21-day experimental period. In addition, at the end of the experiment, the alteration of oxidative damage markers including MDA level and the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-PX in the injured sciatic nerve were also evaluated. Results: The current results showed that rats subjected to M.oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg kg-1 BW significantly reversed the decreased withdrawal threshold intensity and withdrawal latency in Von Frey filament and hot plate tests respectively. In addition, rats subjected to the medium dose extract also reversed the decreased activities of SOD and GSH-Px and the elevation of MDA level in the injured nerve. Taken all together, our data suggest that M. oleifera leaves extract can attenuate neuropathic pain in diabetic condition. The possible underlying mechanism may occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress. However, other mechanisms may also involve. Conclusion: Our results suggest that M. oleifera leaves may be the potential novel adjuvant therapy for neuropathic pain management.

  9. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xu, Li; Cho, Si-Young; Min, Kyung-Jin; Oda, Tatsuya; Zhang, LiJun; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB) as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3%) for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg) once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103(-)CD11c⁺ dendritic cells (cDCs), and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103⁺CD11c⁺ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis. PMID:27058552

  10. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3% for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103−CD11c+ dendritic cells (cDCs, and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103+CD11c+ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis.

  11. Flupirtine attenuates chronic restraint stress-induced cognitive deficits and hippocampal apoptosis in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pengcheng; Li, Cai; Fu, Tianli; Zhao, Dan; Yi, Zhen; Lu, Qing; Guo, Lianjun; Xu, Xulin

    2015-07-15

    Chronic restraint stress (CRS) causes hippocampal neurodegeneration and hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits. Flupirtine represents neuroprotective effects and we have previously shown that flupirtine can protect against memory impairment induced by acute stress. The present study aimed to investigate whether flupirtine could alleviate spatial learning and memory impairment and hippocampal apoptosis induced by CRS. CRS mice were restrained in well-ventilated Plexiglass tubes for 6h daily beginning from 10:00 to 16:00 for 21 consecutive days. Mice were injected with flupirtine (10mg/kg and 25mg/kg) or vehicle (10% DMSO) 30min before restraint stress for 21 days. After stressor cessation, the spatial learning and memory, dendritic spine density, injured neurons and the levels of Bcl-2, Bax, p-Akt, p-GSK-3β, p-Erk1/2 and synaptophysin of hippocampal tissues were examined. Our results showed that flupirtine significantly prevented spatial learning and memory impairment induced by CRS in the Morris water maze. In addition, flupirtine (10mg/kg and 25mg/kg) treatment alleviated neuronal apoptosis and the reduction of dendritic spine density and synaptophysin expression in the hippocampal CA1 region of CRS mice. Furthermore, flupirtine (10mg/kg and 25mg/kg) treatment significantly decreased the expression of Bax and increased the p-Akt and p-GSK-3β, and flupirtine (25mg/kg) treatment up-regulated the p-Erk1/2 in the hippocampus of CRS mice. These results suggested that flupirtine exerted protective effects on the CRS-induced cognitive impairment and hippocampal neuronal apoptosis, which is possibly associated with the activation of Akt/GSK-3β and Erk1/2 signaling pathways. PMID:25869780

  12. Attenuated fatigue in slow twitch skeletal muscle during isotonic exercise in rats with chronic heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Munkvik

    Full Text Available During isometric contractions, slow twitch soleus muscles (SOL from rats with chronic heart failure (chf are more fatigable than those of sham animals. However, a muscle normally shortens during activity and fatigue development is highly task dependent. Therefore, we examined the development of skeletal muscle fatigue during shortening (isotonic contractions in chf and sham-operated rats. Six weeks following coronary artery ligation, infarcted animals were classified as failing (chf if left ventricle end diastolic pressure was >15 mmHg. During isoflurane anaesthesia, SOL with intact blood supply was stimulated (1s on 1s off at 30 Hz for 15 min and allowed to shorten isotonically against a constant afterload. Muscle temperature was maintained at 37°C. In resting muscle, maximum isometric force (F(max and the concentrations of ATP and CrP were not different in the two groups. During stimulation, F(max and the concentrations declined in parallel sham and chf. Fatigue, which was evident as reduced shortening during stimulation, was also not different in the two groups. The isometric force decline was fitted to a bi-exponential decay equation. Both time constants increased transiently and returned to initial values after approximately 200 s of the fatigue protocol. This resulted in a transient rise in baseline tension between stimulations, although this effect which was less prominent in chf than sham. Myosin light chain 2s phosphorylation declined in both groups after 100 s of isotonic contractions, and remained at this level throughout 15 min of stimulation. In spite of higher energy demand during isotonic than isometric contractions, both shortening capacity and rate of isometric force decline were as well or better preserved in fatigued SOL from chf rats than in sham. This observation is in striking contrast to previous reports which have employed isometric contractions to induce fatigue.

  13. Attenuation of the cortisol response to stress in female rainbow trout chronically exposed to dietary selenomethionine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiseman, Steve, E-mail: steve.wiseman@usask.ca [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Thomas, Jith K.; McPhee, Landon; Hursky, Olesya; Raine, Jason C. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Pietrock, Michael [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Giesy, John P. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Department of Zoology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Hecker, Markus [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5CB (Canada); Janz, David M. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    , abundances of transcripts of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (p450scc) and cytochrome P450 11B1 (cyp11b1) were not significantly different between controls and Se-Met exposed trout. Exposure to Se-Met affected accumulation and tissue partitioning of glycogen and triglycerides in liver and muscle as concentrations of these energy reserves were greater in muscle, but not liver. Concentrations of glycogen and triglycerides in muscle, but not in liver, were lesser following the handling stressor suggesting that the muscle energy reserves are an important source of energy required for recovery from the handling stressor. The results of the study demonstrate that chronic exposure to dietary Se-Met elicits a stress response, but prevents a cortisol response to a secondary handling stressor, most likely due to cortisol inactivation. Moreover, exposure to Se-Met has effects on concentrations of energy reserves that are important for providing the energy necessary to cope with a secondary stressor.

  14. Attenuation of the cortisol response to stress in female rainbow trout chronically exposed to dietary selenomethionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , abundances of transcripts of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (p450scc) and cytochrome P450 11B1 (cyp11b1) were not significantly different between controls and Se-Met exposed trout. Exposure to Se-Met affected accumulation and tissue partitioning of glycogen and triglycerides in liver and muscle as concentrations of these energy reserves were greater in muscle, but not liver. Concentrations of glycogen and triglycerides in muscle, but not in liver, were lesser following the handling stressor suggesting that the muscle energy reserves are an important source of energy required for recovery from the handling stressor. The results of the study demonstrate that chronic exposure to dietary Se-Met elicits a stress response, but prevents a cortisol response to a secondary handling stressor, most likely due to cortisol inactivation. Moreover, exposure to Se-Met has effects on concentrations of energy reserves that are important for providing the energy necessary to cope with a secondary stressor.

  15. Chronic infusion of enalaprilat into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Dong-Mei [Department of Physiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Yu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Qing; Qi, Jie; Su, Qing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Suo, Yu-Ping [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shanxi Provincial People' s Hospital, Taiyuan 030012 (China); Yue, Li-Ying [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China)

    2014-02-01

    The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We hypothesized that inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension via restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines. Rats underwent subcutaneous infusions of ANG II or saline and bilateral PVN infusions of ACE inhibitor enalaprilat (ENL, 2.5 μg/h) or vehicle for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide and beta-myosin heavy chain. These ANG II-infused rats had higher PVN levels of glutamate, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and lower PVN levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, interleukin (IL)-10 and the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and higher plasma levels of PICs, norepinephrine and aldosterone, and lower plasma IL-10, and higher renal sympathetic nerve activity. However, PVN treatment with ENL attenuated these changes. PVN microinjection of ANG II induced increases in IL-1β and IL-6, and a decrease in IL-10 in the PVN, and pretreatment with angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) antagonist losartan attenuated these changes. These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN, and PVN inhibition of the RAS restores neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, thereby attenuating ANG II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Chronic ANG II infusion results in sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of ACE

  16. Chronic infusion of enalaprilat into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We hypothesized that inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension via restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines. Rats underwent subcutaneous infusions of ANG II or saline and bilateral PVN infusions of ACE inhibitor enalaprilat (ENL, 2.5 μg/h) or vehicle for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide and beta-myosin heavy chain. These ANG II-infused rats had higher PVN levels of glutamate, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and lower PVN levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, interleukin (IL)-10 and the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and higher plasma levels of PICs, norepinephrine and aldosterone, and lower plasma IL-10, and higher renal sympathetic nerve activity. However, PVN treatment with ENL attenuated these changes. PVN microinjection of ANG II induced increases in IL-1β and IL-6, and a decrease in IL-10 in the PVN, and pretreatment with angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) antagonist losartan attenuated these changes. These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN, and PVN inhibition of the RAS restores neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, thereby attenuating ANG II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Chronic ANG II infusion results in sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of ACE

  17. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates impairment of learning and memory in chronic unpredictable mild stress-treated rats by restoring hippocampal autophagic flux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Feng Gu

    Full Text Available Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG is a major polyphenol in green tea with beneficial effects on the impairment in learning and memory. Autophagy is a cellular process that protects neurons from stressful conditions. The present study was designed to investigate whether EGCG can rescue chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS-induced cognitive impairment in rats and whether its protective effect involves improvement of autophagic flux. As expected, our results showed that CUMS significantly impaired memory performance and inhibited autophagic flux as indicated by elevated LC3-II and p62 protein levels. At the same time, we observed an increased neuronal loss and activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR/p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6k signaling in the CA1 regions. Interestingly, chronic treatment with EGCG (25 mg/kg, i.p. significantly improved those behavioral alterations, attenuated histopathological abnormalities in hippocampal CA1 regions, reduced amyloid beta1-42 (Aβ1-42 levels, and restored autophagic flux. However, blocking autophagic flux with chloroquine, an inhibitor of autophagic flux, reversed these effects of EGCG. Taken together, these findings suggest that the impaired autophagy in CA1 regions of CUMS rats may contribute to learning and memory impairment. Therefore, we conclude that EGCG attenuation of CUMS-induced learning and memory impairment may be through rescuing autophagic flux.

  18. Eplerenone attenuates pulse wave reflection in chronic kidney disease stage 3-4--a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesby, Lene; Elung-Jensen, Thomas; Strandgaard, Svend;

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity associated with increased arterial stiffness. Plasma aldosterone levels are increased in CKD, and aldosterone has been found to increase vascular inflammation and fibrosis. It was hypothesized that...

  19. Chronic in vivo or acute in vitro resveratrol attenuates endothelium-dependent cyclooxygenase-mediated contractile signaling in hypertensive rat carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denniss, Steven G; Ford, Rebecca J; Smith, Christopher S; Jeffery, Andrew J; Rush, James W E

    2016-05-15

    Exaggerated cyclooxygenase (COX) and thromboxane-prostanoid (TP) receptor-mediated endothelium-dependent contraction can contribute to endothelial dysfunction. This study examined the effect of resveratrol (RSV) on endothelium-dependent contraction and cell signaling in the common carotid artery (CCA) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). Acetylcholine (Ach)-stimulated endothelium-dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-mediated relaxation in precontracted SHR CCA was impaired (maximum 73 ± 6% vs. 87 ± 5% in WKY) (P water) with a ∼0.075 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) RSV dose affected neither endothelium-dependent relaxation nor endothelium-dependent contraction and associated prostaglandin (PG) production evaluated in non-precontracted NOS-blocked CCA. In contrast, a chronic ∼7.5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) RSV dose improved endothelium-dependent relaxation (94 ± 6%) and attenuated endothelium-dependent contraction (58 ± 4% vs. 73 ± 5% in No-RSV) and PG production (183 ± 43 vs. 519 ± 93 pg/ml) in SHR CCA, while U46619-stimulated TP receptor-mediated contraction was unaffected. In separate acute in vitro experiments, 20-μM RSV preincubation attenuated endothelium-dependent contraction (6 ± 4% vs. 62 ± 2% in No Drug) and PG production (121 ± 15 vs. 491 ± 93 pg/ml) and attenuated U46619-stimulated contraction (134 ± 5% vs. 171 ± 4%) in non-precontracted NOS-blocked SHR CCA. Compound C, a known AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, did not prevent the RSV attenuating effect on Ach- and U46619-stimulated contraction but did prevent the RSV attenuating effect on PG production (414 ± 58 pg/ml). These data demonstrate that RSV can attenuate endothelium-dependent contraction both by suppressing arterial wall PG production, which may be partially mediated by AMPK, and by TP receptor hyporesponsiveness, which does not appear to be mediated by AMPK. PMID:26917696

  20. Attenuation of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in mice subjected to chronic social stress

    OpenAIRE

    Sommershof, Annette; Basler, Michael; Riether, Carsten; Engler, Harald; Gröttrup, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Chronic stress is suspected to increase the susceptibility to infections but experimental evidence from physiological stress models is scarce. We examined the effects of chronic social stress on virus-specific CTL responses in mice after infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Mice subjected to social stress on six consecutive days prior to infection showed a significant reduction of IFN-γ producing TCD8+ splenocytes and markedly lowered plasma concentrations of IFN-γ. In co...

  1. Resveratrol engages AMPK to attenuate ERK and mTOR signaling in sensory neurons and inhibits incision-induced acute and chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillu Dipti V

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite advances in our understanding of basic mechanisms driving post-surgical pain, treating incision-induced pain remains a major clinical challenge. Moreover, surgery has been implicated as a major cause of chronic pain conditions. Hence, more efficacious treatments are needed to inhibit incision-induced pain and prevent the transition to chronic pain following surgery. We reasoned that activators of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK may represent a novel treatment avenue for the local treatment of incision-induced pain because AMPK activators inhibit ERK and mTOR signaling, two important pathways involved in the sensitization of peripheral nociceptors. Results To test this hypothesis we used a potent and efficacious activator of AMPK, resveratrol. Our results demonstrate that resveratrol profoundly inhibits ERK and mTOR signaling in sensory neurons in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion and that these effects are mediated by AMPK activation and independent of sirtuin activity. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is thought to play an important role in incision-induced pain and resveratrol potently inhibited IL-6-mediated signaling to ERK in sensory neurons and blocked IL-6-mediated allodynia in vivo through a local mechanism of action. Using a model of incision-induced allodynia in mice, we further demonstrate that local injection of resveratrol around the surgical wound strongly attenuates incision-induced allodynia. Intraplantar IL-6 injection and plantar incision induces persistent nociceptive sensitization to PGE2 injection into the affected paw after the resolution of allodynia to the initial stimulus. We further show that resveratrol treatment at the time of IL-6 injection or plantar incision completely blocks the development of persistent nociceptive sensitization consistent with the blockade of a transition to a chronic pain state by resveratrol treatment. Conclusions These results highlight the importance of signaling

  2. Over-Expression of Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase in the Median Preoptic Nucleus Attenuates Chronic Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Collister

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The brain senses circulating levels of angiotensin II (AngII via circumventricular organs, such as the subfornical organ (SFO, and is thought to adjust sympathetic nervous system output accordingly via this neuro-hormonal communication. However, the cellular signaling mechanisms involved in these communications remain to be fully understood. Previous lesion studies of either the SFO, or the downstream median preoptic nucleus (MnPO have shown a diminution of the hypertensive effects of chronic AngII, without providing a clear explanation as to the intracellular signaling pathway(s involved. Additional studies have reported that over-expressing copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, an intracellular superoxide (O2·− scavenging enzyme, in the SFO attenuates chronic AngII-induced hypertension. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that overproduction of O2·− in the MnPO is an underlying mechanism in the long-term hypertensive effects of chronic AngII. Adenoviral vectors encoding human CuZnSOD (AdCuZnSOD or control vector (AdEmpty were injected directly into the MnPO of rats implanted with aortic telemetric transmitters for recording of arterial pressure. After a 3 day control period of saline infusion, rats were intravenously infused with AngII (10 ng/kg/min for ten days. Rats over-expressing CuZnSOD (n = 7 in the MnPO had a blood pressure increase of only 6 ± 2 mmHg after ten days of AngII infusion while blood pressure increased 21 ± 4 mmHg in AdEmpty-infected rats (n = 9. These results support the hypothesis that production of O2·− in the MnPO contributes to the development of chronic AngII-dependent hypertension.

  3. Regulation of Th17/Treg function contributes to the attenuation of chronic airway inflammation by icariin in ovalbumin-induced murine asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ying; Liu, Baojun; Sun, Jing; Lv, Yubao; Luo, Qingli; Liu, Feng; Dong, Jingcheng

    2015-06-01

    Icariin which is a flavonoid glucoside isolated from Epimedium brevicornu Maxim, has been reported to have anti-osteoporotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-depressant-like activities. In this study, we observed the effect of icariin on airway inflammation of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine asthma model and the associated regulatory mode on T-helper (Th)17 and regulatory T (Treg) cell function. Our data revealed that chronic OVA inhalation induced a dramatic increase in airway resistance (RL) and decrease in the lung dynamic compliance (Cdyn), and icariin and DEX treatment caused significant attenuation of such airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). BALF cell counts demonstrated that icariin and DEX led to a prominent reduction in total leukocyte as well as lymphocyte, eosinophil, neutrophil, basophil and monocyte counts. Histological analysis results indicated that icariin and DEX alleviated the inflammatory cells infiltrating into the peribronchial tissues and goblet cells hyperplasia and mucus hyper-production. Flow cytometry test demonstrated that icariin or DEX administration resulted in a significant percentage reduction in CD4+RORγt+ T cells and elevation of CD4+Foxp3+ T cells in BALF. Furthermore, icariin or DEX caused a significant reduction in IL-6, IL-17 and TGF-β level in BALF. Unfortunately, icariin had no effect on IL-10 level in BALF. Western blot assay found that icariin or DEX suppressed RORγt and promoted Foxp3 expression in the lung tissue. qPCR analysis revealed that icariin and DEX resulted in a notable decrease in RORγt and increase in Foxp3 mRNA expression in isolated spleen CD4+ T cell. In conclusion, our results suggested that icariin was effective in the attenuation of AHR and chronic airway inflammatory changes in OVA-induced murine asthma model, and this effect was associated with regulation of Th17/Treg responses, which indicated that icariin may be used as a potential therapeutic method to treat asthma with Th17/Treg imbalance phenotype

  4. LF-15 & T7, synthetic peptides derived from tumstatin, attenuate aspects of airway remodelling in a murine model of chronic OVA-induced allergic airway disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karryn T Grafton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tumstatin is a segment of the collagen-IV protein that is markedly reduced in the airways of asthmatics. Tumstatin can play an important role in the development of airway remodelling associated with asthma due to its anti-angiogenic properties. This study assessed the anti-angiogenic properties of smaller peptides derived from tumstatin, which contain the interface tumstatin uses to interact with the αVβ3 integrin. METHODS: Primary human lung endothelial cells were exposed to the LF-15, T3 and T7 tumstatin-derived peptides and assessed for cell viability and tube formation in vitro. The impact of the anti-angiogenic properties on airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR was then examined using a murine model of chronic OVA-induced allergic airways disease. RESULTS: The LF-15 and T7 peptides significantly reduced endothelial cell viability and attenuated tube formation in vitro. Mice exposed to OVA+ LF-15 or OVA+T7 also had reduced total lung vascularity and AHR was attenuated compared to mice exposed to OVA alone. T3 peptides reduced cell viability but had no effect on any other parameters. CONCLUSION: The LF-15 and T7 peptides may be appropriate candidates for use as novel pharmacotherapies due to their small size and anti-angiogenic properties observed in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Ranolazine attenuated heightened plasma norepinephrine and B-Type natriuretic peptide-45 in improving cardiac function in rats with chronic ischemic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guangqiu; Yang, Yu; Chen, Juan; Wu, Zhiyong; Zheng, Yin; Li, Wei; Dai, Wenxin; Guan, Pin; Zhong, Chunrong

    2016-01-01

    As a new anti-anginal agent, ranolazinehas been shown to play a cardioprotective role in regulating myocardial ischemic injury. Given that plasma norepinephrine (NE) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP, also termed B-type natriuretic peptide-45 in rats) are considered neuron-hormones to indicate heart failure progression. This study aims to examine effects of ranolazine on plasma NE and BNP-45 of rats with chronic ischemic heart failure (CHF). CHF was induced by myocardial infarction following ligation of a left anterior descending artery in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. We hypothesized that ranolazine attenuates the elevated levels of NE and BNP-45 observed in CHF rats thereby leading to improvement of the left ventricular function. Results showed that levels of plasma NE and BNP-45 were increased in CHF rats 6-8 weeks after ligation of the coronary artery. Our data demonstrate for the first time that ranolazine significantly attenuated the augmented NE and BNP-45 induced by CHF (Pranolazine. In conclusion, CHF increases the expression of NE and BNP-45 in peripheral circulation and these changes are related to the left ventricular function. Ranolazine improves the left ventricular function likely by decreasing heightened NE and BNP-45 induced by CHF. Therefore, our data indicate the role played by ranolazine in improving cardiac function in rats with CHF. PMID:27158417

  6. Attenuation of Acute and Chronic Restraint Stress-induced Perturbations in Experimental Animals by Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, M. P.; Juvekar, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Nelumbo nucifera was investigated on acute stress (immobilization stress)-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss mice. The animals were also subjected to acute physical stress (swimming endurance test) and acute chemical stress (writhing test) to gauge the antistress potential of the extract. Further to evaluate the antistress activity of Nelumbo nucifera in chronic stress condition, fresh Wistar rats were subjected to cold restraint stress (4° for 1 h) for 7 da...

  7. Attenuation of acute and chronic restraint stress-induced perturbations in experimental animals by Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni M; Juvekar A

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Nelumbo nucifera was investigated on acute stress (immobilization stress)-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss mice. The animals were also subjected to acute physical stress (swimming endurance test) and acute chemical stress (writhing test) to gauge the antistress potential of the extract. Further to evaluate the antistress activity of Nelumbo nucifera in chronic stress condition, fresh Wistar rats were subjected to cold restraint stress (4° for 1 h) f...

  8. Chronic Treatment with Mood-Stabilizers Attenuates Abnormal Hyperlocomotion of GluA1-Subunit Deficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Maksimovic, Milica; Vekovischeva, Olga Y.; Aitta-Aho, Teemu; Korpi, Esa R.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal excitatory glutamate neurotransmission and plasticity have been implicated in schizophrenia and affective disorders. Gria1−/− mice lacking GluA1 subunit (encoded by Gria1 gene) of AMPA-type glutamate receptor show robust novelty-induced hyperactivity, social deficits and heightened approach features, suggesting that they could be used to test for anti-manic activity of drugs. Here, we tested the efficacy of chronic treatment with established anti-manic drugs on behavioural properties...

  9. Administration of the glial cell modulator, minocycline, in the nucleus accumbens attenuated the maintenance and reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arezoomandan, Reza; Haghparast, Abbas

    2016-03-01

    Relapse to drug use is one of the most difficult clinical problems in treating addiction. Glial activation has been linked with the drug abuse, and the glia modulators such as minocycline can modulate the drug abuse effects. The aim of the present study was to determine whether minocycline could attenuate the maintenance and reinstatement of morphine. Conditioned place preference (CPP) was induced by subcutaneous injection of morphine (5 mg/kg) for 3 days. Following the acquisition of the CPP, the rats were given daily bilateral intra-NAc injections of either minocycline (1, 5, and 10 μg/0.5 μL) or saline (0.5 μL). The animals were tested for conditioning score 60 min after each injection. To induce the reinstatement, a priming dose of morphine (1 mg/kg) was injected 1 day after the final extinction day. The morphine-induced CPP lasted for 7 days after cessation of morphine treatment. Our data revealed that a priming dose of morphine could reinstate the extinguished morphine-induced CPP. Daily intra-accumbal injection of minocycline during the extinction period blocked the maintenance of morphine CPP and also attenuated the priming-induced reinstatement. Our findings indicated that minocycline could facilitate the extinction and attenuate the reinstatement of morphine. These results provided new evidence that minocycline might be considered as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of several symptoms associated with morphine abuse. PMID:26745749

  10. Attenuated ventricular β-adrenergic response and reduced repolarization reserve in a rabbit model of chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Jakob Dahl; Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Diness, Jonas Goldin; Diness, Thomas Goldin; Jespersen, Thomas; Grunnet, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Animal models of pacing-induced heart failure (HF) are often associated with high acute mortality secondary to high pacing frequencies. The present study therefore exploits lower-frequency left ventricular pacing (300 beats per minute) in rabbits for 11 weeks to produce chronic HF with low acute...... mortality but profound structural, functional, and electrical remodeling and compare with nonpaced controls. Pacing increased heart weight/body weight ratio and decreased left ventricular fractional shortening in tachypaced only. Electrocardiogram recordings during sinus rhythm revealed QTc prolongation in...... paced animals. Ventricular arrhythmias or sudden death was not observed. Isoproterenol increased heart rate similarly in both groups but showed a blunted QT-shortening effect in tachypaced rabbits compared with controls. Langendorff experiments revealed significant monophasic action potential duration...

  11. Etizolam, an anti-anxiety agent, attenuates recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma--evaluation by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Yutaka; Kuwayama, Naoya; Hamada, Hideo; Hayashi, Nakamasa; Endo, Shunro

    2002-02-01

    Etizolam, an anti-anxiety agent which is an antagonist of platelet-activating factor receptors, was administered to patients with chronic subdural hematoma (CSH) after hematoma removal to assess the effectiveness for preventing recurrence compared with control patients not given the drug after surgery. The remaining volumes of subdural hematomas on brain computed tomography were measured approximately 1 month after removal. Volume in the etizolam group (15 patients) was significantly smaller than in the control group (24 patients). Hematoma recurrence was not detected in the etizolam group 3 months after surgery, but occurred in the control group. The difference was significant. Etizolam administration may be useful for the prevention of recurrence of CSH. PMID:11944589

  12. K(Ca3.1 channel-blockade attenuates airway pathophysiology in a sheep model of chronic asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Van Der Velden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ca(2+-activated K(+ channel K(Ca3.1 is expressed in several structural and inflammatory airway cell types and is proposed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of asthma. The aim of the current study was to determine whether inhibition of K(Ca3.1 modifies experimental asthma in sheep. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Atopic sheep were administered either 30 mg/kg Senicapoc (ICA-17073, a selective inhibitor of the K(Ca3.1-channel, or vehicle alone (0.5% methylcellulose twice daily (orally. Both groups received fortnightly aerosol challenges with house dust mite allergen for fourteen weeks. A separate sheep group received no allergen challenges or drug treatment. In the vehicle-control group, twelve weeks of allergen challenges resulted in a 60±19% increase in resting airway resistance, and this was completely attenuated by treatment with Senicapoc (0.25±12%; n = 10, P = 0.0147. The vehicle-control group had a peak-early phase increase in lung resistance of 82±21%, and this was reduced by 58% with Senicapoc treatment (24±14%; n = 10, P = 0.0288. Senicapoc-treated sheep also demonstrated reduced airway hyperresponsiveness, requiring a significantly higher dose of carbachol to increase resistance by 100% compared to allergen-challenged vehicle-control sheep (20±5 vs. 52±18 breath-units of carbachol; n = 10, P = 0.0340. Senicapoc also significantly reduced eosinophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage taken 48 hours post-allergen challenge, and reduced vascular remodelling. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that K(Ca3.1-activity contributes to allergen-induced airway responses, inflammation and vascular remodelling in a sheep model of asthma, and that inhibition of K(Ca3.1 may be an effective strategy for blocking allergen-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in humans.

  13. Chronic tempol treatment attenuates the renal hemodynamic effects induced by a heme oxygenase inhibitor in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Francisca; Lopez, Bernardo; Perez, Cayetano; Fenoy, Francisco J; Hernandez, Isabel; Stec, David E; Li Volti, Giovanni; Salom, Miguel G

    2011-11-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is induced by oxidative stress and plays an important role in protecting the kidney from oxidant-mediated damage in the streptozotocin (STZ) rat model of type-1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1). HO-derived metabolites, presumably carbon monoxide (CO), mediate vasodilatory influences in the renal circulation, particularly in conditions linked to elevated HO-1 protein expression or diminished nitric oxide (NO) levels. We tested the hypothesis that diabetes increases oxidative stress and induces HO-1 protein expression, which contributes to regulate renal hemodynamics in conditions of low NO bioavailability. Two weeks after the induction of diabetes with STZ (65 mg/kg iv), Sprague-Dawley rats exhibited higher renal HO-1 protein expression, hyperglycemia, and elevated renal nitrotyrosine levels than control normoglycemic animals. In anesthetized diabetic rats, renal vascular resistance (RVR) was increased, and in vivo cortical NO levels were reduced (P SnMP; 40 μmol/kg iv) did not alter renal hemodynamics in control rats, but greatly decreased glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow, markedly increasing RVR in hyperglycemic diabetic rats. Chronic oral treatment with the SOD mimetic tempol prevented the elevation of nitrotyrosine, the HO-1 protein induction, and the increases in RVR induced by SnMP in the diabetic group, without altering basal NO concentrations or RVR. Increasing concentrations of a CO donor (CO-releasing molecule-A1) on pressurized renal interlobar arteries elicited a comparable relaxation in vessels taken from control or diabetic animals. These results suggest that oxidative stress-induced HO-1 exerts vasodilatory actions that partially maintain renal hemodynamics in uncontrolled DM-1. PMID:21849637

  14. Sodium-Glucose Linked Cotransporter-2 Inhibition Does Not Attenuate Disease Progression in the Rat Remnant Kidney Model of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanling; Thai, Kerri; Kepecs, David M.; Gilbert, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological inhibition of the proximal tubular sodium-glucose linked cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) leads to glycosuria in both diabetic and non-diabetic settings. As a consequence of their ability to modulate tubuloglomerular feedback, SGLT2 inhibitors, like agents that block the renin-angiotensin system, reduce intraglomerular pressure and single nephron GFR, potentially affording renoprotection. To examine this further we administered the SGLT2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin, to 5/6 (subtotally) nephrectomised rats, a model of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) that like CKD in humans is characterised by single nephron hyperfiltration and intraglomerular hypertension and where angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are demonstrably beneficial. When compared with untreated rats, both sham surgery and 5/6 nephrectomised rats that had received dapagliflozin experienced substantial glycosuria. Nephrectomised rats developed hypertension, heavy proteinuria and declining GFR that was unaffected by the administration of dapagliflozin. Similarly, SGLT2 inhibition did not attenuate the extent of glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis or overexpression of the profibrotic cytokine, transforming growth factor-ß1 mRNA in the kidneys of 5/6 nephrectomised rats. While not precluding beneficial effects in the diabetic setting, these findings indicate that SGLT2 inhibition does not have renoprotective effects in this classical model of progressive non-diabetic CKD. PMID:26741142

  15. Long-Term Immunity to Lethal Acute or Chronic Type II Toxoplasma gondii Infection Is Effectively Induced in Genetically Susceptible C57BL/6 Mice by Immunization with an Attenuated Type I Vaccine Strain▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gigley, Jason P.; Fox, Barbara A.; Bzik, David J.

    2009-01-01

    C57BL/6 (B6) mice are genetically highly susceptible to chronic type II Toxoplasma gondii infections that invariably cause lethal toxoplasmic encephalitis. We examined the ability of an attenuated type I vaccine strain to elicit long-term immunity to lethal acute or chronic type II infections in susceptible B6 mice. Mice immunized with the type I cps1-1 vaccine strain were not susceptible to a lethal (100-cyst) challenge with the type II strain ME49. Immunized mice challenged with 10 ME49 cys...

  16. Aloperine attenuated neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury via anti-oxidation activity and suppression of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Aloperine has anti-nociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced CCI. • Aloperine reduces ROS in neuropathic pain mice. • Aloperine down-regulates the expression of NF-κB and its downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines in neuropathic pain mice. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate whether aloperine (ALO) has antinociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury, whether ALO reduces ROS against neuropathic pain, and what are the mechanisms involved in ALO attenuated neuropathic pain. Methods: Mechanical and cold allodynia, thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia and spinal thermal hyperalgesia were estimated by behavior methods such as Von Frey filaments, cold-plate, radiant heat, paw pressure and tail immersion on one day before surgery and days 7, 8, 10, 12 and 14 after surgery, respectively. In addition, T-AOC, GSH-PX, T-AOC and MDA in the spinal cord (L4/5) were measured to evaluate anti-oxidation activity of ALO on neuropathic pain. Expressions of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β) in the spinal cord (L4/5) were analyzed by using Western blot. Results: Administration of ALO (80 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased paw withdrawal threshold, paw pressure, paw withdrawal latencies, tail-curling latencies, T-AOC, GSH-PX and T-SOD concentration, reduced the numbers of paw lifts and MDA concentration compared to CCI group. ALO attenuated CCI induced up-regulation of expressions of NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β at the dose of 80 mg/kg (i.p.). Pregabalin produced similar effects serving as positive control at the dose of 10 mg/kg (i.p.). Conclusion: ALO has antinociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced by CCI. The antinociceptive effects of ALO against neuropathic pain is related to reduction of ROS, via suppression of NF-κB pathway

  17. Aloperine attenuated neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury via anti-oxidation activity and suppression of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ya-Qiong [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Jin, Shao-Ju [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Luohe Medical College, Luohe 462002, Henan Province (China); Liu, Ning [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Li, Yu-Xiang [College of Nursing, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004 (China); Zheng, Jie [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Ma, Lin [Ningxia Key Lab of Craniocerebral Diseases of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004 (China); Du, Juan; Zhou, Ru [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Zhao, Cheng-Jun [Key Laboratory of Fertility Preservation and Maintenance of Ministry of Education, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Niu, Yang [Key Laboratory of Hui Ethnic Medicine Modernization, Ministry of Education, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004 (China); Sun, Tao [Ningxia Key Lab of Craniocerebral Diseases of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004 (China); Yu, Jian-Qiang, E-mail: Yujq910315@163.com [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Luohe Medical College, Luohe 462002, Henan Province (China)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Aloperine has anti-nociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced CCI. • Aloperine reduces ROS in neuropathic pain mice. • Aloperine down-regulates the expression of NF-κB and its downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines in neuropathic pain mice. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate whether aloperine (ALO) has antinociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury, whether ALO reduces ROS against neuropathic pain, and what are the mechanisms involved in ALO attenuated neuropathic pain. Methods: Mechanical and cold allodynia, thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia and spinal thermal hyperalgesia were estimated by behavior methods such as Von Frey filaments, cold-plate, radiant heat, paw pressure and tail immersion on one day before surgery and days 7, 8, 10, 12 and 14 after surgery, respectively. In addition, T-AOC, GSH-PX, T-AOC and MDA in the spinal cord (L4/5) were measured to evaluate anti-oxidation activity of ALO on neuropathic pain. Expressions of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β) in the spinal cord (L4/5) were analyzed by using Western blot. Results: Administration of ALO (80 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased paw withdrawal threshold, paw pressure, paw withdrawal latencies, tail-curling latencies, T-AOC, GSH-PX and T-SOD concentration, reduced the numbers of paw lifts and MDA concentration compared to CCI group. ALO attenuated CCI induced up-regulation of expressions of NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β at the dose of 80 mg/kg (i.p.). Pregabalin produced similar effects serving as positive control at the dose of 10 mg/kg (i.p.). Conclusion: ALO has antinociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced by CCI. The antinociceptive effects of ALO against neuropathic pain is related to reduction of ROS, via suppression of NF-κB pathway.

  18. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 attenuates chronic amphetamineinduced behavior disturbances%十五肽BPC 157减弱慢性苯丙胺诱导的行为障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Predrag SIKIRIC; Gorana ARALICA; Gojko BULJAT; Ingrid PRKACIN; Martina LOVRIC-BENCIC; Jadranka SEPAROVIC; Sven SEIWERTH; Rudolf RUCMAN; Marijan PETEK; Branko TURKOVIC; Tihomil ZIGER; Nikola JELOVAC; Alenka BOBAN-BLAGAIC; Vlado BEDEKOVIC; Ante TONKIC; Slaven BABIC; Andjelka JELOVAC-GJELDUM; Goran DODIG; Mario STARESINIC; Tomislav ANIC; Ivan ZORICIC; Davor RAK; Darko PEROVIC

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on chronic exposure to amphetamine in rats,particularly the changes commonly referred in chronic amphetamine studies as tolerance (lesser grade of stereotyped behavior, without increased excitability) and reverse tolerance (ie, prominent stereotyped behavior and heightened startle response upon late amphetamine challenges ). METHODS: After initial application (initial single dose-regimen), amphetamine (10 mg/kg,ip) was given once daily till d 5 (continuous administration-regimen ), and thereafter on d 8, 16, and 46(intermittent administration regimen). For stereotyped behavior and heightened startle response the observation period was 120 min after amphetamine application, and each animal was observed for 10 s in 5 min intervals.Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (10 μg/kg or 10 ng/kg, ip)or saline (5.0 mL/kg, ip) were given only at the beginning of the experiment, simultaneously with the initial dose of amphetamine. RESULTS: In relation to applied initial-single/continuous/intermittent amphetamine applications regimen, the control amphetamine rats throughout the experiment showed the changes in stereotyped behavior and heightened startle response,increment or decrement, commonly explained in chronic amphetamine studies as tolerance and reverse tolerance.After the initial application of the amphetamine, the higher BPC 157 dosage apparently attenuated the stereotyped behavior, while the lower dosage of BPC 157 did not reach a statistical significance. Considering the forthcoming amphetamine challenges, in the rats initially treated with pentadecapeptide BPC 157, either 10 μg- or 10 ng-dose, at the time of the first application of amphetamine, the stereotyped behavior remains to be attenuated after all additional amphetamine challenges (on d 2- 5, 8, 16, and 46). This attenuation was not limited to stereotyped behavior only. After the initial application of the amphetamine the heightened startle response was also

  19. MicroRNAs Are Involved in the Development of Morphine-Induced Analgesic Tolerance and Regulate Functionally Relevant Changes in Serpini1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapocik, Jenica D.; Ceniccola, Kristin; Mayo, Cheryl L.; Schwandt, Melanie L.; Solomon, Matthew; Wang, Bi-Dar; Luu, Truong V.; Olender, Jacqueline; Harrigan, Thomas; Maynard, Thomas M.; Elmer, Greg I.; Lee, Norman H.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term opioid treatment results in reduced therapeutic efficacy and in turn leads to an increase in the dose required to produce equivalent pain relief and alleviate break-through or insurmountable pain. Altered gene expression is a likely means for inducing long-term neuroadaptations responsible for tolerance. Studies conducted by our laboratory (Tapocik et al., 2009) revealed a network of gene expression changes occurring in canonical pathways involved in neuroplasticity, and uncovered miRNA processing as a potential mechanism. In particular, the mRNA coding the protein responsible for processing miRNAs, Dicer1, was positively correlated with the development of analgesic tolerance. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that miRNAs play a significant role in the development of analgesic tolerance as measured by thermal nociception. Dicer1 knockdown, miRNA profiling, bioinformatics, and confirmation of high value targets were used to test the proposition. Regionally targeted Dicer1 knockdown (via shRNA) had the anticipated consequence of eliminating the development of tolerance in C57BL/6J (B6) mice, thus supporting the involvement of miRNAs in the development of tolerance. MiRNA expression profiling identified a core set of chronic morphine-regulated miRNAs (miR's 27a, 9, 483, 505, 146b, 202). Bioinformatics approaches were implemented to identify and prioritize their predicted target mRNAs. We focused our attention on miR27a and its predicted target serpin peptidase inhibitor clade I (Serpini1) mRNA, a transcript known to be intricately involved in dendritic spine density regulation in a manner consistent with chronic morphine's consequences and previously found to be correlated with the development of analgesic tolerance. In vitro reporter assay confirmed the targeting of the Serpini1 3′-untranslated region by miR27a. Interestingly miR27a was found to positively regulate Serpini1 mRNA and protein levels in multiple neuronal cell lines

  20. MicroRNAs Are Involved in the Development of Morphine-Induced Analgesic Tolerance and Regulate Functionally Relevant Changes in Serpini1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapocik, Jenica D; Ceniccola, Kristin; Mayo, Cheryl L; Schwandt, Melanie L; Solomon, Matthew; Wang, Bi-Dar; Luu, Truong V; Olender, Jacqueline; Harrigan, Thomas; Maynard, Thomas M; Elmer, Greg I; Lee, Norman H

    2016-01-01

    Long-term opioid treatment results in reduced therapeutic efficacy and in turn leads to an increase in the dose required to produce equivalent pain relief and alleviate break-through or insurmountable pain. Altered gene expression is a likely means for inducing long-term neuroadaptations responsible for tolerance. Studies conducted by our laboratory (Tapocik et al., 2009) revealed a network of gene expression changes occurring in canonical pathways involved in neuroplasticity, and uncovered miRNA processing as a potential mechanism. In particular, the mRNA coding the protein responsible for processing miRNAs, Dicer1, was positively correlated with the development of analgesic tolerance. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that miRNAs play a significant role in the development of analgesic tolerance as measured by thermal nociception. Dicer1 knockdown, miRNA profiling, bioinformatics, and confirmation of high value targets were used to test the proposition. Regionally targeted Dicer1 knockdown (via shRNA) had the anticipated consequence of eliminating the development of tolerance in C57BL/6J (B6) mice, thus supporting the involvement of miRNAs in the development of tolerance. MiRNA expression profiling identified a core set of chronic morphine-regulated miRNAs (miR's 27a, 9, 483, 505, 146b, 202). Bioinformatics approaches were implemented to identify and prioritize their predicted target mRNAs. We focused our attention on miR27a and its predicted target serpin peptidase inhibitor clade I (Serpini1) mRNA, a transcript known to be intricately involved in dendritic spine density regulation in a manner consistent with chronic morphine's consequences and previously found to be correlated with the development of analgesic tolerance. In vitro reporter assay confirmed the targeting of the Serpini1 3'-untranslated region by miR27a. Interestingly miR27a was found to positively regulate Serpini1 mRNA and protein levels in multiple neuronal cell lines

  1. The effect of sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, attenuates inflammation and fibrosis in a mouse model of chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Han

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by progressive fibrosis, pain and loss of exocrine and endocrine functions. The long-standing chronic pancreatitis and its associated pancreatic fibrosis are the most common pathogenic events involved in human pancreatic carcinogenesis, but the therapeutic strategies to chronic pancreatitis and the chemoprevention of pancreatic carcinogenesis are very limited. Methods We investigated the effect of sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, on inhibition of chronic pancreatitis in a caerulein induced chronic pancreatitis mouse model. Results Sulindac significantly reduced the severity of chronic pancreatitis including the extent of acini loss, inflammatory cell infiltration and stromal fibrosis. The protein expression of phosphorylation of MEK/ERK was inhibited in the chronic pancreatic tissues by sulindac treatment as measured by Western blot assay. The levels of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and MCP-1 were also significantly decreased with sulindac treatment, as well as the expression of TGF-β, PDGF-β, SHH and Gli in the chronic pancreatic tissue detected by qPCR assay and confirmed by western blot assay. The activation of pancreatic satellet cells was also inhibited by sulindac as measured by the activity of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA in the pancreatic tissue of chronic pancreatitis. Conclusions Sulindac is a promising reagent for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis via inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration and stromal fibrosis, the inhibitory effect of sulindac on chronic pancreatitis may through targeting the activation ERK/MAPK signaling pathway.

  2. Long-Term Immunity to Lethal Acute or Chronic Type II Toxoplasma gondii Infection Is Effectively Induced in Genetically Susceptible C57BL/6 Mice by Immunization with an Attenuated Type I Vaccine Strain▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigley, Jason P.; Fox, Barbara A.; Bzik, David J.

    2009-01-01

    C57BL/6 (B6) mice are genetically highly susceptible to chronic type II Toxoplasma gondii infections that invariably cause lethal toxoplasmic encephalitis. We examined the ability of an attenuated type I vaccine strain to elicit long-term immunity to lethal acute or chronic type II infections in susceptible B6 mice. Mice immunized with the type I cps1-1 vaccine strain were not susceptible to a lethal (100-cyst) challenge with the type II strain ME49. Immunized mice challenged with 10 ME49 cysts exhibited significant reductions in brain cyst and parasite burdens compared to naive mice, regardless of the route of challenge infection. Remarkably, cps1-1 strain-immunized B6 mice chronically infected with ME49 survived for at least 12 months without succumbing to the chronic infection. Potent immunity to type II challenge infections persisted for at least 10 months after vaccination. While the cps1-1 strain-elicited immunity did not prevent the establishment of a chronic infection or clear established brain cysts, cps1-1 strain-elicited CD8+ immune T cells significantly inhibited recrudescence of brain cysts during chronic ME49 infection. In addition, we show that uracil starvation of the cps1-1 strain induces early markers of bradyzoite differentiation. Collectively, these results suggest that more effective immune control of chronic type II infection in the genetically susceptible B6 background is established by vaccination with the nonreplicating type I uracil auxotroph cps1-1 strain. PMID:19797073

  3. Long-term immunity to lethal acute or chronic type II Toxoplasma gondii infection is effectively induced in genetically susceptible C57BL/6 mice by immunization with an attenuated type I vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigley, Jason P; Fox, Barbara A; Bzik, David J

    2009-12-01

    C57BL/6 (B6) mice are genetically highly susceptible to chronic type II Toxoplasma gondii infections that invariably cause lethal toxoplasmic encephalitis. We examined the ability of an attenuated type I vaccine strain to elicit long-term immunity to lethal acute or chronic type II infections in susceptible B6 mice. Mice immunized with the type I cps1-1 vaccine strain were not susceptible to a lethal (100-cyst) challenge with the type II strain ME49. Immunized mice challenged with 10 ME49 cysts exhibited significant reductions in brain cyst and parasite burdens compared to naive mice, regardless of the route of challenge infection. Remarkably, cps1-1 strain-immunized B6 mice chronically infected with ME49 survived for at least 12 months without succumbing to the chronic infection. Potent immunity to type II challenge infections persisted for at least 10 months after vaccination. While the cps1-1 strain-elicited immunity did not prevent the establishment of a chronic infection or clear established brain cysts, cps1-1 strain-elicited CD8(+) immune T cells significantly inhibited recrudescence of brain cysts during chronic ME49 infection. In addition, we show that uracil starvation of the cps1-1 strain induces early markers of bradyzoite differentiation. Collectively, these results suggest that more effective immune control of chronic type II infection in the genetically susceptible B6 background is established by vaccination with the nonreplicating type I uracil auxotroph cps1-1 strain. PMID:19797073

  4. 吗啡诱导大鼠条件性位置偏爱建立和消退研究%Research of acquisition and extinction of conditioned place preference in morphine-induced rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔跃; 李莉; 郭鹏骥; 崔皓哲; 徐畅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe process in acquisition and extinction of conditioned place preference (CPP) in morphine-induced rats.Methods A total of 20 healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into control group and morphine group, with 10 rats in each group. Morphine was given through continuous back subcutaneous injection by constant dosage (10 mg/kg). Rats were put in morphine-paired chamber for 30 min after each time of morphine CPP training. After acquisition of CPP, normal saline was used, replacing morphine, for CPP extinction training. Process in morphine CPP extinction was observed.Results Subcutaneous injection of morphine by 10 mg/kg for 6 d could provide successfully induced acquisition of CPP in rats. Compared with the control group, the morphine group had longer remain time in morphine-paired chamber (P0.05).Conclusion Morphine training for 6 D can induce acquisition of CPP in rats, and normal saline can provide extinction of CPP.%目的:观察吗啡诱导的条件性位置偏爱(CPP)的建立和消退过程。方法健康雄性SD大鼠20只随机分为对照组和吗啡组,每组10只。采用恒定剂量法(10 mg/kg)连续背部皮下注射吗啡,每次吗啡CPP训练后,在伴药箱停留30 min;CPP建立后,用生理盐水替代吗啡进行CPP消退训练,观测吗啡CPP消退过程。结果皮下注射10 mg/kg吗啡6 d可以成功诱导大鼠CPP建立,与对照组相比,吗啡组在伴药箱停留时间明显增加(P0.05)。结论吗啡训练6 d可以诱导大鼠CPP模型建立,生理盐水替代训练可以使建立的CPP效应消退。

  5. Chronic Administration of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Leaves Extract Attenuates Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress and Improves Renal Histopathology and Function in Experimental Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Varatharajan Rajavel; Munavvar Zubaid Abdul Sattar; Mahmood Ameen Abdulla; Kassim, Normadiah M.; Nor Azizan Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) leaves extract (OPLE) has antioxidant properties and because oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN), we tested the hypothesis that OPLE prevents diabetes renal oxidative stress, attenuating injury. Sprague-Dawley rats received OPLE (200 and 500 mg kg−1) for 4 and 12 weeks after diabetes induction (streptozotocin 60 mg kg−1). Blood glucose level, body and kidney weights, urine flow rate (UFR), glomerular filtration rate (GFR),...

  6. Morphine Induces Desensitization of Insulin Receptor Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yu; Eitan, Shoshana; Wu, Jiong; Evans, Christopher J.; Kieffer, Brigitte; Sun, Xiaojian; Polakiewicz, Roberto D.

    2003-01-01

    Morphine analgesia is mediated principally by the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). Since morphine and other opiates have been shown to influence glucose homeostasis, we investigated the hypothesis of direct cross talk between the MOR and the insulin receptor (IR) signaling cascades. We show that prolonged morphine exposure of cell lines expressing endogenous or transfected MOR, IR, and the insulin substrate 1 (IRS-1) protein specifically desensitizes IR signaling to Akt and ERK cascades. Morphine cau...

  7. Morphine Induces Splenocyte Trafficking into the CNS

    OpenAIRE

    Olin, Michael R.; Oh, Seunguk; Roy, Sabita; Peterson, Phillip K.; Molitor, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Opioids significantly alter functional responses of lymphocytes following activation. Morphine, an opioid derivative, alters the Th1 to Th2 response and modulates functional responses such as cytolytic activity and proliferation. Although there has been extensive research involving morphine’s effects on lymphocytes, little is known about the effects morphine has on lymphocyte trafficking. The objective of the study was to use in vivo bioluminescent imaging to determine morphine’s effect on th...

  8. Minocycline attenuates HIV-1 infection and suppresses chronic immune activation in humanized NOD/LtsZ-scidIL-2Rγnull mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Maneesh; Singh, Pratibha; Vaira, Dolores; Amand, Mathieu; Rahmouni, Souad; Moutschen, Michel

    2014-01-01

    More than a quarter of a century of research has established chronic immune activation and dysfunctional T cells as central features of chronic HIV infection and subsequent immunodeficiency. Consequently, the search for a new immunomodulatory therapy that could reduce immune activation and improve T-cell function has been increased. However, the lack of small animal models for in vivo HIV study has hampered progress. In the current study, we have investigated a model of cord blood haematopoietic progenitor cells (CB-HPCs) -transplanted humanized NOD/LtsZ-scidIL-2Rγnull mice in which progression of HIV infection is associated with widespread chronic immune activation and inflammation. Indeed, HIV infection in humanized NSG mice caused up-regulation of several T-cell immune activation markers such as CD38, HLA-DR, CD69 and co-receptor CCR5. T-cell exhaustion markers PD-1 and CTLA-4 were found to be significantly up-regulated on T cells. Moreover, increased plasmatic levels of lipopolysaccharide, sCD14 and interleukin-10 were also observed in infected mice. Treatment with minocycline resulted in a significant decrease of expression of cellular and plasma immune activation markers, inhibition of HIV replication and improved T-cell counts in HIV-infected humanized NSG mice. The study demonstrates that minocycline could be an effective, low-cost adjunctive treatment to regulate chronic immune activation and replication of HIV. PMID:24409837

  9. Chronic Administration of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Leaves Extract Attenuates Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress and Improves Renal Histopathology and Function in Experimental Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varatharajan Rajavel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis leaves extract (OPLE has antioxidant properties and because oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN, we tested the hypothesis that OPLE prevents diabetes renal oxidative stress, attenuating injury. Sprague-Dawley rats received OPLE (200 and 500 mg kg−1 for 4 and 12 weeks after diabetes induction (streptozotocin 60 mg kg−1. Blood glucose level, body and kidney weights, urine flow rate (UFR, glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and proteinuria were assessed. Oxidative stress variables such as 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, glutathione (GSH, and lipid peroxides (LPO were quantified. Renal morphology was analysed, and plasma transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1 was measured. Diabetic rats demonstrated increase in blood glucose and decreased body and increased kidney weights. Renal dysfunction (proteinuria, elevations in UFR and GFR was observed in association with increases in LPO, 8-OHdG, and TGF-β1 and a decrease in GSH. Histological evaluation of diabetic kidney demonstrated glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. OPLE attenuated renal dysfunction, improved oxidative stress markers, and reduced renal pathology in diabetic animals. These results suggest OPLE improves renal dysfunction and pathology in diabetes by reducing oxidative stress; furthermore, the protective effect of OPLE against renal damage in diabetes depends on the dose of OPLE as well as progression of DN.

  10. Chronic administration of the selective P2X3, P2X2/3 receptor antagonist, A-317491, transiently attenuates cancer-induced bone pain in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, RR; Nasser, A; Falk, S;

    2012-01-01

    The purinergic P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors are in the peripheral nervous system almost exclusively confined to afferent sensory neurons, where they are found both at peripheral and central synapses. The P2X3 receptor is implicated in both neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, the role of the ......X3 receptor in chronic cancer-induced bone pain is less known. Here we investigated the effect of systemic acute and chronic administration of the selective P2X3, P2X2/3 receptor antagonist (5-[[[(3-Phenoxyphenyl)methyl][(1S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenyl]amino]carbonyl]-1...

  11. Pharmacological inhibition of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 attenuates disease in a chronic-relapsing rat model for multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ridderstad Wollberg, Anna; Ericsson-Dahlstrand, Anders; Juréus, Anders; Ekerot, Petra; Simon, Sylvia; Nilsson, Maria; Wiklund, Stig-Johan; Berg, Anna-Lena; Ferm, Mats; Sunnemark, Dan; Johansson, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and degenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) causing paralysis. The most effective treatments for MS aim to block infiltration of inflammatory cells to the brain. However, severe side effects related to the broad-acting specificity of these treatments exist. AZD8797, a unique inhibitor of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1, provides inhibition of subpopulations of peripheral leukocytes with potential for a beneficial effect: side ef...

  12. Chronic morphine treatment attenuates cell growth of human BT474 breast cancer cells by rearrangement of the ErbB signalling network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inka Regine Weingaertner

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that opioid analgesics may interfere with tumour growth. It is currently thought that these effects are mediated by transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK-controlled ERK1/2 and Akt signalling. The growth of many breast cancer cells is dependent on hyperactive ErbB receptor networks and one of the most successful approaches in antineoplastic therapy during the last decade was the development of ErbB-targeted therapies. However, the response rates of single therapies are often poor and resistance mechanisms evolve rapidly. To date there is no information about the ability of opioid analgesics to interfere with the growth of ErbB-driven cancers.Here we demonstrate that ErbB2 overexpressing BT474 human breast cancer cells carry fully functional endogenous µ-opioid receptors. Most interestingly, the acute opioid effects on basal and Heregulin-stimulated ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation changed considerably during chronic Morphine treatment. Investigation of the underlying mechanism by the use of protein kinase inhibitors and co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that chronic Morphine treatment results in rearrangement of the ErbB signalling network leading to dissociation of ERK1/2 from Akt signalling and a switch from ErbB1/ErbB3 to ErbB1/ErbB2-dependent cell growth. In chronically Morphine-treated cells Heregulin-stimulated ERK1/2 signalling is redirected via a newly established PI3K- and metalloproteinase-dependent feedback loop. Together, these alterations result in apoptosis of BT474 cells. A similar switch in Heregulin-stimulated ERK1/2 signalling from an ErbB2-independent to an ErbB2-, PI3K- and metalloproteinase-dependent mechanism was also observed in κ-opioid receptor expressing SKBR3 human mammary adenocarcinoma cells.The present data demonstrate that the ErbB receptor network of human breast cancer cells represents a target for chronic Morphine treatment. Rearrangement of ErbB signalling by chronic

  13. A newly synthesized macakurzin C-derivative attenuates acute and chronic skin inflammation: The Nrf2/heme oxygenase signaling as a potential target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Shin, Iljin; Kim, Kyeong-A; Noh, Dabi; Baek, Seung-Hoon; Chang, Sun-Young; Kim, Hyoungsu; Bae, Ok-Nam

    2016-09-15

    Impaired immune responses in skin play a pivotal role in the development and progression of chemical-associated inflammatory skin disorders. In this study, we synthesized new flavonoid derivatives from macakurzin C, and identified in vitro and in vivo efficacy of a potent anti-inflammatory flavonoid, Compound 14 (CPD 14), with its underlying mechanisms. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages and IFN-γ/TNF-α-stimulated human keratinocytes, CPD 14 significantly inhibited the release of inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandins, and cytokines (IC50 for NO inhibition in macrophages: 4.61μM). Attenuated NF-κB signaling and activated Nrf2/HO-1 pathway were responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of CPD 14. The in vivo relevance was examined in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA)-induced acute skin inflammation and oxazolone-induced atopic dermatitis models. Topically applied CPD 14 significantly protected both irritation- and sensitization-associated skin inflammation by suppressing the expression of inflammatory mediators. In summary, we demonstrated that a newly synthesized flavonoid, CPD 14, has potent inhibitory effects on skin inflammation, suggesting it is a potential therapeutic candidate to treat skin disorders associated with excessive inflammation. PMID:27450019

  14. Losartan attenuates chronic cigarette smoke exposure-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats: Possible involvement of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic cigarette smoking induces pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by largely unknown mechanisms. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is known to function in the development of PAH. Losartan, a specific angiotensin II receptor antagonist, is a well-known antihypertensive drug with a potential role in regulating angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), a recently found regulator of RAS. To determine the effect of losartan on smoke-induced PAH and its possible mechanism, rats were daily exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 months in the absence and in the presence of losartan. Elevated right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), thickened wall of pulmonary arteries with apparent medial hypertrophy along with increased angiotensin II (Ang II) and decreased ACE2 levels were observed in smoke-exposed-only rats. Losartan administration ameliorated pulmonary vascular remodeling, inhibited the smoke-induced RVSP and Ang II elevation and partially reversed the ACE2 decrease in rat lungs. In cultured primary pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from 3- and 6-month smoke-exposed rats, ACE2 levels were significantly lower than in those from the control rats. Moreover, PASMCs from 6-month exposed rats proliferated more rapidly than those from 3-month exposed or control rats, and cells grew even more rapidly in the presence of DX600, an ACE2 inhibitor. Consistent with the in vivo study, in vitro losartan pretreatment also inhibited cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cell proliferation and ACE2 reduction in rat PASMCs. The results suggest that losartan may be therapeutically useful in the chronic smoking-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling and PAH and ACE2 may be involved as part of its mechanism. Our study might provide insight into the development of new therapeutic interventions for PAH smokers.

  15. Alpha8 Integrin (Itga8 Signalling Attenuates Chronic Renal Interstitial Fibrosis by Reducing Fibroblast Activation, Not by Interfering with Regulation of Cell Turnover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Marek

    Full Text Available The α8 integrin (Itga8 chain contributes to the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in renal glomerular cells. In unilateral ureteral obstruction Itga8 is de novo expressed in the tubulointerstitium and a deficiency of Itga8 results in more severe renal fibrosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction. We hypothesized that the increased tubulointerstitial damage after unilateral ureteral obstruction observed in mice deficient for Itga8 is associated with altered tubulointerstitial cell turnover and apoptotic mechanisms resulting from the lack of Itga8 in cells of the tubulointerstitium. Induction of unilateral ureteral obstruction was achieved by ligation of the right ureter in mice lacking Itga8. Unilateral ureteral obstruction increased proliferation and apoptosis rates of tubuloepithelial and interstitial cells, however, no differences were observed in the tubulointerstitium of mice lacking Itga8 and wild type controls regarding fibroblast or proliferating cell numbers as well as markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction. In contrast, unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice lacking Itga8 led to more pronounced tubulointerstitial cell activation i.e. to the appearance of more phospho-SMAD2/3-positive cells and more α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells in the tubulointerstitium. Furthermore, a more severe macrophage and T-cell infiltration was observed in these animals compared to controls. Thus, Itga8 seems to attenuate tubulointerstitial fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction not via regulation of cell turnover, but via regulation of TGF-β signalling, fibroblast activation and/or immune cell infiltration.

  16. Rotary antenna attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.; Hardy, J. C.

    1969-01-01

    Radio frequency attenuator, having negligible insertion loss at minimum attenuation, can be used for making precise antenna gain measurements. It is small in size compared to a rotary-vane attenuator.

  17. Differences in morphine-induced and food-induced conditioned place preference between adolescent and adult mice%青春期小鼠与成年小鼠在吗啡和食物诱导条件化位置偏爱建立上的异同

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚仁莉; 瞿家桂; 陈艳梅; 马原野; 胡新天

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the differences between addictive memory and ordinary memory were investigated by morphine-induced and food-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in adolescent and adult mice. The result showed that: 1) morphine-induced CPP could be established in adult mice but not in adolescent mice. 2) food-induced CPP could be established both in adolescent and adult mice. This study indicated that between adolescent and adult mice, there was no difference in ordinary memory, but for addictive memory, they were quite different. Our data suggested that the development of addictive memory and ordinary memory system in mouse brain might not be paralleled.%该实验通过采用吗啡诱导的条件位置偏爱(conditioned place preference,CPP)与食物诱导CPP相结合的方法来研究青春期小鼠和成年小鼠的普通学习记忆和成瘾学习记忆之间是否存在差异.结果发现:1)成年小鼠能够建立吗啡诱导CPP,而青春期小鼠不能建立;2)青春期小鼠和成年小鼠都能够建立食物诱导CPP.吗啡诱导CPP的结果提示,青春期小鼠和成年小鼠在成瘾学习记忆上有差异,青春期小鼠的成瘾记忆能力较弱.食物诱导CPP的结果提示,青春期小鼠和成年小鼠在普通学习记忆上没有差异.吗啡诱导CPP和食物诱导CPP的结果比较提示,小鼠的普通学习记忆系统和成瘾学习记忆系统发育进程是不平行的.

  18. Chronic calorie restriction attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Piccio, Laura; Stark, Jennifer L.; Cross, Anne H.

    2008-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) prevents many age-associated diseases and prolongs the lifespan. CR induces multiple metabolic and physiologic modifications, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects that may be beneficial in multiple sclerosis (MS). The present studies sought to determine whether CR or increased calorie intake alters the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the leading animal model for MS. SJL and C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 40% ...

  19. DC attenuation meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Douglas L.

    2004-09-14

    A portable, hand-held meter used to measure direct current (DC) attenuation in low impedance electrical signal cables and signal attenuators. A DC voltage is applied to the signal input of the cable and feedback to the control circuit through the signal cable and attenuators. The control circuit adjusts the applied voltage to the cable until the feedback voltage equals the reference voltage. The "units" of applied voltage required at the cable input is the system attenuation value of the cable and attenuators, which makes this meter unique. The meter may be used to calibrate data signal cables, attenuators, and cable-attenuator assemblies.

  20. Blockage of glucocorticoid receptors during memory acquisition,retrieval and reconsolidation prevents the expression of morphine-induced conditioned place preferences in mice%Blockage of glucocorticoid receptors during memory acquisition,retrieval and reconsolidation prevents the expression of morphineinduced conditioned place preferences in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao-Dong FAN; Hai-Chen NIU; Tanzeel Huma; Ling LI; Gui-Mei WANG; Li-Qi XU; He REN

    2013-01-01

    Association between the reward caused by consuming drugs and the context in which they are consumed is essential in the formation of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP).Glucocorticoid receptor (GRs) activation in different regions of the brain affects reward-based reinforcement and memory processing.A wide array of studies have demonstrated that blockage of GRs in some brain areas can have an effect on reward-related memory; however,to date there have been no systematic studies about the involvement of glucocorticoids (GCs) in morphine-related reward memory.Here,we used the GR antagonist RU38486 to investigate how GRs blockage affects the sensitization and CPP behavior during different phases of reward memory included acquisition,retrieval and reconsolidation.Interestingly,our results showed RU38486 has the ability to impair the acquisition,retrieval and reconsolidation of reward-based memory in CPP and sensitization behavior.But RU38486 by itself cannot induce CPP or conditioned place aversion (CPA) behavior.Our data provide a much more complete picture of the potential effects that glucocorticoids have on the reward memory of different phases and inhibit the sensitization behavior.

  1. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  2. Pressure surge attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Alan M.; Snyder, Kurt I.

    1985-01-01

    A pressure surge attenuation system for pipes having a fluted region opposite crushable metal foam. As adapted for nuclear reactor vessels and heads, crushable metal foam is disposed to attenuate pressure surges.

  3. The study of genistein attenuating genioglossus muscle fatigue under chronic intermittent hypoxia%金雀异黄素减弱慢性间歇性低氧大鼠颏舌肌疲劳的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁王辉; 李文; 陈小燕; 施洁珺

    2016-01-01

    weeks.Electrophysiological method was used to detect the change of genioglossus muscle function, and real-time reverse transcription(RT)-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the level of Nrf-2 gene and protein.Results Compared to NC group, the contractive properties of genioglossus muscle fatigue test at every time set was significantly decreased in CIH group(P<0.05).Compared to CIH group, the contractive properties was significantly increased in T group(P<0.05).The level of Nrf-2 gene and protein were less in CIH group(0.54±0.11 and 0.35±0.13) than in NC group(1.00±0.00 和 1.00±0.00)(P<0.05).Compared to CIH group the level of Nrf-2 gene and protein were increased in T group (0.76 ± 0.16 and 0.63 ± 0.14)(P<0.05), however, it was still less than the level in NC group(P<0.05).Conclusions CIH attenuates genioglossus muscle fatigue resistance under chronic intermittent hypoxia through Nrf-2/ARE signaling pathway.Genistein protects genioglossus muscle function through up-regulation of the level of Nrf-2 gene and protein.

  4. Photonic Crystal Fiber Attenuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo Beom Eom; Hokyung Kim; Jinchae Kim; Un-Chul Paek; Byeong Ha Lee

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel fiber attenuator based on photonic crystal fibers. The difference in the modal field diameters of a conventional single mode fiber and a photonic crystal fiber was used. A variable optical attenuator was also achieved by applying macro-bending on the PCF part of the proposed attenuator

  5. Effect of different extinction methods on morphine-induced conditioned place preference in mouse%不同消退方法对吗啡诱导的小鼠条件性位置偏爱行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢关伊; 吴宁; 李锦

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of extinction using different methods and the subsequent reinstatement of morphine-primed on morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Methods Mouse received morphine(10 mg/kg, sc) or saline (10 mg/kg, sc) injections alternately for 8 days to establish CPP. Different methods were used for extinction. Program 1, withdrawal group. Extinction sessions were conducted 21 days after the CPP test at 7 days interval; Program 2, extinction test group. Extinction sessions were carried out once a day from the second day after the CPP test; Program 3, extinction training group. Extinction sessions began one day after the CPP test. Mice were treated alternately two trials daily, in compartments where they received saline instead of morphine. A test for reinstatement was performed on the 2nd or 7th day after all groups completed extinction by 5 mg/kg morphine-primed. Results Morphine injections induce strong CPP. In withdrawal group, CPP extinguished on the 35th day and maintained for at least 28 days. Six trials extinction tests and 4 trials extinction training caused morphine induced CPP extinction. The three programs mentioned above were all primed by 5mg/kg morphine. Conclusion Morphine induced mouse CPP model can maintain at least 28 days, both extinction test and training can accelerate the extinction of CPP, and reinstatement by 5 mg/kg morphine.%目的:比较采用不同的消退方法对吗啡诱导条件性位置偏爱(CPP)的消退及随后小剂量药物诱发点燃的影响。方法小鼠采用交替隔日皮下注射吗啡(10 mg/kg)或等容量生理盐水后在伴药箱或非伴药箱训练共8 d,即接受吗啡和生理盐水训练共4个轮次,使小鼠形成CPP。采用不同的消退方法使小鼠CPP熄灭。方案1:自然消退。小鼠吗啡CPP形成后不做任何处理,待21 d后,每隔7 d进行1次测试,观察其消退程度。方案2:测试消退。小鼠吗啡CPP形成第2

  6. Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  7. Variable laser attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprng one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength.

  8. 外周电刺激抑制大鼠吗啡条件性位置偏爱的复发及海洛因成瘾者的心瘾%Inhibition by peripheral electric stimulation of the reinstatement of morphine-induced place preference in rats and drug-craving in heroin addicts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玢; 张本国; 葛学采; 罗非; 韩济生

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective:To test the hypothesis that peripheral electric stimulation (PES) may suppress the reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats as well as the drug craving of detoxified heroin addicts in a frequency-dependent manner.Methods:CPP model of the rat was constructed with two compartment automatic CPP apparatus, and the craving of the heroin addicts was assessed with a visual analogue scale (VAS). Results:(1) PES of low frequency could prevent the drug priming- or foot shock-induced reinstatement of morphine CPP; (2) this effect was naloxone-reversible, suggesting a possible involvement of endogenous opioid mechanisms; and (3) PES of low frequency could also accelerate the rate of natural decay of drug craving in heroin addicts after successful abstinence. Conclusion:PES might serve as a therapeutic measure for the treatment of heroin addiction.%目的:探讨外周电刺激(PES)是否能频率依赖性地抑制吗啡条件性位置偏爱(CPP)的复发和抑制海洛因成瘾者脱毒后的心瘾.方法:用二室自动CPP箱记录大鼠条件性CPP,用视觉模拟尺测量海洛因成瘾者的"心瘾(渴求)".结果:(1)低频PES能抑制大鼠小剂量吗啡点燃、或脚底电刺激诱发的吗啡CPP;(2)上述效应可被小剂量吗啡受体拮抗剂纳洛酮(1 mg*kg-1)翻转,提示有内源性阿片机制参与;(3)低频PES还能使海洛因成瘾者脱毒后对毒品"心瘾"的自然消退过程加速.结论:外周神经电刺激可能是治疗海洛因成瘾的一种有效方法.

  9. Azithromycin blocks quorum sensing and alginate polymer formation and increases the sensitivity to serum and stationary growth phase killing of P. aeruginosa and attenuates chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection in Cftr -/--mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, N.; Lee, Bao le ri; Hentzer, Morten;

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of O-acetylated alginate-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in the lungs of chronically infected cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are tolerance to both antibiotic treatments and effects on the innate and the adaptive defense mechanisms. In clinical trials, azithromycin (AZM) ...

  10. Expression changes of hippocampal energy metabolism enzymes contribute to behavioural abnormalities during chronic morphine treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Lan Chen; Jing-Gen Liu; Gang Lu; Ying-Xia Gong; Liang-Cai Zhao; Jie Chen; Zhi-Qiang Chi; Yi-Ming Yang; Zhong Chen; Qing-lin Li

    2007-01-01

    Dependence and impairment of learning and memory are two well-established features caused by abused drugs such as opioids. The hippocampus is an important region associated with both drug dependence and learning and memory. However, the molecular events in hippocampus following exposure to abused drugs such as opioids are not well understood. Here we examined the effect of chronic morphine treatment on hippocampal protein expression by proteomic analyses. We found that chronic exposure of mice to morphine for 10 days produced robust morphine withdrawal jumping and memory impairment, and also resulted in a significant downregulation of hippocampal protein levels of three metabolic enzymes, including Fe-S protein 1 of NADH dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase or E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and lactate dehydrogenase 2. Further real-time quantitative PCR analyses confirmed that the levels of the corresponding mRNAs were also remarkably reduced. Consistent with these findings, lower ATP levels and an impaired ability to convert glucose into ATP were also observed in the hippocampus of chronically treated mice. Opioid antagonist naltrexone administrated concomitantly with morphine significantly suppressed morphine withdrawal jumping and reversed the downregulation of these proteins. Acute exposure to morphine also produced robust morphine withdrawal jumping and significant memory impairment, but failed to decrease the expression of these three proteins. Intrahippocampal injection of D-glucose before morphine administration significantly enhanced ATP levels and suppressed morphine withdrawal jumping and memory impairment in acute morphine-treated but not in chronic morphine-treated mice. Intraperitoneal injection of high dose of D-glucose shows a similar effect on morphine-induced withdrawal jumping as the central treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that reduced expression of the three metabolic enzymes in the hippocampus as

  11. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  12. RADIO FREQUENCY ATTENUATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, S.

    1963-11-12

    A high peak power level r-f attenuator that is readily and easily insertable along a coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer annular conductor without breaking the ends thereof is presented. Spaced first and second flares in the outer conductor face each other with a slidable cylindrical outer conductor portion therebetween. Dielectric means, such as water, contact the cable between the flares to attenuate the radio-frequency energy received thereby. The cylindrical outer conductor portion is slidable to adjust the voltage standing wave ratio to a low level, and one of the flares is slidable to adjust the attenuation level. An integral dielectric container is also provided. (AFC)

  13. Attenuator And Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Carson, Richard F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; Kemme, Shanalyn Adair; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.

    2006-04-04

    An apparatus and method of attenuating and/or conditioning optical energy for an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module is disclosed. An apparatus for attenuating the optical output of an optoelectronic connector including: a mounting surface; an array of optoelectronic devices having at least a first end; an array of optical elements having at least a first end; the first end of the array of optical elements optically aligned with the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices; an optical path extending from the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices and ending at a second end of the array of optical elements; and an attenuator in the optical path for attenuating the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices. Alternatively, a conditioner may be adapted in the optical path for conditioning the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices.

  14. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.; Agrawal, Anoop; Hall, Simon B.

    2009-11-10

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3 C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  15. Effects of acute and chronic attenuation of postprandial hyperglycemia on postglucose-load endothelial function in insulin resistant individuals: is stimulation of first phase insulin secretion beneficial for the endothelial function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Major-Pedersen, A; Ihlemann, N; Hermann, T S;

    2008-01-01

    -resistant subjects with the Flow-Mediated-Dilation (FMD) technique. We randomized subjects to intervention/control group, and examined the acute and chronic effect of nateglinide, an oral antidiabetic drug of rapid action. In the intervention group, postoral glucose-load (post-OGL) FMD delta values deteriorated when......-day "Closing day", p=0.001]. Post-OGL changes in the control group were nonsignificant both at Baseline and on Closing day. After a single dose of nateglinide "Acute day", post-OGL FMD deterioration was abolished. There was an increment in post-OGL FMD delta values most significant at 2 h post-OGL (p=0....... We found no relationship between postprandial hyperglycemia and post-OGL FMD....

  16. Pressure surge attenuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pressure surge attenuation arrangement comprises crushable metal foam disposed adjacent regions adapted to be expanded by a pressure surge. In a pipe system such region consists of a thin walled inner pipe surrounded by a housing with crushable metal foam disposed in the space between the housing and the inner pipe. (author)

  17. Tritium Attenuation by Distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing

  18. Natural attenuation of herbicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, Nina; Højberg, Anker Lajer; Broholm, Mette Martina;

    2002-01-01

    A field injection experiment in a sandy, aerobic aquifer showed that two phenoxy acids MCPP (mecoprop) and dichlorprop were degraded within I in downgradient of the injection wells after an apparent lag period. The plume development and microbial measurements indicated that microbial growth gover...... observations may be important for application of natural attenuation as a remedy in field scale systems....

  19. A compact rotary vane attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, D. L.; Otosh, T. Y.; Stelzried, C. T.

    1969-01-01

    Rotary vane attenuator, when used as a front end attenuator, introduces an insertion loss that is proportional to the angle of rotation. New technique allows the construction of a shortened compact unit suitable for most installations.

  20. Photon attenuation by intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photon attenuation by intensifying screens of different chemical composition has been determined. The attenuation of photons between 20 keV and 120 keV was measured by use of a multi-channel analyzer and a broad bremsstrahlung distribution. The attenuation by the intensifying screens was hereby determined simultaneously at many different monoenergetic photon energies. Experimentally determined attenuations were found to agree well with attenuation calculated from mass attenuation coefficients. The attenuation by the screens was also determined at various bremsstrahlung distributions, simulating those occurring behind the patient in various diagnostic X-ray examinations. The high attenuation in some of the intensifying screens form the basis for an analysis of the construction of asymmetric screen pairs. Single screen systems are suggested as a favourable alternative to thick screen pair systems. (Author)

  1. Downhole pressure attenuation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a process for preventing damage to tool strings and other downhole equipment in a well caused by pressures produced during detonation of one or more downhole explosive devices. It comprises adding to a tool string at least one pressure attenuating apparatus for attenuating the peak pressure wave and quasi-static pressure pulse produced by the explosive devices, the pressure attenuating apparatus including an initially closed relief vent including tubing means supporting a plurality of charge port assemblies each including an explosive filled shaped charge and a prestressed disc, the shaped charges interconnected by a detonating cord, the amount of explosive in each shaped charge being sufficient to rupture its associated disc without damaging surrounding tubular bodies in the well, and a vent chamber defined by the tubing means and providing a liquid free volume, and opening the relief vent substantially contemporaneously with downhole explosive device detonation by detonating the shaped charges to rupture the discs of the charge port assemblies

  2. Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type ...

  3. Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Scott S., E-mail: sshsieh@stanford.edu [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Pelc, Norbert J. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not requirea priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current

  4. Flexible graphene based microwave attenuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Kisik; Ju Park, Yong; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Min, Byung-Wook

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate flexible 3 dB and 6 dB microwave attenuators using multilayer graphene grown by the chemical vapor deposition method. On the basis of the characterized results of multilayer graphene and graphene-Au ohmic contacts, the graphene attenuators are designed and measured. The flexible graphene-based attenuators have 3 dB and 6 dB attenuation with a return loss of less than -15 dB at higher than 5 GHz. The devices have shown durability in a bending cycling test of 100 times. The circuit model of the attenuator based on the characterized results matches the experimental results well. PMID:25590144

  5. Flexible graphene based microwave attenuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate flexible 3 dB and 6 dB microwave attenuators using multilayer graphene grown by the chemical vapor deposition method. On the basis of the characterized results of multilayer graphene and graphene–Au ohmic contacts, the graphene attenuators are designed and measured. The flexible graphene-based attenuators have 3 dB and 6 dB attenuation with a return loss of less than −15 dB at higher than 5 GHz. The devices have shown durability in a bending cycling test of 100 times. The circuit model of the attenuator based on the characterized results matches the experimental results well. (paper)

  6. Chronic gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understand...

  7. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Le, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  8. Ultrasonic Attenuation in Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the relationship between Zircaloy-4 grain size and ultrasonic attenuation behavior was studied for longitudinal waves in the frequency range of 10-90 MHz. The attenuation was analyzed as a function of frequency for samples with different mechanical and heat treatments having recrystallized and Widmanstatten structures with different grain size. The attenuation behavior was analyzed by different scattering models, depending on grain size, wavelength and frequency

  9. Chopping-Wheel Optical Attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    1988-01-01

    Star-shaped rotating chopping wheel provides adjustable time-averaged attenuation of narrow beam of light without changing length of optical path or spectral distribution of light. Duty cycle or attenuation factor of chopped beam controlled by adjusting radius at which beam intersects wheel. Attenuation factor independent of wavelength. Useful in systems in which chopping frequency above frequency-response limits of photodetectors receiving chopped light. Used in systems using synchronous detection with lock-in amplifiers.

  10. LINE-ABOVE-GROUND ATTENUATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilds, R.B.; Ames, J.R.

    1957-09-24

    The line-above-ground attenuator provides a continuously variable microwave attenuator for a coaxial line that is capable of high attenuation and low insertion loss. The device consists of a short section of the line-above- ground plane type transmission lime, a pair of identical rectangular slabs of lossy material like polytron, whose longitudinal axes are parallel to and indentically spaced away from either side of the line, and a geared mechanism to adjust amd maintain this spaced relationship. This device permits optimum fineness and accuracy of attenuator control which heretofore has been difficult to achieve.

  11. Chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedt, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic migraine is a disabling neurologic condition that affects 2% of the general population. Patients with chronic migraine have headaches on at least 15 days a month, with at least eight days a month on which their headaches and associated symptoms meet diagnostic criteria for migraine. Chronic migraine places an enormous burden on patients owing to frequent headaches; hypersensitivity to visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli; nausea; and vomiting. It also affects society through direct and indirect medical costs. Chronic migraine typically develops after a slow increase in headache frequency over months to years. Several factors are associated with an increased risk of transforming to chronic migraine. The diagnosis requires a carefully performed patient interview and neurologic examination, sometimes combined with additional diagnostic tests, to differentiate chronic migraine from secondary headache disorders and other primary chronic headaches of long duration. Treatment takes a multifaceted approach that may include risk factor modification, avoidance of migraine triggers, drug and non-drug based prophylaxis, and abortive migraine treatment, the frequency of which is limited to avoid drug overuse. This article provides an overview of current knowledge regarding chronic migraine, including epidemiology, risk factors for its development, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and guidelines. The future of chronic migraine treatment and research is also discussed. PMID:24662044

  12. Attenuated vaccines can recombine to form virulent field viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Won; Markham, Philip F; Coppo, Mauricio J C; Legione, Alistair R; Markham, John F; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Browning, Glenn F; Ficorilli, Nino; Hartley, Carol A; Devlin, Joanne M

    2012-07-13

    Recombination between herpesviruses has been seen in vitro and in vivo under experimental conditions. This has raised safety concerns about using attenuated herpesvirus vaccines in human and veterinary medicine and adds to other known concerns associated with their use, including reversion to virulence and disease arising from recurrent reactivation of lifelong chronic infection. We used high-throughput sequencing to investigate relationships between emergent field strains and vaccine strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV, gallid herpesvirus 1). We show that independent recombination events between distinct attenuated vaccine strains resulted in virulent recombinant viruses that became the dominant strains responsible for widespread disease in Australian commercial poultry flocks. These findings highlight the risks of using multiple different attenuated herpesvirus vaccines, or vectors, in the same populations. PMID:22798607

  13. Fiber optic attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzetti, Mike F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A fiber optic attenuator of the invention is a mandrel structure through which a bundle of optical fibers is wrapped around in a complete circle. The mandrel structure includes a flexible cylindrical sheath through which the bundle passes. A set screw on the mandrel structure impacts one side of the sheath against two posts on the opposite side of the sheath. By rotating the screw, the sheath is deformed to extend partially between the two posts, bending the fiber optic bundle to a small radius controlled by rotating the set screw. Bending the fiber optic bundle to a small radius causes light in each optical fiber to be lost in the cladding, the amount depending upon the radius about which the bundle is bent.

  14. Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyneuropathy - chronic inflammatory; CIDP; Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy ... of the body equally. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common chronic neuropathy caused by ...

  15. Adjustable Optical-Fiber Attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzetti, Mike F.

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable fiber-optic attenuator utilizes bending loss to reduce strength of light transmitted along it. Attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss. Relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Potential applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal-distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  16. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M; Froeling, Fieke EM

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas owing to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects 3–9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  17. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M; Kadaba, Raghu

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas due to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects between 3 and 9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  18. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis

  19. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yujun [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Li, Jian-Dong [Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Yan, Chen, E-mail: Chen_Yan@urmc.rochester.edu [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis.

  20. Rational Basis for the Use of Bergamot Essential Oil in Complementary Medicine to Treat Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombolà, L; Amantea, D; Russo, R; Adornetto, A; Berliocchi, L; Tridico, L; Corasaniti, M T; Sakurada, S; Sakurada, T; Bagetta, G; Morrone, L A

    2016-01-01

    In complementary medicine, aromatherapy uses essential oils to improve agitation and aggression observed in dementia, mood, depression, anxiety and chronic pain. Preclinical research studies have reported that the essential oil obtained from bergamot (BEO) fruit (Citrus bergamia, Risso) modifies normal and pathological synaptic plasticity implicated, for instance, in nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Interestingly, recent results indicated that BEO modulates sensitive perception of pain in different models of nociceptive, inflammatory and neuropathic pain modulating endogenous systems. Thus, local administration of BEO inhibited the nociceptive behavioral effect induced by intraplantar injection of capsaicin or formalin in mice. Similar effects were observed with linalool and linalyl acetate, major volatile components of the phytocomplex, Pharmacological studies showed that the latter effects are reversed by local or systemic pretreatment with the opioid antagonist naloxone hydrochloride alike with naloxone methiodide, high affinity peripheral μ-opioid receptor antagonist. These results and the synergistic effect observed following systemic or intrathecal injection of an inactive dose of morphine with BEO or linalool indicated an activation of peripheral opioid system. Recently, in neuropathic pain models systemic or local administration of BEO or linalool induced antiallodynic effects. In particular, in partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) model, intraplantar injection of the phytocomplex or linalool in the ipsilateral hindpaw, but not in the contralateral, reduced PSNL-induced extracellularsignal- regulated kinase (ERK) activation and mechanical allodynia. In neuropathic pain high doses of morphine are needed to reduce pain. Interestingly, combination of inactive doses of BEO or linalool with a low dose of morphine induced antiallodynic effects in mice. Peripheral cannabinoid and opioid systems appear to be involved in the antinociception produced by

  1. Seismic attenuation in fractured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prime objective of this paper is to quantitatively estimate seismic attenuation caused by fractures with different physical parameters. In seismic wave simulation, the fractured media are treated as the anisotropic media and fractures are represented by frequency-dependent elastic constants. Based on numerical experiments with three different parameters, namely viscosity, porosity and the Lamé parameters, this paper has the following observations. First, seismic attenuation is not affected by the viscosity within fractures, although it increases with the increase of porosity and decreases with the increase of the Lamé parameters within fractures. Among the latter two parameters, seismic attenuation is more sensitive to the Lamé parameters than to the porosity. Second, for the attenuation anisotropy, low frequencies have more anisotropic effect than high frequencies. For example, a 50 Hz wavefield has the strongest anisotropy effect if compared to 100 and 150 Hz wavefields. The attenuation anisotropy for low frequency (say 50 Hz) is more sensitive to the viscosity than the porosity and the Lamé parameters have the weakest effect among these three parameters. These observations suggest that low-frequency seismic attenuation, and especially the attenuation anisotropy in low frequency, would have great potential for fluid discrimination within fractured media. (paper)

  2. Chronic cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods may relieve symptoms in people. However, the benefit of a low-fat diet has not been proven. Alternative Names Cholecystitis - chronic Images Cholecystitis, CT scan Cholecystitis, cholangiogram Cholecystolithiasis Gallstones, cholangiogram Cholecystogram References Wang ...

  3. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have chronic pain may also have low self-esteem, depression, and anger. Causes & Risk Factors What causes ... as stretching and strengthening activities) and low-impact exercise (such as walking, swimming, or biking) can help ...

  4. Chronic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Lunch Lines FDA Cracks Down on Antibacterial Soaps Health Tip: Schedule a Back-to-School Dental ... the Professional Version Meningitis Introduction to Meningitis Acute Bacterial Meningitis Viral Meningitis Noninfectious Meningitis Recurrent Meningitis Chronic ...

  5. Chronic Pericarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sugar Control Helps Fight Diabetic Eye Disease Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... weeks after heart surgery) and is considered subacute. Causes Usually, the cause of chronic effusive pericarditis is ...

  6. Estimation of Water Vapour Attenuation And Rain Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Kalyana Srinivas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation due to and water vapour and rain can severely degrade the radio wave propagation at centimeter or millimeter wavelengths. It restricts the path length of radio communication systems and limits the use of higher frequencies for line-of-sight microwave links and satellite communications. The attenuation will pose a greater problem to communication as the frequency of occurrence of heavy rain increases.In a tropical region, like Malaysia, where excessive rainfall is a common phenomenon throughout the year, the knowledge of the rain attenuation at the frequency of operation is extremely required for the design of a reliable terrestrial and earth space communication link at a particular location.

  7. Lung cysts in chronic paracoccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Nathan Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available On HRCT scans, lung cysts are characterized by rounded areas of low attenuation in the lung parenchyma and a well-defined interface with the normal adjacent lung. The most common cystic lung diseases are lymphangioleiomyomatosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. In a retrospective analysis of the HRCT findings in 50 patients diagnosed with chronic paracoccidioidomycosis, we found lung cysts in 5 cases (10%, indicating that patients with paracoccidioidomycosis can present with lung cysts on HRCT scans. Therefore, paracoccidioidomycosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of cystic lung diseases.

  8. The attenuation and the attenuators: strategies and tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Briz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is inscribed in a research project (ES.POR.ATENUAÇÃO that seeks to analyze and explain the attenuator activity in different regional varieties of Spanish and Portuguese, in order to perform, subsequently, different contrastive intralinguistic and interlinguistic studies. In this article, we explain some of the theoretical and methodological principles on which are based the qualitative and quantitative analysis. And especially, we will refer to the concept of attenuation (Briz 1995, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2007a, 2012.

  9. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema. Other risk factors for COPD are: Exposure to ...

  11. Chronic Ethanol Feeding to Rats Decreases Adiponectin Secretion by Subcutaneous Adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaocong; Sebastian, Becky M.; Nagy, Laura E.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic ethanol feeding to mice and rats decreases serum adiponectin concentration and adiponectin treatment attenuates chronic ethanol-induced liver injury. While it is clear that lowered adiponectin has pathophysiological importance, the mechanisms by which chronic ethanol decreases adiponectin are not known. Here we have investigated the impact of chronic ethanol feeding on adiponectin expression and secretion by adipose tissue. Rats were fed a 36% Lieber-DeCarli ethanol-containing liquid ...

  12. Sound attenuation in magnetorheological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, J.; Elvira, L.; Resa, P.; Montero de Espinosa, F.

    2013-02-01

    In this work, the attenuation of ultrasonic elastic waves propagating through magnetorheological (MR) fluids is analysed as a function of the particle volume fraction and the magnetic field intensity. Non-commercial MR fluids made with iron ferromagnetic particles and two different solvents (an olive oil based solution and an Araldite-epoxy) were used. Particle volume fractions of up to 0.25 were analysed. It is shown that the attenuation of sound depends strongly on the solvent used and the volume fraction. The influence of a magnetic field up to 212 mT was studied and it was found that the sound attenuation increases with the magnetic intensity until saturation is reached. A hysteretic effect is evident once the magnetic field is removed.

  13. Low back pain - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause of ...

  14. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  15. Employees with Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Chronic Pain By Beth Loy, Ph.D. Preface Introduction Information ... at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Chronic Pain How prevalent is chronic pain? Chronic pain has ...

  16. Effects of Active Mastication on Chronic Stress-Induced Bone Loss in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Azuma, Kagaku; Furuzawa, Manabu; Fujiwara, Shu; YAMADA, Kumiko; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Chronic psychologic stress increases corticosterone levels, which decreases bone density. Active mastication or chewing attenuates stress-induced increases in corticosterone. We evaluated whether active mastication attenuates chronic stress-induced bone loss in mice. Male C57BL/6 (B6) mice were randomly divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Stress was induced by placing mice in a ventilated restraint tube (60 min, 2x/day, 4 weeks). The stress/chewing group was given a woode...

  17. Josephson tunnel junction microwave attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Shchukin, A. V.;

    1993-01-01

    A new element for superconducting electronic circuitry-a variable attenuator-has been proposed, designed, and successfully tested. The principle of operation is based on the change in the microwave impedance of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junction when dc biased...

  18. Compact plasmonic variable optical attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Rosenzveig, Tiberiu; Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon;

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate plasmonic nanowire-based thermo-optic variable optical attenuators operating in the 1525-1625 nm wavelength range. The devices have a footprint as low as 1 mm, extinction ratio exceeding 40 dB, driving voltage below 3 V, and full modulation bandwidth of 1 kHz. The polarization...

  19. Attenuation of Vrancea events revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New aspects of the frequency-dependent attenuation of the seismic waves traveling from Vrancea subcrustal sources toward NW (Transylvanian Basin) and SE (Romanian Plain) are evidenced by the recent experimental data made available by the CALIXTO'99 tomography experiment. The observations validate the previous theoretical computations performed for the assessment, by means of a deterministic approach, of the seismic hazard in Romania. They reveal an essential aspect of the seismic ground motion attenuation, that has important implications on the probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard from Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes. The attenuation toward NW is shown to be a much stronger frequency-dependent effect than the attenuation toward SE and the seismic hazard computed by the deterministic approach fits satisfactorily well the observed ground motion distribution in the low-frequency band (< 1 Hz). The apparent contradiction with the historically-based intensity maps arises mainly from a systematic difference in the vulnerability (buildings eigenperiod) of the buildings in the intra- and extra-Carpathians regions. (author)

  20. Chronic coughing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic coughing was acknowledged to result from pathological state of the respiratory organs. Cardiac diseases could be accompanied by coughing as well. It was recommended to perform x-ray examinations, including biomedical radiography of the chest, computerized tomography, scintiscanning with 67Ga-citrate, bronchi examination in order to exclude heart disease. The complex examination permitted to detect localization and type of the changes in the lungs and mediastinum, to distinguish benign tumor from malignant one

  1. Stormwater Attenuation by Green Roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, A.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Robinson, C. E.; Smart, C. C.

    2014-12-01

    Innovative municipal stormwater management technologies are urgently required in urban centers. Inadequate stormwater management can lead to excessive flooding, channel erosion, decreased stream baseflows, and degraded water quality. A major source of urban stormwater is unused roof space. Green roofs can be used as a stormwater management tool to reduce roof generated stormwater and generally improve the quality of runoff. With recent legislation in some North American cities, including Toronto, requiring the installation of green roofs on large buildings, research on the effectiveness of green roofs for stormwater management is important. This study aims to assess the hydrologic response of an extensive sedum green roof in London, Ontario, with emphasis on the response to large precipitation events that stress municipal stormwater infrastructure. A green roof rapidly reaches field capacity during large storm events and can show significantly different behavior before and after field capacity. At field capacity a green roof has no capillary storage left for retention of stormwater, but may still be an effective tool to attenuate peak runoff rates by transport through the green roof substrate. The attenuation of green roofs after field capacity is linked to gravity storage, where gravity storage is the water that is temporarily stored and can drain freely over time after field capacity has been established. Stormwater attenuation of a modular experimental green roof is determined from water balance calculations at 1-minute intervals. Data is used to evaluate green roof attenuation and the impact of field capacity on peak flow rates and gravity storage. In addition, a numerical model is used to simulate event based stormwater attenuation. This model is based off of the Richards equation and supporting theory of multiphase flow through porous media.

  2. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. ► Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. ► Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. ► Silibinin suppresses NF-κB transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Because NF-κB activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-κB activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-κB activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  3. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yujun; Li, Jian-Dong; Yan, Chen

    2013-05-10

    Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis. PMID:23583194

  4. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Ho [Department of Anatomy, Medical School, Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Guang Yu [Department of Radiology, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133002 (China); Guo, Hui Shu [Centralab, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011 (China); Piao, Hong Mei [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133000 (China); Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China); Lin, Zhen Hua [Department of Pathology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, YanJi 133000 (China); Yan, Guang Hai, E-mail: ghyan@ybu.edu.cn [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  5. Ferrite attenuator modulation improves antenna performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, J. C.; Larson, S. G.; Shorkley, F. H.; Williams, B. T.

    1970-01-01

    Ferrite attenuator inserted into appropriate waveguide reduces the gain of the antenna element which is causing interference. Modulating the ferrite attenuator to change the antenna gain at the receive frequency permits ground tracking until the antenna is no longer needed.

  6. Microglia disrupt mesolimbic reward circuitry in chronic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, AMW; Castonguay, A; Taylor, AJ; Murphy, NP; Ghogha, A; Cook, C.; Xue, L.; Olmstead, MC; De Koninck, Y; Evans, CJ; Cahill, CM

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 the authors. Chronic pain attenuates midbrain dopamine (DA) transmission, as evidenced by a decrease in opioid-evoked DA release in the ventral striatum, suggesting that the occurrence of chronic pain impairs reward-related behaviors. However, mechanisms by which pain modifies DA transmission remain elusive. Using in vivo microdialysis and microinjection of drugs into the mesolimbic DA system, we demonstrate in mice and rats that microglial activation in the VTA compromises not only op...

  7. ENHANCEMENTS TO NATURAL ATTENUATION: SELECTED CASE STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K; W. H. Albright, W; E. S. Becvar, E; C. H. Benson, C; T. O. Early, T; E. Hood, E; P. M. Jardine, P; M. Lorah, M; E. Majche, E; D. Major, D; W. J. Waugh, W; G. Wein, G; O. R. West, O

    2007-05-15

    In 2003 the US Department of Energy (DOE) embarked on a project to explore an innovative approach to remediation of subsurface contaminant plumes that focused on introducing mechanisms for augmenting natural attenuation to achieve site closure. Termed enhanced attenuation (EA), this approach has drawn its inspiration from the concept of monitored natural attenuation (MNA).

  8. Chronic Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Buysse, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Ms. F, a 42-year-old divorced woman, presents for evaluation of chronic insomnia. She complains of difficulty falling asleep, often 30 minutes or longer, and difficulty maintaining sleep during the night, with frequent awakenings that often last 30 minutes or longer. These symptoms occur nearly every night, with only one or two “good” nights per month. She typically goes to bed around 10:00 p.m. to give herself adequate time for sleep, and she gets out of bed around 7:00 a.m. on work days and...

  9. Attenuation in silica-based optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandel, Marie Emilie

    2006-01-01

    absorption peaks in order to investigate the cause of an unusual high attenuation in a series of transmission fibers. Strong indications point to Ni2+ in octahedral coordination as being the cause of the high attenuation. The attenuation of fibers having a high core refractive index is analyzed and the cause...... well as the viscosity profile a lower attenuation of high index fibers can be obtained. The design of dispersion compensating fibers using the super mode approach is described, the object being to design dispersion compensating fibers for dispersion compensating fiber modules having a low attenuation......, described by a high figure of merit. The major trade offs encountered when designing dispersion compensating fibers with high figure of merit are to obtain a very negative dispersion, low attenuation and low micro bend loss at the same time. The model for predicting the attenuation of high index fibers is...

  10. Atypical Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myeloproliferative neoplasms, leukemia , and other conditions . Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Key Points Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease ... chance of recovery) and treatment options. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease in which too many myelocytes ...

  11. Living with Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Chronic Bronchitis If you have chronic bronchitis, you can take steps to control your symptoms. ... and a pneumonia vaccine. If you have chronic bronchitis, you may benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). PR ...

  12. Imaging Rayleigh wave attenuation with USArray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xueyang; Dalton, Colleen A.; Jin, Ge; Gaherty, James B.; Shen, Yang

    2016-07-01

    The EarthScope USArray provides an opportunity to obtain detailed images of the continental upper mantle at an unprecedented scale. The majority of mantle models derived from USArray data to date contain spatial variations in seismic-wave speed; however, in many cases these data sets do not by themselves allow a non-unique interpretation. Joint interpretation of seismic attenuation and velocity models can improve upon the interpretations based only on velocity and provide important constraints on the temperature, composition, melt content, and volatile content of the mantle. The surface wave amplitudes that constrain upper-mantle attenuation are sensitive to factors in addition to attenuation, including the earthquake source excitation, focusing and defocusing by elastic structure, and local site amplification. Because of the difficulty of isolating attenuation from these other factors, little is known about the attenuation structure of the North American upper mantle. In this study, Rayleigh wave traveltime and amplitude in the period range 25-100 s are measured using an interstation cross-correlation technique, which takes advantage of waveform similarity at nearby stations. Several estimates of Rayleigh wave attenuation and site amplification are generated at each period, using different approaches to separate the effects of attenuation and local site amplification on amplitude. It is assumed that focusing and defocusing effects can be described by the Laplacian of the traveltime field. All approaches identify the same large-scale patterns in attenuation, including areas where the attenuation values are likely contaminated by unmodelled focusing and defocusing effects. Regionally averaged attenuation maps are constructed after removal of the contaminated attenuation values, and the variations in intrinsic shear attenuation that are suggested by these Rayleigh wave attenuation maps are explored.

  13. Curcumin alters expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and nestin following chronic cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Zhang; Tianping Yu; Xiong Zhang; Yu Li

    2011-01-01

    Astrocytes can alter their appearance and become reactive following chronic cerebral ischemia. In the present study, a rat model of chronic cerebral ischemia was treated with 50 and 100 mg/kg curcumin. Results showed that pathological changes of neuronal injury in hippocampal CA1 area of rats induced by chronic cerebral ischemia were attenuated, as well as upregulated expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and nestin, in a dose-dependent manner.

  14. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  15. Hypothalamic circuit regulating colonic transit following chronic stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Sazu; Cerjak, Diana; Babygirija, Reji; Bulbul, Mehmet; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku

    2012-03-01

    Although acute stress accelerates colonic transit, the effect of chronic stress on colonic transit remains unclear. In this study, rats received repeated restraint stress (chronic homotypic stress) or various types of stress (chronic heterotypic stress) for 5 and 7 days, respectively. Vehicle saline, oxytocin (OXT), OXT receptor antagonist or corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonists were administered by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection prior to restraint stress for 90 min. Immediately after the stress exposure, the entire colon was removed and the geometric center (GC) of Na51CrO4 (a nonabsorbable radioactive marker; 0.5 μCi) distribution was calculated to measure the transit. Gene expression of OXT and CRF in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was evaluated by in situ hybridization. Accelerated colonic transit with the acute stressor was no longer observed following chronic homotypic stress. This restored colonic transit was reversed by ICV injection of an OXT antagonist. In contrast, chronic heterotypic stress significantly accelerated colonic transit, which was attenuated by ICV injection of OXT and by a CRF receptor 1 antagonist. OXT mRNA expression in the PVN was significantly increased following chronic homotypic stress, but not chronic heterotypic stress. However, CRF mRNA expression in the PVN was significantly increased following acute and chronic heterotypic stress, but not chronic homotypic stress. These results indicate that central OXT and CRF play a pivotal role in mediating the colonic dysmotility following chronic stress in rats. PMID:21936687

  16. Chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria (CU is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ′idiopathic′ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented.

  17. Cerebrolysin Attenuates Heat Shock Protein (HSP 72 KD) Expression in the Rat Spinal Cord Following Morphine Dependence and Withdrawal: Possible New Therapy for Pain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Hari S.; Ali, Syed F; Patnaik, Ranjana; Zimmermann-Meinzingen, Sibilla; Sharma, Aruna; Muresanu, Dafin F

    2011-01-01

    The possibility that pain perception and processing in the CNS results in cellular stress and may influence heat shock protein (HSP) expression was examined in a rat model of morphine dependence and withdrawal. Since activation of pain pathways result in exhaustion of growth factors, we examined the influence of cerebrolysin, a mixture of potent growth factors (BDNF, GDNF, NGF, CNTF etc,) on morphine induced HSP expression. Rats were administered morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c. /day) for 12 days and...

  18. Differential dust attenuation in CALIFA galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale Asari, N.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Amorim, A. L.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; Schlickmann, M.; Wild, V.; Kennicutt, R. C.

    2016-06-01

    Dust attenuation has long been treated as a simple parameter in SED fitting. Real galaxies are, however, much more complicated: The measured dust attenuation is not a simple function of the dust optical depth, but depends strongly on galaxy inclination and the relative distribution of stars and dust. We study the nebular and stellar dust attenuation in CALIFA galaxies, and propose some empirical recipes to make the dust treatment more realistic in spectral synthesis codes. By adding optical recombination emission lines, we find better constraints for differential attenuation. Those recipes can be applied to unresolved galaxy spectra, and lead to better recovered star formation rates.

  19. Ultrasonic attenuation in cuprate superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Gupta; D M Gaitonde

    2002-05-01

    We calculate the longitudinal ultrasonic attenuation rate (UAR) in clean d-wave superconductors in the Meissner and the mixed phases. In the Meissner phase we calculate the contribution of previously ignored processes involving the excitation of a pair of quasi-holes or quasi-particles. There is a contribution ∝ in the regime B ≪ F ≪ 0 and a contribution ∝ 1/ in the regime F ≪ B ≪ 0. We find that these contributions to the UAR are large and cannot be ignored. In the mixed phase, using a semi-classical description, we calculate the electronic quasi-particle contribution to the UAR which at very low , has a independent term proportional to $\\sqrt{H}$.

  20. Attenuation characteristics of gypsum wallboard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased cost of lead is promoting enhanced usage of common building materials for shielding in diagnostic medical and dental facilities where only a few half-value layers (HVLs) are needed. Attenuation of primary beam X-ray photons in gypsum wallboard as a function of kVp, filtration, and wallboard thickness have been measured. Findings, obtained using a Victoreen 555 with an 0.1 DAS probe in poor geometry, are substantially in agreement with the sparse data in the literature but extend to thicker wall configurations and different kVp and filtration parameters. These findings are of value in maximizing the benefit/cost ratio for diagnostic shielding, and strengthen the conviction that, where used for shielding purposes, common building materials must be installed carefully and HVL-depth dependence considered thoroughly. (author)

  1. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B; Nikolajsen, L; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  2. Untying chronic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Häuser, Winfried; Wolfe, Frederik; Henningsen, Peter; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic pain is a major public health problem. The impact of stages of chronic pain adjusted for disease load on societal burden has not been assessed in population surveys. Methods: A cross-sectional survey with 4360 people aged ≥ 14 years representative of the German population was conducted. Measures obtained included demographic variables, presence of chronic pain (based on the definition of the International Association for the Study of Pain), chronic pain stages (by chronic ...

  3. Simple parameterization of nuclear attenuation data

    CERN Document Server

    Akopov, N; Akopov, Z

    2007-01-01

    Based on the nuclear attenuation data obtained by the HERMES experiment on nitrogen and krypton nuclei, it is shown that the nuclear attenuation $R_M^{h}$ can be parametrised in a form of a linear polynomial $P_1=a_{11}$ + $\\tau a_{12}$, where $\\tau$ is the formation time, which depends on the energy of the virtual photon $\

  4. Docking-mechanism attenuator with electromechanical damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syromyatnikov, V. S.

    1971-01-01

    Theoretical and practical problems involved in the application of electromechanical damping for spacecraft docking-mechanism attenuation are discussed. Some drawbacks of hydraulic dampers used for the purpose are pointed out. The basic scheme of the attenuator with the electromechanical damper is given.

  5. Theory of standing spin-wave attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exchange attenuation of standing spin waves is calculated for an ultrathin magnetic of the order of exchange length thick. Because of the boundary conditions the wave vectors of spin waves in such films high values that are proportional to the inverse film thickness. The exchange attenuation at such wave vectors becomes dominant and can result in smearing of the standing spin wave spectrum

  6. Precision Model for Microwave Rotary Vane Attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandsen, Tom

    1979-01-01

    A model for a rotary vane attenuator is developed to describe the attenuator reflection and transmission coefficients in detail. All the parameters of the model can be measured in situ, i.e., without diassembling any part. The tranmission errors caused by internal reflections are calculated from...

  7. Hypothalamic oxytocin mediates adaptation mechanism against chronic stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Babygirija, Reji; Bülbül, Mehmet; Cerjak, Diana; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku

    2010-10-01

    Accumulation of continuous life stress (chronic stress) often causes gastric symptoms. Although central oxytocin has antistress effects, the role of central oxytocin in stress-induced gastric dysmotility remains unknown. Solid gastric emptying was measured in rats receiving acute restraint stress, 5 consecutive days of repeated restraint stress (chronic homotypic stress), and 7 consecutive days of varying types of stress (chronic heterotypic stress). Oxytocin and oxytocin receptor antagonist were administered intracerebroventricularly (icv). Expression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and oxytocin mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. The changes of oxytocinergic neurons in the PVN were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Acute stress delayed gastric emptying, and the delayed gastric emptying was completely restored after 5 consecutive days of chronic homotypic stress. In contrast, delayed gastric emptying persisted following chronic heterotypic stress. The restored gastric emptying following chronic homotypic stress was antagonized by icv injection of an oxytocin antagonist. Icv injection of oxytocin restored delayed gastric emptying induced by chronic heterotypic stress. CRF mRNA expression, which was significantly increased in response to acute stress and chronic heterotypic stress, returned to the basal levels following chronic homotypic stress. In contrast, oxytocin mRNA expression was significantly increased following chronic homotypic stress. The number of oxytocin-immunoreactive cells was increased following chronic homotypic stress at the magnocellular part of the PVN. Icv injection of oxytocin reduced CRF mRNA expression induced by acute stress and chronic heterotypic stress. It is suggested that the adaptation mechanism to chronic stress may involve the upregulation of oxytocin expression in the hypothalamus, which in turn attenuates CRF expression. PMID:20689056

  8. Ultrasound fields in an attenuating medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gandhi,, D; O'Brien,, W.D., Jr.

    Ultrasound fields propagating in tissue will undergo changes in shape not only due to diffraction, but also due to the frequency dependent attenuation. Linear fields can be fairly well predicted for a non-attenuating medium like water by using the Tupholme-Stepanishen method for calculating the...... spatial impulse response, whereas the field cannot readily be found for an attenuating medium. In this paper we present a simulation program capable of calculating the field in a homogeneous attenuating medium. The program splits the aperture into rectangles and uses a far-field approximation for each of...... the rectangles and sums all contributions to arrive at the spatial impulse response for the aperture and field point. This approach makes it possible to model all transducer apertures, and the program can readily calculate the emitted, pulse-echo and continuous wave field. Attenuation is included by...

  9. Inhibition of NF-κB activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by modulating cytokines and attenuating oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiao-Jing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Dong-Mei [Department of Physiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Jia, Lin-Lin; Qi, Jie; Song, Xin-Ai; Tan, Hong [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Cui, Wei [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Chen, Wensheng [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that chronic inhibition of NF-κB activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) delays the progression of hypertension and attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by up-regulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs), attenuating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and NAD(P)H oxidase in the PVN of young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Young normotensive Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) and SHR rats received bilateral PVN infusions with NF–κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or vehicle for 4 weeks. SHR rats had higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, cardiomyocyte diameters of the left cardiac ventricle, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC). These SHR rats had higher PVN levels of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), reactive oxygen species (ROS), the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), NAD(P)H oxidase activity, mRNA expression of NOX-2 and NOX-4, and lower PVN IL-10, and higher plasma levels of PICs and NE, and lower plasma IL-10. PVN infusion of NF-κB inhibitor PDTC attenuated all these changes. These findings suggest that NF-κB activation in the PVN increases sympathoexcitation and hypertensive response, which are associated with the increases of PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN; PVN inhibition of NF-κB activity attenuates PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN, thereby attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibit neurohormonal excitation in the PVN. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced neurohormonal excitation. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced imbalance of cytokines

  10. Inhibition of NF-κB activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by modulating cytokines and attenuating oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We hypothesized that chronic inhibition of NF-κB activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) delays the progression of hypertension and attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by up-regulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs), attenuating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and NAD(P)H oxidase in the PVN of young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Young normotensive Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) and SHR rats received bilateral PVN infusions with NF–κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or vehicle for 4 weeks. SHR rats had higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, cardiomyocyte diameters of the left cardiac ventricle, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC). These SHR rats had higher PVN levels of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), reactive oxygen species (ROS), the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), NAD(P)H oxidase activity, mRNA expression of NOX-2 and NOX-4, and lower PVN IL-10, and higher plasma levels of PICs and NE, and lower plasma IL-10. PVN infusion of NF-κB inhibitor PDTC attenuated all these changes. These findings suggest that NF-κB activation in the PVN increases sympathoexcitation and hypertensive response, which are associated with the increases of PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN; PVN inhibition of NF-κB activity attenuates PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN, thereby attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibit neurohormonal excitation in the PVN. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced neurohormonal excitation. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced imbalance of cytokines

  11. Caspase-11 Modulates Inflammation and Attenuates Toxoplasma gondii Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutermarsh-Ott, Sheryl L; Doran, John T; Campbell, Caroline; Williams, Tere M; Lindsay, David S; Allen, Irving C

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is the etiologic agent responsible for toxoplasmosis. Infection with T. gondii results in activation of nucleotide binding domain and leucine rich repeat containing receptors (NLRs). NLR activation leads to inflammasome formation, the activation of caspase-1, and the subsequent cleavage of IL-1β and IL-18. Recently, a noncanonical inflammasome has been characterized which functions through caspase-11 and appears to augment many biological functions previously considered to be dependent upon the canonical inflammasome. To better elucidate the function of this noncanonical inflammasome in toxoplasmosis, we utilized Asc (-/-) and Casp11 (-/-) mice and infected these animals with T. gondii. Our data indicates that caspase-11 modulates the innate immune response to T. gondii through a mechanism which is distinct from that currently described for the canonical inflammasome. Asc (-/-) mice demonstrated increased disease pathogenesis during the acute phase of T. gondii infection, whereas Casp11 (-/-) mice demonstrated significantly attenuated disease pathogenesis and reduced inflammation. This attenuated host response was associated with reduced local and systemic cytokine production, including diminished IL-1β. During the chronic phase of infection, caspase-11 deficiency resulted in increased neuroinflammation and tissue cyst burden in the brain. Together, our data suggest that caspase-11 functions to protect the host by enhancing inflammation during the early phase of infection in an effort to minimize disease pathogenesis during later stages of toxoplasmosis. PMID:27378827

  12. Mitragynine attenuates withdrawal syndrome in morphine-withdrawn zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Beng-Siang; Jamil, Mohd Fadzly Amar; Adenan, Mohamad Ilham; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong

    2011-01-01

    A major obstacle in treating drug addiction is the severity of opiate withdrawal syndrome, which can lead to unwanted relapse. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid compound found in leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a plant widely used by opiate addicts to mitigate the harshness of drug withdrawal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of mitragynine on anxiety behavior, cortisol level and expression of stress pathway related genes in zebrafish undergoing morphine withdrawal phase. Adult zebrafish were subjected to two weeks chronic morphine exposure at 1.5 mg/L, followed by withdrawal for 24 hours prior to tests. Using the novel tank diving tests, we first showed that morphine-withdrawn zebrafish display anxiety-related swimming behaviors such as decreased exploratory behavior and increased erratic movement. Morphine withdrawal also elevated whole-body cortisol levels, which confirms the phenotypic stress-like behaviors. Exposing morphine-withdrawn fish to mitragynine however attenuates majority of the stress-related swimming behaviors and concomitantly lower whole-body cortisol level. Using real-time PCR gene expression analysis, we also showed that mitragynine reduces the mRNA expression of corticotropin releasing factor receptors and prodynorphin in zebrafish brain during morphine withdrawal phase, revealing for the first time a possible link between mitragynine's ability to attenuate anxiety during opiate withdrawal with the stress-related corticotropin pathway. PMID:22205946

  13. Mechanical compression attenuates normal human bronchial epithelial wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malavia Nikita

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway narrowing associated with chronic asthma results in the transmission of injurious compressive forces to the bronchial epithelium and promotes the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and the denudation of the bronchial epithelium. While the individual effects of compression or denudation are well characterized, there is no data to elucidate how these cells respond to the application of mechanical compression in the presence of a compromised epithelial layer. Methods Accordingly, differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to one of four conditions: 1 unperturbed control cells, 2 single scrape wound only, 3 static compression (6 hours of 30 cmH2O, and 4 6 hours of static compression after a scrape wound. Following treatment, wound closure rate was recorded, media was assayed for mediator content and the cytoskeletal network was fluorescently labeled. Results We found that mechanical compression and scrape injury increase TGF-β2 and endothelin-1 secretion, while EGF content in the media is attenuated with both injury modes. The application of compression after a pre-existing scrape wound augmented these observations, and also decreased PGE2 media content. Compression stimulated depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton and significantly attenuated wound healing. Closure rate was partially restored with the addition of exogenous PGE2, but not EGF. Conclusion Our results suggest that mechanical compression reduces the capacity of the bronchial epithelium to close wounds, and is, in part, mediated by PGE2 and a compromised cytoskeleton.

  14. Effects of ketamine and magnesium on morphine induced tolerance and dependence in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohlul Habibi Asl

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of ketamine and magnesium on prevention of development of morphine tolerance and dependence in mice. In this study different groups of mice received morphine (50 mg/kg, sc + (saline 10ml/kg, morphine (50 mg/kg, sc + ketamine (25,50 or 75mg/kg, ip, morphine (50 mg/kg, sc + magnesium (10,20 or 40 mg/kg, ip, morphine (50 mg/kg, sc +ketamine (25 mg/kg, ip + magnesium (10 mg/kg, ip] once a day for four days. Tolerance was assessed by administration of morphine (9 mg/kg, ip and using hot plate test on fifth day. Withdrawal symptoms were assessed by administration of naloxone (4 mg/kg, ip two hours after co-administration of morphine with either ketamine or magnesium. It was found that pretreatment with ketamine or magnesium decreased the degree of tolerance and dependence. Additionally, co-administration of ketamine and magnesium before morphine administration decreased the tolerance and dependence significantly. From these results it may be concluded that administration of ketamine or magnesium alone or together could prevent the development of tolerance and dependence to the analgesic effects of morphine. These effects may be related to the N-Methyl-DAspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist behavior of ketamine and the ability of magnesium to block the Ca channel of NMDA receptors.

  15. Somatosensory Cortices Are Required for the Acquisition of Morphine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Zhiqiang; Liu, Chang; Hu, Xintian; Ma, Yuanye

    2009-01-01

    Background Sensory system information is thought to play an important role in drug addiction related responses. However, how somatic sensory information participates in the drug related behaviors is still unclear. Many studies demonstrated that drug addiction represents a pathological usurpation of neural mechanisms of learning and memory that normally relate to the pursuit of rewards. Thus, elucidate the role of somatic sensory in drug related learning and memory is of particular importance ...

  16. Effects of ketamine and midazolam on morphine induced dependence and tolerance in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohlul Habibi Asl Kambiz Hassanzadeh

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ketamine and midazolam on prevention of the development of morphine tolerance and dependence in mice. Different groups of mice received morphine (50 mg/kg, sc, morphine (50 mg/kg, sc + ketamine (25,50,75 mg/kg, ip, morphine (50 mg/kg, sc + midazolam (0.5,1,2 mg/kg, ip , morphine (50 mg/kg , sc + ketamine (50 mg/kg, ip + midazolam (1 mg/kg, ip once a day for four days. Tolerance was assessed by administration of morphine (9 mg/kg, ip on fifth day. Withdrawal symptoms were assessed by administration of naloxane (4 mg/kg, ip two hours after co-administration of morphine with either ketamine or midazolam. It was found that pretreatment with ketamine or midazolam decreased the degree of tolerance and withdrawal symptoms. Additionally co-administration of ketamine and midazolam before morphine therapy decreased the tolerance and dependence significantly. From these results it may concluded that administration of ketamine and midazolam alone or in combination could prevent the development of tolerance and dependence to morphine. These effects can be related to the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist behavior of ketamine and GABA-receptor agonist behavior of midazolam.

  17. Altered Morphine-Induced Analgesia in Neurotensin Type 1 Receptor Null Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Roussy, Geneviève; Beaudry, Hélène; Lafrance, Mylène; Belleville, Karine; Beaudet, Nicolas; Wada, Keiji; Gendron, Louis; Sarret, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Both neurotensin (NT) and opioid agonists have been shown to induce antinociception in rodents after central administration. Besides, previous studies have revealed the existence of functional interactions between NT and opioid systems in the regulation of pain processing. We recently demonstrated that NTS1 receptors play a key role in the mediation of the analgesic effects of NT in long-lasting pain. In the present study, we therefore investigated whether NTS1 gene deletion affected the anti...

  18. Effects of dose on effector mechanisms in morphine-induced hyperthermia and poikilothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorenby, D E; Keesey, R E; Baker, T B

    1989-01-01

    The effect of a variety of morphine doses on thermoregulatory effector systems was examined in ambient temperatures of 27.0 degrees C and 4.0 degrees C. Rats were given saline or morphine sulfate (5, 15, or 25 mg/kg); their core temperature, oxygen consumption, and activity were monitored for 4 or 6 h post-injection. The results suggest two distinct actions of morphine, possibly mediated by two opiate receptors. Low doses of morphine produce hyperthermia that is the result of a direct activation of activity and whole body heat production. High doses produce effects dependent on ambient temperature: hypermetabolism and hyperthermia in the 27.0 degrees C environment; hypometabolism, vasodilation, and hypothermia in the 4.0 degrees C environment. The findings suggest limitations in current set-point theories of morphine's thermic actions. PMID:2502798

  19. Managing morphine-induced constipation: a controlled comparison of an Ayurvedic formulation and senna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, P R; Kumar, K S; Rajagopal, M R; Balachandran, P; Warrier, P K

    1998-10-01

    Constipation is a frequent cause of distress in advanced cancer. A palliative care unit in Kerala, a southern state of India, conducted a controlled trial comparing a liquid Ayurvedic (herbal) preparation (Misrakasneham) with a conventional laxative tablet (Sofsena) in the management of opioid-induced constipation in patients with advanced cancer. Although there was no statistically significant difference in the apparent degree of laxative action between the two, the results indicate that the small volume of the drug required for effective laxative action, the tolerable taste, the once-daily dose, the acceptable side effect profile, and the low cost make Misrakasneham a good choice for prophylaxis in opioid-induced constipation. There is a need for further studies of Ayurvedic medicines in palliative care. PMID:9803051

  20. Plasmodium falciparum: attenuation by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waki, S.; Yonome, I.; Suzuki, M.

    1983-12-01

    The effect of irradiation on the in vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum was investigated. The cultured malarial parasites at selected stages of development were exposed to gamma rays and the sensitivity of each stage was determined. The stages most sensitive to irradiation were the ring forms and the early trophozoites; late trophozoites were relatively insensitive. The greatest resistance was shown when parasites were irradiated at a time of transition from the late trophozoite and schizont stages to young ring forms. The characteristics of radiosensitive variation in the parasite cycle resembled that of mammalian cells. Growth curves of parasites exposed to doses of irradiation upto 150 gray had the same slope as nonirradiated controls but parasites which were exposed to 200 gray exhibited a growth curve which was less steep than that for parasites in other groups. Less than 10 organisms survived from the 10(6) parasites exposed to this high dose of irradiation; the possibility exists of obtaining radiation-attenuated P. falciparum.

  1. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm2, of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A 90Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (μP) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined

  2. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm/sup 2/, of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A /sup 90/Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (..mu..P) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined.

  3. Attenuation Tomography of the Upper Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenis, A.; Debayle, E.; Ricard, Y. R.

    2014-12-01

    We present a 3-D model of surface wave attenuation in the upper mantle. The model is constrained by a large data set of fundamental and higher Rayleigh mode observations. This data set consists of about 1,800,000 attenuation curves measured in the period range 50-300s by Debayle and Ricard (2012). A careful selection allows us to reject data for which measurements are likely biased by the poor knowledge of the scalar seismic moment or by a ray propagation too close to a node of the source radiation pattern. For each epicenter-station path, elastic focusing effects due to seismic heterogeneities are corrected using DR2012 and the data are turned into log(1/Q). The selected data are then combined in a tomographic inversion using the non-linear least square formalism of Tarantola and Valette (1982). The obtained attenuation maps are in agreement with the surface tectonic for periods and modes sensitive to the top 200km of the upper mantle. Low attenuation regions correlate with continental shields while high attenuation regions are located beneath young oceanic regions. The attenuation pattern becomes more homogeneous at depths greater than 200 km and the maps are dominated by a high quality factor signature beneath slabs. We will discuss the similarities and differences between the tomographies of seismic velocities and of attenuations.

  4. Maximum likelihood estimation of the attenuated ultrasound pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Klaus Bolding

    1994-01-01

    The attenuated ultrasound pulse is divided into two parts: a stationary basic pulse and a nonstationary attenuation pulse. A standard ARMA model is used for the basic pulse, and a nonstandard ARMA model is derived for the attenuation pulse. The maximum likelihood estimator of the attenuated...... ultrasound pulse, which includes a maximum likelihood attenuation estimator, is derived. The results of this correspondence are of great importance for deconvolution and attenuation imaging in medical ultrasound...

  5. Graphene-based Electronically Tuneable Microstrip Attenuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pierantoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a graphene- based electronically tuneable microstrip attenuator operating at a frequency of 5 GHz. The use of graphene as a variable resistor is discussed and the modelling of its electromagnetic properties at microwave frequencies is fully addressed. The design of the graphene-based attenuator is described. The structure integrates a patch of graphene, whose characteristics can range from being a fairly good conductor to a highly lossy material, depending on the applied voltage. By applying the proper voltage through two high-impedance bias lines, the surface resistivity of graphene can be modified, thereby changing the insertion loss of the microstrip attenuator.

  6. Chronic granulomatous disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGD; Fatal granulomatosis of childhood; Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood; Progressive septic granulomatosis ... In chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), immune system cells called ... some types of bacteria and fungi. This disorder leads to long- ...

  7. People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Experiencing Chronic Homelessness Share This: People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness We've made significant progress in our national ... the USICH newsletter. We know how to end homelessness. Let's do it, together. Sign up for our ...

  8. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start at age 5 or 6 and get worse until age 12. They often improve during adulthood.

  9. Chronic Diarrhea in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can include cramping abdominal pain nausea or vomiting fever chills bloody stools Children with chronic diarrhea who have ... can include cramping, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, fever, chills, or bloody stools. Children with chronic diarrhea who ...

  10. "Chronic Lyme Disease"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area "Chronic Lyme Disease" What is "chronic Lyme disease?" Lyme disease is an infection caused by ... J Med 357:1422-30, 2008). How is Lyme disease treated? For early Lyme disease, a short ...

  11. Attenuation caused by infrequently updated covariates in survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Kragh; Liestøl, Knut

    Attenuation; Cox regression model; Measurement errors; Survival analysis; Time-dependent covariates......Attenuation; Cox regression model; Measurement errors; Survival analysis; Time-dependent covariates...

  12. Prostaglandins and chronic inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Tomohiro; Narumiya, Shuh

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is the basis of various chronic illnesses including cancer and vascular diseases. However, much has yet to be learned how inflammation becomes chronic. Prostaglandins (PGs) are well established as mediators of acute inflammation, and recent studies in experimental animals have provided evidence that they also function in transition to and maintenance of chronic inflammation. One role PGs play in such processes is amplification of cytokine signaling. As such, PGs can facil...

  13. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic Inflammatory polyneuropathies are an important group of neuromuscular disorders that present chronically and progress over more than 8 weeks, being referred to as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Despite tremendous progress in elucidating disease pathogenesis, the exact triggering event remains unknown. Our knowledge regarding diagnosis and management of CIDP and its variants continues to expand, resulting in improved opportunities for identification and treat...

  14. Radiation-attenuated vaccine for lungworm disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work done at the Indian Veternary Research Institute, Izatnagar, on the development of a vaccine for lungworm diseases is reported. Research work done includes: (1) studies on the epidemiology and the incidence of the lungworm infections, (ii) studies on the radiation-attenuated lungworm Dictyocaulus filaria vaccine, (iii) studies on other parasites using ionizing radiation, (iv) incidence of lungworm infection in sheep in Jammu and Kashmir State, (v) suitable dose of gamma radiation for attenuation, (vi) laboratory studies with radiation-attenuated D. filaria vaccine, (vii) serology of D. filaria infection, (viii) field trials with the radiation-attenuated vaccine, (ix) immune response of previously exposed lambs to vaccination, (x) comparative susceptibility of sheep and goats to infection with D. filaria, (xi) quantitative studies of D. filaria in lambs and (xii) production and supply of lungworm vaccine. (A.K.)

  15. Attenuation layer for magnetostatic wave (MSW) absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, H. L.; Adkins, L. R.; Stearns, F. S.

    1984-09-01

    A new technique has been developed for the suppression of MSW end reflections which give rise to passband ripple. The basic idea is to provide a thin film of highly attenuating epitaxial material at the ends of a MSW delay line while preserving high quality YIG in the active region of the device. The GGG wafer preparation is a three step process which involves: (1) the growth of the attenuation layer, (2) the removal of this layer from the central region of the wafer and (3) the growth of high quality YIG on the remaining structure. Delay lines using the attenuation layer for end terminations have been evaluated experimentally and compared to devices utilizing other termination methods. The results indicate that the attenuation layer method produces ripple suppression characteristics which are the equal of those obtained with other termination techniques. The advantage of this new method lies in its suitability for large quantity fabrication requirements.

  16. Post-Retrieval Extinction Attenuates Cocaine Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Sartor, Gregory C.; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that post-retrieval extinction training attenuates fear and reward-related memories in both humans and rodents. This noninvasive, behavioral approach has the potential to be used in clinical settings to treat maladaptive memories that underlie several psychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. However, few studies to date have used a post-retrieval extinction approach to attenuate addiction-related memories. In the current study, we attempted to disrupt cocaine...

  17. Brucellosis: The Case for Live, Attenuated Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ficht, Thomas A.; Kahl-McDonagh, Melissa M.; Arenas-Gamboa, Angela M.; Rice-Ficht, Allison C.

    2009-01-01

    The successful control of animal brucellosis and associated reduction in human exposure has limited the development of human brucellosis vaccines. However, the potential use of Brucella in bioterrorism or biowarfare suggests that direct intervention strategies are warranted. Although the dominant approach has explored the use of live attenuated vaccines, side-effects associated with their use has prevented widespread use in humans. Development of live, attenuated Brucella vaccines that are sa...

  18. Investigation of photon attenuation coefficients for marble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total linear attenuation coefficients μ (cm-1) have been obtained using the XCOM program at photon energies of 1 keV to 1 GeV for six different natural marbles produced in different places in Turkey. The individual contribution of photon interaction processes to the total linear attenuation coefficients for marble has been investigated. The calculated results were also compared with the measurements. The results obtained for marble were also compared with concrete. (note)

  19. Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 82 NIST Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron effective attenuation lengths (EALs) in solid elements and compounds at selected electron energies between 50 eV and 2,000 eV. The database was designed mainly to provide EALs (to account for effects of elastic-eletron scattering) for applications in surface analysis by Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  20. ATTENUATION AND FLANKING TRANSMISSION IN LIGHTWEIGHT STRUCTURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Lhomond, Alice; Ohlrich, Mogens

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the attenuation and flanking transmissions of impact noise in lightweight building structures is studied using a modal approach. The structural field is mainly analysed, putting the main attention to the parts being important in the modelling. The amount of attenuation produced by the...... periodically reinforcing beams used in lightweight building structures is analysed. The consequence of these factors in modelling flanking transmission is also discussed....

  1. Biochemical and behavioral effects of phospholipase A2 and morphine microinjections in the periaqueductal gray of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to characterize the in vivo action of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) on opiate receptors and opiate-induced behaviors, the effects of injections of PLA2 into the periaqueductal gray region (PAG) of the rat were assessed on free fatty acid (FFA) release, opiate-binding levels, and morphine-induced behaviors. Rats received bilateral PAG injections of 2 μg of PLA2 while anesthetized. One hour later, regions around the cannulae tracts in PLA2-treated rats contained over 2.5 times more FFA than saline-injected controls, and 3H-dihydromorphine binding was reduced on average more than 70%. In another series of experiments, conscious rats were given 2 μg of PLA2 prior to 10 μg of morphine through cannulae chronically implanted into the PAG. PLA2 did not significantly attenuate morphine-induced analgesia as measured by the tail-flick test to radiant heat, but did prevent the explosive motor behavior observed following morphine injections alone. PLA2 by itself did not induce analgesia, but did cause explosive motor behavior 2 hr after the injections. Neither lysophosphatidylcholine nor trypsin resulted in motor seizures following PAG injections. It was concluded that the behavioral effects of PLA2 result from the unique properties of the enzyme, rather than generalized membrane damage, and that the opioid sites and mechanisms that mediate analgesia are different from those associated with explosive motor behavior. 36 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  2. Mechanisms of geometrical seismic attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor B. Morozov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In several recent reports, we have explained the frequency dependence of the apparent seismic quality-factor (Q observed in many studies according to the effects of geometrical attenuation, which was defined as the zero-frequency limit of the temporal attenuation coefficient. In particular, geometrical attenuation was found to be positive for most waves traveling within the lithosphere. Here, we present three theoretical models that illustrate the origin of this geometrical attenuation, and we investigate the causes of its preferential positive values. In addition, we discuss the physical basis and limitations of both the conventional and new attenuation models. For waves in media with slowly varying properties, geometrical attenuation is caused by variations in the wavefront curvature, which can be both positive (for defocusing and negative (for focusing. In media with velocity/density contrasts, incoherent reflectivity leads to geometrical-attenuation coefficients which are proportional to the mean squared reflectivity and are always positive. For «coherent» reflectivity, the geometrical attenuation is approximately zero, and the attenuation process can be described according to the concept of «scattering Q». However, the true meaning of this parameter is in describing the mean reflectivity within the medium, and not that of the traditional resonator quality factor known in mechanics. The general conclusion from these models is that non-zero and often positive levels of geometrical attenuation are common in realistic, heterogeneous media, both observationally and theoretically. When transformed into the conventional Q-factor form, this positive geometrical attenuation leads to Q values that quickly increase with frequency. These predictions show that the positive frequency-dependent Q observed in many datasets might represent artifacts of the transformations of the attenuation coefficients into Q.

  1. Graphene-Based Waveguide Terahertz Wave Attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian-rong, Hu; Jiu-sheng, Li; Guo-hua, Qiu

    2016-07-01

    We design an electrically controllable terahertz wave attenuator by using graphene. We show that terahertz wave can be confined and propagate on S-shaped graphene waveguide with little radiation losses, and the confined terahertz wave is further manipulated and controlled via external applied voltage bias. The simulated results show that, when chemical potential changes from 0.03 into 0.05 eV, the extinction ratio of the terahertz wave attenuator can be tuned from 1.28 to 39.42 dB. Besides the simplicity, this novel terahertz wave attenuator has advantages of small size (24 × 30 μm2), a low insertion loss, and good controllability. It has a potential application for forthcoming planar terahertz wave integrated circuit fields.

  2. Attenuation of ear muffs in Canadian mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savich, M.U.

    1979-12-01

    The main characteristics of eleven commercially available ear muffs were investigated in the laboratory and analyzed by a psychophysical and a physical method. Nine ear muffs were tested in mines. The three best muffs had bands passing behind the head. The ear muff with a support strap, which improves comfort and maintains a good fit during wear, showed the best attenuation. Causes of poor attenuation are listed. None of the ear muffs tested had all the characteristics desirable in an ideal unit. Because of unsatisfactory attenuation in working conditions, it should be a mandatory requirement that workers wear both ear muffs and ear plugs if the noise level is higher than 105 dBA.

  3. Extensible chip of optofluidic variable optical attenuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, J; Xue, F L; Wu, L X; Fu, Y J; Hu, J; Zhang, W; Hu, F R

    2016-05-01

    A core chip of optofluidic variable optical attenuator (VOA) is reported. The chip, with a simple structure, utilizes microfluid and compressed air to regulate the optical attenuation, and it can be expanded to form a number of VOAs by using different microfluidic driving technologies. Three VOAs based on this chip and different driving technologies are introduced. The theoretical and experimental results show that the proposed chip possesses the advantages of large optical attenuation range (> 50dB) and low insertion loss (0.55 dB). Moreover it is a broadband optical device which can be operated in visible and near infrared wavelengths. The proposed chip provides a new method for seeking miniaturized VOAs with good performances, and it is promising to develop a number of different VOAs. PMID:27137582

  4. Research on Nanosecond Pulse Corona Discharge Attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A line-to-plate reactor was set-up in the experimental study on the application of nanosecond pulsed corona discharge plasma technology in environmental pollution control. Investigation on the attenuation and distortion of the amplitude of the pulse wave front and the discharge image as well as the waveform along the corona wire was conducted. The results show that the wave front decreases sharply during the corona discharge along the corona wire. The higher the amplitude of the applied pulse is, the more the amplitude of the wave front decreased. The wave attenuation responds in a lower corona discharge inversely. To get a higher efficiency of the line-to-plate reactor a sharp attenuation of the corona has to be considered in practical design

  5. Research on Nanosecond Pulse Corona Discharge Attenuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Zheng-hao; XU Huai-li; BAI Jing; YU Fu-sheng; HU Feng; LI Jin

    2007-01-01

    A line-to-plate reactor was set-up in the experimental study on the application of nanosecond pulsed corona discharge plasma technology in environmental pollution control.Investigation on the attenuation and distortion of the amplitude of the pulse wave front and the discharge image as well as the waveform along the corona wire was conducted.The results show that the wave front decreases sharply during the corona discharge along the corona wire.The higher the amplitude of the applied pulse is,the more the amplitude of the wave front decreased.The wave attenuation responds in a lower corona discharge inversely.To get a higher efficiency of the line-to-plate reactor a sharp attenuation of the corona has to be considered in practical design.

  6. L-arginine in combination with sildenafil potentiates the attenuation of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hiti, H; Chovanec, M; Melenovský, V; Vajnerová, O; Baňasová, A; Kautzner, J; Herget, J

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia induces an increased production of nitric oxide (NO) in pulmonary prealveolar arterioles. Bioavailability of the NO in the pulmonary vessels correlates with concentration of L-arginine as well as activity of phosphodiesterase-5 enzyme (PDE-5). We tested a hypothesis whether a combination of L-arginine and PDE-5 inhibitor sildenafil has an additive effect in reduction of the hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) in rats. Animals were exposed to chronic normobaric hypoxia for 3 weeks. In the AH group, rats were administered L-arginine during chronic hypoxic exposure. In the SH group, rats were administered sildenafil during chronic hypoxic exposure. In the SAH group, rats were treated by the combination of L-arginine as well as sildenafil during exposure to chronic hypoxia. Mean PAP, structural remodeling of peripheral pulmonary arterioles (%DL) and RV/LV+S ratio was significantly decreased in the SAH group compared to hypoxic controls even decreased compared to the AH and the SH groups in first two measured parameters. Plasmatic concentration of cGMP and NOx were significantly lower in the SAH group compared to hypoxic controls. We demonstrate that NO synthase substrate L-arginine and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil administered in combination are more potent in attenuation of the HPH compared to a treatment by substances given alone. PMID:23869884

  7. Is there seismic attenuation in the mantle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Y.; Durand, S.; Montagner, J.-P.; Chambat, F.

    2014-02-01

    The small scale heterogeneity of the mantle is mostly due to the mixing of petrological heterogeneities by a smooth but chaotic convection and should consist in a laminated structure (marble cake) with a power spectrum S(k) varying as 1/k, where k is the wavenumber of the anomalies. This distribution of heterogeneities during convective stirring with negligible diffusion, called Batchelor regime is documented by fluid dynamic experiments and corresponds to what can be inferred from geochemistry and seismic tomography. This laminated structure imposes density, seismic velocity and potentially, anisotropic heterogeneities with similar 1/k spectra. A seismic wave of wavenumber k0 crossing such a medium is partly reflected by the heterogeneities and we show that the scattered energy is proportional to k0S(2k0). The reduction of energy for the propagating wave appears therefore equivalent to a quality factor 1/Q∝k0S(2k0). With the specific 1/k spectrum of the mantle, the resulting apparent attenuation should therefore be frequency independent. We show that the total contribution of 6-9% RMS density, velocity and anisotropy would explain the observed S and P attenuation of the mantle. Although these values are large, they are not unreasonable and we discuss how they depend on the range of frequencies over which the attenuation is explained. If such a level of heterogeneity were present, most of the attenuation of the Earth would be due to small scale scattering by laminations, not by intrinsic dissipation. Intrinsic dissipation must certainly exist but might correspond to a larger, yet unobserved Q. This provocative result would explain the very weak frequency dependence of the attenuation, and the fact that bulk attenuation seems negligible, two observations that have been difficult to explain for 50 years.

  8. Affiliative behavior attenuates stress responses of GI tract via up-regulating hypothalamic oxytocin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babygirija, Reji; Cerjak, Diana; Yoshimoto, Sazu; Gribovskaja-Rupp, Irena; Bülbül, Mehmet; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku

    2012-07-01

    Hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT) has stress-attenuating effects. Social interaction in a positive environment continuously activates OXT release system. We have recently shown that pair housing restores delayed gastric emptying following chronic heterotypic stress, via up-regulation of OXT mRNA expression in rats. We tested the hypothesis that affiliative behavior attenuates stress responses via upregulating OXT expression. Adult male SD rats were divided into two groups: the rat with a stressed partner (RSP) and the rat with a non-stressed partner (RNSP). RSPs were pair housed with a partner that received different types of stress for 7 consecutive days (chronic heterotypic stress). RNSPs were pair housed with a partner who did not receive any stress. After each stress loading, the rats were returned to their home cages and the behaviors of RSPs and RNSPs toward their partners were videotaped. After the study completion, RSPs and RNSPs were loaded with acute restraint stress. Then, gastric emptying and colonic transit were measured. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and OXT expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were evaluated by real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The time of affiliative behaviors toward their partners was increased in RSPs, compared to that of RNSPs. Delayed gastric emptying and accelerated colonic transit induced by acute restraint stress were significantly attenuated in RSPs, compared to RNSPs. CRF expression was reduced, while OXT expression was increased in RSPs in response to acute stress, compared to controls. It is suggested that affiliative behaviors may upregulate hypothalamic OXT expression, which in turn attenuates stress responses. PMID:22464293

  9. Ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography using energy-scaled amplitude ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Shin, Junseob; Huang, Lianjie

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound attenuation of breast tumors is related to their types and pathological states, and can be used to detect and characterize breast cancer. Particularly, ultrasound scattering attenuation can infer the margin properties of breast tumors. Ultrasound attenuation tomography quantitatively reconstructs the attenuation properties of the breast. Our synthetic-aperture breast ultrasound tomography system with two parallel transducer arrays records both ultrasound reflection and transmission signals. We develop an ultrasound attenuation tomography method using ultrasound energy-scaled amplitude decays of ultrasound transmission signals and conduct ultrasound attenuation tomography using a known sound-speed model. We apply our ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography method to a breast phantom dataset, and compare the ultrasound attenuation tomography results with conventional beamforming ultrasound images obtained using reflection signals. We show that ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography complements beamforming images in identifying breast lesions.

  10. Association of Microtubule Dynamics with Chronic Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Hu, Yida; Xiong, Yan; Li, Zhonggui; Wang, Wei; Du, Chao; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Yanke; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 30 % of epilepsy cases are refractory to current pharmacological treatments through unknown mechanisms. Much work has been done on the role of synaptic components in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, but relatively little attention has been given to the potential role of the microtubules. We investigated the level of microtubule dynamic in 30 human epileptic tissues and two different chronic epilepsy rat models. The administration of microtubule-modulating agent attenuated the progression of chronic epilepsy. By contrast, microtubule-depolymerizing agent aggravated the progression of chronic epilepsy. The electrophysiological index by whole-cell clamp was used to investigate the neuronal excitation and inhibitory synaptic transmission in brain slices after administration of microtubule-modulating agent and microtubule-depolymerizing agent. Interestingly, we found that microtubule-modulating agent significantly increased the frequency of action potential firing in interneurons, and significantly promoted the amplitudes and frequencies of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Microtubule-depolymerizing agent had an opposite effect. These findings suggest that modulating hyperdynamic microtubules may take an anti-epileptic effect via postsynaptic mechanisms in interneurons. It could represent a potential pharmacologic target in epilepsy treatment. PMID:26377107

  11. Antithrombin attenuates myocardial dysfunction and reverses systemic fluid accumulation following burn and smoke inhalation injury: a randomized, controlled, experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Rehberg, S; Yamamoto, Y; Bartha, E; Sousse, L.E. (Linda); Jonkam, C. (Collette); Zhu, Y; Traber, L.D. (Lillian); Cox, R. A.; Traber, D.L. (Daniel); Enkhbaatar, P

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We hypothesized that maintaining physiological plasma levels of antithrombin attenuates myocardial dysfunction and inflammation as well as vascular leakage associated with burn and smoke inhalation injury. Therefore, the present prospective, randomized experiment was conducted using an established ovine model. Methods: Following 40% of total body surface area, third degree flame burn and 4 × 12 breaths of cold cotton smoke, chronically instrumented sheep were randomly assigned t...

  12. Triplex Forming Oligonucleotides against Type α 1(I) Collagen attenuates Liver Fibrosis induced by Bile Duct ligation

    OpenAIRE

    Panakanti, Ravikiran; Pratap, Akshay; Yang, Ningning; JACKSON, JOHN S.; Mahato, Ram I.

    2010-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a consequence of chronic liver disorders which lead to the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Particularly, there is an increased accumulation of collagen in the fibrotic liver. We have therefore used a triplex forming oligonucleotide (TFO) against the type α 1 (I) collagen and evaluated, whether it can attenuate liver fibrosis induced by common bile duct ligation (CBDL) in rats. There was a significant decrease in hydroxyproline levels and Masson’s trichrome staini...

  13. MicroRNA-155 Deficiency Attenuates Liver Steatosis and Fibrosis without Reducing Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Steatohepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Csak, Timea; Bala, Shashi; Lippai, Dora; Kodys, Karen; Catalano, Donna; Iracheta-Vellve, Arvin; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aim MicroRNAs (miRs) regulate hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Fibrosis is the consequence of chronic tissue damage and inflammation. We hypothesized that deficiency of miR-155, a master regulator of inflammation, attenuates steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Methods Wild type (WT) and miR-155-deficient (KO) mice were fed methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) or -supplemented (MCS) control diet for 5 weeks. Liver injury, inflammation, steatosis and fibrosis were assessed. Re...

  14. Bioremediation (Natural Attenuation and Biostimulation) of Diesel-Oil-Contaminated Soil in an Alpine Glacier Skiing Area

    OpenAIRE

    Margesin, R.; Schinner, F.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of bioremediation as a treatment option for a chronically diesel-oil-polluted soil in an alpine glacier area at an altitude of 2,875 m above sea level. To examine the efficiencies of natural attenuation and biostimulation, we used field-incubated lysimeters (mesocosms) with unfertilized and fertilized (N-P-K) soil. For three summer seasons (July 1997 to September 1999), we monitored changes in hydrocarbon concentrations in soil and soil leachate and the accompa...

  15. Mosaic pattern of lung attenuation on thin-section CT : review of 31 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To correlate radiologic findings with clinical findings in patients with a mosaic pattern of lung attenuation, as seen on thin-section CT. Materials and Methods : Thirty-one cases in which a mosaic pattern of lung attenuation was detected on combined expiratory and inspiratory scans of thin-section CT were retrospectively analyzed. Cases involving infiltrative lung disease were excluded. Both thin-section CT and clinical findings we reanalyzed and the relationship between the extent of the area of hyperlucency -as seen on expiratory scan- and physiologic parameters was evaluated. The subjects were 10 men and 21 women ranged in age from 25 to 76 (mean 50)years. Results : Twenty-nine patients with small airway disease, [chronic bronchitis and/or bronchiolitis(n=11),bronchiectasis(n=8), bronchial asthma(n=8), mycoplasmic pneumonitis(n=1) and hypersensitive pneumonitis(n=1),] and two patients with pulmonary vascular disease, [chronic pulmonary thromboembolism(n=1) and stenosis of the left upper pulmonary artery(n=1)] were included in our study. Commonly associated thin-section CT findings in the cases involving small airway disease(n=29) were bronchial wall thickening(n=25), nodular opacity(n=25), bronchial and bronchiolar dilatation(n=20) and small branching opacity(n=16). These findings were not observed in two patients with pulmonary vascular disease, though bronchial wall thickening was seen in the patient with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. At expiratory scan level, there was statistical correlation between FEV1/FVC and the number of pulmonary segments(r= 0.982, p0.05). Conclusion: The mosaic pattern of lung attenuation seen on thin-section CT is indicative of various diseases, involving small airways such as bronchiolitis, bronchitis, bronchiectasis and bronchial asthma, and vascular lung disease. Bronchial wall thickening and nodular opacity can be associated with small airway diseases

  16. Managing your chronic pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your chronic back pain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Managing chronic pain means finding ways to make your back pain tolerable so you can live your life. You may not be able to ...

  17. Chronic diseases in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Nevenka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescence is constantly increasing, especially in the last two decades. Adolescence is a period of important changes: body growth and development, sexual development, development of cognitive abilities, change in family relations and between peers, formation of personal identity and personal system of values, making decisions on future occupation etc. Chronic diseases in adolescence. Chronic disorders affect all development issues and represent an additional burden for adolescents. The interaction between chronic disorders and various development issues is complex and two-way: the disease may affect development, and development may affect the disease. Developmental, psychosocial and family factors are of great importance in the treatment of adolescents with chronic disorders. Chronic disorders affect all aspects of adolescent life, including relations with peers, school, nutrition, learning, traveling, entertainment, choice of occupation, plans for the future. Physicians should keep in mind that chronic diseases and their treatment represent only one aspect of person's life. Adolescents with chronic diseases have other needs as well, personal priorities, social roles and they expect these needs to be recognized and respected. Adolescent health care should be adjusted to the life style of adolescents.

  18. Break dance hip: Chronic avulsion of the anterior superior iliac spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of chronic, progressive avulsion of the anterior iliac spine leading to the formation of a long, attenuated spur of bone in an 18-year-old black male break dancer is described. The mechanism of formation appeared to be repetitive avulsion from break dancing. (orig.)

  19. Break dance hip: Chronic avulsion of the anterior superior iliac spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, A.R.; Barnes, J.C.; Ogden, J.A.

    1987-10-01

    A case of chronic, progressive avulsion of the anterior iliac spine leading to the formation of a long, attenuated spur of bone in an 18-year-old black male break dancer is described. The mechanism of formation appeared to be repetitive avulsion from break dancing.

  20. The Chronic Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Iben M; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a Fairclough-inspired critical discourse analysis aiming to clarify how chronically ill patients are presented in contemporary Danish chronic care policies. Drawing on Fairclough’s three-dimensional framework for analyzing discourse, and using Dean’s concepts...... of governmentality as an interpretative lens, we analyzed and explained six policies published by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority between 2005 and 2013. The analysis revealed that discourses within the policy vision of chronic care consider chronically ill patients’ active role, lifestyle......, and health behavior to be the main factors influencing susceptibility to chronic diseases. We argue that this discursive construction naturalizes a division between people who can actively manage responsible self-care and those who cannot. Such discourses may serve the interests of those patients who...

  1. [Chronic migraine: treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Julio

    2012-04-10

    We define chronic migraine as that clinical situation in which migraine attacks appear 15 or more days per month. Until recently, and in spite of its negative impact, patients with chronic migraine were excluded of the clinical trials. This manuscript revises the current treatment of chronic migraine. The first step should include the avoidance of potential precipitating/aggravating factors for chronic migraine, mainly analgesic overuse and the treatment of comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and depression. The symptomatic treatment should be based on the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and triptans (in this case ergotamine-containing medications. Preventive treatment includes a 'transitional' treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents or steroids, while preventive treatment exerts its actions. Even though those medications efficacious in episodic migraine prevention are used, the only drugs with demonstrated efficacy in the preventive treatment of chronic migraine are topiramate and pericranial infiltrations of Onabotulinumtoxin A. PMID:22532241

  2. Paroxetine Attenuates the Development and Existing Pain in a Rat Model of Neurophatic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Zarei, Malek; Sabetkasaei, Masoumeh; Moini Zanjani, Taraneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: P2X4 receptor (P2X4R), a purinoceptor expressed in activated spinal microglia, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. Spinal nerve injury induces up-regulation of P2X4R on activated microglia in the spinal cord, and blockade of this receptor can reduce neuropathic pain. The present study was undertaken to determine whether paroxetine, an inhibitor of P2X4R, could attenuate allodynia and hyperalgesia in chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain ...

  3. Hadron attenuation at HERMES and JLab

    OpenAIRE

    Falter, T.; Cassing, W.; Gallmeister, K.; Mosel, U.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the attenuation of hadrons in deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering in the kinematical regime of the HERMES and Jefferson Lab experiments. The calculation is carried out in the framework of a BUU transport model. Our results indicate a strong influence of (pre)hadronic final state interactions on the observed multiplicity ratios.

  4. Microwave attenuation with composite of copper microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorriti, A.G.; Marin, P. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, (UCM-ADIF-CSIC) and Departamento de Fisica de Materiales (UCM). P.O. Box 155, Las Rozas, Madrid 28230 (Spain); Cortina, D. [Micromag S.L., Las Rozas, Madrid 28230 (Spain); Hernando, A., E-mail: antonio.hernando@adif.e [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, (UCM-ADIF-CSIC) and Departamento de Fisica de Materiales (UCM). P.O. Box 155, Las Rozas, Madrid 28230 (Spain); Micromag S.L., Las Rozas, Madrid 28230 (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    It is shown that copper microwires composite media attenuates microwave reflection of metallic surfaces. We show how the distance to the metallic surface, as well as the length and volume fraction of microwires, determine the frequency of maximum absorption and the return loss level. Furthermore, we were able to fit the experimental results with a theoretical model based on Maxwell-Garnett mixing formula.

  5. Switching Control for Adaptive Disturbance Attenuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battistelli, Giorgio; Mari, Daniele; Selvi, Daniela; Tesi, Alberto; Tesi, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The problem of adaptive disturbance attenuation is addressed in this paper using a switching control approach. A finite family of stabilizing controllers is pre-designed, with the assumption that, for any possible operating condition, at least one controller is able to achieve a prescribed level of

  6. Attenuation correction for small animal PET tomographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Patrick L [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of California, 700 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Rannou, Fernando R [Departamento de Ingenieria Informatica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Av. Ecuador 3659, Santiago (Chile); Chatziioannou, Arion F [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of California, 700 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2005-04-21

    Attenuation correction is one of the important corrections required for quantitative positron emission tomography (PET). This work will compare the quantitative accuracy of attenuation correction using a simple global scale factor with traditional transmission-based methods acquired either with a small animal PET or a small animal x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner. Two phantoms (one mouse-sized and one rat-sized) and two animal subjects (one mouse and one rat) were scanned in CTI Concorde Microsystem's microPET (registered) Focus{sup TM} for emission and transmission data and in ImTek's MicroCAT{sup TM} II for transmission data. PET emission image values were calibrated against a scintillation well counter. Results indicate that the scale factor method of attenuation correction places the average measured activity concentration about the expected value, without correcting for the cupping artefact from attenuation. Noise analysis in the phantom studies with the PET-based method shows that noise in the transmission data increases the noise in the corrected emission data. The CT-based method was accurate and delivered low-noise images suitable for both PET data correction and PET tracer localization.

  7. The Coriolis attenuation problem in 235U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new version of the particle-rotor model, featuring diagonalization of a state-dependent pairing force and the full recoil term, has been applied to 235U. A significant improvement is obtained in the description of the Coriolis coupled K=5/2, 7/2 and 9/2 rotational bands. No ad hoc Coriolis attenuation factors are used. (orig.)

  8. Attenuation of PRRSV by chimera construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two genetically distinct infectious recombinant virus clones (pMLV, constructed from Ingelvac® PRRS MLV and pMN184, constructed from virulent strain MN184) were developed to study attenuation of contemporary PRRSV. Two reciprocal chimeric clones (pMLVORF1/MN184 and pMN184ORF1/MLV) were then constru...

  9. Electrically tunable hot-silicon terahertz attenuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Minjie [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M. [Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Kono, Junichiro, E-mail: kono@rice.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    We have developed a continuously tunable, broadband terahertz attenuator with a transmission tuning range greater than 10{sup 3}. Attenuation tuning is achieved electrically, by simply changing the DC voltage applied to a heating wire attached to a bulk silicon wafer, which controls its temperature between room temperature and ∼550 K, with the corresponding free-carrier density adjusted between ∼10{sup 11 }cm{sup −3} and ∼10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3}. This “hot-silicon”-based terahertz attenuator works most effectively at 450–550 K (corresponding to a DC voltage variation of only ∼7 V) and completely shields terahertz radiation above 550 K in a frequency range of 0.1–2.5 THz. Both intrinsic and doped silicon wafers were tested and demonstrated to work well as a continuously tunable attenuator. All behaviors can be understood quantitatively via the free-carrier Drude model taking into account thermally activated intrinsic carriers.

  10. Electrically tunable hot-silicon terahertz attenuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a continuously tunable, broadband terahertz attenuator with a transmission tuning range greater than 103. Attenuation tuning is achieved electrically, by simply changing the DC voltage applied to a heating wire attached to a bulk silicon wafer, which controls its temperature between room temperature and ∼550 K, with the corresponding free-carrier density adjusted between ∼1011 cm−3 and ∼1017 cm−3. This “hot-silicon”-based terahertz attenuator works most effectively at 450–550 K (corresponding to a DC voltage variation of only ∼7 V) and completely shields terahertz radiation above 550 K in a frequency range of 0.1–2.5 THz. Both intrinsic and doped silicon wafers were tested and demonstrated to work well as a continuously tunable attenuator. All behaviors can be understood quantitatively via the free-carrier Drude model taking into account thermally activated intrinsic carriers.

  11. GPR measurements of attenuation in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals from concrete structures are affected by several phenomenon, including: (1) transmission and reflection coefficients at interfaces; (2) the radiation patterns of the antenna(s) being used; and (3) the material properties of concrete and any embedded objects. In this paper we investigate different schemes for determining the electromagnetic (EM) attenuation of concrete from measured signals obtained using commercially-available GPR equipment. We adapt procedures commonly used in ultrasonic inspections where one compares the relative strengths of two or more signals having different travel paths through the material of interest. After correcting for beam spread (i.e., diffraction), interface phenomena, and equipment amplification settings, any remaining signal differences are assumed to be due to attenuation thus allowing the attenuation coefficient (say, in dB of loss per inch of travel) to be estimated. We begin with a brief overview of our approach, and then discuss how diffraction corrections were determined for our two 1.6 GHz GPR antennas. We then present results of attenuation measurements for two types of concrete using both pulse/echo and pitch/catch measurement setups

  12. ULTRASONIC ATTENUATION IN MIXED STATE OF NIOBIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Dominec, J.; MÍŠek, K.

    1987-01-01

    We have investigated the attenuation of ultrasonic waves in the mixed state of niobium, where a remarkable dip appears near the lower critical field . The measurement has been performed on one sample for various orientations of the wave vector and of the principal crystallographic axes of the sample with respect to external magnetic field.

  13. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People About NINDS NINDS Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... en Español What is Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)? Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a neurological ...

  14. Stages of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  15. Stages of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  16. Nonreplicating, Cyst-Defective Type II Toxoplasma gondii Vaccine Strains Stimulate Protective Immunity against Acute and Chronic Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Barbara A.; Bzik, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccine strains, such as type I nonreplicating uracil auxotroph mutants, are highly effective in eliciting lifelong immunity to virulent acute infection by Toxoplasma gondii. However, it is currently unknown whether vaccine-elicited immunity can provide protection against acute infection and also prevent chronic infection. To address this problem, we developed nonreverting, nonreplicating, live attenuated uracil auxotroph vaccine strains in the type II Δku80 genetic background...

  17. Live attenuated vaccines: Historical successes and current challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minor, Philip D., E-mail: Philip.Minor@nibsc.org

    2015-05-15

    Live attenuated vaccines against human viral diseases have been amongst the most successful cost effective interventions in medical history. Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980; poliomyelitis is nearing global eradication and measles has been controlled in most parts of the world. Vaccines function well for acute diseases such as these but chronic infections such as HIV are more challenging for reasons of both likely safety and probable efficacy. The derivation of the vaccines used has in general not been purely rational except in the sense that it has involved careful clinical trials of candidates and subsequent careful follow up in clinical use; the identification of the candidates is reviewed. - Highlights: • Live vaccines against human diseases caused by viruses have been very successful. • They have been developed by empirical clinical studies and problems identified in later use. • It can be difficult to balance ability to cause disease and ability to immunise for a strain. • There is currently no reliable basis for predicting success from pure virological studies. • Vaccinia, which eradicated smallpox, is the paradigm for all successes and issues.

  18. Grim19 Attenuates DSS Induced Colitis in an Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-kyung; Lee, Seung Hoon; Lee, Seon-Young; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwon, Jeong-Eun; Seo, Hyeon-Beom; Lee, Han Hee; Lee, Bo-In; Park, Sung-Hwan; Cho, Mi-La

    2016-01-01

    DSS induced colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, which destabilizes the gut and induces an uncontrolled immune response. Although DSS induced colitis is generally thought to develop as a result of an abnormally active intestinal immune system, its pathogenesis remains unclear. Gene associated with retinoid interferon induced mortality (Grim) 19 is an endogenous specific inhibitor of STAT3, which regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we investigated the influence of GRIM19 in a DSS induced colitis mouse model. We hypothesized that Grim19 would ameliorate DSS induced colitis by altering STAT3 activity and intestinal inflammation. Grim19 ameliorated DSS induced colitis severity and protected intestinal tissue. The expression of STAT3 and proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α in colon and lymph nodes was decreased significantly by Grim19. Moreover, DSS induced colitis progression in a Grim19 transgenic mouse line was inhibited in association with a reduction in STAT3 and IL-17 expression. These results suggest that Grim19 attenuates DSS induced colitis by suppressing the excessive inflammatory response mediated by STAT3 activation. PMID:27258062

  19. Live attenuated vaccines: Historical successes and current challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Live attenuated vaccines against human viral diseases have been amongst the most successful cost effective interventions in medical history. Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980; poliomyelitis is nearing global eradication and measles has been controlled in most parts of the world. Vaccines function well for acute diseases such as these but chronic infections such as HIV are more challenging for reasons of both likely safety and probable efficacy. The derivation of the vaccines used has in general not been purely rational except in the sense that it has involved careful clinical trials of candidates and subsequent careful follow up in clinical use; the identification of the candidates is reviewed. - Highlights: • Live vaccines against human diseases caused by viruses have been very successful. • They have been developed by empirical clinical studies and problems identified in later use. • It can be difficult to balance ability to cause disease and ability to immunise for a strain. • There is currently no reliable basis for predicting success from pure virological studies. • Vaccinia, which eradicated smallpox, is the paradigm for all successes and issues

  20. Evaluation of satellite derived spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Talaulikar, M.; Desa, E.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    Spectral diffuse attenuation K sub(d)(lambda) is an important apparent optical property that provide information about the attenuation of the spectral downwelling solar irradiance with depth in water. The spectral K sub(d)(lambda) at lambda = 412...

  1. Chronicity and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a way of framing the study of ‘noncommunicable diseases’ within the more general area of chronic conditions. Focusing on Africa, it takes as points of departure the situation in Uganda, and the approach to health issues developed by a group of European and African colleagues...... over the years. It suggests a pragmatic analysis that places people's perceptions and practices within a field of possibilities shaped by policy, health care systems, and life conditions. In this field, the dimensions of chronicity and control are the distinctive analytical issues. They lead on to...... consideration of patterns of sociality related to chronic conditions and their treatment....

  2. Photon attenuation characteristics of radiation shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the design and construction of installation housing high intensity radiation sources and other radiation generating equipment, a variety of shielding materials are used to minimise exposure to individual. Among the materials, lead is best known for radiation shielding characteristics due to their high density and atomic number. Commercial and barium enriched cement, apart from better compressive strength, smoother surface finish and high abrasion resistance, offers adequate shielding to gamma radiations. Although photon attenuation data are available in literature, it is necessary to test these commercially available material experimentally for their radiation shielding efficiency before putting them in to regular use. In the present work, attenuation characteristics of lead. commercial cement and barium enriched cement supplied by a manufacturing firm have been studied for photons of 662 and 1250keV from Cs-137 and Co-60. The radiographic sources of Cs-137 and Co-60 of radioactive strength of 260 and 30 mCi respectively were utilised in the present investigation. Experimental measurements were done with gamma radiography survey meter MR 4500A placed at a distance of 2 meters from the source. Attenuation coefficients for photons in commercial cement, barite and lead were determined experimentally through photon transmission measurements performed under broad beam counting geometry. The absorbers used were in form of thin sheets of lead, commercial cements and barite of uniform thicknesses. These thin sheets were weighed accurately on an analytical balance and from their measured area, thicknesses proportional to area density in gram.cm-2 were determined. The average thickness of each absorber varied from a few milligram to several gram per cm-2. Higher thicknesses were obtained by stacking the absorbers with each other. Each absorber of specified thickness was interposed between the source and detector such that the primary beam is incident normally on its

  3. Breath-hold CT attenuation correction for quantitative cardiac SPECT

    OpenAIRE

    Koshino, Kazuhiro; Fukushima, Kazuhito; Fukumoto, Masaji; Sasaki, Kazunari; Moriguchi, Tetsuaki; Hori, Yuki; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Kiso, Keisuke; Iida, Hidehiro

    2012-01-01

    Background Attenuation correction of a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image is possible using computed tomography (CT)-based attenuation maps with hybrid SPECT/CT. CT attenuation maps acquired during breath holding can be misaligned with SPECT, generating artifacts in the reconstructed images. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of respiratory phase during breath-hold CT acquisition on attenuation correction of cardiac SPECT imaging. Methods A series o...

  4. Simple Scheme for Variable High Power Laser Beam Attenuation

    OpenAIRE

    Bialkowski, Stephen E.

    1987-01-01

    A venetian style infrared attenuator placed prior to a pinhole spatial filter results in variable high‐power laser attenuation. This attenuation scheme has a wide dynamic range, results in high‐quality Gaussian beams, does not introduce beam walk‐off error, and is independent of polarization.

  5. Frequency Dependence of Attenuation Constant of Dielectric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Zadgaonkar

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Different dielectric materials have been studied for frequency dependence of attenuation constant. The sensitive cathode ray oscillograph method has been used to evaluate to the dielectric constant and loss factor, and from these attenuation constants have been calculated. The temperature remaining constant, a regular increase has been observed in attenuation constant, at higher frequencies of electro-magnetic propagating wave.

  6. Chronic Conditions Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Conditions Dashboard presents statistical views of information on the prevalence, utilization and Medicare spending for Medicare beneficiaries with...

  7. Anemia of chronic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia of inflammation; AOCD; ACD ... Anemia is a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells in the blood. Some conditions can lead to anemia of chronic disease include: Autoimmune disorders , such as ...

  8. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Already a member? Log In or Sign Up Home About Us Support the ACPA Contact Us Shop ... for Understanding Pain September is Pain Awareness Month Home Pain Management Tools Videos What Is Chronic Pain? ...

  9. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep ... Sheets Data & Statistics Projects and Partners Resources Events Sleep and Chronic Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  10. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... after a period of time the spinal cord has changed, after a period of time there are ... absence of an apparent cause. But chronic pain has a physiological or neurological basis even when we ...

  11. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... acute pain and both naturally expect that some cause will be found, and when it’s found, it ... pain even in the absence of an apparent cause. But chronic pain has a physiological or neurological ...

  12. Chronic rhinosinusitis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Whitney W; Lee, Robert J; Schleimer, Robert P; Cohen, Noam A

    2015-12-01

    There are a variety of medical conditions associated with chronic sinonasal inflammation, including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and cystic fibrosis. In particular, CRS can be divided into 2 major subgroups based on whether nasal polyps are present or absent. Unfortunately, clinical treatment strategies for patients with chronic sinonasal inflammation are limited, in part because the underlying mechanisms contributing to disease pathology are heterogeneous and not entirely known. It is hypothesized that alterations in mucociliary clearance, abnormalities in the sinonasal epithelial cell barrier, and tissue remodeling all contribute to the chronic inflammatory and tissue-deforming processes characteristic of CRS. Additionally, the host innate and adaptive immune responses are also significantly activated and might be involved in pathogenesis. Recent advancements in the understanding of CRS pathogenesis are highlighted in this review, with special focus placed on the roles of epithelial cells and the host immune response in patients with cystic fibrosis, CRS without nasal polyps, or CRS with nasal polyps. PMID:26654193

  13. Chronic Hypertension in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... very commonly used to treat chronic hypertension. This drug class can cause problems in the fetus, in- cluding an increased risk of birth de- fects 4 and kidney failure. Angiotensin II receptor blockers also should be avoided ...

  14. Chronic Conditions PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Chronic Conditions PUFs are aggregated files in which each record is a profile or cell defined by the characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries. A profile is...

  15. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACPA Contact Us Shop FAQs The Art of Pain Management Resources Going to the ER Glossary Surveys What We Have Learned Communication Tools Videos Pain Management Programs Resource Guide to Chronic Pain Treatments Pain ...

  16. Chronic penile strangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Roberto I

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic penile strangulation is exceedingly rare with only 5 cases previously reported. We report an additional case of progressive penile lymphedema due to chronic intermittent strangulation caused by a rubber band applied to the penile base for 6 years. A 49-year-old man presented incapacity to exteriorize the glans penis. For erotic purposes, he had been using a rubber-enlarging band placed in the penile base for 6 years. With chronic use, he noticed that his penis swelled. Physical examination revealed lymphedema of the penis, phimosis and a stricture in the penile base. The patient was submitted to circumcision and the lymphedema remained stable 10 months postoperatively. Chronic penile incarceration usually causes penile lymphedema and urinary disturbance. Treatment consists of removal of foreign devices and surgical treatment of lymphedema.

  17. Neuromodulation of chronic headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martelletti, Paolo; Jensen, Rigmor H; Antal, Andrea;

    2013-01-01

    The medical treatment of patients with chronic primary headache syndromes (chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, chronic cluster headache, hemicrania continua) is challenging as serious side effects frequently complicate the course of medical treatment and some patients may be even...... medically intractable. When a definitive lack of responsiveness to conservative treatments is ascertained and medication overuse headache is excluded, neuromodulation options can be considered in selected cases.Here, the various invasive and non-invasive approaches, such as hypothalamic deep brain...... proper RCT-based evidence is limited. The European Headache Federation herewith provides a consensus statement on the clinical use of neuromodulation in headache, based on theoretical background, clinical data, and side effect of each method. This international consensus further gives recommendations for...

  18. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Shop FAQs The Art of Pain Management Resources Going to the ER Glossary Surveys What We Have Learned Communication Tools Videos Pain Management Programs Resource Guide to Chronic Pain Treatments Pain ...

  19. Chronic Conditions Chartbook

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Chronic Conditions among Medicare Beneficiaries is a chartbook prepared by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and created to provide an overview of...

  20. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Programs Resource Guide to Chronic Pain Treatments Pain Awareness Toolkits Partners for Understanding Pain September is Pain Awareness Month Home Pain Management Tools Videos What Is ...

  1. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chronic pain there may be no apparent physical injury or illness to explain it. The physician and ... expected period of healing for an illness or injury. You can experience pain even if you are ...

  2. Chronic Condition Data Warehouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Condition Data Warehouse (CCW) provides researchers with Medicare and Medicaid beneficiary, claims, and assessment data linked by beneficiary across...

  3. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disorder that causes extreme fatigue. This fatigue is not the kind of tired feeling that ... activities. The main symptom of CFS is severe fatigue that lasts for 6 months or more. You ...

  4. Chronic dysimmune neuropathies: Beyond chronic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadilkar Satish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of chronic dysimmune neuropathies has widened well beyond chronic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP. Pure motor (multifocal motor neuropathy, sensorimotor with asymmetrical involvement (multifocal acquired demylinating sensory and motor neuropathy, exclusively distal sensory (distal acquired demyelinating sensory neuropathy and very proximal sensory (chronic immune sensory polyradiculopathy constitute the variants of CIDP. Correct diagnosis of these entities is of importance in terms of initiation of appropriate therapy as well as prognostication of these patients. The rates of detection of immune-mediated neuropathies with monoclonal cell proliferation (monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance, multiple myeloma, etc. have been facilitated as better diagnostic tools such as serum immunofixation electrophoresis are being used more often. Immune neuropathies associated with malignancies and systemic vasculitic disorders are being defined further and treated early with better understanding of the disease processes. As this field of dysimmune neuropathies will evolve in the future, some of the curious aspects of the clinical presentations and response patterns to different immunosuppressants or immunomodulators will be further elucidated. This review also discusses representative case studies.

  5. Attenuation of gamma radiation in concrete shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attenuation characteristics of γ radiation in concrete layers considering their mechanical resistence and densities were determined. A 137Cs source was used in a 'good geometry' arrangement to eliminate the effects of the buildup factor. The ordinary and the heavy concrete were irradiated and for the latter it was used as additives iron ore and Fe2O3 pellets in various grain sizes. The detection system consisted of a 2' x 2' NaI (Tl) crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube and the associated electronic equipment. FORTRAN programs were used for determining the absorption coefficients and the attenuation factors. These programs calculate photopeak areas eliminating all contributions due to Compton effect and background. (Author)

  6. Implicit temporal expectation attenuates auditory attentional blink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Shen

    Full Text Available Attentional blink (AB describes a phenomenon whereby correct identification of a first target impairs the processing of a second target (i.e., probe nearby in time. Evidence suggests that explicit attention orienting in the time domain can attenuate the AB. Here, we used scalp-recorded, event-related potentials to examine whether auditory AB is also sensitive to implicit temporal attention orienting. Expectations were set up implicitly by varying the probability (i.e., 80% or 20% that the probe would occur at the +2 or +8 position following target presentation. Participants showed a significant AB, which was reduced with the increased probe probability at the +2 position. The probe probability effect was paralleled by an increase in P3b amplitude elicited by the probe. The results suggest that implicit temporal attention orienting can facilitate short-term consolidation of the probe and attenuate auditory AB.

  7. Particle size characterization by ultrasonic attenuation spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingxu Su; Minghua Xue; Xiaoshu Cai; Zhitao Shang; Feng Xu

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes to extracting information from signals of broadband ultrasonic attenuation spectrum for effective utilization in particle size characterization. The single particle scattering model and the coupled-phase model are formulated simultaneously, the relationship between particle size distribution and ultrasonic spectrum is established, and a convergence criterion for calculation is quantified. Demonsa'ation inversion by the optimum regularization factor method is carded out to yield typical numerical results for discussion. With the experimental set-up developed by the Institute of Particle and Two-Phase Flow Measurement (IPTFM) at the University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, sand sediment particle size is measured by attenuation spectrum and analyzed using the above inversion algorithm and theoretical models. To validate the proposed ultrasonic spectrum particle sizing method, results are compared with those obtained by microscopy.

  8. Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Cordier Jean-François; Marchand Eric

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP) is characterized by subacute or chronic respiratory and general symptoms, alveolar and/or blood eosinophilia, and peripheral pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging. Eosinophilia is present in most cases, usually in excess of 1000/mm3. In absence of significant blood eosinophilia, a diagnosis of ICEP is supported by the demonstration of bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia. ICEP is typically associated with eosinophil counts higher than ...

  9. Chronic osteomyelitis mimicking sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gulmann, C; Young, O.; Tolan, M.; O’Riordan, D.; Leader, M

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of chronic osteomyelitis in a 60 year old man mimicking a soft tissue sarcoma. Chronic osteomyelitis is an infrequent cause of a soft tissue mass and is usually diagnosed clinically by a combination of radiology and microbiology. Rarely, COM can mimic a primary bony neoplasm, but this is the first reported case where it mimicked a soft tissue sarcoma. The clinical, radiological, and histological appearances of this case will be discussed.

  10. Narrow terahertz attenuation signatures in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weidong; Brown, Elliott R; Viveros, Leamon; Burris, Kellie P; Stewart, C Neal

    2014-10-01

    Terahertz absorption signatures from culture-cultivated Bacillus thuringiensis were measured with a THz photomixing spectrometer operating from 400 to 1200 GHz. We observe two distinct signatures centered at ∼955 and 1015 GHz, and attribute them to the optically coupled particle vibrational resonance (surface phonon-polariton) of Bacillus spores. This demonstrates the potential of the THz attenuation signatures as "fingerprints" for label-free biomolecular detection. PMID:23821459

  11. Attenuated Measles Virus as a Vaccine Vector

    OpenAIRE

    Zuniga, Armando; Wang, Zili; Liniger, Matthias; Hangartner, Lars; Caballero, Michael; Pavlovic, Jovan; Wild, Peter; Viret, Jean Francois; Glueck, Reinhard; Billeter, Martin A.; Naim, Hussein Y.

    2007-01-01

    Live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have an impressive record of safety, efficacy and ability to induce life-long immunity against measles infection. Using reverse genetics technology, such negative-strand RNA viruses can now be rescued from cloned DNA. This technology allows the insertion of exogenous genes encoding foreign antigens into the MV genome in such a way that they can be expressed by the MV vaccine strain, without affecting virus structure, propagation and cell targeting. ...

  12. Wave attenuation charcteristics of tethered float system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.

    and transmitted wave powers, transmission coefficients are computed. The results show that transmission coefficient does not vary with changes in wave height or water depth. When depth of submergence of float increases, wave attenuation decreases, showing... incident wave height transmitted wave height G wave number float mass number of rows of floats drag power transmitted wave power incident wave power 111 112 P. Vethamony float radius wave period time velocity and acceleration of fluid...

  13. Bubbles attenuate elastic waves at seismic frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisato, Nicola; Quintal, Beatriz; Chapman, Samuel; Podladchikov, Yury; Burg, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The vertical migration of multiphase fluids in the crust can cause hazardous events such as eruptions, explosions, pollution and earthquakes. Although seismic tomography could potentially provide a detailed image of such fluid-saturated regions, the interpretation of the tomographic signals is often controversial and fails in providing a conclusive map of the subsurface saturation. Seismic tomography should be improved considering seismic wave attenuation (1/Q) and the dispersive elastic moduli which allow accounting for the energy lost by the propagating elastic wave. In particular, in saturated media a significant portion of the energy carried by the propagating wave is dissipated by the wave-induced-fluid-flow and the wave-induced-gas-exsolution-dissolution (WIGED) mechanisms. The WIGED mechanism describes how a propagating wave modifies the thermodynamic equillibrium between different fluid phases causing the exsolution and the dissolution of the gas in the liquid, which in turn causes a significant frequency dependent 1/Q and moduli dispersion. The WIGED theory was initially postulated for bubbly magmas but only recently was extended to bubbly water and experimentally demonstrated. Here we report these theory and laboratory experiments. Specifically, we present i) attenuation measurements performed by means of the Broad Band Attenuation Vessel on porous media saturated with water and different gases, and ii) numerical experiments validating the laboratory observations. Finally, we will extend the theory to fluids and to pressure-temperature conditions which are typical of phreatomagmatic and hydrocarbon domains and we will compare the propagation of seismic waves in bubble-free and bubble-bearing subsurface domains. With the present contribution we extend the knowledge about attenuation in rocks which are saturated with multiphase fluid demonstrating that the WIGED mechanism could be extremely important to image subsurface gas plumes.

  14. Implicit Temporal Expectation Attenuates Auditory Attentional Blink

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Dawei; Alain, Claude

    2012-01-01

    Attentional blink (AB) describes a phenomenon whereby correct identification of a first target impairs the processing of a second target (i.e., probe) nearby in time. Evidence suggests that explicit attention orienting in the time domain can attenuate the AB. Here, we used scalp-recorded, event-related potentials to examine whether auditory AB is also sensitive to implicit temporal attention orienting. Expectations were set up implicitly by varying the probability (i.e., 80% or 20%) that the ...

  15. The attenuation of the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unique among models of nuclear structure, the face-centered-cubic (FCC) lattice model predicts the attenuation of the periodic table at Z < 110 and the impossibility of superheavy nuclei. The total binding energies of superheavy nuclei in the FCC model (109 < Z < 127) were calculated on the basis of parameters obtained from a least-squares best-fit for 914 nuclei (Z < 99). No indication of increased stability is found for any of the transuranic elements

  16. Lg Attenuation of the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, A. C.; Ranasinghe, N. R.; Ni, J.; Sandvol, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Lg waveforms recorded by EarthScope's Transportable Array (TA) are used to estimate Lg Q in the Western United States (WUS). Attenuation is calculated based on Lg spectral amplitudes filtered at a narrow band from 0.5 to 1.5 Hz with a central frequency of 1 Hz. The two-station and reverse two-station techniques were used to calculate Qo values. 398 events occurring from 2005 to 2009 and ranging from magnitude 3 to magnitude 6 were used in this study. The geometric spreading term can be determined by using a three-dimensional linear fit of the amplitude ratios versus epicentral distances to two stations. The slope of this line provides the geometric spreading term we use to calculate Lg Qo values of WUS. The results show high Q regions (low attenuation) corresponding to the Colorado Plateau (CP), the Rocky Mountains (RM), the Columbia Plateau (COP), and the Sierra Nevada Mountains (SNM). Regions of low Q (high attenuation) are seen along the Snake River Plain (SRP), the Rio Grande Rift (RGR), the Cascade Mountains (CM), and in east and west of the Basin and Range (BR) where tectonic activity is more active than the central part of the BR. A positive correlation between high heat flow, recent tectonic activity and Q was observed. Areas with low heat flow, thin sediment cover, and no recent tectonic activity were observed to have consistently high Q. These new models use two-station and reversed two-station methods and provide a comparison with previous studies and better constrain regions with high attenuation. This increase in detail can improve high frequency ground motion predictions of future large earthquakes for more accurate hazard assessment and improve overall understanding of the structure and assemblage of the WUS.

  17. Natural attenuation of biogas in landfill covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the risk evaluation of uncontrolled biogas emissions from landfills, the process of natural attenuation in landfill covers assumes a very important role. The capacity of biogas oxidation in the cover soils seems to be the most important control to mitigate the biogas emission during the aftercare period when the biogas collection system might fail. In the present paper laboratory experiences on lab columns to study the biogas oxidation are discussed

  18. Live-Attenuated Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Karron, Ruth A.; Buchholz, Ursula J.; Collins, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    Live-attenuated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccines offer several advantages for immunization of infants and young children: (1) they do not cause vaccine-associated enhanced RSV disease; (2) they broadly stimulate innate, humoral, and cellular immunity, both systemically and locally in the respiratory tract; (3) they are delivered intranasally; and (4) they replicate in the upper respiratory tract of young infants despite the presence of passively acquired maternally derived RSV neutr...

  19. Phonic Attenuation due to Screen-Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Bacria; Nicolae Herişanu

    2011-01-01

    The technique of noise decreasing admits two basic approaches: an active approach and a passive one. In the frame of passive method one can count the employment of screen-barriers. In this paper we present some considerations on sound attenuation due to screen-barriers emphasizing the elements which influence it. The elucidation of these elements is made by measurements. The obtained results can be applied in every other practical situation concerning the protection against ...

  20. Chiral Seismic Attenuation with Acoustic Metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Hector Torres-Silva; Diego Torres Cabezas

    2013-01-01

    We study the analogy between the linear elasticity theory equations and classical Maxwell equation with chiral effects and we propose a new method of an earthquake-resistant design to support conventional aseismic designs using acoustic metamaterials. We suggest a simple and practical method to reduce the amplitude of a seismic wave exponentially. Our device is like an attenuator of a chiral seismic wave. Constructing a cylindrical shell-type waveguide that creates a stop-band for the chiral...

  1. The attenuation coefficients in CT: Didactic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review article refers details about the derivation of the Attenuation coefficient of the CT-Number, the electron density and physical density, the effective atomic number, dual KV scanning, the performance of different scanners, furtheron the CT-numbers of intracranial structures, the attempts of characterization of tissue by CT, measurements of effective atomic number and electron density, distribution and probability of occurance of CT-numbers, and distribution of CT-numbers in space. (AJ)

  2. Two-dimensional dynamic fluid bowtie attenuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermus, James R; Szczykutowicz, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    Fluence field modulated (FFM) CT allows for improvements in image quality and dose reduction. To date, only one-dimensional modulators have been proposed, as the extension to two-dimensional (2-D) modulation is difficult with solid-metal attenuation-based fluence field modulated designs. This work proposes to use liquid and gas to attenuate the x-ray beam, as unlike solids, these materials can be arranged allowing for 2-D fluence modulation. The thickness of liquid and the pressure for a given path length of gas were determined that provided the same attenuation as 30 cm of soft tissue at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV. Liquid iodine, zinc chloride, cerium chloride, erbium oxide, iron oxide, and gadolinium chloride were studied. Gaseous xenon, uranium hexafluoride, tungsten hexafluoride, and nickel tetracarbonyl were also studied. Additionally, we performed a proof-of-concept experiment using a 96 cell array in which the liquid thickness in each cell was adjusted manually. Liquid thickness varied as a function of kV and chemical composition, with erbium oxide allowing for the smallest thickness. For the gases, tungsten hexaflouride required the smallest pressure to compensate for 30 cm of soft tissue. The 96 cell iodine attenuator allowed for a reduction in both dynamic range to the detector and scatter-to-primary ratio. For both liquids and gases, when k-edges were located within the diagnostic energy range used for imaging, the mean beam energy exhibited the smallest change with compensation amount. The thickness of liquids and the gas pressure seem logistically implementable within the space constraints of C-arm-based cone beam CT (CBCT) and diagnostic CT systems. The gas pressures also seem logistically implementable within the space and tube loading constraints of CBCT and diagnostic CT systems. PMID:26835499

  3. Hypertension in Chronic Glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihm, Chun-Gyoo

    2015-12-01

    Chronic glomerulonephritis (GN), which includes focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and proliferative forms of GN such as IgA nephropathy, increases the risk of hypertension. Hypertension in chronic GN is primarily volume dependent, and this increase in blood volume is not related to the deterioration of renal function. Patients with chronic GN become salt sensitive as renal damage including arteriolosclerosis progresses and the consequent renal ischemia causes the stimulation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system(RAAS). Overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system also contributes to hypertension in chronic GN. According to the KDIGO guideline, the available evidence indicates that the target BP should be ≤140mmHg systolic and ≤90mmHg diastolic in chronic kidney disease patients without albuminuria. In most patients with an albumin excretion rate of ≥30mg/24 h (i.e., those with both micro-and macroalbuminuria), a lower target of ≤130mmHg systolic and ≤80mmHg diastolic is suggested. The use of agents that block the RAAS system is recommended or suggested in all patients with an albumin excretion rate of ≥30mg/ 24 h. The combination of a RAAS blockade with a calcium channel blocker and a diuretic may be effective in attaining the target BP, and in reducing the amount of urinary protein excretion in patients with chronic GN. PMID:26848302

  4. Natural Biological Attenuation of Benzene in Groundwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Benzene has been found in subsurface unsaturated soil and groundwater beneath a petro-chemical plant. Although the groundwater contained several mg/L of benzene in the area immediately beneath the source, benzene was not detected in monitoring wells approximately 800m down stream. All kinds of physical processes such as adsorption and advection/dispersion are considered to account for the observed attenuation. The results indicated that the attenuation was primarily due to natural biological processes occurring within the aquifer. The evidence for the natural bioremediation of benzene from the groundwater included: (1) analysis of groundwater chemistry, (2) laboratory studies demonstrating benzene biodegradation in aquifer samples, and (3) computer simulations examining benzene transport. Laboratory experiments indicated that for conditions similar to those in the plume, the aerobic degradation of benzene by the naturally occurring microorganisms in the polluted groundwater samples was quite rapid with a half-life time of from 5 to 15 days. In situ analyses indicated the level of dissolved oxygen in the groundwater was over 2mg/L. Thus, oxygen should not limit the biodegradation. In fact, the benzene was also shown to degrade under anaerobic conditions. The results from the modeling simulations indicate that biodegradation is the dominant process influencing attenuation of the benzene.

  5. Soil mass attenuation coefficient: Analysis and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Experimental mass attenuation coefficient is affected by sample size. • Sample thickness larger than 9 cm presents the best results for 137Cs. • Sample thickness smaller than 5 cm presents the best results for 241Am. - Abstract: The mass attenuation coefficient (μ) is an important parameter to characterize the penetration and interaction of gamma-rays in the soil. Accurate determinations of μ are important to obtain representative values of soil physical properties by gamma-ray attenuation technique. In this study, the effect of collimator size (2–4 mm diameters) and absorber thickness (2–15 cm) on the experimental μ values of water and soils with different textures were investigated for 59.54 keV (241Am) and 661.1 keV (137Cs) gamma-ray sources. Theoretical results were calculated using the program XCOM. Experimental results were compared with theoretical ones showing a good correlation between methods. It was observed that for the 137Cs the best agreements between theoretical and experimental μ were obtained for sample thickness ⩾10 cm while for the 241Am were those obtained for thickness <5 cm for small collimators

  6. Novel Intriguing Strategies Attenuating to Sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro Sakuma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, is characterized by a deterioration of muscle quantity and quality leading to a gradual slowing of movement, a decline in strength and power, increased risk of fall-related injury, and, often, frailty. Since sarcopenia is largely attributed to various molecular mediators affecting fiber size, mitochondrial homeostasis, and apoptosis, the mechanisms responsible for these deleterious changes present numerous therapeutic targets for drug discovery. Resistance training combined with amino acid-containing supplements is often utilized to prevent age-related muscle wasting and weakness. In this review, we summarize more recent therapeutic strategies (myostatin or proteasome inhibition, supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA or ursolic acid, etc. for counteracting sarcopenia. Myostatin inhibitor is the most advanced research with a Phase I/II trial in muscular dystrophy but does not try the possibility for attenuating sarcopenia. EPA and ursolic acid seem to be effective as therapeutic agents, because they attenuate the degenerative symptoms of muscular dystrophy and cachexic muscle. The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α in skeletal muscle by exercise and/or unknown supplementation would be an intriguing approach to attenuating sarcopenia. In contrast, muscle loss with age may not be influenced positively by treatment with a proteasome inhibitor or antioxidant.

  7. l-Scoulerine attenuates behavioural changes induced by methamphetamine in zebrafish and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Guiyun; Gao, Yunyun; Yan, Hui; Jin, Xiao; Ye, Enmao; Liu, Shuai; Gong, Zehui; Yang, Hongju; Yang, Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Methamphetamine (METH), a substance with a high potential for abuse and addiction, is a serious worldwide public health problem. METH addicts often show extreme paranoia, anxiety, and depression. Thus, there is no effective medication for the treatment of METH-induced abnormalities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of l-Scoulerine (l-SLR), a tetrahydroprotoberberine (THPBS) alkaloid, on METH-induced anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish and METH-induced addictive behavior in mice. In the novel tank test, acute administration of METH (2 mg/L) induced a significant decrease in the number of total vertical transitions and time spent in the upper zone. Moreover, METH produced significant avoidance behaviour showing increased swimming time in the central area and high speed movement in the mirror area in the mirror stimulation test; these anxiety-like changes were attenuated by l-SLR. Chronic administration of METH (2 mg/kg) produced a steady increase in locomotor activity and conditioned place preference in mice. l-SLR (5 mg/kg) failed to reduce acute METH-induced hyperlocomotion, but attenuated chronic METH-induced behavioural sensitization and significantly blocked the expression of conditioned place preference induced by METH in mice. The present study suggests that l-SLR may be a promising agent for the treatment of addiction and anxiety induced by METH. PMID:26433144

  8. Attenuated response to atrial natriuretic peptide in rats with myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohzuki, M; Hodsman, G P; Johnston, C I

    1989-02-01

    The natriuretic, diuretic, and hypotensive effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) were examined in rats 4 wk after myocardial infarction induced by left coronary artery ligation. Synthetic rat ANP (fragment 1-28) was infused intravenously in doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 for 30 min. There was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure in controls and rats with infarction, although only in control rats was there a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure. Changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were attenuated in rats with infarction compared with controls (P less than 0.01). The diuretic and natriuretic effects of ANP were observed in both groups of rats, but the effects were significantly less in rats with infarction (P less than 0.01). The ANP infusion did not induce significant changes in heart rate or hematocrit in controls or rats with infarction. The results indicate that rats with chronic left heart failure are less sensitive to the natriuretic, diuretic, and hypotensive effects of ANP when compared with controls. The attenuated renal response to ANP may contribute to the impaired sodium and water excretion in chronic heart failure, although other mechanisms are involved. PMID:2521777

  9. Seismic Attenuation Inversion with t* Using tstarTomog.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, Leiph

    2014-09-01

    Seismic attenuation is defined as the loss of the seismic wave amplitude as the wave propagates excluding losses strictly due to geometric spreading. Information gleaned from seismic waves can be utilized to solve for the attenuation properties of the earth. One method of solving for earth attenuation properties is called t*. This report will start by introducing the basic theory behind t* and delve into inverse theory as it pertains to how the algorithm called tstarTomog inverts for attenuation properties using t* observations. This report also describes how to use the tstarTomog package to go from observed data to a 3-D model of attenuation structure in the earth.

  10. Determination of the attenuation map in emission tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H

    2002-01-01

    Reliable attenuation correction methods for quantitative emission computed tomography (ECT) require accurate delineation of the body contour and often necessitate knowledge of internal anatomical structure. Two broad classes of methods have been used to calculate the attenuation map referred to as "transmissionless" and transmission-based attenuation correction techniques. While calculated attenuation correction belonging to the first class of methods is appropriate for brain studies, more adequate methods must be performed in clinical applications where the attenuation coefficient distribution is not known a priori, and for areas of inhomogeneous attenuation such as the chest. Measured attenuation correction overcomes this problem and utilizes different approaches to determine this map including transmission scanning, segmented magnetic resonance images or appropriately scaled X-ray CT scans acquired either independently on separate or simultaneously on multimodality imaging systems. Combination of data acqu...

  11. Curcumin-attenuated trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid induces chronic colitis by inhibiting expression of cyclooxygenase-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Jiang; Chang-Sheng Deng; Ming Zhang; Jian Xia

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possible mechanisms of curcumin in rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS) acid. METHODS: Rats with TNBS acid-induced colitis were treated with curcumin (30 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg per day ip). Changes of body weight and histological scores as well as survival rate were evaluated. Leukocyte infiltration was detected by myeloperoxidase (MPO)activity assay. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot.Inflammation cytokines were determined by RT-PCR.Local concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in colon mucosa was determined by ELISA.RESULTS: Curcumin improved survival rate and histological image, decreased the macroscopic scores and MPO activity. Also curcumin reduced the expression of COX-2 and inflammation cytokines. In addition,treatment with curcumin increased the PGE2 level.CONCLUSION: Curcumin has therapeutic effects on TNBS acid-induced colitis, the mechanisms seem to be related to COX-2 inhibition and PGE2 improvement.

  12. Chronic valproate attenuates some, but not all, facets of mania-like behavior in mice

    OpenAIRE

    van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Geyer, Mark A.; Kooistra, Klaas; Young, Jared W.

    2012-01-01

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) mania is a psychiatric disorder with multifaceted symptoms. Development of targeted treatments for BD mania may benefit from animal models that mimic multiple symptoms, as opposed to hyperactivity alone. Using the reverse-translated multivariate exploratory paradigm, the Behavioral Pattern Monitor (BPM), we reported that patients with BD mania exhibit hyperactivity as well as increased specific exploration and more linear movements through space. This abnormal profile is...

  13. Puerarin attenuates cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress in vascular dementia rats induced by chronic ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jing; Guo, Wenshi; Tian, Buxian; Sun, Menghan; Li, Hui; Zhou, Lina; Liu, Xueping

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explored the effects of puerarin on cognitive deficits and tissue oxidative stress and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: 6 to 8 week old male Wistar rats were adopted as experimental animals. Morris water maze (MWM) test was adopted to test the learning and memory function of rats. MDA, glutathione peroxidase and total thiol assessment was done to reflect the oxidative stress in the brain tissue. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) and flow cytometry (FCM) were performed to examine the...

  14. Prolonged endothelin A receptor blockade attenuates chronic pulmonary hypertension in the ovine fetus.

    OpenAIRE

    Ivy, D. D.; Parker, T A; Ziegler, J W; Galan, H L; Kinsella, J P; Tuder, R M; Abman, S H

    1997-01-01

    Based on past studies of an experimental model of severe intrauterine pulmonary hypertension, we hypothesized that endothelin-1 (ET-1) contributes to high pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), hypertensive lung structural changes, and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) caused by prolonged closure of the ductus arteriosus. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of BQ 123, a selective ET(A) receptor antagonist, after ligation of the ductus arteriosus in utero. In 19 late gestation feta...

  15. Chronic daily headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

  16. Management of chronic paronychia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Relhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic paronychia is an inflammatory disorder of the nail folds of a toe or finger presenting as redness, tenderness, and swelling. It is recalcitrant dermatoses seen commonly in housewives and housemaids. It is a multifactorial inflammatory reaction of the proximal nail fold to irritants and allergens. Repeated bouts of inflammation lead to fibrosis of proximal nail fold with poor generation of cuticle, which in turn exposes the nail further to irritants and allergens. Thus, general preventive measures form cornerstone of the therapy. Though previously anti-fungals were the mainstay of therapy, topical steroid creams have been found to be more effective in the treatment of chronic paronychia. In recalcitrant cases, surgical treatment may be resorted to, which includes en bloc excision of the proximal nail fold or an eponychial marsupialization, with or without nail plate removal. Newer therapies and surgical modalities are being employed in the management of chronic paronychia. In this overview, we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to chronic paronychia, discuss the challenges chronic paronychia presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management.

  17. Attenuation of CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice by vaccinating against TGF-β1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobao Fan

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 is the pivotal pro-fibrogenic cytokine in hepatic fibrosis. Reducing the over-produced expression of TGF-β1 or blocking its signaling pathways is considered to be a promising therapeutic strategy for hepatic fibrosis. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of attenuating hepatic fibrosis by vaccination against TGF-β1 with TGF-β1 kinoids. Two TGF-β1 kinoid vaccines were prepared by cross-linking TGF-β1-derived polypeptides (TGF-β1(25-[41-65] and TGF-β1(30-[83-112] to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH. Immunization with the two TGF-β1 kinoids efficiently elicited the production of high-levels of TGF-β1-specific antibodies against in BALB/c mice as tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Western blotting. The antisera neutralized TGF-β1-induced growth-inhibition on mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu and attenuated TGF-β1-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation, α-SMA, collagen type 1 alpha 2 (COL1A2, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 expression in the rat hepatic stellate cell (HSC line, HSC-T6. Vaccination against TGF-β1 with the kinoids significantly suppressed CCl4-induced collagen deposition and the expression of α-SMA and desmin, attenuated hepatocyte apoptosis and accelerated hepatocyte proliferation in BALB/c mice. These results demonstrated that immunization with the TGF-β1 kinoids efficiently attenuated CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis and liver injury. Our study suggests that vaccination against TGF-β1 might be developed into a feasible therapeutic approach for the treatment of chronic fibrotic liver diseases.

  18. Lactoferrin in Chronic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Xiang Jin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present review is focused on the clinical significance of lactoferrin in pancreatic secretions and stone formation in chronic pancreatitis, and of serum anti-lactoferrin antibody in autoimmune pancreatitis. Lactoferrin secretion is increased in pancreatic secretions in calcified and non-calcified chronic pancreatitis. Lactoferrin, pancreatic stone protein and trypsin are present in pancreatic stones. We cannot conclude which protein is more important for the precipitate and stone formation. The presence of antilactoferrin antibody has been reported in serum in autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune pancreatitis. The coincidental appearance of autoimmune pancreatitis with extrapancreatic autoimmune diseases strongly suggests a common autoimmune mechanism and lactoferrin is a candidate antigen. Lactoferrin may play an important role as a precipitate protein in pancreatic stone formation in chronic pancreatitis and as an autoantigen in autoimmune pancreatitis. Further studies are required to better understand the role of lactoferin.

  19. Chronic urticaria: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Malcolm W; Tan, Kian Teo

    2007-10-01

    Chronic urticaria is an umbrella term, which encompasses physical urticarias, chronic "idiopathic" urticaria and urticarial vasculitis. It is important to recognize patients with physical urticarias as the investigation and treatment differs in important ways from patients with idiopathic chronic urticaria or urticarial vasculitis. Although relatively uncommon, urticarial vasculitis is an important diagnosis to make and requires histological confirmation by biopsy. Underlying systemic disease and systemic involvement, especially of the kidneys, should be sought. It is now recognized that chronic "idiopathic" urticaria includes a subset with an autoimmune basis caused by circulating autoantibodies against the high affinity IgE receptor (FceR1) and less commonly against IgE. Although the autologous serum skin test has been proven useful in prompting search for and characterization of circulating wheal-producing factors in chronic urticaria, its specificity as a screening test for presence of functional anti-FceR1 is low, and confirmation by demonstration of histamine-releasing activity in the patient's serum must be the benchmark test in establishing this diagnosis. Improved screening tests are being sought; for example, ability of the chronic urticaria patient's serum to evoke expression of CD 203c on donor human basophils is showing some promise. The strong association between autoimmune thyroid disease and autoimmune urticaria is also an area of ongoing research. Drug treatment continues to be centered on the H1 antihistamines, and the newer second-generation compounds appear to be safe and effective even in off-label dosage. Use of systemic steroids should be confined to special circumstances such as tapering regimens for acute flare-ups. Use of leukotriene antagonists is becoming popular, but the evidence for efficacy is conflicting. Cyclosporin is also effective and can be used in selected cases of autoimmune urticaria, and it is also effective in non

  20. Coriolis attenuation in the rare earth region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the observed rotational band structure in a number of odd-proton and odd-neutron nuclei situated in the rare earth region, can be reproduced in the particle-rotor model without any ad hoc reduction of the Coriolis matrix elements if a value of the pairing gap parameter, which is about 30-40% of that deduced from the corresponding odd-even mass difference, is used. The importance of the proper choice of the pairing gap parameter in the study of the Coriolis attenuation problem is emphasised. (orig.)

  1. Omalizumab for chronic urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivyanskiy, Ilya; Sand, Carsten; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2012-01-01

    urticaria. We present a case series of 19 patients with chronic urticaria treated in a university department with omalizumab and give an overview of the existing literature comprising an additional 59 cases as well as a total of 139 patients enrolled in two randomized controlled trials comparing omalizumab......Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks the high-affinity Fc receptor of IgE. Omalizumab has been approved for the treatment of moderate to severe asthma; however, there is currently more and more data showing promising results in the management also of chronic...

  2. Chronic lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, K.; Straub, P.W.

    1974-02-19

    A detailed description is given of the complex pathological picture observed in the case of a worker with 30 years' occupational exposure to lead in an accumulator factory (evolution of the disease, clinical findings, autopsy). In spite of a typical clinical picture, lead is not held responsible for the terminal encephalopathy, in view of the fact that Alzheimer's syndrome was discovered at autopsy. However, the neurovegetative asthenia and progressive kidney disease without hypertonia, but with uraemia, which preceded the encephalopathy are in all probability due to chronic lead poisoning. The article discusses the diagnosis and symptomatology of chronic lead poisoning, encephalopathy and kidney disease.

  3. Carbohydrate supplementation attenuates decrement in performance in overtrained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho de Oliveira, Caio Victor; Barbosa, Carlos Vinícius; Massa, Nayara Moreira; Pereira, Reabias de Andrade; Félix, Gustavo da Silva; Aquino, Jailane de Souza; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate ingestion at the end of a single exercise is recognized as delaying fatigue and accelerating recovery, but whether chronic ingestion can prevent overtraining during periods of intense training has not yet been elucidated. This study aimed to determine whether carbohydrate supplementation minimizes overtraining in Wistar rats. The animals underwent 11 weeks of training (running) on a treadmill, and the last 3 weeks were designed to induce overtraining. One group was supplemented with carbohydrates (EX-CHO) (n = 13), 1 group had no supplementation (EX) (n = 10), and a third group remained inactive (C) (n = 9). Performance tests were given before training (Pr1) and at the 8th (Pr2) and 11th (Pr3) training week. Food intake, body weight, testosterone, cortisol, malondialdehyde, creatine kinase, and activities of the PI3-K, Akt-1, mTOR, and GSK-3 enzymes were measured. In the EX group, there was a significant 32.6% performance decrease at Pr3 when compared with Pr2. In addition, at protocol completion, the EX-CHO group had a greater gastrocnemius weight than did the C group (p = 0.02), which the EX group did not. Training caused anorexia, decreased testosterone (p = 0.001), and increased malondialdehyde (p = 0.009) in both exercise groups compared with the C group, with no influence of carbohydrate supplementation on these variables (p > 0.05). Compared with in the C group, the activity of Akt-1 was higher in the EX-CHO group but not in the EX group (p = 0.013). Carbohydrate supplementation promoted an attenuation in the performance decrement and maintained gastrocnemius muscle mass in animals that had undergone overtraining protocols, which was accompanied by increased activity of the Akt-1 molecular indicator. PMID:26701118

  4. Cranking model and attenuation of Coriolis interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description of rotational bands of odd deformed nuclei in the self-consistent Cranking model (SCM) is given. Causes of attenuation of the Coriolis interaction in the nuclei investigated are studied, and account of bound of one-particle degrees of freedom with rotation of the Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov (HFB) self-consistent method is introduced additionally to SCM for qualitative agreement with experimental data. Merits and shortages of SCM in comparison with the quadruparticle-rotor (QR) model are discussed. All know ways for constructing the Hamiltonian QR model (or analog of such Hamiltonian) on the basis of the microscopic theory are shown to include two more approximations besides others: quasi-particle-rotational interaction leading to pair break is taken into account in the second order of the perturbation theory; some exchange diagrams are neglected among diagrams of the second order according to this interaction. If one makes the same approximations in SCM instead of HFB method, then the dependence of level energies on spin obtained in this case is turned out to be close to the results of the QR model. Besides, the problem on renormalization of matrix elements of quasi-rotational interaction occurs in such nonself-consistent approach as in the QR model. In so far as the similar problem does not occur in SCM, one can make the conclusion that the problem of attenuation of Coriolis interaction involves the approximations given above

  5. Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A 30-day 6 deg. head-down bed rest study was conducted to evaluate high-intensity, short-duration, alternating isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regiments designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (acclimation) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (a) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (b) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40%, but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regiments, and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  6. Photon attenuation characteristics of barium enriched cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear radiations are widely used in several applications of nuclear sciences, medicine and industry. In the design and construction of installations housing high intensity radioactive sources and other radiation generating equipment, a variety of shielding materials are used to minimise the exposure to the individuals. Among the materials used, lead is best known for radiation shielding due to its high density and atomic number. However, in construction of radiation facilities, lead in the form of bricks or slabs cannot be substituted for cement as building material. As an alternative, barium enriched cement, which apart from better compressive strength, smoother surface finish and high abrasive resistance, offers adequate shielding to gamma radiations. In the present work, attenuation properties of commercial as well as barium enriched cements have been studied and compared with that of lead for photons of 662 and 1250 keV emitted from 137Cs and 60Co, respectively. Although photon attenuation data can be obtained by mixture rule theoretically, it is necessary to determine this data experimentally before use

  7. Fuselage panel noise attenuation by piezoelectric switching control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makihara, Kanjuro; Miyakawa, Takeya; Onoda, Junjiro; Minesugi, Kenji

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes a problem that we encountered in our noise attenuation project and our solution for it. We intend to attenuate low-frequency noise that transmits through aircraft fuselage panels. Our method of noise attenuation is implemented with a piezoelectric semi-active system having a selective switch instead of an active energy-supply system. The semi-active controller is based on the predicted sound pressure distribution obtained from acoustic emission analysis. Experiments and numerical simulations demonstrate that the semi-active method attenuates acoustic levels of not only the simple monochromatic noise but also of broadband noise. We reveal that tuning the electrical parameters in the circuit is the key to effective noise attenuation, to overcome the acoustic excitation problem due to sharp switching actions, as well as to control chattering problems. The results obtained from this investigation provide meaningful insights into designing noise attenuation systems for comfortable aircraft cabin environments.

  8. Applying Echoes Mean Frequency Shift for Attenuation Imaging in Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litniewski, J.; Klimonda, Z.; Nowicki, A.

    The purpose of this study was to develop the attenuation parametric imaging technique and to apply it for in vivo characterization of tissue. Local attenuation coefficient was determined by evaluating the frequency downshift that encounters the amplitude spectrum of the interrogating ultrasonic pulse during propagation in the absorbing tissue. Operation and accuracy of the processing methods were verified by assessing the size-independent region of interest (ROI) for attenuation determination and calculating the attenuation coefficient distribution for experimentally recorded tissue-phantom scattered waveforms. The Siemens Antares scanner equipped with Ultrasound Research Interface unit allowing for direct radiofrequency (RF) signals recording was used for B-scan imaging of the tissue- mimicking phantom in vitro and liver in vivo. RF data were processed to determine attenuation coefficient along the B-scan lines. Also, the preliminary studies of backscattered signals from skin recorded using a skin scanner were performed to calculate parametric-attenuation images.

  9. Fuselage panel noise attenuation by piezoelectric switching control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a problem that we encountered in our noise attenuation project and our solution for it. We intend to attenuate low-frequency noise that transmits through aircraft fuselage panels. Our method of noise attenuation is implemented with a piezoelectric semi-active system having a selective switch instead of an active energy-supply system. The semi-active controller is based on the predicted sound pressure distribution obtained from acoustic emission analysis. Experiments and numerical simulations demonstrate that the semi-active method attenuates acoustic levels of not only the simple monochromatic noise but also of broadband noise. We reveal that tuning the electrical parameters in the circuit is the key to effective noise attenuation, to overcome the acoustic excitation problem due to sharp switching actions, as well as to control chattering problems. The results obtained from this investigation provide meaningful insights into designing noise attenuation systems for comfortable aircraft cabin environments

  10. Low chronic radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents where large territories have been contaminated durably and as consequence where local populations are submitted to chronic low radiation doses, IRSN (French institute for radiation protection and nuclear safety) has led various studies to assess the impact of chronic low doses. Studies about the effects of uranium on marine life show that the impact is strongly dependent on the initial state of the individual (zebra Danio rerio fish). The studies about the impact of chronic low doses due to cesium and strontium contamination show different bio-accumulations: 137Cs is found in the animal's whole body with higher concentrations in muscles and kidneys while 90Sr is found almost exclusively in bones and it accumulates more in female mice than in males. The study dedicated to the sanitary impact of chronic low doses on the workers of the nuclear industry shows a higher risk for developing a leukemia, a pleural cancer or a melanoma but no correlation appears between doses and the appearance of the pleural cancer or the melanoma. (A.C.)

  11. Chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enable JavaScript. Chronic kidney disease is the slow loss of kidney function over time. The main job of the kidneys is to remove wastes and excess water from the body. Causes ... over months or years. You may not notice any symptoms for some time. The loss of function may be so slow that you ...

  12. Refractory chronic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martelletti, Paolo; Katsarava, Zaza; Lampl, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    The debate on the clinical definition of refractory Chronic Migraine (rCM) is still far to be concluded. The importance to create a clinical framing of these rCM patients resides in the complete disability they show, in the high risk of serious adverse events from acute and preventative drugs and...

  13. Chronic fatigue syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Bleijenberg, G.

    2006-01-01

    During the past two decades, there has been heated debate about chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) among researchers, practitioners, and patients. Few illnesses have been discussed so extensively. The existence of the disorder has been questioned, its underlying pathophysiology debated, and an effective

  14. [Chronic lichenoid keratosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupka, M; Kuhn, A; Mahrle, G

    1992-02-01

    We report on a 41-year-old woman with keratosis lichenoides chronica, a disorder first described by Kaposi in 1886 as "lichen moniliformis", who later also developed chronic lymphatic leukaemia. Since Kaposi's original report, 38 additional cases have been reported. Occurrence of keratosis lichenoides chronica associated with malignant disorders has not previously been described. PMID:1548136

  15. Chronic Mononucleosis Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shortt, S. E. D.; Haynes, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Debilitating illness in patients with only vague symptoms and minimal findings from physical examination and routine laboratory tests is frustrating for both patient and physician. A case of chronic mononucleosis is presented, and the literature describing the clinical and laboratory features of the syndrome is reviewed, with reference to four recent studies. Guidelines for diagnosis are suggested.

  16. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with chronic pain is that when we start looking for an explanation it’s not so much that we’re looking in the wrong place, but we may be looking in the wrong time. And what I mean ...

  17. Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in ... on the hands and feet. Muscle pain. Itching. Diarrhea . Stages of Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Key Points There is no standard staging system ...

  18. Autoantibodies in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Marner, B; Pedersen, N T;

    1985-01-01

    In 60 consecutive patients clinically suspected of having chronic pancreatitis the serum concentration of the immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), the IgG- and IgA-type non-organ-specific autoantibodies against nuclear material (ANA), smooth and striated muscle, mitochondria, basal membrane, and...

  19. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... manageable, but chronic pain is different. And because it is different, we need to think about it in very different ways. Ed Covington, M.D.: ... no apparent physical injury or illness to explain it. The physician and the patient are accustomed to ...

  20. Attenuation of antagonist-induced impairment of dopamine receptors by L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken in order to determine whether chronic,long-term postnatal challenge of rat pups per se, with specific dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists, would modify the ontogeny of the respective receptor types. Since the neuropeptide L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide (PLG) attenuates the effect of haloperidol on dopamine D2 receptors in adult rats it was of interest to determine whether PLG would modulate antagonists-induced alterations in the ontogeny of striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. Half of the rats were treated daily for 32 days from birth with SCH-23390, a selective dopamine D1 antagonist; or spiroperidol, a selective dopamine D2 antagonists; or both SCH-23390 and spiroperidol; or saline. The other half of the litters were treated with PLG, in combination with the other treatments. Animals were decapitated at 5, 8, and 12 weeks from birth for neurochemical analysis of the striatum. Chronic SCH-23390 treatment produced a 70-80% decrease in the binding of [3H] SCH-23390 to striatal homogenates. The alteration at 5 weeks was associated with a 78% decrease in the Bmax for [3H] SCH-23390 binding, and no change in the KD. Similarly, at 5, 8, and 12 weeks, chronic spiroperidol treatment reduced the binding of [3H] spiroperidol to striatal homogenates by 70-80%

  1. The photon attenuation coefficients of barite, marble and limra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linear attenuation coefficients μ (cm-1) and total mass attenuation coefficients ((μ)/(ρ)) (cm2 g-1) of γ-rays for barite, marble and limra have been calculated using the XCOM program (Version 3.1) at energies from 1 keV to 300 MeV. The calculated results were compared with the estimation coefficients ((μ)/(ρ)) based on the measured total linear attenuation coefficients (μ)

  2. Measurement of crack length by ultrasonic attenuation coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient was measured by variation of crack length for Double-Cantilever Beam(DCB) specimen. The energy release rate, G, was obtained by the experimental measurement of compliance. The experimental results represents that the crack length for the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and energy release rate is increases proportionally. From the experimental results, we proposed a detecting method of the crack length by the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and discussed it

  3. Chronic Pain: Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the treatment. Treatment With chronic pain, the goal of treatment is to reduce pain and improve ... some treatments used for chronic pain. Less invasive psychotherapy, relaxation therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also ...

  4. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...

  5. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Share Compartir Symptoms On this Page ... Symptoms What's the Clinical Course of CFS? Chronic fatigue syndrome can be misdiagnosed or overlooked because its ...

  6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Vijayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec to FVC (forced vital capacity ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure, hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity, bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia, stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  7. Defining and Measuring Chronic Conditions

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-20

    This podcast is an interview with Dr. Anand Parekh, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health, and Dr. Samuel Posner, Preventing Chronic Disease Editor in Chief, about the definition and burden of multiple chronic conditions in the United States.  Created: 5/20/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/20/2013.

  8. Importance of Attenuation Correction (AC for Small Animal PET Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik H. El Ali

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a correction for annihilation photon attenuation in small objects such as mice is necessary. The attenuation recovery for specific organs and subcutaneous tumors was investigated. A comparison between different attenuation correction methods was performed. Methods: Ten NMRI nude mice with subcutaneous implantation of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 were scanned consecutively in small animal PET and CT scanners (MicroPETTM Focus 120 and ImTek’s MicroCATTM II. CT-based AC, PET-based AC and uniform AC methods were compared. Results: The activity concentration in the same organ with and without AC revealed an overall attenuation recovery of 9–21% for MAP reconstructed images, i.e., SUV without AC could underestimate the true activity at this level. For subcutaneous tumors, the attenuation was 13 ± 4% (9–17%, for kidneys 20 ± 1% (19–21%, and for bladder 18 ± 3% (15–21%. The FBP reconstructed images showed almost the same attenuation levels as the MAP reconstructed images for all organs. Conclusions: The annihilation photons are suffering attenuation even in small subjects. Both PET-based and CT-based are adequate as AC methods. The amplitude of the AC recovery could be overestimated using the uniform map. Therefore, application of a global attenuation factor on PET data might not be accurate for attenuation correction.

  9. Attenuation characteristics of ultrasonic pulse in carbon/phenolic composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of porosity in a fiber-reinforced composite may have a critical effect on the composite's mechanical properties and service performance. Detection and characterization of porosity by nondestructive, especially ultrasonic, testing have received considerable attention in recent years. In this paper, the velocity and attenuation of longitudinal and shear ultrasonic pulse in carbon/phenolic composite were measured using through-transmission technique. And the attenuation characteristics were determined and analyzed as a function of frequency. These results show that the main mechanism of attenuation is Rayleigh scattering from porosity and the change of the volume fraction of porosity is associated with that of attenuation slope.

  10. Rain Attenuation Analysis using Synthetic Storm Technique in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwas, A. K.; Islam, Md R.; Chebil, J.; Habaebi, M. H.; Ismail, A. F.; Zyoud, A.; Dao, H.

    2013-12-01

    Generated rain attenuation time series plays an important role for investigating the rain fade characteristics in the lack of real fade measurements. A suitable conversion technique can be applied to measured rain rate time series to produce rain attenuation data and be utilized to understand the rain fade characteristics. This paper focuses on applicability of synthetic storm technique (SST) to convert measured rain rate data to rain attenuation time series. Its performance is assessed for time series generation over a tropical location Kuala Lumpur, in Malaysia. From preliminary analysis, it is found that SST gives satisfactory results to estimate the rain attenuation time series from the rain rate measurements over this region.

  11. Damping factor estimation using spin wave attenuation in permalloy film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damping factor of a Permalloy (Py) thin film is estimated by using the magnetostatic spin wave propagation. The attenuation lengths are obtained by the dependence of the transmission intensity on the antenna distance, and decrease with increasing magnetic fields. The relationship between the attenuation length, damping factor, and external magnetic field is derived theoretically, and the damping factor was determined to be 0.0063 by fitting the magnetic field dependence of the attenuation length, using the derived equation. The obtained value is in good agreement with the general value of Py. Thus, this estimation method of the damping factor using spin waves attenuation can be useful tool for ferromagnetic thin films

  12. Nrf2 activation as a future target of therapy for chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rame Taha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation integrally related to oxidative stress has been increasingly recognized as a contributing factor in various chronic diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, pulmonary diseases, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases as well as premature aging. Thus, inhibiting this vicious circle has the potential to delay, prevent progression, and treat those diseases. However, adverse effects of current anti-inflammatory drugs and the failure of exogenous antioxidant encourage scientists to develop new therapeutic alternatives. The nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is the transcription factor that is responsible for the expression of antioxidant response element (ARE-regulated genes and have been described as having many therapeutic effects. In this review, we have discussed the role of oxidative stress in various chronic diseases. Furthermore, we have also explored various novel ways to activate Nrf2 either directly or indirectly, which may have therapeutic potential in attenuating oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction that contributes to chronic diseases

  13. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

    2010-03-15

    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE

  14. Sustained acceleration of colonic transit following chronic homotypic stress in oxytocin knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babygirija, Reji; Bülbül, Mehmet; Cerjak, Diana; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku

    2011-05-01

    Acute restraint stress delays gastric emptying and accelerates colonic transit via central corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in rats. In contrast, central oxytocin has anxiolytic effects and attenuates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in response to stress. Our recent study showed that up regulated oxytocin expression attenuates hypothalamic CRF expression and restores impaired gastric motility following chronic homotypic stress in mice. We studied the effects of acute and chronic homotypic stress on colonic transit and hypothalamic CRF mRNA expression in wild type (WT) and oxytocin knockout (OXT-KO) mice. Colonic transit was measured following acute restraint stress or chronic homotypic stress (repeated restraint stress for 5 consecutive days). (51)Cr was injected via a catheter into the proximal colon. Ninety minutes after restraint stress loading, the entire colon was removed. The geometric center (GC) was calculated to evaluate colonic transit. Expression of CRF mRNA in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) was measured by real time RT-PCR. Colonic transit was significantly accelerated following acute stress in WT (GC=8.1±0.8; n=7) and OXT KO mice (GC=9.4±0.3; n=7). The accelerated colonic transit was significantly attenuated in WT mice (GC=6.6±0.5; n=9) following chronic homotypic stress while it was still accelerated in OXT KO mice (GC=9.3±0.5; n=8). The increase in CRF mRNA expression at the SON was much greater in OXT-KO mice, compared to WT mice following chronic homotypic stress. It is suggested that oxytocin plays a pivotal role in mediating the adaptation mechanism following chronic homotypic stress in mice. PMID:21439349

  15. Definition of Genetically Distinct Attenuation Mechanisms in Naturally Virulence-Attenuated Listeria monocytogenes by Comparative Cell Culture and Molecular Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Angela; Chan, Yvonne; Wiedmann, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen able to cause serious disease in humans and animals. Not all isolates are equally pathogenic, however, and several isolates have been characterized as naturally virulence attenuated. We sought to identify the genetic basis of natural virulence attenuation using cell culture assays and molecular techniques. By comparing the phenotypes of naturally virulence-attenuated isolates to those of defined virulence gene mutants in plaque, cytotoxicity, and...

  16. L-arginine increases nitric oxide and attenuates pressor and heart rate responses to change in posture in sickle cell anemia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogungbemi, S I; Anigbogu, C N; Kehinde, M O; Jaja, S I

    2013-01-01

    Pressor and heart rate changes following change in posture without or with L-arginine supplementation (1g/day for 6 weeks) were studied in 28 sickle cell anemia (SCA) and 32 non-sickle cell anemia (NSCA) subjects. Change in posture increased HR (pplasma L-Arginine concentration ([R]) in both groups of subjects (pnitric oxide metabolites concentration ([NOx]) (pChange (Δ) [R] correlated positively with Δ [NOx] in both groups (+ 0.7 in each group). L-Arginine supplementation caused greater reduction of MABP (pchange in posture were attenuated in the two groups. However, while HR and RPP responses in SCAS were attenuated, the same responses were enhanced in NSCAS by change in posture after supplementation. In conclusion, study shows that oral, low dose, chronic supplementation with L-arginine increased NO availability and attenuated pressor and heart rate responses to change in posture in sickle cell anemia subjects. PMID:23955406

  17. Microglia disrupt mesolimbic reward circuitry in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anna M W; Castonguay, Annie; Taylor, Alison J; Murphy, Niall P; Ghogha, Atefeh; Cook, Christopher; Xue, Lihua; Olmstead, Mary C; De Koninck, Yves; Evans, Christopher J; Cahill, Catherine M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic pain attenuates midbrain dopamine (DA) transmission, as evidenced by a decrease in opioid-evoked DA release in the ventral striatum, suggesting that the occurrence of chronic pain impairs reward-related behaviors. However, mechanisms by which pain modifies DA transmission remain elusive. Using in vivo microdialysis and microinjection of drugs into the mesolimbic DA system, we demonstrate in mice and rats that microglial activation in the VTA compromises not only opioid-evoked release of DA, but also other DA-stimulating drugs, such as cocaine. Our data show that loss of stimulated extracellular DA is due to impaired chloride homeostasis in midbrain GABAergic interneurons. Treatment with minocycline or interfering with BDNF signaling restored chloride transport within these neurons and recovered DA-dependent reward behavior. Our findings demonstrate that a peripheral nerve injury causes activated microglia within reward circuitry that result in disruption of dopaminergic signaling and reward behavior. These results have broad implications that are not restricted to the problem of pain, but are also relevant to affective disorders associated with disruption of reward circuitry. Because chronic pain causes glial activation in areas of the CNS important for mood and affect, our findings may translate to other disorders, including anxiety and depression, that demonstrate high comorbidity with chronic pain. PMID:26041913

  18. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokines in hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Qing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Wang, Fu-Xin [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154002 (China); Ren, Jun [Center for Cardiovascular Research and Alternative Medicine, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Li, Hong-Bao; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Qing; Miao, Yu-Wang; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Qi, Jie [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhu, Zhiming [Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing Institute of Hypertension, Chongqing 400042 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2014-04-15

    Aims: To explore whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger (tempol) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), and decreases the blood pressure and sympathetic activity in angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension. Methods and results: Male Sprague–Dawley rats were infused intravenously with ANG II (10 ng/kg per min) or normal saline (NS) for 4 weeks. These rats were treated with bilateral PVN infusion of oxygen free radical scavenger tempol (TEMP, 20 μg/h) or vehicle (artificial cerebrospinal fluid, aCSF) for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). These ANG II-infused rats also had higher levels of gp91{sup phox} (a subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in the PVN than the control animals. Treatment with PVN infusion of TEMP attenuated the overexpression of gp91{sup phox}, ACE and IL-1β within the PVN, and decreased sympathetic activity and MAP in ANG II-infused rats. Conclusion: These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces elevated PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN, which contribute to the sympathoexcitation in hypertension. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system, proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in ANG II-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • The effect of chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide on hypertension was investigated. • ANG II infusion induced increased proinflammatory cytokines and superoxide in PVN. • ANG II infusion resulted in oxidative stress, sympathoexcitation and hypertension. • Chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide attenuates RAS and cytokines in hypertension.

  19. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokines in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: To explore whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger (tempol) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), and decreases the blood pressure and sympathetic activity in angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension. Methods and results: Male Sprague–Dawley rats were infused intravenously with ANG II (10 ng/kg per min) or normal saline (NS) for 4 weeks. These rats were treated with bilateral PVN infusion of oxygen free radical scavenger tempol (TEMP, 20 μg/h) or vehicle (artificial cerebrospinal fluid, aCSF) for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). These ANG II-infused rats also had higher levels of gp91phox (a subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in the PVN than the control animals. Treatment with PVN infusion of TEMP attenuated the overexpression of gp91phox, ACE and IL-1β within the PVN, and decreased sympathetic activity and MAP in ANG II-infused rats. Conclusion: These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces elevated PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN, which contribute to the sympathoexcitation in hypertension. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system, proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in ANG II-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • The effect of chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide on hypertension was investigated. • ANG II infusion induced increased proinflammatory cytokines and superoxide in PVN. • ANG II infusion resulted in oxidative stress, sympathoexcitation and hypertension. • Chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide attenuates RAS and cytokines in hypertension

  20. Core disgust is attenuated by ingroup relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicher, Stephen D; Templeton, Anne; Neville, Fergus; Ferrari, Lucienne; Drury, John

    2016-03-01

    We present the first experimental evidence to our knowledge that ingroup relations attenuate core disgust and that this helps explain the ability of groups to coact. In study 1, 45 student participants smelled a sweaty t-shirt bearing the logo of another university, with either their student identity (ingroup condition), their specific university identity (outgroup condition), or their personal identity (interpersonal condition) made salient. Self-reported disgust was lower in the ingroup condition than in the other conditions, and disgust mediated the relationship between condition and willingness to interact with target. In study 2, 90 student participants smelled a sweaty target t-shirt bearing either the logo of their own university, another university, or no logo, with either their student identity or their specific university identity made salient. Walking time to wash hands and pumps of soap indicated that disgust was lower where the relationship between participant and target was ingroup rather than outgroup or ambivalent (no logo). PMID:26903640

  1. Turbulence attenuation by large neutrally buoyant particles

    CERN Document Server

    Cisse, Mamadou; Gibert, Mathieu; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Bec, Jeremie

    2015-01-01

    Turbulence modulation by inertial-range-size, neutrally-buoyant particles is investigated experimentally in a von K\\'arm\\'an flow. Increasing the particle volume fraction $\\Phi_\\mathrm{v}$, maintaining constant impellers Reynolds number attenuates the fluid turbulence. The inertial-range energy transfer rate decreases as $\\propto\\Phi_\\mathrm{v}^{2/3}$, suggesting that only particles located on a surface affect the flow. Small-scale turbulent properties, such as structure functions or acceleration distribution, are unchanged. Finally, measurements hint at the existence of a transition between two different regimes occurring when the average distance between large particles is of the order of the thickness of their boundary layers.

  2. On wind influence on FSO link attenuation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázda, Vladimír; Fišer, Ondřej; Chládová, Zuzana; Poliak, J.; Schejbal, V.

    New York : IEEE, 2013, s. 966-968. ISBN 978-1-4673-2187-7. ISSN 2164-3342. [European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP) 2013 /7./. Gothenburg (SE), 08.04.2013-12.04.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/1376 Grant ostatní: COST action(XE) IC1101 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : FSO * Atmospheric Attenuation * Wind Impact Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6546425&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fiel7%2F6526699%2F6546197%2F06546425.pdf%3Farnumber%3D6546425

  3. Attenuation of species abundance distributions by sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimadzu, Hideyasu; Darnell, Ross

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying biodiversity aspects such as species presence/ absence, richness and abundance is an important challenge to answer scientific and resource management questions. In practice, biodiversity can only be assessed from biological material taken by surveys, a difficult task given limited time and resources. A type of random sampling, or often called sub-sampling, is a commonly used technique to reduce the amount of time and effort for investigating large quantities of biological samples. However, it is not immediately clear how (sub-)sampling affects the estimate of biodiversity aspects from a quantitative perspective. This paper specifies the effect of (sub-)sampling as attenuation of the species abundance distribution (SAD), and articulates how the sampling bias is induced to the SAD by random sampling. The framework presented also reveals some confusion in previous theoretical studies. PMID:26064626

  4. Gas sensor with attenuated drift characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ing-Shin [Danbury, CT; Chen, Philip S. H. [Bethel, CT; Neuner, Jeffrey W [Bethel, CT; Welch, James [Fairfield, CT; Hendrix, Bryan [Danbury, CT; Dimeo, Jr., Frank [Danbury, CT

    2008-05-13

    A sensor with an attenuated drift characteristic, including a layer structure in which a sensing layer has a layer of diffusional barrier material on at least one of its faces. The sensor may for example be constituted as a hydrogen gas sensor including a palladium/yttrium layer structure formed on a micro-hotplate base, with a chromium barrier layer between the yttrium layer and the micro-hotplate, and with a tantalum barrier layer between the yttrium layer and an overlying palladium protective layer. The gas sensor is useful for detection of a target gas in environments susceptible to generation or incursion of such gas, and achieves substantial (e.g., >90%) reduction of signal drift from the gas sensor in extended operation, relative to a corresponding gas sensor lacking the diffusional barrier structure of the invention

  5. Attenuation of neutrons through ducts and labyrinths

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro, Egidio

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been performed for the attenuation of neutron radiation produced at proton accelerators through ducts and labyrinths of various design, and the results are compared with the predictions made by analytical expressions available in the literature. The results show that the so-called universal transmission curves are an appropriate and simple tool applicable in many situations, when the radiation source is not in direct view of the duct mouth. This is not the case for point sources located in front of the duct. The simulations showed that it is not possible to apply the same models because the transmission factor is strongly dependent on the cross-sectional area of the duct. A universal expression has been derived to estimate the neutron transmission through a straight duct of length d and cross-sectional area A in direct view of the source, which only depends on A and on a small set of numerical coefficients.

  6. Possible solution of the Coriolis attenuation problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most consistently useful simple model for the study of odd deformed nuclei, the particle-rotor model (strong-coupling limit of the core-particle coupling model) has nevertheless been beset by a long-standing problem: It is necessary in many cases to introduce an ad hoc parameter that reduces the size of the Coriolis interaction coupling the collective and single-particle motions. Of the numerous suggestions put forward for the origin of this supplementary interaction, none of those actually tested by calculations has been accepted as the solution of the problem. In this paper we seek a solution for the difficulty within the framework of a general formalism that starts from the spherical shell model and is capable of treating an arbitrary linear combination of multipole and pairing forces. With the restriction of the interaction to the familiar sum of a quadrupole multipole force and a monopole pairing force, we have previously studied a semimicroscopic version of the formalism whose framework is nevertheless more comprehensive than any previously applied to the problem. We obtained solutions for low-lying bands of several strongly deformed odd rare-earth nuclei and found good agreement with experiment, except for an exaggerated staggering of levels for K=(1)/(2) bands, which can be understood as a manifestation of the Coriolis attenuation problem. We argue that within the formalism utilized, the only way to improve the physics is to add interactions to the model Hamiltonian. We verify that by adding a magnetic dipole interaction of essentially fixed strength, we can fit the K=(1)/(2) bands without destroying the agreement with other bands. In addition we show that our solution also fits 163Er, a classic test case of Coriolis attenuation that we had not previously studied. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  7. A miniaturized reconfigurable broadband attenuator based on RF MEMS switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin; Gong, Zhuhao; Zhong, Qi; Liang, Xiaotong; Liu, Zewen

    2016-07-01

    Reconfigurable attenuators are widely used in microwave measurement instruments. Development of miniaturized attenuation devices with high precision and broadband performance is required for state-of-the-art applications. In this paper, a compact 3-bit microwave attenuator based on radio frequency micro-electro-mechanical system (RF MEMS) switches and polysilicon attenuation modules is presented. The device comprises 12 ohmic contact MEMS switches, π-type polysilicon resistive attenuation modules and microwave compensate structures. Special attention was paid to the design of the resistive network, compensate structures and system simulation. The device was fabricated using micromachining processes compatible with traditional integrated circuit fabrication processes. The reconfigurable attenuator integrated with RF MEMS switches and resistive attenuation modules was successfully fabricated with dimensions of 2.45  ×  4.34  ×  0.5 mm3, which is 1/1000th of the size of a conventional step attenuator. The measured RF performance revealed that the attenuator provides 10–70 dB attenuation at 10 dB intervals from 0.1–20 GHz with an accuracy better than  ±1.88 dB at 60 dB and an error of less than 2.22 dB at 10 dB. The return loss of each state of the 3-bit attenuator was better than 11.95 dB (VSWR  <  1.71) over the entire operating band.

  8. Chronic complicated osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen patients with prior trauma and/or surgery of the lower extremity and suspected active chronic osteomyelitis underwent MR imaging. Eleven patients also underwent In-111 scanning. All patients had surgical confirmation, MR imaging could assess the extent of abnormal marrow and distinguish abnormal marrow due to granulation tissue from active osteomyelitis. The presence and extent of soft-tissue infection could be determined and distinguished from bone involvement in spite of tissue distortion. The course and origin of sinus tracts could be followed. MR imaging was more sensitive to active infection than In-111 scanning. All 11 cases of active osteomyelitis were correctly diagnosed with MR imaging. In-111 scans were positive in only five of the eight cases of active infection in which scans were obtained. MR imaging is useful in chronic complicated osteomyelitis

  9. Acetaminophen for Chronic Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ennis, Zandra Nymand; Dideriksen, Dorthe; Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke;

    2016-01-01

    conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. All studies were conducted in patients with hip- or knee osteoarthritis and six out of seven studies had observation periods of less than three months. All included studies showed no or little efficacy with dubious clinical relevance. In conclusion, there is little......Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is the most commonly used analgesic worldwide and recommended as first-line treatment in all pain conditions by WHO. We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate the efficacy of acetaminophen when used for chronic pain conditions. Applying three broad search...... evidence to support the efficacy of acetaminophen treatment in patients with chronic pain conditions. Assessment of continuous efficacy in the many patients using acetaminophen worldwide is recommended. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  10. [Pauciarticular juvenile chronic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberger-ten Cate, R; Fiselier, T

    1991-10-01

    On basis of clinical and immunogenetic factors most children with pauciarticular juvenile chronic arthritis can be included in one of the subtypes: type 1 and type 2 pauciarticular JCA. Type 1 occurs in young children, mainly girls, with involvement of knees, ankles or elbows. In the majority of children antinuclear antibodies can be detected. The presence of these autoantibodies is associated with chronic anterior uveitis. Type 2 or the juvenile spondylarthropathies include morbus Bechterew, the reactive arthritides and arthritis associated with psoriasis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Large joints of the lower extremities are involved, back pain is unusual at onset, but enthesitis is frequently present. There is a strong association with HLA-B27. Treatment of both subsets consists of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, application of intra-articular steroids, physio- and hydrotherapy and splinting. In children with a polyarticular course of type 1, or a prolonged course of type 2 disease modifying drugs are often needed. PMID:1957301

  11. Chronic progressive multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-lasting immunological suppression action seems to be produced by total lymphoid irradiation; some authors emphasize the favorable effect of this treatment on chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. In order to evaluate the actual role of TLI, 6 patients affected with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis were submitted to TLI with shaped and personalized fields at the Istituto del Radio, University of Brescia, Italy. The total dose delivered was 19.8 Gy in 4 weeks, 1.8 Gy/day, 5d/w; a week elapsed between the first and the second irradiation course. Disability according to Kurtzke scale was evaluated, together with blood lymphocyte count and irradiation side-effects, over a mean follow-up period of 20.8 months (range: 13-24). Our findings indicate that: a) disease progression was not markedly reduced by TLI; b) steroid hormones responsivity was restored after irradiation, and c) side-effects were mild and tolerable

  12. Ventromedial prefrontal neurokinin 1 receptor availability is reduced in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnman, Clas; Appel, Lieuwe; Furmark, Tomas; Söderlund, Anne; Gordh, Torsten; Långström, Bengt; Fredrikson, Mats

    2010-04-01

    Neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors are involved in pain and anxiety behaviors in animals, but little is known about central alterations in this receptor system in human pain. With positron emission tomography, using a [11]-Carbon labeled NK1 receptor antagonist, we demonstrate attenuated NK1 receptor availability in frontal, insular and cingulate cortex, as well as the hippocampus, amygdala and the periaqueductal gray area in patients with chronic pain. The reduced availability was most pronounced in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), where attenuations correlated to measures of fear and avoidance of movement. Further, vmPFC NK1 levels also displayed opposing influences in patients as compared to controls on regional cerebral blood flow in the anterior cingulate. We conclude that the central NK1 receptor system is altered in human chronic pain. The results suggest that NK1 receptors in the vmPFC modulate motor inhibition, and contribute to fear and avoidance of movement. PMID:20137858

  13. Chronic Cough in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, David S.

    1982-01-01

    Persistent cough in children is a symptom, and the cause should be ascertained. Reactive airways disease is the most common reason for chronic cough in children over three to six months of age, especially at night. Under three months, the cause is likely to be more serious. Cough often disturbs parents more than the child, and physicians should consider parents' need for sleep and relief when deciding whether or not to prescribe cough suppressants. Investigations depend on the child's age, th...

  14. Chronic cough in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Johana B Castro; Pine, Harold S

    2013-08-01

    The management of chronic cough, a common complaint in children, is challenging for most health care professionals. Millions of dollars are spent every year on unnecessary testing and treatment. A rational approach based on a detailed interview and a thorough physical examination guides further intervention and management. Inexpensive and simple homemade syrups based on dark honey have proved to be an effective measure when dealing with cough in children. PMID:23905830

  15. Chronic inflammatory systemic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Straub, Rainer H.; Schradin, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that during chronic inflammatory systemic diseases (CIDs) maladaptations of the immune, nervous, endocrine and reproductive system occur. Maladaptation leads to disease sequelae in CIDs. The ultimate reason of disease sequelae in CIDs remained unclear because clinicians do not consider bodily energy trade-offs and evolutionary medicine. We review the evolution of physiological supersystems, fitness consequences of genes involved in CIDs during different life-history sta...

  16. Chronic pneumonitis of infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Katsumi; Kamata, Noriko; Okazaki, Eiwa [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Moriyama, Sachiko; Funata, Nobuaki [Department of Pathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Takita, Junko; Yamada, Hideo; Takayama, Naohide [Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) is a very rare lung disease in infants and young children. We report a 33-day-old infant with CPI, focusing on the radiologic aspects of the disease. Chest radiographs showed variable and non-specific appearances including ground-glass shadowing, consolidation, volume loss, and hyperinflation. Dense alveolar opacities progressed as CPI advanced. The radiologic features of our case reflected pathologic changes. (orig.)

  17. Renal failure (chronic)

    OpenAIRE

    Clase, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is characterised by a gradual and sustained decline in renal clearance or glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Continued progression of renal failure will lead to renal function too low to sustain healthy life. In developed countries, such people will be offered renal replacement therapy in the form of dialysis or renal transplantation. Requirement for dialysis or transplantation is termed end-stage renal disease (ESRD).Diabetes, glomerulonephritis, hypertension, pyelone...

  18. Chronic cough hypersensitivity syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Morice, Alyn H.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic cough has been suggested to be due to three conditions, asthma, post nasal drip, and reflux disease. A different paradigm has evolved in which cough is viewed as the primary condition characterised by afferent neuronal hypersensitivity and different aspects of this syndrome are manifest in the different phenotypes of cough. There are several advantages to viewing cough hypersensitivity as the unifying diagnosis; Communication with patients is aided, aetiology is not restricted and the...

  19. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Racciatti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”.

    Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis

  20. Chronic alloantibody mediated rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, R. Neal; Colvin, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Alloantibodies clearly cause acute antibody mediated rejection, and all available evidence supports their pathogenic etiology in the development of chronic alloantibody mediated rejection (CAMR). But the slow evolution of this disease, the on-going immunosuppression, the variations in titer of alloantibodies, and variation in antigenic targets all complicate identifying which dynamic factors are most important clinically and pathologically. This review highlights the pathological factors rela...

  1. Clinicoroentgenological control in chronic pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive clinicoroentgenological study was used to examine 494 patients with chronic pneumonia. Morphological and functional changes observed in the pulmonary pare and functional changes observed in the pulmonary parenchyma and bronchial tree were studied. Types of pneumosclerosis, tigns of exacerbation of chronic pneumonia and abscess formation, morphological and functional disorders of bronchial penetrability in the pneumonic zone were described. Three forms of chronic pneumonia: bronchial, bronchiectatic and abscessing are signled out. The bronchial form is subdivided into chronic pneumonia with chronic bronchitis without deformity and wi.th deforming chronic bronchitis. In the bronchiectatic form pneumonia can be with cylindrical, saccular and cyst-like bronchiectasia. The general diagnosis of chronic pneumonia is established clinically depending on type and variants in 89-94% of cases, by X-ray and sonographic findings in all patients; types and variants of disease are most frequently defined after bronchography

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Peter J; Burney, Peter G J; Silverman, Edwin K; Celli, Bartolome R; Vestbo, Jørgen; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disease with high global morbidity and mortality. COPD is characterized by poorly reversible airway obstruction, which is confirmed by spirometry, and includes obstruction of the small airways (chronic obstructive bronchiolitis) and emphysema, which lead to air trapping and shortness of breath in response to physical exertion. The most common risk factor for the development of COPD is cigarette smoking, but other environmental factors, such as exposure to indoor air pollutants - especially in developing countries - might influence COPD risk. Not all smokers develop COPD and the reasons for disease susceptibility in these individuals have not been fully elucidated. Although the mechanisms underlying COPD remain poorly understood, the disease is associated with chronic inflammation that is usually corticosteroid resistant. In addition, COPD involves accelerated ageing of the lungs and an abnormal repair mechanism that might be driven by oxidative stress. Acute exacerbations, which are mainly triggered by viral or bacterial infections, are important as they are linked to a poor prognosis. The mainstay of the management of stable disease is the use of inhaled long-acting bronchodilators, whereas corticosteroids are beneficial primarily in patients who have coexisting features of asthma, such as eosinophilic inflammation and more reversibility of airway obstruction. Apart from smoking cessation, no treatments reduce disease progression. More research is needed to better understand disease mechanisms and to develop new treatments that reduce disease activity and progression. PMID:27189863

  3. Imaging of chronic osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis is made on the basis of clinical, radiologic and histologic findings. The role of imaging in patients with known chronic osteomyelitis is to detect and to delineate areas of active infection. To correctly interpret the imaging findings, it is essential to take both the individual clinical findings and previous imaging studies into account. Reliable signs of active infection are bone marrow abscess, sequestra and sinus tract formation. Only the combined evaluation of bony changes together with alterations of the adjacent soft tissues provides good diagnostic accuracy. Projection radiography gives an overview of the condition of the bone, which provides the basis for follow-up and the selection of further imaging modalities. Computed tomography can be used to evaluate even discrete or complex bony alterations and to guide percutaneous biopsy or drainage. Magnetic resonance imaging achieves the best diagnostic sensitivity and specificity and provides superior contrast as well as anatomical resolution in both bone marrow and soft tissues. In this paper the features and clinical relevance of imaging in primary chronic osteomyelitis, posttraumatic osteomyelitis, tuberculous spondylitis and osteomyelitis of the diabetic foot are reviewed, with particular respect to MRI. (orig.)

  4. Induction of a virus-specific effector–memory CD4+ T cell response by attenuated SIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gauduin, Marie-Claire; Yu, Yi; Barabasz, Amy; Carville, Angela; Piatak, Mike; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Desrosiers, Ronald C; Johnson, R. Paul

    2006-01-01

    We investigated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific CD4+ T cell responses in rhesus macaques chronically infected with attenuated or pathogenic SIV strains. Analysis of SIVΔnef-infected animals revealed a relatively high frequency of SIV-specific CD4+ T cells representing 4–10% of all CD4+ T lymphocytes directed against multiple SIV proteins. Gag-specific CD4+ T cells in wild-type SIV-infected animals were 5–10-fold lower in frequency and inversely correlated with the level of plasma...

  5. Whey peptide-based enteral diet attenuated elastase-induced emphysema with increase in short chain fatty acids in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoda, Koichi; Kubo, Kaoru; Dairiki, Kazuo; Yamaji, Taketo; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Nishii, Yasue; Nakamura, Atsuhiro; Yoshikawa, Masanori; Hamada, Kaoru; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Systemic inflammation is present in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A whey peptide-based enteral diet reduce inflammation in patients with COPD, but its effect on COPD development has not been determined. On the other hand, it is known that short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are produced by micro-flora in the gut, attenuates bronchial asthma in mice model. Methods Mice with elastase-induced emphysema were fed with 1 of 3 diets (control diet, whey peptide-based ent...

  6. Analysis of Loaded Substrate Integrated Waveguides and Attenuators

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ruo Feng; Farrall, A. J.; Young, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    This letter provides an approximate analysis of a slotted substrate integrated waveguide with periodic loading elements using the transverse resonance technique. The technique is used to design a travelling wave attenuator whereby pin diodes are capacitively coupled to the waveguide slot. By changing the bias, and therefore loading resistance, a very constant, variable attenuation is produced over the waveguide band.

  7. Periportal low-attenuation: a CT sign of lymphatic obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Chong Soo; Yang, Doo Hyun; Lee, Sang Yong; Lee, Young Whan; Chung, Gyung Ho; Han, Young Min; Sohn, Myung Hee; Choi, Ki Chul [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-15

    Periportal low attenuation, defined as a low attenuation rim around the portal vein and its branches which is seen on contrast material-enhanced CT scans, has been described in a variety of conditions. We tried to document that lymphatic obstruction is one of the major cause of periportal low attenuation. We retrospectively analyzed 57 cases of periportal low attenuation of abdominal CT scans and also reviewed the surgical records in 32 cases. Lymph node enlargement in the hepatoduodenal ligament which is a main lymphatic channel from the liver were analyzed the calculated the ratio of the transeverse diameter between the inferior vena cava and the aorta at the level of right adrenal gland. After complete surgical interruption of the lymphatic drainage from the liver in a dog, follow up CT scans were obtained and correlated with pathologic findings. Fifty patients (88%) had underlying disease which could cause impairment of lymphatic drainage. Periportal low attenuation was identified in several clinical conditions, including surgical lymph node dissection, lymphadenopathy in the hepatoduodenal ligament, blunt trauma. In animal model, CT scan showed prominent periportal low attenuation at 5 days after surgery. Histologic examination revealed numerous dilated lymphatic vessels and a marked lymphedema in the connective tissues surrounding the portal vein and its major branches. One of the major cause of periportal low attenuation was impaired lymphatic drainage and periportal low attenuation corresponding to the numerous dilated lymphatic vessels and a marked lymphedema in the connective tissues surrounding the portal vein and its major branches.

  8. Attenuated radon transform: theory and application in medicine and biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, G.T.

    1979-06-01

    A detailed analysis is given of the properties of the attenuated Radon transform and of how increases in photon attenuation influence the numerical accuracy and computation efficiency of iterative and convolution algorithms used to determine its inversion. The practical applications for this work involve quantitative assessment of the distribution of injected radiopharmaceuticals and radionuclides in man and animals for basic physiological and biochemical studies as well as clinical studies in nuclear medicine. A mathematical structure is developed using function theory and the theory of linear operators on Hilbert spaces which lends itself to better understanding the spectral properties of the attenuated Radon transform. The continuous attenuated Radon transform reduces to a matrix operator for discrete angular and lateral sampling, and the reconstruction problem reduces to a system of linear equations. For the situation of variable attenuation coefficient frequently found in nuclear medicine applications of imaging the heart and chest, the procedure developed in this thesis involves iterative techniques of performing the generalized inverse. For constant attenuation coefficient less than 0.15 cm/sup -1/, convolution methods can reliably reconstruct a 30 cm object with 0.5 cm resolution. However, for high attenuation coefficients or for the situation where there is variable attenuation such as reconstruction of distribution of isotopes in the heart, iterative techniques developed in this thesis give the best results. (ERB)

  9. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of attenuation-driven acoustic streaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that lattice Boltzmann simulations can be used to model the attenuation-driven acoustic streaming produced by a travelling wave. Comparisons are made to analytical results and to the streaming pattern produced by an imposed body force approximating the Reynolds stresses. We predict the streaming patterns around a porous material in an attenuating acoustic field

  10. Flux attenuation at NREL's High-Flux Solar Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Carl E.; Scholl, Kent L.; Lewandowski, Allan A.

    1994-10-01

    The High-Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has a faceted primary concentrator and a long focal-length-to-diameter ratio (due to its off-axis design). Each primary facet can be aimed individually to produce different flux distributions at the target plane. Two different types of attenuators are used depending on the flux distribution. A sliding-plate attenuator is used primarily when the facets are aimed at the same target point. The alternate attenuator resembles a venetian blind. Both attenuators are located between the concentrator and the focal point. The venetian-blind attenuator is primarily used to control the levels of sunlight failing on a target when the primary concentrators are not focused to a single point. This paper will demonstrate the problem of using the sliding-plate attenuator with a faceted concentrator when the facets are not aimed at the same target point. We will show that although the alternate attenuator necessarily blocks a certain amount of incoming sunlight, even when fully open, it provides a more even attenuation of the flux for alternate aiming strategies.

  11. X-Ray Form Factor, Attenuation and Scattering Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 66 X-Ray Form Factor, Attenuation and Scattering Tables (Web, free access)   This database collects tables and graphs of the form factors, the photoabsorption cross section, and the total attenuation coefficient for any element (Z <= 92).

  12. Tick passage results in enhanced attenuation of babesia bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serial blood passage of virulent Babesia bovis in splenectomized cattle results in attenuated derivatives that do not cause neurologic disease. Tick transmissibility can be lost with attenuation, and has been reported to result in a reversion to virulence following tick passage. This study provides ...

  13. Wave attenuation in mangroves; a quantitative approach to field observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horstman, E.M.; Dohmen-Janssen, C.M.; Narra, P.M.F.; Berg, van den N.J.F.; Siemerink, M.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal mangroves, dwelling at the interface between land and sea, provide an important contribution to reducing risk from coastal hazards by attenuating incident waves and by trapping and stabilizing sediments. This paper focusses on relations between vegetation densities, wave attenuation rates, s

  14. Novel monohydroxamate drugs attenuate myocardial reperfusion-induced arrhythmias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collis, C S; Rice-Evans, C; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    The novel monohydroxamates N-methyl hexanoylhydroxamic acid, N-methyl acetohydroxamic acid, and N-methyl butyrohydroxamic acid have antioxidant and iron chelating properties. They attenuated reperfusion-induced contractile dysfunction following long periods of ischaemia (50 min) in the isolated rat......, particularly N-methyl acetohydroxamic acid, attenuate reperfusion-induced arrhythmias in this model when introduced during the ischaemic period....

  15. Doxycycline Attenuated Pulmonary Fibrosis Induced by Bleomycin in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Masaki; Ye, Qing; Ouchi, Hiroshi; Harada, Eiji; Inoshima, Ichiro; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2006-01-01

    The administration of doxycycline prior to bleomycin in mice attenuated pulmonary fibrosis. Bronchoalveolar neutrophil influx and gelatinase activity, but not caseinolytic activity, were attenuated by doxycycline. Established fibrosis was not affected by doxycycline. Thus, doxycycline might be useful for slowing down pulmonary fibrosis by biological activity other than antibacterial activity.

  16. Folic acid supplementation reduces oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity in rats treated chronically with ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Soo-Jung; Kang, Myung-Hee; Min, Hyesun

    2011-01-01

    Folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia are found in most patients with alcoholic liver disease. Oxidative stress is one of the most important mechanisms contributing to homocysteine (Hcy)-induced tissue injury. However it has not been examined whether exogenous administration of folic acid attenuates oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of folic acid supplementation on oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity induced by chronic et...

  17. Progesterone and Nestorone promote myelin regeneration in chronic demyelinating lesions of corpus callosum and cerebral cortex

    OpenAIRE

    el-Etr, Martine; Rame, Marion; Boucher, Celine; Ghoumari, Abdel; Kumar, Narender; Liere, Philippe; Pianos, Antoine; Schumacher, Michael; Sitruk-Ware, Regine

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis affects mainly women and consists in intermittent or chronic damages to the myelin sheaths, focal inflammation and axonal degeneration. Current therapies are limited to immunomodulators and anti-inflammatory drugs, but there is no efficient treatment for stimulating the endogenous capacity of myelin repair. Progesterone and synthetic progestins have been shown in animal models of demyelination to attenuate myelin loss, reduce clinical symptoms severity, modulate inflammator...

  18. Sleep allostasis in chronic sleep restriction: the role of the norepinephrine system

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Youngsoo; Chen, Lichao; McCarley, Robert W.; Strecker, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep responses to chronic sleep restriction may be very different from those observed after acute total sleep deprivation. Specifically, when sleep restriction is repeated for several consecutive days, animals express attenuated compensatory increases in sleep time and intensity during daily sleep opportunities. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying these adaptive, or more specifically, allostatic, changes in sleep homeostasis are unknown. Several lines of evidence indicate that norepine...

  19. Premature Aging of the Microcirculation in Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Thang, Oanh H.D.; Serné, Erik H; Grooteman, Muriel P.C.; Smulders, Yvo M.; ter Wee, Piet M.; Tangelder, Geert-Jan; Nubé, Menso J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing age and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are both associated with an attenuated vasodilator response of the skin microcirculation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of aging on microvascular reactivity in patients with advanced CKD. Methods Acetylcholine (ACh)-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-mediated endothelium-independent vasodilation were assessed by iontophoresis combined with laser Doppler flowmetry. Mic...

  20. EFFECTS OF RAIN ATTENUATION ON SATELLITE COMMUNICATION LINK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Ezeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rain attenuation is a major challenge to microwave satellite communication especially at frequencies above 10 GHz, causing unavailability of signals most of the time. Rain attenuation predictions have become one of the vital considerations while setting up a satellite communication link. In this study, rain attenuation models, cumulative distribution curves and other analytical tools for successful prediction of rain attenuation are presented. A three year Rain rate data was obtained from the Nigeria Meteorological Agency (NIMET database in addition to experimental data. Of the three prediction models used in the study, Ajayi model gave the range of values closest to the experimental data. A correctional factor was determined as 1.0988 and used to modify the Ajayi model. This modification to Ajayi’s model enabled its rain attenuation values conform more closely to the experimental result.

  1. Sinogram-based attenuation correction in PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingsong; Lu, Yang; Xi, Yan; Cong, Wenxiang; Kalra, Mannudeep; Wang, Ge

    2016-02-01

    In a typical positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) system, the attenuation correction is necessary for PET image reconstruction, which involves a transformation from the CT Hounsfield units (HU) to its linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) at 511 keV. This transformation is usually aided by an empirical bilinear function, followed by the forward projection of the transformed attenuation image. In this paper, we propose a direct method that calculates attenuation factors from CT projections, without using a reconstructed CT image. In this method, the human body is considered as a mixture of three distinct components: air, water and bone. Then, we estimate the proportions of these three components along each x-ray path and restore the attenuation factor at 511 keV with the known water and bone LACs. Our numerical results show that the proposed method produces as accurate estimation as the conventional HU mapping method. PMID:26890905

  2. Attenuation correction for the NIH ATLAS small animal PET scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Rutao; Liow, JeihSan; Seidel, Jurgen

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated two methods of attenuation correction for the NIH ATLAS small animal PET scanner: 1) a CT-based method that derives 511 keV attenuation coefficients (mu) by extrapolation from spatially registered CT images; and 2) an analytic method based on the body outline of emission images and an empirical mu. A specially fabricated attenuation calibration phantom with cylindrical inserts that mimic different body tissues was used to derive the relationship to convert CT values to (I for PET. The methods were applied to three test data sets: 1) a uniform cylinder phantom, 2) the attenuation calibration phantom, and 3) a mouse injected with left bracket **1**8F right bracket FDG. The CT-based attenuation correction factors were larger in non-uniform regions of the imaging subject, e.g. mouse head, than the analytic method. The two methods had similar correction factors for regions with uniform density and detectable emission source distributions.

  3. Attenuation correction for myocardial scintigraphy: state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myocardial perfusion imaging has been proved as an accurate, noninvasive method for diagnosis of coronary artery disease with a high prognostic value. However image artifacts, which decrease sensitivity and in particular specificity, degrade the clinical impact of this method. Soft tissue attenuation is regarded as one of the most important factors of impaired image quality. Different approaches to correct for tissue attenuation have been implemented by the camera manufacturers. The principle is to derive an attenuation map from the transmission data and to correct the emission data for nonuniform photon attenuation with this map. There have been several reports published demonstrating an improved specificity with no substantial change in sensitivity by this method. To accurately perform attenuation correction quality control measurements and adequate training of technologists and physicians are mandatory. (orig.)

  4. Broad beam and narrow beam attenuation in Lipowitz's metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Khatib, E E; Podgorsak, E B; Pla, C

    1987-01-01

    Attenuation properties of Lipowitz's metal have been studied for narrow and broad beams of cobalt-60 gamma rays and 4-10 MV x-rays. The measured transmitted fraction for geometries used in radiotherapy depends on the field size and depth of measurement. Therefore a calculation of dose for partially attenuated beams based on narrow beam attenuation coefficients can cause large errors in dosimetry. Our simple calculation of transmitted fractions based on primary attenuation and scattered radiation agrees quite well with the measured data for therapeutic geometries. Also given is a table for linear, mass attenuation, and mass energy absorption coefficients of Lipowitz's metal in the photon energy range from 10 keV to 10 MeV. PMID:3104738

  5. Intracerebroventricular metformin attenuates salt-induced hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, J S; Andersen, D; Muntzel, M S;

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of long-term continuous intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of metformin on blood pressure (BP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). To accelerate the development of hypertension, SHR were fed a 8% NaCl diet during the 3-week study period....... Metformin was given in the following doses: 0 (isotonic saline; n = 7), 25 (n = 8), 50 (n = 6), 100 (n = 6), and 200 microg/day icv (n = 5). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured by radiotelemetry, and as a measure of the contribution of sympathetic nerve activity to BP, the...... to hexamethonium was attenuated by all doses of metformin suggesting that chronic icv metformin decreased central sympathetic outflow. The highest doses of metformin (100 and 200 microg/day) also prevented development of hypertension, but these doses were highly neurotoxic as demonstrated by...

  6. Inducible nitric-oxide synthase attenuates vasopressin-dependent Ca2+ signaling in rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sandip; Gaspers, Lawrence D; Boucherie, Sylviane; Memin, Elisabeth; Stellato, Kerri Anne; Guillon, Gilles; Combettes, Laurent; Thomas, Andrew P

    2002-09-13

    Increases in both Ca(2+) and nitric oxide levels are vital for a variety of cellular processes; however, the interaction between these two crucial messengers is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase in hepatocytes, in response to inflammatory mediators, dramatically attenuates Ca(2+) signaling by the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-forming hormone, vasopressin. The inhibitory effects of induction were reversed by nitric oxide inhibitors and mimicked by prolonged cyclic GMP elevation. Induction was without effect on Ca(2+) signals in response to AlF(4)(-) or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, indicating that phospholipase C activation and release of Ca(2+) from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive Ca(2+) stores were not targets for nitric oxide inhibition. Vasopressin receptor levels, however, were dramatically reduced in induced cultures. Our data provide a possible mechanism for hepatocyte dysfunction during chronic inflammation. PMID:12097323

  7. Prolonged hypobaric hypoxemia attenuates vasopressin secretion and renal response to osmostimulation in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bestle, Morten H; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Poulsen, Troels D;

    2002-01-01

    (19.5 +/- 2.0 to 10.9 +/- 0.9 mU/l) and plasma vasopressin (1.14 +/- 0.16 to 0.38 +/- 0.06 pg/ml), and doubled circulating levels of norepinephrine (103 +/- 16 to 191 +/- 35 pg/ml) and endothelin-1 (3.0 +/- 0.2 to 6.3 +/- 0.6 pg/ml), whereas urodilatin excretion rate decreased from day 2 (all changes...... P <0.05 compared with sea level). Plasma arginine vasopressin response and the antidiuretic response to hypertonic saline loading were unchanged, but the natriuretic response was attenuated. In conclusion, chronic hypobaric hypoxemia 1) elevates the set point of plasma osmolality......-to-plasma vasopressin relationship, possibly because of concurrent hypertension, thereby causing hypovolemia and hyperosmolality, and 2) blunts the natriuretic response to hypertonic volume expansion, possibly because of elevated circulating levels of norepinephrine and endothelin, reduced urodilatin synthesis, or...

  8. MicroRNA-155 Deficiency Attenuates Liver Steatosis and Fibrosis without Reducing Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Steatohepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timea Csak

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRs regulate hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Fibrosis is the consequence of chronic tissue damage and inflammation. We hypothesized that deficiency of miR-155, a master regulator of inflammation, attenuates steatohepatitis and fibrosis.Wild type (WT and miR-155-deficient (KO mice were fed methionine-choline-deficient (MCD or -supplemented (MCS control diet for 5 weeks. Liver injury, inflammation, steatosis and fibrosis were assessed.MCD diet resulted in steatohepatitis and increased miR-155 expression in total liver, hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. Steatosis and expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism were attenuated in miR-155 KO mice after MCD feeding. In contrast, miR-155 deficiency failed to attenuate inflammatory cell infiltration, nuclear factor κ beta (NF-κB activation and enhanced the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1 in MCD diet-fed mice. We found a significant attenuation of apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3 and reduction in collagen and α smooth muscle actin (αSMA levels in miR-155 KO mice compared to WTs on MCD diet. In addition, we found attenuation of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF, a pro-fibrotic cytokine; SMAD family member 3 (Smad3, a protein involved in transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ signal transduction and vimentin, a mesenchymal marker and indirect indicator of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT in miR-155 KO mice. Nuclear binding of CCAAT enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ a miR-155 target involved in EMT was significantly increased in miR-155 KO compared to WT mice.Our novel data demonstrate that miR-155 deficiency can reduce steatosis and fibrosis without decreasing inflammation in steatohepatitis.

  9. Effects of pre-treatment with amantadine on morphine induced antinociception during second phase formalin responses in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijdelaar, D.G.; Rijn, C.M. van; Vinken, P.; Meert, T.F.

    2005-01-01

    The clinically available NMDA-receptor antagonist drug, amantadine, has been shown to result in morphine sparing effects in humans after surgery. However, no data are available to describe the exact form of interaction. The present study aims to profile the possible effects of amantadine (0, 12.5, 2

  10. Effects of pre-treatment with amantadine on morphine induced antinociception during second phase formalin responses in rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijdelaar, D.G.; Rijn, C.M. van; Vinken, P.; Meert, T.F.

    2005-01-01

    The clinically available NMDA-receptor antagonist drug, amantadine, has been shown to result in morphine sparing effects in humans after surgery. However, no data are available to describe the exact form of interaction. The present study aims to profile the possible effects of amantadine (0, 12.5, 2

  11. Morphine-induced desensitization and down-regulation at mu-receptors in 7315C pituitary tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttfarcken, P.S.; Cox, B.M. (Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Pituitary 7315c tumor cells maintained in culture were treated with varying concentrations of morphine from 10 nM to 300 {mu}M, for periods of five or forty-eight hours. The ability of the mu-opioid receptor agonist, DAMGO, to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase in washed membrane preparations from the treated cells was compared with its activity in membranes from cells incubated in the absence of added morphine. In the same membrane preparations, the number and affinity of mu-opioid receptors was estimated by measurements of ({sup 3}H)diprenorphine binding. After 5 hr of treatment with morphine concentrations of 100 nM or higher, a significant reduction in inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by DAMGO was observed. Little further loss of agonist activity was observed when the incubations were extended to 48 hr. After 5 hr of morphine treatment, there was no change in either the number of receptors, or their affinity for ({sup 3}H)diprenorphine. However after 48 hr of morphine treatment, greater than 25% reductions in receptor number were apparent with morphine pretreatment concentrations of 10 {mu}M or higher. These results suggest that opioid tolerance in this system is primarily associated with a reduced ability of agonist-occupied receptor to activate the effector system. Receptor down-regulation was not necessary for loss of agonist response, although a reduction in receptor number occurred after exposure to high concentrations of morphine for periods longer than 5hr.

  12. Toll-like receptor 4 mutant and null mice retain morphine-induced tolerance, hyperalgesia, and physical dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Alexandra Mattioli

    Full Text Available The innate immune system modulates opioid-induced effects within the central nervous system and one target that has received considerable attention is the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4. Here, we examined the contribution of TLR4 in the development of morphine tolerance, hyperalgesia, and physical dependence in two inbred mouse strains: C3H/HeJ mice which have a dominant negative point mutation in the Tlr4 gene rendering the receptor non-functional, and B10ScNJ mice which are TLR4 null mutants. We found that neither acute antinociceptive response to a single dose of morphine, nor the development of analgesic tolerance to repeated morphine treatment, was affected by TLR4 genotype. Likewise, opioid induced hyperalgesia and opioid physical dependence (assessed by naloxone precipitated withdrawal were not altered in TLR4 mutant or null mice. We also examined the behavioural consequence of two stereoisomers of naloxone: (- naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, and (+ naloxone, a purported antagonist of TLR4. Both stereoisomers of naloxone suppressed opioid induced hyperalgesia in wild-type control, TLR4 mutant, and TLR4 null mice. Collectively, our data suggest that TLR4 is not required for opioid-induced analgesic tolerance, hyperalgesia, or physical dependence.

  13. Morphine-induced desensitization and down-regulation at mu-receptors in 7315C pituitary tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pituitary 7315c tumor cells maintained in culture were treated with varying concentrations of morphine from 10 nM to 300 μM, for periods of five or forty-eight hours. The ability of the mu-opioid receptor agonist, DAMGO, to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase in washed membrane preparations from the treated cells was compared with its activity in membranes from cells incubated in the absence of added morphine. In the same membrane preparations, the number and affinity of mu-opioid receptors was estimated by measurements of [3H]diprenorphine binding. After 5 hr of treatment with morphine concentrations of 100 nM or higher, a significant reduction in inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by DAMGO was observed. Little further loss of agonist activity was observed when the incubations were extended to 48 hr. After 5 hr of morphine treatment, there was no change in either the number of receptors, or their affinity for [3H]diprenorphine. However after 48 hr of morphine treatment, greater than 25% reductions in receptor number were apparent with morphine pretreatment concentrations of 10 μM or higher. These results suggest that opioid tolerance in this system is primarily associated with a reduced ability of agonist-occupied receptor to activate the effector system. Receptor down-regulation was not necessary for loss of agonist response, although a reduction in receptor number occurred after exposure to high concentrations of morphine for periods longer than 5hr

  14. Inhibition of agmatine on the acquisition and expression of morphine-induced conditioned place preference in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weixiaoli; Suruibin; Lijin; Xiaowenbin

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Many studies suggest that the mesolimbic dopamine system is a major neural substrate for the rewarding effect produced by morphine. Morphine cause an increase in dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens through indirect mechanisms that is related to its psychological dependence. However, many other neurotransmitters and their receptor systems,

  15. Morphine-induced trafficking of a mu-opioid receptor interacting protein in rat locus coeruleus neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremko, Kellie M.; Thompson, Nicholas L.; Reyes, Beverly A. S.; Jin, Jay; Ebersole, Brittany; Jenney, Christopher B.; Grigson, Patricia S.; Levenson, Robert; Berrettini, Wade H.; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Opiate addiction is a devastating health problem, with approximately 2 million people currently addicted to heroin or non-medical prescription opiates in the United States alone. In neurons, adaptations in cell signaling cascades develop following opioid actions at the mu opioid receptor (MOR). A novel putative target for intervention involves interacting proteins that may regulate trafficking of MOR. Morphine has been shown to induce a re-distribution of a MOR-interacting protein Wntless (WLS, a transport molecule necessary for secretion of neurotrophic Wnt proteins), from cytoplasmic to membrane compartments in rat striatal neurons. Given its opiate-sensitivity and its well-characterized molecular and cellular adaptations to morphine exposure, we investigated the anatomical distribution of WLS and MOR in the rat locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine (NE) system. Dual immunofluorescence microscopy was used to test the hypothesis that WLS is localized to noradrenergic neurons of the LC and that WLS and MOR co-exist in common LC somatodendritic processes, providing an anatomical substrate for their putative interactions. We also hypothesized that morphine would influence WLS distribution in the LC. Rats received saline, morphine or the opiate agonist [D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO), and tissue sections through the LC were processed for immunogold-silver detection of WLS and MOR. Statistical analysis showed a significant re-distribution of WLS to the plasma membrane following morphine treatment in addition to an increase in the proximity of gold-silver labels for MOR and WLS. Following DAMGO treatment, MOR and WLS were predominantly localized within the cytoplasmic compartment when compared to morphine and control. In a separate cohort of rats, brains were obtained from saline-treated or heroin self-administering male rats for pulldown co-immunoprecipitation studies. Results showed an increased association of WLS and MOR following heroin exposure. As the LC-NE system is important for cognition as well as decisions underlying substance abuse, adaptations in WLS trafficking and expression may play a role in modulating MOR function in the LC and contribute to the negative sequelae of opiate exposure on executive function. PMID:24333843

  16. Reversal of morphine-induced cell-type-specific synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens shell blocks reinstatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearing, Matthew C; Jedynak, Jakub; Ebner, Stephanie R; Ingebretson, Anna; Asp, Anders J; Fischer, Rachel A; Schmidt, Clare; Larson, Erin B; Thomas, Mark John

    2016-01-19

    Drug-evoked plasticity at excitatory synapses on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) drives behavioral adaptations in addiction. MSNs expressing dopamine D1 (D1R-MSN) vs. D2 receptors (D2R-MSN) can exert antagonistic effects in drug-related behaviors, and display distinct alterations in glutamate signaling following repeated exposure to psychostimulants; however, little is known of cell-type-specific plasticity induced by opiates. Here, we find that repeated morphine potentiates excitatory transmission and increases GluA2-lacking AMPA receptor expression in D1R-MSNs, while reducing signaling in D2-MSNs following 10-14 d of forced abstinence. In vivo reversal of this pathophysiology with optogenetic stimulation of infralimbic cortex-accumbens shell (ILC-NAc shell) inputs or treatment with the antibiotic, ceftriaxone, blocked reinstatement of morphine-evoked conditioned place preference. These findings confirm the presence of overlapping and distinct plasticity produced by classes of abused drugs within subpopulations of MSNs that may provide targetable molecular mechanisms for future pharmacotherapies. PMID:26739562

  17. Morphine Induces Bacterial Translocation in Mice by Compromising Intestinal Barrier Function in a TLR-Dependent Manner

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Jingjing; Yu, Haidong; Ma, Jing; Wang, Jinghua; Banerjee, Santanu; Charboneau, Rick; Barke, Roderick A.; Roy, Sabita

    2013-01-01

    Opiates are among the most prescribed drugs for pain management. However, morphine use or abuse results in significant gut bacterial translocation and predisposes patients to serious infections with gut origin. The mechanism underlying this defect is still unknown. In this report, we investigated the mechanisms underlying compromised gut immune function and bacterial translocation following morphine treatment. We demonstrate significant bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph node (MLN) a...

  18. Determination of mass attenuation coefficient in wood and leaves of typical trees by gamma-ray attenuation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an 241 Am source the mass attenuation coefficient of different woods and leaves of typical species of the Atlantic Forest were measured. The results for natural wood, dry wood and dry leaves indicate that the variation is very small among different species. However, woods present a higher attenuation than leaves, both depending on their water content. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  19. Whole-body PET/MRI: The effect of bone attenuation during MR-based attenuation correction in oncology imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, M.C.; Sersar, Rachida; Saabye, J.;

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In combined PET/MRI standard PET attenuation correction (AC) is based on tissue segmentation following dedicated MR sequencing and, typically, bone tissue is not represented. We evaluate PET quantification in whole-body (WB)-PET/MRI following MR-AC without considering bone attenuation an...

  20. History of Chronic Subdural Hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Seok

    2015-10-01

    Trephination or trepanation is an intentional surgical procedure performed from the Stone Age. It looks like escaping a black evil from the head. This technique is still used for treatment of chronic subdural hematoma (SDH). Now, we know the origin, pathogenesis and natural history of this lesion. The author try to explore the history of trephination and modern discovery of chronic SDH. The author performed a detailed electronic search of PubMed. By the key word of chronic SDH, 2,593 articles were found without language restriction in May 2015. The author reviewed the fact and way, discovering the present knowledge on the chronic SDH. The first authentic report of chronic SDH was that of Wepfer in 1657. Chronic SDH was regarded as a stroke in 17th century. It was changed as an inflammatory disease in 19th century by Virchow, and became a traumatic lesion in 20th century. However, trauma is not necessary in many cases of chronic SDHs. The more important prerequisite is sufficient potential subdural space, degeneration of the brain. Modifying Virchow's description, chronic SDH is sometimes traumatic, but most often caused by severe degeneration of the brain. From Wepfer's first description, nearly 350 years passed to explore the origin, pathogenesis, and fate of chronic SDH. The nature of the black evil in the head of the Stone Age is uncovering by many authors riding the giant's shoulder. Chronic SDH should be categorized as a degenerative lesion instead of a traumatic lesion. PMID:27169062

  1. Improvement of brain perfusion SPET using iterative reconstruction with scatter and non-uniform attenuation correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filtered back-projection (FBP) is generally used as the reconstruction method for single-photon emission tomography although it produces noisy images with apparent streak artefacts. It is possible to improve the image quality by using an algorithm with iterative correction steps. The iterative reconstruction technique also has an additional benefit in that computation of attenuation correction can be included in the process. A commonly used iterative method, maximum-likelihood expectation maximisation (ML-EM), can be accelerated using ordered subsets (OS-EM). We have applied to the OS-EM algorithm a Bayesian one-step late correction method utilising median root prior (MRP). Methodological comparison was performed by means of measurements obtained with a brain perfusion phantom and using patient data. The aim of this work was to quantitate the accuracy of iterative reconstruction with scatter and non-uniform attenuation corrections and post-filtering in SPET brain perfusion imaging. SPET imaging was performed using a triple-head gamma camera with fan-beam collimators. Transmission and emission scans were acquired simultaneously. The brain phantom used was a high-resolution three-dimensional anthropomorphic JB003 phantom. Patient studies were performed in ten chronic pain syndrome patients. The images were reconstructed using conventional FBP and iterative OS-EM and MRP techniques including scatter and nonuniform attenuation corrections. Iterative reconstructions were individually post-filtered. The quantitative results obtained with the brain perfusion phantom were compared with the known actual contrast ratios. The calculated difference from the true values was largest with the FBP method; iteratively reconstructed images proved closer to the reality. Similar findings were obtained in the patient studies. The plain OS-EM method improved the contrast whereas in the case of the MRP technique the improvement in contrast was not so evident with post-filtering. (orig.)

  2. No evidence of murine leukemia virus-related viruses in live attenuated human vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Switzer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association of xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV-related virus (XMRV in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome reported in previous studies remains controversial as these results have been questioned by recent data. Nonetheless, concerns have been raised regarding contamination of human vaccines as a possible source of introduction of XMRV and MLV into human populations. To address this possibility, we tested eight live attenuated human vaccines using generic PCR for XMRV and MLV sequences. Viral metagenomics using deep sequencing was also done to identify the possibility of other adventitious agents. RESULTS: All eight live attenuated vaccines, including Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV (SA-14-14-2, varicella (Varivax, measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR-II, measles (Attenuvax, rubella (Meruvax-II, rotavirus (Rotateq and Rotarix, and yellow fever virus were negative for XMRV and highly related MLV sequences. However, residual hamster DNA, but not RNA, containing novel endogenous gammaretrovirus sequences was detected in the JEV vaccine using PCR. Metagenomics analysis did not detect any adventitious viral sequences of public health concern. Intracisternal A particle sequences closest to those present in Syrian hamsters and not mice were also detected in the JEV SA-14-14-2 vaccine. Combined, these results are consistent with the production of the JEV vaccine in Syrian hamster cells. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of XMRV and MLV in eight live attenuated human vaccines further supporting the safety of these vaccines. Our findings suggest that vaccines are an unlikely source of XMRV and MLV exposure in humans and are consistent with the mounting evidence on the absence of these viruses in humans.

  3. Hyperoxygenation attenuated a murine model of atopic dermatitis through raising skin level of ROS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Ran Kim

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disease resulting from excessive stimulation of immune cells. Traditionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated in the progression of inflammatory diseases, but several opposing observations suggest the protective role of ROS in inflammatory disease. Recently, we demonstrated ROS prevented imiquimod-induced psoriatic dermatitis through enhancing regulatory T cell function. Thus, we hypothesized AD might also be attenuated in elevated levels of ROS through tissue hyperoxygenation, such as by hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT or applying an oxygen-carrying chemical, perfluorodecalin (PFD. Elevated levels of ROS in the skin have been demonstrated directly by staining with dihydroethidum as well as indirectly by immunohistochemistry (IHC for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO. A murine model of AD was developed by repeated application of a chemical irritant (1% 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and house dust mite (Dermatophagoide farinae extract on one ear of BALB/c mice. The results showed treatment with HBOT or PFD significantly attenuated AD, comparably with 0.1% prednicarbate without any signs of side effects, such as telangiectasia. The expressions of interleukin-17A and interferon-γ were also decreased in the AD lesions by treatment with HBOT or PFD. Enhanced expression of IDO and reduced level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, in association with increased frequency of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in the AD lesions, might be involved in the underlying mechanism of oxygen therapy. Taken together, it was suggested that tissue hyperoxygenation, by HBOT or treatment with PFD, might attenuate AD through enhancing skin ROS level.

  4. Photochemical Attenuation of Pesticides in Prairie Potholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, T.; Arnold, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    Prairie potholes are small, shallow, glacially-derived wetlands scattered across a vast region extending from Midwestern United States into south central Canada known as the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). They constitute one of the largest inland wetland systems on Earth and play a prominent role in sustaining the regional biodiversity and productivity. Throughout the PPR, historic and contemporary conversion of native prairie for agriculture resulted in a pronounced loss of potholes. Remaining potholes have become interspersed within a matrix of agricultural landscape and trap nonpoint source pollutants such as pesticides from adjacent farmland, which has raised concerns regarding negative impacts on the water quality of downstream water bodies. The fate and persistence of pesticides in potholes, however, remains largely unexplored. Prairie potholes are typically characterized by shallow depth (i.e., large photic zone) and high levels of dissolved organic matter (DOM), making them ideal for photochemical reactions. In this context, we collected pothole water samples from North Dakota to investigate the rates and mechanisms of sunlight-induced attenuation of pesticides. The photodegradation kinetics and pathways of sixteen pesticides in the pothole water were monitored under both simulated and natural sunlight. For most pesticides, photolysis accelerated in the pothole water relative to the buffer control, which pointed to the importance of photosensitized processes (i.e., indirect photolysis). Upon solar irradiation, a mixture of photochemically produced reactive intermediates (PPRIs), such as carbonate radical, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and triplet-excited state DOM, formed in the pothole water. The major pathways through which pesticides degraded were inferred from the relative contribution attributable to specific PPRIs via quencher experiments. Different classes of pesticides exhibited contrasting photochemical behavior, but singlet oxygen and triplet

  5. Reduction of Oxidative Stress Attenuates Lipoapoptosis Exacerbated by Hypoxia in Human Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Youn Hwang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic intermittent hypoxia, a characteristic of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, is associated with the progression of simple hepatic steatosis to necroinflammatory hepatitis. We determined whether inhibition of a hypoxia-induced signaling pathway could attenuate hypoxia-exacerbated lipoapoptosis in human hepatocytes. The human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2 was used in this study. Palmitic acid (PA-treated groups were used for two environmental conditions: Hypoxia (1% O2 and normoxia (20% O2. Following the treatment, the cell viability was determined by the 3,4-(5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium salt (MTS assay, and the mechanism of lipoapoptosis was evaluated by Western blotting. Hypoxia exacerbated the suppression of hepatocyte growth induced by palmitic acid via activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathways as a result of endoplasmic reticulum (ER and oxidative stresses. Ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species, attenuated the hypoxia-exacerbated lipoapoptosis in hepatocytes, whereas glycerol, which reduces ER stress, did not. This may have been because inhibition of oxidative stress decreases the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, such as caspase 9 and cytochrome c. These results suggested that modulation of apoptotic signaling pathways activated by oxidative stress can aid in identifying novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH with OSA. Further in vivo studies are necessary to understand the pathophysiologic mechanism of NASH with OSA and to prove the therapeutic effect of the modulation of the signaling pathways.

  6. Nutritional demands in acute and chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Rosemary A; Davidson, H Isobel M

    2003-11-01

    Common to both acute and chronic disease are disturbances in energy homeostasis, which are evidenced by quantitative and qualitative changes in dietary intake and increased energy expenditure. Negative energy balance results in loss of fat and lean tissue. The management of patients with metabolically-active disease appears to be simple; it would involve the provision of sufficient energy to promote tissue accretion. However, two fundamental issues serve to prevent nutritional demands in disease being met. The determination of appropriate energy requirements relies on predictive formulae. While equations have been developed for critically-ill populations, accurate energy prescribing in the acute setting is uncommon. Only 25-32% of the patients have energy intakes within 10% of their requirements. Clearly, the variation in energy expenditure has led to difficulties in accurately defining the energy needs of the individual. Second, the acute inflammatory response initiated by the host can have profound effects on ingestive behaviour, but this area is poorly understood by practising clinicians. For example, nutritional targets have been set for specific disease states, i.e. pancreatitis 105-147 kJ (25-35 kcal)/kg; chronic liver disease 147-168 kJ (35-40 kcal)/kg, but given the alterations in gut physiology that accompany the acute-phase response, targets are unlikely to be met. In cancer cachexia attenuation of the inflammatory response using eicosapentaenoic acid results in improved nutritional intake and status. This strategy poses an attractive proposition in the quest to define nutritional support as a clinically-effective treatment modality in other disorders. PMID:15018475

  7. Chronic radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akleyev, Alexander V. [Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation). Clinical Dept.

    2014-04-01

    Comprehensive analysis of chronic radiation syndrome, covering epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathoanatomy, diagnosis and treatment. Based on observations in a unique sample of exposed residents of the Techa riverside villages in the Urals. Casts new light on the condition. Of value for all practitioners and researchers with an interest in chronic radiation syndrome. This book covers all aspects of chronic radiation syndrome (CRS) based on observations in a unique sample of residents of the Techa riverside villages in the southern Urals who were exposed to radioactive contamination in the 1950s owing to releases of liquid radioactive wastes from Mayak Production Association, which produced plutonium for weapons. In total, 940 cases of CRS were diagnosed in this population and these patients were subjected to detailed analysis. The opening chapters address the definition and classification of CRS, epidemiology and pathogenesis, covering molecular and cellular mechanisms, radioadaptation, and the role of tissue reactions. The pathoanatomy of CRS during the development and recovery stages is discussed for all organ systems. Clinical manifestations of CRS at the different stages are then described in detail and the dynamics of hematopoietic changes are thoroughly examined. In the following chapters, principles of diagnosis (including assessment of the exposure doses to critical organs) and differential diagnosis from a wide range of other conditions are discussed and current and potential treatment options, described. The medical and social rehabilitation of persons with CRS is also covered. This book, which casts new light on the condition, will be of value for all practitioners and researchers with an interest in CRS.

  8. A prototype piecewise-linear dynamic attenuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Scott S; Peng, Mark V; May, Christopher A; Shunhavanich, Picha; Fleischmann, Dominik; Pelc, Norbert J

    2016-07-01

    The piecewise-linear dynamic attenuator has been proposed as a mechanism in CT scanning for personalizing the x-ray illumination on a patient- and application-specific basis. Previous simulations have shown benefits in image quality, scatter, and dose objectives. We report on the first prototype implementation. This prototype is reduced in scale and speed and is integrated into a tabletop CT system with a smaller field of view (25 cm) and longer scan time (42 s) compared to a clinical system. Stainless steel wedges were machined and affixed to linear actuators, which were in turn held secure by a frame built using rapid prototyping technologies. The actuators were computer-controlled, with characteristic noise of about 100 microns. Simulations suggest that in a clinical setting, the impact of actuator noise could lead to artifacts of only 1 HU. Ring artifacts were minimized by careful design of the wedges. A water beam hardening correction was applied and the scan was collimated to reduce scatter. We scanned a 16 cm water cylinder phantom as well as an anthropomorphic pediatric phantom. The artifacts present in reconstructed images are comparable to artifacts normally seen with this tabletop system. Compared to a flat-field reference scan, increased detectability at reduced dose is shown and streaking is reduced. Artifacts are modest in our images and further refinement is possible. Issues of mechanical speed and stability in the challenging clinical CT environment will be addressed in a future design. PMID:27284705

  9. Transient hepatic attenuation differences in neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transient hepatic attenuation difference (THAD) is a hepatic perfusion anomaly seen on contrast-enhanced CT scans caused by an alteration in the dual blood supply of the liver. Although THADs have been described in adolescents and adults, they have not previously been described in neonates. We describe the appearance and evaluate the frequency of THADs in neonates ≤1 month of age compared to other infants younger than 2 years. A retrospective study was performed looking at all CT angiograms from 2000 to 2007 in infants <2 years of age. The incidence of THADs was compared among four age groups. Significance was determined using a logistic regression model. The study included 128 CT angiograms. A THAD was seen in 9/26 infants <1 month of age, in 3/50 infants 1 to 6 months of age, in 1/23 infants 6 months to 1 year of age, and in 1/29 infants 1 to 2 years of age. A THAD was found significantly more frequently in infants <1 month of age than in the older age groups (P<0.05). THADs are benign entities that can be seen normally in the neonatal age group. When the characteristic appearance is seen on CT, no further imaging is needed. (orig.)

  10. A prototype piecewise-linear dynamic attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Peng, Mark V.; May, Christopher A.; Shunhavanich, Picha; Fleischmann, Dominik; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2016-07-01

    The piecewise-linear dynamic attenuator has been proposed as a mechanism in CT scanning for personalizing the x-ray illumination on a patient- and application-specific basis. Previous simulations have shown benefits in image quality, scatter, and dose objectives. We report on the first prototype implementation. This prototype is reduced in scale and speed and is integrated into a tabletop CT system with a smaller field of view (25 cm) and longer scan time (42 s) compared to a clinical system. Stainless steel wedges were machined and affixed to linear actuators, which were in turn held secure by a frame built using rapid prototyping technologies. The actuators were computer-controlled, with characteristic noise of about 100 microns. Simulations suggest that in a clinical setting, the impact of actuator noise could lead to artifacts of only 1 HU. Ring artifacts were minimized by careful design of the wedges. A water beam hardening correction was applied and the scan was collimated to reduce scatter. We scanned a 16 cm water cylinder phantom as well as an anthropomorphic pediatric phantom. The artifacts present in reconstructed images are comparable to artifacts normally seen with this tabletop system. Compared to a flat-field reference scan, increased detectability at reduced dose is shown and streaking is reduced. Artifacts are modest in our images and further refinement is possible. Issues of mechanical speed and stability in the challenging clinical CT environment will be addressed in a future design.

  11. Statins attenuate polymethylmethacrylate-mediated monocyte activation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Laing, Alan J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic osteolysis precipitates aseptic loosening of components, increases the risk of periprosthetic fracture and, through massive bone loss, complicates revision surgery and ultimately is the primary cause for failure of joint arthroplasty. The anti-inflammatory properties of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors belonging to the statin family are well recognized. We investigated a possible role for status in initiating the first stage of the osteolytic cycle, namely monocytic activation. METHODS: We used an in vitro model of the human monocyte\\/macrophage inflammatory response to poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles after pretreat-ing cells with cerivastatin, a potent member of the statin family. Cell activation based upon production of TNF-alpha and MCP-1 cytokines was analyzed and the intracellular Raf-MEK-ERK signal transduction pathway was evaluated using western blot analysis, to identify its role in cell activation and in any cerivastatin effects observed. RESULTS: We found that pretreatment with cerivastatin significantly abrogates the production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and MCP-1 by human monocytes in response to polymethylmethacrylate particle activation. This inflammatory activation and attenuation appear to be mediated through the intracellular Raf-MEK-ERK pathway. INTERPRETATION: We propose that by intervening at the upstream activation stage, subsequent osteoclast activation and osteolysis can be suppressed. We believe that the anti-inflammatory properties of statins may potentially play a prophylactic role in the setting of aseptic loosening, and in so doing increase implant longevity.

  12. Minocycline Attenuates Iron-Induced Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fan; Xi, Guohua; Liu, Wenqaun; Keep, Richard F; Hua, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Iron plays an important role in brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Our previous study found minocycline reduces iron overload after ICH. The present study examined the effects of minocycline on the subacute brain injury induced by iron. Rats had an intracaudate injection of 50 μl of saline, iron, or iron + minocycline. All the animals were euthanized at day 3. Rat brains were used for immunohistochemistry (n = 5-6 per each group) and Western blotting assay (n = 4). Brain swelling, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and iron-handling proteins were measured. We found that intracerebral injection of iron resulted in brain swelling, BBB disruption, and brain iron-handling protein upregulation (p < 0.05). The co-injection of minocycline with iron significantly reduced iron-induced brain swelling (n = 5, p < 0.01). Albumin, a marker of BBB disruption, was measured by Western blot analysis. Minocycline significantly decreased albumin protein levels in the ipsilateral basal ganglia (p < 0.01). Iron-handling protein levels in the brain, including ceruloplasmin and transferrin, were reduced in the minocycline co-injected animals. In conclusion, the present study suggests that minocycline attenuates brain swelling and BBB disruption via an iron-chelation mechanism. PMID:26463975

  13. Sildenafil attenuates placental ischemia-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Eric M; Palei, Ana C; Dent, Edward A; Granger, Joey P

    2013-08-15

    Preeclampsia is a complication of pregnancy that is marked by hypertension, proteinuria, and maternal endothelial dysfunction. A central factor in the etiology of the disease is the development of placental hypoxia/ischemia, which releases pathogenic soluble factors. There is currently no effective treatment for preeclampsia, but the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor sildenafil has been suggested, as PDE-5 is enriched in the uterus, and its antagonism could improve uteroplacental function. Here, we report in the reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) rat model that administration of oral sildenafil is effective in attenuating placental ischemia-induced hypertension during gestation. RUPP animals have significantly elevated arterial pressure compared with control animals (132 ± 3 vs. 100 ± 2 mmHg; P PDE-5/β-actin ratio (1 ± 0.14 vs. 1.63 ± 0.18; P < 0.05) expression with a resulting reduction in renal medullary cGMP (1.5 ± 0.15 vs. 0.99 ± 0.1 pmol/μg protein, P < 0.05) compared with controls. Although sildenafil had no effect on renal medullary cGMP in control animals, it significantly increased cGMP in RUPP animals (1.3 ± 0.1 pmol/μg protein; P < 0.05). These data suggest that sildenafil might provide an effective therapeutic option for the management of hypertension during preeclampsia. PMID:23785075

  14. Atorvastatin attenuates oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Zhiyou; Yan Yong; Wang Yonglong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate serum level of SOD, MDA, ox-LDL, AchE and Ach in AD, to study atorvastatin influence on serum level of SOD, MDA, ox-LDL, AchE and Acb in AD and its neuroprotection mechanisms. Methods Subjects were divided into: normal blood lipid level group with Alzheimer's disease (A), higher blood lipid level group with Alzheimer's disease (AH), normal blood lipid level Alzheimer's disease group with atorvastatin treeatment (AT),higher blood lipid level Alzheimer's disease group with atorvastatin treeatment(AHT). Ox-LDL was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; SOD, MDA, ox-LDL, AchE, Ach and blood lipid level in AD was measured by biochemistry. Results: The serum level of MDA, AchE in AH group after atorvastatin treatment is lower ;The serum level of SOD, Ach in AH group is more increased than that of in A group; The serum level of ox-LDL in AH, A groups is lower than that of in A group; The dementia degree is lower after atorvastatin treatment. Conclusion: Atorvastatin can decrease serum level of MDA, AchE and ox-LDL, and increase that of SOD, Acb, and attenuate dementia symptom in AD, especially, with hyperlipemia. The hypothesis of atorvastatin neuroprotection is concluded that atorvastatin may restrain free radical reaction and retard oxidation in AD.

  15. Ultrasonic attenuation in rare-earth monoarsenides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BHALLA VYOMA; SINGH DEVRAJ; JAIN S K; KUMAR RAJ

    2016-06-01

    The present paper deals with the theoretical calculation of mechanical and thermophysical properties of rare-earth monoarsenides, XAs (X: Np, Pu, Th and U) using elastic constants as the input parameters. These second- and third-order elastic constants (SOECs and TOECs) are determinedin the temperature range 100–500K using Coulomb and Born–Mayer potential upto second nearest neighbours. In order to provide the link between mechanical and dynamical behaviour of crystals, parameters such as Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, Poisson’s ratio etc. are also calculated.In addition, the Cauchy relationship is obeyed by the chosen monoarsenides and are fairly anisotropic, which results in the measurement of longitudinal and shear wave velocities along $\\langle100 \\rangle$, $\\langle110\\rangle$ and $\\langle 111\\rangle$ directions. The toughness/fracture $(G/BT)$ ratio is greater than 0.60, which implies that XAs compounds are brittle at room temperature. Further, the Debye temperature is computed using Debye average velocity as the input parameter. It helps in the characterization of lattice vibrations of a solid. In this work, ultrasonic attenuation due to phonon–phonon interaction$\\alpha/f^2_{\\rm p−p}$ and thermoelastic loss $\\alpha/f ^{2}$th are computed for XAs from 100 to 500K using Mason’s theory. It further helps in evaluating the microstructural properties of the chosen materials. The obtained results indicate that XAs is mechanically stable and are compared with data availablein the literature.

  16. Chronic inflammatory demyelinative polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Said, Gérard; Krarup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinative polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired polyneuropathy presumably of immunological origin. It is characterized by a progressive or a relapsing course with predominant motor deficit. The diagnosis rests on the association of non-length-dependent predominantly motor...... deficit following a progressive or a relapsing course associated with increased CSF protein content. The demonstration of asymmetrical demyelinating features on nerve conduction studies is needed for diagnosis. The outcome depends on the amplitude of axon loss associated with demyelination. CIDP must be...... differentiated from acquired demyelinative neuropathies associated with monoclonal gammopathies. CIDP responds well to treatment with corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, and plasma exchanges, at least initially....

  17. Pathogenesis of chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, A P; Greaves, M

    2009-06-01

    Chronic urticaria is defined as the presence of urticaria (hives) for at least 6 weeks with the assumption that it occurs daily or close to it. If we eliminate physical urticarias and urticarial vasculitis from consideration, the remainder can be divided into autoimmune chronic urticaria (45%) and idiopathic chronic urticaria (55%). The autoimmune subgroup is associated with the IgG anti-IgE receptor alpha subunit in 35-40% of patients and IgG anti-IgE in an additional 5-10%. These autoantibodies have been shown to activate blood basophils and cutaneous mast cells in vitro with augmentation of basophil activation by complement and release of C5a, in particular. Binding methods (immunoblot and ELISA) yield positives in many autoimmune diseases as well as occasional normal subjects or patients with other forms of urticaria but most such sera are non-functional. Activation of basophils or mast cells causing histamine release is quite specific for chronic urticaria and defines the autoimmune subgroup. Although pathogenicity is not formally proven, the antibodies cause wealing upon intradermal injection, and removal of the autoantibody leads to remission. A cellular infiltrate is seen to be characterized by mast cell degranulation and infiltration of CD4+ T lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. The intensity of the infiltrate and clinical severity of the disease (including accompanying angio-oedema) is more severe in the autoimmune subpopulation. This latter group also has a higher evidence of human leucocyte antigen DR alleles associated with autoimmunity and a 25% incidence of antithyroid antibodies with diagnosed hypothyroidism in some. Hypo-responsiveness of patients' basophils to anti-IgE and hyperresponsiveness to serum defines another subpopulation (at least 50%) that overlaps the idiopathic and autoimmune subgroups. Hypo-responsiveness to anti-IgE has been shown to be associated with elevated levels of cytoplasmic phosphatases that

  18. [Chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskitalo, Paula; Remes-Pakarinen, Terhi; Vähäsalo, Paula; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Kröger, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis is an autoinflammatory disease occurring mainly in children and adolescents, typically involving recurrent or persistent osteitic foci. The symptom is bone pain, possibly accompanied by soft tissue tenderness. Some patients exhibit symptoms of systemic inflammation. The. precise etiology of the disease is not known, but an imbalance of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines is presumed to play a role in the development of the disease. While an anti-inflammatory analgesic is in most cases sufficient to calm down the osteitis, the use of corticosteroids, anti- TNF-a inhibitors or bisphosphonates is required in some cases. PMID:26939487

  19. Sexuality and chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Elaine E

    2013-11-01

    Sexual function is often affected in individuals living with chronic illness and their partners, and multiple comorbidities increase the likelihood of sexual dysfunction. This review focuses on the areas of cardiovascular disease, respiratory conditions, and cancer, all areas for which there are practical, evidence-based strategies to guide sexual counseling. Although nurses have been reluctant to address the topic of sexuality in practice, a growing number of studies suggest that patients want nurses to address their concerns and provide resources to them. Thus, nurses must be proactive in initiating conversations on sexual issues to fill this gap in practice. PMID:24066783

  20. Understanding Chronically Reported Families

    OpenAIRE

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Emery, Clifton R.; Drake, Brett; Stahlschmidt, Mary Jo

    2010-01-01

    Although a strong literature on child maltreatment re-reporting exists, much of that literature stops at the first re-report. The literature on chronic re-reporting, meaning reports beyond the second report, is scant. The authors follow Loman’s lead in focusing on reports beyond the first two to determine what factors predict these “downstream” report stages. Cross-sector, longitudinal administrative data are used. The authors analyze predictors at each of the first four recurrences (first to...