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Sample records for attenuates cardiac dysfunction

  1. Minocycline attenuates cardiac dysfunction in tumor-burdened mice.

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    Devine, Raymond D; Eichenseer, Clayton M; Wold, Loren E

    2016-11-01

    Cardiovascular dysfunction as a result of tumor burden is becoming a recognized complication; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. A murine model of cancer cachexia has shown marked increases of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), known mediators of cardiac remodeling, in the left ventricle. The extent to which MMPs are involved in remodeling remains obscured. To this end a common antibiotic, minocycline, with MMP inhibitory properties was used to elucidate MMP involvement in tumor induced cardiovascular dysfunction. Tumor-bearing mice showed decreased cardiac function with reduced posterior wall thickness (PWTs) during systole, increased MMP and collagen expression consistent with fibrotic remodeling. Administration of minocycline preserved cardiac function in tumor bearing mice and decreased collagen RNA expression in the left ventricle. MMP protein levels were unaffected by minocycline administration, with the exception of MMP-9, indicating minocycline inhibition mechanisms are directly affecting MMP activity. Cancer induced cardiovascular dysfunction is an increasing concern; novel therapeutics are needed to prevent cardiac complications. Minocycline is a well-known antibiotic and recently has been shown to possess MMP inhibitory properties. Our findings presented here show that minocycline could represent a novel use for a long established drug in the prevention and treatment of cancer induced cardiovascular dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cardiac sympathetic afferent denervation attenuates cardiac remodeling and improves cardiovascular dysfunction in rats with heart failure.

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    Wang, Han-Jun; Wang, Wei; Cornish, Kurtis G; Rozanski, George J; Zucker, Irving H

    2014-10-01

    The enhanced cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) contributes to the exaggerated sympathoexcitation in chronic heart failure (CHF). Increased sympathoexcitation is positively related to mortality in patients with CHF. However, the potential beneficial effects of chronic CSAR deletion on cardiac and autonomic function in CHF have not been previously explored. Here, we determined the effects of chronic CSAR deletion on cardiac remodeling and autonomic dysfunction in CHF. To delete the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor-expressing CSAR afferents selectively, epicardial application of resiniferatoxin (50 μg/mL), an ultrapotent analog of capsaicin, was performed during myocardium infarction surgery in rats. This procedure largely abolished the enhanced CSAR, prevented the exaggerated renal and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and improved baroreflex sensitivity in CHF rats. Most importantly, we found that epicardial application of resiniferatoxin largely prevented the elevated left ventricle end-diastolic pressure, lung edema, and cardiac hypertrophy, partially reduced left ventricular dimensions in the failing heart, and increased cardiac contractile reserve in response to β-adrenergic receptor stimulation with isoproterenol in CHF rats. Molecular evidence showed that resiniferatoxin attenuated cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis and reduced expression of fibrotic markers and transforming growth factor-β receptor I in CHF rats. Pressure-volume loop analysis showed that resiniferatoxin reduced the end-diastolic pressure volume relationships in CHF rats, indicating improved cardiac compliance. In summary, cardiac sympathetic afferent deletion exhibits protective effects against deleterious cardiac remodeling and autonomic dysfunction in CHF. These data suggest a potential new paradigm and therapeutic potential in the management of CHF. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Exercise training prior to myocardial infarction attenuates cardiac deterioration and cardiomyocyte dysfunction in rats.

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    Bozi, Luiz Henrique Marchesi; Maldonado, Izabel Regina dos Santos Costa; Baldo, Marcelo Perim; Silva, Márcia Ferreira da; Moreira, José Bianco Nascimento; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; Ramos, Regiane Maria Soares; Mill, José Geraldo; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Felix, Leonardo Bonato; Gomes, Thales Nicolau Prímola; Natali, Antônio José

    2013-04-01

    The present study was performed to investigate 1) whether aerobic exercise training prior to myocardial infarction would prevent cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration and 2) whether the potential cardiac benefits of aerobic exercise training would be associated with preserved morphological and contractile properties of cardiomyocytes in post-infarct remodeled myocardium. Male Wistar rats underwent an aerobic exercise training protocol for eight weeks. The rats were then assigned to sham surgery (SHAM), sedentary lifestyle and myocardial infarction or exercise training and myocardial infarction groups and were evaluated 15 days after the surgery. Left ventricular tissue was analyzed histologically, and the contractile function of isolated myocytes was measured. Student's t-test was used to analyze infarct size and ventricular wall thickness, and the other parameters were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's test or a one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test (pmyocardial infarction extension, a thicker infarcted wall and less collagen accumulation as compared to myocardial infarctions in sedentary animals. Myocardial infarction-induced left ventricular dilation and cardiac dysfunction, as evaluated by +dP/dt and -dP/dt, were both prevented by previous aerobic exercise training. Moreover, aerobic exercise training preserved cardiac myocyte shortening, improved the maximum shortening and relengthening velocities in infarcted hearts and enhanced responsiveness to calcium. Previous aerobic exercise training attenuated the cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration promoted by myocardial infarction, and such benefits were associated with preserved cardiomyocyte morphological and contractile properties.

  4. Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation Causes Cardiac Dysfunction and the Impairment Is Attenuated by Resistance Training.

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    Giampá, Sara Quaglia de Campos; Mônico-Neto, Marcos; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Souza, Helton de Sá; Tufik, Sergio; Lee, Kil Sun; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Dos Santos, Alexandra Alberta; Antonio, Ednei Luiz; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Paradoxical sleep deprivation activates the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, subsequently interfering with the cardiovascular system. The beneficial effects of resistance training are related to hemodynamic, metabolic and hormonal homeostasis. We hypothesized that resistance training can prevent the cardiac remodeling and dysfunction caused by paradoxical sleep deprivation. Male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups: control (C), resistance training (RT), paradoxical sleep deprivation for 96 hours (PSD96) and both resistance training and sleep deprivation (RT/PSD96). Doppler echocardiograms, hemodynamics measurements, cardiac histomorphometry, hormonal profile and molecular analysis were evaluated. Compared to the C group, PSD96 group had a higher left ventricular systolic pressure, heart rate and left atrium index. In contrast, the left ventricle systolic area and the left ventricle cavity diameter were reduced in the PSD96 group. Hypertrophy and fibrosis were also observed. Along with these alterations, reduced levels of serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), as well as increased corticosterone and angiotensin II, were observed in the PSD96 group. Prophylactic resistance training attenuated most of these changes, except angiotensin II, fibrosis, heart rate and concentric remodeling of left ventricle, confirmed by the increased of NFATc3 and GATA-4, proteins involved in the pathologic cardiac hypertrophy pathway. Resistance training effectively attenuates cardiac dysfunction and hormonal imbalance induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation.

  5. MicroRNA-208a Silencing Attenuates Doxorubicin Induced Myocyte Apoptosis and Cardiac Dysfunction

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    Hasahya Tony

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. GATA4 depletion is a distinct mechanism by which doxorubicin leads to cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and preservation of GATA4 mitigates doxorubicin induced myocyte apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction. We investigated a novel approach of attenuating doxorubicin induced cardiac toxicity by silencing miR-208a, a heart specific microRNA known to target GATA4. Methods and Results. Eight-week-old female Balb/C mice were randomly assigned to sham, antagomir, and control groups. Antagomir group were pretreated with miR-208a antagomir 4 days before doxorubicin administration. At day 0, control and antagomir groups received 20 mg/kg of doxorubicin, while sham mice received phosphate buffered solution. Echocardiography was done at day 7, after which animals were sacrificed and hearts harvested and assessed for apoptosis and expression of miR-208a, GATA4, and BCL-2. Doxorubicin significantly upregulated miR-208a, downregulated GATA4, and increased myocyte apoptosis, with resulting decrease in cardiac function. In contrast, therapeutic silencing of miR-208a salvaged GATA4 and BCL-2 and decreased apoptosis, with improvement in cardiac function. Conclusion. Doxorubicin upregulates miR-208a and promotes cardiomyocyte apoptosis, while therapeutic silencing of miR-208a attenuates doxorubicin induced myocyte apoptosis with subsequent improvement in cardiac function. These novel results highlight the therapeutic potential of targeting miR-208a to prevent doxorubicin cardiotoxicity.

  6. Exercise training prior to myocardial infarction attenuates cardiac deterioration and cardiomyocyte dysfunction in rats

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    Luiz Henrique Marchesi Bozi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study was performed to investigate 1 whether aerobic exercise training prior to myocardial infarction would prevent cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration and 2 whether the potential cardiac benefits of aerobic exercise training would be associated with preserved morphological and contractile properties of cardiomyocytes in post-infarct remodeled myocardium. METHODS: Male Wistar rats underwent an aerobic exercise training protocol for eight weeks. The rats were then assigned to sham surgery (SHAM, sedentary lifestyle and myocardial infarction or exercise training and myocardial infarction groups and were evaluated 15 days after the surgery. Left ventricular tissue was analyzed histologically, and the contractile function of isolated myocytes was measured. Student's t-test was used to analyze infarct size and ventricular wall thickness, and the other parameters were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's test or a one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test (p<0.05. RESULTS: Myocardial infarctions in exercise-trained animals resulted in a smaller myocardial infarction extension, a thicker infarcted wall and less collagen accumulation as compared to myocardial infarctions in sedentary animals. Myocardial infarction-induced left ventricular dilation and cardiac dysfunction, as evaluated by +dP/dt and -dP/dt, were both prevented by previous aerobic exercise training. Moreover, aerobic exercise training preserved cardiac myocyte shortening, improved the maximum shortening and relengthening velocities in infarcted hearts and enhanced responsiveness to calcium. CONCLUSION: Previous aerobic exercise training attenuated the cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration promoted by myocardial infarction, and such benefits were associated with preserved cardiomyocyte morphological and contractile properties.

  7. Cardiac-Specific Overexpression of Catalase Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction: Role of Autophagy

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    Turdi, Subat; Han, Xuefeng; Huff, Anna F.; Roe, Nathan D.; Hu, Nan; Gao, Feng; Ren, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria is a major initiator of sepsis, leading to cardiovascular collapse. Accumulating evidence has indicated a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular complication in sepsis. This study was designed to examine the effect of cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase in LPS-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction and the underlying mechanism(s) with a focus on autophagy. Catalase transgenic and wild-type FVB mice were challenged with LPS (6 mg/kg) and cardiac function was evaluated. Levels of oxidative stress, autophagy, apoptosis and protein damage were examined using fluorescence microscopy, Western blot, TUNEL assay, caspase-3 activity and carbonyl formation. Kaplan-Meier curve was constructed for survival following LPS treatment. Our results revealed a lower mortality in catalase mice compared with FVB mice following LPS challenge. LPS injection led to depressed cardiac contractile capacity as evidenced by echocardiography and cardiomyocyte contractile function, the effect of which was ablated by catalase overexpression. LPS treatment induced elevated TNF-α level, autophagy, apoptosis (TUNEL, caspase-3 activation, cleaved caspase-3), production of ROS and O2−, and protein carbonyl formation, the effects of which were significantly attenuated by catalase overexpression. Electron microscopy revealed focal myocardial damage characterized by mitochondrial injury following LPS treatment, which was less severe in catalase mice. Interestingly, LPS-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction was prevented by antioxidant NAC and the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. Taken together, our data revealed that catalase protects against LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction and mortality, which may be associated with inhibition of oxidative stress and autophagy. PMID:22902401

  8. Cardiac-specific overexpression of thioredoxin 1 attenuates mitochondrial and myocardial dysfunction in septic mice.

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    Sánchez-Villamil, Juana P; D'Annunzio, Verónica; Finocchietto, Paola; Holod, Silvia; Rebagliati, Inés; Pérez, Hernán; Peralta, Jorge G; Gelpi, Ricardo J; Poderoso, Juan J; Carreras, María C

    2016-12-01

    Sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction is associated with increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Current evidence suggests a protective role of thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. However, it is unknown yet a putative role of Trx1 in sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction, in which oxidative stress is an underlying cause. Transgenic male mice with Trx1 cardiac-specific overexpression (Trx1-Tg) and its wild-type control (wt) were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture or sham surgery. After 6, 18, and 24h, cardiac contractility, antioxidant enzymes, protein oxidation, and mitochondrial function were evaluated. Trx1 overexpression improved the average life expectancy (Trx1-Tg: 36, wt: 28h; p=0.0204). Sepsis induced a decrease in left ventricular developed pressure in both groups, while the contractile reserve, estimated as the response to β-adrenergic stimulus, was higher in Trx1-Tg in relation to wt, after 6h of the procedure. Trx1 overexpression attenuated complex I inhibition, protein carbonylation, and loss of membrane potential, and preserved Mn superoxide dismutase activity at 24h. Ultrastructural alterations in mitochondrial cristae were accompanied by reduced optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) fusion protein, and activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) (fission protein) in wt mice at 24h, suggesting mitochondrial fusion/fission imbalance. PGC-1α gene expression showed a 2.5-fold increase in Trx1-Tg at 24h, suggesting mitochondrial biogenesis induction. Autophagy, demonstrated by electron microscopy and increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, was observed earlier in Trx1-Tg. In conclusion, Trx1 overexpression extends antioxidant protection, attenuates mitochondrial damage, and activates mitochondrial turnover (mitophagy and biogenesis), preserves contractile reserve and prolongs survival during sepsis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and oxidative stress in monocrotaline-induced right heart dysfunction.

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    Puukila, Stephanie; Fernandes, Rafael Oliveira; Türck, Patrick; Carraro, Cristina Campos; Bonetto, Jéssica Hellen Poletto; de Lima-Seolin, Bruna Gazzi; da Rosa Araujo, Alex Sander; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Boreham, Douglas; Khaper, Neelam

    2017-08-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) occurs when remodeling of pulmonary vessels leads to increased pulmonary vascular resistance resulting in increased pulmonary arterial pressure. Increased pulmonary arterial pressure results in right ventricle hypertrophy and eventually heart failure. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of PAH and may play a role in the regulation of cellular signaling involved in cardiac response to pressure overload. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), a component from flaxseed, has been shown to reduce cardiac oxidative stress in various pathophysiological conditions. We investigated the potential protective effects of SDG in a monocrotaline-induced model of PAH. Five- to six-week-old male Wistar rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline (60 mg/kg) and sacrificed 21 days later where heart, lung, and plasma were collected. SDG (25 mg/kg) was given via gavage as either a 21-day co-treatment or pre-treatment of 14 days before monocrotaline administration and continued for 21 days. Monocrotaline led to right ventricle hypertrophy, increased lipid peroxidation, and elevated plasma levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). Co-treatment with SDG did not attenuate hypertrophy or ALT and AST levels but decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and catalase and superoxide dismutase activity compared to the monocrotaline-treated group. Pre-treatment with SDG decreased right ventricle hypertrophy, ROS levels, lipid peroxidation, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activity and plasma levels of ALT and AST when compared to the monocrotaline group. These findings indicate that pre-treatment with SDG provided better protection than co-treatment in this model of right heart dysfunction, suggesting an important role for SDG in PAH and right ventricular remodeling.

  10. Celastrol-Induced Suppression of the MiR-21/ERK Signalling Pathway Attenuates Cardiac Fibrosis and Dysfunction

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    Mian Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Myocardial fibrosis results in myocardial remodelling and dysfunction. Celastrol, a traditional oriental medicine, has been suggested to have cardioprotective effects. However, its underlying mechanism is unknown. This study investigated the ability of celastrol to prevent cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction and explored the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Animal and cell models of cardiac fibrosis were used in this study. Myocardial fibrosis was induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC in mice. Cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis were evaluated based on histological and biochemical measurements. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography. The levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1, extracellular signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 signalling were measured using Western blotting, while the expression of miR-21was analyzed by real-time qRT-PCR in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies, cultured cardiac fibroblasts (CFs were treated with TGF-β1 and transfected with microRNA-21(miR21. Results: Celastrol treatment reduced the increased collagen deposition and down-regulated α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, brain natriuretic peptides (BNP, beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC, miR-21 and p-ERK/ERK. Cardiac dysfunction was significantly attenuated by celastrol treatment in the TAC mice model. Celastrol treatment reduced myocardial fibroblast viability and collagen content and down-regulated α-SMA in cultured CFs in vitro. Celastrol also inhibited the miR-21/ERK signalling pathway. Celastrol attenuated miR-21 up-regulation by TGF-β1 and decreased elevated p-ERK/ERK levels in CFs transfected with miR-21. Conclusion: MiR-21/ERK signalling could be a potential therapeutic pathway for the prevention of myocardial fibrosis. Celastrol ameliorates myocardial fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction, these probably related to miR-21/ERK signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Attenuate Cigarette Smoke-Induced Cardiac Remodeling and Dysfunction

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    Yingmin Liang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The strong relationship between cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease (CVD has been well-documented, but the mechanisms by which smoking increases CVD risk appear to be multifactorial and incompletely understood. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are regarded as an important candidate for cell-based therapy in CVD. We hypothesized that MSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-MSCs or bone marrow (BM-MSCs might alleviate cigarette smoke (CS-induced cardiac injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BM-MSCs or iPSC-MSCs on CS-induced changes in serum and cardiac lipid profiles, oxidative stress and inflammation as well as cardiac function in a rat model of passive smoking. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly selected for exposure to either sham air (SA as control or 4% CS for 1 h per day for 56 days. On day 29 and 43, human adult BM-MSCs, iPSC-MSCs or PBS were administered intravenously to CS-exposed rats. Results from echocardiography, serum and cardiac lipid profiles, cardiac antioxidant capacity, cardiac pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and cardiac morphological changes were evaluated at the end of treatment. iPSC-MSC-treated group showed a greater effect in the improvement of CS-induced cardiac dysfunction over BM-MSCs-treated group as shown by increased percentage left ventricular ejection fraction and percentage fractional shortening, in line with the greater reversal of cardiac lipid abnormality. In addition, iPSC-MSCs administration attenuated CS-induced elevation of cardiac pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as restoration of anti-inflammatory cytokines and anti-oxidative markers, leading to ameliorate cardiac morphological abnormalities. These data suggest that iPSC-MSCs on one hand may restore CS-induced cardiac lipid abnormality and on the other hand may attenuate cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation via inhibition of CS-induced NF-κB activation, leading to improvement of cardiac remodeling and

  12. Cardiomyocyte specific expression of Acyl-coA thioesterase 1 attenuates sepsis induced cardiac dysfunction and mortality

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    Xia, Congying [Departments of Internal Medicine and Institute of Hypertension, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Dong, Ruolan [Department of Geriatric Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Chen, Chen [Departments of Internal Medicine and Institute of Hypertension, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Wang, Hong, E-mail: hong.wang1988@yahoo.com [Departments of Internal Medicine and Institute of Hypertension, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Wang, Dao Wen, E-mail: dwwang@tjh.tjmu.edu.cn [Departments of Internal Medicine and Institute of Hypertension, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2015-12-25

    Compromised cardiac fatty acid oxidation (FAO) induced energy deprivation is a critical cause of cardiac dysfunction in sepsis. Acyl-CoA thioesterase 1 (ACOT1) is involved in regulating cardiac energy production via altering substrate metabolism. This study aims to clarify whether ACOT1 has a potency to ameliorate septic myocardial dysfunction via enhancing cardiac FAO. Transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte specific expression of ACOT1 (αMHC-ACOT1) and their wild type (WT) littermates were challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 mg/kg i.p.) and myocardial function was assessed 6 h later using echocardiography and hemodynamics. Deteriorated cardiac function evidenced by reduction of the percentage of left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening after LPS administration was significantly attenuated by cardiomyocyte specific expression of ACOT1. αMHC-ACOT1 mice exhibited a markedly increase in glucose utilization and cardiac FAO compared with LPS-treated WT mice. Suppression of cardiac peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARa) and PPARγ-coactivator-1α (PGC1a) signaling observed in LPS-challenged WT mice was activated by the presence of ACOT1. These results suggest that ACOT1 has potential therapeutic values to protect heart from sepsis mediated dysfunction, possibly through activating PPARa/PGC1a signaling. - Highlights: • ACOT1 has potential therapeutic values to protect heart from sepsis mediated dysfunction. • ACOT1 can regulate PPARa/PGC1a signaling pathway. • We first generate the transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte specific expression of ACOT1.

  13. Preservation of CGRP in myocardium attenuates development of cardiac dysfunction in diabetic rats.

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    Sun, Tao; Guo, Zheng; Liu, Chao-Jie; Li, Mu-Rong; Li, Tu-Ping; Wang, Xin; Yuan, Da-Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays an important role in cardiovascular regulation, which was found reduced in serum of diabetic patients. To test the hypothesis that lack of CGRP in myocardium is associated with diabetic cardiac dysfunction, which may be improved by preservation of CGRP in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by streptozotocin (50mg/kg). Two groups of the diabetic rats, one fed with standard laboratory chew and another with the laboratory food plus hot pepper (containing 0.0174% of capsaicin), to stimulate production and release of CGRP. Cardiac functions were evaluated by measurements of intraventricular pressures after 8weeks of development of diabetes. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), CGRP, β1-adreneregic receptor and norepinephrine were analyzed. Significantly lower levels of TRPV1 and CGRP were detected in the thoracic dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and myocardium of the diabetic animals, along with significant decline in left ventricular systolic pressure (by 24%) and heart rate (by 25%) and increase of the end-diastolic pressure (by 83%) with obvious reduction of CGRP in the DRG, by 41%, the myocardium (by 30%) and the serum (by 20%). The cardiac performance, the TRPV1 and the CGRP in the diabetic animals fed with hot pepper were well preserved. No any significant change in β1-adreneregic receptor and norepinephrine was detected. The findings may suggest a novel mechanism underlying diabetic cardiac dysfunctions via impairing TRPV1-CGRP pathway in myocardium. Preservation of the TRPV1-CGRP mechanism may prevent the development of cardiac dysfunction in diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antiandrogenic therapy with finasteride attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricular dysfunction.

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    Zwadlo, Carolin; Schmidtmann, Elisa; Szaroszyk, Malgorzata; Kattih, Badder; Froese, Natali; Hinz, Hebke; Schmitto, Jan Dieter; Widder, Julian; Batkai, Sandor; Bähre, Heike; Kaever, Volkhard; Thum, Thomas; Bauersachs, Johann; Heineke, Joerg

    2015-03-24

    In comparison with men, women have a better prognosis when experiencing aortic valve stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or heart failure. Recent data suggest that androgens like testosterone or the more potent dihydrotestosterone contribute to the development of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Therefore, we analyzed whether antiandrogenic therapy with finasteride, which inhibits the generation of dihydrotestosterone by the enzyme 5-α-reductase, improves pathological ventricular remodeling and heart failure. We found a strongly induced expression of all 3 isoforms of the 5-α-reductase (Srd5a1 to Srd5a3) in human and mouse hearts with pathological hypertrophy, which was associated with increased myocardial accumulation of dihydrotestosterone. Starting 1 week after the induction of pressure overload by transaortic constriction, mice were treated with finasteride for 2 weeks. Cardiac function, hypertrophy, dilation, and fibrosis were markedly improved in response to finasteride treatment in not only male, but also in female mice. In addition, finasteride also very effectively improved cardiac function and mortality after long-term pressure overload and prevented disease progression in cardiomyopathic mice with myocardial Gαq overexpression. Mechanistically, finasteride, by decreasing dihydrotestosterone, potently inhibited hypertrophy and Akt-dependent prohypertrophic signaling in isolated cardiac myocytes, whereas the introduction of constitutively active Akt blunted these effects of finasteride. Finasteride, which is currently used in patients to treat prostate disease, potently reverses pathological cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction in mice and might be a therapeutic option for heart failure. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Treatment with Fenofibrate plus a low dose of Benznidazole attenuates cardiac dysfunction in experimental Chagas disease

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    Ágata C. Cevey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi induces serious cardiac alterations during the chronic infection. Intense inflammatory response observed from the beginning of infection, is critical for the control of parasite proliferation and evolution of Chagas disease. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR-α, are known to modulate inflammation.In this study we investigated whether a PPAR-α agonist, Fenofibrate, improves cardiac function and inflammatory parameters in a murine model of T. cruzi infection. BALB/c mice were sequentially infected with two T. cruzi strains of different genetic background. Benznidazole, commonly used as trypanocidal drug, cleared parasites but did not preclude cardiac pathology, resembling what is found in human chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy. Fenofibrate treatment restored to normal values the ejection and shortening fractions, left ventricular end-diastolic, left ventricular end-systolic diameter, and isovolumic relaxation time. Moreover, it reduced cardiac inflammation and fibrosis, decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory (IL-6, TNF-α and NOS2 and heart remodeling mediators (MMP-9 and CTGF, and reduced serum creatine kinase activity. The fact that Fenofibrate partially inhibited NOS2 expression and NO release in the presence of a PPAR-α non-competitive inhibitor, suggested it also acted through PPAR-α-independent pathways. Since IκBα cytosolic degradation was inhibited by Fenofibrate, it can be concluded that the NFκB pathway has a role in its effects. Thus, we demonstrate that Fenofibrate acts through PPAR-α-dependent and -independent pathways.Our study shows that combined treatment with Fenofibrate plus Benznidazole is able both to reverse the cardiac dysfunction associated with the ongoing inflammatory response and fibrosis and to attain parasite clearance in an experimental model of Chagas disease. Keywords: Trypanosoma cruzi, Heart dysfunction, PPAR-α, Fenofibrate treatment, Inflammatory

  16. Silencing nox4 in the paraventricular nucleus improves myocardial infarction-induced cardiac dysfunction by attenuating sympathoexcitation and periinfarct apoptosis.

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    Infanger, David W; Cao, Xian; Butler, Scott D; Burmeister, Melissa A; Zhou, Yi; Stupinski, John A; Sharma, Ram V; Davisson, Robin L

    2010-06-11

    Myocardial infarction (MI)-induced heart failure is characterized by central nervous system-driven sympathoexcitation and deteriorating cardiac function. The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is a key regulator of sympathetic nerve activity and is implicated in heart failure. Redox signaling in the PVN and other central nervous system sites is a primary mechanism of neuro-cardiovascular regulation, and excessive oxidant production by activation of NADPH oxidases (Noxs) is implicated in some neuro-cardiovascular diseases. We tested the hypothesis that Nox-mediated redox signaling in the PVN contributes to MI-induced sympathoexcitation and cardiac dysfunction in mice. Real-time PCR revealed that Nox4 was the most abundantly expressed Nox in PVN under basal conditions. Coronary arterial ligation (MI) caused a selective upregulation of this homolog compared to Nox1 and Nox2. Adenoviral gene transfer of Nox4 (AdsiNox4) to PVN (bilateral) attenuated MI-induced superoxide formation in this brain region (day 14) to the same level as that produced by PVN-targeted gene transfer of cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase (AdCu/ZnSOD). MI mice treated with AdsiNox4 or AdCu/ZnSOD in the PVN showed marked improvement in cardiac function as assessed by echocardiography and left ventricular hemodynamic analysis. This was accompanied by significantly diminished sympathetic outflow and apoptosis in the periinfarct region of the heart. These results suggest that MI causes dysregulation of Nox4-mediated redox signaling in the PVN, which leads to sympathetic overactivation and a decline in cardiac function. Targeted inhibition of oxidant signaling in the PVN could provide a novel treatment for MI-induced heart failure.

  17. Advanced glycation end product cross-link breaker attenuates diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction by improving sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium handling

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    Allyson eKranstuber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic heart disease is a distinct clinical entity that can progress to heart failure and sudden death. However, the mechanisms responsible for the alterations in excitation-contraction coupling leading to cardiac dysfunction during diabetes are not well known. Hyperglycemia, the landmark of diabetes, leads to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE on long-lived proteins, including SR Ca2+ regulatory proteins. However, their pathogenic role on SR Ca2+ handling in cardiac myocytes is unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether an AGE cross-link breaker could prevent the alterations in SR Ca2+ cycling that lead to in vivo cardiac dysfunction during diabetes. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with Alagebrium Chloride (ALT-711 for 8 weeks and compared to age-matched placebo-treated diabetic rats and healthy rats. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiographic examination. Ventricular myocytes were isolated to assess SR Ca2+ cycling by confocal imaging and quantitative Western blots. Diabetes resulted in in vivo cardiac dysfunction and ALT-711 therapy partially alleviated diastolic dysfunction by decreasing isovolumetric relaxation time and myocardial performance index (by 27 and 41% vs. untreated diabetic rats, respectively, P<0.05. In cardiac myocytes, diabetes induced prolongation of cytosolic Ca2+ transient clearance by 43% and decreased SR Ca2+ load by 25% (P<0.05; these parameters were partially improved after ALT-711 therapy. SERCA2a and RyR2 protein expression was significantly decreased in the myocardium of untreated diabetic rats (by 64 and 36% vs. controls, respectively, P<0.05, but preserved in the treated diabetic group compared to controls. Collectively, our result suggest that, in a model of type 1 diabetes, AGE accumulation primarily impairs SR Ca2+ reuptake in cardiac myocytes and that long term treatment with an AGE cross-link breaker partially normalized SR Ca2+ handling and improved diabetic

  18. RU28318, an Aldosterone Antagonist, in Combination with an ACE Inhibitor and Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction in Diabetes

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    Ibrahim F. Benter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. We evaluated the effects of RU28318 (RU, a selective mineralocorticoid receptor (MR antagonist, Captopril (Capt, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, and Losartan (Los, an angiotensin receptor blocker, alone or in combination with ischemia/reperfusion- (I/R- induced cardiac dysfunction in hearts obtained from normal and diabetic rats. Methods. Isolated hearts were perfused for 30 min and then subjected to 30 min of global ischemia (I followed by a period of 30 min of reperfusion (R. Drugs were administered for 30 min either before or after ischemia. Drug regimens tested were RU, Capt, Los, RU + Capt, RU + Los, Capt + Los, and RU + Capt + Los (Triple. Recovery of cardiac hemodynamics was evaluated. Results. Recovery of cardiac function was up to 5-fold worse in hearts obtained from diabetic animals compared to controls. Treatment with RU was generally better in preventing or reversing ischemia-induced cardiac dysfunction in normal hearts compared to treatment with Capt or Los alone. In diabetic hearts, RU was generally similarly effective as Capt or Los treatment. Conclusions. RU treatment locally might be considered as an effective therapy or preventative measure in cardiac I/R injury. Importantly, RU was the most effective at improving -dP/dt (a measure of diastolic function when administered to diabetic hearts after ischemia.

  19. Mechanical ventilation with high tidal volumes attenuates myocardial dysfunction by decreasing cardiac edema in a rat model of LPS-induced peritonitis

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    Smeding Lonneke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injurious mechanical ventilation (MV may augment organ injury remote from the lungs. During sepsis, myocardial dysfunction is common and increased endothelial activation and permeability can cause myocardial edema, which may, among other factors, hamper myocardial function. We investigated the effects of MV with injuriously high tidal volumes on the myocardium in an animal model of sepsis. Methods Normal rats and intraperitoneal (i.p. lipopolysaccharide (LPS-treated rats were ventilated with low (6 ml/kg and high (19 ml/kg tidal volumes (Vt under general anesthesia. Non-ventilated animals served as controls. Mean arterial pressure (MAP, central venous pressure (CVP, cardiac output (CO and pulmonary plateau pressure (Pplat were measured. Ex vivo myocardial function was measured in isolated Langendorff-perfused hearts. Cardiac expression of endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1 and edema were measured to evaluate endothelial inflammation and leakage. Results MAP decreased after LPS-treatment and Vt-dependently, both independent of each other and with interaction. MV Vt-dependently increased CVP and Pplat and decreased CO. LPS-induced peritonitis decreased myocardial function ex vivo but MV attenuated systolic dysfunction Vt-dependently. Cardiac endothelial VCAM-1 expression was increased by LPS treatment independent of MV. Cardiac edema was lowered Vt-dependently by MV, particularly after LPS, and correlated inversely with systolic myocardial function parameters ex vivo. Conclusion MV attenuated LPS-induced systolic myocardial dysfunction in a Vt-dependent manner. This was associated with a reduction in cardiac edema following a lower transmural coronary venous outflow pressure during LPS-induced coronary inflammation.

  20. Chronic Testosterone Replacement Exerts Cardioprotection against Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Attenuating Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Testosterone-Deprived Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongkan, Wanpitak; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C.; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2015-01-01

    Background Although testosterone deficiency is associated with increased risks of heart disease, the benefits of testosterone therapy are controversial. Moreover, current understanding on the cardiac effect of testosterone during cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) periods is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that testosterone replacement attenuates the impairment of left ventricular (LV) function and heart rate variability (HRV), and reduces the infarct size and arrhythmias caused by I/R injury in orchiectomized (ORX) rats. Methodology ORX or sham-operated male Wistar rats (n = 24) were randomly divided and received either testosterone (2 mg/kg, subcutaneously administered) or the vehicle for 8 weeks. The ejection fraction (EF) and HRV were determined at baseline and the 4th and 8th week. I/R was performed by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for 30 minutes, followed by a 120-minute reperfusion. LV pressure, arrhythmia scores, infarct size and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined. Results Prior to I/R, EF and HRV were impaired in the ORX group, but were restored in the testosterone-treated group. During I/R, arrhythmia scores and the infarct size were greater, and cardiac mitochondrial function was impaired, whereas the time to 1st VT/VF onset and the LV end-systolic pressure were decreased in the ORX group when compared to the sham group. Testosterone replacement attenuated the impairment of these parameters in ORX rats during I/R injury, but did not show any benefit or adverse effect in non-ORX rats. Conclusions Testosterone replacement restores cardiac function and autonomic regulation, and exerts cardioprotective effects during the I/R period via mitochondrial protection in ORX rats. PMID:25822979

  1. Rat adipose tissue-derived stem cells transplantation attenuates cardiac dysfunction post infarction and biopolymers enhance cell retention.

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    Maria E Danoviz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiac cell transplantation is compromised by low cell retention and poor graft viability. Here, the effects of co-injecting adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs with biopolymers on cell cardiac retention, ventricular morphometry and performance were evaluated in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 99mTc-labeled ASCs (1x10(6 cells isolated from isogenic Lewis rats were injected 24 hours post-MI using fibrin a, collagen (ASC/C, or culture medium (ASC/M as vehicle, and cell body distribution was assessed 24 hours later by gamma-emission counting of harvested organs. ASC/F and ASC/C groups retained significantly more cells in the myocardium than ASC/M (13.8+/-2.0 and 26.8+/-2.4% vs. 4.8+/-0.7%, respectively. Then, morphometric and direct cardiac functional parameters were evaluated 4 weeks post-MI cell injection. Left ventricle (LV perimeter and percentage of interstitial collagen in the spare myocardium were significantly attenuated in all ASC-treated groups compared to the non-treated (NT and control groups (culture medium, fibrin, or collagen alone. Direct hemodynamic assessment under pharmacological stress showed that stroke volume (SV and left ventricle end-diastolic pressure were preserved in ASC-treated groups regardless of the vehicle used to deliver ASCs. Stroke work (SW, a global index of cardiac function, improved in ASC/M while it normalized when biopolymers were co-injected with ASCs. A positive correlation was observed between cardiac ASCs retention and preservation of SV and improvement in SW post-MI under hemodynamic stress. CONCLUSIONS: We provided direct evidence that intramyocardial injection of ASCs mitigates the negative cardiac remodeling and preserves ventricular function post-MI in rats and these beneficial effects can be further enhanced by administering co-injection of ASCs with biopolymers.

  2. Silencing Nox4 in the Paraventricular Nucleus Improves Myocardial Infarction-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction by Attenuating Sympathoexcitation and Peri-infarct Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infanger, David W.; Cao, Xian; Butler, Scott D.; Burmeister, Melissa A.; Zhou, Yi; Stupinski, John A.; Sharma, Ram V.; Davisson, Robin L.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Myocardial infarction (MI)-induced heart failure (HF) is characterized by central nervous system (CNS)-driven sympathoexcitation and deteriorating cardiac function. The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is a key regulator of sympathetic nerve activity and is implicated in HF. Redox signaling in the PVN and other CNS sites is a primary mechanism of neuro-cardiovascular regulation, and excessive oxidant production by activation of NADPH oxidases (Nox) is implicated in some neuro-cardiovascular diseases. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that Nox-mediated redox signaling in the PVN contributes to MI-induced sympathoexcitation and cardiac dysfunction in mice. Methods and Results: Real-time PCR revealed that Nox4 was the most abundantly expressed Nox in PVN under basal conditions. Coronary arterial ligation (MI) caused a selective upregulation of this homologue compared to Nox1 and Nox2. Adenoviral gene transfer of Nox4 siRNA (AdsiNox4) to PVN (bilateral) attenuated MI-induced superoxide formation in this brain region (day 14) to the same level as that produced by PVN-targeted gene transfer of cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase (AdCu/ZnSOD). MI mice treated with AdsiNox4 or AdCu/ZnSOD in the PVN showed marked improvement in cardiac function as assessed by echocardiography and left ventricular hemodynamic analysis. This was accompanied by significantly diminished sympathetic outflow and apoptosis in the peri-infarct region of the heart. Conclusions: These results suggest that MI causes dysregulation of Nox4-mediated redox signaling in the PVN, which leads to sympathetic overactivation and a decline in cardiac function. Targeted inhibition of oxidant signaling in the PVN could provide a novel treatment for MI-induced HF. PMID:20413786

  3. Netrin-1 abrogates ischemia/reperfusion-induced cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction via nitric oxide-dependent attenuation of NOX4 activation and recoupling of NOS.

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    Siu, Kin Lung; Lotz, Christopher; Ping, Peipei; Cai, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Despite an established role of mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, the upstream activators have remained incompletely defined. We have recently identified an innovative role of exogenously applied netrin-1 in cardioprotection, which is mediated by increased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Here, we tested the hypothesis that this "pharmacological" treatment of netrin-1 preserves mitochondrial function via novel mechanisms that are NO dependent. Freshly isolated C57BL6 mouse hearts were perfused using a Langendorff system, and subjected to a 20min global ischemia/60min reperfusion, in the presence or absence of netrin-1. I/R induced marked increases in infarct size, total superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production, activity and protein abundance of NADPH oxidase (NOX) isoform 4 (NOX4), as well as impaired mitochondrial integrity and function, all of which were attenuated by netrin-1. This protective effect of netrin-1 is attributed to cGMP, a downstream effector of NO. The protein levels of NOX1 and NOX2 were however unaffected, and infarct size from NOX1 and NOX2 knockouts was not different from wild type animals. Scavenging of NO with PTIO reversed inhibitory effects of netrin-1 on NOX4, while NO donor attenuated NOX4 protein abundance. In vivo NOX4 RNAi, or sepiapterin perfusion, resulted in recoupling of NOS, decreased infarct size, and blockade of dysfunctional mitochondrial swelling and mitochondrial superoxide production. These data demonstrate that netrin-1 induces cardioprotection through inhibition of NOX4 activity, which leads to recoupling of NOS, augmented NO bioavailability, reduction in oxidative stress, and ultimately preservation of mitochondrial function. The NO-dependent NOX4 inhibition connects with our previously established pathway of DCC/ERK1/2/eNOS/NO/DCC feed-forward mechanism, to maintain NOS in the coupling state to attenuate oxidative stress to preserve mitochondrial function. These findings may

  4. Targeted P2X7 R shRNA delivery attenuates sympathetic nerve sprouting and ameliorates cardiac dysfunction in rats with myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongmei; Yin, Jie; Shi, Yugen; Hu, Hesheng; Li, Xiaolu; Xue, Mei; Cheng, Wenjuan; Wang, Ye; Li, Xinran; Li, Yongkang; Wang, Yu; Yan, Suhua

    2017-04-01

    Inflammation-dominated sympathetic sprouting adjacent to the necrotic region following myocardial infarction (MI) has been implicated in the etiology of arrhythmias resulting in sudden cardiac death; however, the mechanisms responsible remain to be elucidated. Although P2X7 R is a key immune mediator, its role has yet to be explored. We investigated whether P2X7 R regulates NF-κB and affects cardiac sympathetic reinnervation in rats undergoing MI. An adenoviral vector with a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) sequence inserted was adopted for the inhibition of P2X7 R in vivo. Myocardial infarction was induced by left coronary artery ligation, and immediately after that, recombinant P2X7 R-shRNA adenovirus, negative adenovirus (control), or normal saline solution (vehicle) was injected intramyocardially around the MI region and border areas. A high level of P2X7 R was activated in the infarcted tissue at an early stage. The administration of P2X7 R RNAi resulted in the inhibition of Akt and Erk1/2 phosphorylation and decreased the activation of NF-κB and macrophage infiltration, as well as attenuated the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF). Eventually, the NGF-induced sympathetic hyperinnervation was blunted, as assessed by the immunofluorescence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP 43). At 7 days post-MI, the arrhythmia score of programmed electrical stimulation in the vehicle-treated infarcted rats was higher than the MI-shRNA group. Further amelioration of cardiac dysfunction was also detected. The administration of P2X7 R RNAi during the acute inflammatory response phase prevented the process of sympathetic hyperinnervation after MI, which was associated in part with inhibiting the Akt and ERK1/2 pathways and NF-κB activation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. TLR4 knockout attenuated high fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction via NF-κB/JNK-dependent activation of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nan; Zhang, Yingmei

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is commonly associated with a low grade systemic inflammation, which may contribute to the onset and development of myocardial remodeling and contractile dysfunction. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays an important role in innate immunity and inflammation although its role in high fat diet-induced obesity cardiac dysfunction remains elusive. This study was designed to examine the effect of TLR4 ablation on high fat diet intake-induced cardiac anomalies, if any, and underlying mechanism(s) involved. Wild-type (WT) and TLR4 knockout mice were fed normal or high fat (60% calorie from fat) diet for 12weeks prior to assessment of mechanical and intracellular Ca(2+) properties. The inflammatory signaling proteins (TLR4, NF-κB, and JNK) and autophagic markers (Atg5, Atg12, LC3B and p62) were evaluated. Our results revealed that high fat diet intake promoted obesity, marked decrease in fractional shortening, and cardiomyocyte contractile capacity with dampened intracellular Ca(2+) release and clearance, elevated ROS generation and oxidative stress as measured by aconitase activity, the effects of which were significantly attenuated by TLR4 knockout. In addition, high fat intake downregulated levels of Atg5, Atg12 and LC3B, while increasing p62 accumulation. TLR4 knockout itself did not affect Atg5, Atg12, LC3B and p62 levels while it reconciled high fat diet intake-induced changes in autophagy. In addition, TLR4 knockout alleviated high fat diet-induced phosphorylation of IKKβ, JNK and mTOR. In vitro study revealed that palmitic acid suppressed cardiomyocyte contractile function, the effect of which was inhibited the TLR4 inhibitor CLI-095, the JNK inhibitor AS601245 or the NF-κB inhibitor Celastrol. Taken together, these data showed that TLR4 knockout ameliorated high fat diet-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) anomalies through inhibition of inflammation and ROS, possibly through a NF-κB/JNK-dependent activation of autophagy. This article is

  6. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in chronic stroke women is attenuated after submaximal exercise test, as evaluated by linear and nonlinear analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francica, Juliana Valente; Bigongiari, Aline; Mochizuki, Luís; Scapini, Kátia Bilhar; Moraes, Oscar Albuquerque; Mostarda, Cristiano; Caperuto, Erico Chagas; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; De Angelis, Katia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2015-09-29

    We evaluated cardiac autonomic modulation in women with chronic ischemic stroke (at least 4 years post-stroke) at rest and in response to submaximal exercise test. Fourteen post-stroke women (S group) and 10 healthy women (C group) participated in this study. Autonomic modulation (using linear and nonlinear analysis), blood pressure and metabolic variables at rest were evaluated immediately after the exercise test and during the recovery period (20 min). All participants underwent submaximal exercise test on cycle ergometer with gas analysis. At rest, the S group displayed higher lactate concentration, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) values when compared to C group. Furthermore, the S group had lower heart rate variability (HRV) in time domain (SDNN: S = 30 ± 5 vs. 40 ± 8 ms; rMSSD: S = 14 ± 2 vs. C = 34 ± 3 ms), decreased high frequency band of pulse interval (S = 8.4 ± 2 vs. 33.1 ± 9 %) and 2V pattern of symbolic analysis (S = 17.3 ± 1 vs. 30 ± 3 %) (both indicators of cardiac vagal modulation) when compared to C group. Immediately after exercise, S group presented higher values of lactate, SBP, DBP and double product when compared to C group, as well as decreased heart rate recovery (HRR) measured at the first, second and third minutes. At recovery time, all HRV parameters in time and frequency domains improved in the S group; however, HF band remained lower when compared to C group. After the exercise test, women with chronic stroke presented reduced heart rate variability, reduced cardiac vagal modulation, as well as reduced HRR, while displayed an improvement of heart rate variability and cardiac vagal modulation when compared to their baseline. These results reinforce the importance of a physically active lifestyle for cardiovascular autonomic disorders observed in chronic stroke women.

  7. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Deficiency in T Cells Attenuates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy and Dysfunction Through Modulating T-Cell Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Sun, Xue-Nan; Zeng, Meng-Ru; Zheng, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Yu-Yao; Wan, Qiangyou; Zhang, Wu-Chang; Shi, Chaoji; Du, Lin-Juan; Ai, Tang-Jun; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yan; Du, Li-Li; Yi, Yi; Yu, Ying; Duan, Sheng-Zhong

    2017-07-01

    Although antagonists of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) have been widely used to treat heart failure, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Recent reports show that T cells play important roles in pathologic cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. However, it is unclear whether and how MR functions in T cells under these pathologic conditions. We found that MR antagonist suppressed abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy and decreased the accumulation and activation of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells in mouse heart. T-cell MR knockout mice manifested suppressed cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction compared with littermate control mice after abdominal aortic constriction. T-cell MR knockout mice had less cardiac inflammatory response, which was illustrated by decreased accumulation of myeloid cells and reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines. Less amounts and activation of T cells were observed in the heart of T-cell MR knockout mice after abdominal aortic constriction. In vitro studies showed that both MR antagonism and deficiency repressed activation of T cells, whereas MR overexpression elevated activation of T cells. These results demonstrated that MR blockade in T cells protected against abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. Mechanistically, MR directly regulated T-cell activation and modulated cardiac inflammation. Targeting MR in T cells specifically may be a feasible strategy for more effective treatment of pathologic cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Trimetazidine attenuates pressure overload-induced early cardiac energy dysfunction via regulation of neuropeptide Y system in a rat model of abdominal aortic constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ailan; Li, Wanglin; Chen, Xinyu; Shen, Yuechun; Dai, Wenjun; Dong, Qi; Li, Xinchun; Ou, Caiwen; Chen, Minsheng

    2016-11-17

    Metabolism remodeling has been recognized as an early event following cardiac pressure overload. However, its temporal association with ventricular hypertrophy has not been confirmed. Moreover, whether trimetazidine could favorably affect this process also needs to be determined. The aim of the study was to explore the temporal changes of myocardial metabolism remodeling following pressure-overload induced ventricular hypertrophy and the potential favorable effect of trimetazidine on myocardial metabolism remodeling. A rat model of abdominal aortic constriction (AAC)-induced cardiac pressure overload was induced. These rats were grouped as the AAC (no treatment) or TMZ group according to whether oral trimetazidine (TMZ, 40 mg/kg/d, for 5 days) was administered. Changes in cardiac structures were sequentially evaluated via echocardiography. The myocardial ADP/ATP ratio was determined to reflect the metabolic status, and changes in serum neuropeptide Y systems were evaluated. Myocardial metabolic disorder was acutely induced as evidenced by an increased ADP/ATP ratio within 7 days of AAC before the morphological changes in the myocardium, accompanied by up-regulation of serum oxidative stress markers and expression of fetal genes related to hypertrophy. Moreover, the serum NPY and myocardial NPY-1R, 2R, and 5R levels were increased within the acute phase of AAC-induced cardiac pressure overload. Pretreatment with TMZ could partly attenuate myocardial energy metabolic homeostasis, decrease serum levels of oxidative stress markers, attenuate the induction of hypertrophy-related myocardial fetal genes, inhibit the up-regulation of serum NPY levels, and further increase the myocardial expression of NPY receptors. Cardiac metabolic remodeling is an early change in the myocardium before the presence of typical morphological ventricular remodeling following cardiac pressure overload, and pretreatment with TMZ may at least partly reverse the acute metabolic disturbance

  9. Attenuation of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling of myocardial infarction by microRNA-130a are mediated by suppression of PTEN and activation of PI3K dependent signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chen; Wang, Xiaohui; Ha, Tuanzhu; Hu, Yuanping; Liu, Li; Zhang, Xia; Yu, Honghui; Miao, Jonathan; Kao, Race; Kalbfleisch, John; Williams, David; Li, Chuanfu

    2015-12-01

    Activation of PI3K/Akt signaling protects the myocardium from ischemia/reperfusion injury. MicroRNAs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In this study, we examined whether miR-130a will attenuate cardiac dysfunction and remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) via PI3K/Akt dependent mechanism. To determine the role of miR-130a in the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells, HUVECs were transfected with miR-130a mimics before the cells were subjected to scratch-induced wound injury. Transfection of miR-130a mimics stimulated the migration of endothelial cells into the wound area and increased phospho-Akt levels. To examine the effect of miR-130a on cardiac dysfunction and remodeling after MI, Lentivirus expressing miR-130a (LmiR-130a) was delivered into mouse hearts seven days before the mice were subjected to MI. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography before and for up to 21 days after MI. Ejection fraction (EF%) and fractional shortening (FS%) in the LmiR-130a transfected MI hearts were significantly greater than in LmiR-control and untransfected control MI groups. LmiR-130a transfection increased capillary number and VEGF expression, and decreased collagen deposition in the infarcted myocardium. Importantly, LmiR-130a transfection significantly suppressed PTEN expression and increased the levels of phosphorylated Akt in the myocardium. However, treatment of LmiR-130a-transfected mice with LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, completely abolished miR-130a-induced attenuation of cardiac dysfunction after MI. miR-130a plays a critical role in attenuation of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling after MI. The mechanisms involve activation of PI3K/Akt signaling via suppression of PTEN expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Attenuation of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling of myocardial infarction by microRNA-130a is mediated by suppression of PTEN and activation of PI3K dependent signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chen; Wang, Xiaohui; Ha, Tuanzhu; Hu, Yuanping; Liu, Li; Zhang, Xia; Yu, Honghui; Miao, Jonathan; Kao, Race; Kalbfleisch, John; Williams, David; Li, Chuanfu

    2015-01-01

    Objective Activation of PI3K/Akt signaling protects the myocardium from ischemia/reperfusion injury. MicroRNAs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In this study, we examined whether miR-130a will attenuate cardiac dysfunction and remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) via PI3K/Akt dependent mechanism. Approaches and Results To determine the role of miR-130a in the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells, HUVECs were transfected with miR-130a mimics before the cells were subjected to scratch-induced wound injury. Transfection of miR-130a mimics stimulated the migration of endothelial cells into the wound area and increased phosphor-Akt levels. To examine the effect of miR-130a on cardiac dysfunction and remodeling after MI, Lentivirus expressing miR-130a (LmiR-130a) was delivered into mouse hearts seven days before the mice were subjected to MI. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography before and for up to 21 days after MI. Ejection fraction (EF%) and fractional shortening (FS%) in the LmiR-130a transfected MI hearts were significantly greater than in LmiR-control and untransfected control MI groups. LmiR-130a transfection increased capillary number and VEGF expression, and decreased collagen deposition in the infarcted myocardium. Importantly, LmiR-130a transfection significantly suppressed PTEN expression and increased the levels of phosphorylated Akt in the myocardium. However, treatment of LmiR-130a-transfected mice with LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, completely abolished miR-130a-induced attenuation of cardiac dysfunction after MI. Conclusions miR-130a plays a critical role in attenuation of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling after MI. The mechanisms involve activation of PI3K/Akt signaling via suppression of PTEN expression. PMID:26458524

  11. Myocardial Dysfunction and Shock after Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzer, Jacob C.; Chonde, Meshe D.; Dezfulian, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    Postarrest myocardial dysfunction includes the development of low cardiac output or ventricular systolic or diastolic dysfunction after cardiac arrest. Impaired left ventricular systolic function is reported in nearly two-thirds of patients resuscitated after cardiac arrest. Hypotension and shock requiring vasopressor support are similarly common after cardiac arrest. Whereas shock requiring vasopressor support is consistently associated with an adverse outcome after cardiac arrest, the association between myocardial dysfunction and outcomes is less clear. Myocardial dysfunction and shock after cardiac arrest develop as the result of preexisting cardiac pathology with multiple superimposed insults from resuscitation. The pathophysiology involves cardiovascular ischemia/reperfusion injury and cardiovascular toxicity from excessive levels of inflammatory cytokine activation and catecholamines, among other contributing factors. Similar mechanisms occur in myocardial dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass, in sepsis, and in stress-induced cardiomyopathy. Hemodynamic stabilization after resuscitation from cardiac arrest involves restoration of preload, vasopressors to support arterial pressure, and inotropic support if needed to reverse the effects of myocardial dysfunction and improve systemic perfusion. Further research is needed to define the role of postarrest myocardial dysfunction on cardiac arrest outcomes and identify therapeutic strategies. PMID:26421284

  12. Metformin attenuates ER stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qun; Thompson, Jeremy; Hu, Ying; Das, Anindita; Lesnefsky, Edward J

    2017-12-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a disturbance of the ER function, contributes to cardiac injury. ER and mitochondria are closely connected organelles within cells. ER stress contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction, which is a key factor to increase cardiac injury. Metformin, a traditional anti-diabetic drug, decreases cardiac injury during ischemia-reperfusion. Metformin also inhibits ER stress in cultured cells. We hypothesized that metformin can attenuate the ER stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent cardiac injury. Thapsigargin (THAP, 3 mg/kg) was used to induce ER stress in C57BL/6 mice. Cell injury and mitochondrial function were evaluated in the mouse heart 48 hours after 1-time THAP treatment. Metformin was dissolved in drinking water (0.5 g/250 ml) and fed to mice for 7 days before THAP injection. Metformin feeding continued after THAP treatment. THAP treatment increased apoptosis in mouse myocardium compared to control. THAP also led to decreased oxidative phosphorylation in heart mitochondria-oxidizing complex I substrates. THAP decreased the calcium retention capacity, indicating that ER stress sensitizes mitochondria to mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. The cytosolic C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) content was markedly increased in THAP-treated hearts compared to control, particularly in the nucleus. Metformin prevented the THAP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced CHOP content in cytosol and nucleus. Thus, metformin reduces cardiac injury during ER stress through the protection of cardiac mitochondria and attenuation of CHOP expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exogenous heat shock cognate protein 70 pretreatment attenuates cardiac and hepatic dysfunction with associated anti-inflammatory responses in experimental septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jong-Hau; Yang, Rei-Cheng; Lin, Shih-Jen; Liou, Shu-Fen; Dai, Zen-Kong; Yeh, Jwu-Lai; Wu, Jiunn-Ren

    2014-12-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that intracellular heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70) can be released into extracellular space with physiologic effects. However, its extracellular function in sepsis is not clear. In this study, we hypothesize that extracellular HSC70 can protect against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced myocardial and hepatic dysfunction because of its anti-inflammatory actions. In Wistar rats, septic shock developed with hypotension, tachycardia, and myocardial and hepatic dysfunction at 4 h following LPS administration (10 mg/kg, i.v.). Pretreatment with recombinant bovine HSC70 (20 μg/kg, i.v.) attenuated LPS-induced hypotension and tachycardia by 21% and 23%, respectively (P shock cognate protein 70 also prevented LPS-induced hypoglycemia (217 vs. 59 mg/dL, P shock, extracellular HSC70 conveys pleiotropic protection on myocardial, hepatic, and systemic derangements, with associated inhibition of proinflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor α, nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase 2, and matrix metalloproteinase 9, through mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor κB signaling pathways. Therefore, extracellular HSC70 may have a promising role in the prophylactic treatment of sepsis.

  14. Diabetic cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Parasympathetic versus sympathetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Akihiko; Kurata, Chinori; Sugi, Toshihiko; Mikami, Tadashi; Shouda, Sakae [Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1999-04-01

    Diabetic cardiac autonomic dysfunction often causes lethal arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. {sup 123}I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) can evaluate cardiac sympathetic dysfunction, and analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) can reflect cardiac parasympathetic activity. We examined whether cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction assessed by HRV may correlate with sympathetic dysfunction assessed by MIBG in diabetic patients. In 24-hour electrocardiography, we analyzed 4 HRV parameters: high-frequency power (HF), HF in the early morning (EMHF), rMSSD and pNN50. MIBG planar images and SPECT were obtained 15 minutes (early) and 150 minutes (late) after injection and the heart washout rate was calculated. The defect score in 9 left ventricular regions was scored on a 4 point scale (0=normal - 3=severe defect). In 20 selected diabetic patients without congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease and renal failure, parasympathetic HRV parameters had a negative correlation with the sum of defect scores (DS) in the late images (R=-0.47 to -0.59, p<0.05) and some parameters had a negative correlation with the washout rate (R=-0.50 to -0.55, p<0.05). In a total of 64 diabetic patients also, these parameters had a negative correlation with late DS (R=-0.28 to -0.35, p<0.05) and early DS (R=-0.27 to -0.32, p<0.05). The progress of diabetic cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction may parallel the sympathetic one. (author)

  15. Endothelial dysfunction after non-cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, E S; Fonnes, S; Gögenur, I

    2015-01-01

    was to systematically review the literature to evaluate the association between non-cardiac surgery and non-invasive markers of endothelial function. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library Database according to the PRISMA guidelines. Endothelial dysfunction was described only...

  16. Trimetazidine attenuates pressure overload-induced early cardiac energy dysfunction via regulation of neuropeptide Y system in a rat model of abdominal aortic constriction

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ailan; Li, Wanglin; Chen, Xinyu; Shen, Yuechun; Dai, Wenjun; Dong, Qi; Li, Xinchun; Ou, Caiwen; Chen, Minsheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Metabolism remodeling has been recognized as an early event following cardiac pressure overload. However, its temporal association with ventricular hypertrophy has not been confirmed. Moreover, whether trimetazidine could favorably affect this process also needs to be determined. The aim of the study was to explore the temporal changes of myocardial metabolism remodeling following pressure-overload induced ventricular hypertrophy and the potential favorable effect of trimetazidine ...

  17. Omentin functions to attenuate cardiac hypertrophic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Rei; Ohashi, Koji; Kambara, Takahiro; Uemura, Yusuke; Hiramatsu-Ito, Mizuho; Enomoto, Takashi; Yuasa, Daisuke; Joki, Yusuke; Ito, Masanori; Hayakawa, Satoko; Ogawa, Hayato; Kihara, Shinji; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ouchi, Noriyuki

    2015-02-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in many obesity-related conditions. Omentin is an adipose-derived plasma protein that is downregulated under obese conditions. Here, we investigated whether omentin modulates cardiac hypertrophic responses in vivo and in vitro. Systemic administration of an adenoviral vector expressing human omentin (Ad-OMT) to wild-type (WT) mice led to the attenuation of cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and ERK phosphorylation induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or angiotensin II infusion. In cultured cardiomyocytes, stimulation with phenylephrine (PE) led to an increase in myocyte size, which was prevented by pretreatment with human omentin protein. Pretreatment of cardiomyocytes with omentin protein also reduced ERK phosphorylation in response to PE stimulation. Ad-OMT enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the heart of WT mice after TAC operation. Blockade of AMPK activation by transduction with dominant-negative mutant forms of AMPK reversed the inhibitory effect of omentin on myocyte hypertrophy and ERK phosphorylation following PE stimulation. Moreover, fat-specific transgenic mice expressing human omentin showed reduced cardiac hypertrophy and ERK phosphorylation following TAC surgery compared to littermate controls. These data suggest that omentin functions to attenuate the pathological process of myocardial hypertrophy via the activation of AMPK in the heart, suggesting that omentin may represent a target molecule for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adenosine prevents isoprenaline-induced cardiac contractile and electrophysiological dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yangzhen; Redfors, Björn; Mattson-Hultén, Lillemor; Scharing Täng, Margareta; Daryoni, Elma; Said, Mohammed; Omerovic, Elmir

    2013-10-15

    Excessive levels of catecholamines are believed to contribute to cardiac dysfunction in a variety of disease states, including myocardial infarction and heart failure, and are particularly implicated in stress-induced cardiomyopathy, an increasingly recognized cardiomyopathy associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We have previously shown that a high dose of isoprenaline induces reversible regional dysfunction of the left ventricle in mice. We now hypothesize that adenosine can prevent cardiac dysfunction in this mouse model of stress-induced cardiomyopathy. Hundred male C57BL/6 mice were injected with 400mg/kg isoprenaline and then randomized to either 400mg/kg adenosine or saline. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography at baseline and 2, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 min post isoprenaline. Myocardial fibrosis was quantified after 10 days. Intracellular lipid accumulation was quantified after 2 and 24h. Electrophysiological parameters and degree of lipid accumulation were evaluated in cultured HL1 cardiomyocytes. Two hours post isoprenaline treatment, echocardiographic parameters of global and posterior wall regional function were significantly better in adenosine-treated mice (P<0.05). This difference persisted at 24h, but saline-treated mice gradually recovered over the next 96 h. Intracellular lipid accumulation was also significantly lower in adenosine mice. We found no sign of fibrosis in the adenosine mice, whereas the extent of fibrosis in isoprenaline mice was 1.3% (P<0.05). Furthermore, adenosine-treated HL1 cells showed preserved electrophysiological function and displayed less severe intracellular lipid accumulation in response to isoprenaline. In conclusion, adenosine attenuates isoprenaline-induced cardiac dysfunction in mice and cells. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardiac Overexpression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGF-1) Attenuates Chronic Alcohol Intake-Induced Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction But Not Hypertrophy: Role of Akt, mTOR, GSK3β and PTEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingfang; Turdi, Subat; Li, Quan; Lopez, Faye L.; Eason, Anna R.; Anversa, Piero; Ren, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Chronic alcohol intake leads to the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy manifested by cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction. This study was designed to examine the effect of transgenic overexpression of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) on alcohol-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction. Wild-type FVB and cardiac-specific IGF-1 mice were placed on a 4% alcohol or control diet for 16 weeks. Cardiac geometry and mechanical function were evaluated by echocardiography, cardiomyocyte and intracellular Ca2+ properties. Histological analyses for cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis were evaluated by Masson trichrome staining and TUNEL assay, respectively. Expression and/or phosphorylation of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), Ca2+ handling proteins, key signaling molecules for survival including Akt, mTOR, GSK3β, Foxo3a and the negative regulator of Akt phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome ten (PTEN) as well as mitochondrial proteins UCP-2 and PGC1α were evaluated by western blot analysis. Chronic alcohol intake led to cardiac hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, reduced mitochondrial number, compromised cardiac contractile function and intracellular Ca2+ handling, decreased SOD1 expression, elevated superoxide production and overt apoptosis, all of which with the exception of cardiac hypertrophy were abrogated by the IGF-1 transgene. Immunoblotting data showed reduced phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, GSK3β and Foxo3a, upregulated Foxo3a and PTEN, as well as dampened SERCA2a, PGC1α and UCP-2 following alcohol intake. All these alcohol-induced changes in survival and mitochondrial proteins were alleviated by IGF-1. Taken together, these data favor a beneficial role of IGF-1 in alcohol-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction independent of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:20678571

  20. Enhanced Glycolytic Metabolism Contributes to Cardiac Dysfunction in Polymicrobial Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhibo; Ma, He; Zhang, Xia; Tu, Fei; Wang, Xiaohui; Ha, Tuanzhu; Fan, Min; Liu, Li; Xu, Jingjing; Yu, Kaijiang; Wang, Ruitao; Kalbfleisch, John; Kao, Race; Williams, David; Li, Chuanfu

    2017-05-01

    Cardiac dysfunction is present in >40% of sepsis patients and is associated with mortality rates of up to 70%. Recent evidence suggests that glycolytic metabolism plays a critical role in host defense and inflammation. Activation of Toll-like receptors on immune cells can enhance glycolytic metabolism. This study investigated whether modulation of glycolysis by inhibition of hexokinase will be beneficial to septic cardiomyopathy. Male C57B6/J mice were treated with a hexokinase inhibitor (2-deoxy-d-glucose [2-DG], 0.25-2 g/kg, n = 6-8) before cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) induced sepsis. Untreated septic mice served as control. Sham surgically operated mice treated with or without the 2-DG inhibitor served as sham controls. Cardiac function was assessed 6 hours after CLP sepsis by echocardiography. Serum was harvested for measurement of inflammatory cytokines and lactate. Sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction was significantly attenuated by administration of 2-DG. Ejection fraction and fractional shortening in 2-DG-treated septic mice were significantly (P sepsis-increased serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β as well as lactate, and enhanced the expression of Sirt1 and Sirt3 in the myocardium, which play an important role in mitochondrial function and metabolism. In addition, 2-DG administration suppresses sepsis-increased expression of apoptotic inducers Bak and Bax as well as JNK phosphorylation in the myocardium. Glycolytic metabolism plays an important role in mediating sepsis-induced septic cardiomyopathy. The mechanisms may involve regulation of inflammatory response and apoptotic signaling.

  1. Postoperative Pulmonary Dysfunction and Mechanical Ventilation in Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Badenes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative pulmonary dysfunction (PPD is a frequent and significant complication after cardiac surgery. It contributes to morbidity and mortality and increases hospitalization stay and its associated costs. Its pathogenesis is not clear but it seems to be related to the development of a systemic inflammatory response with a subsequent pulmonary inflammation. Many factors have been described to contribute to this inflammatory response, including surgical procedure with sternotomy incision, effects of general anesthesia, topical cooling, and extracorporeal circulation (ECC and mechanical ventilation (VM. Protective ventilation strategies can reduce the incidence of atelectasis (which still remains one of the principal causes of PDD and pulmonary infections in surgical patients. In this way, the open lung approach (OLA, a protective ventilation strategy, has demonstrated attenuating the inflammatory response and improving gas exchange parameters and postoperative pulmonary functions with a better residual functional capacity (FRC when compared with a conventional ventilatory strategy. Additionally, maintaining low frequency ventilation during ECC was shown to decrease the incidence of PDD after cardiac surgery, preserving lung function.

  2. Risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in children on treatment for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the point prevalence of abnormal cardiac function and to assess the risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in paediatric oncology patients on treatment at Kenyatta National Hospital. Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study with a nested case control. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital between ...

  3. Pentoxifylline Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling Induced by Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minicucci, Marcos; Oliveira, Fernando; Santos, Priscila; Polegato, Bertha; Roscani, Meliza; Fernandes, Ana Angelica; Lustosa, Beatriz; Paiva, Sergio; Zornoff, Leonardo; Azevedo, Paula, E-mail: paulasa@fmb.unesp.br [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    Tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor for cardiac remodeling. Under this condition, inflammation, oxidative stress, energy metabolism abnormalities, apoptosis, and hypertrophy are present. Pentoxifylline has anti‑inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-thrombotic and anti-proliferative properties. The present study tested the hypothesis that pentoxifylline would attenuate cardiac remodeling induced by smoking. Wistar rats were distributed in four groups: Control (C), Pentoxifylline (PX), Tobacco Smoke (TS), and PX-TS. After two months, echocardiography, invasive blood pressure measurement, biochemical, and histological studies were performed. The groups were compared by two-way ANOVA with a significance level of 5%. TS increased left atrium diameter and area, which was attenuated by PX. In the isolated heart study, TS lowered the positive derivate (+dp/dt), and this was attenuated by PX. The antioxidants enzyme superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased in the TS group; PX recovered these activities. TS increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and decreased 3-hydroxyacyl Coenzyme A dehydrogenases (OH-DHA) and citrate synthase (CS). PX attenuated LDH, 3-OH-DHA and CS alterations in TS-PX group. TS increased IL-10, ICAM-1, and caspase-3. PX did not influence these variables. TS induced cardiac remodeling, associated with increased inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and changed energy metabolism. PX attenuated cardiac remodeling by reducing oxidative stress and improving cardiac bioenergetics, but did not act upon cardiac cytokines and apoptosis.

  4. Exercise ameliorates high fat diet induced cardiac dysfunction by increasing interleukin 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesherwani, Varun; Chavali, Vishalakshi; Hackfort, Bryan T; Tyagi, Suresh C; Mishra, Paras K

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that a sedentary lifestyle and a high fat diet (HFD) leads to cardiomyopathy. Moderate exercise ameliorates cardiac dysfunction, however underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Increased inflammation due to induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and attenuation of anti-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin 10 (IL-10) contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obese and diabetics. We hypothesized that exercise training ameliorates HFD- induced cardiac dysfunction by mitigating obesity and inflammation through upregulation of IL-10 and downregulation of TNF-α. To test this hypothesis, 8 week old, female C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD and exercised (swimming 1 h/day for 5 days/week for 8 weeks). The four treatment groups: normal diet (ND), HFD, HFD + exercise (HFD + Ex) and ND + Ex were analyzed for mean body weight, blood glucose level, TNF-α, IL-10, cardiac fibrosis by Masson Trichrome, and cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography. Mean body weights were increased in HFD but comparatively less in HFD + Ex. The level of TNF-α was elevated and IL-10 was downregulated in HFD but ameliorated in HFD + Ex. Cardiac fibrosis increased in HFD and was attenuated by exercise in the HFD + Ex group. The percentage ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in HFD but comparatively increased in HFD + Ex. There was no difference between ND and ND + Ex for the above parameters except an increase in IL-10 level following exercise. Based on these results, we conclude that exercise mitigates HFD- induced cardiomyopathy by decreasing obesity, inducing IL-10, and reducing TNF-α in mice.

  5. Exercise Ameliorates High Fat Diet Induced Cardiac Dysfunction by Increasing Interleukin 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun eKesherwani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that a sedentary lifestyle and a high fat diet (HFD leads to cardiomyopathy. Moderate exercise ameliorates cardiac dysfunction, however underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Increased inflammation due to induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and attenuation of anti-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin10 (IL-10 contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obese and diabetics. We hypothesized that exercise training ameliorates HFD- induced cardiac dysfunction by mitigating obesity and inflammation through upregulation of IL-10 and downregulation of TNF-α. To test this hypothesis, eight week old, female C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD and exercised (swimming 1hr/day for 5 days/week for eight weeks. The four treatment groups: normal diet (ND, HFD, HFD + exercise (HFD + Ex and ND + Ex were analyzed for mean body weight, blood glucose level, TNF-α, IL-10, cardiac fibrosis by Masson Trichrome, and cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography. Mean body weights were increased in HFD but comparatively less in HFD + Ex. The level of TNF-α was elevated and IL-10 was downregulated in HFD but ameliorated in HFD + Ex. Cardiac fibrosis increased in HFD and was attenuated by exercise in the HFD + Ex group. The percentage ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in HFD but comparatively increased in HFD + Ex. There was no difference between ND and ND + Ex for the above parameters except an increase in IL-10 level following exercise. Based on these results, we conclude that exercise mitigates HFD- induced cardiomyopathy by decreasing obesity, inducing IL-10, and reducing TNF-α in mice.

  6. Cardiac dysfunction in a porcine model of pediatric malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Lykke, Mikkel; Nielsen, Anne-Louise Hother

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Half a million children die annually of severe acute malnutrition and cardiac dysfunction may contribute to the mortality. However, cardiac function remains poorly examined in cases of severe acute malnutrition. OBJECTIVE: To determine malnutrition-induced echocardiographic disturbances...... and longitudinal changes in plasma pro-atrial natriuretic peptide and cardiac troponin-T in a pediatric porcine model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Five-week old piglets (Duroc-x-Danish Landrace-x-Yorkshire) were fed a nutritionally inadequate maize-flour diet to induce malnutrition (MAIZE, n = 12) or a reference diet...... groups. The myocardial performance index was 86% higher in MAIZE vs AGE-REF (pMalnutrition associates with cardiac dysfunction in a pediatric porcine model by increased myocardial performance index and pro-atrial natriuretic peptide...

  7. Inflammation and cardiac dysfunction during sepsis, muscular dystrophy, and myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation plays an important role in cardiac dysfunction under different situations. Acute systemic inflammation occurring in patients with severe burns, trauma, and inflammatory diseases causes cardiac dysfunction, which is one of the leading causes of mortality in these patients. Acute sepsis decreases cardiac contractility and impairs myocardial compliance. Chronic inflammation such as that occurring in Duchenne muscular dystropshy and myocarditis may cause adverse cardiac remodeling including myocyte hypertrophy and death, fibrosis, and altered myocyte function. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms for inflammatory cardiomyopathy are still controversial probably due to multiple factors involved. Potential mechanisms include the change in circulating blood volume; a direct inhibition of myocyte contractility by cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF-a, interleukin (IL-1b; abnormal nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS signaling; mitochondrial dysfunction; abnormal excitation-contraction coupling; and reduced calcium sensitivity at the myofibrillar level and blunted b-adrenergic signaling. This review will summarize recent advances in diagnostic technology, mechanisms, and potential therapeutic strategies for inflammation-induced cardiac dysfunction.

  8. Leptin as a mediator between obesity and cardiac dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Karbowska

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available  Obesity is now recognised as one of the most important risk factors for heart disease. Obese individuals have high circulating levels of leptin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue and in­volved in energy homeostasis. Growing evidence suggests that leptin may contribute to the development of cardiac dysfunction. In a large prospective study leptin has been shown to be an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. An independent positive association has also been found between plasma leptin levels and heart rate in hypertensive patients and heart transplant recipients. In animal studies chronic leptin infusion increased heart rate and blood pressure. It has also been demonstrated that circulating leptin levels are elevated in patients with heart failure. The level of plasma leptin was associated with increased myocardial wall thickness and correlated with left ventricular mass, suggesting a role for this hormone in mediating left ventricular hypertrophy in humans. Moreover, leptin directly induced hypertrophy and hyperplasia in human and rodent cardiomyocytes, accompanied by cardiac extracellular matrix remodelling. Leptin may also influence energy substrate utilisation in cardiac tissue.These findings suggest that leptin acting directly or through the sympathetic nervous system may have adverse effects on cardiac structure and function, and that chronic hyperleptinaemia may greatly increase the risk of cardiac disorders. Additional studies are needed to define the role of leptin in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology, nevertheless the reduction in plasma leptin levels with caloric restriction and weight loss may prevent cardiac dysfunction in obese patients.

  9. Cine CT for Attenuation Correction in Cardiac PET/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, Adam M.; Kohlmyer, Steve; Branch, Kelley; Chen, Grace; Caldwell, James; Kinahan, Paul

    2008-01-01

    In dual-modality PET/CT systems, the CT scan provides the attenuation map for PET attenuation correction. The current clinical practice of obtaining a single helical CT scan provides only a snapshot of the respiratory cycle, whereas PET occurs over multiple respiratory cycles. Misalignment of the attenuation map and emission image because of respiratory motion causes errors in the attenuation correction factors and artifacts in the attenuation-corrected PET image. To rectify this problem, we evaluated the use of cine CT, which acquires multiple low-dose CT images during a respiratory cycle. We evaluated the average and the intensity-maximum image of cine CT for cardiac PET attenuation correction. Methods Cine CT data and cardiac PET data were acquired from a cardiac phantom and from multiple patient studies. The conventional helical CT, cine CT, and PET data of an axially translating phantom were evaluated with and without respiratory motion. For the patient studies, we acquired 2 cine CT studies for each PET acquisition in a rest–stress 13N-ammonia protocol. Three readers visually evaluated the alignment of 74 attenuation image sets versus the corresponding emission image and determined whether the alignment provided acceptable or unacceptable attenuation-corrected PET images. Results In the phantom study, the attenuation correction from helical CT caused a major artifactual defect in the lateral wall on the PET image. The attenuation correction from the average and from the intensity-maximum cine CT images reduced the defect by 20% and 60%, respectively. In the patient studies, 77% of the cases using the average of the cine CT images had acceptable alignment and 88% of the cases using the intensity maximum of the cine CT images had acceptable alignment. Conclusion Cine CT offers an alternative to helical CT for compensating for respiratory motion in the attenuation correction of cardiac PET studies. Phantom studies suggest that the average and the intensity

  10. Ablation of biglycan attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis after left ventricular pressure overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetz, Nadine; Rommel, Carolin; Schnick, Tilman; Neumann, Elena; Lother, Achim; Monroy-Ordonez, Elsa Beatriz; Zeeb, Martin; Preissl, Sebastian; Gilsbach, Ralf; Melchior-Becker, Ariane; Rylski, Bartosz; Stoll, Monika; Schaefer, Liliana; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Stiller, Brigitte; Hein, Lutz

    2016-12-01

    Biglycan, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, has been shown to play an important role in stabilizing fibrotic scars after experimental myocardial infarction. However, the role of biglycan in the development and regression of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis during cardiac pressure overload and unloading remains elusive. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of biglycan on cardiac remodeling in a mouse model of left ventricular pressure overload and unloading. Left ventricular pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in mice resulted in left ventricular dysfunction, fibrosis and increased biglycan expression. Fluorescence- and magnetic-assisted sorting of cardiac cell types revealed upregulation of biglycan in the fibroblast population, but not in cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells or leukocytes after TAC. Removal of the aortic constriction (rTAC) after short-term pressure overload (3weeks) improved cardiac contractility and reversed ventricular hypertrophy but not fibrosis in wild-type (WT) mice. Biglycan ablation (KO) enhanced functional recovery but did not resolve cardiac fibrosis. After long-term TAC for 9weeks, ablation of biglycan attenuated the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. In vitro, biglycan induced hypertrophy of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and led to activation of a hypertrophic gene program. Putative downstream mediators of biglycan signaling include Rcan1, Abra and Tnfrsf12a. These genes were concordantly induced by TAC in WT but not in biglycan KO mice. Left ventricular pressure overload induces biglycan expression in cardiac fibroblasts. Ablation of biglycan improves cardiac function and attenuates left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis after long-term pressure overload. In vitro biglycan induces hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes, suggesting that biglycan may act as a signaling molecule between cell types to modulate cardiac remodeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  11. Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction in Children and Adolescents with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Autonomic neuropathy is less well documented in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and has received less attention than other diabetic complications. Sudden death and cardio-respiratory arrest in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus have been attributed to cardiac autonomic dysfunction.

  12. Blueberry Anthocyanins-Enriched Extracts Attenuate Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cardiac Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunen Liu

    Full Text Available We sought to explore the effect of blueberry anthocyanins-enriched extracts (BAE on cyclophosphamide (CTX-induced cardiac injury. The rats were divided randomly into five groups including normal control, CTX 100 mg/kg, BAE 80mg/kg, CTX+BAE 20mg/kg and CTX+BAE 80mg/kg groups. The rats in the three BAE-treated groups were administered BAE for four weeks. Seven days after BAE administration, rats in CTX group and two BAE-treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of 100 mg/kg CTX. Cardiac injury was assessed using physiological parameters, Echo, morphological staining, real-time PCR and western blot. In addition, cardiotoxicity indices, inflammatory cytokines expression and oxidative stress markers were also detected. Four weeks 20mg/kg and 80mg/kg dose of BAE treatment following CTX exposure attenuated mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and activities of heart enzymes, improved cardiac dysfunction, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis. Importantly, BAE also attenuated CTX-induced LV leukocyte infiltration and inflammatory cytokines expression, ameliorated oxidative stress as well as cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, BAE attenuated the CTX-induced cardiac injury and the protective mechanisms were related closely to the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory characteristics of BAE.

  13. Blueberry Anthocyanins-Enriched Extracts Attenuate Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cardiac Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunen; Tan, Dehong; Shi, Lin; Liu, Xinwei; Zhang, Yubiao; Tong, Changci; Song, Dequn; Hou, Mingxiao

    2015-01-01

    We sought to explore the effect of blueberry anthocyanins-enriched extracts (BAE) on cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced cardiac injury. The rats were divided randomly into five groups including normal control, CTX 100 mg/kg, BAE 80mg/kg, CTX+BAE 20mg/kg and CTX+BAE 80mg/kg groups. The rats in the three BAE-treated groups were administered BAE for four weeks. Seven days after BAE administration, rats in CTX group and two BAE-treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of 100 mg/kg CTX. Cardiac injury was assessed using physiological parameters, Echo, morphological staining, real-time PCR and western blot. In addition, cardiotoxicity indices, inflammatory cytokines expression and oxidative stress markers were also detected. Four weeks 20mg/kg and 80mg/kg dose of BAE treatment following CTX exposure attenuated mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and activities of heart enzymes, improved cardiac dysfunction, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis. Importantly, BAE also attenuated CTX-induced LV leukocyte infiltration and inflammatory cytokines expression, ameliorated oxidative stress as well as cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, BAE attenuated the CTX-induced cardiac injury and the protective mechanisms were related closely to the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory characteristics of BAE.

  14. Genistein alleviates pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction and interstitial fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Du, Ning; Zhang, Longyin; Wu, Xianxian; Hu, Yingying; Li, Xiaoguang; Shen, Nannan; Li, Yang; Yang, Baofeng; Xu, Chaoqian; Fang, Zhiwei; Lu, Yanjie; Zhang, Yong; Du, Zhimin

    2015-12-01

    Pressure overload-induced cardiac interstitial fibrosis is viewed as a major cause of heart failure in patients with hypertension or aorta atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and the underlying mechanisms of genistein, a natural phytoestrogen found in soy bean extract, on pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis. Genisten was administered to mice with pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction. Eight weeks later, its effects on cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy and fibrosis were determined. Its effects on proliferation, collagen production and myofibroblast transformation of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and the signalling pathways were also assessed in vitro. Pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy and fibrosis were markedly attenuated by genistein. In cultured CFs, genistein inhibited TGFβ1-induced proliferation, collagen production and myofibroblast transformation. Genistein suppressed TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) expression and produced anti-fibrotic effects by blocking the TAK1/MKK4/JNK pathway. Further analysis indicated that it up-regulated oestrogen-dependent expression of metastasis-associated gene 3 (MTA3), which was found to be a negative regulator of TAK1. Silencing MTA3 by siRNA, or inhibiting the activity of the MTA3-NuRD complex with trichostatin A, abolished genistein's anti-fibrotic effects. Genistein improved cardiac function and inhibited cardiac fibrosis in response to pressure overload. The underlying mechanism may involve regulation of the MTA3/TAK1/MKK4/JNK signalling pathway. Genistein may have potential as a novel agent for prevention and therapy of cardiac disorders associated with fibrosis. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Losartan treatment attenuates tumor-induced myocardial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Sarah C W; Velten, Markus; Youtz, Dane J; Clark, Yvonne; Jing, Runfeng; Reiser, Peter J; Bicer, Sabahattin; Devine, Raymond D; McCarthy, Donna O; Wold, Loren E

    2015-08-01

    Fatigue and muscle wasting are common symptoms experienced by cancer patients. Data from animal models demonstrate that angiotensin is involved in tumor-induced muscle wasting, and that tumor growth can independently affect myocardial function, which could contribute to fatigue in cancer patients. In clinical studies, inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) can prevent the development of chemotherapy-induced cardiovascular dysfunction, suggesting a mechanistic role for the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). In the present study, we investigated whether an angiotensin (AT) 1-receptor antagonist could prevent the development of tumor-associated myocardial dysfunction. Colon26 adenocarcinoma (c26) cells were implanted into female CD2F1 mice at 8weeks of age. Simultaneously, mice were administered Losartan (10mg/kg) daily via their drinking water. In vivo echocardiography, blood pressure, in vitro cardiomyocyte function, cell proliferation assays, and measures of systemic inflammation and myocardial protein degradation were performed 19days following tumor cell injection. Losartan treatment prevented tumor-induced loss of muscle mass and in vitro c26 cell proliferation, decreased tumor weight, and attenuated myocardial expression of interleukin-6. Furthermore, Losartan treatment mitigated tumor-associated alterations in calcium signaling in cardiomyocytes, which was associated with improved myocyte contraction velocity, systolic function, and blood pressures in the hearts of tumor-bearing mice. These data suggest that Losartan may mitigate tumor-induced myocardial dysfunction and inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Blueberry Metabolites Attenuate Lipotoxicity-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, Divya; Cavalcanti, Rafaela Ramos Mororo; Petersen, Chrissa; Begaye, Nathan; Cutler, Brett Ronald; Costa, Marcella Melo Assis; Ramos, Renata Kelly Luna Gomes; Ferreira, Marina Ramos; Li, Youyou; Bharath, Leena P; Toolson, Emma; Sebahar, Paul; Looper, Ryan E; Jalili, Thunder; Rajasekaran, Namakkal S; Jia, Zhenquan; Symons, J David; Pon Velayutham, Anandh Babu

    2017-10-12

    Lipotoxicity-induced endothelial dysfunction is an important vascular complication associated with diabetes. Clinical studies support the vascular benefits of blueberry anthocyanins, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that metabolites of blueberry anthocyanins attenuate lipotoxicity-induced endothelial dysfunction. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were treated for 6 h with either: (i) the parent anthocyanins (malvidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside); or (ii) the blueberry metabolites (hydroxyhippuric acid, hippuric acid, benzoic acid-4-sulfate, isovanillic acid-3-sulfate, and vanillic acid-4-sulfate), at concentrations known to circulate in humans following blueberry consumption. For the last 5 h HAECs were treated with palmitate or vehicle. HAECs treated with palmitate displayed elevated reactive oxygen species generation, increased mRNA expression of Nox4, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and IκBα, exaggerated monocyte binding, and suppressed nitric oxide production. Of note, the damaging effects of palmitate were ameliorated in HAECs treated with blueberry metabolites but not parent anthocyanins. Further, important translational relevance of these results was provided by our observation that palmitate-induced endothelial dysfunction was lessened in arterial segments that incubated concurrently with blueberry metabolites. Our findings indicate that the vascular benefits of blueberry anthocyanins are mediated by their metabolites. Blueberries might complement existing therapies to improve vascular complications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Prevents Cardiac Dysfunction Induced by Tafazzin Gene Knockdown in Cardiac Myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tafazzin, a mitochondrial acyltransferase, plays an important role in cardiolipin side chain remodeling. Previous studies have shown that dysfunction of tafazzin reduces cardiolipin content, impairs mitochondrial function, and causes dilated cardiomyopathy in Barth syndrome. Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated in the development of cardiomyopathy and are also the obligated byproducts of mitochondria. We hypothesized that tafazzin knockdown increases ROS production from mitochondria, and a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents tafazzin knockdown induced mitochondrial and cardiac dysfunction. We employed cardiac myocytes transduced with an adenovirus containing tafazzin shRNA as a model to investigate the effects of the mitochondrial antioxidant, mito-Tempo. Knocking down tafazzin decreased steady state levels of cardiolipin and increased mitochondrial ROS. Treatment of cardiac myocytes with mito-Tempo normalized tafazzin knockdown enhanced mitochondrial ROS production and cellular ATP decline. Mito-Tempo also significantly abrogated tafazzin knockdown induced cardiac hypertrophy, contractile dysfunction, and cell death. We conclude that mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents cardiac dysfunction induced by tafazzin gene knockdown in cardiac myocytes and suggest mito-Tempo as a potential therapeutic for Barth syndrome and other dilated cardiomyopathies resulting from mitochondrial oxidative stress.

  18. Primary proteasome inhibition results in cardiac dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Joerg; Wohlert, Christine; Saguner, Ardan M.; Flores, Ana; Nesbitt, Lisa L.; Chade, Alejandro; Lerman, Lilach O.; Lerman, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Aims The proteasome prevents the intracellular accumulation of proteins and its impairment can lead to structural and functional alterations, as noted for the coronary vasculature in a previous study. Utilizing the same model, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that chronic proteasome inhibition (PSI) also leads to structural and functional changes of the heart. Methods and results Female domestic pigs were randomized to a normal diet without (N) or with twice-weekly subcutaneous injections of the proteasome inhibitor MLN-273 (0.08 mg/kg, N + PSI, n = 5 each group). In vivo data on cardiac structure and function as well as myocardial perfusion and microvascular permeability response to adenosine and dobutamine were obtained by electron beam computed tomography after 11 weeks. Subsequent ex vivo myocardial analyses included immunoblotting, immunostaining, TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling), Masson trichrome, and Congo red staining. Compared with N, an increase in LV mass was observed in N + PSI (106.5 ± 16.4 g vs. 183.1 ± 24.2 g, P < 0.05). The early to late diastolic filling ratio was increased in N + PSI vs. N (3.5 ± 0.6 vs. 1.8 ± 0.1, P < 0.05). The EF tended to be lower (46 ± 12% and 53 ± 9%, respectively) and cardiac output was significantly lower in N + PSI than in N (2.9 ± 1.1 vs. 4.7 ± 1.1 L/min, P < 0.05). Tissue analyses demonstrated an accumulation of proteasome substrates, apoptosis, and fibrosis in the PSI group. Compared with N, the myocardial perfusion response was reduced and microvascular permeability was increased in N + PSI. Conclusion The current study demonstrates that chronic proeasome inhibition affects the cardiovascular system, leading to functional and structural alteration of the heart consistent with a hypertrophic–restrictive cardiomyopathy phenotype. PMID:23616520

  19. Activation of myocardial phosphoinositide-3-kinase p110α ameliorates cardiac dysfunction and improves survival in polymicrobial sepsis.

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    Chuanfu Li

    Full Text Available Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt dependent signaling has been shown to improve outcome in sepsis/septic shock. There is also ample evidence that PI3K/Akt dependent signaling plays a crucial role in maintaining normal cardiac function. We hypothesized that PI3K/Akt signaling may ameliorate septic shock by attenuating sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction. Cardiac function and survival were evaluated in transgenic mice with cardiac myocyte specific expression of constitutively active PI3K isoform, p110α (caPI3K Tg. caPI3K Tg and wild type (WT mice were subjected to cecal ligation/puncture (CLP induced sepsis. Wild type CLP mice showed dramatic cardiac dysfunction at 6 hrs. Septic cardiomyopathy was significantly attenuated in caPI3K CLP mice. The time to 100% mortality was 46 hrs in WT CLP mice. In contrast, 80% of the caPI3K mice survived at 46 hrs after CLP (p30 days (p<0.01. Cardiac caPI3K expression prevented expression of an inflammatory phenotype in CLP sepsis. Organ neutrophil infiltration and lung apoptosis were also effectively inhibited by cardiac PI3k p110α expression. Cardiac high mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1 translocation was also inhibited by caPI3K p110α expression. We conclude that cardiac specific activation of PI3k/Akt dependent signaling can significantly modify the morbidity and mortality associated with sepsis. Our data also indicate that myocardial function/dysfunction plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of sepsis and that maintenance of cardiac function during sepsis is essential. Finally, these data suggest that modulation of the PI3K/p110α signaling pathway may be beneficial in the prevention and/or management of septic cardiomyopathy and septic shock.

  20. Protective role of antioxidants in diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction.

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    Vassort, Guy; Turan, Belma

    2010-06-01

    Cardiac dysfunction occurs during type 1 and type 2 diabetes and results from multiple parameters including glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity, fibrosis and mitochondrial uncoupling. Oxidative stress arises from an imbalance between the production of ROS and the biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates. It is involved in the etiology of diabetes-induced downregulation of heart function. Several studies have reported beneficial effects of a therapy with antioxidant agents, including trace elements and other antioxidants, against the cardiovascular system consequences of diabetes. Antioxidants act through one of three mechanisms to prevent oxidant-induced cell damages. They can reduce the generation of ROS, scavenge ROS, or interfere with ROS-induced alterations. Modulating mitochondrial activity is an important possibility to control ROS production. Hence, the use of PPARalpha agonist to reduce fatty acid oxidation and of trace elements such as zinc and selenium as antioxidants, and physical exercise to induce mitochondrial adaptation, contribute to the prevention of diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction. The paradigm that inhibiting the overproduction of superoxides and peroxides would prevent cardiac dysfunction in diabetes has been difficult to verify using conventional antioxidants like vitamin E. That led to use of catalytic antioxidants such as SOD/CAT mimetics. Moreover, increases in ROS trigger a cascade of pathological events, including activation of MMPs, PPARs and protein O-GlcNAcation. Multiple tools have been developed to counteract these alterations. Hence, well-tuned, balanced and responsive antioxidant defense systems are vital for proper prevention against diabetic damage. This review aims to summarize our present knowledge on various strategies to control oxidative stress and antagonize cardiac dysfunction during diabetes.

  1. Cardiac Dysfunction in a Porcine Model of Pediatric Malnutrition.

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    Christian Fabiansen

    Full Text Available Half a million children die annually of severe acute malnutrition and cardiac dysfunction may contribute to the mortality. However, cardiac function remains poorly examined in cases of severe acute malnutrition.To determine malnutrition-induced echocardiographic disturbances and longitudinal changes in plasma pro-atrial natriuretic peptide and cardiac troponin-T in a pediatric porcine model.Five-week old piglets (Duroc-x-Danish Landrace-x-Yorkshire were fed a nutritionally inadequate maize-flour diet to induce malnutrition (MAIZE, n = 12 or a reference diet (AGE-REF, n = 12 for 7 weeks. Outcomes were compared to a weight-matched reference group (WEIGHT-REF, n = 8. Pro-atrial natriuretic peptide and cardiac troponin-T were measured weekly. Plasma pro-atrial natriuretic peptide decreased in both MAIZE and AGE-REF during the first 3 weeks but increased markedly in MAIZE relative to AGE-REF during week 5-7 (p ≤ 0.001. There was overall no difference in plasma cardiac troponin-T between groups. However, further analysis revealed that release of cardiac troponin-T in plasma was more frequent in AGE-REF compared with MAIZE (OR: 4.8; 95%CI: 1.2-19.7; p = 0.03. However, when release occurred, cardiac troponin-T concentration was 6.9-fold higher (95%CI: 3.0-15.9; p < 0.001 in MAIZE compared to AGE-REF. At week 7, the mean body weight in MAIZE was lower than AGE-REF (8.3 vs 32.4 kg, p < 0.001, whereas heart-weight relative to body-weight was similar across the three groups. The myocardial performance index was 86% higher in MAIZE vs AGE-REF (p < 0.001 and 27% higher in MAIZE vs WEIGHT-REF (p = 0.025.Malnutrition associates with cardiac dysfunction in a pediatric porcine model by increased myocardial performance index and pro-atrial natriuretic peptide and it associates with cardiac injury by elevated cardiac troponin-T. Clinical studies are needed to see if the same applies for children suffering from malnutrition.

  2. Overexpression of microRNA-99a Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy

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    Li, Ran; Bai, Jian; Ding, Liang; Gu, Rong; Wang, Lian; Xu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is associated with significantly increased risk of heart failure, one of the leading medical causes of mortality worldwide. MicroRNAs are known to be involved in pathological cardiac remodeling. However, whether miR-99a participates in the signaling cascade leading to cardiac hypertrophy is unknown. To evaluate the role of miR-99a in cardiac hypertrophy, we assessed the expression of miR-99a in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes induced by isoprenaline (ISO)/angiotensin-II (Ang II) and in mice model of cardiac hypertrophy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Expression of miR-99a was evaluated in these hypertrophic cells and hearts. We also found that miR-99a expression was highly correlated with cardiac function of mice with heart failure (8 weeks after TAC surgery). Overexpression of miR-99a attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in TAC mice and cellular hypertrophy in stimuli treated cardiomyocytes through down-regulation of expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). These results indicate that miR-99a negatively regulates physiological hypertrophy through mTOR signaling pathway, which may provide a new therapeutic approach for pressure-overload heart failure. PMID:26914935

  3. Overexpression of microRNA-99a Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy.

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    Li, Qiaoling; Xie, Jun; Wang, Bingjian; Li, Ran; Bai, Jian; Ding, Liang; Gu, Rong; Wang, Lian; Xu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is associated with significantly increased risk of heart failure, one of the leading medical causes of mortality worldwide. MicroRNAs are known to be involved in pathological cardiac remodeling. However, whether miR-99a participates in the signaling cascade leading to cardiac hypertrophy is unknown. To evaluate the role of miR-99a in cardiac hypertrophy, we assessed the expression of miR-99a in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes induced by isoprenaline (ISO)/angiotensin-II (Ang II) and in mice model of cardiac hypertrophy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Expression of miR-99a was evaluated in these hypertrophic cells and hearts. We also found that miR-99a expression was highly correlated with cardiac function of mice with heart failure (8 weeks after TAC surgery). Overexpression of miR-99a attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in TAC mice and cellular hypertrophy in stimuli treated cardiomyocytes through down-regulation of expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). These results indicate that miR-99a negatively regulates physiological hypertrophy through mTOR signaling pathway, which may provide a new therapeutic approach for pressure-overload heart failure.

  4. Cardiac microvascular rarefaction in hyperthyroidism-induced left ventricle dysfunction.

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    Freitas, Felipe; Estato, Vanessa; Carvalho, Vinícius Frias; Torres, Rafael Carvalho; Lessa, Marcos Adriano; Tibiriçá, Eduardo

    2013-10-01

    The pathophysiology underlying hyperthyroidism-induced left ventricle (LV) dysfunction and hypertrophy directly involves the heart and indirectly involves the neuroendocrine systems. The effects of hyperthyroidism on the microcirculation are still controversial in experimental models. We investigated the effects of hyperthyroidism on the cardiac function and microcirculation of an experimental rat model. Male Wistar rats (170-250 g) were divided into two groups: the euthyroid group (n = 10), which was treated with 0.9% saline solution, and the hyperthyroid group (n = 10), which was treated with l-thyroxine (600 μg/kg/day, i.p.) during 14 days. An echocardiographic study was performed to evaluate the alterations in cardiac function, structure and geometry. The structural capillary density and the expression of angiotensin II AT1 receptor in the LV were analyzed using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Hyperthyroidism was found to induce profound cardiovascular alterations, such as systolic hypertension, tachycardia, LV dysfunction, cardiac hypertrophy, and myocardial fibrosis. This study demonstrates the existence of structural capillary rarefaction and the down-regulation of the cardiac angiotensin II AT1 receptor in the myocardium of hyperthyroid rats in comparison with euthyroid rats. Microvascular rarefaction may be involved in the pathophysiology of hyperthyroidism-induced cardiovascular alterations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. AVE 0991 attenuates cardiac hypertrophy through reducing oxidative stress.

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    Ma, Yuedong; Huang, Huiling; Jiang, Jingzhou; Wu, Lingling; Lin, Chunxi; Tang, Anli; Dai, Gang; He, Jiangui; Chen, Yili

    2016-06-10

    AVE 0991, the nonpeptide angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) analog, is recognized as having beneficial cardiovascular effects. However, the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. This study was designed to investigate the effects of AVE 0991 on cardiac hypertrophy and the mechanisms involved. Mice were underwent aortic banding to induce cardiac hypertrophy followed by the administration of AVE 0991 (20 mg kg·day (-1)) for 4 weeks. It was shown that AVE 0991 reduced left ventricular hypertrophy and improved heart function, characterized by decreases in left ventricular weight and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, and increases in ejection fraction. Moreover, AVE 0991 significantly down-regulated mean myocyte diameter and attenuate the gene expression of the hypertrophic markers. Furthermore, AVE 0991 inhibited the expression of NOX 2 and NOX 4, meaning that AVE 0991 reduced oxidative stress of cardiac hypertrophy mice. Our data showed that AVE 0991 treatment could attenuate cardiac hypertrophy and improve heart function, which may be due to reduce oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Sinoatrial node dysfunction induces cardiac arrhythmias in diabetic mice

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    Soltysinska, Ewa; Speerschneider, Tobias; Winther, Sine V

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to probe cardiac complications, including heart-rate control, in a mouse model of type-2 diabetes. Heart-rate development in diabetic patients is not straight forward: In general, patients with diabetes have faster heart rates compared to non-diabetic...... and electrophysiological characteristics were investigated in diabetic db/db and control db/+mice.ResultsWe found improved contractile function and impaired filling dynamics of the heart in db/db mice, relative to db/+controls. Electrophysiologically, we observed comparable heart rates in the two mouse groups, but SAN...... individuals, yet diabetic patients are frequently found among patients treated for slow heart rates. Hence, we hypothesized that sinoatrial node (SAN) dysfunction could contribute to our understanding the mechanism behind this conundrum and the consequences thereof.MethodsCardiac hemodynamic...

  7. CXCR4 Antagonism Attenuates the Development of Diabetic Cardiac Fibrosis.

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    Po-Yin Chu

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is an increasingly recognized complication of diabetes. Cardiac fibrosis is an important causative mechanism of HF associated with diabetes. Recent data indicate that inflammation may be particularly important in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular fibrosis. We sought to determine the mechanism by which cardiac fibrosis develops and to specifically investigate the role of the CXCR4 axis in this process. Animals with type I diabetes (streptozotocin treated mice or type II diabetes (Israeli Sand-rats and controls were randomized to treatment with a CXCR4 antagonist, candesartan or vehicle control. Additional groups of mice also underwent bone marrow transplantation (GFP+ donor marrow to investigate the potential role of bone marrow derived cell mobilization in the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis. Both type I and II models of diabetes were accompanied by the development of significant cardiac fibrosis. CXCR4 antagonism markedly reduced cardiac fibrosis in both models of diabetes, similar in magnitude to that seen with candesartan. In contrast to candesartan, the anti-fibrotic actions of CXCR4 antagonism occurred in a blood pressure independent manner. Whilst the induction of diabetes did not increase the overall myocardial burden of GFP+ cells, it was accompanied by an increase in GFP+ cells expressing the fibroblast marker alpha-smooth muscle actin and this was attenuated by CXCR4 antagonism. CXCR4 antagonism was also accompanied by increased levels of circulating regulatory T cells. Taken together the current data indicate that pharmacological inhibition of CXCR4 significantly reduces diabetes induced cardiac fibrosis, providing a potentially important therapeutic approach.

  8. Cardiac-specific catalase overexpression rescues anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction: role of oxidative stress and autophagy

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    Kandadi Machender R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lethal and edema toxins secreted by Bacillus anthracis during anthrax infection were found to incite serious cardiovascular complications. However, the underlying mechanisms in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac anomalies remain unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of antioxidant enzyme catalase in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction. Methods Wild type (WT and cardiac-specific catalase overexpression mice were challenged with lethal toxin (2 μg/g, intraperotineally (i.p.. Cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca2+ properties were assessed 18 h later using an IonOptix edge-detection system. Proteasome function was assessed using chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activities. GFP-LC3 puncta and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate autophagy and protein ubiquitination. Results Lethal toxin exposure suppressed cardiomyocyte contractile function (suppressed peak shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/re-lengthening, prolonged duration of shortening/re-lengthening, and impaired intracellular Ca2+ handling, the effects of which were alleviated by catalase. In addition, lethal toxin triggered autophagy, mitochondrial and ubiquitin-proteasome defects, the effects of which were mitigated by catalase. Pretreatment of cardiomyocytes from catalase mice with the autophagy inducer rapamycin significantly attenuated or ablated catalase-offered protection against lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction. On the other hand, the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA ablated or significantly attenuated lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile anomalies. Conclusions Our results suggest that catalase is protective against anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca2+ anomalies, possibly through regulation of autophagy and mitochondrial function.

  9. Lipotoxicity in obesity and diabetes-related cardiac dysfunction.

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    Zlobine, Igor; Gopal, Keshav; Ussher, John R

    2016-10-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at increased risk for cardiovascular diseases including diabetic cardiomyopathy, which is ventricular dysfunction independent of underlying coronary artery disease and/or hypertension. With numerous advancements in our ability to detect ventricular dysfunction, as well as the molecular mechanisms contributing to ventricular dysfunction in diabetic patients, it is now appreciated that diabetic cardiomyopathy is becoming more prevalent in our population. In spite of these advancements, we do not have any specific therapies currently approved for treating this condition. As obesity increases the risk for both T2D and cardiovascular disease, it has been postulated that obesity-mediated alterations in myocardial lipid metabolism are critical to the pathophysiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Indeed, animal studies have provided strong evidence that alterations in either myocardial fatty acid uptake or fatty acid β-oxidation lead to the accumulation of various lipid intermediates including triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, ceramide, long-chain acyl CoA, acylcarnitine, and many others that are tightly linked to the progression of ventricular dysfunction. We review herein why lipid intermediates accumulate in the heart during obesity and/or T2D, with a focus on which of these various lipid intermediates may be responsible for cardiac lipotoxicity, and whether findings in animal models are relevant to humans. An improved understanding of how these lipid intermediates accumulate in the heart and how they produce cardiac toxicity may lead to the discovery of novel targets to pursue for the treatment of human diabetic cardiomyopathy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart Lipid Metabolism edited by G.D. Lopaschuk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nobiletin attenuates adverse cardiac remodeling after acute myocardial infarction in rats via restoring autophagy flux.

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    Wu, Xiaoqian; Zheng, Dechong; Qin, Yuyan; Liu, Zumei; Zhang, Guiping; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Zeng, Lihuan; Liang, Zhenye

    2017-10-14

    Our previous study showed that autophagy flux was impaired with sustained heart ischemia, which exacerbated adverse cardiac remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Here we investigated whether Nobiletin, a citrus polymethoxylated flavonoids, could restore the autophagy flux and improve cardiac prognosis after AMI. AMI was induced by ligating left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery in rats. Nobiletin improved the post-infarct cardiac dysfunction significantly and attenuated adverse cardiac remodeling. Meanwhile, Nobiletin protected H9C2 cells against oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro. The impaired autophagy flux due to ischemia was ameliorated after Nobiletin treatment by testing the autophagy substrate, LC3BⅡ and P62 protein level both in vivo and in vitro. GFP-mRFP-LC3 adenovirus transfection also supported that Nobiletin restored the impaired autophagy flux. Specifically, the autophagy flux inhibitor, chloroquine, but not 3 MA, alleviated Nobiletin-mediated protection against OGD. Notably, Nobiletin does not affect the activation of classical upstream autophagy signaling pathways. However, Nobiletin increased the lysosome acidation which also supported that Nobiletin accelerated autophagy flux. Taken together, our findings suggested that Nobiletin restored impaired autophagy flux and protected against acute myocardial infarction, suggesting a potential role of autophagy flux in Nobiletin-mediated myocardial protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Circulating dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity correlates with cardiac dysfunction in human and experimental heart failure.

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    dos Santos, Leonardo; Salles, Thiago A; Arruda-Junior, Daniel F; Campos, Luciene C G; Pereira, Alexandre C; Barreto, Ana Luiza T; Antonio, Ednei L; Mansur, Alfredo J; Tucci, Paulo J F; Krieger, José E; Girardi, Adriana C C

    2013-09-01

    The present study addresses the hypothesis that the activity of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), an enzyme that inactivates peptides that possess cardioprotective actions, correlates with adverse outcomes in heart failure (HF). The therapeutic potential of DPPIV inhibition in preventing cardiac dysfunction is also investigated. Measurements of DPPIV activity in blood samples obtained from 190 patients with HF and 42 controls demonstrated that patients with HF exhibited an increase of ≈130% in circulating DPPIV activity compared with healthy subjects. Furthermore, an inverse correlation was observed between serum DPPIV activity and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction in patients with HF. Similarly, radiofrequency LV ablation-induced HF rats displayed higher DPPIV activity in the plasma (≈50%) and heart tissue (≈3.5-fold) compared with sham-operated rats. Moreover, positive correlations were observed between the plasma DPPIV activity and LV end-diastolic pressure and lung congestion. Two days after surgery, 1 group of LV ablation-induced HF rats was treated with the DPPIV inhibitor sitagliptin (40 mg/kg BID) for 6 weeks, whereas the remaining rats were administered water. Hemodynamic measurements demonstrated that radiofrequency LV-ablated rats treated with sitagliptin exhibited a significant attenuation of HF-related cardiac dysfunction, including LV end-diastolic pressure, systolic performance, and chamber stiffness. Sitagliptin treatment also attenuated cardiac remodeling and cardiomyocyte apoptosis and minimized pulmonary congestion. Collectively, the results presented herein associate circulating DPPIV activity with poorer cardiovascular outcomes in human and experimental HF. Moreover, the results demonstrate that long-term DPPIV inhibition mitigates the development and progression of HF in rats.

  12. Cinnamaldehyde attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

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    Yang, Liu; Wu, Qing-Qing; Liu, Yuan; Hu, Zhe-Fu; Bian, Zhou-Yan; Tang, Qi-Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamaldehyde is a major bioactive compound isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum. Studies have demonstrated that cinnamaldehyde has anti-bacterial activity, anti-tumorigenic effect, immunomodulatory effect, anti-fungal activity, anti-oxidative effect, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effect. It has been proven that Cinnamaldehyde improves ischemia/reperfusion injury of pre-treatment. However, little is known about the effect of cinnamaldehyde on cardiac hypertrophy. Aortic banding (AB) was performed to induce cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Cinnamaldehyde premixed in diets was administered to mice after one week of AB. Echocardiography and catheter-based measurements of hemodynamic parameters were performed at week 7 after starting cinnamaldehyde (8 weeks after surgery). The extent of cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by pathological and molecular analyses of heart samples. Meanwhile, the effect of cinnamaldehyde on myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis and dysfunction induced by AB was investigated, as was assessed by heart weigh/body weight, lung weight/body weight, heart weight/tibia length, echocardiographic and haemodynamic parameters, histological analysis, and gene expression of hypertrophic and fibrotic markers. Our data demonstrated that echocardiography and catheter-based measurements of hemodynamic parameters at week 7 revealed the amelioration of systolic and diastolic abnormalities by cinnamaldehyde intervention. Cardiac fibrosis in AB mice was also decreased by cinnamaldehyde. Moreover, the beneficial effect of cinnamaldehyde was associated with the normalization in gene expression of hypertrophic and fibrotic markers. Further studies showed that pressure overload significantly induced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway, which was blocked by cinnamaldehyde. Cinnamaldehyde may be able to retard the progression of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, probably via blocking ERK signaling pathway.

  13. Respiratory physiotherapy in the pulmonary dysfunction after cardiac surgery.

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    Renault, Julia Alencar; Costa-Val, Ricardo; Rossetti, Márcia Braz

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to make a critical review about the different techniques of respiratory physiotherapy used following cardiac surgery and this effectiveness in reverting pulmonary dysfunction. It has been used as reference publications in English and Portuguese using as key words thoracic surgery, respiratory exercises, physical therapy modalities, postoperative complications and myocardial revascularization, contained in the following databases BIREME, SciELO Brazil, LILACS, PUBMED, from 1997 to 2007. A secondary search of the reference list of identified articles also was made. It has been selected eleven randomized trials (997 patients). For the articles included incentive spirometry was used in three; deep breathing exercises in six; deep breathing exercises added to positive expiratory pressure in four and positive airway pressure added to inspiratory resistance in two. Three trials used intermittent positive pressure breathing. Continuous positive airway pressure and bi-level positive airway pressure has been used in three and two trials. The protocols used in the studies were varied and the co interventions were present in a big part of these. The different analyzed varieties and the time of postoperatory follow up make a comparative analysis difficult. Pulmonary dysfunction is evident in the postoperatory period of cardiac surgery. The use of noninvasive ventilation has been associated with good results in the first postoperatory days. Despite the known importance of postoperatory respiratory physiotherapy, until now, there is no literary consensus about the superiority of one technique over the others.

  14. Centella asiatica Attenuates D-Galactose-Induced Cognitive Impairment, Oxidative and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Mice

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    Anil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    l (D-galactose. Centella asiatica also attenuated enhanced acetylcholine esterase enzyme level in D-galactose senescence mice. Present study highlights the protective effect of Centella asiatica against D-galactose induced behavioral, biochemical and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice.

  15. Cardiac dysfunction in cancer survivors unmasked during exercise.

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    Kearney, Maria C; Gallop-Evans, Eve; Cockcroft, John R; Stöhr, Eric J; Lee, Eveline; Backx, Karianne; Haykowsky, Mark; Yousef, Zaheer; Shave, Rob

    2017-03-01

    The cardiac dysfunction associated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy cancer treatment can exist subclinically for decades before overt presentation. Stress echocardiography, the measurement of left ventricular (LV) deformation and arterial haemodynamic evaluation, has separately been used to identify subclinical cardiovascular (CV) dysfunction in several patient groups including those with hypertension and diabetes. The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to determine whether the combination of these techniques could be used to improve the characterisation of subclinical CV dysfunction in long-term cancer survivors previously treated with anthracyclines. Thirteen long-term cancer survivors (36 ± 10 years) with prior anthracycline exposure (11 ± 8 years posttreatment) and 13 age-matched controls were recruited. Left ventricular structure, function and deformation were assessed using echocardiography. Augmentation index was used to quantify arterial haemodynamic load and was measured using applanation tonometry. Measurements were taken at rest and during two stages of low-intensity incremental cycling. At rest, both groups had comparable global LV systolic, diastolic and arterial function (all P > 0·05); however, longitudinal deformation was significantly lower in cancer survivors (-18 ± 2 vs. -20 ± 2, P exercise, this difference between groups persisted and further differences were uncovered with significantly lower apical circumferential deformation in the cancer survivors (-24 ± 5 vs. -29 ± 5, -29 ± 5 vs. 35 ± 8 for first and second stage of exercise respectively, both P exercise provides a more comprehensive characterisation of subclinical LV dysfunction. Larger studies are required to determine the clinical relevance of these preliminary findings. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  16. Valsartan attenuates cardiac and renal hypertrophy in rats with experimental cardiorenal syndrome possibly through down-regulating galectin-3 signaling.

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    Zhang, M-J; Gu, Y; Wang, H; Zhu, P-F; Liu, X-Y; Wu, J

    2016-01-01

    Aortocaval fistula (AV) induced chronic volume overload in rats with preexisting mild renal dysfunction (right kidney remove: UNX) could mimic the type 4 cardiorenal syndrome (CRS): chronic renocardiac syndrome. Galectin-3, a β-galactoside binding lectin, is an emerging biomarker in cardiovascular as well as renal diseases. We observed the impact of valsartan on cardiac and renal hypertrophy and galectin-3 changes in this model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (200-250 g) were divided into S (Sham, n = 7), M (UNX+AV, n = 7) and M+V (UNX+AV+valsartan, n = 7) groups. Eight weeks later, cardiac function was measured by echocardiography. Renal outcome was measured by glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, renal blood flow and 24 hours albuminuria. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were used to evaluate the expressions of galectin-3 in heart and renal. Cardiac hypertrophy and renal hypertrophy as well as cardiac enlargement were evidenced in this AV shunt induced chronic volume overload rat model with preexisting mild renal dysfunction. Cardiac and renal hypertrophy were significantly attenuated but cardiac enlargement was unaffected by valsartan independent of its blood pressure lowering effect. 24 hours urine albumin was significantly increased, which was significantly reduced by valsartan in this model. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR evidenced significantly up-regulated galectin-3 expression in heart and kidney and borderline increased myocardial collagen I expression, which tended to be lower post valsartan treatment. Up-regulated galectin-3 signaling might also be involved in the pathogenesis in this CRS model. The beneficial effects of valsartan in terms of attenuating cardiac and renal hypertrophy and reducing 24 hours albumin in this model might partly be mediated through down-regulating galectin-3 signal pathway.

  17. Cardiac remodeling and myocardial dysfunction in obese spontaneously hypertensive rats

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    Linz Dominik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The additive effects of obesity and metabolic syndrome on left ventricular (LV maladaptive remodeling and function in hypertension are not characterized. Methods We compared an obese spontaneously hypertensive rat model (SHR-ob with lean spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-lean and normotensive controls (Ctr. LV-function was investigated by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and invasive LV-pressure measurements. LV-interstitial fibrosis was quantified and protein levels of phospholamban (PLB, Serca2a and glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT4 were determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Systolic blood pressure was similar in SHR-lean and SHR-ob (252 ± 7 vs. 242 ± 7 mmHg, p = 0.398 but was higher when compared to Ctr (155 ± 2 mmHg, p  Conclusion In addition to hypertension alone, metabolic syndrome and obesity adds to the myocardial phenotype by aggravating diastolic dysfunction and a progression towards systolic dysfunction. SHR-ob may be a useful model to develop new interventional and pharmacological treatment strategies for hypertensive heart disease and metabolic disorders.

  18. Cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction in experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy are ameliorated by alpha-lipoic acid

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    Li Chun-jun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA, a naturally occurring compound, exerts powerful protective effects in various cardiovascular disease models. However, its role in protecting against diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM has not been elucidated. In this study, we have investigated the effects of ALA on cardiac dysfunction, mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS, extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling and interrelated signaling pathways in a diabetic rat model. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by I.V. injection of streptozotocin (STZ at 45 mg/kg. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal groups with or without ALA treatment, and diabetes groups with or without ALA treatment. All studies were carried out 11 weeks after induction of diabetes. Cardiac catheterization was performed to evaluate cardiac function. Mitochondrial oxidative biochemical parameters were measured by spectophotometeric assays. Extracellular matrix content (total collagen, type I and III collagen was assessed by staining with Sirius Red. Gelatinolytic activity of Pro- and active matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 levels were analyzed by a zymogram. Cardiac fibroblasts differentiation to myofibroblasts was evaluated by Western blot measuring smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β. Key components of underlying signaling pathways including the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, p38 MAPK and ERK were also assayed by Western blot. Results DCM was successfully induced by the injection of STZ as evidenced by abnormal heart mass and cardiac function, as well as the imbalance of ECM homeostasis. After administration of ALA, left ventricular dysfunction greatly improved; interstitial fibrosis also notably ameliorated indicated by decreased collagen deposition, ECM synthesis as well as enhanced ECM degradation. To further assess the underlying mechanism of improved DCM by ALA, redox status and cardiac remodeling associated

  19. Role of Oxidative Stress in Thyroid Hormone-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy and Associated Cardiac Dysfunction: An Undisclosed Story

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    Mohammad T. Elnakish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hypertrophy is the most documented cardiomyopathy following hyperthyroidism in experimental animals. Thyroid hormone-induced cardiac hypertrophy is described as a relative ventricular hypertrophy that encompasses the whole heart and is linked with contractile abnormalities in both right and left ventricles. The increase in oxidative stress that takes place in experimental hyperthyroidism proposes that reactive oxygen species are key players in the cardiomyopathy frequently reported in this endocrine disorder. The goal of this review is to shed light on the effects of thyroid hormones on the development of oxidative stress in the heart along with the subsequent cellular and molecular changes. In particular, we will review the role of thyroid hormone-induced oxidative stress in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and associated cardiac dysfunction, as well as the potential effectiveness of antioxidant treatments in attenuating these hyperthyroidism-induced abnormalities in experimental animal models.

  20. Role of Oxidative Stress in Thyroid Hormone-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy and Associated Cardiac Dysfunction: An Undisclosed Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnakish, Mohammad T.; Ahmed, Amany A. E.; Mohler, Peter J.; Janssen, Paul M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is the most documented cardiomyopathy following hyperthyroidism in experimental animals. Thyroid hormone-induced cardiac hypertrophy is described as a relative ventricular hypertrophy that encompasses the whole heart and is linked with contractile abnormalities in both right and left ventricles. The increase in oxidative stress that takes place in experimental hyperthyroidism proposes that reactive oxygen species are key players in the cardiomyopathy frequently reported in this endocrine disorder. The goal of this review is to shed light on the effects of thyroid hormones on the development of oxidative stress in the heart along with the subsequent cellular and molecular changes. In particular, we will review the role of thyroid hormone-induced oxidative stress in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and associated cardiac dysfunction, as well as the potential effectiveness of antioxidant treatments in attenuating these hyperthyroidism-induced abnormalities in experimental animal models. PMID:26146529

  1. A novel urotensin II receptor antagonist, KR-36996, improved cardiac function and attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in experimental heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kwang-Seok; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yi, Kyu Yang; Lim, Chae Jo; Park, Byung Kil; Seo, Ho Won; Lee, Byung Ho

    2017-03-15

    Urotensin II and its receptor are thought to be involved in various cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure, pulmonary hypertension and atherosclerosis. Since the regulation of the urotensin II/urotensin II receptor offers a great potential for therapeutic strategies related to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, the study of selective and potent antagonists for urotensin II receptor is more fascinating. This study was designed to determine the potential therapeutic effects of a newly developed novel urotensin II receptor antagonist, N-(1-(3-bromo-4-(piperidin-4-yloxy)benzyl)piperidin-4-yl)benzo[b]thiophene-3-carboxamide (KR-36996), in experimental models of heart failure. KR-36996 displayed a high binding affinity (Ki=4.44±0.67nM) and selectivity for urotensin II receptor. In cell-based study, KR-36996 significantly inhibited urotensin II-induced stress fiber formation and cellular hypertrophy in H9c2 UT cells. In transverse aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy model in mice, the daily oral administration of KR-36996 (30mg/kg) for 14 days significantly decreased left ventricular weight by 40% (Pheart failure model in rats, repeated echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements demonstrated remarkable improvement of the cardiac performance by KR-36996 treatment (25 and 50mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 12 weeks. Moreover, KR-36996 decreased interstitial fibrosis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in the infarct border zone. These results suggest that potent and selective urotensin II receptor antagonist could efficiently attenuate both cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction in experimental heart failure. KR-36996 may be useful as an effective urotensin II receptor antagonist for pharmaceutical or clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Therapeutic aspects in coronary cardiac patients who suffer from sexual dysfunction in a cardiac rehabilitation program].

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    Klein, Rivka; Bar-On, Elcahnan; Klein, Jacob; Benbenishty, Rami

    2006-05-01

    Sexual dysfunction is one of the severe consequences of acute coronary events. Rehabilitation programs should address this aspect of functioning that has important implications for the patient's quality of life. In order to improve patients' sexual functioning and improve their quality of life we developed a comprehensive model of sexual therapy designed specifically for cardiac patients undergoing rehabilitation program. This model integrates educational, supportive and cognitive-behavioral therapy with appropriate medication (such as viagra). The model is implemented in co-therapy by two sexologists, a social worker and a physician. An empirical study has shown the positive outcomes of this model. This article describes the model and reports case vignettes that exemplify its effects on cardiac patients in rehabilitation and their spouses.

  3. Curcumin promotes cardiac repair and ameliorates cardiac dysfunction following myocardial infarction.

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    Wang, Ning-Ping; Wang, Zhang-Feng; Tootle, Stephanie; Philip, Tiji; Zhao, Zhi-Qing

    2012-12-01

    Curcumin, the natural yellow pigment extracted from the rhizomes of the plant curcuma longa, has been demonstrated to exhibit a variety of potent beneficial effects, acting as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic. In this study we tested the hypothesis that curcumin attenuates maladaptive cardiac repair and improves cardiac function after ischaemia and reperfusion by reducing degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and inhibiting synthesis of collagens via TGFβ/Smad-mediated signalling pathway. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 45 min of ischaemia followed by 7, 21 and 42 days of reperfusion respectively. Curcumin was fed orally at a dose of 150 mg·kg(-1) ·day(-1) only during reperfusion. Curcumin reduced the level of malondialdehyde, inhibited activity of MMPs, preserved ECM from degradation and attenuated collagen deposition, as it reduced the extent of collagen-rich scar and increased mass of viable myocardium. In addition to reducing collagen synthesis and fibrosis in the ischaemic/reperfused myocardium, curcumin significantly down-regulated the expression of TGFβ1 and phospho-Smad2/3, and up-regulated Smad7 and also increased the population of α-smooth muscle actin expressing myofibroblasts within the infarcted myocardium relative to the control. Echocardiography showed it significantly improved left ventricular end-diastolic volume, stroke volume and ejection fraction. The wall thickness of the infarcted middle anterior septum in the curcumin group was also greater than that in the control group. Dietary curcumin is effective at inhibiting maladaptive cardiac repair and preserving cardiac function after ischaemia and reperfusion. Curcumin has potential as a treatment for patients who have had a heart attack. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Risk factors for transient dysfunction of gas exchange after cardiac surgery

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    Cristiane Delgado Alves Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A retrospective cohort study was preformed aiming to verify the presence of transient dysfunction of gas exchange in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery and determine if this disorder is linked to cardiorespiratory events. Methods: We included 942 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery and cardiac procedures who were referred to the Intensive Care Unit between June 2007 and November 2011. Results: Fifteen patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome (2%, 199 (27.75% had mild transient dysfunction of gas exchange, 402 (56.1% had moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange, and 39 (5.4% had severe transient dysfunction of gas exchange. Hypertension and cardiogenic shock were associated with the emergence of moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange postoperatively (P=0.02 and P=0.019, respectively and were risk factors for this dysfunction (P=0.0023 and P=0.0017, respectively. Diabetes mellitus was also a risk factor for transient dysfunction of gas exchange (P=0.03. Pneumonia was present in 8.9% of cases and correlated with the presence of moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange (P=0.001. Severe transient dysfunction of gas exchange was associated with patients who had renal replacement therapy (P=0.0005, hemotherapy (P=0.0001, enteral nutrition (P=0.0012, or cardiac arrhythmia (P=0.0451. Conclusion: Preoperative hypertension and cardiogenic shock were associated with the occurrence of postoperative transient dysfunction of gas exchange. The preoperative risk factors included hypertension, cardiogenic shock, and diabetes. Postoperatively, pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, renal replacement therapy, hemotherapy, and cardiac arrhythmia were associated with the appearance of some degree of transient dysfunction of gas exchange, which was a risk factor for reintubation, pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and renal replacement therapy in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery and

  5. Pre-treatment with allopurinol or uricase attenuates barrier dysfunction but not inflammation during murine ventilator-induced lung injury.

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    Maria T Kuipers

    Full Text Available Uric acid released from injured tissue is considered a major endogenous danger signal and local instillation of uric acid crystals induces acute lung inflammation via activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI is mediated by the NLRP3 inflammasome and increased uric acid levels in lung lavage fluid are reported. We studied levels in human lung injury and the contribution of uric acid in experimental VILI.Uric acid levels in lung lavage fluid of patients with acute lung injury (ALI were determined. In a different cohort of cardiac surgery patients, uric acid levels were correlated with pulmonary leakage index. In a mouse model of VILI the effect of allopurinol (inhibits uric acid synthesis and uricase (degrades uric acid pre-treatment on neutrophil influx, up-regulation of adhesion molecules, pulmonary and systemic cytokine levels, lung pathology, and regulation of receptors involved in the recognition of uric acid was studied. In addition, total protein and immunoglobulin M in lung lavage fluid and pulmonary wet/dry ratios were measured as markers of alveolar barrier dysfunction.Uric acid levels increased in ALI patients. In cardiac surgery patients, elevated levels correlated significantly with the pulmonary leakage index. Allopurinol or uricase treatment did not reduce ventilator-induced inflammation, IκB-α degradation, or up-regulation of NLRP3, Toll-like receptor 2, and Toll-like receptor 4 gene expression in mice. Alveolar barrier dysfunction was attenuated which was most pronounced in mice pre-treated with allopurinol: both treatment strategies reduced wet/dry ratio, allopurinol also lowered total protein and immunoglobulin M levels.Local uric acid levels increase in patients with ALI. In mice, allopurinol and uricase attenuate ventilator-induced alveolar barrier dysfunction.

  6. Late gadolinium enhancement and subclinical cardiac dysfunction on cardiac MRI in asymptomatic HIV-positive men

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    A Loy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and related clinical events. While traditional risk factors play an important role in the pathology of cardiovascular disease, HIV infection and its sequelae of immune activation and inflammation may have significant effects on the myocardium before becoming clinically evident. Cardiac MRI (CMR can be used to detect the pattern of these subclinical changes. This will lead to a better understanding of risk factors contributing to cardiovascular disease prior to it becoming clinically significant in HIV-positive patients. Methods: Prospective cohort study of 127 asymptomatic HIV-positive men on ART compared to 35 matched controls. Baseline demographics, HIV parameters, 12-lead ECG, routine biochemistry, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Images were acquired on a 3T Achieva Philips MRI scanner with 5 channel phase array cardiac coil and weight-based IV gadolinium was given at 0.15 mmol/kg dose with post-contrast inversion recovery imaging after 10 minutes. Results: 6/127 (4.7% of asymptomatic HIV-positive men had late gadolinium enhancement (LGE on MRI verses 1/35 (2.9% in the control group. In 3/6 (50% of cases this was in a classical infarction pattern with subendocardial involvement. 3/6 (50% were consistent with prior myocarditis. There was no significant difference in mean LVEF (66.93% vs 65.18%, LVMI (60.05g/m2 vs 55.94g/m2 or posterolateral wall thickness (8.28 mm and 8.16 mm between cases and controls respectively. There was significantly more diastolic dysfunction, E:A ratio < 1, found in the HIV-positive group, 18% vs 7% of controls (p = 0.037. Framingham risk did not predict either of these outcomes. Conclusions: There is an increased incidence of LGE detected on CMR in this asymptomatic HIV-positive cohort. Two distinct pathological processes were identifed as causing these changes, myocardial infarction and myocarditis

  7. A review of postoperative cognitive dysfunction and neuroinflammation associated with cardiac surgery and anaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harten, A. E.; Scheeren, T. W. L.; Absalom, A. R.

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is receiving increasing attention, particularly as it mainly affects the (growing) elderly population. Until recently, cognitive deficits after cardiac surgery were thought to be caused by physiological disturbances associated with the cardiopulmonary bypass

  8. Sustained release of a p38 inhibitor from non-inflammatory microspheres inhibits cardiac dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Jay C.; Seshadri, Gokulakrishnan; Yang, Stephen C.; Brown, Milton; Oh, Teresa; Dikalov, Sergey; Murthy, Niren; Davis, Michael E.

    2008-11-01

    Cardiac dysfunction following acute myocardial infarction is a major cause of death in the world and there is a compelling need for new therapeutic strategies. In this report we demonstrate that a direct cardiac injection of drug-loaded microparticles, formulated from the polymer poly(cyclohexane-1,4-diylacetone dimethylene ketal) (PCADK), improves cardiac function following myocardial infarction. Drug-delivery vehicles have great potential to improve the treatment of cardiac dysfunction by sustaining high concentrations of therapeutics within the damaged myocardium. PCADK is unique among currently used polymers in drug delivery in that its hydrolysis generates neutral degradation products. We show here that PCADK causes minimal tissue inflammatory response, thus enabling PCADK for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as cardiac dysfunction. PCADK holds great promise for treating myocardial infarction and other inflammatory diseases given its neutral, biocompatible degradation products and its ability to deliver a wide range of therapeutics.

  9. Cardiac fibroblasts contribute to myocardial dysfunction in mice with sepsis: the role of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

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    Wenbo Zhang

    Full Text Available Myocardial contractile dysfunction in sepsis is associated with the increased morbidity and mortality. Although the underlying mechanisms of the cardiac depression have not been fully elucidated, an exaggerated inflammatory response is believed to be responsible. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3 inflammasome is an intracellular platform that is involved in the maturation and release of interleukin (IL-1β. The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether sepsis activates NLRP3 inflammasome/caspase-1/IL-1β pathway in cardiac fibroblasts (CFs and whether this cytokine can subsequently impact the function of cardiomyocytes (cardiac fibroblast-myocyte cross-talk. We show that treatment of CFs with lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces upregulation of NLRP3, activation of caspase-1, as well as the maturation (activation and release of IL-1β. In addition, the genetic (small interfering ribonucleic acid [siRNA] and pharmacological (glyburide inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome in CFs can block this signaling pathway. Furthermore, the inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome in cardiac fibroblasts ameliorated the ability of LPS-challenged CFs to impact cardiomyocyte function as assessed by intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP responses in cardiomyocytes. Salient features of this the NLP3 inflammasome/ caspase-1 pathway were confirmed in in vivo models of endotoxemia/sepsis. We found that inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome attenuated myocardial dysfunction in mice with LPS and increased the survival rate in mice with feces-induced peritonitis. Our results indicate that the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in cardiac fibroblasts is pivotal in the induction of myocardial dysfunction in sepsis.

  10. Cardiac expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is increased in obesity and serves to attenuate cardiac triglyceride accumulation.

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    Emil D Bartels

    Full Text Available Obesity causes lipid accumulation in the heart and may lead to lipotoxic heart disease. Traditionally, the size of the cardiac triglyceride pool is thought to reflect the balance between uptake and beta-oxidation of fatty acids. However, triglycerides can also be exported from cardiomyocytes via secretion of apolipoproteinB-containing (apoB lipoproteins. Lipoprotein formation depends on expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP; the mouse expresses two isoforms of MTP, A and B. Since many aspects of the link between obesity-induced cardiac disease and cardiac lipid metabolism remain unknown, we investigated how cardiac lipoprotein synthesis affects cardiac expression of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes, insulin sensitivity, and function in obese mice. Heart-specific ablation of MTP-A in mice using Cre-loxP technology impaired upregulation of MTP expression in response to increased fatty acid availability during fasting and fat feeding. This resulted in cardiac triglyceride accumulation but unaffected cardiac insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Long-term fat-feeding of male C57Bl/6 mice increased cardiac triglycerides, induced cardiac expression of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes and attenuated heart function. Abolishing cardiac triglyceride accumulation in fat-fed mice by overexpression of an apoB transgene in the heart prevented the induction of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes and improved heart function. The results suggest that in obesity, the physiological increase of cardiac MTP expression serves to attenuate cardiac triglyceride accumulation albeit without major effects on cardiac insulin sensitivity. Nevertheless, the data suggest that genetically increased lipoprotein secretion prevents development of obesity-induced lipotoxic heart disease.

  11. Defective branched chain amino acid catabolism contributes to cardiac dysfunction and remodeling following myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Fuyang; Xia, Yunlong; Zhao, Shihao; Yan, Wenjun; Wang, Helin; Lee, Yan; Li, Congye; Zhang, Ling; Lian, Kun; Gao, Erhe; Cheng, Hexiang; Tao, Ling

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac metabolic remodeling is a central event during heart failure (HF) development following myocardial infarction (MI). It is well known that myocardial glucose and fatty acid dysmetabolism contribute to post-MI cardiac dysfunction and remodeling. However, the role of amino acid metabolism in post-MI HF remains elusive. Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are an important group of essential amino acids and function as crucial nutrient signaling in mammalian animals. The present study aimed to determine the role of cardiac BCAA metabolism in post-MI HF progression. Utilizing coronary artery ligation-induced murine MI models, we found that myocardial BCAA catabolism was significantly impaired in response to permanent MI, therefore leading to an obvious elevation of myocardial BCAA abundance. In MI-operated mice, oral BCAA administration further increased cardiac BCAA levels, activated the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, and exacerbated cardiac dysfunction and remodeling. These data demonstrate that BCAAs act as a direct contributor to post-MI cardiac pathologies. Furthermore, these BCAA-mediated deleterious effects were improved by rapamycin cotreatment, revealing an indispensable role of mTOR in BCAA-mediated adverse effects on cardiac function/structure post-MI. Of note, pharmacological inhibition of branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase (BDK), a negative regulator of myocardial BCAA catabolism, significantly improved cardiac BCAA catabolic disorders, reduced myocardial BCAA levels, and ameliorated post-MI cardiac dysfunction and remodeling. In conclusion, our data provide the evidence that impaired cardiac BCAA catabolism directly contributes to post-MI cardiac dysfunction and remodeling. Moreover, improving cardiac BCAA catabolic defects may be a promising therapeutic strategy against post-MI HF. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. The regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome expression during the development of cardiac contractile dysfunction in chronic kidney disease.

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    Chin, Li-Han; Hsu, Yu-Juei; Hsu, Shih-Che; Chen, Yen-Hui; Chang, Yung-Lung; Huang, Shih-Ming; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Lin, Chih-Yuan

    2017-12-26

    Chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in the long-term complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to assess the role of NLR pyrin domain-containing protein (NLRP3) inflammasome in cardiac contractile dysfunctions in CKD. The cardiac contractile function was evaluated and the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and related cytokines in the heart was assessed in a murine sham-operated and 5/6 nephrectomy CKD model in vivo . In vitro , H9c2 cells were treated with uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate (IS), with or without NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition, which was achieved by using small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of the NLRP3 gene. Moreover, the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling and apoptosis marker levels were assessed in the IS-treated H9c2 cells. The results demonstrated that CKD can lead to the development of cardiac contractile dysfunction in vivo associated with the upregulation of NLRP3 inflammasome, IL-1β, IL-18, and contribute to the myocardial apoptosis. In vitro experiments showed the upregulation of inflammasome, IL-1β, and IL-18 levels, and cell apoptosis in the IS-treated H9c2 cells through the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. The transfection of cells with si-NLRP3 was shown to alleviate IL-1β, IL-18, and cell apoptosis. Moreover, decreased cell viability induced by IS was shown to be attenuated by IL-1β or IL-18-neutralizing antibody. In summary, CKD can result in the development of cardiac contractile dysfunction associated with the upregulation of NLRP3 inflammasome/IL-1β/IL-18 axis induced by the uremic toxins.

  13. Reactive oxygen species damage drives cardiac and mitochondrial dysfunction following acute nano-titanium dioxide inhalation exposure.

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    Nichols, Cody E; Shepherd, Danielle L; Hathaway, Quincy A; Durr, Andrya J; Thapa, Dharendra; Abukabda, Alaeddin; Yi, Jinghai; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; Hollander, John M

    2017-12-15

    Nanotechnology offers innovation in products from cosmetics to drug delivery, leading to increased engineered nanomaterial (ENM) exposure. Unfortunately, health impacts of ENM are not fully realized. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is among the most widely produced ENM due to its use in numerous applications. Extrapulmonary effects following pulmonary exposure have been identified and may involve reactive oxygen species (ROS). The goal of this study was to determine the extent of ROS involvement on cardiac function and the mitochondrion following nano-TiO2 exposure. To address this question, we utilized a transgenic mouse model with overexpression of a novel mitochondrially-targeted antioxidant enzyme (phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase; mPHGPx) which provides protection against oxidative stress to lipid membranes. MPHGPx mice and littermate controls were exposed to nano-TiO2 aerosols (Evonik, P25) to provide a calculated pulmonary deposition of 11 µg/mouse. Twenty-four hours following exposure, we observed diastolic dysfunction as evidenced by E/A ratios greater than 2 and increased radial strain during diastole in wild-type mice (p < 0.05 for both), indicative of restrictive filling. Overexpression of mPHGPx mitigated the contractile deficits resulting from nano-TiO2 exposure. To investigate the cellular mechanisms associated with the observed cardiac dysfunction, we focused our attention on the mitochondrion. We observed a significant increase in ROS production (p < 0.05) and decreased mitochondrial respiratory function (p < 0.05) following nano-TiO2 exposure which were attenuated in mPHGPx transgenic mice. In summary, nano-TiO2 inhalation exposure is associated with cardiac diastolic dysfunction and mitochondrial functional alterations, which can be mitigated by the overexpression of mPHGPx, suggesting ROS contribution in the development of contractile and bioenergetic dysfunction.

  14. Cardiac Ankyrin Repeat Protein Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy by Inhibition of ERK1/2 and TGF-β Signaling Pathways

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    Jia, Chunshi; Ma, Xiaowei; Zhang, Lei; Xie, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Youyi; Zhu, Dahai

    2012-01-01

    Aims It has been reported that cardiac ankyrin repeat protein is associated with heart development and diseases. This study is aimed to investigate the role of CARP in heart hypertrophy in vivo. Methods and Results We generated a cardiac-specific CARP-overexpressing transgenic mouse. Although such animals did not display any overt physiological abnormality, they developed less cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload than did wildtype mice, as indicated by heart weight/body weight ratios, echocardiographic and histological analyses, and expression of hypertrophic markers. These mice also exhibited less cardiac hypertrophy after infusion of isoproterenol. To gain a molecular insight into how CARP attenuated heart hypertrophy, we examined expression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and found that the concentrations of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and MEK were markedly reduced in the hearts of transgenic mice subjected to pressure overload. In addition, the expressions of TGF-β and phosphorylated Smad3 were significantly downregulated in the hearts of CARP Tg mice in response to pressure overload. Furthermore, addition of human TGF-β1 could reverse the inhibitory effect of CARP on the hypertrophic response induced by phenylephrine in cardiomyocytes. It was also evidenced that the inhibitory effect of CARP on cardiac hypertrophy was not attributed to apoptosis. Conclusion CARP attenuates cardiac hypertrophy, in which the ERK and TGF-β pathways may be involved. Our findings highlight the significance of CARP as an anti-hypertrophic factor in therapy of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:23227174

  15. Simvastatin attenuates radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction in mice

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    Xu L

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Liping Xu,* Xi Yang,* Jiayan Chen, Xiaolin Ge, Qin Qin, Hongcheng Zhu, Chi Zhang, Xinchen Sun Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Statins are widely used lipid-lowering drugs, which have pleiotropic effects, such as anti-inflammation, and vascular protection. In our study, we investigated the radioprotective potential of simvastatin (SIM in a murine model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Design: Ninety-six Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomly divided into four groups: solvent + sham irradiation (IR (Group I, SIM + sham IR (Group II, IR + solvent (Group III, and IR + SIM (Group IV. SIM (10 mg/kg body weight, three times per week was administered intraperitoneally 1 week prior to IR through to the end of the experiment. Saliva and submandibular gland tissues were obtained for biochemical, morphological (hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson’s trichrome, and Western blot analysis at 8 hours, 24 hours, and 4 weeks after head and neck IR. Results: IR caused a significant reduction of salivary secretion and amylase activity but elevation of malondialdehyde. SIM remitted the reduction of saliva secretion and restored salivary amylase activity. The protective benefits of SIM may be attributed to scavenging malondialdehyde, remitting collagen deposition, and reducing and delaying the elevation of transforming growth factor β1 expression induced by radiation. Conclusion: SIM may be clinically useful to alleviate side effects of radiotherapy on salivary gland. Keywords: simvastatin, radiation protection, submandibular gland, transforming growth factor-β1, mice

  16. Herbal supplement attenuation of cardiac fibrosis in rats with CCl₄-induced liver cirrhosis.

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    Chang, Hsiao-Chuan; Chiu, Yung-Wei; Lin, Yueh-Min; Chen, Ray-Jade; Lin, James A; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Kuo, Yu-Chun; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2014-02-28

    Previously we found carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) induced cirrhosis associated cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis. The purpose of this study is to determine whether further CCl₄ treatment would induce cardiac cell fibrosis. The cardiac tissues were analyzed by H&E. histological staining, Trichrome Masson staining and Western blotting. The results showed that the CCl₄-treated-only group exhibits more trichrome staining, meaning that more fibrosis is present. Moreover, CCl₄ could further induce cardiac-fibrosis via TGF-β-p-Smad2/3-CTGF pathway. However, our data showed that the CCl₄- indcued cardiac abnormalities were attenuated by Ocimum gratissimum extract (OGE) and silymarin co- treatments. In conclusion, our results indicated that the OGE and silymarin may be a potential traditional herb for the protection of cardiac tissues from the CCl4 induced cirrhosis associated cardiac fibrosis through modulating the TGF-β signaling pathway.

  17. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Leukocytes Contribute to Platelet Aggregative Dysfunction, Which is Attenuated by Catalase in Rats

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    Huei-Ping Dong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Endotoxemia causes several hematological dysfunctions, including platelet degranulation or disseminated intravascular coagulation, which lead to thrombotic and hemorrhagic events. Here, we tested the hypothesis that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated leukocytes contribute to platelet aggregative dysfunction, and this function is attenuated by antioxidants. Plateletrich plasma (PRP was prepared from whole blood of normal and endotoxemic rats. The ability of platelet aggregation was measured by an aggregometer. LPS (50–100 μg/mL was incubated with PRP, whole blood and PRP with polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs for 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes, and platelet aggregation was detected. LPS-induced platelet aggregative dysfunction was undetectable in intact PRP which was isolated from normal whole blood, whereas it was detected in PRP isolated from endotoxemic rats and LPS-treated whole blood. Moreover, the effect of LPS-induced platelet aggregative dysfunction on intact PRP was observed when the PMNs were added. LPS-induced platelet aggregative dysfunction was significantly attenuated by catalase alone and in combination with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, but not by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester alone. These results indicate that LPS-stimulated PMNs modulate platelet aggregation during LPS treatment and the effects are reversed by antioxidants. PMNs serve as an approach to understand LPS-induced platelet aggregative dysfunction during endotoxemia. During this process, the generation of reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide especially, from LPS-stimulated PMNs could be an important potential factor in LPS-induced platelet aggregative dysfunction. Catalase contributes to the prevention of platelet dysfunction during LPS-induced sepsis.

  18. Apocynin Attenuates Cardiac Injury in Type 4 Cardiorenal Syndrome via Suppressing Cardiac Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 With Oxidative Stress Inhibition.

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    Liu, Yang; Liu, Yu; Liu, Xun; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Kun; Huang, Feifei; Wang, Jing-Feng; Tang, Wanchun; Huang, Hui

    2015-06-24

    Type 4 cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) refers to the cardiac injury induced by chronic kidney disease. We aimed to assess oxidative stress and cardiac injury in patients with type 4 CRS, determine whether the antioxidant apocynin attenuated cardiac injury in rats with type 4 CRS, and explore potential mechanisms. A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with type 4 CRS (n=17) and controls (n=16). Compared with controls, patients with type 4 CRS showed elevated oxidative stress, which was significantly correlated with cardiac hypertrophy and decreased ejection fraction. In vivo study, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy and sham surgery, followed with apocynin or vehicle treatment for 8 weeks. Eight weeks after surgery, the 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy rats mimicked type 4 CRS, showing increased serum creatinine, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and decreased ejection fraction compared with sham-operated animals. Cardiac malondialdehyde, NADPH oxidase activity, fibroblast growth factor-2, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation increased significantly in the 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy rats. These changes were significantly attenuated by apocynin. In vitro study showed that apocynin reduced angiotensin II-induced NADPH oxidase-dependent oxidative stress, upregulation of fibroblast growth factor-2 and fibrosis biomarkers, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in cardiac fibroblasts. Importantly, the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 reduced the upregulation of fibroblast growth factor-2 and fibrosis biomarkers in angiotensin II-treated fibroblasts. Oxidative stress is a candidate mediator for type 4 CRS. Apocynin attenuated cardiac injury in type 4 CRS rats via inhibiting NADPH oxidase-dependent oxidative stress-activated ERK1/2 pathway and subsequent fibroblast growth factor-2 upregulation. Our study added evidence to the beneficial effect of apocynin in type 4 CRS. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart

  19. Sodium Channel (Dys)Function and Cardiac Arrhythmias

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    Remme, Carol Ann; Bezzina, Connie R.

    2010-01-01

    P>Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane proteins located in the cell membrane of cardiomyocytes. Influx of sodium ions through these ion channels is responsible for the initial fast upstroke of the cardiac action potential. This inward sodium current thus triggers the initiation

  20. Insights into the clinical and functional significance of cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Chagas disease

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    Luiz Fernando Junqueira Junior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Exclusive or associated lesions in various structures of the autonomic nervous system occur in the chronic forms of Chagas disease. In the indeterminate form, the lesions are absent or mild, whereas in the exclusive or combined heart and digestive disease forms, they are often more pronounced. Depending on their severity these lesions can result mainly in cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction but also in sympathetic dysfunction of variable degrees. Despite the key autonomic effect on cardiovascular functioning, the pathophysiological and clinical significance of the cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Chagas disease remains unknown. METHODS: Review of data on the cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Chagas disease and their potential consequences, and considerations supporting the possible relationship between this disturbance and general or cardiovascular clinical and functional adverse outcomes. RESULTS: We hypothesise that possible consequences that cardiac dysautonomia might variably occasion or predispose in Chagas disease include: transient or sustained arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death, adverse overall and cardiovascular prognosis with enhanced morbidity and mortality, an inability of the cardiovascular system to adjust to functional demands and/or respond to internal or external stimuli by adjusting heart rate and other hemodynamic variables, and immunomodulatory and cognitive disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired cardiac autonomic modulation in Chagas disease might not be a mere epiphenomenon without significance. Indirect evidences point for a likely important role of this alteration as a primary predisposing or triggering cause or mediator favouring the development of subtle or evident secondary cardiovascular functional disturbances and clinical consequences, and influencing adverse outcomes.

  1. Insights into the clinical and functional significance of cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Luiz Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Exclusive or associated lesions in various structures of the autonomic nervous system occur in the chronic forms of Chagas disease. In the indeterminate form, the lesions are absent or mild, whereas in the exclusive or combined heart and digestive disease forms, they are often more pronounced. Depending on their severity these lesions can result mainly in cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction but also in sympathetic dysfunction of variable degrees. Despite the key autonomic effect on cardiovascular functioning, the pathophysiological and clinical significance of the cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Chagas disease remains unknown. Review of data on the cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Chagas disease and their potential consequences, and considerations supporting the possible relationship between this disturbance and general or cardiovascular clinical and functional adverse outcomes. We hypothesise that possible consequences that cardiac dysautonomia might variably occasion or predispose in Chagas disease include: transient or sustained arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death, adverse overall and cardiovascular prognosis with enhanced morbidity and mortality, an inability of the cardiovascular system to adjust to functional demands and/or respond to internal or external stimuli by adjusting heart rate and other hemodynamic variables, and immunomodulatory and cognitive disturbances. Impaired cardiac autonomic modulation in Chagas disease might not be a mere epiphenomenon without significance. Indirect evidences point for a likely important role of this alteration as a primary predisposing or triggering cause or mediator favouring the development of subtle or evident secondary cardiovascular functional disturbances and clinical consequences, and influencing adverse outcomes.

  2. Geniposide attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction and memory deficits in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Cui; Liu, Xiaoli; Liu, Hongjuan; Chen, Tong; Zhang, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction appear early and contribute to the disease progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which can be detected extensively in AD patients brains as well as in transgenic AD mice brains. Thus, treatments that result in attenuation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction may hold potential for AD treatment. Geniposide, a pharmacologically active component purified from gardenia fruit, exhibits anti-oxidative, antiinflammatory and other important therapeutic properties. However, whether geniposide has any protective effect on oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in AD transgenic mouse model has not yet been reported. Here, we demonstrate that intragastric administration of geniposide significantly reduces oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in addition to improving learning and memory in APP/PS1 mice. Geniposide exerts protective effects on mitochondrial dysfunction in APP/PS1 mice through suppressing the mitochondrial oxidative damage and increasing the mitochondrial membrane potential and activity of cytochrome c oxidase. These studies indicate that geniposide may attenuate memory deficits through the suppression of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Thus, geniposide may be a potential therapeutic reagent for halting and preventing AD progress.

  3. Cardiac desmosomal (dys)function and myocyte viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Carol Ann; Bezzina, Connie R.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac desmosomes form intercellular junctions at the boundaries of intercalated discs between neighboring cardiomyocytes and are essential for proper cell-to-cell coupling between cardiomyocytes and for normal mechanical and electrical function of myocardial tissue. Genetic mutations in desmosomal

  4. Edaravone inhibits pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction by reducing expression of angiotensin II AT1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Bai, Feng; Wang, Jin; Zheng, Rong-Hua; Yang, Li-Wang; James, Erskine A; Zhao, Zhi-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is known to be involved in the progression of ventricular dysfunction and heart failure by eliciting cardiac fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate whether treatment with an antioxidant compound, edaravone, reduces cardiac fibrosis and improves ventricular function by inhibiting Ang II AT1 receptor. The study was conducted in a rat model of transverse aortic constriction (TAC). In control, rats were subjected to 8 weeks of TAC. In treated rats, edaravone (10 mg/kg/day) or Ang II AT1 receptor blocker, telmisartan (10 mg/kg/day) was administered by intraperitoneal injection or gastric gavage, respectively, during TAC. Relative to the animals with TAC, edaravone reduced myocardial malonaldehyde level and increased superoxide dismutase activity. Protein level of the AT1 receptor was reduced and the AT2 receptor was upregulated, as evidenced by the reduced ratio of AT1 over AT2 receptor (0.57±0.2 vs 3.16±0.39, preceptor in the myocardium. Furthermore, the protein level of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 was upregulated. In coincidence with these changes, edaravone significantly decreased the populations of macrophages and myofibroblasts in the myocardium, which were accompanied by reduced levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 and Smad2/3. Collagen I synthesis was inhibited and collagen-rich fibrosis was attenuated. Relative to the TAC group, cardiac systolic function was preserved, as shown by increased left ventricular systolic pressure (204±51 vs 110±19 mmHg, preceptor-mediated signaling pathways. These data indicate that edaravone might be selected in combination with other existing drugs in preventing progression of cardiac dysfunction in heart failure.

  5. Preoperative therapy with amiodarone and the incidence of acute organ dysfunction after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, M Y; Ryan, T; Starr, N J

    1997-09-01

    We examined the influence of preoperative therapy with amiodarone on the incidence of acute organ dysfunction after cardiac surgery in a matched case-control study. There were 220 case-control pairs matched by day of surgery, source of admission, demographic characteristics, placement of intraaortic balloon pump before surgery, repeat operations, emergency surgery, thoracic aorta surgery and other surgical procedures. History of congestive heart failure was more prevalent in the amiodarone group than in the control group before surgery (60% vs 38%, P amiodarone group. However, the difference was not significant after adjustment for congestive heart failure (Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test P = 0.15, P = 0.25, P = 0.16, respectively). Amiodarone did not increase the incidence of acute organ dysfunction or death after cardiac surgery. The requirement for inotropes and vasopressors and the incidence of nosocomial infections were related to the severity of the underlying cardiac disease. The practice of discontinuing amiodarone treatment before surgery to reduce the incidence of postoperative organ dysfunction should be critically reevaluated. Amiodarone is often used for the treatment of life-threatening rhythm disorder. Amiodarone has been blamed for causing organ injury after cardiac surgery. In a study of 220 patients, amiodarone did not increase the risk of organ injury or death after cardiac surgery when compared with control patients. There was no evidence to support the practice of stopping amiodarone before cardiac surgery to avoid serious complications.

  6. Transient cardiac dysfunction but elevated cardiac and kidney biomarkers 24 h following an ultra-distance running event in Mexican Tarahumara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L.; Espino, Diana; Infante-Ramirez, Rocio

    2017-01-01

    parameters), cardiac output (39%, p copeptin-ultra sensitive, and high-sensitivity cardiac...... troponin T remained significantly elevated at 24 h post-race, and the two latter were inversely associated with LVEF (p copeptin-ultra sensitive. Conclusions: The athletes participating in this study had acute transient cardiac dysfunction...

  7. Cardiac Atrophy and Diastolic Dysfunction During and After Long Duration Spaceflight: Functional Consequences for Orthostatic Intolerance, Exercise Capability and Risk for Cardiac Arrhythmias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Benjamin D.; Bungo, Michael W.; Platts, Steven H.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Johnston, Smith L.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac Atrophy and Diastolic Dysfunction During and After Long Duration Spaceflight: Functional Consequences for Orthostatic Intolerance, Exercise Capability and Risk for Cardiac Arrhythmias (Integrated Cardiovascular) will quantify the extent of long-duration space flightassociated cardiac atrophy (deterioration) on the International Space Station crewmembers.

  8. Right ventricular dysfunction after cardiac surgery - diagnostic options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlykke, Lars; Ravn, Hanne Berg; Gustafsson, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) failure after cardiac surgery is associated with an ominous prognosis. The etiology of RV failure is multifaceted and the ability to recognize RV failure early is paramount in order to initiate timely treatment. The present review focuses on different diagnostic modalities...

  9. Inflammatory mediators in diet-induced cardiac dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwe, Maria Cornelia (Mieke)

    2013-01-01

    The studies in this thesis are performed to provide additional and improved insight into the effects and interplay of dietary lipids and metabolic inflammation on cardiac performance in the presence or absence of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarctions (MI). We show that high-fat diet feeding has

  10. Cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction induced by overexpression of miR-214 in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Gu, Haihua; Chen, Xiaofan; Fu, Shaozhi; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Hongfei; Feng, Qiang; Ni, Yiming

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of studies have demonstrated the critical role of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. This study evaluated whether miR-214 plays a pivotal role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. In human tissues, miR-214 overexpression was determined to promote cardiac hypertrophy. We predicted miR-214 direct target by bioinformatics database and verifed it using luciferase dual reporting system. We silenced miR-214 using a specific antagomir in a pressure-overload mouse model of heart failure. Analysis of transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of miR-214 indicated that their hearts were 21% heavier than wild-type hearts and expressed several biochemical and functional markers consistent with dilated cardiomyopathy. These findings include enlarged left ventricular internal diameters, wall thinning, reduced ejection fraction, fractional shortening, and an increased fetal gene expression. The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) was confirmed as a direct target of miR-214 in cardiomyocytes. In vivo silencing of miR-214 using a specific antagomir rescued cardiac EZH2 expression and prevented cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. Taken together, these results suggest that miR-214 may induce pathologic cardiac hypertrophy in part by reducing EZH2 messenger RNA levels. MiR-214 may therefore be a potential therapeutic target for treating certain cardiac disease states. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Levosimendan in Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rajendra H; Leimberger, Jeffrey D; van Diepen, Sean; Meza, James; Wang, Alice; Jankowich, Rachael; Harrison, Robert W; Hay, Douglas; Fremes, Stephen; Duncan, Andra; Soltesz, Edward G; Luber, John; Park, Soon; Argenziano, Michael; Murphy, Edward; Marcel, Randy; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitri; Nagpal, Dave; Bozinovski, John; Toller, Wolfgang; Heringlake, Matthias; Goodman, Shaun G; Levy, Jerrold H; Harrington, Robert A; Anstrom, Kevin J; Alexander, John H

    2017-05-25

    Levosimendan is an inotropic agent that has been shown in small studies to prevent or treat the low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery. In a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of levosimendan in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or less who were undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous levosimendan (at a dose of 0.2 μg per kilogram of body weight per minute for 1 hour, followed by a dose of 0.1 μg per kilogram per minute for 23 hours) or placebo, with the infusion started before surgery. The two primary end points were a four-component composite of death through day 30, renal-replacement therapy through day 30, perioperative myocardial infarction through day 5, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5; and a two-component composite of death through day 30 or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5. A total of 882 patients underwent randomization, 849 of whom received levosimendan or placebo and were included in the modified intention-to-treat population. The four-component primary end point occurred in 105 of 428 patients (24.5%) assigned to receive levosimendan and in 103 of 421 (24.5%) assigned to receive placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.00; 99% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 1.54; P=0.98). The two-component primary end point occurred in 56 patients (13.1%) assigned to receive levosimendan and in 48 (11.4%) assigned to receive placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.18; 96% CI, 0.76 to 1.82; P=0.45). The rate of adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. Prophylactic levosimendan did not result in a rate of the short-term composite end point of death, renal-replacement therapy, perioperative myocardial infarction, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device that was lower than the rate with placebo among patients with a

  12. The amelioration of cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction by the injection of keratin biomaterials derived from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Deliang; Wang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Li, Jingyi; Cheng, Ke; Zhang, Jinying

    2011-12-01

    Cardiac dysfunction following acute myocardial infarction is a major cause of advanced cardiomyopathy. Conventional pharmacological therapies rely on prompt reperfusion and prevention of repetitive maladaptive pathways. Keratin biomaterials can be manufactured in an autologous fashion and are effective in various models of tissue regeneration. However, its potential application in cardiac regeneration has not been tested. Keratin biomaterials were derived from human hair and its structure morphology, carryover of beneficial factors, biocompatibility with cardiomyocytes, and in vivo degradation profile were characterized. After delivery into infarcted rat hearts, the keratin scaffolds were efficiently infiltrated by cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Injection of keratin biomaterials promotes angiogenesis but does not exacerbate inflammation in the post-MI hearts. Compared to control-injected animals, keratin biomaterials-injected animals exhibited preservation of cardiac function and attenuation of adverse ventricular remodeling over the 8 week following time course. Tissue western blot analysis revealed up-regulation of beneficial factors (BMP4, NGF, TGF-beta) in the keratin-injected hearts. The salient functional benefits, the simplicity of manufacturing and the potentially autologous nature of this biomaterial provide impetus for further translation to the clinic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PEG-coated gold nanoparticles attenuate β-adrenergic receptor-mediated cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yuhui; Zhu, Baoling; Tian, Aiju; Li, Zijian

    2017-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are widely used as a drug delivery vehicle, which can accumulate in the heart through blood circulation. Therefore, it is very important to understand the effect of AuNPs on the heart, especially under pathological conditions. In this study, we found that PEG-coated AuNPs attenuate β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR)-mediated acute cardiac hypertrophy and inflammation. However, both isoproterenol, a non-selective β-AR agonist, and AuNPs did not induce cardiac function change or cardiac fibrosis. AuNPs exerted an anti-cardiac hypertrophy effect by decreasing β 1 -AR expression and its downstream ERK1/2 hypertrophic pathway. Our results indicated that AuNPs might be safe and have the potential to be used as multi-functional materials (drug carrier systems and anti-cardiac hypertrophy agents).

  14. High Glucose Causes Human Cardiac Progenitor Cell Dysfunction by Promoting Mitochondrial Fission: Role of a GLUT1 Blocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, He Yun; Park, Ji Hye; Jang, Woong Bi; Ji, Seung Taek; Jung, Seok Yun; Kim, Da Yeon; Kang, Songhwa; Kim, Yeon Ju; Yun, Jisoo; Kim, Jae Ho; Baek, Sang Hong; Kwon, Sang-Mo

    2016-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia is the primary characteristic of diabetes and is associated with many complications. The role of hyperglycemia in the dysfunction of human cardiac progenitor cells that can regenerate damaged cardiac tissue has been investigated, but the exact mechanism underlying this association is not clear. Thus, we examined whether hyperglycemia could regulate mitochondrial dynamics and lead to cardiac progenitor cell dysfunction, and whether blocking glucose uptake could rescue this dysfunction. High glucose in cardiac progenitor cells results in reduced cell viability and decreased expression of cell cycle-related molecules, including CDK2 and cyclin E. A tube formation assay revealed that hyperglycemia led to a significant decrease in the tube-forming ability of cardiac progenitor cells. Fluorescent labeling of cardiac progenitor cell mitochondria revealed that hyperglycemia alters mitochondrial dynamics and increases expression of fission-related proteins, including Fis1 and Drp1. Moreover, we showed that specific blockage of GLUT1 improved cell viability, tube formation, and regulation of mitochondrial dynamics in cardiac progenitor cells. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that high glucose leads to cardiac progenitor cell dysfunction through an increase in mitochondrial fission, and that a GLUT1 blocker can rescue cardiac progenitor cell dysfunction and downregulation of mitochondrial fission. Combined therapy with cardiac progenitor cells and a GLUT1 blocker may provide a novel strategy for cardiac progenitor cell therapy in cardiovascular disease patients with diabetes.

  15. Cardiac magnetic resonance markers of progressive RV dilation and dysfunction after tetralogy of Fallot repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wald, Rachel M.; Valente, Anne Marie; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Babu-Narayan, Sonya V.; Assenza, Gabriele Egidy; Schreier, Jenna; Gatzoulis, Michael A.; Kilner, Philip J.; Koyak, Zeliha; Mulder, Barbara; Powell, Andrew J.; Geva, Tal

    2015-01-01

    Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) are followed serially by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) for surveillance of RV dilation and dysfunction. We sought to define the prevalence of progressive RV disease and the optimal time interval between CMR evaluations. Candidates were selected

  16. Traditional Chinese Medication Qiliqiangxin attenuates cardiac remodeling after acute myocardial infarction in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Lichan; Shen, Sutong; Fu, Siyi; Fang, Hongyi; Wang, Xiuzhi; Das, Saumya; Sluijter, Joost P. G.; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Zhou, Yonglan; Kong, Xiangqing; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    In a multicenter randomized double-blind study we demonstrated that Qiliqiangxin (QLQX), a traditional Chinese medicine, had a protective effect in heart failure patients. However, whether and via which mechanism QLQX attenuates cardiac remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is still

  17. Cardiac Potassium Channel Dysfunction in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Troy E.; Abraham, Robert A.; Welch, Richard C.; Vanoye, Carlos G.; Crotti, Lia; Arnestad, Marianne; Insolia, Roberto; Pedrazzini, Matteo; Ferrandi, Chiara; Vege, Ashild; Rognum, Torleiv; Roden, Dan M.; Schwartz, Peter J.; George, Alfred L.

    2007-01-01

    Life-threatening arrhythmias have been suspected as one cause of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and this hypothesis is supported by the observation that mutations in arrhythmia susceptibility genes occur in 5–10% of cases. However, the functional consequences of cardiac potassium channel gene mutations associated with SIDS and how these alleles might mechanistically predispose to sudden death are unknown. To address these questions, we studied four missense KCNH2 (encoding HERG) var...

  18. Piperine Attenuates Pathological Cardiac Fibrosis Via PPAR-γ/AKT Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Guo Ma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs and AMP­activated protein kinase α (AMPKα play critical roles in the process of cardiac hypertrophy. Previous studies have demonstrated that piperine activates AMPKα and reduces the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK. However, the effect of piperine on cardiac hypertrophy remains completely unknown. Here, we show that piperine-treated mice had similar hypertrophic responses as mice treated with vehicle but exhibited significantly attenuated cardiac fibrosis after pressure overload or isoprenaline (ISO injection. Piperine inhibited the transformation of cardiac fibroblasts to myofibroblasts induced by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β or angiotensin II (Ang II in vitro. This anti-fibrotic effect was independent of the AMPKα and MAPK pathway. Piperine blocked activation of protein kinase B (AKT and, downstream, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β. The overexpression of constitutively active AKT or the knockdown of GSK3β completely abolished the piperine-mediated protection of cardiac fibroblasts. The cardioprotective effects of piperine were blocked in mice with constitutively active AKT. Pretreatment with GW9662, a specific inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ, reversed the effect elicited by piperine in vitro. In conclusion, piperine attenuated cardiac fibrosis via the activation of PPAR-γ and the resultant inhibition of AKT/GSK3β.

  19. Piperine Attenuates Pathological Cardiac Fibrosis Via PPAR-γ/AKT Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen-Guo; Yuan, Yu-Pei; Zhang, Xin; Xu, Si-Chi; Wang, Sha-Sha; Tang, Qi-Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) play critical roles in the process of cardiac hypertrophy. Previous studies have demonstrated that piperine activates AMPKα and reduces the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). However, the effect of piperine on cardiac hypertrophy remains completely unknown. Here, we show that piperine-treated mice had similar hypertrophic responses as mice treated with vehicle but exhibited significantly attenuated cardiac fibrosis after pressure overload or isoprenaline (ISO) injection. Piperine inhibited the transformation of cardiac fibroblasts to myofibroblasts induced by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) or angiotensin II (Ang II) in vitro. This anti-fibrotic effect was independent of the AMPKα and MAPK pathway. Piperine blocked activation of protein kinase B (AKT) and, downstream, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). The overexpression of constitutively active AKT or the knockdown of GSK3β completely abolished the piperine-mediated protection of cardiac fibroblasts. The cardioprotective effects of piperine were blocked in mice with constitutively active AKT. Pretreatment with GW9662, a specific inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), reversed the effect elicited by piperine in vitro. In conclusion, piperine attenuated cardiac fibrosis via the activation of PPAR-γ and the resultant inhibition of AKT/GSK3β. Copyright © 2017 The Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of myocardial fibrosis patterns in patients with systolic dysfunction: prognostic significance for the prediction of sudden cardiac arrest or appropriate implantable cardiac defibrillator therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almehmadi, Fahad; Joncas, Sebastien Xavier; Nevis, Immaculate; Zahrani, Mohammad; Bokhari, Mahmoud; Stirrat, John; Fine, Nowell M; Yee, Raymond; White, James A

    2014-07-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement-cardiac magnetic resonance is increasingly performed in patients with systolic dysfunction. Numerous patterns of fibrosis are commonly reported among this population. However, the relative prevalence and prognostic significance of these findings remains uncertain. Three hundred eighteen consecutive patients referred for late gadolinium enhancement-cardiac magnetic resonance and a left ventricular ejection fraction 35% (40% versus 6%; P=0.005). Patients with systolic dysfunction frequently demonstrate multiple patterns of myocardial fibrosis. Of these, a midwall striae pattern of fibrosis is the strongest independent predictor of sudden cardiac arrest or appropriate implantable cardiac defibrillator therapy. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Atenolol attenuates autonomic dysfunction of rat jejunum submitted to cold ischemic preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, M O; Fraga, M M; Guimarães, F A; Jurkiewicz, A; Caricati-Neto, A

    2006-01-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that cold ischemic preservation (CIP) employed in small bowel transplantation produces loss of intestinal motility due to severe lesions of autonomic enteric nerves and that this autonomic dysfunction is attenuated by antioxidant agents. In this work, we investigated whether preservation with atenolol attenuated autonomic dysfunction of rat jejunum submitted to long-term CIP. Jejunal segments (2 cm) of Wistar rats (12 to 16 weeks old) were surgically isolated and preserved at 4 degrees C in Ringer's lactate solution without (-) or with (+) 1 mumol/L atenolol (AT). After preservation for 12 hours, AT+ and AT- preparations were mounted in parallel in isolated organ baths containing 10 mL Tyrode's solution at 37 degrees C for the study of neurogenic contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation (EFS; 10 to 30 Hz, 1-ms duration, 60 V) or by stimulation with nicotinic (nicotine, NIC) or muscarinic (carbachol, CCh) cholinoceptor agents as well as nicotine (hexamethonium, HEX) and muscarinic (atropine, ATR) antagonists. Contractions induced by EFS (30 Hz) were 46% higher in AT+ (0.38 +/- 0.02 g) than AT- (0.26 +/- 0.01 g), while contractions induced by NIC (1 mmol/L) were 84% higher in AT+ (0.46 +/- 0.03 g) than in AT- (0.25 +/- 0.02 g). In addition, contractions induced by CCh (1 mmol/L) were 34% higher in AT+ (0.87 +/- 0.06 g) than in AT- (0.65 +/- 0.08 g). EFS-, NIC-, and CCh-induced contractions were inhibited by pretreatment of jejunum with HEX or ATR (1 mumol/30 min), in AT+ and AT-. These results suggest that addition of atenolol in the preservation solution attenuated autonomic dysfunction of rat jejunum submitted to long-term CIP.

  2. Candesartan cilexetil attenuated cardiac remodeling by improving expression and function of mitofusin 2 in SHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoguang; Niu, Qiuli; Peng, Xiaoyun; Li, Mei; Liu, Kuo; Liu, Ya; Liu, Jielin; Jin, Fei; Li, Xiao; Wei, Yongxiang

    2016-07-01

    Left ventricular hypotrophy (LVH) is very common in hypertensives even after antihypertensive treatment. Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) is a critical negative regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy by regulating mitochondrial fusion, ras/raf/MEK signal pathway, et al. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether candesartan attenuated cardiac remodeling by improving expression and function of mitofusin 2 in SHR. Nine weeks old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were selected and treated with candesartan for eight weeks. Then, heart tissues were investigated for signs of cardiac remodeling, mitochondrial structure and membrane potential, mitochondrial enzyme activities, hydrogen peroxide, mRNA and protein expression of Mfn2/ras/raf/MEK signaling pathway in heart tissues. The results showed that cardiac remodeling was obviously in SHR group: cardiac cell alignment was irregular; cardiac fibers became thick, irregular and enlarged; cell density was reduced in SHR compared to WKY. After candesartan treatment, histopathological structure improved significantly which were consistent with mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial enzyme activities, hydrogen peroxide, Mfn2/ras/raf/MEK gene and protein expression in cardiac tissues. What's more, although blood pressure was well controlled in a normal range, cardiac remodeling wasn't avoided. In general, candesartan obviously repressed cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac remodeling significantly compared to SHR untreated group, but didn't reverse it. Mfn2 is negatively associated with cardiac remodeling. Candesartan treatment can improve mitochondrial structure and function and regulate Mfn2/ras/raf/MEK signaling pathway. Mfn2 may be used a potential marker for cardiac remodeling and a novel therapeutic target for target organ damage protection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of early cardiac dysfunction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with or without anticardiolipin antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutcu, A; Aksu, F; Ozcelik, F; Barutcu, C A E; Umit, G E; Pamuk, O N; Altun, A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to use transthoracic Doppler echocardiographic (TTE) imaging methods to identify cardiac dysfunction, an indicator of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in terms of cardiac effects. This study involved 80 patients: a study group (n = 50) and control group (n = 30). They were categorized into four subgroups: anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) (+) (n = 14) and aCL (-) (n = 36); systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) ≥ 6 (n = 15) and SLEDAI 5 years group compared with the disease period <5 years group (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). Carrying out regular scans with TTE image of SLE patients is important in order to identify early cardiac involvement during monitoring and treatment. Identifying early cardiac involvement in SLE may lead to a reduction in mortality and morbidity rates. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Cardiac Effects of Attenuating Gsα - Dependent Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus R Streit

    Full Text Available Inhibition of β-adrenergic signalling plays a key role in treatment of heart failure. Gsα is essential for β-adrenergic signal transduction. In order to reduce side-effects of beta-adrenergic inhibition diminishing β-adrenergic signalling in the heart at the level of Gsα is a promising option.We analyzed the influence of Gsα on regulation of myocardial function and development of cardiac hypertrophy, using a transgenic mouse model (C57BL6/J mice overexpressing a dominant negative Gsα-mutant under control of the α-MHC-promotor. Cardiac phenotype was characterized in vivo and in vitro and under acute and chronic β-adrenergic stimulation. At rest, Gsα-DN-mice showed bradycardia (602 ± 13 vs. 660 ± 17 bpm, p<0.05 and decreased dp/dtmax (5037 ± 546- vs. 6835 ± 505 mmHg/s, p = 0.02. No significant differences were found regarding ejection fraction, heart weight and cardiomyocyte size. β-blockade by propranolol revealed no baseline differences of hemodynamic parameters between wildtype and Gsα-DN-mice. Acute adrenergic stimulation resulted in decreased β-adrenergic responsiveness in Gsα-DN-mice. Under chronic adrenergic stimulation, wildtype mice developed myocardial hypertrophy associated with increase of LV/BW-ratio by 23% (4.4 ± 0.2 vs. 3.5 ± 0.1 mg/g, p<0.01 and cardiac myocyte size by 24% (14927 ± 442 px vs. 12013 ± 583 px, p<0.001. In contrast, both parameters were unchanged in Gsα-DN-mice after chronic isoproterenol stimulation.Overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of Gsα leads to decreased β-adrenergic responsiveness and is protective against isoproterenol-induced hypertrophy. Thus, Gsα-DN-mice provide novel insights into β-adrenergic signal transduction and its modulation in myocardial overload and failure.

  5. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in obese normotensive children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Magalhães G. Freitas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To test the hypothesis that obese normotensive children and adolescents present impaired cardiac autonomic control compared to non-obese normotensive ones.METHODS:For this cross-sectional study, 66 children and adolescents were divided into the following groups: Obese (n=31, 12±3 years old and Non-Obese (n=35, 13±3 years old. Obesity was defined as body mass index greater than the 95thpercentile for age and gender. Blood pressure was measured by oscillometric method after 15 minutes of rest in supine position. The heart rate was continuously registered during ten minutes in the supine position with spontaneous breathing. The cardiac autonomic control was assessed by heart rate variability, which was calculated from the five-minute minor variance of the signal. The derivations were the index that indicates the proportion of the number of times in which normal adjacent R-R intervals present differences >50 miliseconds (pNN50, for the time domain, and, for the spectral analysis, low (LF and high frequency (HF bands, besides the low and high frequencies ratio (LF/HF. The results were expressed as mean±standard deviation and compared by Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney's U-test.RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure (116±14 versus 114±13mmHg, p=0.693 and diastolic blood pressure (59±8 versus 60±11mmHg, p=0.458 were similar between the Obese and Non-Obese groups. The pNN50 index (29±21 versus 43±23, p=0.015 and HF band (54±20 versus 64±14 normalized units - n.u., p=0.023 were lower in the Obese Group. The LF band (46±20 versus 36±14 n.u., p=0.023 and LF/HF ratio (1.3±1.6 versus 0.7±0.4, p=0.044 were higher in Obese Group.CONCLUSIONS: Obese normotensive children and adolescents present impairment of cardiac autonomic control.

  6. Mitochondrial polymerase gamma dysfunction and aging cause cardiac nuclear DNA methylation changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczor, Christopher A; Ludlow, Ivan; Fields, Earl; Jiao, Zhe; Ludaway, Tomika; Russ, Rodney; Lewis, William

    2016-04-01

    Cardiomyopathy (CM) is an intrinsic weakening of myocardium with contractile dysfunction and congestive heart failure (CHF). CHF has been postulated to result from decreased mitochondrial energy production and oxidative stress. Effects of decreased mitochondrial oxygen consumption also can accelerate with aging. We previously showed DNA methylation changes in human hearts with CM. This was associated with mitochondrial DNA depletion, being another molecular marker of CM. We examined the relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiac epigenetic DNA methylation changes in both young and old mice. We used genetically engineered C57Bl/6 mice transgenic for a cardiac-specific mutant of the mitochondrial polymerase-γ (termed Y955C). Y955C mice undergo left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) at a young age (∼ 94 days old), and LVH decompensated to CHF at old age (∼ 255 days old). Results found 95 genes differentially expressed as a result of Y955C expression, while 4,452 genes were differentially expressed as a result of aging hearts. Moreover, cardiac DNA methylation patterns differed between Y955C (4,506 peaks with 68.5% hypomethylation) and aged hearts (73,286 peaks with 80.2% hypomethylated). Correlatively, of the 95 Y955C-dependent differentially expressed genes, 30 genes (31.6%) also displayed differential DNA methylation; in the 4,452 age-dependent differentially expressed genes, 342 genes (7.7%) displayed associated DNA methylation changes. Both Y955C and aging demonstrated significant enrichment of CACGTG-associated E-box motifs in differentially methylated regions. Cardiac mitochondrial polymerase dysfunction alters nuclear DNA methylation. Furthermore, aging causes a robust change in cardiac DNA methylation that is partially associated with mitochondrial polymerase dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Cardiac Potassium Channel Dysfunction in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Troy E.; Abraham, Robert A.; Welch, Richard C.; Vanoye, Carlos G.; Crotti, Lia; Arnestad, Marianne; Insolia, Roberto; Pedrazzini, Matteo; Ferrandi, Chiara; Vege, Ashild; Rognum, Torleiv; Roden, Dan M.; Schwartz, Peter J.; George, Alfred L.

    2008-01-01

    Life-threatening arrhythmias have been suspected as one cause of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and this hypothesis is supported by the observation that mutations in arrhythmia susceptibility genes occur in 5–10% of cases. However, the functional consequences of cardiac potassium channel gene mutations associated with SIDS and how these alleles might mechanistically predispose to sudden death are unknown. To address these questions, we studied four missense KCNH2 (encoding HERG) variants, one compound KCNH2 genotype, and a missense KCNQ1 mutation all previously identified in Norwegian SIDS cases. Three of the six variants exhibited functional impairments while three were biophysically similar to wild-type channels (KCNH2 variants V279M, R885C, S1040G). When coexpressed with WT-HERG, R273Q and K897T/R954C generated currents resembling the rapid component of the cardiac delayed rectifier current (IKr) but with significantly diminished amplitude. Action potential modeling demonstrated that this level of functional impairment was sufficient to evoke increased action potential duration and pause-dependent early afterdepolarizations. By contrast, KCNQ1-I274V causes a gain-of-function in IKs characterized by increased current density, faster activation, and slower deactivation leading to accumulation of instantaneous current upon repeated stimulation. Action potential simulations using a Markov model of heterozygous I274V-IKs incorporated into the Luo-Rudy (LRd) ventricular cell model demonstrated marked rate-dependent shortening of action potential duration predicting a short QT phenotype. Our results indicate that certain potassium channel mutations associated with SIDS confer overt functional defects consistent with either LQTS or SQTS, and further emphasize the role of congenital arrhythmia susceptibility in this syndrome. PMID:18222468

  8. The exenatide analogue AC3174 attenuates hypertension, insulin resistance, and renal dysfunction in Dahl salt-sensitive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Rayne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptors improves insulin sensitivity and induces vasodilatation and diuresis. AC3174 is a peptide analogue with pharmacologic properties similar to the GLP-1 receptor agonist, exenatide. Hypothetically, chronic AC3174 treatment could attenuate salt-induced hypertension, cardiac morbidity, insulin resistance, and renal dysfunction in Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS rats. Methods DSS rats were fed low salt (LS, 0.3% NaCl or high salt (HS, 8% NaCl diets. HS rats were treated with vehicle, AC3174 (1.7 pmol/kg/min, or GLP-1 (25 pmol/kg/min for 4 weeks via subcutaneous infusion. Other HS rats received captopril (150 mg/kg/day or AC3174 plus captopril. Results HS rat survival was improved by all treatments except GLP-1. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was lower in LS rats and in GLP-1, AC3174, captopril, or AC3174 plus captopril HS rats than in vehicle HS rats (p Conclusions Thus, AC3174 had antihypertensive, cardioprotective, insulin-sensitizing, and renoprotective effects in the DSS hypertensive rat model. Furthermore, AC3174 improved animal survival, an effect not observed with GLP-1.

  9. Early exercise training normalizes myofilament function and attenuates left ventricular pump dysfunction in mice with a large myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, Monique C; van der Velden, Jolanda; Bito, Virginie; Ozdemir, Semir; Biesmans, Liesbeth; Boontje, Nicky M; Dekkers, Dick H W; Schoonderwoerd, Kees; Schuurbiers, Hans C H; de Crom, Rini; Stienen, Ger J M; Sipido, Karin R; Lamers, Jos M J; Duncker, Dirk J

    2007-04-13

    The extent and mechanism of the cardiac benefit of early exercise training following myocardial infarction (MI) is incompletely understood, but may involve blunting of abnormalities in Ca(2+)-handling and myofilament function. Consequently, we investigated the effects of 8-weeks of voluntary exercise, started early after a large MI, on left ventricular (LV) remodeling and dysfunction in the mouse. Exercise had no effect on survival, MI size or LV dimensions, but improved LV fractional shortening from 8+/-1 to 12+/-1%, and LVdP/dt(P30) from 5295+/-207 to 5794+/-207 mm Hg/s (both P<0.05), and reduced pulmonary congestion. These global effects of exercise were associated with normalization of the MI-induced increase in myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity (DeltapCa(50)=0.037). This effect of exercise was PKA-mediated and likely because of improved beta(1)-adrenergic signaling, as suggested by the increased beta(1)-adrenoceptor protein (48%) and cAMP levels (36%; all P<0.05). Exercise prevented the MI-induced decreased maximum force generating capacity of skinned cardiomyocytes (F(max) increased from 14.3+/-0.7 to 18.3+/-0.8 kN/m(2) P<0.05), which was associated with enhanced shortening of unloaded intact cardiomyocytes (from 4.1+/-0.3 to 7.0+/-0.6%; P<0.05). Furthermore, exercise reduced diastolic Ca(2+)-concentrations (by approximately 30%, P<0.05) despite the unchanged SERCA2a and PLB expression and PLB phosphorylation status. Importantly, exercise had no effect on Ca(2+)-transient amplitude, indicating that the improved LV and cardiomyocyte shortening were principally because of improved myofilament function. In conclusion, early exercise in mice after a large MI has no effect on LV remodeling, but attenuates global LV dysfunction. The latter can be explained by the exercise-induced improvement of myofilament function.

  10. Centella asiatica Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Aβ-Exposed Hippocampal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Jonathan A.; Matthews, Donald G.; Caruso, Maya; Quinn, Joseph F.; Soumyanath, Amala

    2017-01-01

    Centella asiatica has been used for centuries to enhance memory. We have previously shown that a water extract of Centella asiatica (CAW) protects against the deleterious effects of amyloid-β (Aβ) in neuroblastoma cells and attenuates Aβ-induced cognitive deficits in mice. Yet, the neuroprotective mechanism of CAW has yet to be thoroughly explored in neurons from these animals. This study investigates the effects of CAW on neuronal metabolism and oxidative stress in isolated Aβ-expressing neurons. Hippocampal neurons from amyloid precursor protein overexpressing Tg2576 mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were treated with CAW. In both genotypes, CAW increased the expression of antioxidant response genes which attenuated the Aβ-induced elevations in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation in Tg2576 neurons. CAW also improved mitochondrial function in both genotypes and increased the expression of electron transport chain enzymes and mitochondrial labeling, suggesting an increase in mitochondrial content. These data show that CAW protects against mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in Aβ-exposed hippocampal neurons which could contribute to the beneficial effects of the extract observed in vivo. Since CAW also improved mitochondrial function in the absence of Aβ, these results suggest a broader utility for other conditions where neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction occurs. PMID:28883904

  11. Adjuvant potential of selegiline in attenuating organ dysfunction in septic rats with peritonitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ming Tsao

    Full Text Available Selegiline, an anti-Parkinson drug, has antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. To explore the effect of selegiline on sepsis, we used a clinically relevant animal model of polymicrobial sepsis. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP or sham operation was performed in male rats under anesthesia. Three hours after surgery, animals were randomized to receive intravenously selegiline (3 mg/kg or an equivalent volume of saline. The administration of CLP rats with selegiline (i increased arterial blood pressure and vascular responsiveness to norepinephrine, (ii reduced plasma liver and kidney dysfunction, (iii attenuated metabolic acidosis, (iv decreased neutrophil infiltration in liver and lung, and (v improved survival rate (from 44% to 65%, compared to those in the CLP alone rats. The CLP-induced increases of plasma interleukin-6, organ superoxide levels, and liver inducible nitric oxide synthase and caspase-3 expressions were ameliorated by selegiline treatment. In addition, the histological changes in liver and lung were significantly attenuated in the selegiline -treated CLP group compared to those in the CLP group. The improvement of organ dysfunction and survival through reducing inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis in peritonitis-induced sepsis by selegiline has potential as an adjuvant agent for critical ill.

  12. Cardio-oncology Related to Heart Failure: Pediatric Considerations for Cardiac Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Felker, Kirsten; Border, William L; Hong, Borah J; Chow, Eric J

    2017-04-01

    Although tremendous advances in pediatric cancer treatment have improved the survival of many children, these patients remain at increased risk of early morbidity and mortality with cardiovascular disease as a leading cause of death. Heightened awareness in providers with increased surveillance and improvement in cardiovascular imaging modalities have led to earlier detection of cardiac dysfunction, but the outcomes remain poor once this has dysfunction developed. A great deal of work remains to be done to refine screening and identify high-risk patients more precisely, and to develop more evidence-based strategies for effective primary and secondary cardioprotection and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction in the general population with dyspnea by plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, R; Goetze, JP; Schnohr, P

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine whether measurement of plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) could be used in discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea in the general population. BACKGROUND: Natriuretic peptides are useful markers in ruling out acute cardiac...... with dyspnea, left ventricular hypertrophy and/or systolic dysfunction was associated with a 2.6-fold increase in plasma proBNP concentration (p ...% to 17%). CONCLUSIONS: In the general population with dyspnea, plasma proBNP concentrations are increased in left ventricular dilatation, hypertrophy, systolic dysfunction, or diastolic dysfunction, but are unaffected by pulmonary dysfunction....

  14. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin attenuates FK506-induced endothelial dysfunction through prevention of Akt inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Ryoji; Fujimori, Yoshihiro; Okada, Masaya; Tamaki, Hiroya; Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Ogawa, Hiroyasu

    2014-04-15

    Thrombomodulin (TM), a transmembrane glycoprotein on vascular endothelial cells, is a naturally occurring anticoagulant. Recombinant human soluble TM (rTM), composed of the extracellular domain of TM, also shows anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory activity, but the effects of rTM on microangiopathy remain unclear. We reported that FK506 induced endothelial dysfunction through inactivation of Akt and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 using a three-dimensional culture blood vessel model. In the present study, we examined the effects of rTM on FK506-induced endothelial dysfunction. We found that rTM suppressed FK506-induced endothelial cell death, but not the breakdown of capillary-like tube structures. rTM prevented FK506-induced inactivation of Akt, but not of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2. Akt inhibition by LY294002 abrogated the preventive effect of rTM on FK506-induced Akt inactivation and the suppressive effect of rTM on FK506-induced cell death. These results suggest that rTM attenuates FK506-induced endothelial dysfunction through prevention of Akt inactivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ablation of C/EBP homologous protein increases the acute phase mortality and doesn't attenuate cardiac remodeling in mice with myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guangjin; Li, Qingman; Zhang, Xiajun; Shen, Liang; Xie, Jiahe; Zhang, Jingwen; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Huang, Xiaobo; Liao, Yulin

    2015-08-14

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress is a proapoptotic and profibrotic stimulus. Ablation of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) is reported to reverse cardiac dysfunction by attenuating cardiac endoplasmic reticulum stress in mice with pressure overload or ischemia/reperfusion, but it is unclear whether loss of CHOP also inhibits cardiac remodeling induced by permanent-infarction. In mice with permanent ligation of left coronary artery, we found that ablation of CHOP increased the acute phase mortality. For the mice survived to 4 weeks, left ventricular anterior (LV) wall thickness was larger in CHOP knockout mice than in the wildtype littermates, while no difference was noted on posterior wall thickness, LV dimensions, LV fractional shortening and ejection fraction. Similarly, invasive assessment of LV hemodynamics, morphological analysis of heart and lung weight indexes, myocardial fibrosis and TUNEL-assessed apoptosis showed no significant differences between CHOP knockout mice and their wildtype ones, while in mice with ischemia for 45 min and reperfusion for 1 week, myocardial fibrosis and apoptosis in the infarct area were significantly attenuated in CHOP knockout mice. These findings indicate that ablation of CHOP doesn't ameliorate cardiac remodeling induced by permanent-myocardial infarction, which implicates that early reperfusion is a prerequisite for ischemic myocardium to benefit from CHOP inhibition. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Acetyl salicylic acid attenuates cardiac hypertrophy through Wnt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitau, Samuel Chege; Li, Xuelian; Zhao, Dandan; Guo, Zhenfeng; Liang, Haihai; Qian, Ming; Lv, Lifang; Li, Tianshi; Xu, Bozhi; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Chaoqian; Lu, Yanjie; Du, Zhiming; Shan, Hongli; Yang, Baofeng

    2015-12-01

    Ventricular hypertrophy is a powerful and independent predictor of cardiovascular morbid events. The vascular properties of low-dose acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) provide cardiovascular benefits through the irreversible inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase 1; however, the possible anti-hypertrophic properties and potential mechanism of aspirin have not been investigated in detail. In this study, healthy wild-type male mice were randomly divided into three groups and subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham operation. The TAC-operated mice were treated with the human equivalent of low-dose aspirin (10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)); the remaining mice received an equal amount of phosphate buffered saline with 0.65% ethanol, which was used as a vehicle. A cardiomyocyte hypertrophy model induced by angiotensin II (10 nmol·L(-1)) was treated with the human equivalent of low (10 or 100 μmol·L(-1)) and high (1000 μmol·L(-1)) aspirin concentrations in plasma. Changes in the cardiac structure and function were assessed through echocardiography and transmission electron microscopy. Gene expression was determined through RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Results indicated that aspirin treatment abrogated the increased thickness of the left ventricular anterior and posterior walls, the swelling of mitochondria, and the increased surface area in in vivo and in vitro hypertrophy models. Aspirin also normalized the upregulated hypertrophic biomarkers, β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Aspirin efficiently reversed the upregulation of β-catenin and P-Akt expression and the TAC- or ANG II-induced downregulation of GSK-3β. Therefore, low-dose aspirin possesses significant anti-hypertrophic properties at clinically relevant concentrations for anti-thrombotic therapy. The downregulation of β-catenin and Akt may be the underlying signaling mechanism of the effects of aspirin.

  17. Perioperative renal outcome in cardiac surgical patients with preoperative renal dysfunction: aprotinin versus epsilon aminocaproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew D; Chaudrey, Alyas; Bert, Arthur; Schwartz, Carl; Singh, Arun

    2008-02-01

    The administration of aprotinin to patients with pre-existing renal dysfunction who are undergoing cardiac surgery is controversial. Therefore, the authors present their experience with the use of aprotinin for patients with preoperative renal dysfunction who underwent elective cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Retrospective analysis. University hospital. Consecutive cardiac surgical patients with preoperative serum creatinine (SCr) > or =1.8 mg/dL undergoing nonemergent cardiac surgery requiring CPB. None. One hundred twenty-three patients either received epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA, n = 82) or aprotinin (n = 41) as decided by the attending anesthesiologist and surgeon. Data were collected from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons database and from automated intraoperative anesthesia records. Renal function was assessed from measured serum creatinine (SCr) and calculated creatinine clearances (CrCls). Acute perioperative renal dysfunction was defined as a worsening of perioperative renal function by > or =25% and/or the need for hemodialysis (HD). Data were recorded as mean and standard deviation or percentage of population depending on whether the data were continuous or not. Data were compared by using an analysis of variance, chi-square analysis, Student paired and unpaired t tests, Fisher exact test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Mann-Whitney U test. A p value or =3 months after surgery was significantly lower in the aprotinin group compared with the EACA group (1.8 v 2.2 mg/dL, p < 0.05). Acute perioperative renal dysfunction was associated with worse patient outcome and longer CPB and AoXCl times. Demographic and surgical variables indicated that the sicker patients undergoing more complex surgeries were more likely to be treated with aprotinin. Although aprotinin patients had a higher renal risk score, the administration of aprotinin did not negatively impact renal outcome.

  18. Electrophysiological basis of metabolic-syndrome-induced cardiac dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okatan, Esma N; Durak, Aysegul Toy; Turan, Belma

    2016-10-01

    Myocardial contractility is controlled by intracellular Ca2+ cycling with the contribution of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of altered SR function in defective regulation of intracellular Ca2+ levels in rats with metabolic syndrome (MetS) induced by a 16-week high-sucrose drinking-water diet. Electric-field stimulated transient intracellular Ca2+ changes in MetS cardiomyocytes exhibited significantly reduced amplitude (∼30%) and prolonged time courses (2-fold), as well as depressed SR Ca2+ loading (∼55%) with increased basal Ca2+ level. Consistent with these data, altered ryanodine receptor (RyR2) function and SERCA2a activity were found in MetS cardiomyocytes through Ca2+ spark measurements and caffeine application assay in a state in which sodium calcium exchanger was inhibited. Furthermore, tetracaine application assay results and hyperphosphorylated level of RyR2 also support the "leaky RyR2" hypothesis. Moreover, altered phosphorylation levels of phospholamban (PLN) support the depressed SERCA2a-activity thesis and these alterations in the phosphorylation of Ca2+-handling proteins are correlated with altered protein kinase and phosphatase activity in MetS cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, MetS-rat heart exhibits altered Ca2+ signaling largely due to altered SR function via changes in RyR2 and SERCA2a activity. These results point to RyR2 and SERCA2a as potential pharmacological targets for restoring intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and, thereby, combatting dysfunction in MetS-rat heart.

  19. Heme oxygenase-1 prevents cardiac dysfunction in streptozotocin-diabetic mice by reducing inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and enhancing autophagy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Yanli; Zhang, Lina; Qiao, Yu; Zhou, Xiaoling; Wu, Guodong; Wang, Lujing; Peng, Yahui; Dong, Xingli; Huang, Hui; Si, Lining; Zhang, Xueying; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jihong; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Lingyun; Gao, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and autophagy associated with heart failure, and atherosclerosis, in addition to its recognized role in metabolic...

  20. Ca(2+) mishandling and cardiac dysfunction in obesity and insulin resistance: role of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Karla; Balderas-Villalobos, Jaime; Bello-Sanchez, Ma Dolores; Phillips-Farfán, Bryan; Molina-Muñoz, Tzindilu; Aldana-Quintero, Hugo; Gómez-Viquez, Norma L

    2014-11-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance (IR) are strongly connected to the development of subclinical cardiac dysfunction and eventually can lead to heart failure, which is the main cause of morbidity and death in patients having these metabolic diseases. It has been considered that excessive fat tissue may play a critical role in producing systemic IR and enhancing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This oxidative stress (OS) may elicit or exacerbate IR. On the other hand, evidence suggests that some of the cellular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of obesity and IR-related cardiomyopathy are excessive myocardial ROS production and abnormal Ca(2+) homeostasis. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that augmented ROS production may contribute to Ca(2+) mishandling by affecting the redox state of key proteins implicated in this process. In this review, we focus on the role of Ca(2+) mishandling in the development of cardiac dysfunction in obesity and IR and address the evidence suggesting that OS might also contribute to cardiac dysfunction by affecting Ca(2+) handling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Melatonin alleviates postinfarction cardiac remodeling and dysfunction by inhibiting Mst1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Yang; Guo, Yanjie; Fan, Yanhong; Zhang, Mingming; Man, Wanrong; Gao, Erhe; Hu, Wei; Reiter, Russel J; Wang, Haichang; Sun, Dongdong

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin reportedly protects against several cardiovascular diseases including ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), atherosclerosis, and hypertension. The present study investigated the effects and mechanisms of melatonin on cardiomyocyte autophagy, apoptosis, and mitochondrial injury in the context of myocardial infarction (MI). We demonstrated that melatonin significantly alleviated cardiac dysfunction after MI. Four weeks after MI, echocardiography and Masson staining indicated that melatonin notably mitigated adverse left ventricle remodeling. The mechanism may be associated with increased autophagy, reduced apoptosis, and alleviated mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, melatonin significantly inhibited Mst1 phosphorylation while promoting Sirt1 expression after MI, which indicates that Mst1/Sirt1 signaling may serve as the downstream target of melatonin. We thus constructed a MI model using Mst1 transgenic (Mst1 Tg) and Mst1 knockout (Mst1(-/-) ) mice. The absence of Mst1 abolished the favorable effects of melatonin on cardiac injury after MI. Consistently, melatonin administration did not further increase autophagy, decrease apoptosis, or alleviate mitochondrial integrity and biogenesis in Mst1 knockout mice subjected to MI injury. These results suggest that melatonin alleviates postinfarction cardiac remodeling and dysfunction by upregulating autophagy, decreasing apoptosis, and modulating mitochondrial integrity and biogenesis. The attributed mechanism involved, at least in part, Mst1/Sirt1 signaling. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Rosiglitazone suppresses cyclosporin-induced chronic transplant dysfunction and prolongs survival of rat cardiac allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Liu, Yan; Yuan, Zhengwei; Tian, Lina; Dallman, Margaret J; Thompson, Paul W; Tam, Paul K H; Lamb, Jonathan R

    2007-06-27

    The lack of effective treatment for chronic transplant dysfunction restricts the long-term survival of solid organ allografts. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands can suppress vascular inflammation. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of rosiglitazone on chronic transplant dysfunction in a rat cardiac transplant model. Inbred male Fisher 344 (F344, RT1lvl) and Lewis (LEW, RT1(1)) rats were subjected to heterotopic abdominal heart transplantation according to standard procedures. Cyclosporine A was administered intraperitoneally to cover acute rejection, and rosiglitazone was administered orally by gavage daily from 3 days before the operation to the end of experiments. Rosiglitazone significantly prolonged the survival of cardiac allografts in rats (F344 to LEW) that had received a 10-day course of cyclosporin A compared to treatment with immunosuppressant alone. Analysis of allografts at 120 days posttransplantation showed that rosiglitazone reduced the inflammatory cell infiltrate in both the vessels and graft parenchyma as were neointimal formation, vascular occlusion, and fibrosis. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta and related proteins was less abundant after cyclosporin A/rosiglitazone treatment. The findings reported here demonstrate that rosiglitazone given under the cover of short-term treatment with cyclosporin A prolongs cardiac allograft survival and reduces the severity of chronic transplant dysfunction. This may be mediated in part through the downregulation of transforming growth factor-beta and related proteins. The combined effects of rosiglitazone and immunosuppressive drugs are potentially beneficial to patients receiving organ transplants.

  3. Reactive oxygen species, endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction: the link with cardiac arrhythmogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Tse

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac arrhythmias represent a significant problem globally, leading to cerebrovascular accidents, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. There is increasing evidence to suggest that increased oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species (ROS, which is elevated in conditions such as diabetes and hypertension, can lead to arrhythmogenesis. Method: A literature review was undertaken to screen for articles that investigated the effects of ROS on cardiac ion channel function, remodelling and arrhythmogenesis. Results: Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress is observed in heart failure, leading to increased production of ROS. Mitochondrial ROS, which is elevated in diabetes and hypertension, can stimulate its own production in a positive feedback loop, termed ROS-induced ROS release. Together with activation, mitochondrial inner membrane anion channels, it leads to mitochondrial depolarization. Abnormal function of these organelles can then activate downstream signalling pathways, ultimately culminating in altered function or expression of cardiac ion channels responsible for generating the cardiac action potential (AP. Vascular and cardiac endothelial cells become dysfunctional, leading to altered paracrine signalling to influence the electrophysiology of adjacent cardiomyocytes. All of these changes can in turn produce abnormalities in AP repolarization or conduction, thereby increasing likelihood of triggered activity and reentry. Conclusion: ROS plays a significant role in producing arrhythmic substrate. Therapeutic strategies targeting upstream events include production of a strong reducing environment or the use of pharmacological agents that target organelle-specific proteins and ion channels. These may relieve oxidative stress and in turn prevent arrhythmic complications in patients with diabetes, hypertension and heart failure.

  4. Pathophysiology of Sepsis-Related Cardiac Dysfunction: Driven by Inflammation, Energy Mismanagement, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperopoulos, Anastasios; Kennel, Peter Johannes; Pollak, Nina; Schulze, P. Christian; Goldberg, Ira J.

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response that follows bacterial infection. Cardiac dysfunction is an important consequence of sepsis that affects mortality and has been attributed to either elevated inflammation or suppression of both fatty acid and glucose oxidation and eventual ATP depletion. Moreover, cardiac adrenergic signaling is compromised in septic patients and this aggravates further heart function. While anti-inflammatory therapies are important for the treatment of the disease, administration of anti-inflammatory drugs did not improve survival in septic patients. This review article summarizes findings on inflammatory and other mechanisms that are triggered in sepsis and affect cardiac function and mortality. Particularly, it focuses on the effects of the disease in metabolic pathways, as well as in adrenergic signaling and the potential interplay of the latter with inflammation. It is suggested that therapeutic approaches should include combination of anti-inflammatory treatments, stimulation of energy production, and restoration of adrenergic signaling in the heart. PMID:25475180

  5. Modulation of Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction in Ischemic Stroke following Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriranjini Sitaram Jaideep

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in stroke has implications on morbidity and mortality. Ayurveda (Indian system of medicine describes stroke as pakshaghata. We intended to study the effect of Ayurveda therapies on the cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Methods. Fifty patients of ischemic stroke (middle cerebral artery territory (mean age 39.26 ± 9.88 years; male 43, female 7 were recruited within one month of ictus. All patients received standard allopathic medications as advised by neurologist. In addition, patients were randomized to receive physiotherapy (Group I or Ayurveda treatment (Group II for 14 days. Continuous electrocardiogram and finger arterial pressure were recorded for 15 min before and after treatments and analyzed offline to obtain heart rate and blood pressure variability and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS. Results were analysed by RMANOVA. Results. Patients in Group II showed statistically significant improvement in cardiac autonomic parameters. The standard deviation of normal to normal intervals,and total and low frequency powers were significantly enhanced (F=8.16, P=0.007, F=9.73, P=0.004, F=13.51, and P=0.001, resp.. The BRS too increased following the treatment period (F=10.129, P=0.004. Conclusions. The current study is the first to report a positive modulation of cardiac autonomic activity after adjuvant Ayurveda treatment in ischemic stroke. Further long term studies are warranted.

  6. Recent Advances on Pathophysiology, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Insights in Cardiac Dysfunction Induced by Antineoplastic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilisa Molinaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the improvement of survival after cancer, cardiotoxicity due to antineoplastic treatments has emerged as a clinically relevant problem. Potential cardiovascular toxicities due to anticancer agents include QT prolongation and arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia and infarction, hypertension and/or thromboembolism, left ventricular (LV dysfunction, and heart failure (HF. The latter is variable in severity, may be reversible or irreversible, and can occur soon after or as a delayed consequence of anticancer treatments. In the last decade recent advances have emerged in clinical and pathophysiological aspects of LV dysfunction induced by the most widely used anticancer drugs. In particular, early, sensitive markers of cardiac dysfunction that can predict this form of cardiomyopathy before ejection fraction (EF is reduced are becoming increasingly important, along with novel therapeutic and cardioprotective strategies, in the attempt of protecting cardiooncologic patients from the development of congestive heart failure.

  7. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing IL10 attenuates cardiac impairments in rats with myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xin; Li, Jianping; Yu, Ming; Yang, Jian; Zheng, Minjuan; Zhang, Jinzhou; Sun, Chao; Liang, Hongliang; Liu, Liwen

    2018-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) has been well known to exert therapeutic potential for patients with myocardial infarction (MI). In addition, interleukin-10 (IL10) could attenuate MI through suppressing inflammation. Thus, the combination of MSC implantation with IL10 delivery may extend health benefits to ameliorate cardiac injury after MI. Here we established overexpression of IL10 in bone marrow-derived MSC through adenoviral transduction. Cell viability, apoptosis, and IL10 secretion under ischemic challenge in vitro were examined. In addition, MSC was transplanted into the injured hearts in a rat model of MI. Four weeks after the MI induction, MI, cardiac functions, apoptotic cells, and inflammation cytokines were assessed. In response to in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), IL10 overexpression in MSC (Ad.IL10-MSC) enhanced cell viability, decreased apoptosis, and increased IL10 secretion. Consistently, the implantation of Ad.IL10-MSCs into MI animals resulted in more reductions in myocardial infarct size, cardiac impairment, and cell apoptosis, compared to the individual treatments of either MSC or IL10 administration. Moreover, the attenuation of both systemic and local inflammations was most prominent for Ad.IL10-MSC treatment. IL10 overexpression and MSC may exert a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect to alleviate cardiac injury after MI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. L-carnitine attenuates cardiac remodelling rather than vascular remodelling in deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Daniel; Chunduri, Prasad; Iyer, Abishek; Brown, Lindsay

    2010-04-01

    L-carnitine is an important co-factor in fatty acid metabolism by mitochondria. This study has determined whether oral administration of L-carnitine prevents remodelling and the development of impaired cardiovascular function in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats (n = 6-12; #p carnitine (1.2% in food; 0.9 mg/g/day in DOCA-salt rats) decreased blood pressure (DOCA-salt 169 +/- 2; + L-carnitine 148 +/- 6# mmHg), decreased left ventricular wet weights (DOCA-salt 3.02 +/- 0.07; + L-carnitine 2.72 +/- 0.06# mg/g body-wt), decreased inflammatory cells in the replacement fibrotic areas, reduced left ventricular interstitial collagen content (DOCA-salt 14.4 +/- 0.2; + L-carnitine 8.7 +/- 0.5# % area), reduced diastolic stiffness constant (DOCA-salt 26.9 +/- 0.5; + L-carnitine 23.8 +/- 0.5# dimensionless) and decreased plasma malondialdehyde concentrations (DOCA-salt 26.9 +/- 0.8; + L-carnitine 21.2 +/- 0.4# micromol/l) without preventing endothelial dysfunction. L-carnitine attenuated the cardiac remodelling and improved cardiac function in DOCA-salt hypertension but produced minimal changes in aortic wall thickness and vascular function. This study suggests that the mitochondrial respiratory chain is a significant source of reactive oxygen species in the heart but less so in the vasculature in DOCA-salt rats, underlying the relatively selective cardiac responses to L-carnitine treatment.

  9. A Pre-clinical Animal Model of Trypanosoma brucei Infection Demonstrating Cardiac Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte S McCarroll

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomiasis (AT, caused by Trypanosoma brucei species, results in both neurological and cardiac dysfunction and can be fatal if untreated. Research on the pathogenesis and treatment of the disease has centred to date on the characteristic neurological symptoms, whereas cardiac dysfunction (e.g. ventricular arrhythmias in AT remains largely unstudied. Animal models of AT demonstrating cardiac dysfunction similar to that described in field cases of AT are critically required to transform our understanding of AT-induced cardiac pathophysiology and identify future treatment strategies. We have previously shown that T. brucei can interact with heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes to induce ventricular arrhythmias in ex vivo adult rat hearts. However, it is unknown whether the arrhythmias observed ex vivo are also present during in vivo infection in experimental animal models. Here we show for the first time the characterisation of ventricular arrhythmias in vivo in two animal models of AT infection using electrocardiographic (ECG monitoring. The first model utilised a commonly used monomorphic laboratory strain, Trypanosoma brucei brucei Lister 427, whilst the second model used a pleomorphic laboratory strain, T. b. brucei TREU 927, which demonstrates a similar chronic infection profile to clinical cases. The frequency of ventricular arrhythmias and heart rate (HR was significantly increased at the endpoint of infection in the TREU 927 infection model, but not in the Lister 427 infection model. At the end of infection, hearts from both models were isolated and Langendorff perfused ex vivo with increasing concentrations of the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (ISO. Interestingly, the increased frequency of arrhythmias observed in vivo in the TREU 927 infection model was lost upon isolation of the heart ex vivo, but re-emerged with the addition of ISO. Our results demonstrate that TREU 927 infection modifies the substrate of the myocardium

  10. The effect of preoperative renal dysfunction with or without dialysis on early postoperative outcome following cardiac surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Al-Sarraf, Nael

    2011-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown increased mortality in renal dysfunction patients undergoing cardiac surgery, there is lack of data on the pattern of postoperative complications that occur in such patients and their distribution among dialysis and non-dialysis dependent renal dysfunction.

  11. Rapamycin attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction via activation of mitophagy in experimental ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qiang [Department of Neurology, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200233 (China); Department of Neurology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Zhang, Ting [Department of Neurology, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200233 (China); Wang, Jixian [Department of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Med-X Research Institute and School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhang, Zhijun [Med-X Research Institute and School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhai, Yu [Department of Neurology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Yang, Guo-Yuan, E-mail: gyyang0626@gmail.com [Department of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Med-X Research Institute and School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Sun, Xiaojiang, E-mail: sunxj19@gmail.com [Department of Neurology, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200233 (China)

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Rapamycin enhances mitophagy via increasing p62 translocation to the mitochondria. • Rapamycin attenuates brain ischemic damage and improves mitochondrial function. • The protection of rapamycin to mitochondrial is linked to enhanced mitophagy. - Abstract: Rapamycin has been demonstrated to exhibit neuroprotective functions via the activation of autophagy in a cerebral ischemia model. However, the involvement of mitophagy in this process and its contribution to the protection of mitochondrial function remains unknown. The present study explored the characteristics of mitophagy after cerebral ischemia and the effect of rapamycin on mitochondrial function. Male Sprague–Dawley rats underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Neurological deficits scores; infarct volumes; mitophagy morphology; and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and mitochondrial membrane potentials (Δψm) were examined. The expression of LC3, Beclin-1 and p62 in the mitochondrial fraction combined with transmission electronic microscopy were used to explore mitophagic activity after ischemia. We also blocked autophagosome formation using 3-methyladenine (3-MA) to check the linkage between the mitochondrial protective effect of rapamycin and enhanced mitophagy. We observed that rapamycin significantly enhanced mitophagy, as evidenced by the increase in LC3-II and Beclin-1 expression in the mitochondria and p62 translocation to the mitochondria. Rapamycin reduced infarct volume, improved neurological outcomes and inhibited mitochondrial dysfunction compared with the control animals (p < 0.05). However, these protective effects were reversed by 3-methyladenine treatment after rapamycin. The present study indicates that rapamycin treatment attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction following cerebral ischemia, which is linked to enhanced mitophagy.

  12. Resveratrol attenuates methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis by Sestrin2 induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Kyuhwa; Seo, Suho; Han, Jae Yun; Ki, Sung Hwan; Shin, Sang Mi, E-mail: smshin@chosun.ac.kr

    2014-10-15

    Methylglyoxal is found in high levels in the blood and other tissues of diabetic patients and exerts deleterious effects on cells and tissues. Previously, we reported that resveratrol, a polyphenol in grapes, induced the expression of Sestrin2 (SESN2), a novel antioxidant protein, and inhibited hepatic lipogenesis. This study investigated whether resveratrol protects cells from the methylglyoxal-induced toxicity via SESN2 induction. Methylglyoxal significantly induced cell death in HepG2 cells. However, cells pretreated with resveratrol were rescued from methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis. Resveratrol attenuated glutathione (GSH) depletion and ROS production promoted by methylglyoxal. Moreover, mitochondrial damage was observed by methylglyoxal treatment, but resveratrol restored mitochondrial function, as evidenced by the observed lack of mitochondrial permeability transition and increased ADP/ATP ratio. Resveratrol treatment inhibited SESN2 depletion elicited by methylglyoxal. SESN2 overexpression repressed methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Likewise, rotenone-induced cytotoxicity was not observed in SESN2 overexpressed cells. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of SESN2 reduced the ability of resveratrol to prevent methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. In addition, when mice were exposed to methylglyoxal after infection of Ad-SESN2, the plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and GSH depletion by methylglyoxal in liver was reduced in Ad-SESN2 infected mice. Our results demonstrated that resveratrol is capable of protecting cells from methylglyoxal-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress via SESN2 induction. - Highlights: • Resveratrol decreased methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis. • Resveratrol attenuated GSH depletion and ROS production promoted by methylglyoxal. • Resveratrol restored the mitochondrial function by Sestrin2 induction. • Induction of Sestrin2

  13. Cardiac dysfunction in Pkd1-deficient mice with phenotype rescue by galectin-3 knockout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbo, Bruno E.; Amaral, Andressa G.; Fonseca, Jonathan M.; de Castro, Isac; Salemi, Vera M.; Souza, Leandro E.; dos Santos, Fernando; Irigoyen, Maria C.; Qian, Feng; Chammas, Roger; Onuchic, Luiz F.

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in myocardial wall texture stand out among ADPKD cardiovascular manifestations, in hypertensive and normotensive patients. To elucidate their pathogenesis, we analyzed the cardiac phenotype in Pkd1cond/cond:Nestincre (CYG+) cystic mice exposed to increased blood pressure, at 5–6 and 20–24 weeks of age, and Pkd1+/− (HTG+) noncystic mice at 5–6 and 10–13 weeks. Echocardiographic analyses revealed decreased myocardial deformation and systolic function in CYG+ and HTG+ mice, as well as diastolic dysfunction in older CYG+ mice, compared to their Pkd1cond/cond and Pkd1+/+ controls. Hearts from CYG+ and HTG+ mice presented reduced polycystin-1 expression, increased apoptosis and mild fibrosis. Since galectin-3 has been associated with heart dysfunction, we studied it as a potential modifier of the ADPKD cardiac phenotype. Double-mutant Pkd1cond/cond:Nestincre;Lgals3−/− (CYG−) and Pkd1+/−;Lgals3−/− (HTG−) mice displayed improved cardiac deformability and systolic parameters compared to single-mutants, not differing from their controls. CYG− and HTG− showed decreased apoptosis and fibrosis. Analysis of a severe cystic model (Pkd1V/V; VVG+) showed that Pkd1V/V;Lgals3−/− (VVG−) mice have longer survival, decreased cardiac apoptosis and improved heart function compared to VVG+. CYG− and VVG− animals showed no difference in renal cystic burden compared to CYG+ and VVG+ mice. Thus, myocardial dysfunction occurs in different Pkd1-deficient models and suppression of galectin-3 expression rescues this phenotype. PMID:27475230

  14. High Glucose Causes Human Cardiac Progenitor Cell Dysfunction by Promoting Mitochondrial Fission: Role of a GLUT1 Blocker

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, He Yun; Park, Ji Hye; Jang, Woong Bi; Ji, Seung Taek; Jung, Seok Yun; Kim, Da Yeon; Kang, Songhwa; Kim, Yeon Ju; Yun, Jisoo; Kim, Jae Ho; Baek, Sang Hong; Kwon, Sang-Mo

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia is the primary characteristic of diabetes and is associated with many complications. The role of hyperglycemia in the dysfunction of human cardiac progenitor cells that can regenerate damaged cardiac tissue has been investigated, but the exact mechanism underlying this association is not clear. Thus, we examined whether hyperglycemia could regulate mitochondrial dynamics and lead to cardiac progenitor...

  15. Centella asiatica Attenuates D-Galactose-Induced Cognitive Impairment, Oxidative and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Prakash, Atish; Dogra, Samrita

    2011-01-01

    D-galactose induced neurotoxicity is well known model for studying aging and related oxidative damage and memory impairment. Aging is a biological process, characterized by the gradual loss of physiological functions by unknown mechanism. Centella asiatica, Indian pennywort has been documented in the treatment of various neurological disorders including aging. Therefore, present study has been conducted in order to explore the possible role of Centella asiatica against D-galactose induced cognitive impairment, oxidative and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. Chronic administration of D-galactose (100 mg/kg s.c.) for a period of six weeks significantly impaired cognitive task (both in both Morris water maze and elevated plus maze) and oxidative defense (Increased lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration and decreased activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and non-protein thiols) and impaired mitochondrial complex (I, II and III) enzymes activities as compared to sham group. Six weeks Centella asiatica (150 and 300 mg/kg, p.o) treatment significantly improved behavioral alterations, oxidative damage and mitochondrial enzyme complex activities as compared to contro l (D-galactose). Centella asiatica also attenuated enhanced acetylcholine esterase enzyme level in D-galactose senescence mice. Present study highlights the protective effect of Centella asiatica against D-galactose induced behavioral, biochemical and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. PMID:21629743

  16. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction in mice induced by lipopolysaccharide is attenuated by dapsone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Zhao, Lei; Zhan, Rui; He, Qihua; Tong, Yawei; Tian, Xiaosheng; Wang, Hecheng; Zhang, Tao; Fu, Yaoyun; Sun, Yang; Xu, Feng; Guo, Xiangyang; Fan, Dongsheng; Han, Hongbin; Chui, Dehua

    2014-10-24

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is a key event in the development of many central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as septic encephalopathy and stroke. 4,4'-Diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS, Dapsone) has displayed neuroprotective effect, but whether DDS has protective role on BBB integrity is not clear. This study was designed to examine the effect of DDS on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BBB disruption and oxidative stress in brain vessels. Using in vivo multiphoton imaging, we found that DDS administration significantly restored BBB integrity compromised by LPS. DDS also increased the expression of tight junction proteins occludin, zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-5 in brain vessels. Level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was reduced by DDS treatment, which may due to decreased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity and NOX2 expression. Our results showed that LPS-induced BBB dysfunction could be attenuated by DDS, indicated that DDS has a therapeutic potential for treating CNS infection and other BBB related diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel Toll-like receptor-4 deficiency attenuates trastuzumab (Herceptin induced cardiac injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif Nasser

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac inflammation and generation of oxidative stress are known to contribute to trastuzumab (herceptin induced cardiac toxicity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a part of the innate immune system and are involved in cardiac stress reactions. Since TLR4 might play a relevant role in cardiac inflammatory signaling, we investigated whether or not TLR4 is involved in trastuzumab induced cardiotoxicity. Methods Seven days after a single injection of herceptin (2 mg/kg; i.p., left ventricular pressure volume loops were measured in HeN compotent (TLR4+/+ and HeJ mutant (TLR4-/- treated with trastuzumab and control mice. Immunofluorescent staining for monocyte infiltration and analyses of plasma by (ELISAs for different chemokines including: MCP-1and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, Western immunoblotting assay for ICAM-1, and used troponin I for cardiac injury marker. Results Trastuzumab injection resulted in an impairment of left ventricular function in TLR-4 competent (HeN, in contrast TLR4-/- trastuzumab mice showed improved left ventricular function EF%, CO; p -/-; p -/-, marked reduction of myocardial troponin-I levels in TLR4-deficient mice. Data are presented as means ± SE; n = 8 in each group p Conclusions Treatment with trastuzumab induces an inflammatory response that contributes to myocardial tissue TLR4 mediates chemokine expression (TNF-α, MCP-1and ICAM-1, so in experimental animals TLR4 deficiency improves left ventricular function and attenuates pathophysiological key mechanisms in trastuzumab induced cardiomyopathy.

  18. Adjustment of Dysregulated Ceramide Metabolism in a Murine Model of Sepsis-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ha-Yeun; Kollmey, Anna S; Schrepper, Andrea; Kohl, Matthias; Bläss, Markus F; Stehr, Sebastian N; Lupp, Amelie; Gräler, Markus H; Claus, Ralf A

    2017-04-15

    Cardiac dysfunction, in particular of the left ventricle, is a common and early event in sepsis, and is strongly associated with an increase in patients' mortality. Acid sphingomyelinase (SMPD1)-the principal regulator for rapid and transient generation of the lipid mediator ceramide-is involved in both the regulation of host response in sepsis as well as in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure. This study determined the degree and the potential role to which SMPD1 and its modulation affect sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy using both genetically deficient and pharmacologically-treated animals in a polymicrobial sepsis model. As surrogate parameters of sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy, cardiac function, markers of oxidative stress as well as troponin I levels were found to be improved in desipramine-treated animals, desipramine being an inhibitor of ceramide formation. Additionally, ceramide formation in cardiac tissue was dysregulated in SMPD1 +/+ as well as SMPD1 -/- animals, whereas desipramine pretreatment resulted in stable, but increased ceramide content during host response. This was a result of elevated de novo synthesis. Strikingly, desipramine treatment led to significantly improved levels of surrogate markers. Furthermore, similar results in desipramine-pretreated SMPD1 -/- littermates suggest an SMPD1-independent pathway. Finally, a pattern of differentially expressed transcripts important for regulation of apoptosis as well as antioxidative and cytokine response supports the concept that desipramine modulates ceramide formation, resulting in beneficial myocardial effects. We describe a novel, protective role of desipramine during sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction that controls ceramide content. In addition, it may be possible to modulate cardiac function during host response by pre-conditioning with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug desipramine.

  19. Adjustment of Dysregulated Ceramide Metabolism in a Murine Model of Sepsis-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ha-Yeun; Kollmey, Anna S.; Schrepper, Andrea; Kohl, Matthias; Bläss, Markus F.; Stehr, Sebastian N.; Lupp, Amelie; Gräler, Markus H.; Claus, Ralf A.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac dysfunction, in particular of the left ventricle, is a common and early event in sepsis, and is strongly associated with an increase in patients’ mortality. Acid sphingomyelinase (SMPD1)—the principal regulator for rapid and transient generation of the lipid mediator ceramide—is involved in both the regulation of host response in sepsis as well as in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure. This study determined the degree and the potential role to which SMPD1 and its modulation affect sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy using both genetically deficient and pharmacologically-treated animals in a polymicrobial sepsis model. As surrogate parameters of sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy, cardiac function, markers of oxidative stress as well as troponin I levels were found to be improved in desipramine-treated animals, desipramine being an inhibitor of ceramide formation. Additionally, ceramide formation in cardiac tissue was dysregulated in SMPD1+/+ as well as SMPD1−/− animals, whereas desipramine pretreatment resulted in stable, but increased ceramide content during host response. This was a result of elevated de novo synthesis. Strikingly, desipramine treatment led to significantly improved levels of surrogate markers. Furthermore, similar results in desipramine-pretreated SMPD1−/− littermates suggest an SMPD1-independent pathway. Finally, a pattern of differentially expressed transcripts important for regulation of apoptosis as well as antioxidative and cytokine response supports the concept that desipramine modulates ceramide formation, resulting in beneficial myocardial effects. We describe a novel, protective role of desipramine during sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction that controls ceramide content. In addition, it may be possible to modulate cardiac function during host response by pre-conditioning with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug desipramine. PMID:28420138

  20. Novel Toll-like receptor-4 deficiency attenuates trastuzumab (Herceptin) induced cardiac injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Nasser Ghaly; Al-Amran, Fadhil G

    2011-10-14

    Cardiac inflammation and generation of oxidative stress are known to contribute to trastuzumab (herceptin) induced cardiac toxicity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a part of the innate immune system and are involved in cardiac stress reactions. Since TLR4 might play a relevant role in cardiac inflammatory signaling, we investigated whether or not TLR4 is involved in trastuzumab induced cardiotoxicity. Seven days after a single injection of herceptin (2 mg/kg; i.p.), left ventricular pressure volume loops were measured in HeN compotent (TLR4+/+) and HeJ mutant (TLR4-/-) treated with trastuzumab and control mice. Immunofluorescent staining for monocyte infiltration and analyses of plasma by (ELISAs) for different chemokines including: MCP-1and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Western immunoblotting assay for ICAM-1, and used troponin I for cardiac injury marker. Trastuzumab injection resulted in an impairment of left ventricular function in TLR-4 competent (HeN), in contrast TLR4-/- trastuzumab mice showed improved left ventricular function EF%, CO; p < 0.05, attenuation of mononuclear cell infiltration in TLR4 -/-; p < 0.05 vs.TLR-4 competent (HeN), reduced level of cytokines TNF-α, MCP-1 and ICAM-1 expression in TLR4-/-, marked reduction of myocardial troponin-I levels in TLR4-deficient mice. Data are presented as means ± SE; n = 8 in each group p < 0.05 vs.TLR-4 competent (HeN). Treatment with trastuzumab induces an inflammatory response that contributes to myocardial tissue TLR4 mediates chemokine expression (TNF-α, MCP-1and ICAM-1), so in experimental animals TLR4 deficiency improves left ventricular function and attenuates pathophysiological key mechanisms in trastuzumab induced cardiomyopathy.

  1. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 independent cardiac dysfunction links saxagliptin to heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyani, Chintan N; Kolesnik, Ewald; Wölkart, Gerald; Shrestha, Niroj; Scheruebel, Susanne; Trummer, Christopher; Zorn-Pauly, Klaus; Hammer, Astrid; Lang, Petra; Reicher, Helga; Maechler, Heinrich; Groschner, Klaus; Mayer, Bernd; Rainer, Peter P; Sourij, Harald; Sattler, Wolfgang; Malle, Ernst; Pelzmann, Brigitte; von Lewinski, Dirk

    2017-12-01

    Saxagliptin treatment has been associated with increased rate of hospitalization for heart failure in type 2 diabetic patients, though the underlying mechanism(s) remain elusive. To address this, we assessed the effects of saxagliptin on human atrial trabeculae, guinea pig hearts and cardiomyocytes. We found that the primary target of saxagliptin, dipeptidyl peptidase-4, is absent in cardiomyocytes, yet saxagliptin internalized into cardiomyocytes and impaired cardiac contractility via inhibition of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-phospholamban-sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2a axis and Na+-Ca2+ exchanger function in Ca2+ extrusion. This resulted in reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content, diastolic Ca2+ overload, systolic dysfunction and impaired contractile force. Furthermore, saxagliptin reduced protein kinase C-mediated delayed rectifier K+ current that prolonged action potential duration and consequently QTc interval. Importantly, saxagliptin aggravated pre-existing cardiac dysfunction induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. In conclusion, our novel results provide mechanisms for the off-target deleterious effects of saxagliptin on cardiac function and support the outcome of SAVOR-TIMI 53 trial that linked saxagliptin with the risk of heart failure. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Left atrial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus: insights from cardiac MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graca, Bruno; Donato, Paulo; Caseiro-Alves, Filipe [University of Coimbra, Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra (Portugal); Coimbra' s Hospital Centre and University, Medical Imaging Department, Coimbra (Portugal); Joao Ferreira, Maria [University of Coimbra, Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra (Portugal); Coimbra' s Hospital Centre and University, Cardiology Department, Coimbra (Portugal); Gomes, Leonor [University of Coimbra, Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra (Portugal); Coimbra' s Hospital Centre and University, Endocrinology Department, Coimbra (Portugal); Castelo-Branco, Miguel [University of Coimbra, Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2014-11-15

    The left atrium (LA) modulates left ventricular filling through reservoir, conduit and booster pump functions. Only limited data exist on LA involvement in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). This study sought to assess LA function in asymptomatic DM2 with cardiac MRI. We hypothesized that cardiac MRI can detect LA dysfunction in asymptomatic DM2. Forty-five patients with asymptomatic DM2 and 24 normoglycaemic controls were studied. MRI cine imaging was performed to measure LA maximal and minimal volumes. A flow-sensitive phase-contrast gradient-echo sequence was used for flow measurements perpendicular to the orifice of the mitral valve, to quantify active LA stroke volume. LA total, passive and active emptying volumes and fractions were calculated. LA reservoir function, namely LA total ejection fraction, was significantly greater in controls compared to patients with DM2 (62.2 ± 5.2 vs 57.0 ± 7.6 %, P = 0.004). LA passive ejection fraction was also greater in the controls (26.2 ± 9.5 vs 16.1 ± 11.0 %, P < 0.001). Regarding parameters of LA booster pump function, LA active ejection fraction was not significantly different between groups. DM2 was demonstrated to be an independent determinant of LA function. Cardiac MRI enables the detection of LA dysfunction in asymptomatic DM2, characterized by a reduction in LA reservoir and conduit functions. (orig.)

  3. PTRF/Cavin-1 Deficiency Causes Cardiac Dysfunction Accompanied by Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy and Cardiac Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Taniguchi

    Full Text Available Mutations in the PTRF/Cavin-1 gene cause congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 4 (CGL4 associated with myopathy. Additionally, long-QT syndrome and fatal cardiac arrhythmia are observed in patients with CGL4 who have homozygous PTRF/Cavin-1 mutations. PTRF/Cavin-1 deficiency shows reductions of caveolae and caveolin-3 (Cav3 protein expression in skeletal muscle, and Cav3 deficiency in the heart causes cardiac hypertrophy with loss of caveolae. However, it remains unknown how loss of PTRF/Cavin-1 affects cardiac morphology and function. Here, we present a characterization of the hearts of PTRF/Cavin-1-null (PTRF-/- mice. Electron microscopy revealed the reduction of caveolae in cardiomyocytes of PTRF-/- mice. PTRF-/- mice at 16 weeks of age developed a progressive cardiomyopathic phenotype with wall thickening of left ventricles and reduced fractional shortening evaluated by echocardiography. Electrocardiography revealed that PTRF-/- mice at 24 weeks of age had low voltages and wide QRS complexes in limb leads. Histological analysis showed cardiomyocyte hypertrophy accompanied by progressive interstitial/perivascular fibrosis. Hypertrophy-related fetal gene expression was also induced in PTRF-/- hearts. Western blotting analysis and quantitative RT-PCR revealed that Cav3 expression was suppressed in PTRF-/- hearts compared with that in wild-type (WT ones. ERK1/2 was activated in PTRF-/- hearts compared with that in WT ones. These results suggest that loss of PTRF/Cavin-1 protein expression is sufficient to induce a molecular program leading to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy, which is partly attributable to Cav3 reduction in the heart.

  4. Inhibition of Uncoupling Protein 2 Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy Induced by Transverse Aortic Constriction in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Bing Ji

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 is critical in regulating energy metabolism. Due to the significant change in energy metabolism of myocardium upon pressure overload, we hypothesize that UCP2 could contribute to the etiology of cardiac hypertrophy. Methods: Adult male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to pressure overload by using transverse aortic constriction (TAC, and then received genipin (a UCP2 selective inhibitor; 25 mg/kg/d, ip or vehicle for three weeks prior to histologic assessment of myocardial hypertrophy. ATP concentration, ROS level, and myocardial apoptosis were also examined. A parallel set of experiments was also conducted in UCP2-/- mice. Results: TAC induced left ventricular hypertrophy, as reflected by increased ventricular weight/thickness and increased size of myocardial cell (vs. sham controls. ATP concentration was decreased; ROS level was increased. Apoptosis and fibrosis markers were increased. TAC increased mitochondrial UCP2 expression in the myocardium at both mRNA and protein levels. Genipin treatment attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and the histologic/biochemical changes described above. Hypertrophy and associated changes induced by TAC in UCP2-/- mice were much less pronounced than in WT mice. Conclusions: Blocking UCP2 expression attenuates cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload.

  5. Inhibition of miR-155 Protects Against LPS-induced Cardiac Dysfunction and Apoptosis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction represents a major cause of death in intensive care units. Dysregulated microRNAs (miR-155 has been implicated in multiple cardiovascular diseases and miR-155 can be induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. However, the role of miR-155 in LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction is unclear. Septic cardiac dysfunction in mice was induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg and miR-155 was found to be significantly increased in heart challenged with LPS. Pharmacological inhibition of miR-155 using antagomiR improved cardiac function and suppressed cardiac apoptosis induced by LPS in mice as determined by echocardiography, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick-end labeling (TUNEL assay, and Western blot for Bax and Bcl-2, while overexpression of miR-155 using agomiR had inverse effects. Pea15a was identified as a target gene of miR-155, mediating its effects in controlling apoptosis of cardiomyocytes as evidenced by luciferase reporter assays, quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and TUNEL staining. Noteworthy, miR-155 was also found to be upregulated in the plasma of patients with septic cardiac dysfunction compared to sepsis patients without cardiac dysfunction, indicating a potential clinical relevance of miR-155. The receiver-operator characteristic curve indicated that plasma miR-155 might be a biomarker for sepsis patients developing cardiac dysfunction. Therefore, inhibition of miR-155 represents a novel therapy for septic myocardial dysfunction.

  6. Cardiac dysfunction in cirrhosis - does adrenal function play a role? A hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theocharidou, Eleni; Krag, Aleksander; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    conditions, such as sepsis, bleeding and surgery. CCM reverses after liver transplantation and potentially has a role in the pathogenesis of hepatorenal syndrome. In adrenal insufficiency (AI), cardiac dysfunction is a feature with low ejection fraction, decreased left ventricular chamber size......Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM), a condition of unknown pathogenesis, is characterized by suboptimal ventricular contractile response to stress, diastolic dysfunction and QT interval prolongation. It is most often found in patients with advanced cirrhosis. It is clinically relevant during stressful...... and electrocardiographic abnormalities, including QT interval prolongation. With optimal diagnostic tests, AI is present in approximately 10% of patients with cirrhosis, particularly in those with advanced disease. Down-regulation and decreased number of beta-adrenergic receptors, and high catecholamine levels are common...

  7. Cardiac dysfunction in cirrhosis - does adrenal function play a role? A hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theocharidou, Eleni; Krag, Aleksander; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    conditions, such as sepsis, bleeding and surgery. CCM reverses after liver transplantation and potentially has a role in the pathogenesis of hepatorenal syndrome. In adrenal insufficiency (AI), cardiac dysfunction is a feature with low ejection fraction, decreased left ventricular chamber size......Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM), a condition of unknown pathogenesis, is characterized by suboptimal ventricular contractile response to stress, diastolic dysfunction and QT interval prolongation. It is most often found in patients with advanced cirrhosis. It is clinically relevant during stressful...... and electrocardiographic abnormalities, including QT interval prolongation. With optimal diagnostic tests, AI is present in approximately 10% of patients with cirrhosis, particularly in those with advanced disease. Down-regulation and decreased number of beta-adrenergic receptors, and high catecholamine levels are common...

  8. Inhibition of NF-κB activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by modulating cytokines and attenuating oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiao-Jing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Dong-Mei [Department of Physiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Jia, Lin-Lin; Qi, Jie; Song, Xin-Ai; Tan, Hong [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Cui, Wei [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Chen, Wensheng [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that chronic inhibition of NF-κB activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) delays the progression of hypertension and attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by up-regulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs), attenuating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and NAD(P)H oxidase in the PVN of young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Young normotensive Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) and SHR rats received bilateral PVN infusions with NF–κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or vehicle for 4 weeks. SHR rats had higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, cardiomyocyte diameters of the left cardiac ventricle, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC). These SHR rats had higher PVN levels of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), reactive oxygen species (ROS), the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), NAD(P)H oxidase activity, mRNA expression of NOX-2 and NOX-4, and lower PVN IL-10, and higher plasma levels of PICs and NE, and lower plasma IL-10. PVN infusion of NF-κB inhibitor PDTC attenuated all these changes. These findings suggest that NF-κB activation in the PVN increases sympathoexcitation and hypertensive response, which are associated with the increases of PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN; PVN inhibition of NF-κB activity attenuates PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN, thereby attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibit neurohormonal excitation in the PVN. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced neurohormonal excitation. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced imbalance of cytokines

  9. Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes – Effect of Hyperglycemia and Disease Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika P. Tarvainen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV is reduced in diabetes mellitus (DM patients, suggesting dysfunction of cardiac autonomic regulation and an increased risk for cardiac events. The aim of this paper was to examine the associations of blood glucose level (BGL, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and duration of diabetes with cardiac autonomic regulation assessed by HRV analysis. Resting electrocardiogram (ECG, recorded over 20 minutes in supine position, and clinical measurements of 189 healthy controls and 93 type 2 DM (T2DM patients were analyzed. HRV was assessed using several time-domain, frequency-domain and nonlinear methods. HRV parameters showed a clear difference between healthy controls and T2DM patients. Hyperglycemia was associated with increase in mean heart rate and decrease in HRV, indicated by negative correlations of BGL and HbA1c with mean RR interval and most of the HRV parameters. Duration of diabetes was strongly associated with decrease in HRV, the most significant decrease in HRV was found within the first 5-10 years of the disease. In conclusion, elevated blood glucose levels have an unfavorable effect on cardiac autonomic function and this effect is pronounced in long-term T2DM patients. The most significant decrease in HRV related to diabetes and thus presence of autonomic neuropathy was observed within the first 5-10 years of disease progression.

  10. C-C Motif Chemokine Receptor 9 Exacerbates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy and Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhengxi; Mei, Fanghua; Liu, Hanning; Sun, Cheng; Zheng, Zhe

    2016-05-04

    Maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy is a major risk factor for heart failure, which is the leading cause of death worldwide. C-C motif chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9), a subfamily of the G protein-coupled receptor supergene family, has been highlighted as an immunologic regulator in the development and homing of immune cells and in immune-related diseases. Recently, CCR9 was found to be involved in the pathogenesis of other diseases such as cardiovascular diseases; however, the effects that CCR9 exerts in cardiac hypertrophy remain elusive. We observed significantly increased CCR9 protein levels in failing human hearts and in a mouse or cardiomyocyte hypertrophy model. In loss- and gain-of-function experiments, we found that pressure overload-induced hypertrophy was greatly attenuated by CCR9 deficiency in cardiac-specific CCR9 knockout mice, whereas CCR9 overexpression in cardiac-specific transgenic mice strikingly enhanced cardiac hypertrophy. The prohypertrophic effects of CCR9 were also tested in vitro, and a similar phenomenon was observed. Consequently, we identified a causal role for CCR9 in pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Mechanistically, we revealed a lack of difference in the expression levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases between groups, whereas the phosphorylation of AKT/protein kinase B and downstream effectors significantly decreased in CCR9 knockout mice and increased in CCR9 transgenic mice after aortic binding surgery. The prohypertrophic effects of CCR9 were not attributable to the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway but rather to the AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin-glycogen synthase kinase 3β signaling cascade. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  11. Advanced Heart Failure Therapies for Cancer Therapeutics-Related Cardiac Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Christopher M; Al-Kindi, Sadeer G; Oliveira, Guilherme H

    2017-04-01

    End-stage heart failure in cancer survivors may result from cardiotoxic chemotherapy and/or chest radiation and require advanced therapies, including left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) and transplantation. Traditionally, such therapies have been underutilized in cancer survivors owing to lack of experience and perceived risk of cancer recurrence. Recent data from large registries, however, have shown excellent outcomes of LVADs and transplantation in cancer survivors, albeit subject to careful selection and special considerations. This article summarizes all aspects of advanced heart failure therapies in patients with cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction and underscores the need for careful selection of these candidates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Melatonin attenuated brain death tissue extract-induced cardiac damage by suppressing DAMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Pei-Hsun; Lee, Fan-Yen; Lin, Ling-Chun; Chen, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Hung-Sheng; Shao, Pei-Lin; Li, Yi-Chen; Chen, Yi-Ling; Lin, Kun-Chen; Yuen, Chun-Man; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Lee, Mel S; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2018-01-09

    We tested the hypothesis that melatonin prevents brain death (BD) tissue extract (BDEX)-induced cardiac damage by suppressing inflammatory damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) signaling in rats. Six hours after BD induction, levels of a DAMP component (HMGB1) and inflammatory markers (TLR-2, TLR-4, MYD88, IκB, NF-κB, IL-1β, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6) were higher in brain tissue from BD animals than controls. Levels of HMGB1 and inflammatory markers were higher in BDEX-treated H9C2 cardiac myoblasts than in cells treated with healthy brain tissue extract. These increases were attenuated by melatonin but re-induced with luzindole (all P DAMP inflammatory axis.

  13. Response and outcomes of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with renal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rita Ilhão; Cunha, Pedro Silva; Rio, Pedro; da Silva, Manuel Nogueira; Branco, Luísa Moura; Galrinho, Ana; Feliciano, Joana; Soares, Rui; Ferreira, Rui Cruz; Oliveira, Mário Martins

    2018-02-19

    Renal dysfunction is often associated with chronic heart failure, leading to increased morbi-mortality. However, data regarding these patients after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is sparse. We sought to evaluate response and long-term mortality in patients with heart failure and renal dysfunction and assess renal improvement after CRT. We analyzed 178 consecutive patients who underwent successful CRT device implantation (age 64 ± 11 years; 69% male; 92% in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class ≥ III; 34% with ischemic cardiomyopathy). Echocardiographic response was defined as ≥ 15% reduction in left ventricular end-systolic diameter and clinical response as a sustained improvement of at least one NYHA functional class. Renal dysfunction was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) below 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Renal dysfunction was present in 34.7%. Renal dysfunction was not an independent predictor of echocardiographic response (OR 1.109, 95% CI 0.713-1.725, p 0.646) nor clinical response (OR 1.003; 95% CI 0.997-1.010; p 0.324). During follow-up (mean 55.2 ± 32 months), patients with eGFR < 60mL/min/1.73 m 2 had higher overall mortality (HR 4.902, 95% CI 1.118-21.482, p 0.035). However, clinical response in patients with renal dysfunction was independently associated with better long-term survival (HR 0.236, 95% CI 0.073-0.767, p 0.016). Renal function was significantly improved in patients who respond to CRT (ΔeGFR + 5.5 mL/min/1.73 m 2 at baseline vs. follow-up, p 0.049), while this was not evident in nonresponders. Improvements in eGFR of at least 10 mL/min/1.73 m 2 were associated with improved survival in renal dysfunction patients (log-rank p 0.036). Renal dysfunction was associated with higher long-term mortality in CRT patients, though, it did not influence echocardiographic nor functional response. Despite worse overall prognosis, renal dysfunction patients who are responders showed long-term survival benefit

  14. Hypothermia and postconditioning after cardiopulmonary resuscitation reduce cardiac dysfunction by modulating inflammation, apoptosis and remodeling.

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    Patrick Meybohm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mild therapeutic hypothermia following cardiac arrest is neuroprotective, but its effect on myocardial dysfunction that is a critical issue following resuscitation is not clear. This study sought to examine whether hypothermia and the combination of hypothermia and pharmacological postconditioning are cardioprotective in a model of cardiopulmonary resuscitation following acute myocardial ischemia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty pigs (28-34 kg were subjected to cardiac arrest following left anterior descending coronary artery ischemia. After 7 minutes of ventricular fibrillation and 2 minutes of basic life support, advanced cardiac life support was started according to the current AHA guidelines. After successful return of spontaneous circulation (n = 21, coronary perfusion was reestablished after 60 minutes of occlusion, and animals were randomized to either normothermia at 38 degrees C, hypothermia at 33 degrees C or hypothermia at 33 degrees C combined with sevoflurane (each group n = 7 for 24 hours. The effects on cardiac damage especially on inflammation, apoptosis, and remodeling were studied using cellular and molecular approaches. Five animals were sham operated. Animals treated with hypothermia had lower troponin T levels (p<0.01, reduced infarct size (34+/-7 versus 57+/-12%; p<0.05 and improved left ventricular function compared to normothermia (p<0.05. Hypothermia was associated with a reduction in: (i immune cell infiltration, (ii apoptosis, (iii IL-1beta and IL-6 mRNA up-regulation, and (iv IL-1beta protein expression (p<0.05. Moreover, decreased matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity was detected in the ischemic myocardium after treatment with mild hypothermia. Sevoflurane conferred additional protective effects although statistic significance was not reached. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hypothermia reduced myocardial damage and dysfunction after cardiopulmonary resuscitation possible via a reduced rate of apoptosis

  15. Cyclosporine decreases vascular progenitor cell numbers after cardiac transplantation and attenuates progenitor cell growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, William R; Wang, Shaohua; Oi, Keiji; Bailey, Kent R; Tazelaar, Henry D; Caplice, Noel M; McGregor, Christopher G A

    2005-11-01

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that the neointimal proliferation seen in cardiac allograft vasculopathy may in part derive from recipient progenitor cells. The effect of cyclosporine on these circulating progenitors in the setting of cardiac transplantation is currently unknown. Three surgical series were performed: sham operation alone, sham operation with immunosuppression, and heterotopic porcine cardiac transplantation with immunosuppression. The sham operation involved laparotomy and consecutive clamping of the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava. Post-operative immunosuppression consisted of cyclosporine at therapeutic levels (100-300 ng/ml) and 0.5 mg/kg methylprednisolone. Endothelial outgrowth colony numbers (EOC(CFU)) and smooth muscle outgrowth colony numbers (SOC(CFU)) were quantified weekly for 4 weeks post-operatively. A series of in vitro experiments were performed to determine the effect of cyclosporine on the differentiation, migration, and proliferation of EOCs and SOCs. In the sham alone series there were no changes to either EOC(CFU) or SOC(CFU). In the sham with immunosuppression and the transplant series, both EOC(CFU) and SOC(CFU) fell in the first 2 weeks (p Cyclosporine, even at a low dose, prevented differentiation, inhibited proliferation, and attenuated migration of both EOCs and SOCs. Immunosuppression in the setting of cardiac transplantation causes a profound reduction in circulating progenitor cells capable of differentiating into endothelial and smooth muscle cells. This effect can in part be explained by the inhibitory effects of cyclosporine on progenitor growth and differentiation seen in this study.

  16. A History of Alcohol Dependence Increases the Incidence and Severity of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction in Cardiac Surgical Patients

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    Paul S. Pagel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD commonly occurs after cardiac surgery. We tested the hypothesis that a history of alcohol dependence is associated with an increased incidence and severity of POCD in male patients undergoing cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. Recent verbal and nonverbal memory and executive functions were assessed before and one week after surgery in patients with or without a history of alcohol dependence. Cognitive function was significantly reduced after cardiac surgery in patients with versus without a history of alcohol dependence. The results suggest that a history of alcohol dependence increases the incidence and severity of POCD after cardiac surgery.

  17. Exercise training attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by modulating neurotransmitters and cytokines in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

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    Lin-Lin Jia

    Full Text Available AIMS: Regular exercise as an effective non-pharmacological antihypertensive therapy is beneficial for prevention and control of hypertension, but the central mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that chronic exercise training (ExT delays the progression of hypertension and attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by up-regulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs and restoring the neurotransmitters balance in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. In addition, we also investigated the involvement of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB p65 and NAD(PH oxidase in exercise-induced effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Moderate-intensity ExT was administrated to young normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY and SHR rats for 16 weeks. SHR rats had a significant increase in mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy. SHR rats also had higher levels of glutamate, norepinephrine (NE, phosphorylated IKKβ, NF-κB p65 activity, NAD(PH oxidase subunit gp91(phox, PICs and the monocyte chemokine protein-1 (MCP-1, and lower levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and interleukin-10 (IL-10 in the PVN. These SHR rats also exhibited higher renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA, and higher plasma levels of PICs, and lower plasma IL-10. However, ExT ameliorates all these changes in SHR rats. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that there are the imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN of SHR rats, which at least partly contributing to sympathoexcitation, hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy; chronic exercise training attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by restoring the balances between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN; NF-κB and oxidative stress in the PVN may be involved in these exercise-induced effects.

  18. Dual-specificity phosphatase 14 protects the heart from aortic banding-induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction through inactivation of TAK1-P38MAPK/-JNK1/2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-Yi; Zhou, Qing; Yang, Ling-Chao; Chen, Yi-He; Hou, Jian-Wen; Guo, Kai; Wang, Yue-Peng; Li, Yi-Gang

    2016-03-01

    Dual-specificity phosphatase 14 (Dusp14), an important negative modulator of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, has been implicated in inflammatory immune response, cancers, cell differentiation and proliferation. The role of Dusp14 in chronic pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy has not been explored. Here we have shown that Dusp14-/- knockout mice and cardiac-specific Dusp14 transgenic mice were generated and subjected to aortic banding (AB) for 4 weeks. Our results demonstrated that genetic loss of Dusp14 significantly aggravated cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, ventricular dilation and dysfunction, whereas transgenic cardiac-specific Dusp14 overexpression significantly attenuated AB-induced cardiac dysfunction and remodeling. In vitro, adenoviral overexpression of constitutive Dusp14 blocked angiotensin II-induced hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes, while Dusp14 knockdown led to opposite effects. Mechanistically, excessive phosphorylation of TAK1, P38MAPK and JNK1/2 was evidenced in Dusp14-/- knockout mice post-AB and inactivation of TAK1-P38MAPK and -JNK1/2 signaling using TAK1 inhibitor 5Z-7-ox shares similar antihypertrophic effect as Dusp14 overexpression. Moreover, we show that Dusp14 directly interacted with TAK1. Results from present experiments indicate that Dusp14 protects the heart from AB-induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction possibly through inactivation of TAK1-P38MAPK/-JNK1/2 signaling pathway. Future studies are warranted to test the feasibility of overexpressing Dusp14 as a therapeutic strategy to attenuate cardiac hypertrophy and failure.

  19. Astragalus Polysaccharide Attenuated Iron Overload-Induced Dysfunction of Mesenchymal Stem Cells via Suppressing Mitochondrial ROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs have the ability to differentiate into multilineage cells such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and cardiomyocytes. Dysfunction of BMSCs in response to pathological stimuli participates in the development of diseases such as osteoporosis. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS is a major active ingredient of Astragalus membranaceus, a commonly used anti-aging herb in traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether APS protects against iron overload-induced dysfunction of BMSCs and its underlying mechanisms. Methods: BMSCs were exposed to ferric ammonium citrate (FAC with or without different concentrations of APS. The viability and proliferation of BMSCs were assessed by CCK-8 assay and EdU staining. Cell apoptosis, senescence and pluripotency were examined utilizing TUNEL staining, β-galactosidase staining and qRT-PCR respectively. The reactive oxygen species (ROS level was assessed in BMSCs with a DCFH-DA probe and MitoSOX Red staining. Results: Firstly, we found that iron overload induced by FAC markedly reduced the viability and proliferation of BMSCs, but treatment with APS at 10, 30 and 100 μg/mL was able to counter the reduction of cell proliferation. Furthermore, exposure to FAC led to apoptosis and senescence in BMSCs, which were partially attenuated by APS. The pluripotent genes Nanog, Sox2 and Oct4 were shown to be downregulated in BMSCs after FAC treatment, however APS inhibited the reduction of Nanog, Sox2 and Oct4 expression. Further study uncovered that APS treatment abrogated the increase of intracellular and mitochondrial ROS level in FAC-treated BMSCs. Conclusion: Treatment of BMSCs with APS to impede mitochondrial ROS accumulation can remarkably inhibit apoptosis, senescence, and the reduction of proliferation and pluripotency of BMSCs caused by FAC-induced iron overload.

  20. Erythropoietin Attenuates Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction by Shifting Macrophage Activation toward the M2 Phenotype

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    Jae Hoon Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD may be driven by transference of the innate immune response to the brain after aseptic surgical damage. Macrophages are key mediators of innate immunity that can display a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype or an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. Erythropoietin (EPO is a hematopoietic hormone that exerts anti-inflammatory effects by influencing macrophage function. We hypothesized that EPO would prevent POCD by promoting macrophage phenotype switching to the M2 phenotype post-surgery. To evaluate the effects of EPO on POCD and macrophage polarization post-surgery, we administered EPO (5,000 U/kg with or without an arginase inhibitor (amino-6-boronohexanoic acid, 10 mg/kg to ICR mice before and after abdominal surgery. Forty-eight hours post-surgery, we assessed memory, synapse function, and macrophage/microglial phenotypes in the spleen and hippocampus. We also investigated M1/M2 phenotypes in RAW264.7 and BV2 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ (M1 inducers in the presence or absence of EPO. EPO prevented POCD, decreased surgery-related synaptic dysfunction, and attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokine generation in the hippocampus. Moreover, EPO suppressed M1-related genes expression and promoted M2 genes expression in the spleen and hippocampus post-surgery. Furthermore, EPO decreased the proportions of macrophages/microglia expressing an M1 surface marker (CD40 and increased those expressing an M2 surface marker (CD206. Arginase inhibition abolished the beneficial effects of EPO on POCD. In vitro, EPO treatment promoted switching of RAW264.7 and BV2 cells stimulated with M1 inducers to an M2 phenotype. In conclusion, EPO prevents POCD by promoting macrophage phenotype switching toward the M2 phenotype.

  1. Glutathione attenuates ethanol-induced alveolar macrophage oxidative stress and dysfunction by downregulating NADPH oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeligar, Samantha M; Harris, Frank L; Hart, C Michael; Brown, Lou Ann S

    2014-03-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse increases lung oxidative stress and susceptibility to respiratory infections by impairing alveolar macrophage (AM) function. NADPH oxidases (Nox) are major sources of reactive oxygen species in AMs. We hypothesized that treatment with the critical antioxidant glutathione (GSH) attenuates chronic alcohol-induced oxidative stress by downregulating Noxes and restores AM phagocytic function. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and AMs were isolated from male C57BL/6J mice (8-10 wk) treated ± ethanol in drinking water (20% wt/vol, 12 wk) ± orally gavaged GSH in methylcellulose vehicle (300 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1), during week 12). MH-S cells, a mouse AM cell line, were treated ± ethanol (0.08%, 3 days) ± GSH (500 μM, 3 days or last 1 day of ethanol). BAL and AMs were also isolated from ethanol-fed and control mice ± inoculated airway Klebsiella pneumoniae (200 colony-forming units, 28 h) ± orally gavaged GSH (300 mg/kg, 24 h). GSH levels (HPLC), Nox mRNA (quantitative RT-PCR) and protein levels (Western blot and immunostaining), oxidative stress (2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate and Amplex Red), and phagocytosis (Staphylococcus aureus internalization) were measured. Chronic alcohol decreased GSH levels, increased Nox expression and activity, enhanced oxidative stress, impaired phagocytic function in AMs in vivo and in vitro, and exacerbated K. pneumonia-induced oxidative stress. Although how oral GSH restored GSH pools in ethanol-fed mice is unknown, oral GSH treatments abrogated the detrimental effects of chronic alcohol exposure and improved AM function. These studies provide GSH as a novel therapeutic approach for attenuating alcohol-induced derangements in AM Nox expression, oxidative stress, dysfunction, and risk for pneumonia.

  2. Mitochondria Targeted Peptide Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Controls Inflammation and Protects Against Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Lung Injury

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    Liu-Long Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Spinal cord injury (SCI is a common and devastating disease, which results in systemic inflammatory response syndrome and secondary lung injury. Mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are closely related to lung injury in diverse disease models. No studies have demonstrated the effects of mitochondrial targeted peptide SS-31 in a mouse model of SCI-induced lung injury. Methods: Immediately after injury, mice in the treatment groups received a daily, single-dose intraperitoneal injection of SS-31 and for the next 2 days. The sham and SCI groups also received a daily single dose of vehicle (DMSO and 0.9% NaCl, 1: 3. The lung tissue of mice was examined after SCI, and tissue damage, apoptosis, inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction were recorded. Results: SS-31 treatment attenuated lung edema and tissue damage. Furthermore, SS-31 treatment reduced apoptosis of alveolar type II cells, the number of total macrophages and M1 macrophages, and neutrophil infiltration. Moreover, SS-31 treatment attenuated reactive oxygen species levels, reversed mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Conclusions: Collectively, our results demonstrate that SS-31 attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction, controls inflammatory responses, and alleviates the severity of lung damage in a mouse model of SCI-induced lung injury.

  3. Urocortin Treatment Improves Acute Hemodynamic Instability and Reduces Myocardial Damage in Post-Cardiac Arrest Myocardial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hua; Wang, Chih-Hung; Tsai, Min-Shan; Hsu, Nai-Tan; Chiang, Chih-Yen; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Chang, Wei-Tien; Chen, Huei-Wen; Chen, Wen-Jone

    2016-01-01

    Hemodynamic instability occurs following cardiac arrest and is associated with high mortality during the post-cardiac period. Urocortin is a novel peptide and a member of the corticotrophin-releasing factor family. Urocortin has the potential to improve acute cardiac dysfunction, as well as to reduce the myocardial damage sustained after ischemia reperfusion injury. The effects of urocortin in post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction remain unclear. We developed a preclinical cardiac arrest model and investigated the effects of urocortin. After cardiac arrest induced by 6.5 min asphyxia, male Wistar rats were resuscitated and randomized to either the urocortin treatment group or the control group. Urocortin (10 μg/kg) was administrated intravenously upon onset of resuscitation in the experimental group. The rate of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was similar between the urocortin group (76%) and the control group (72%) after resuscitation. The left ventricular systolic (dP/dt40) and diastolic (maximal negative dP/dt) functions, and cardiac output, were ameliorated within 4 h after ROSC in the urocortin-treated group compared to the control group (Pcardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction.

  4. Fractal Dimension in Quantifying Experimental-Pulmonary-Hypertension-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacagnelli, Francis Lopes; Sabela, Ana Karênina Dias de Almeida; Mariano, Thaoan Bruno; Ozaki, Guilherme Akio Tamura; Castoldi, Robson Chacon; Carmo, Edna Maria do; Carvalho, Robson Francisco; Tomasi, Loreta Casquel; Okoshi, Katashi; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques

    2016-07-01

    Right-sided heart failure has high morbidity and mortality, and may be caused by pulmonary arterial hypertension. Fractal dimension is a differentiated and innovative method used in histological evaluations that allows the characterization of irregular and complex structures and the quantification of structural tissue changes. To assess the use of fractal dimension in cardiomyocytes of rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension, in addition to providing histological and functional analysis. Male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: control (C; n = 8) and monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (M; n = 8). Five weeks after pulmonary arterial hypertension induction with monocrotaline, echocardiography was performed and the animals were euthanized. The heart was dissected, the ventricles weighed to assess anatomical parameters, and histological slides were prepared and stained with hematoxylin/eosin for fractal dimension analysis, performed using box-counting method. Data normality was tested (Shapiro-Wilk test), and the groups were compared with non-paired Student t test or Mann Whitney test (p cardiac dysfunction, and point to fractal dimension as an effective method to evaluate cardiac morphological changes induced by ventricular dysfunction.

  5. Baseline Immunoglobulin E Levels as a Marker of Doxorubicin- and Trastuzumab-Associated Cardiac Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Lynn A; Kossenkov, Andrew V; Liu, Qin; Luning Prak, Eline; Domchek, Susan; Speicher, David W; Ky, Bonnie

    2016-10-28

    There is a critical need to develop robust, mechanistic strategies to identify patients at increased risk of cancer therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD). We aimed to discover new biomarkers associated with doxorubicin- and trastuzumab-induced CTRCD using high-throughput proteomic profiling. Plasma, echocardiograms, and clinical outcomes were collected at standardized intervals in breast cancer patients undergoing doxorubicin and trastuzumab cancer therapy. Thirty-one longitudinal plasma samples from 3 cases with CTRCD and 4 age- and cancer-matched controls without CTRCD were processed and analyzed using label-free liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. From these analyses, 862 proteins were identified from case/control pairs 1 and 2 and 1360 proteins from case/control pair 3. Proteins with a >1.5-fold change in cases compared with controls with a Ptrastuzumab, high baseline immunoglobulin E levels were associated with a significantly lower risk of CTRCD (P=0.018). In patients receiving doxorubicin and trastuzumab, high baseline immunoglobulin E levels are associated with a lower risk of CTRCD. These novel findings suggest a new paradigm in cardio-oncology, implicating the immune system as a potential mediator of doxorubicin- and trastuzumab-induced cardiac dysfunction. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Production following Cardiopulmonary Bypass Was Not Associated with Pulmonary Dysfunction after Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tso-Chou Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB causes release of matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9, contributing to pulmonary infiltration and dysfunction. The aims were to investigate MMP-9 production and associated perioperative variables and oxygenation following CPB. Methods. Thirty patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery were included. Arterial blood was sampled at 6 sequential points (before anesthesia induction, before CPB and at 2, 4, 6, and 24 h after beginning CPB for plasma MMP-9 concentrations by ELISA. The perioperative laboratory data and variables, including bypass time, PaO2/FiO2, and extubation time, were also recorded. Results. The plasma MMP-9 concentrations significantly elevated at 2–6 h after beginning CPB (P<0.001 and returned to the preanesthesia level at 24 h (P=0.23, with predominant neutrophil counts after surgery (P<0.001. The plasma MMP-9 levels at 4 and 6 h were not correlated with prolonged CPB time and displayed no association with postoperative PaO2/FiO2, regardless of reduced ratio from preoperative 342.9±81.2 to postoperative 207.3±121.3 mmHg (P<0.001. Conclusion. Elective cardiac surgery with CPB induced short-term elevation of plasma MMP-9 concentrations within 24 hours, however, without significant correlation with CPB time and postoperative pulmonary dysfunction, despite predominantly increased neutrophils and reduced oxygenation.

  7. Minocycline suppresses oxidative stress and attenuates fetal cardiac myocyte apoptosis triggered by in utero cocaine exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Shen, Ruoqing; Nzenwa, Ify; Gelfand, Robert; Mahata, Sushil K.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the molecular mechanisms by which minocycline, a second generation tetracycline, prevents cardiac myocyte death induced by in utero cocaine exposure. Timed mated pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received one of the following treatments twice daily from embryonic (E) day 15–21 (E15–E21): (i) intraperitoneal (IP) injections of saline (control); (ii) IP injections of cocaine (15 mg/kg BW); and (iii) IP injections of cocaine + oral administration of 25 mg/kg BW of minocycline. Pups were killed on postnatal day 15 (P15). Additional pregnant dams received twice daily IP injections of cocaine (from E15–E21) + oral administration of a relatively higher (37.5 mg/kg BW) dose of minocycline. Minocycline treatment continued from E15 until the pups were sacrificed on P15. In utero cocaine exposure resulted in an increase in oxidative stress and fetal cardiac myocyte apoptosis through activation of c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. Continued minocycline treatment from E15 through P15 significantly prevented oxidative stress, kinase activation, perturbation of BAX/BCL-2 ratio, cytochrome c release, caspase activation, and attenuated fetal cardiac myocyte apoptosis after prenatal cocaine exposure. These results demonstrate in vivo cardioprotective effects of minocycline in preventing fetal cardiac myocyte death after prenatal cocaine exposure. Given its proven clinical safety and ability to cross the placental barrier and enter into the fetal circulation, minocycline may be an effective therapy for preventing cardiac consequences of in utero cocaine exposure. PMID:21424555

  8. Sodium Tanshinone IIA Sulfonate Attenuates Scopolamine-Induced Cognitive Dysfunctions via Improving Cholinergic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Qing Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium Tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS is a derivative of Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA. Tan IIA has been reported to possess neuroprotective effects against Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, whether STS possesses effect on AD remains unclear. This study aims to estimate whether STS could protect against scopolamine- (SCOP- induced learning and memory deficit in Kunming mice. Morris water maze results showed that oral administration of STS (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg and Donepezil shortened escape latency, increased crossing times of the original position of the platform, and increased the time spent in the target quadrant. STS decreased the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE and increased the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT in the hippocampus and cortex of SCOP-treated mice. Oxidative stress results showed that STS increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and reactive oxygen species (ROS in hippocampus and cortex. In addition, western blot was carried out to detect the expression of apoptosis related proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase-3. STS upregulated the protein expression of Bcl-2 and downregulated the proteins expression of Bax and Caspase-3. These results indicated that STS might become a promising therapeutic candidate for attenuating AD-like pathological dysfunction.

  9. Assist-control mechanical ventilation attenuates ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoon, Catherine S H; Zhu, Ercheng; Caiozzo, Vincent J

    2004-09-15

    Controlled mechanical ventilation induced a profound diaphragm muscle dysfunction and atrophy. The effects of diaphragmatic contractions with assisted mechanical ventilation on diaphragmatic isometric, isotonic contractile properties, or the expression of muscle atrophy factor-box (MAF-box), the gene responsible for muscle atrophy, are unknown. We hypothesize that assisted mechanical ventilation will preserve diaphragmatic force and prevent overexpression of MAF-box. Studying sedated rabbits randomized equally into control animals, those with 3 days of assisted ventilation, and those with controlled ventilation, we assessed in vitro diaphragmatic isometric and isotonic contractile function. The concentrations of contractile proteins, myosin heavy chain isoform, and MAF-box mRNA were measured. Tetanic force decreased by 14% with assisted ventilation and 48% with controlled ventilation. Maximum shortening velocity tended to increase with controlled compared with assisted ventilation and control. Peak power output decreased 20% with assisted ventilation and 41% with controlled ventilation. Contractile proteins were unchanged with either modes of ventilation; myosin heavy chain 2X mRNA tended to increase and that of 2A to decrease with controlled ventilation. MAF-box gene was overexpressed with controlled ventilation. We conclude that preserving diaphragmatic contractions during mechanical ventilation attenuates the force loss induced by complete inactivity and maintains MAF-box gene expression in control.

  10. Preemptive CD20+ B cell depletion attenuates cardiac allograft vasculopathy in cyclosporine-treated monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Shahrooz S; Azimzadeh, Agnes M; Zhang, Tianshu; Stoddard, Tiffany; Welty, Emily; Avon, Christopher; Higuchi, Mitch; Laaris, Amal; Cheng, Xiang-Fei; McMahon, Christine; Pierson, Richard N

    2010-04-01

    Chronic rejection currently limits the long-term efficacy of clinical transplantation. Although B cells have recently been shown to play a pivotal role in the induction of alloimmunity and are being targeted in other transplant contexts, the efficacy of preemptive B cell depletion to modulate alloimmunity or attenuate cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) (classic chronic rejection lesions found in transplanted hearts) in a translational model has not previously been described. We report here that the CD20-specific antibody (alphaCD20) rituximab depleted CD20+ B cells in peripheral blood, secondary lymphoid organs, and the graft in cynomolgus monkey recipients of heterotopic cardiac allografts. Furthermore, CD20+ B cell depletion therapy combined with the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) prolonged median primary graft survival relative to treatment with alphaCD20 or CsA alone. In animals treated with both alphaCD20 and CsA that achieved efficient B cell depletion, alloantibody production was substantially inhibited and the CAV severity score was markedly reduced. We conclude therefore that efficient preemptive depletion of CD20+ B cells is effective in a preclinical model to modulate pathogenic alloimmunity and to attenuate chronic rejection when used in conjunction with a conventional clinical immunosuppressant. This study suggests that use of this treatment combination may improve the efficacy of transplantation in the clinic.

  11. Feasibility of using respiration-averaged MR images for attenuation correction of cardiac PET/MR imaging.

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    Ai, Hua; Pan, Tinsu

    2015-07-08

    Cardiac imaging is a promising application for combined PET/MR imaging. However, current MR imaging protocols for whole-body attenuation correction can produce spatial mismatch between PET and MR-derived attenuation data owing to a disparity between the two modalities' imaging speeds. We assessed the feasibility of using a respiration-averaged MR (AMR) method for attenuation correction of cardiac PET data in PET/MR images. First, to demonstrate the feasibility of motion imaging with MR, we used a 3T MR system and a two-dimensional fast spoiled gradient-recalled echo (SPGR) sequence to obtain AMR images ofa moving phantom. Then, we used the same sequence to obtain AMR images of a patient's thorax under free-breathing conditions. MR images were converted into PET attenuation maps using a three-class tissue segmentation method with two sets of predetermined CT numbers, one calculated from the patient-specific (PS) CT images and the other from a reference group (RG) containing 54 patient CT datasets. The MR-derived attenuation images were then used for attenuation correction of the cardiac PET data, which were compared to the PET data corrected with average CT (ACT) images. In the myocardium, the voxel-by-voxel differences and the differences in mean slice activity between the AMR-corrected PET data and the ACT-corrected PET data were found to be small (less than 7%). The use of AMR-derived attenuation images in place of ACT images for attenuation correction did not affect the summed stress score. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using the proposed SPGR-based MR imaging protocol to obtain patient AMR images and using those images for cardiac PET attenuation correction. Additional studies with more clinical data are warranted to further evaluate the method.

  12. Effect of PⅠCP/PⅢNP on assessing cardiac diastolic dysfunction and collagen remodeling

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    Jin-song LI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the changes of serum procollagen Ⅰcarboxyl peptide (PⅠCP/procollagen Ⅲamino-terminal peptide (PⅢNP levels in cardiac diastolic dysfunction rabbit model, and the relationship with cardiac diastolic dysfunction and collagen remodeling. Methods  Sixty rabbits were randomly divided into control group (control, myocardial infarction group (MI and left ventricular hypertrophy group (LVH(20 each. E/e' ratio was detected by flow Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging, and ELISA was performed to detect the PⅠCP/PⅢNP level at the 2nd, 4th, 8th and 12th week. The collagen volume fraction (CVF and Ⅰ/Ⅲcollagen ratio were detected with polarized light through picric-acid Sirius red staining at the 12th week. Results  The PⅠCP and PⅢNP levels increased in MI group and LVH group than in control group with statistically significant difference (P<0.05, and the PⅠCPand PⅢNP levels were also increased in MI group than in LVH group (P<0.05 in a time-dependent manner; The E/e' ratio increased in MI group and LVH group than in control group with statistically significant difference (P<0.05 in a time-dependent manner; The CVF increased in MI group and LVH group than in control group with statistically significant difference (P<0.05. The PⅠCPand PⅢNP levels were positively correlated with the E/e' ratio (P<0.05, and the PⅠCP/PⅢNP ratio was positively correlated with the Ⅰ/Ⅲcollagen ratio (P<0.05. Conclusion  The PⅠCP and PⅢNP levels can be used to evaluate the changes of cardiac diastolic function and myocardial collagen remodeling in different pathological conditions. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.08.06

  13. Cardiac fibroblast GSK-3β regulates ventricular remodeling and dysfunction in ischemic heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Hind; Ahmad, Firdos; Zhou, Jibin; Yu, Justine E.; Vagnozzi, Ronald J.; Guo, Yuanjun; Yu, Daohai; Tsai, Emily J.; Woodgett, James; Gao, Erhe; Force, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Myocardial infarction-induced remodeling includes chamber dilatation, contractile dysfunction, and fibrosis. Of these, fibrosis is the least understood. Following MI, activated cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) deposit extracellular matrix. Current therapies to prevent fibrosis are inadequate and new molecular targets are needed. Methods and Results Herein we report that GSK-3β is phosphorylated (inhibited) in fibrotic tissues from ischemic human and mouse heart. Using two fibroblast-specific GSK-3β knockout mouse models, we show that deletion of GSK-3β in CFs leads to fibrogenesis, left ventricular dysfunction and excessive scarring in the ischemic heart. Deletion of GSK-3β induces a pro-fibrotic myofibroblast phenotype in isolated CFs, in post-MI hearts, and in MEFs deleted for GSK-3β. Mechanistically, GSK-3β inhibits pro-fibrotic TGF-β1-SMAD-3 signaling via interactions with SMAD-3. Moreover, deletion of GSK-3β resulted in the suppression of SMAD-3 transcriptional activity. This pathway is central to the pathology since a small molecule inhibitor of SMAD-3 largely prevented fibrosis and limited LV remodeling. Conclusion These studies support targeting GSK-3β in myocardial fibrotic disorders and establish critical roles of CFs in remodeling and ventricular dysfunction. PMID:24899689

  14. Ultra-low Dose CT for Attenuation Correction of 82Rb Cardiac PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Maria Balshøj; Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Tolbod, Lars Poulsen

    Aim: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using cardiac PET with tracers like 82Rb and 15O-water is substantially lower in radiation dose than classic MIBI-based SPECT. However, for cardiac PET, the dose contribution of CT for attenuation correction (CTAC) is typically 20-30% of the total dose....... To reduce the total radiation dose of cardiac PET further, we set out to examine if the use of ultra-low dose CTAC (UL-CTAC) would affect the accuracy of the quantitative parameters related to MPI. Furthermore, we examined whether the low quality of the UL-CTAC would affect the technologist’s ability...... to perform manual adjustment for misalignment between PET and CTAC. The CT reconstruction algorithm Q.AC was used to improve quality and consistency of the CTAC. Method: 23 consecutive clinical patients (BMI: 26.9 [range: 15.4-38.8]) referred for 82Rb PET rest and stress imaging were included in the study...

  15. Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates hippocampus endoplasmic reticulum stress after cardiac arrest in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Gui, Qinfang; Jin, Li; Yu, Pan; Wu, Lin; Cao, Liangbin; Wang, Qiang; Duan, Manlin

    2017-02-15

    Hydrogen-rich saline can selectively scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protect brain against ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) has been implicated in the pathological process of cerebral ischemia. However, very little is known about the role of hydrogen-rich saline in mediating pathophysiological reactions to ERS after I/R injury caused by cardiac arrest. The rats were randomly divided into three groups, sham group (n=30), ischemia/reperfusion group (n=40) and hydrogen-rich saline group (n=40). The rats in experimental groups were subjected to 4min of cardiac arrest and followed by resuscitation. Then they were randomized to receive 5ml/kg of either hydrogen-rich saline or normal saline. Hydrogen-rich saline significantly improves survival rate and neurological function. The beneficial effects of hydrogen-rich saline were associated with decreased levels of oxidative products, as well as the increased levels of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, the protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline were accompanied by the increased activity of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), the decreased activity of cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-12 (caspase-12) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates brain I/R injury may through inhibiting hippocampus ERS after cardiac arrest in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The incidence and prognostic significance of cardiac arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities in patients with acute coronary syndromes and renal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowska, Anna; Tycińska, Agnieszka; Knapp, Małgorzata; Lisowski, Piotr; Musiał, Włodzimierz J

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of cardiac arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation (AF) in chronic kidney disease, is unknown, although AF is several times more common in patients with end-stage kidney disease than in the general population. To assess the incidence, types and management of cardiac arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and renal dysfunction. We also evaluated the prognostic significance of arrhythmias in this patient group. We analysed 86 patients with renal dysfunction (GFR Cardiac arrhythmias were observed in 44 (51.1%) patients with AF being the most common (27 patients, 31.4%), predominantly in the paroxysmal form (21.4%). A total of 14 (16.3%) patients had cardiac arrhythmias requiring temporary or permanent pacing. Only 4 (4.6%) patients showed transient conduction abnormalities due to hyperkalaemia in the course of renal failure, while the remaining 10 (11.6%) patients demonstrated conduction abnormalities due to ACS. A total of 3 (3.5%) patients had other arrhythmias (atrial tachycardia, ventricular arrhythmias). During the follow-up period (mean duration: 14.3 months) 7 out of 44 patients (15.9%) with renal dysfunction and arrhythmia and 2 out of 42 patients (4.7%) without arrhythmia died (p Cardiac arrhythmias occur more often in patients with ACS if renal dysfunction is also present and are associated with poor prognosis.

  17. Attenuation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits by allicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheakh, Ahmed R; Ghoneim, Hamdy A; Suddek, Ghada M; Ammar, El Sayed M

    2015-08-14

    Allicin, the active substance of garlic, exerts a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities and is considered to have potential therapeutic applications. The present study was designed to investigate the possible beneficial effects of allicin against oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Male New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. Rabbits randomly received 1 of the following treatments: normal chow diet for 4 weeks, 1% high cholesterol diet (HCD), HCD plus allicin (10 mg/kg/day), or HCD plus atorvastatin (10 mg/kg/day). Blood samples were collected at the end of experimental diets for measurement of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), C-reactive protein (CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). In addition, the aorta was removed for measurement of vascular reactivity, histopathological changes, intima/media (I/M) ratio, and immunohistochemical staining of both tumor necrosis-alpha (TNF-α) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. HCD induced significant increases in serum TC, TGs, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), CRP, and MDA. Moreover, HCD caused significant decrease in serum GSH and SOD. In addition, aortic relaxation response to acetylcholine (ACh) was impaired. Immunohistochemical staining of aortic specimens from HCD-fed rabbits revealed high expression levels of both TNF-α and the oxidant-induced transcription factor, NF-κB. Allicin supplementation significantly decreased serum MDA and CRP, increased serum HDL-C, GSH, and SOD levels while nonsignificantly affecting HCD-induced elevations in serum TC and LDL-C. Additionally, allicin significantly protected against HCD-induced attenuation of rabbit aortic endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh and elevation in I/M ratio. This effect was confirmed by histopathological examination of the aorta. Moreover, allicin has substantially

  18. Changes in cardiac heparan sulfate proteoglycan expression and streptozotocin-induced diastolic dysfunction in rats

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    Cestari Ismar N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in the proteoglycans glypican and syndecan-4 have been reported in several pathological conditions, but little is known about their expression in the heart during diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate in vivo heart function changes and alterations in mRNA expression and protein levels of glypican-1 and syndecan-4 in cardiac and skeletal muscles during streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes. Methods Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by STZ administration. The rats were assigned to one of the following groups: control (sham injection, after 24 hours, 10 days, or 30 days of STZ administration. Echocardiography was performed in the control and STZ 10-day groups. Western and Northern blots were used to quantify protein and mRNA levels in all groups. Immunohistochemistry was performed in the control and 30-day groups to correlate the observed mRNA changes to the protein expression. Results In vivo cardiac functional analysis performed using echocardiography in the 10-day group showed diastolic dysfunction with alterations in the peak velocity of early (E diastolic filling and isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT indices. These functional alterations observed in the STZ 10-day group correlated with the concomitant increase in syndecan-4 and glypican-1 protein expression. Cardiac glypican-1 mRNA and skeletal syndecan-4 mRNA and protein levels increased in the STZ 30-day group. On the other hand, the amount of glypican in skeletal muscle was lower than that in the control group. The same results were obtained from immunohistochemistry analysis. Conclusion Our data suggest that membrane proteoglycans participate in the sequence of events triggered by diabetes and inflicted on cardiac and skeletal muscles.

  19. Coronary microvascular dysfunction is related to abnormalities in myocardial structure and function in cardiac amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorbala, Sharmila; Vangala, Divya; Bruyere, John; Quarta, Christina; Kruger, Jenna; Padera, Robert; Foster, Courtney; Hanley, Michael; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Falk, Rodney

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that coronary microvascular function is impaired in subjects with cardiac amyloidosis. Effort angina is common in subjects with cardiac amyloidosis, even in the absence of epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD). Thirty-one subjects were prospectively enrolled in this study, including 21 subjects with definite cardiac amyloidosis without epicardial CAD and 10 subjects with hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). All subjects underwent rest and vasodilator stress N-13 ammonia positron emission tomography and 2-dimensional echocardiography. Global left ventricular myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified at rest and during peak hyperemia, and coronary flow reserve (CFR) was computed (peak stress MBF/rest MBF) adjusting for rest rate pressure product. Compared with the LVH group, the amyloid group showed lower rest MBF (0.59 ± 0.15 ml/g/min vs. 0.88 ± 0.23 ml/g/min; p = 0.004), stress MBF (0.85 ± 0.29 ml/g/min vs. 1.85 ± 0.45 ml/g/min; p coronary vascular resistance (111 ± 40 ml/g/min/mm Hg vs. 70 ± 19 ml/g/min/mm Hg; p = 0.004). Of note, almost all subjects with amyloidosis (>95%) had significantly reduced peak stress MBF (coronary vasodilator function. Coronary microvascular dysfunction is highly prevalent in subjects with cardiac amyloidosis, even in the absence of epicardial CAD, and may explain their anginal symptoms. Further study is required to understand whether specific therapy directed at amyloidosis may improve coronary vasomotion in amyloidosis. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rosemary supplementation (Rosmarinus oficinallis L. attenuates cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction in rats.

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    Bruna Paola Murino Rafacho

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction (MI is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Dietary intervention on adverse cardiac remodeling after MI has significant clinical relevance. Rosemary leaves are a natural product with antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties, but its effect on morphology and ventricular function after MI is unknown.To determine the effect of the dietary supplementation of rosemary leaves on cardiac remodeling after MI, male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups after sham procedure or experimental induced MI: 1 Sham group fed standard chow (SR0, n = 23; 2 Sham group fed standard chow supplemented with 0.02% rosemary (R002 (SR002, n = 23; 3 Sham group fed standard chow supplemented with 0.2% rosemary (R02 (SR02, n = 22; 4 group submitted to MI and fed standard chow (IR0, n = 13; 5 group submitted to MI and fed standard chow supplemented with R002 (IR002, n = 8; and 6 group submitted to MI and fed standard chow supplemented with R02 (IR02, n = 9. After 3 months of the treatment, systolic pressure evaluation, echocardiography and euthanasia were performed. Left ventricular samples were evaluated for: fibrosis, cytokine levels, apoptosis, energy metabolism enzymes, and oxidative stress. Rosemary dietary supplementation attenuated cardiac remodeling by improving energy metabolism and decreasing oxidative stress. Rosemary supplementation of 0.02% improved diastolic function and reduced hypertrophy after MI. Regarding rosemary dose, 0.02% and 0.2% for rats are equivalent to 11 mg and 110 mg for humans, respectively.Our findings support further investigations of the rosemary use as adjuvant therapy in adverse cardiac remodeling.

  1. Is low VO2max/kg in obese heart failure patients indicative of cardiac dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothi, S S; Tan, D K; Partridge, G; Tan, L B

    2015-04-01

    Low peak O2 consumption (VO2max/kg) has been widely used as an indirect indicator of poor cardiac fitness, and often guides management of patients with severe heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that it should be as good an indicator of cardiac dysfunction in obese and non-obese HF patients. We compared the cardiopulmonary exercise performance and non-invasive hemodynamics of 152 obese (BMI>34 kg.m(-2)) and 173 non-obese (BMI≤32) male HF patients in NYHA classes II and III, with reference to 101 healthy male controls. Their physical and cardiac functional reserves were measured during treadmill exercise testing with standard respiratory gas analyses and CO2 rebreathing to measure cardiac output non-invasively during peak exercise. Data are given as mean ± SD. Obese HF patients with BMI 40.9 ± 7.5 kg·m(-2) (age 56.1 ± 14.0 years, NYHA 2.5 ± 0.5) exercised to acceptable cardiopulmonary limits (peak RER=1.07 ± 0.12), and achieved a mean VO2max/kg of 18.6 ± 5.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), significantly lower than in non-obese HF counterparts (19.9 ± 5.6 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), P=0.02, age 55.8 ± 10.6 years, BMI 26.6 ± 3.1, NYHA 2.4 ± 0.5, peak RER=1.07 ± 0.09), with both lower than controls (38.5 ± 9.7 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), PVO2max was higher in obese (2.31 ± 0.69 ml·min(-1)) than non-obese HF patients (1.61 ± 0.49 ml·min(-1), PVO2max/kg is not a generally reliable indicator of cardiac fitness in all patients. Instead, we found that despite having lower VO2max/kg, obese HF patients had stronger hearts capable of generating greater cardiac power than non-obese HF patients of equivalent clinical HF status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Successful Fontan conversion combined with cardiac resynchronization therapy for a case of failing Fontan circulation with ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Daiji; Asagai, Seiji; Ishihara, Kazuaki; Nakanishi, Toshio

    2014-11-01

    Although Fontan conversion combined with cardiac resynchronization therapy appears to be an effective surgical solution for the management of failing Fontan circulation with refractory atrial arrhythmia and cardiac dysfunction due to dyssynchronous ventricular wall motion, limited data are available on the mid- to long-term results of this treatment. We report our successful experience with Fontan conversion combined with cardiac resynchronization therapy in a male patient with failing Fontan circulation who showed favourable outcomes 5 years after the operation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  3. Different catecholamines induce different patterns of takotsubo-like cardiac dysfunction in an apparently afterload dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfors, Bjorn; Ali, Anwar; Shao, Yangzhen; Lundgren, Joel; Gan, Li-Ming; Omerovic, Elmir

    2014-06-15

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is characterized by regional left ventricular dysfunction that cannot be explained by an occlusive lesion in a coronary artery. Catecholamines are implicated in the pathogenesis of TCM but the mechanisms involved are unknown. Because the endogenous and the most commonly used exogenous catecholamines have well defined adrenoceptor subtype affinities, inferences can be made about the importance of each adrenoceptor subtype based on the ability of different catecholamines to induce TCM. We therefore studied which of five well-known catecholamines, that differ in receptor subtype affinity, are able to induce TCM-like cardiac dysfunction in the rat. 255 rats received intraperitoneally isoprenaline (β1/β2-adrenoceptor agonist), epinephrine (β1/β2/α-adrenoceptor agonist), norepinephrine (β1/α-adrenoceptor agonist), dopamine (α/β1/β2-adrenoceptor agonist) or phenylephrine (α-adrenoceptor agonist). Each catecholamine was given in five different doses. We measured blood pressure through a catheter inserted in the right carotid artery and studied cardiac morphology and function by echocardiography. All catecholamines induced takotsubo-like cardiac dysfunction. Isoprenaline induced low blood pressure and predominantly apical dysfunction whereas the other catecholamines induced high blood pressure and basal dysfunction. In another set of experiments, we continuously infused hydralazine or nitroprusside to rats that received epinephrine or norepinephrine to maintain systolic blood pressure 120 mm Hg after isoprenaline administration prevented apical TCM-like dysfunction. Catecholamine-induced takotsubo-like cardiac dysfunction appears to be afterload dependent rather than depend on stimulation of a specific adrenergic receptor subtype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation between changes in diastolic dysfunction and health-related quality of life after cardiac rehabilitation program in dilated cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin H.M. Mehani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic heart failure (CHF is a complex syndrome characterized by progressive decline in left ventricular function, low exercise tolerance and raised mortality and morbidity. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction plays a major role in CHF and progression of most cardiac diseases. The current recommended goals can theoretically be accomplished via exercise and pharmacological therapy so the aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of cardiac rehabilitation program on diastolic dysfunction and health related quality of life and to determine the correlation between changes in left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and domains of health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Forty patients with chronic heart failure were diagnosed as having dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM with systolic and diastolic dysfunction. The patients were equally and randomly divided into training and control groups. Only 30 of them completed the study duration. The training group participated in rehabilitation program in the form of circuit-interval aerobic training adjusted according to 55–80% of heart rate reserve for a period of 7 months. Circuit training improved both diastolic and systolic dysfunction in the training group. On the other hand, only a significant correlation was found between improvement in diastolic dysfunction and health related quality of life measured by Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. It was concluded that improvement in diastolic dysfunction as a result of rehabilitation program is one of the important underlying mechanisms responsible for improvement in health-related quality of life in DCM patients.

  5. [Relationship between blood pressure, heart rate and cardiac autonomic dysfunction in non-diabetic obese patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, I; Nguyen, M T; Hamo-Tchatchouang, E; Cosson, E; Valensi, P

    2015-06-01

    Some studies suggest that a high heart rate (HR) would be predictive of the incidence of an elevated blood pressure (BP). Cardiac autonomic dysfunction (CAD) affects a high proportion of obese patients. CAD could be involved in BP increase. Our aim was to examine the relationship between CAD, HR and BP in obese patients without known diabetes. We included 428 overweight or obese patients. CAD was assessed by analyzing HR variations during three standard tests (Valsalva, deep breathing, lying-to-standing), which are mostly dependent on vagal control. An oral load in glucose was performed and the Matsuda index was calculated. The population was separated in 4 groups according to the grade of CAD (no or only one abnormal test, 2 or 3 abnormal tests) and HR (heart rate, which is indicative of a more marked insulin resistance and probably an excess in sympathetic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Deficiency of cardiac Acyl-CoA synthetase-1 induces diastolic dysfunction, but pathologic hypertrophy is reversed by rapamycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, David S; Grevengoed, Trisha J; Pascual, Florencia

    2014-01-01

    In mice with temporally-induced cardiac-specific deficiency of acyl-CoA synthetase-1 (Acsl1(H-/-)), the heart is unable to oxidize long-chain fatty acids and relies primarily on glucose for energy. These metabolic changes result in the development of both a spontaneous cardiac hypertrophy...... of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase and phospholamban showed no difference between genotypes. To determine the role of mTOR in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, we treated Acsl1(H-/-) mice with rapamycin. Six to eight week old Acsl1(H-/-) mice and their littermate controls were given i.......p. tamoxifen to eliminate cardiac Acsl1, then concomitantly treated for 10weeks with i.p. rapamycin or vehicle alone. Rapamycin completely blocked the enhanced ventricular S6K phosphorylation and cardiac hypertrophy and attenuated the expression of hypertrophy-associated fetal genes, including α-skeletal actin...

  7. Aristoyunnolin H attenuates extracellular matrix secretion in cardiac fibroblasts by inhibiting calcium influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Rui; Zhang, Wen-Ping; Bao, Jing-Mei; Cheng, Zhong-Bin; Yin, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Aristoyunnolin H is a novel aristophyllene sesquiterpenoid isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Aristolochia yunnanensis Franch. The present research was designed to explore the anti-fibrotic effects of aristoyunnolin H in adult rat cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) stimulated with angiotensin II (Ang II). Western blot analysis data showed that aristoyunnolin H reduced the upregulation of fibronectin (FN), connective tissue growth factor and collagen I(Col I) production induced by Ang II in CFs. By studying the dynamic intracellular changes of Ca(2+), we further found that while aristoyunnolin H relieved the calcium influx, it has no effect on intracellular calcium store release. Meanwhile, aristoyunnolin H also inhibited the Ang II-stimulated phosphorylation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. In conclusion, aristoyunnolin H may attenuate extracellular matrix secretion in vitro by inhibiting Ang II-induced calcium signaling.

  8. Fractal Dimension in Quantifying Experimental-Pulmonary-Hypertension-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Lopes Pacagnelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Right-sided heart failure has high morbidity and mortality, and may be caused by pulmonary arterial hypertension. Fractal dimension is a differentiated and innovative method used in histological evaluations that allows the characterization of irregular and complex structures and the quantification of structural tissue changes. Objective: To assess the use of fractal dimension in cardiomyocytes of rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension, in addition to providing histological and functional analysis. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: control (C; n = 8 and monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (M; n = 8. Five weeks after pulmonary arterial hypertension induction with monocrotaline, echocardiography was performed and the animals were euthanized. The heart was dissected, the ventricles weighed to assess anatomical parameters, and histological slides were prepared and stained with hematoxylin/eosin for fractal dimension analysis, performed using box-counting method. Data normality was tested (Shapiro-Wilk test, and the groups were compared with non-paired Student t test or Mann Whitney test (p < 0.05. Results: Higher fractal dimension values were observed in group M as compared to group C (1.39 ± 0.05 vs. 1.37 ± 0.04; p < 0.05. Echocardiography showed lower pulmonary artery flow velocity, pulmonary acceleration time and ejection time values in group M, suggesting function worsening in those animals. Conclusion: The changes observed confirm pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-induced cardiac dysfunction, and point to fractal dimension as an effective method to evaluate cardiac morphological changes induced by ventricular dysfunction.

  9. Cardiac dysfunction and ferritin as early markers of severity in pediatric sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonial, Cristian T; Garcia, Pedro Celiny R; Schweitzer, Louise Cardoso; Costa, Caroline A D; Bruno, Francisco; Fiori, Humberto H; Einloft, Paulo R; Garcia, Ricardo Branco; Piva, Jefferson Pedro

    The aim of this study was to verify the association of echocardiogram, ferritin, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte count with unfavorable outcomes in pediatric sepsis. A prospective cohort study was carried out from March to December 2014, with pediatric critical care patients aged between 28 days and 18 years. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of sepsis, need for mechanical ventilation for more than 48h, and vasoactive drugs. Serum levels of C-reactive protein, ferritin, and leukocyte count were collected on the first day (D0), 24h (D1), and 72h (D3) after recruitment. Patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography to determine the ejection fraction of the left ventricle on D1 and D3. The outcomes measured were length of hospital stay and in the pediatric intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation duration, free hours of VM, duration of use of inotropic agents, maximum inotropic score, and mortality. Twenty patients completed the study. Patients with elevated ferritin levels on D0 had also fewer ventilator-free hours (p=0.046) and higher maximum inotropic score (p=0.009). Patients with cardiac dysfunction by echocardiogram on D1 had longer hospital stay (p=0.047), pediatric intensive care unit stay (p=0.020), duration of mechanical ventilation (p=0.011), maximum inotropic score (p=0.001), and fewer ventilator-free hours (p=0.020). Cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography and serum ferritin value was significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes in pediatric patients with sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of natriuretic peptides for detecting cardiac dysfunction in long-term disease-free breast cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perik, PJ; De Vries, EGE; Boomsma, F; Van Der Graaf, WTA; Sleijfer, DT; Van Veldhuisen, DJ; Gietema, JA

    2005-01-01

    Background: Plasma natriuretic peptides are increased in patients with cardiac dysfunction. N-terminal (NT-ANP) and B-type (BNP) natriuretic peptides were measured in disease-free breast cancer survivors, during long-term follow-up after epirubicin (360 mg/m(2) or 450 mg/m(2) cumulatively) and chest

  11. CXCR4 Antagonist TG-0054 Mobilizes Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Attenuates Inflammation, and Preserves Cardiac Systolic Function in a Porcine Model of Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wan-Tseng; Jui, Hsiang-Yiang; Huang, Ying-Huey; Su, Mao-Yuan M; Wu, Yen-Wen; Tseng, Wen-Yih I; Hsu, Ming-Chu; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Wu, Kenneth K; Lee, Chii-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Interaction between chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 and the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) governs the sequestration and mobilization of bone marrow stem cells. We investigated the therapeutic potential of TG-0054, a novel CXCR4 antagonist, in attenuating cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI). In miniature pigs (minipigs), TG-0054 mobilized CD34(+)CXCR4(+), CD133(+)CXCR4(+), and CD271(+)CXCR4(+) cells into peripheral circulation. After isolation and expansion, TG-0054-mobilized CD271(+) cells were proved to be mesenchymal stem cells (designated CD271-MSCs) since they had trilineage differentiation potential, surface markers of MSCs, and immunosuppressive effects on allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation. MI was induced in 22 minipigs using balloon occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery, followed by intravenous injections of 2.85 mg/kg of TG-0054 or saline at 3 days and 7 days post-MI. Serial MRI analyses revealed that TG-0054 treatment prevented left ventricular (LV) dysfunction at 12 weeks after MI (change of LV ejection fraction from baseline, -1.0 ± 6.2% in the TG-0054 group versus -7.9 ± 5.8% in the controls). The preserved cardiac function was accompanied by a significant decrease in the myocardial expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 at 7 days post-MI. Moreover, the plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were persistently suppressed by the TG-0054 treatment. Infusion of TG-0054-mobilized CD271-MSCs reduced both myocardial and plasma cytokine levels in a pattern, which is temporally correlated with TG-0054 treatment. This study demonstrated that TG-0054 improves the impaired LV contractility following MI, at least in part, by mobilizing MSCs to attenuate the postinfarction inflammation. This insight may facilitate exploring novel stem cell-based therapy for treating post-MI heart failure.

  12. Cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in childhood obesity: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Linyuan; Binkley, Cassi M; Suever, Jonathan D; Umasankar, Nivedita; Haggerty, Christopher M; Rich, Jennifer; Wehner, Gregory J; Hamlet, Sean M; Powell, David K; Radulescu, Aurelia; Kirchner, H Lester; Epstein, Frederick H; Fornwalt, Brandon K

    2016-05-11

    Obesity affects nearly one in five children and is associated with increased risk of premature death. Obesity-related heart disease contributes to premature death. We aimed to use cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to comprehensively characterize the changes in cardiac geometry and function in obese children. Forty-one obese/overweight (age 12 ± 3 years, 56 % female) and 29 healthy weight children (age 14 ± 3 years, 41 % female) underwent CMR, including both standard cine imaging and displacement encoded imaging, for a complete assessment of left ventricular (LV) structure and function. After adjusting for age, LV mass index was 23 % greater (27 ± 4 g/m(2.7) vs 22 ± 3 g/m(2.7), p obese/overweight children. This evidence of cardiac remodeling was present in obese children as young as age 8. Twenty four percent of obese/overweight children had concentric hypertrophy, 59 % had normal geometry and 17 % had either eccentric hypertrophy or concentric remodeling. LV mass index, thickness, ejection fraction and peak longitudinal and circumferential strains all correlated with epicardial adipose tissue after adjusting for height and gender (all p remodeling, and were most impaired in children with concentric hypertrophy (p Obese children show evidence of significant cardiac remodeling and dysfunction, which begins as young as age 8. Obese children with concentric hypertrophy and impaired strain may represent a particularly high risk subgroup that demands further investigation.

  13. High-sugar intake does not exacerbate metabolic abnormalities or cardiac dysfunction in genetic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Peter A; Galvao, Tatiana F; O'Shea, Karen M; Brown, Bethany H; Henderson, Reney; Riggle, Heather; Gupte, Sachin A; Stanley, William C

    2012-05-01

    A high-sugar intake increases heart disease risk in humans. In animals, sugar intake accelerates heart failure development by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) can fuel ROS production by providing reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for superoxide generation by NADPH oxidase. Conversely, G6PD also facilitates ROS scavenging using the glutathione pathway. We hypothesized that a high-sugar intake would increase flux through G6PD to increase myocardial NADPH and ROS and accelerate cardiac dysfunction and death. Six-week-old TO-2 hamsters, a non-hypertensive model of genetic cardiomyopathy caused by a δ-sarcoglycan mutation, were fed a long-term diet of high starch or high sugar (57% of energy from sucrose plus fructose). After 24 wk, the δ-sarcoglycan-deficient animals displayed expected decreases in survival and cardiac function associated with cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction: control 68.7 ± 4.5%, TO-2 starch 46.1 ± 3.7%, P sugar 58.0 ± 4.2%, NS, versus TO-2 starch or control; median survival: TO-2 starch 278 d, TO-2 sugar 318 d, P = 0.133). Although the high-sugar intake was expected to exacerbate cardiomyopathy, surprisingly, there was no further decrease in ejection fraction or survival with high sugar compared with starch in cardiomyopathic animals. Cardiomyopathic animals had systemic and cardiac metabolic abnormalities (increased serum lipids and glucose and decreased myocardial oxidative enzymes) that were unaffected by diet. The high-sugar intake increased myocardial superoxide, but NADPH and lipid peroxidation were unaffected. A sugar-enriched diet did not exacerbate ventricular function, metabolic abnormalities, or survival in heart failure despite an increase in superoxide production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiotherapy-Induced Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Dysfunction in Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagur, Rodrigo; Chamula, Mathilde; Brouillard, Émilie; Lavoie, Caroline; Nombela-Franco, Luis; Julien, Anne-Sophie; Archambault, Louis; Varfalvy, Nicolas; Gaudreault, Valérie; Joncas, Sébastien X; Israeli, Zeev; Parviz, Yasir; Mamas, Mamas A; Lavi, Shahar

    2017-01-15

    Radiotherapy can affect the electronic components of a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) resulting in malfunction and/or damage. We sought to assess the incidence, predictors, and clinical impact of CIED dysfunction (CIED-D) after radiotherapy for cancer treatment. Clinical characteristics, cancer, different types of CIEDs, and radiation dose were evaluated. The investigation identified 230 patients, mean age 78 ± 8 years and 70% were men. A total of 199 patients had pacemakers (59% dual chamber), 21 (9%) cardioverter-defibrillators, and 10 (4%) resynchronizators or defibrillators. The left pectoral (n = 192, 83%) was the most common CIED location. Sixteen patients (7%) experienced 18 events of CIED-D after radiotherapy. Reset to backup pacing mode was the most common encountered dysfunction, and only 1 (6%) patient of those with CIED-D experienced symptoms of atrioventricular dyssynchrony. Those who had CIED-D tended to have a shorter device age at the time of radiotherapy compared to those who did not (2.5 ± 1.5 vs 3.8 ± 3.4 years, p = 0.09). The total dose prescribed to the tumor was significantly greater among those who had CIED-D (66 ± 30 vs 42 ± 23 Gy, p radiotherapy for cancer treatment, the occurrence of newly diagnosed CIED-D was 7%, and the reset to backup pacing mode was the most common encountered dysfunction. The total dose prescribed to the tumor was a predictor of CIED-D. Importantly, although the unpredictability of CIEDs under radiotherapy is still an issue, none of our patients experienced significant symptoms, life-threatening arrhythmias, or conduction disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cardiac magnetic resonance determinants of functional mitral regurgitation in ischemic and non ischemic left ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Golfín, Covadonga; De Agustin, Alberto; Manzano, M Carmen; Bustos, Ana; Sánchez, Tibisay; Pérez de Isla, Leopoldo; Fuentes, Manuel; Macaya, Carlos; Zamorano, José

    2011-04-01

    Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is frequent in left ventricular (LV) dilatation/dysfunction. Echocardiographic predictors of FMR are known. However, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) predictors of FMR have not been fully addressed. The aim of the study was to evaluate CMR mitral valve (MV) parameters associated with FMR in ischemic and non ischemic LV dysfunction. 80 patients with LV ejection fraction below 45% and/or left ventricular dilatation of ischemic and non ischemic etiology were included. Cine-MR images (steady state free-precession) were acquired in a short-axis and 4 chambers views where MV evaluation was performed. Delayed enhancement was performed as well. Significant FMR was established as more than mild MR according to the echocardiographic report. Mean age was 59 years, males 79%. FMR was detected in 20 patients (25%) Significant differences were noted in LV functional parameters and in most MV parameters according to the presence of significant FMR. However, differences were noted between ischemic and non ischemic groups. In the first, differences in most MV parameters remained significant while in the non ischemic, only systolic and diastolic interpapillary muscle distance (1.60 vs. 2.19 cm, P = 0.001; 2. 51 vs. 3.04, P = 0.008) were predictors of FMR. FMR is associated with a more severe LV dilatation/dysfunction in the overall population. CMR MV parameters are associated with the presence of significant FMR and are different between ischemic and non ischemic patients. CMR evaluation of these patients may help in risk stratification as well as in surgical candidate selection.

  16. Stimulation of ganglionated plexus attenuates cardiac neural remodeling and heart failure progression in a canine model of acute heart failure post-myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Da; Hu, Huihui; Qin, Zhiliang; Liu, Shan; Yu, Xiaomei; Ma, Ruisong; He, Wenbo; Xie, Jing; Lu, Zhibing; He, Bo; Jiang, Hong

    2017-12-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with autonomic dysfunction. Vagus nerve stimulation has been shown to improve cardiac function both in HF patients and animal models of HF. The purpose of this present study is to investigate the effects of ganglionated plexus stimulation (GPS) on HF progression and autonomic remodeling in a canine model of acute HF post-myocardial infarction. Eighteen adult mongrel male dogs were randomized into the control (n=8) and GPS (n=10) groups. All dogs underwent left anterior descending artery ligation followed by 6-hour high-rate (180-220bpm) ventricular pacing to induce acute HF. Transthoracic 2-dimensional echocardiography was performed at different time points. The plasma levels of norepinephrine, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and Ang-II were measured using ELISA kits. C-fos and nerve growth factor (NGF) proteins expressed in the left stellate ganglion as well as GAP43 and TH proteins expressed in the peri-infarct zone were measured using western blot. After 6h of GPS, the left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume and ejection fraction showed no significant differences between the 2 groups, but the interventricular septal thickness at end-systole in the GPS group was significantly higher than that in the control group. The plasma levels of norepinephrine, BNP, Ang-II were increased 1h after myocardial infarction while the increase was attenuated by GPS. The expression of c-fos and NGF proteins in the left stellate ganglion as well as GAP43 and TH proteins in cardiac peri-infarct zone in GPS group were significantly lower than that in control group. GPS inhibits cardiac sympathetic remodeling and attenuates HF progression in canines with acute HF induced by myocardial infarction and ventricular pacing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Safety and efficacy of landiolol hydrochloride for prevention of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery in patients with left ventricular dysfunction: Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation After Cardiac Surgery With Landiolol Hydrochloride for Left Ventricular Dysfunction (PLATON) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezai, Akira; Osaka, Shunji; Yaoita, Hiroko; Ishii, Yusuke; Arimoto, Munehito; Hata, Hiroaki; Shiono, Motomi

    2015-10-01

    We previously conducted a prospective study of landiolol hydrochloride (INN landiolol), an ultrashort-acting β-blocker, and reported that it could prevent atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. This trial was performed to investigate the safety and efficacy of landiolol hydrochloride in patients with left ventricular dysfunction undergoing cardiac surgery. Sixty patients with a preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 35% were randomly assigned to 2 groups before cardiac surgery and then received intravenous infusion with landiolol hydrochloride (landiolol group) or without landiolol (control group). The primary end point was occurrence of atrial fibrillation as much as 1 week postoperatively. The secondary end points were blood pressure, heart rate, intensive care unit and hospital stays, ventilation time, ejection fraction, biomarkers of ischemia, and brain natriuretic peptide. Atrial fibrillation occurred in 3 patients (10%) in the landiolol group versus 12 (40%) in the control group, and its frequency was significantly lower in the landiolol group (P = .002). During the early postoperative period, levels of brain natriuretic peptide and ischemic biomarkers were significantly lower in the landiolol group than the control group. The landiolol group also had a significantly shorter hospital stay (P = .019). Intravenous infusion was not discontinued for hypotension or bradycardia in either group. Low-dose infusion of landiolol hydrochloride prevented atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery in patients with cardiac dysfunction and was safe, with no effect on blood pressure. This intravenous β-blocker seems useful for perioperative management of cardiac surgical patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Commiphora mukul extract on cardiac dysfunction and ventricular function in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Shreesh K; Nandave, Mukesh; Arora, Sachin; Mehra, Raj D; Joshi, Sujata; Narang, Rajiv; Arya, D S

    2008-09-01

    In present study, hydroalcoholic extract of C. mukul significantly improved the cardiac function and prevented myocardial ischemic impairment manifested in the form of increased heart rate, decreased arterial pressure, increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure, and altered myocardial contractility indices. C. mukul treatment additionally also produced a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase levels and prevented decline of protein content in heart. C. mukul preserved the structural integrity of myocardium. Reduced leakage of myocyte enzyme lactate dehydrogenase and maintenance of structural integrity of myocardium along with favorable modulation of cardiac function and improved cardiac performance indicate the salvage of myocardium with C. mukul treatment. Guggulsterones which are considered to be responsible for most of the therapeutic properties of C. mukul may underlie the observed cardioprotective effect of C. mukul against cardiac dysfunction in isoproterenol-induced ischemic rats.

  19. Restoration of Circulating MFGE8 (Milk Fat Globule-EGF Factor 8) Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy Through Inhibition of Akt Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ke-Qiong; Li, Jing; She, Zhi-Gang; Gong, Jun; Cheng, Wen-Lin; Gong, Fu-Han; Zhu, Xue-Yong; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhihua; Li, Hongliang

    2017-10-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to numerous stimuli like neurohumoral stress, pressure overload, infection, and injury, and leads to heart failure. Mfge8 (milk fat globule-EGF factor 8) is a secreted protein involved in various human diseases, but its regulation and function during cardiac hypertrophy remain unexplored. Here, we found that circulating MFGE8 levels declined significantly in failing hearts from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Correlation analyses revealed that circulating MFGE8 levels were negatively correlated with the severity of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in affected patients. Deleting Mfge8 in mice maintained normal heart function at basal level but substantially exacerbated the hypertrophic enlargement of cardiomyocytes, reprogramming of pathological genes, contractile dysfunction, and myocardial fibrosis after aortic banding surgery. In contrast, cardiac-specific Mfge8 overexpression in transgenic mice significantly blunted aortic banding-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Whereas MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathways were unaffected in either Mfge8 -knockout or Mfge8 -overexpressing mice, the activated Akt/PKB (protein kinase B)-Gsk-3β (glycogen synthase kinase-3β)/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway after aortic banding was significantly potentiated by Mfge8 deficiency but suppressed by Mfge8 overexpression. Inhibition of Akt with MK-2206 blocked the prohypertrophic effects of Mfge8 deficiency in angiotensin II-treated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Finally, administering a recombinant human MFGE8 in mice in vivo alleviated cardiac hypertrophy induced by aortic banding. Our findings indicate that Mfge8 is an endogenous negative regulator of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and may, thus, have potential both as a novel biomarker and as a therapeutic target for treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. The DNA methylation inhibitor induces telomere dysfunction and apoptosis of leukemia cells that is attenuated by telomerase over-expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolu; Li, Bingnan; de Jonge, Nick; Björkholm, Magnus; Xu, Dawei

    2015-03-10

    DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTIs) such as 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) have been used for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other malignancies. Although inhibiting global/gene-specific DNA methylation is widely accepted as a key mechanism behind DNMTI anti-tumor activity, other mechanisms are likely involved in DNMTI's action. Because telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) plays key roles in cancer through telomere elongation and telomere lengthening-independent activities, and TERT has been shown to confer chemo- or radio-resistance to cancer cells, we determine whether DNMTIs affect telomere function and whether TERT/telomerase interferes with their anti-cancer efficacy. We showed that 5-AZA induced DNA damage and telomere dysfunction in AML cell lines by demonstrating the presence of 53-BP1 foci and the co-localization of 53-BP1 foci with telomere signals, respectively. Telomere dysfunction was coupled with diminished TERT expression, shorter telomere and apoptosis in 5-AZA-treated cells. However, 5-AZA treatment did not lead to changes in the methylation status of subtelomere regions. Down-regulation of TERT expression similarly occurred in primary leukemic cells derived from AML patients exposed to 5-AZA. TERT over-expression significantly attenuated 5-AZA-mediated DNA damage, telomere dysfunction and apoptosis of AML cells. Collectively, 5-AZA mediates the down-regulation of TERT expression, and induces telomere dysfunction, which consequently exerts an anti-tumor activity.

  1. In-line Filtration Decreases Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Renal and Hematologic Dysfunction in Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Michael; Dziuba, Friederike; Jack, Thomas; Köditz, Harald; Kaussen, Torsten; Bertram, Harald; Beerbaum, Philipp; Boehne, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) frequently leads to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) with concomitant organ malfunction. Infused particles may exacerbate inflammatory syndromes since they activate the coagulation cascade and alter inflammatory response or microvascular perfusion. In a randomized, controlled, prospective trial, we have previously shown that particle-retentive in-line filtration prevented major complications in critically ill children. Now, we investigated the effect of in-line filtration on major complications in the subgroup of cardiac patients. Children admitted to tertiary pediatric intensive care unit were randomized to either control or filter group obtaining in-line filtration throughout complete infusion therapy. Risk differences and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) of several complications such as SIRS, sepsis, mortality, various organ failure and dysfunction were compared between both groups using the Wald method. 305 children (n = 150 control, n = 155 filter group) with cardiac diseases were finally analyzed. The majority was admitted after cardiac surgery with CPB. Risk of SIRS (-11.3 %; 95 % CI -21.8 to -0.5 %), renal (-10.0 %; 95 % CI -17.0 to -3.0 %) and hematologic (-8.1 %; 95 % CI -14.2 to -0.2 %) dysfunction were significantly decreased within the filter group. No risk differences were demonstrated for occurrence of sepsis, any other organ failure or dysfunctions between both groups. Infused particles might aggravate a systemic hypercoagulability and inflammation with subsequent organ malfunction in pediatric cardiac intensive care patients. Particle-retentive in-line filtration might be effective in preventing SIRS and maintaining renal and hematologic function. In-line filtration offers a novel therapeutic option to decrease morbidity in cardiac intensive care.

  2. Elevated level of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and EPC dysfunction in diabetic patients with cardiac ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issan, Yossi; Hochhauser, Edith; Guo, Austin; Gotlinger, Katherine H.; Kornowski, Ran; Leshem-Lev, Dorit; Lev, Eli; Porat, Eyal; Snir, Eitan; Thompson, Carl I.; Abraham, Nader G.; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Background Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are recruited from the blood system to sites of ischemia and endothelial damage, where they contribute to the repair and development of blood vessels. Since numerous eicosanoids including leukotrienes (LTs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) have been shown to exert potent pro-inflammatory activities, we examined their levels in chronic diabetic patients with severe cardiac ischemia in conjunction with the level and function of EPCs. Results Lipidomic analysis revealed a diabetes-specific increase (p<0.05) in inflammatory and angiogenic eicosanoids including the 5-lipoxygenase-derived LTB4 (4.11±1.17 vs 0.96±0.27 ng/ml), the lipoxygenase/CYP-derived 12-HETE (117.08±35.05 vs 24.34±10.03 ng/ml), 12-HETrE (17.56±4.43 vs 4.15±2.07 ng/ml), and the CYP-derived 20-HETE (0.32±0.04 vs 0.06±0.05 ng/ml) the level of which correlated with BMI (p=0.0027). In contrast, levels of the CYP-derived EETs were not significantly (p= 0.36) different between these two groups. EPC levels and their colony forming units were lower (p<0.05) with a reduced viability in diabetic patients compared with non-diabetics. EPC function (Colony-Forming Units (CFUs) and MTT assay) also negatively correlated with the circulating levels of HgA1C. Conclusion This study demonstrates a close association between elevated levels of highly pro-inflammatory eicosonoids, diabetes and EPC dysfunction in patients with cardiac ischemia, indicating that chronic inflammation impact negatively on EPC function and angiogenic capacity in diabetes. PMID:23291334

  3. Cardiac Dysfunction, Congestion and Loop Diuretics: their Relationship to Prognosis in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicori, Pierpaolo; Cleland, John G F; Zhang, Jufen; Kallvikbacka-Bennett, Anna; Urbinati, Alessia; Shah, Parin; Kazmi, Syed; Clark, Andrew L

    2016-12-01

    Diuretics are the mainstay of treatment for congestion but concerns exist that they adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether the relationship between loop diuretic use and outcome is explained by the underlying severity of congestion amongst patients referred with suspected heart failure. Of 1190 patients, 712 had a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤50 %, 267 had LVEF >50 % with raised plasma NTproBNP (>400 ng/L) and 211 had LVEF >50 % with NTproBNP ≤400 ng/L; respectively, 72 %, 68 % and 37 % of these groups were treated with loop diuretics including 28 %, 29 % and 10 % in doses ≥80 mg furosemide equivalent/day. Compared to patients with cardiac dysfunction (either LVEF ≤50 % or NT-proBNP >400 ng/L) but not taking a loop diuretic, those taking a loop diuretic were older and had more clinical evidence of congestion, renal dysfunction, anaemia and hyponatraemia. During a median follow-up of 934 (IQR: 513-1425) days, 450 patients were hospitalized for HF or died. Patients prescribed loop diuretics had a worse outcome. However, in multi-variable models, clinical, echocardiographic (inferior vena cava diameter), and biochemical (NTproBNP) measures of congestion were strongly associated with an adverse outcome but not the use, or dose, of loop diuretics. Prescription of loop diuretics identifies patients with more advanced features of heart failure and congestion, which may account for their worse prognosis. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between loop diuretic agents and outcome; imaging and biochemical measures of congestion might be better guides to diuretic dose than symptoms or clinical signs.

  4. Phenotypic patterns of right ventricular dysfunction: analysis by cardiac magnetic imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Zorio-Grima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to classify the morphological changes and remodeling of the right ventricle (RV that occur in different clinical situations and that have an impact on RV function. Most literature has traditionally focused on the left ventricle (LV and as a result, few studies analyze RV behavior and remodeling. The study evaluated all cardiac MRI performed at our center from 2008 to 2010. We retrospectively identified 159 patients who had some sign of right ventricular dysfunction (RVD based on MRI findings. We classified patients according to a combination of criteria for RVD and the presence of left ventricle dysfunction (LVD. We considered RVD as any of the following abnormalities: i depressed RV function; ii RV dilatation; iii RV hypertrophy. LVD was considered when there was atrial dilatation, LV hypertrophy, LV dilatation and/or depressed LV function. We obtained 6 pathophysiological patterns: RV pressure overload (1.9%, RV volume overload (15.7%, RV volume overload + LVD (32.7%, depressed RV function + LVD (42.1%, mixed RV overload + LVD (6.9% and other (0.6%. The most frequent etiology was congenital heart disease (33.3%, followed by idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (18.2%, left valvular disease (17.6%, ischemic heart disease (15%, pulmonary disease (9.8%, and other (6.1%. This study helps to classify the different patterns that RV can adopt in different clinical situations and can, therefore, help us to understand the RV pathophysiology.

  5. Paroxetine-mediated GRK2 inhibition reverses cardiac dysfunction and remodeling after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Sarah M; Gao, Erhe; Zhu, Weizhong; Chen, Xiongwen; Chuprun, J Kurt; Feldman, Arthur M; Tesmer, John J G; Koch, Walter J

    2015-03-04

    Heart failure (HF) is a disease of epidemic proportion and is associated with exceedingly high health care costs. G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 2 (GRK2), which is up-regulated in the failing human heart, appears to play a critical role in HF progression in part because enhanced GRK2 activity promotes dysfunctional adrenergic signaling and myocyte death. Recently, we found that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) paroxetine could inhibit GRK2 with selectivity over other GRKs. Wild-type mice were treated for 4 weeks with paroxetine starting at 2 weeks after myocardial infarction (MI). These mice were compared with mice treated with fluoxetine, which does not inhibit GRK2, to control for the SSRI effects of paroxetine. All mice exhibited similar left ventricular (LV) dysfunction before treatment; however, although the control and fluoxetine groups had continued degradation of function, the paroxetine group had considerably improved LV function and structure, and several hallmarks of HF were either inhibited or reversed. Use of genetically engineered mice indicated that paroxetine was working through GRK2 inhibition. The beneficial effects of paroxetine were markedly greater than those of β-blocker therapy, a current standard of care in human HF. These data demonstrate that paroxetine-mediated inhibition of GRK2 improves cardiac function after MI and represents a potential repurposing of this drug, as well as a starting point for innovative small-molecule GRK2 inhibitor development. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Evaluation of attenuation correction in cardiac PET using PET/MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jeffrey M C; Laforest, R; Sotoudeh, H; Nie, X; Sharma, S; McConathy, J; Novak, E; Priatna, A; Gropler, R J; Woodard, P K

    2017-06-01

    Simultaneous acquisition Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) is a new technology that has potential as a tool both in research and clinical diagnosis. However, cardiac PET acquisition has not yet been validated using MR imaging for attenuation correction (AC). The goal of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of PET imaging using a standard 2-point Dixon volume interpolated breathhold examination (VIBE) MR sequence for AC. Evaluation was performed in both phantom and patient data. A chest phantom containing heart, lungs, and a lesion insert was scanned by both PET/MR and PET/CT. In addition, 30 patients underwent whole-body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT followed by simultaneous cardiac PET/MR. Phantom study showed 3% reduction of activity values in the myocardium due to the non-inclusion of the phased array coil in the AC. In patient scans, average standardized uptake values (SUVs) obtained by PET/CT and PET/MR showed no significant difference (n = 30, 4.6 ± 3.5 vs 4.7 ± 2.8, P = 0.47). There was excellent per patient correlation between the values acquired by PET/CT and PET/MR (R 2 = 0.97). Myocardial SUVs PET imaging using MR for AC shows excellent correlation with myocardial SUVs obtained by standard PET/CT imaging. The 2-point Dixon VIBE MR technique can be used for AC in simultaneous PET/MR data acquisition.

  7. Allogeneic pASC transplantation in humanized pigs attenuates cardiac remodeling post-myocardial infarction.

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    Rafael Dariolli

    Full Text Available Cell therapy repair strategies using adult mesenchymal stromal cells have shown promising evidence to prevent cardiac deterioration in rodents even in the absence of robust differentiation of the cells into cardiomyocytes. We tested whether increasing doses of porcine adipose-tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (pASCs increase cardiac tissue perfusion in pigs post-myocardial infarction (MI receiving angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitors and Beta-blockers similarly to patients. Female pigs were subjected to MI induction by sponge permanent occlusion of left circumflex coronary artery (LCx generating approximately 10% of injured LV area with minimum hemodynamic impact. We assessed tissue perfusion by real time myocardial perfusion echocardiography (RTMPE using commercial microbubbles before and following pASCs treatment. Four weeks after the occlusion of the left circumflex artery, we transplanted placebo or pASCs (1, 2 and 4x106 cells/Kg BW into the myocardium. The highest dose of pASCs increased myocardial vessel number and blood flow in the border (56% and 3.7-fold, respectively and in the remote area (54% and 3.9-fold, respectively while the non-perfused scar area decreased (up to 38%. We also found an increase of immature collagen fibers, although the increase in total tissue collagen and types I and III was similar in all groups. Our results provide evidence that pASCs-induced stimulation of tissue perfusion and accumulation of immature collagen fibers attenuates adverse remodeling post-MI beyond the normal beneficial effects associated with ACE inhibition and beta-blockade.

  8. Discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction in the general population with dyspnea by plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, R; Goetze, JP; Schnohr, P

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine whether measurement of plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) could be used in discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea in the general population. BACKGROUND: Natriuretic peptides are useful markers in ruling out acute cardiac...... the expected concentration of plasma proBNP based on age and gender was established for dyspneic subjects: an actual plasma proBNP concentration below half of the expected value ruled out left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction (sensitivity 100%, 95% CI 100% to 100%; specificity 15%, 95% CI 12...

  9. Protective effects of ulinastatin on cardiac dysfunction in mice with heat stroke and its mechanism

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    Jing-jing JI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To examine the effects of ulinastatin (UTI on cardiac dysfunction in mice with heat stroke and its possible mechanism. Methods 20 mice were divided into four groups randomly: room temperature plus normal saline (Sham+NS, room temperature plus UTI (Sham+UTI, heat stress plus normal saline (HS+NS, heat stress plus UTI (HS+UTI, 5 each. 105U/kg UTI was delivered by intraperitoneal injection before the onset of the heat stress. Room temperature groups were housed at room temperature (23.0±0.5℃, while heat stress groups were kept in an incubator at 36.5±0.5℃ and humidity of 65.0%±2.0%. The rectal temperature (Tr reaching 42℃ was taken as severe heat stroke, and the time in two heat stress groups was recorded. The mice were transferred to the room temperature (23.0±0.5℃ for natural cooling after the heat stroke onset. 6 hours after the treatment, cardiac output (CO was ultrasonographically detected, the myocardium was separated for histopathological examination and the expression of total p38 and phosphorylated p38 (p-p38 was determined by Western blotting. Results The time to reach 42℃ in HS+UTI group was significantly prolonged (P=0.044. Compared with the Sham+NS group, the CO in HS+NS and HS+UTI group decreased significantly (P=0.017, and the score of myocardial inflammation (P<0.001 and p-p38/p38 ratio (P<0.001 increased. The CO was significantly higher in HS+UTI group than in HS+NS group (P=0.030, and the score of myocardial inflammation (P<0.001 and p-p38/p38 ratio (P=0.001 were significantly lower. Conclusion Ulinastatin might improve the cardiac function in mice with heat stroke by decreasing the p-p38 and alleviating the inflammation response. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.04.04

  10. Monoamine oxidase-A is an important source of oxidative stress and promotes cardiac dysfunction, apoptosis, and fibrosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbarkar, Prachi; Singh, Sarojini; Arkat, Silpa; Bodhankar, S L; Lohidasan, Sathiyanarayanan; Sitasawad, Sandhya L

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative stress is closely associated with the pathophysiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). The mitochondrial flavoenzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is an important source of oxidative stress in the myocardium. We sought to determine whether MAO-A plays a major role in modulating DCM. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). To investigate the role of MAO-A in the development of pathophysiological features of DCM, hyperglycemic and age-matched control rats were treated with or without the MAO-A-specific inhibitor clorgyline (CLG) at 1 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. Diabetes upregulated MAO-A activity; elevated markers of oxidative stress such as cardiac lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity, and UCP3 protein expression; enhanced apoptotic cell death; and increased fibrosis. All these parameters were significantly attenuated by CLG treatment. In addition, treatment with CLG substantially prevented diabetes-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction as evidenced by decreased QRS, QT, and corrected QT intervals, measured by ECG, and LV systolic and LV end-diastolic pressure measured by microtip pressure transducer. These beneficial effects of CLG were seen despite the persistent hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic environments in STZ-induced experimental diabetes. In summary, this study provides strong evidence that MAO-A is an important source of oxidative stress in the heart and that MAO-A-derived reactive oxygen species contribute to DCM. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiac dysfunction assessed by echocardiographic tissue Doppler imaging is an independent predictor of mortality in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, Rasmus; Sogaard, Peter; Pedersen, Sune A

    2009-01-01

    ; P=0.001), were significant predictors of death in Cox proportional-hazards models adjusted for clinical variables (age, sex, body mass index, heart rate, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and ischemic heart disease) and conventional echocardiography. The adjusted hazard ratio for death in the third...... parameters, left ventricular dysfunction by TDI is a powerful and independent predictor of death, especially when systolic performance and diastolic performance are considered together, recognizing their interdependency and their complex relation to deteriorating cardiac function....

  12. Chronic treatment with metformin suppresses toll-like receptor 4 signaling and attenuates left ventricular dysfunction following myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soraya, Hamid; Clanachan, Alexander S; Rameshrad, Maryam; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Garjani, Alireza

    2014-08-15

    Acute treatment with metformin has a protective effect in myocardial infarction by suppression of inflammatory responses due to activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In the present study, the effect of chronic pre-treatment with metformin on cardiac dysfunction and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activities following myocardial infarction and their relation with AMPK were assessed. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of 5 groups (n=6): normal control and groups were injected isoproterenol after chronic pre-treatment with 0, 25, 50, or 100mg/kg of metformin twice daily for 14 days. Isoproterenol (100mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously on the 13th and 14th days to induce acute myocardial infarction. Isoproterenol alone decreased left ventricular systolic pressure and myocardial contractility indexed as LVdp/dtmax and LVdp/dtmin. The left ventricular dysfunction was significantly lower in the groups treated with 25 and 50mg/kg of metformin. Metfromin markedly lowered isoproterenol-induced elevation in the levels of TLR4 mRNA, myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the heart tissues. Similar changes were also seen in the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6. However, the lower doses of 25 and 50mg/kg were more effective than 100mg/kg. Phosphorylated AMPKα (p-AMPK) in the myocardium was significantly elevated by 25mg/kg of metformin, slightly by 50mg/kg, but not by 100mg/kg. Chronic pre-treatment with metformin reduces post-myocardial infarction cardiac dysfunction and suppresses inflammatory responses, possibly through inhibition of TLR4 activities. This mechanism can be considered as a target to protect infarcted myocardium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiac computed tomography-derived epicardial fat volume and attenuation independently distinguish patients with and without myocardial infarction.

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    Amir Abbas Mahabadi

    Full Text Available Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT volume is associated with coronary plaque burden and adverse events. We aimed to determine, whether CT-derived EAT attenuation in addition to EAT volume distinguishes patients with and without myocardial infarction.In 94 patients with confirmed or suspected coronary artery disease (aged 66.9±14.7years, 61%male undergoing cardiac CT imaging as part of clinical workup, EAT volume was retrospectively quantified from non-contrast cardiac CT by delineation of the pericardium in axial images. Mean attenuation of all pixels from EAT volume was calculated. Patients with type-I myocardial infarction (n = 28 had higher EAT volume (132.9 ± 111.9ml vs. 109.7 ± 94.6ml, p = 0.07 and CT-attenuation (-86.8 ± 5.8HU vs. -89.0 ± 3.7HU, p = 0.03 than patients without type-I myocardial infarction, while EAT volume and attenuation were only modestly inversely correlated (r = -0.24, p = 0.02. EAT volume increased per standard deviation of age (18.2 [6.2-30.2] ml, p = 0.003, BMI (29.3 [18.4-40.2] ml, p<0.0001, and with presence of diabetes (44.5 [16.7-72.3] ml, p = 0.0002, while attenuation was higher in patients with lipid-lowering therapy (2.34 [0.08-4.61] HU, p = 0.04. In a model containing volume and attenuation, both measures of EAT were independently associated with the occurrence of type-I myocardial infarction (OR [95% CI]: 1.79 [1.10-2.94], p = 0.02 for volume, 2.04 [1.18-3.53], p = 0.01 for attenuation. Effect sizes remained stable for EAT attenuation after adjustment for risk factors (1.44 [0.77-2.68], p = 0.26 for volume; 1.93 [1.11-3.39], p = 0.02 for attenuation.CT-derived EAT attenuation, in addition to volume, distinguishes patients with vs. without myocardial infarction and is increased in patients with lipid-lowering therapy. Our results suggest that assessment of EAT attenuation could render complementary information to EAT volume regarding coronary risk burden.

  14. Serum from Diesel Exhaust-Exposed Rats with Cardiac Dysfunction Alters Aortic Endothelial Cell Function In Vitro: Circulating Mediators as Causative Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although circulating inflammatory mediators are strongly associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes triggered by inhaled air pollution, direct cause-effect linkage has not been established. Given that endothelial toxicity often precedes and precipitates cardiac dysfunction, ...

  15. MR-based attenuation correction for cardiac FDG PET on a hybrid PET/MRI scanner: comparison with standard CT attenuation correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vontobel, Jan; Liga, Riccardo; Possner, Mathias; Clerc, Olivier F.; Mikulicic, Fran; Veit-Haibach, Patrick; Voert, Edwin E.G.W. ter; Fuchs, Tobias A.; Stehli, Julia; Pazhenkottil, Aju P.; Benz, Dominik C.; Graeni, Christoph; Gaemperli, Oliver; Herzog, Bernhard; Buechel, Ronny R.; Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of attenuation correction (AC) for cardiac {sup 18}F-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) using MR-based attenuation maps. We included 23 patients with no known cardiac history undergoing whole-body FDG PET/CT imaging for oncological indications on a PET/CT scanner using time-of-flight (TOF) and subsequent whole-body PET/MR imaging on an investigational hybrid PET/MRI scanner. Data sets from PET/MRI (with and without TOF) were reconstructed using MR AC and semi-quantitative segmental (20-segment model) myocardial tracer uptake (per cent of maximum) and compared to PET/CT which was reconstructed using CT AC and served as standard of reference. Excellent correlations were found for regional uptake values between PET/CT and PET/MRI with TOF (n = 460 segments in 23 patients; r = 0.913; p < 0.0001) with narrow Bland-Altman limits of agreement (-8.5 to +12.6 %). Correlation coefficients were slightly lower between PET/CT and PET/MRI without TOF (n = 460 segments in 23 patients; r = 0.851; p < 0.0001) with broader Bland-Altman limits of agreement (-12.5 to +15.0 %). PET/MRI with and without TOF showed minimal underestimation of tracer uptake (-2.08 and -1.29 %, respectively), compared to PET/CT. Relative myocardial FDG uptake obtained from MR-based attenuation corrected FDG PET is highly comparable to standard CT-based attenuation corrected FDG PET, suggesting interchangeability of both AC techniques. (orig.)

  16. High-intensity interval exercise attenuates but does not eliminate endothelial dysfunction after a fast food meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Wesley J; Sawyer, Brandon J; Jarrett, Catherine L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Ryder, Justin R; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2018-02-01

    We investigated whether two different bouts of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) could attenuate postprandial endothelial dysfunction. Thirteen young (27 ± 1 yr), nonexercise-trained men underwent three randomized conditions: 1) four 4-min intervals at 85-95% of maximum heart rate separated by 3 min of active recovery (HIIE 4 × 4), 2) 16 1-min intervals at 85-95% of maximum heart rate separated by 1 min of active recovery (HIIE 16 × 1), and 3) sedentary control. HIIE was performed in the afternoon, ~18 h before the morning fast food meal (1,250 kcal, 63g of fat). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was performed before HIIE ( baseline 1), during fasting before meal ingestion ( baseline 2), and 30 min, 2 h, and 4 h postprandial. Capillary glucose and triglycerides were assessed at fasting, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h (triglycerides only). Both HIIE protocols increased fasting FMD compared with control (HIIE 4 × 4: 6.1 ± 0.4%, HIIE 16 × 1: 6.3 ± 0.5%, and control: 5.1 ± 0.4%, P fast food meal can attenuate but not entirely eliminate postprandial decreases in FMD. This effect is not dependent on reductions in postprandial lipemia or glycemia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Two similar high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) protocols performed ∼18 h before ingestion of a high-energy fast food meal attenuated but did not entirely eliminate postprandial endothelial dysfunction in young men largely by improving fasting endothelial function. Both HIIE protocols produced essentially identical results, suggesting high reproducibility of HIIE effects.

  17. Senegenin attenuates hepatic ischemia-reperfusion induced cognitive dysfunction by increasing hippocampal NR2B expression in rats.

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    Weibin Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The root of Polygala tenuifolia, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to improve memory and intelligence, while the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of senegenin, an component of Polygala tenuifolia root extracts, on cognitive dysfunction induced by hepatic ischemia-reperfusion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Initially, we constructed a rat model of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (HIR and found that the memory retention ability of rats in the step-down and Y maze test was impaired after HIR, paralleled by a decrease of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor NR2B subunit mRNA and protein expressions in hippocampus. Furthermore, we found that administration of senegenin by gavage attenuated HIR-induced cognitive impairment in a dose and time dependent manner, and its mechanisms might partly due to the increasing expression of NR2B in rat hippocampus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cognitive dysfunction induced by HIR is associated with reduction of NR2B expression. Senegenin plays a neuroprotective role in HIR via increasing NR2B expression in rat hippocampus. These findings suggest that senegenin might be a potential agent for prevention and treatment of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD or other neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Growth hormone-releasing hormone attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and improves heart function in pressure overload-induced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesmundo, Iacopo; Miragoli, Michele; Carullo, Pierluigi; Trovato, Letizia; Larcher, Veronica; Di Pasquale, Elisa; Brancaccio, Mara; Mazzola, Marta; Villanova, Tania; Sorge, Matteo; Taliano, Marina; Gallo, Maria Pia; Alloatti, Giuseppe; Penna, Claudia; Hare, Joshua M; Ghigo, Ezio; Schally, Andrew V; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Granata, Riccarda

    2017-11-07

    It has been shown that growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) reduces cardiomyocyte (CM) apoptosis, prevents ischemia/reperfusion injury, and improves cardiac function in ischemic rat hearts. However, it is still not known whether GHRH would be beneficial for life-threatening pathological conditions, like cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). Thus, we tested the myocardial therapeutic potential of GHRH stimulation in vitro and in vivo, using GHRH or its agonistic analog MR-409. We show that in vitro, GHRH(1-44)NH 2 attenuates phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy in H9c2 cardiac cells, adult rat ventricular myocytes, and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CMs, decreasing expression of hypertrophic genes and regulating hypertrophic pathways. Underlying mechanisms included blockade of Gq signaling and its downstream components phospholipase Cβ, protein kinase Cε, calcineurin, and phospholamban. The receptor-dependent effects of GHRH also involved activation of Gα s and cAMP/PKA, and inhibition of increase in exchange protein directly activated by cAMP1 (Epac1). In vivo, MR-409 mitigated cardiac hypertrophy in mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction and improved cardiac function. Moreover, CMs isolated from transverse aortic constriction mice treated with MR-409 showed improved contractility and reversal of sarcolemmal structure. Overall, these results identify GHRH as an antihypertrophic regulator, underlying its therapeutic potential for HF, and suggest possible beneficial use of its analogs for treatment of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  19. Andrographolide Attenuates LPS-Induced Cardiac Malfunctions Through Inhibition of IκB Phosphorylation and Apoptosis in Mice

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    Jinlong Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Cardiac malfunction is a common complication in sepsis and significantly increases the mortality of patients in septic shock. However, no studies have examined whether andrographolide (And reduces LPS-induced myocardial malfunction. Methods: Left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions were examined using echocardiography. TNF-a and IL-1ß protein levels were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. NO oxidation products were determined using Griess reagent. Protein expression levels of inhibitors of NF-κBa (IκB and phospho-IκB were determined via Western blot. Oxidative injury was determined by measuring myocardial lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity. Cardiac apoptosis was examined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nickend-labeling (TUNEL and cardiac caspase 3/7 activity. Results: And blunted LPS-induced myocardial malfunctions in mice. LPS induced TNF-a, IL-1ß, and NO production as well as I-κB phosphorylation. Cardiac apoptosis was attenuated via incubation with And, but the extent of oxidative injury remained unaffected. Conclusion: And prevents LPS-induced cardiac malfunctions in mice by inhibiting TNF-a, IL-1ß, and NO production, IκB phosphorylation, and cardiac apoptosis, indicating that And may be a potential agent for preventing myocardial malfunction during sepsis.

  20. Rapamycin Attenuated Cardiac Hypertrophy Induced by Isoproterenol and Maintained Energy Homeostasis via Inhibiting NF-κB Activation

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    Xi Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapamycin, also known as sirolimus, is an immunosuppressant drug used to prevent rejection organ (especially kidney transplantation. However, little is known about the role of Rapa in cardiac hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol and its underlying mechanism. In this study, Rapa was administrated intraperitoneally for one week after the rat model of cardiac hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol established. Rapa was demonstrated to attenuate isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy, maintain the structure integrity and functional performance of mitochondria, and upregulate genes related to fatty acid metabolism in hypertrophied hearts. To further study the implication of NF-κB in the protective role of Rapa, cardiomyocytes were pretreated with TNF-α or transfected with siRNA against NF-κB/p65 subunit. It was revealed that the upregulation of extracellular circulating proinflammatory cytokines induced by isoproterenol was able to be reversed by Rapa, which was dependent on NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, the regression of cardiac hypertrophy and maintaining energy homeostasis by Rapa in cardiomyocytes may be attributed to the inactivation of NF-κB. Our results shed new light on mechanisms underlying the protective role of Rapa against cardiac hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol, suggesting that blocking proinflammatory response by Rapa might contribute to the maintenance of energy homeostasis during the progression of cardiac hypertrophy.

  1. Low Molecular Weight Fucoidan Alleviates Cardiac Dysfunction in Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats by Reducing Oxidative Stress and Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis

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    Xinfeng Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM is characterized by cardiac dysfunction and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Oxidative stress is suggested to be the major contributor to the development of DCM. This study was intended to evaluate the protective effect of low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF against cardiac dysfunction in diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetic goto-kakizaki rats were untreated or treated with LMWF (50 and 100 mg/kg/day for three months. The establishment of DCM model and the effects of LMWF on cardiac function were evaluated by echocardiography and isolated heart perfusion. Ventricle staining with H-E or Sirius Red was performed to investigate the structural changes in myocardium. Functional evaluation demonstrated that LMWF has a beneficial effect on DCM by enhancing myocardial contractility and mitigating cardiac fibrosis. Additionally, LMWF exerted significant inhibitory effects on the reactive oxygen species production and myocyte apoptosis in diabetic hearts. The depressed activity of superoxide dismutase in diabetic heart was also improved by intervention with LMWF. Moreover, LMWF robustly inhibited the enhanced expression of protein kinase C β, an important contributor to oxidative stress, in diabetic heart and high glucose-treated cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, LMWF possesses a protective effect against DCM through ameliorations of PKCβ-mediated oxidative stress and subsequent cardiomyocyte apoptosis in diabetes.

  2. Mice lacking the Cβ subunit of PKA are resistant to angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Linda C; Bible, Kenneth L; Emond, Mary J; Ladiges, Warren C

    2010-11-16

    PKA is a ubiquitous, multi-subunit cellular kinase that regulates a number of different physiological responses in response to cAMP, including metabolism, cell division, and cardiac function. Numerous studies have implicated altered PKA signaling in cardiac dysfunction. Recently, it has been shown that mice lacking the catalytic β subunit of PKA (PKA Cβ) are protected from age-related problems such as weight gain and enlarged livers, and we hypothesized that these mice might also be resistant to cardiomyopathy. Angiotensin II (ang II) induced hypertension in both PKA Cβ null mice and their WT littermates. However, PKA Cβ null mice were resistant to a number of ang II-induced, cardiopathological effects observed in the WT mice, including hypertrophy, decreased diastolic performance, and enlarged left atria. The Cβ subunit of PKA plays an important role in angiotensin-induced cardiac dysfunction. The Cβ null mouse highlights the potential of the PKA Cβ subunit as a pharmaceutical target for hypertrophic cardiac disease.

  3. Green tea polyphenols attenuate glial swelling and mitochondrial dysfunction following oxygen-glucose deprivation in cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrocyte swelling is a major component of cytotoxic brain edema in ischemia. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been hypothesized to contribute to such swelling in cultures. We investigated the protective effects of polyphenol-rich green tea extract (GTE) on key features of ischemi...

  4. Urtica dioica extract attenuates depressive like behavior and associative memory dysfunction in dexamethasone induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2014-03-01

    Evidences suggest that glucocorticoids results in depression and is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Further diabetes induces oxidative stress and hippocampal dysfunction resulting in cognitive decline. Traditionally Urtica dioica has been used for diabetes mellitus and cognitive dysfunction. The present study investigated the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) in dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.m.) induced diabetes and its associated complications such as depressive like behavior and cognitive dysfunction. We observed that mice administered with chronic dexamethasone resulted in hypercortisolemia, oxidative stress, depressive like behavior, cognitive impairment, hyperglycemia with reduced body weight, increased water intake and decreased hippocampal glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) mRNA expression. Urtica dioica significantly reduced hyperglycemia, plasma corticosterone, oxidative stress and depressive like behavior as well as improved associative memory and hippocampal GLUT4 mRNA expression comparable to rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Further, Urtica dioica insignificantly improved spatial memory and serum insulin. In conclusion, Urtica dioica reversed dexamethasone induced hyperglycemia and its associated complications such as depressive like behavior and cognitive dysfunction.

  5. Prophylactic furosemide infusion decreasing early major postoperative renal dysfunction in on-pump adult cardiac surgery: a randomized clinical trial

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    Fakhari S

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solmaz Fakhari,1 Fariba Mirzaei Bavil,2 Eissa Bilehjani,1 Sona Abolhasani,3 Moussa Mirinazhad,2 Bahman Naghipour2 1Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Physiology, 3Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran Introduction: Acute renal dysfunction is a common complication of cardiac surgery. Furosemide is used in prevention, or treatment, of acute renal dysfunction. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of intra- and early postoperative furosemide infusion on preventing acute renal dysfunction in elective adult cardiac surgery. Methods: Eighty-one patients, candidates of elective cardiac surgery, were enrolled in this study in either the furosemide (n=41 or placebo (n=40 group. Furosemide (2 mg/h or 0.9% saline was administered and continued up to 12 hours postoperatively. We measured serum creatinine (Scr at preoperative and on the second and fifth postoperative days. Then calculated estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR at these times. An increase in Scr of >0.5 mg/dL and/or >25%–50%, compared to preoperative values, was considered as acute kidney injury (AKI. In contrast, an increase in Scr by >50% and/or the need for hemodialysis was regarded as acute renal failure (ARF. At the end we compared the AKI or ARF incidence between the two groups. Results: On the second and fifth postoperative days, Scr was lower, and the eGFR was higher in the furosemide group. AKI incidence was similar in the two groups (11 vs 12 cases; P-value 0.622; however, ARF rate was lower in furosemide group (1 vs 6 cases; P-value 0.044. During the study period, Scr was more stable in the furosemide group, however in the placebo group, Scr initially increased and then decreased to its preoperative value after a few days. Conclusion: This study showed that intra- and early postoperative furosemide infusion has a renal protective effect in adult cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Although this protective effect cannot

  6. Systemic Lidocaine Does Not Attenuate Hepatic Dysfunction After Liver Surgery in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Wilmar; Diepenhorst, Gwen M. P.; Herroeder, Susanne; Erdogan, Deha; Hollmann, Markus W.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lidocaine has been shown to attenuate ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in the heart, lung, and brain, potentially due to modulation of inflammatory responses and apoptotic signaling pathways. Because hepatic I/R injury after liver surgery still poses a significant risk for postoperative

  7. B-vitamin Supplementation Mitigates Effects of Fine Particles on Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction and Inflammation: A Pilot Human Intervention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jia; Trevisi, Letizia; Urch, Bruce; Lin, Xinyi; Speck, Mary; Coull, Brent A.; Liss, Gary; Thompson, Aaron; Wu, Shaowei; Wilson, Ander; Koutrakis, Petros; Silverman, Frances; Gold, Diane R.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2017-04-01

    Ambient fine particle (PM2.5) pollution triggers acute cardiovascular events. Individual-level preventions are proposed to complement regulation in reducing the global burden of PM2.5-induced cardiovascular diseases. We determine whether B vitamin supplementation mitigates PM2.5 effects on cardiac autonomic dysfunction and inflammation in a single-blind placebo-controlled crossover pilot trial. Ten healthy adults received two-hour controlled-exposure-experiment to sham under placebo, PM2.5 (250 μg/m3) under placebo, and PM2.5 (250 μg/m3) under B-vitamin supplementation (2.5 mg/d folic acid, 50 mg/d vitamin B6, and 1 mg/d vitamin B12), respectively. At pre-, post-, 24 h-post-exposure, we measured resting heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) with electrocardiogram, and white blood cell (WBC) counts with hematology analyzer. Compared to sham, PM2.5 exposure increased HR (3.8 bpm, 95% CI: 0.3, 7.4; P = 0.04), total WBC count (11.5%, 95% CI: 0.3%, 24.0%; P = 0.04), lymphocyte count (12.9%, 95% CI: 4.4%, 22.1%; P = 0.005), and reduced low-frequency power (57.5%, 95% CI: 2.5%, 81.5%; P = 0.04). B-vitamin supplementation attenuated PM2.5 effect on HR by 150% (P = 0.003), low-frequency power by 90% (P = 0.01), total WBC count by 139% (P = 0.006), and lymphocyte count by 106% (P = 0.02). In healthy adults, two-hour PM2.5 exposure substantially increases HR, reduces HRV, and increases WBC. These effects are reduced by B vitamin supplementation.

  8. Celastrol attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation in palmitate-mediated insulin resistance in C3A hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Mohamad Hafizi; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji; Tan, Joo Shun; Mohamad Rosdi, Mohamad Norisham

    2017-03-15

    Accumulating evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction-induced inflammation is among the convergence points for the greatest hallmarks of hepatic insulin resistance. Celastrol, an anti-inflammatory compound from the root of Tripterygium Wilfordii has been reported to mitigate insulin resistance and inflammation in animal disease models. Nevertheless, the specific mechanistic actions of celastrol in modulating such improvements at the cellular level remain obscure. The present study sought to explore the mechanistic roles of celastrol upon insulin resistance induced by palmitate in C3A human hepatocytes. The hepatocytes exposed to palmitate (0.75mM) for 48h exhibited reduced both basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to increased mitochondrial oxidative stress with diminished fatty acid oxidation. Elevated expressions of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways and the amplified release of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α and CRP were observed following palmitate treatment. Consistently, palmitate reduced and augmented phosphorylated Tyrosine-612 and Serine-307 of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) proteins, respectively in hepatocytes. However, celastrol at the optimum concentration of 30nM was able to reverse these deleterious occasions and protected the cells from mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance. Importantly, we presented evidence for the first time that celastrol efficiently prevented palmitate-induced insulin resistance in hepatocytes at least, via improved mitochondrial functions and insulin signaling pathways. In summary, the present investigation underlines a conceivable mechanism to elucidate the cytoprotective potential of celastrol in attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation against the development of hepatic insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Folic acid prevents cardiac dysfunction and reduces myocardial fibrosis in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Tang, Renqiao; Ouyang, Shengrong; Ma, Feifei; Liu, Zhuo; Wu, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) is an antioxidant that can reduce reactive oxygen species generation and can blunt cardiac dysfunction during ischemia. We hypothesized that FA supplementation prevents cardiac fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction induced by obesity. Six-week-old C57BL6/J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), normal diet (ND), or an HFD supplemented with folic acid (FAD) for 14 weeks. Cardiac function was measured using a transthoracic echocardiographic exam. Phenotypic analysis included measurements of body and heart weight, blood glucose and tissue homocysteine (Hcy) content, and heart oxidative stress status. HFD consumption elevated fasting blood glucose levels and caused obesity and heart enlargement. FA supplementation in HFD-fed mice resulted in reduced fasting blood glucose, heart weight, and heart tissue Hcy content. We also observed a significant cardiac systolic dysfunction when mice were subjected to HFD feeding as indicated by a reduction in the left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening. However, FAD treatment improved cardiac function. FA supplementation protected against cardiac fibrosis induced by HFD. In addition, HFD increased malondialdehyde concentration of the heart tissue and reduced the levels of antioxidant enzyme, glutathione, and catalase. HFD consumption induced myocardial oxidant stress with amelioration by FA treatment. FA supplementation significantly lowers blood glucose levels and heart tissue Hcy content and reverses cardiac dysfunction induced by HFD in mice. These functional improvements of the heart may be mediated by the alleviation of oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis.

  10. Milrinone for cardiac dysfunction in critically ill adult patients : a systematic review of randomised clinical trials with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Geert; Bekema, Hanneke J.; Wetterslev, Jorn; Gluud, Christian; Keus, Frederik; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.

    Milrinone is an inotrope widely used for treatment of cardiac failure. Because previous meta-analyses had methodological flaws, we decided to conduct a systematic review of the effect of milrinone in critically ill adult patients with cardiac dysfunction. This systematic review was performed

  11. mTOR Hyperactivation by Ablation of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 in the Mouse Heart Induces Cardiac Dysfunction with the Increased Number of Small Mitochondria Mediated through the Down-Regulation of Autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Taneike

    Full Text Available Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 is a key regulator of cell growth, proliferation and metabolism. mTORC1 regulates protein synthesis positively and autophagy negatively. Autophagy is a major system to manage bulk degradation and recycling of cytoplasmic components and organelles. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC 1 and 2 form a heterodimeric complex and inactivate Ras homolog enriched in brain, resulting in inhibition of mTORC1. Here, we investigated the effects of hyperactivation of mTORC1 on cardiac function and structure using cardiac-specific TSC2-deficient (TSC2-/- mice. TSC2-/- mice were born normally at the expected Mendelian ratio. However, the median life span of TSC2-/- mice was approximately 10 months and significantly shorter than that of control mice. TSC2-/- mice showed cardiac dysfunction and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy without considerable fibrosis, cell infiltration or apoptotic cardiomyocyte death. Ultrastructural analysis of TSC2-/- hearts revealed misalignment, aggregation and a decrease in the size and an increase in the number of mitochondria, but the mitochondrial function was maintained. Autophagic flux was inhibited, while the phosphorylation level of S6 or eukaryotic initiation factor 4E -binding protein 1, downstream of mTORC1, was increased. The upregulation of autophagic flux by trehalose treatment attenuated the cardiac phenotypes such as cardiac dysfunction and structural abnormalities of mitochondria in TSC2-/- hearts. The results suggest that autophagy via the TSC2-mTORC1 signaling pathway plays an important role in maintenance of cardiac function and mitochondrial quantity and size in the heart and could be a therapeutic target to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis in failing hearts.

  12. History of alcohol abuse after major non-cardiac surgery and postoperative cognitive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdenović, Ljiljana; Antanasković, Ana

    2015-11-01

    The risk factors for postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after non-cardiac surgery include advanced age and preexisting cognitive impairment. Data was collected in a prospective manner on 220 patients of both genders. Patients were triaged into three groups, with American Society of Anesthesiologists-ASA Physical Classification System levels I-IV. Patients were 55 years of age and older, with self-reported alcohol abuse and were matched to age-, sex-, and education-matched nonalcoholic controls. They were tested using a neurocognitive battery before and two weeks after elective surgery or after a corresponding time interval without surgery. Verbal memory, visuospatial memory, and executive functions were assessed. Neurologic examination was performed in order to exclude subjects with potential cerebrovascular damage. Standard laboratory analyses were done and findings recorded. Significant predisposing factors for developing POCD were noted. From the total number of participants involved in the study, 135 (67.5%) patients belonged to ASA class III. Among all patients, 168 (84%) patients were chronic alcohol users. Pearson's χ(2) test shows a statistically significant difference regarding the use of alcohol (χ(2)=19.220, df=1, p=0.000, palcoholic group decreased after surgery. In the study by Mason which involved 255 elderly patients that were postoperatively admitted to the intensive care unit following a major abdominal surgery, development of POCD was two times greater in urgent cases (~40% of cases), when compared to elective interventions. Our results complement the data given by the World Health Organization and results of similar studies. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of Ambulatory Blood Pressure on Early Cardiac and Renal Dysfunction in Hypertensive Patients without Clinically Apparent Target Organ Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Darae; Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu Ru; Park, Sungha; Cho, In Jeong; Chang, Hyuk Jae; Ha, Jong Won; Chung, Namsik

    2018-03-01

    Impaired left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) and the presence of microalbuminuria indicate early cardiac and renal dysfunction. We aimed to determine the relationships among 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) variables, LV GLS, and urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) in hypertensive patients. A total of 130 hypertensive patients (mean age 53 years; 59 men) underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, measurements of peripheral and central BPs, and transthoracic echocardiography. Patients with apparent LV systolic dysfunction (LV ejection fraction <50%) or chronic kidney disease were not included. LV GLS was calculated using two-dimensional speckle tracking, and UACR was analyzed from spot urine samples. In simple correlation analysis, LV GLS showed the most significant correlation with mean daytime diastolic BP (DBP) (r=0.427, p<0.001) among the various BP variables analyzed. UACR revealed a significant correlation only with night-time mean systolic BP (SBP) (r=0.253, p=0.019). In multiple regression analysis, daytime mean DBP and night-time mean SBP were independent determinants for LV GLS (β=0.35, p=0.028) and log UACR (β=0.49, p=0.007), respectively, after controlling for confounding factors. Daytime mean DBP showed better diagnostic performance for impaired LV GLS than did peripheral or central DBPs, which were not diagnostic. Night-time mean SBP showed satisfactory diagnostic performance for microalbuminuria. There are different associations for daytime and night-time BP with early cardiac and renal dysfunction. Ambulatory BP monitoring provides more relevant BP parameters than do peripheral or central BPs regarding early cardiac and renal dysfunction in hypertensive patients.

  14. SRT2104 attenuates diabetes-induced aortic endothelial dysfunction via inhibition of P53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Wu, Junduo; Zhou, Shengzhu; Huang, Wenlin; Li, Ying; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Junnan; Jia, Ye

    2018-01-25

    Endothelial dysfunction contributes to diabetic macrovascular complications. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) protects against diabetic vasculopathy. SRT2104 is a novel SIRT1 activator and was not previously studied for its effects on diabetes-induced aortic endothelial dysfunction. Additionally, whether or to what extent deacetylation of P53, a substrate of SIRT1, is required for the effects of SIRT1 activation was unclear, given the fact that SIRT1 has multiple targets. Moreover, little was known for the pathogenic role of P53 in diabetes-induced aortic injury. To these ends, diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in C57BL/6 mice. The diabetic mice developed enhanced aortic contractility, oxidative stress, inflammation, P53 hyperacetylation and a remarkable decrease in SIRT1 protein, the effects of which were rescued by SRT2104. In HG-treated endothelial cells (ECs), P53 siRNA and SRT2104 produced similar effects on the induction of SIRT1 and the inhibition of P53 acetylation, oxidative stress and inflammation. Interestingly, SRT2104 failed to further enhance these effects in the presence of P53 siRNA. Moreover, P53 activation by nutlin3a completely abolished SRT2104's protection against HG-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Further, forced activation of P53 by nutlin3a increased aortic contractility in the healthy mice, and generated endothelial oxidative stress and inflammation in both the normal glucose-cultured ECs and the aortas of the healthy mice. Collectively, the present study demonstrates that P53 deacetylation predominantly mediates SRT2104's protection against diabetes-induced aortic endothelial dysfunction, and highlights the pathogenic role of P53 in aortic endothelial dysfunction.

  15. Naringin ameliorates memory deficits in experimental paradigm of Alzheimer's disease by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Anand Kamal; Kuhad, Anurag; Chopra, Kanwaljit

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been well documented in age related disorders like Alzheimer's disease. Alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential lead to neuronal death by excessive generation of free radicals, inflammatory cytokines, and excitotoxins. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin (STZ) induced-cognitive impairment has been widely used as an experimental model of Alzheimer's disease. Naringin is a potent antioxidant, which can cross the blood brain barrier protecting brain tissue and modulating brain chemistry. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of naringin, in ICV STZ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and memory loss in rats. Streptozotocin (3mg/kg, ICV) was injected bilaterally in two divided doses on first and third day followed by treatment with different doses of naringin (50, 100 and 200mg/kg; p.o.) for twenty one days. Behavioral alterations were monitored using Morris water maze paradigm and elevated plus maze test. Animals were sacrificed to evaluate various biochemical and mitochondrial parameters in brain. Rivastigmine was used as a standard drug. ICV-STZ administration produced significant cognitive deficits as assessed by both Morris water maze and elevated plus maze task which is accompanied by significantly enhanced oxidative-nitrosative stress, altered acetylcholinesterase and mitochondrial enzyme activities in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rats brain along with significantly increased brain TNF-α and IL-1β levels. Chronic treatment with naringin dose dependently restored cognitive deficits in ICV-STZ rat along with mitigation of mitochondrial dysfunction mediated oxido-nitrosative stress and cytokine release. Our findings demonstrate that naringin ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction mediated oxido-nitrosative stress and inflammatory surge in ICV-STZ rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. AVE 3085, a novel endothelial nitric oxide synthase enhancer, attenuates cardiac remodeling in mice through the Smad signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yili; Chen, Cong; Feng, Cong; Tang, Anli; Ma, Yuedong; He, Xin; Li, Yanhui; He, Jiangui; Dong, Yugang

    2015-03-15

    AVE 3085 is a novel endothelial nitric oxide synthase enhancer. Although AVE 3085 treatment has been shown to be effective in spontaneously restoring endothelial function in hypertensive rats, little is known about the effects and mechanisms of AVE 3085 with respect to cardiac remodeling. The present study was designed to examine the effects of AVE 3085 on cardiac remodeling and the mechanisms underlying the effects of this compound. Mice were subjected to aortic banding to induce cardiac remodeling and were then administered AVE 3085 (10 mg kg day(-1), orally) for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the aortic banding-treated mice exhibited significant elevations in cardiac remodeling, characterized by an increase in left ventricular weight relative to body weight, an increase in the area of collagen deposition, an increase in the mean myocyte diameter, and increases in the gene expressions of the hypertrophic markers atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and β-MHC. These indexes were significantly decreased in the AVE 3085-treated mice. Furthermore, AVE 3085 treatment reduced the expression and activation of the Smad signaling pathway in the aortic banding-treated mice. Our data showed that AVE 3085 attenuated cardiac remodeling, and this effect was possibly mediated through the inhibition of Smad signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cardio-oncology: a multidisciplinary approach for detection, prevention and management of cardiac dysfunction in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajiri, Kazuko; Aonuma, Kazutaka; Sekine, Ikuo

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac dysfunction that develops during or after completion of cancer therapy is a growing health concern that should be addressed in a multidisciplinary setting. Cardio-oncology is a new discipline that focuses on screening, monitoring and treating cardiovascular disease during and after cancer treatment. A baseline cardiovascular risk assessment is essential. For high-risk patients, a tailored and detailed plan for cardiovascular management throughout treatment and beyond should also be established. Anthracycline and/or trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy and chest-directed radiation therapy are well known cardiotoxic cancer therapies. Monitoring for the development of subclinical cardiotoxicity is crucial for the prevention of clinical heart failure. Detecting a decreased left ventricular ejection fraction after cancer therapy might be a late finding; therefore, earlier markers of cardiac injury are being actively explored. Abnormal myocardial strain and increased serum cardiac biomarkers (e.g. troponins and natriuretic peptides) are possible candidates for this purpose. An important method for preventing heart failure is the avoidance or minimization of the use of cardiotoxic therapies. Decisions must balance the anti-tumor efficacy of the treatment with its potential cardiotoxicity. If patients develop cardiac dysfunction or heart failure, they should be treated in accordance with established guidelines for heart failure. Cancer survivors who have been exposed to cardiotoxic cancer therapies are at high risk of developing heart failure. The management of cardiovascular risk factors and periodic screening with cardiac imaging and biomarkers should be considered in high-risk survivors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. SIRT3 Overexpression Attenuates Palmitate-Induced Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kim

    Full Text Available Abnormally high levels of circulating free fatty acids can lead to pancreatic islet β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis, contributing to β-cell failure in Type 2 diabetes. The NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3 has been implicated in Type 2 diabetes. In this study, we tested whether SIRT3 overexpression affects palmitate-induced β-cell dysfunction in cells of line NIT1, which are derived from mouse pancreatic β-cells. Two different lengths of SIRT3 were overexpressed: full length SIRT3 (SIRT3LF, which was preferentially targeted to mitochondria and partially to the nucleus, and its N-terminal truncated form (SIRT3SF, which was located in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Overexpression of SIRT3LF and SIRT3SF using an adenoviral system alleviated palmitate-induced lipotoxicity such as reduction of cell viability and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK activation. Chronic exposure to low concentrations of palmitate suppressed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, but the suppression was effectively reversed by overexpression of SIRT3LF or SIRT3SF. The mRNA levels of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress responsive genes ATF4, GRP94 and FKBP11 were increased by palmitate treatment, but the increases were completely inhibited by SIRT3LF overexpression and less effectively inhibited by SIRT3SF overexpression. This result suggests that overexpression of SIRT3 inhibits induction of ER stress by palmitate. Collectively, we conclude that overexpression of SIRT3 alleviates palmitate-induced β-cell dysfunction.

  19. Selumetinib, an Oral Anti-Neoplastic Drug, May Attenuate Cardiac Hypertrophy via Targeting the ERK Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Chen, Zhongxiu; Yang, Hao; Luo, Fangbo; Chen, Lihong; Cai, Huawei; Li, Yajiao; You, Guiying; Long, Dan; Li, Shengfu; Zhang, Qiuping; Rao, Li

    2016-01-01

    Although extracellular-regulated kinases (ERK) are a well-known central mediator in cardiac hypertrophy, no clinically available ERK antagonist has been tested for preventing cardiac hypertrophy. Selumetinib is a novel oral MEK inhibitor that is currently under Phase II and Phase III clinical investigation for advanced solid tumors. In this study, we investigated whether Selumetinib could inhibit the aberrant ERK activation of the heart in response to stress as well as prevent cardiac hypertrophy. In an in vitro model of PE-induced cardiac hypertrophy, Selumetinib significantly inhibited the ERK activation and prevented enlargement of cardiomyocytes or reactivation of certain fetal genes. In the pathologic cardiac hypertrophy model of ascending aortic constriction, Selumetinib provided significant ERK inhibition in the stressed heart but not in the other organs. This selective ERK inhibition prevented left ventricular (LV) wall thickening, LV mass increase, fetal gene reactivation and cardiac fibrosis. In another distinct physiologic cardiac hypertrophy model of a swimming rat, Selumetinib provided a similar anti-hypertrophy effect, except that no significant fetal gene reactivation or cardiac fibrosis was observed. Selumetinib, a novel oral anti-cancer drug with good safety records in a number of Phase II clinical trials, can inhibit ERK activity in the heart and prevent cardiac hypertrophy. These promising results indicate that Selumetinib could potentially be used to treat cardiac hypertrophy. However, this hypothesis needs to be validated in human clinical trials.

  20. Activation of sonic hedgehog signaling attenuates oxidized low-density lipoprotein-stimulated brain microvascular endothelial cells dysfunction in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiu-Long; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    The study was performed to investigate the role of sonic hedgehog (SHH) in the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. The primary mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (MBMECs) were exposed to oxLDL. The results indicated that treatment of MBMECs with oxLDL decreased the cell viability, and oxidative stress was involved in oxLDL-induce MBMECs dysfunction with increasing intracellular ROS and MDA formation as well as decreasing NO release and eNOS mRNA expression. In addition, SHH signaling components, such as SHH, Smo and Gli1, mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased after incubation with increasing concentrations of oxLDL. Treatment with oxLDL alone or SHH loss-of-function significantly increased the permeability of MBMECs, and overexpression of SHH attenuated oxLDL-induced elevation of permeability in MBMECs. Furthermore, SHH gain-of-function could reverse oxLDL-induced apoptosis through inhibition caspase3 and caspase8 levels in MBMECs. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the suppression of SHH in MBMECs might contribute to the oxLDL-induced disruption of endothelial barrier. However, the overexpression of SHH could reverse oxLDL-induced endothelial cells dysfunction in vitro.

  1. Astaxanthin Attenuates Homocysteine-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Vitro and in Vivo by Inhibiting Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cun-dong Fan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Homocysteine (Hcy as an independent risk factor contributes to the occurrence and development of human cardiovascular diseases (CVD. Induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis was commonly accepted as the major mechanism in Hcy-induced cardiotoxicity. Astaxanthin (ATX as one of the most powerful antioxidants exhibits novel cardioprotective potential against Hcy-induced endothelial dysfunction. However, the protective effect and mechanism of ATX against Hcy-induced cardiotoxicity in cardiomyocytes have not been elucidated yet. Herein, H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes and Hcy-injured animal model were employed in the present study. The MTT, flow cytometry analysis (FCM, TUNEL-DAPI and western blotting results all demonstrated that ATX significantly alleviated Hcy-induced cytotoxicity in H9c2 cells through inhibition of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. The JC-1 and Mito-tracker staining both revealed that ATX pre-treatment blocked Hcy-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by regulating Bcl-2 family expression. Moreover, DCFH-DA and Mito-SOX staining showed that ATX effectively attenuated Hcy-induced oxidative damage via scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. Importantly, the ELISA and immunohistochemical results indicated that Hcy-induced cardiotoxicity in vivo was also significantly inhibited by ATX through inhibition of oxidative damage and apoptosis, and improvement of the angiogenesis. Taken together, our results demonstrated that ATX suppressed Hcy-induced cardiotoxicity in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage. Our findings validated the strategy of using ATX may be a highly efficient way to combat Hcy-mediated human CVD.

  2. Centella asiatica attenuates β-amyloid-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Nora E.; Sampath, Harini; Zweig, Jonathan A.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Soumyanath, Amala

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously showed that a water extract of the medicinal plant Centella asiatica (CAW) attenuates β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced cognitive deficits in vivo, and prevents Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. Yet the neuroprotective mechanism of CAW is unknown. Objective The goal of this study was to identify biochemical pathways altered by CAW using in vitro models of Aβ toxicity. Methods The effects of CAW on aberrations in antioxidant response, calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial function induced by Aβ were evaluated in MC65 and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Results CAW decreased intracellular ROS and calcium levels elevated in response to Aβ, and induced the expression of antioxidant response genes in both cell lines. In SH-SY5Y cells, CAW increased basal and maximal oxygen consumption without altering spare capacity, and attenuated Aβ-induced decreases in mitochondrial respiration. CAW also prevented Aβ –induced decreases in ATP and induced the expression of mitochondrial genes and proteins in both cell types. Caffeoylquinic acids from CAW were shown to have a similar effect on antioxidant and mitochondrial gene expression in neuroblastoma cells. Primary rat hippocampal neurons treated with CAW also showed an increase in mitochondrial and antioxidant gene expression. Conclusions These data suggest an effect of CAW on mitochondrial biogenesis, which in conjunction with activation of antioxidant response genes and normalizing calcium homeostasis, likely contributes to its neuroprotective action against Aβ toxicity. PMID:25633675

  3. Centella asiatica Attenuates Amyloid-β-Induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Nora E; Sampath, Harini; Zweig, Jonathan A; Quinn, Joseph F; Soumyanath, Amala

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that a water extract of the medicinal plant Centella asiatica (CAW) attenuates amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced cognitive deficits in vivo, and prevents Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. Yet the neuroprotective mechanism of CAW is unknown. The goal of this study was to identify biochemical pathways altered by CAW using in vitro models of Aβ toxicity. The effects of CAW on aberrations in antioxidant response, calcium homeostasis, and mitochondrial function induced by Aβ were evaluated in MC65 and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. CAW decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species and calcium levels elevated in response to Aβ, and induced the expression of antioxidant response genes in both cell lines. In SH-SY5Y cells, CAW increased basal and maximal oxygen consumption without altering spare capacity, and attenuated Aβ-induced decreases in mitochondrial respiration. CAW also prevented Aβ-induced decreases in ATP and induced the expression of mitochondrial genes and proteins in both cell types. Caffeoylquinic acids from CAW were shown to have a similar effect on antioxidant and mitochondrial gene expression in neuroblastoma cells. Primary rat hippocampal neurons treated with CAW also showed an increase in mitochondrial and antioxidant gene expression. These data suggest an effect of CAW on mitochondrial biogenesis, which in conjunction with activation of antioxidant response genes and normalizing calcium homeostasis, likely contributes to its neuroprotective action against Aβ toxicity.

  4. Experimental mild renal insufficiency mediates early cardiac apoptosis, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction: a kidney-heart connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Fernando L; McKie, Paul M; Cataliotti, Alessandro; Sangaralingham, S Jeson; Korinek, Josef; Huntley, Brenda K; Oehler, Elise A; Harders, Gerald E; Ichiki, Tomoko; Mangiafico, Sarah; Nath, Karl A; Redfield, Margaret M; Chen, Horng H; Burnett, John C

    2012-01-15

    Impaired renal function with loss of nephron number in chronic renal disease (CKD) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the structural and functional cardiac response to early and mild reduction in renal mass is poorly defined. We hypothesized that mild renal impairment produced by unilateral nephrectomy (UNX) would result in early cardiac fibrosis and impaired diastolic function, which would progress to a more global left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Cardiorenal function and structure were assessed in rats at 4 and 16 wk following UNX or sham operation (Sham); (n = 10 per group). At 4 wk, blood pressure (BP), aldosterone, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), proteinuria, and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) were not altered by UNX, representing a model of mild early CKD. However, UNX was associated with significantly greater LV myocardial fibrosis compared with Sham. Importantly, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining revealed increased apoptosis in the LV myocardium. Further, diastolic dysfunction, assessed by strain echocardiography, but with preserved LVEF, was observed. Changes in genes related to the TGF-β and apoptosis pathways in the LV myocardium were also observed. At 16 wk post-UNX, we observed persistent LV fibrosis and impairment in LV diastolic function. In addition, LV mass significantly increased, as did LVEDd, while there was a reduction in LVEF. Aldosterone, BNP, and proteinuria were increased, while GFR was decreased. The myocardial, structural, and functional alterations were associated with persistent changes in the TGF-β pathway and even more widespread changes in the LV apoptotic pathway. These studies demonstrate that mild renal insufficiency in the rat results in early cardiac fibrosis and impaired diastolic function, which progresses to more global LV remodeling and dysfunction. Thus, these studies importantly advance the concept of a kidney

  5. Carotid body denervation improves autonomic and cardiac function and attenuates disordered breathing in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Noah J; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Schultz, Evan P; Xia, Xiao-Hong; Schultz, Harold D

    2014-01-15

    In congestive heart failure (CHF), carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor activity is enhanced and is associated with oscillatory (Cheyne-Stokes) breathing patterns, increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and increased arrhythmia incidence. We hypothesized that denervation of the CB (CBD) chemoreceptors would reduce SNA, reduce apnoea and arrhythmia incidence and improve ventricular function in pacing-induced CHF rabbits. Resting breathing, renal SNA (RSNA) and arrhythmia incidence were measured in three groups of animals: (1) sham CHF/sham-CBD (sham-sham); (2) CHF/sham-CBD (CHF-sham); and (3) CHF/CBD (CHF-CBD). Chemoreflex sensitivity was measured as the RSNA and minute ventilatory (VE) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia. Respiratory pattern was measured by plethysmography and quantified by an apnoea-hypopnoea index, respiratory rate variability index and the coefficient of variation of tidal volume. Sympatho-respiratory coupling (SRC) was assessed using power spectral analysis and the magnitude of the peak coherence function between tidal volume and RSNA frequency spectra. Arrhythmia incidence and low frequency/high frequency ratio of heart rate variability were assessed using ECG and blood pressure waveforms, respectively. RSNA and VE responses to hypoxia were augmented in CHF-sham and abolished in CHF-CBD animals. Resting RSNA was greater in CHF-sham compared to sham-sham animals (43 ± 5% max vs. 23 ± 2% max, P CHF-CBD animals (25 ± 1% max, P CHF-sham). Low frequency/high frequency heart rate variability ratio was similarly increased in CHF and reduced by CBD (P CHF-sham animals and reduced in CHF-CBD animals (P CHF-sham animals (sham-sham 0.49 ± 0.05; CHF-sham 0.79 ± 0.06), and was attenuated in CHF-CBD animals (0.59 ± 0.05) (P CHF-sham and reduced in CHF-CBD animals (213 ± 58 events h(-1) CHF, 108 ± 48 events h(-1) CHF-CBD, P CHF-CBD compared to CHF-sham rabbits. Similar patterns of changes were observed longitudinally within the

  6. Effect of left ventricular dysfunction and viral load on risk of sudden cardiac death in patients with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Brian S; Secemsky, Eric A; Vittinghoff, Eric; Wong, Joseph K; Havlir, Diane V; Hsue, Priscilla Y; Tseng, Zian H

    2014-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Whether left ventricular (LV) dysfunction predicts SCD in those with HIV is unknown. We sought to determine the impact of LV dysfunction on SCD in patients with HIV. We previously characterized all SCDs and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) deaths in 2,860 consecutive patients in a public HIV clinic from 2000 to 2009. Transthoracic echocardiograms (TTEs) performed during the study period were identified. The effect of ejection fraction (EF), diastolic dysfunction, pulmonary artery pressure, and LV mass on SCD and AIDS death were evaluated: 423 patients had at least 1 TTE; 13 SCDs and 55 AIDS deaths had at least 1 TTE. In the propensity-adjusted analysis, EF 30% to 39% and EFdeath. Diastolic dysfunction also predicted SCD (HR 14.8, 95% CI 4.0 to 55.4, pdeath, even after adjusting for EF. The association between EFHIV RNA (adjusted HR 11.7, 95% CI 2.9 to 47.2, p=0.001 vs HR 2.7, 95% CI 0.3 to 27.6, p=0.41; p=0.07 for interaction). In conclusion, LV systolic dysfunction and diastolic dysfunction predict SCD but not AIDS death in a large HIV cohort, with greater effect in those with detectable HIV RNA. Further investigation is needed to thoroughly evaluate the effect of low EF and HIV factors on SCD incidence and the potential benefit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardiac specific expression of threonine 5 to alanine mutant sarcolipin results in structural remodeling and diastolic dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayilvahanan Shanmugam

    Full Text Available The functional importance of threonine 5 (T5 in modulating the activity of sarcolipin (SLN, a key regulator of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA pump was studied using a transgenic mouse model with cardiac specific expression of threonine 5 to alanine mutant SLN (SLNT5A. In these transgenic mice, the SLNT5A protein replaces the endogenous SLN in atria, while maintaining the total SLN content. The cardiac specific expression of SLNT5A results in severe cardiac structural remodeling accompanied by bi-atrial enlargement. Biochemical analyses reveal a selective downregulation of SR Ca2+ handling proteins and a reduced SR Ca2+ uptake both in atria and in the ventricles. Optical mapping analysis shows slower action potential propagation in the transgenic mice atria. Doppler echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements demonstrate a reduced atrial contractility and an impaired diastolic function. Together, these findings suggest that threonine 5 plays an important role in modulating SLN function in the heart. Furthermore, our studies suggest that alteration in SLN function can cause abnormal Ca2+ handling and subsequent cardiac remodeling and dysfunction.

  8. Minocycline attenuates colistin-induced neurotoxicity via suppression of apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chongshan; Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D; Cappai, Roberto; Wang, Yang; Tang, Shusheng; Xiao, Xilong; Velkov, Tony

    2017-06-01

    Neurotoxicity is an adverse effect patients experience during colistin therapy. The development of effective neuroprotective agents that can be co-administered during polymyxin therapy remains a priority area in antimicrobial chemotherapy. The present study investigates the neuroprotective effect of the synergistic tetracycline antibiotic minocycline against colistin-induced neurotoxicity. The impact of minocycline pretreatment on colistin-induced apoptosis, caspase activation, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction were investigated using cultured mouse neuroblastoma-2a (N2a) and primary cortical neuronal cells. Colistin-induced neurotoxicity in mouse N2a and primary cortical cells gives rise to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent cell death via apoptosis. Pretreatment of the neuronal cells with minocycline at 5, 10 and 20 μM for 2 h prior to colistin (200 μM) exposure (24 h), had an neuroprotective effect by significantly decreasing intracellular ROS production and by upregulating the activities of the anti-ROS enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase. Minocycline pretreatment also protected the cells from colistin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, caspase activation and subsequent apoptosis. Immunohistochemical imaging studies revealed colistin accumulates within the dendrite projections and cell body of primary cortical neuronal cells. To our knowledge, this is first study demonstrating the protective effect of minocycline on colistin-induced neurotoxicity by scavenging of ROS and suppression of apoptosis. Our study highlights that co-administration of minocycline kills two birds with one stone: in addition to its synergistic antimicrobial activity, minocycline could potentially ameliorate unwanted neurotoxicity in patients undergoing polymyxin therapy.

  9. Clinical study on the adriamycin induced cardiomyopathy using the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Total dose and cardiac dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Kyoko; Teraoka, Kunihiko; Hirano, Masaharu [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    We studied cardiac functional disorders caused by Adoriamycin using gadolinium (Gd) contrast cine MRI. Forty-eight patients were given ACT (31 men and 17 women; mean age, 52{+-}15 years). First, the relationship between dose and the left ventricular volume, cardiac function, left ventricular cardiac mass and localized wall motion were examined in all patients. Patients given a total dose of 300 mg/m{sup 2} or higher were assigned to the high dose group and those given doses under 300 mg/m{sup 2} to the low dose group. The same parameters were studied in both groups and compared. A 1.5-Tesla superconductive MRI was used for all studies. Cine images of the long and short axes at the papillary muscle level were obtained by ECG R-wave synchronized Gd contrast cine MRI. Left ventricular volume and cardiac function were analyzed using the long-axis cine images and the wall thickness in diastole and systole was measured at each site using the short-axis cine images. The percentage of wall thickness was calculated at each site. The mean ACT dose was 273.3{+-}218.2 mg/m{sup 2}. In all patients the total dose directly correlated with ESVI and inversely correlated with the ejection fraction (EF). In the high dose group, the total dose and EF were inversely correlated, but no significant differences were observed in the low dose group. In the high dose group, the ESVI was significantly greater and the SVI and EF were more significantly reduced than in the low dose group. In the high dose group, the thickness of the anterior, lateral and posterior walls, excluding the septum, was significantly lower than in the low dose group. However, changes in wall thickness were not significantly different between the groups. Gd contrast cine MRI was useful in examining cardiac functional disorders caused by anthracyclines. The total dose of anthracycline correlated directly with the ESVI, and inversely with the EF. A total dose of 300 mg/m{sup 2} appeared to be the borderline dose beyond

  10. Anti-RAGE antibody attenuates isoflurane-induced cognitive dysfunction in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chengmei; Yi, Duan; Li, Zhengqian; Zhou, Yongde; Cao, Yiyun; Sun, Yan; Chui, Dehua; Guo, Xiangyang

    2017-03-30

    Several animal studies demonstrated that the volatile anesthetic isoflurane could influence the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, which involved the cognitive impairment. Increasing evidence has also shown that the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) played a major role in maintaining the integrity of BBB. The present study aimed to determine whether the RAGE-specific antibody protects against BBB disruption and cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane exposure in aged rats. 108 aged rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) control group (Control); (2) 4h of 2% isoflurane exposure group (ISO); (3) RAGE antibody (20μL, 2.5μg/μL) treated+4h of 2% isoflurane exposure group (anti-RAGE+ISO); (4) RAGE antibody (20μL, 2.5μg/μL) treated group (anti-RAGE). The isoflurane anesthesia resulted in the upregulation of hippocampal RAGE expression, disruption of BBB integrity, neuroinflammation, and beta-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in aged rats. In addition, significant cognitive deficits in the Morris water maze test was also observed. The antibody pretreatment resulted in significant improvements in BBB integrity. Furthermore, the expression of RAGE and proinflammatory mediators, as well as, Aβ accumulation were attenuated. Moreover, the antibody administration attenuated the isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in aged rats. These results demonstrate that RAGE signaling is involved in BBB damage after isoflurane exposure. Thus, the RAGE antibody represents a novel therapeutic intervention to prevent isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Interleukin-2/Anti-Interleukin-2 Immune Complex Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction through Expansion of Regulatory T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells have protective effects in wound healing and adverse ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI. We hypothesize that the interleukin- (IL- 2 complex comprising the recombinant mouse IL-2/anti-IL-2 mAb (JES6-1 attenuates cardiac remodeling after MI through the expansion of Treg. Mice were subjected to surgical left anterior descending coronary artery ligation and treated with either PBS or IL-2 complex. The IL-2 complex significantly attenuates ventricular remodeling, as demonstrated by reduced infarct size, improved left ventricular (LV function, and attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The IL-2 complex increased the percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells, which may be recruited to the infarcted heart, and decreased the frequencies of IFN-γ- and IL-17-producing CD4+ T helper (Th cells among the CD4+Foxp3− T cells in the spleen. Furthermore, the IL-2 complex inhibited the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines as well as macrophage infiltrates in the infarcted myocardium and induced the differentiation of macrophages from M1 to M2 phenotype in border zone of infarcted myocardium. Our studies indicate that the IL-2 complex may serve as a promising therapeutic approach to attenuate adverse remodeling after MI through expanding Treg cells specifically.

  12. Bigger is not better: cortisol-induced cardiac growth and dysfunction in salmonids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ida B.; Sandblom, Erik; Skov, Peter Vilhelm

    2017-01-01

    effect of the otherwise catabolic steroid hormone cortisol is probably implied, but has to date not been established experimentally. Furthermore, whereas cardiac growth is associated with failure of the mammalian heart, pathological cardiac hypertrophy has not previously been described in fish. Here, we......Stress and elevated cortisol levels are associated with pathological heart growth and cardiovascular disease in humans and other mammals. We recently established a link between heritable variation in post-stress cortisol production and cardiac growth in salmonid fish too. A conserved stimulatory...... show that rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) treated with cortisol in the diet for 45 days have enlarged hearts with lower maximum stroke volume and cardiac output. In accordance with impaired cardiac performance, overall circulatory oxygen-transporting capacity was diminished as indicated by reduced...

  13. Extracts of Crataegus oxyacantha and Rosmarinus officinalis Attenuate Ischemic Myocardial Damage by Decreasing Oxidative Stress and Regulating the Production of Cardiac Vasoactive Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Enrique Cuevas-Durán

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have supported a role for oxidative stress in the development of ischemic damage and endothelial dysfunction. Crataegus oxyacantha (Co and Rosmarinus officinalis (Ro extracts are polyphenolic-rich compounds that have proven to be efficient in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. We studied the effect of extracts from Co and Ro on the myocardial damage associated with the oxidative status and to the production of different vasoactive agents. Rats were assigned to the following groups: (a sham; (b vehicle-treated myocardial infarction (MI (MI-V; (c Ro extract-treated myocardial infarction (MI-Ro; (d Co extract-treated myocardial infarction (MI-Co; or (e Ro+Co-treated myocardial infarction (MI-Ro+Co. Ro and Co treatments increased total antioxidant capacity, the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD-Cu2+/Zn2+, SOD-Mn2+, and catalase, with the subsequent decline of malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine levels. The extracts diminished vasoconstrictor peptide levels (angiotensin II and endothelin-1, increased vasodilators agents (angiotensin 1–7 and bradikinin and improved nitric oxide metabolism. Polyphenol treatment restored the left intraventricular pressure and cardiac mechanical work. We conclude that Ro and Co treatment attenuate morphological and functional ischemic-related changes by both an oxidant load reduction and improvement of the balance between vasoconstrictors and vasodilators.

  14. Early and transient sodium-hydrogen exchanger isoform 1 inhibition attenuates subsequent cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure following coronary artery ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilić, Ana; Huang, Cathy X; Rajapurohitam, Venkatesh; Madwed, Jeffrey B; Karmazyn, Morris

    2014-12-01

    Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE-1) inhibition attenuates the hypertrophic response and heart failure in various experimental models. As the hypertrophic program is rapidly initiated following insult, we investigated whether early and transient administration of a NHE-1 inhibitor will exert salutary effects on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy or heart failure using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Neonatal cardiomyocytes were treated with the novel, potent, and highly specific NHE-1 inhibitor BIX (N-[4-(1-acetyl-piperidin-4-yl)-3-trifluoromethyl-benzoyl]-guanidine; 100 nM) for 1 hour in the presence of 10 µM phenylephrine, after which the cells were maintained for a further 23 hours in the absence of NHE-1 inhibition. One-hour treatment with the NHE-1 inhibitor prevented phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy, which was associated with prevention of activation of calcineurin, a key component of the hypertrophic process. Experiments were then performed in rats subjected to coronary artery ligation, in which the NHE-1 inhibitor was administered immediately after infarction for a 1-week period followed by a further 5 weeks of sustained coronary artery occlusion in the absence of drug treatment. This approach significantly attenuated left ventricular hypertrophy and improved both left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction, which was also associated with inhibition of calcineurin activation. Our findings indicate that early and transient administration of an NHE-1 inhibitor bestows subsequent inhibition of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in culture as well as cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in vivo, suggesting a critical early NHE-1-dependent initiation of the hypertrophic program. The study also suggests a preconditioning-like phenomenon in preventing hypertrophy and heart failure by early and transient NHE-1 inhibition. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. Voluntary Running Attenuates Metabolic Dysfunction in Ovariectomized Low-Fit Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Min; Padilla, Jaume; Kanaley, Jill A; Zidon, Terese M; Welly, Rebecca J; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Thyfault, John P; Booth, Frank W; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J

    2017-02-01

    Ovariectomy and high-fat diet (HFD) worsen obesity and metabolic dysfunction associated with low aerobic fitness. Exercise training mitigates metabolic abnormalities induced by low aerobic fitness, but whether the protective effect is maintained after ovariectomy and HFD is unknown. This study determined whether, after ovariectomy and HFD, exercise training improves metabolic function in rats bred for low intrinsic aerobic capacity. Female rats selectively bred for low (LCR) and high (HCR) intrinsic aerobic capacity (n = 30) were ovariectomized, fed HFD, and randomized to either a sedentary (SED) or voluntary wheel running (EX) group. Resting energy expenditure, glucose tolerance, and spontaneous physical activity were determined midway through the experiment, whereas body weight, wheel running volume, and food intake were assessed throughout the study. Body composition, circulating metabolic markers, and skeletal muscle gene and protein expression were measured at sacrifice. EX reduced body weight and adiposity in LCR rats (-10% and -50%, respectively; P rats (+7% and +37%, respectively; P Wheel running volume was approximately fivefold greater in HCR than LCR rats, yet EX enhanced insulin sensitivity equally in LCR and HCR rats (P rat lines, EX similarly improved systemic insulin sensitivity, resting energy expenditure, and skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation in ovariectomized LCR and HCR rats fed HFD compared with their respective SED controls.

  16. Long-Term Administration of Neuropeptide Y in the Subcutaneous Infusion Results in Cardiac Dysfunction and Hypertrophy in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Niu, Huifang; Kang, Xiaohui; Ban, Tao; Hong, Hong; Ai, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether chronically elevated plasma neuropeptide Y (NPY) might affect heart function and cardiac remodeling in rats. Male Wistar rats were administered NPY (85 μg for 30 days) by mini-osmotic pump subcutaneously implanted between the scapulae. Associated indices for heart function, cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy were evaluated. Compared to the sham group, the baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) in rats administered NPY was significantly increased; cardiac function was significantly decreased, as indicated by reduced ejection fraction (EF), left ventricular end-systolic pressure (LVESP), maximum change velocity of left ventricular pressure in the isovolumic contraction or relaxation period (± dp/dtmax) and increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP); hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining detection displayed enlarged cell areas and a consistent increase in heart-to-body weight ratios (HW/BW) was observed; quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis showed markedly increased expressions of β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), calcineurin (CaN) and phosphorylated p38 proteins, while no changes were found in the expressions of p38 total protein and the phosphorylations of JNK and ERK. This study reported for the first time that long-term elevated plasma concentration of NPY could induce cardiac dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy and this phenomenon could, in part, be mediated by the Ca2+/CaM-dependent CaN pathway and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway in rats. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Daily sesame oil supplementation attenuates local renin-angiotensin system via inhibiting MAPK activation and oxidative stress in cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Teng; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2017-04-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) by which increases cardiac morbidity and mortality. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and oxidative stress are important in RAS-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. Sesame oil, a potent antioxidant, attenuates hypertension-dependent LVH. We examined the protective role of sesame oil on RAS-mediated MAPK activation and oxidative stress in rats. We induced LVH using a hypertensive model by subcutaneously injecting deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA; 15 mg/ml/kg in mineral oil; twice weekly for 5 weeks) and supplementing with 1% sodium chloride drinking water (DOCA/salt) to uninephrectomized rats. Sesame oil was gavaged (0.5 or 1 ml/kg/day for 7 days) after 4 weeks of DOCA/salt treatment. Cardiac histopathology, RAS parameters, expression of MAPKs, reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation were assessed 24 h after the last dose of sesame oil. Sesame oil significantly decreased the size of cardiomyocytes and the levels of cardiac renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II. In addition, sesame oil down-regulated the expression of angiotensin type 1 receptor, JNK and p38 MAPK and apoptosis signal regulating kinase 1, c-Fos and c-Jun in rats receiving DOCA/salt. Furthermore, the induction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxidation by DOCA/salt were inhibited by sesame oil. Sesame oil modulates cardiac RAS to ameliorate LVH by inhibiting MAPK activation and lowering oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Activation of the NGF/TrkA signaling pathway attenuates diabetic erectile dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ji, Wei; Li, Hai

    2017-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). The exact role of the NGF/TrkA signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of diabetic ED is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of the NGF/TrkA signaling pathway in Sprague-Dawley rats with diabetic ED. Animals were divided into 2 groups: the normal group and the DM ED model group. The model group included the blank subgroup, the negative control (NC) subgroup, the TrkA subgroup and the TrkA + NGF subgroup. Erectile function, intracavernous pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure were measured respectively. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the number of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expressing nerve fibers. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was applied to detect the mRNA expressions of NGF and TrkA in the cavernous tissue. Further, Western blotting was conducted to detect the expressions of NGF, TrkA and its downstream ERK pathway-related proteins. Higher erectile frequency, ICP values and diastolic function, more nNOS-positive nerve fibers, and decreased systolic function of the corpus cavernosum smooth muscle were found in the TrkA and TrkA+NGF groups when compared with the blank and the NC groups. Moreover, significantly higher mRNA expressions of NGF and TrkA, and upregulated protein expressions of NGF, TrkA, c-raf, ERK1/2 and CREB1 were found in the TrkA and the TrkA + NGF groups. In conclusion, downregulation in the NGF/TrkA signaling pathway may contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic ED.

  19. Salubrinal attenuates right ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yun-Yun; Liu, Chun-Lei; Li, Xin; Li, Rui-Jun; Wang, Li-Li; He, Kun-Lun

    2016-12-01

    The phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (p-eIF2α) is essential for cell survival during hypoxia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether salubrinal, an inhibitor of p-eIF2α dephosphorylation could attenuate pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy in rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. PAH of rats was induced by hypobaric hypoxia. Salubrinal supplemented was randomized in either a prevention or a reversal protocol. At the end of the follow-up point, we measured echocardiography, hemodynamics, hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome stainings. RNA-seq analysis is explored to identify changes in gene expression associated with hypobaric hypoxia with or without salubrinal. Compared with vehicle-treatment rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia, salubrinal prevented and partly reversed the increase of the mean pulmonary artery pressure and RV hypertrophy. What's more, salubrinal reduced the percentage wall thickness (WT%) of pulmonary artery and RV collagen volume fraction (CVF) in both prevention and reversal protocols. We also found that salubrinal was capable of reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress. The result of RNA-seq analysis revealed that chronic hypoxia stimulated the differential expression of a series of genes involved in cell cycle regulation and ventricular hypertrophy and so on. Some of these genes could be ameliorated by salubrinal. These results indicate that salubrinal could prevent and reverse well-established RV remodeling, and restore the genes and pathways altered in the right ventricles of rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Ginsenoside Rd attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction and sequential apoptosis after transient focal ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, R; Zhang, X; Kong, X; Han, J; Yang, Q; Zhang, Y; Chen, Y; Li, P; Liu, J; Shi, M; Xiong, L; Zhao, G

    2011-03-31

    We previously found that ginsenoside Rd (Rd), one of the major active ingredients in Panax ginseng, protects neuronal cells from hydrogen peroxide and oxygen-glucose deprivation, an in vitro model of cerebral ischemia. In this study, we examined the protective effects of Rd in an animal model of focal cerebral ischemia. Rats administered with Rd or vehicle were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Rd (50 mg/kg) significantly reduced the infarct volume by 52.8%. This reduction of injury volume was associated with an improvement in neurological function and was sustained for at least 2 weeks after the induction of ischemia. To evaluate the underlying mechanisms of Rd against stroke, brain tissues were assayed for mitochondrial enzyme activities, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), energy metabolites, and apoptosis. Rd markedly protected mitochondria as indicated by preserved respiratory chain complex activities and aconitase activity, lowered mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production, and hyperpolarized MMP. Microdialysis results illustrated that Rd significantly decreased the accumulation of lactate, the end product of anaerobic glycolysis, and increased pyruvate, the end product of aerobic glycolysis, hence inducing a lower lactate/pyruvate ratio. Additionally, in vitro studies further exhibited that Rd protected isolated mitochondria from calcium-induced damage by attenuating mitochondrial swelling, preserving MMP and decreasing ROS production. Moreover, Rd treatment reduced mitochondrial release of cytochrome c (CytoC) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), thereby minimizing mitochondria-mediated apoptosis following ischemia. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that Rd exerts neuroprotective effects in transient focal ischemia, which may involve an integrated process of the mitochondrial protection, energy restoration and inhibition of apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published

  1. Piperine Attenuates Pathological Cardiac Fibrosis Via PPAR-γ/AKT Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Zhen-Guo; Yuan, Yu-Pei; Zhang, Xin; Xu, Si-Chi; Wang, Sha-Sha; Tang, Qi-Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and AMP?activated protein kinase ? (AMPK?) play critical roles in the process of cardiac hypertrophy. Previous studies have demonstrated that piperine activates AMPK? and reduces the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). However, the effect of piperine on cardiac hypertrophy remains completely unknown. Here, we show that piperine-treated mice had similar hypertrophic responses as mice treated with vehicle but exhibited signif...

  2. Chagas cardiomyopathy: the potential of diastolic dysfunction and brain natriuretic peptide in the early identification of cardiac damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Garcia-Alvarez

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease remains a major cause of mortality in several countries of Latin America and has become a potential public health problem in non-endemic countries as a result of migration flows. Cardiac involvement represents the main cause of mortality, but its diagnosis is still based on nonspecific criteria with poor sensitivity. Early identification of patients with cardiac involvement is desirable, since early treatment may improve prognosis. This study aimed to assess the role of diastolic dysfunction, abnormal myocardial strain and elevated brain natriuretic peptide (BNP in the early identification of cardiac involvement in Chagas disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifty-four patients divided into 3 groups--group 1 (undetermined form: positive serology without ECG or 2D-echocardiographic abnormalities; N = 32, group 2 (typical ECG abnormalities of Chagas disease but normal 2D-echocardiography; N = 14, and group 3 (regional wall motion abnormalities, left ventricular [LV] end-diastolic diameter >55 mm or LV ejection fraction 37 pg/ml were noted in 0%, 13%, 29% and 63% in controls and groups 1 to 3, respectively. Half of patients in the undetermined form had impaired relaxation patterns, whereas half of patients with ECG abnormalities suggestive of Chagas cardiomyopathy had normal diastolic function. In group 1, BNP levels were statistically higher in patients with diastolic dysfunction as compared to those with normal diastolic function (27 ± 26 vs. 11 ± 8 pg/ml, p = 0.03. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, the combination of diastolic function and BNP measurement adds important information that could help to better stratify patients with Chagas disease.

  3. Palmitate diet-induced loss of cardiac caveolin-3: a novel mechanism for lipid-induced contractile dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J Knowles

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cardiomyopathy, and mechanisms linking the underlying risk and dietary factors are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that dietary intake of saturated fat increases the levels of sphingolipids, namely ceramide and sphingomyelin in cardiac cell membranes that disrupt caveolae, specialized membrane micro-domains and important for cellular signaling. C57BL/6 mice were fed two high-fat diets: palmitate diet (21% total fat, 47% is palmitate, and MCT diet (21% medium-chain triglycerides, no palmitate. We established that high-palmitate feeding for 12 weeks leads to 40% and 50% increases in ceramide and sphingomyelin, respectively, in cellular membranes. Concomitant with sphingolipid accumulation, we observed a 40% reduction in systolic contractile performance. To explore the relationship of increased sphingolipids with caveolins, we analyzed caveolin protein levels and intracellular localization in isolated cardiomyocytes. In normal cardiomyocytes, caveolin-1 and caveolin-3 co-localize at the plasma membrane and the T-tubule system. However, mice maintained on palmitate lost 80% of caveolin-3, mainly from the T-tubule system. Mice maintained on MCT diet had a 90% reduction in caveolin-1. These data show that caveolin isoforms are sensitive to the lipid environment. These data are further supported by similar findings in human cardiac tissue samples from non-obese, obese, non-obese cardiomyopathic, and obese cardiomyopathic patients. To further elucidate the contractile dysfunction associated with the loss of caveolin-3, we determined the localization of the ryanodine receptor and found lower expression and loss of the striated appearance of this protein. We suggest that palmitate-induced loss of caveolin-3 results in cardiac contractile dysfunction via a defect in calcium-induced calcium release.

  4. Patients without myocardial accumulation of {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine. Does it always reflect cardiac adrenergic dysfunction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Honda, Minoru; Hohjoh, Osamu [Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Since December 1992 to March 1994, we have performed myocardial imaging with {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I-MIBG) in 110 patients to examine myocardial sympathetic integrity. Among them 11 patients (10%) showed no accumulation of {sup 123}I-MIBG in the heart. So we have examined the mechanisms of no myocardial {sup 123}I-MIBG accumulation. {sup 123}I-MIBG imaging was obtained at 20 min and 3 h after intravenous injection of {sup 123}I-MIBG (148 MBq) at rest. In addition to routine tomography, anterior planar imaging of the heart and the whole body imaging were performed. Eleven patients without myocardial {sup 123}I-MIBG accumulation consisted of 5 patients with orthostatic hypotension (including 3 patients with diabetic neuropathy). four patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), one patient with hypertension and one normal subject. In patients with orthostatic hypotension, standing test showed cardiac sympathetic dysfunction. In addition to no myocardial {sup 123}I-MIBG accumulation, accumulation of {sup 123}I-MIBG in the salivary glands was not found in all them. These indicated that in patients with orthostatic hypotension, generalized sympathetic dysfunction caused no myocardial {sup 123}I-MIBG accumulation. But in other 6 patients there was no evidence which suggested the cardiac sympathetic nerve dysfunction. Age, sex, serum norepinephrine level, myocardial perfusion and the medication were not different between the patients with and without myocardial {sup 123}I-MIBG accumulation. So the mechanism of no myocardial {sup 123}I-MIBG accumulation was not clear in these patients. But it was noteworthy that in patients with HCM, no myocardial {sup 123}I-MIBG accumulation appeared in 17% (4/24), and the frequency of no myocardial {sup 123}I-MIBG accumulation in HCM was significantly (p<0.05) higher than in other disease entities when patients with orthostatic hypotension were excluded. (author).

  5. Induction of the Vitamin D Receptor Attenuates Autophagy Dysfunction-Mediated Cell Death Following Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Changmeng Cui

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major public health problem in the world and causes high rates of mortality and disability. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D (VD has neuroprotective actions and can promote function recovery after TBI. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that autophagy could be enhanced following supplementation with an active metabolite of VD (calcitriol. However, it is unclear whether autophagy participates in the protective effects of calcitriol after TBI. To test this hypothesis, we examined the protective effects of calcitriol on TBI-induced neurological impairment and further investigated whether calcitriol could modulate autophagy dysfunction-mediated cell death in the cortex region of rat brain. Methods: Eighty-five male rats (250-280 g were randomly assigned to sham (n=15, TBI model (TBI, n=35 and calcitriol treatment (calcitriol, n=35 groups. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with calcitriol (1 µg/kg at 30 min, 24 h and 48 h post-TBI in the calcitriol group. The lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ, was used to evaluate autophagic flux in the TBI and calcitriol groups. Neurological functions were evaluated via the modified neurological severity score test at 1-7 days after TBI or sham operation, and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated FITC-dUTP nick-end labeling method was used to evaluate the ability of calcitriol to inhibit apoptosis. The expression of VDR, LC3 and p62 proteins was measured by western blot analysis at 1, 3 and 7 days post-injury Results: Calcitriol treatment attenuated mNSS at 2-7 days post-TBI (P < 0.05 versus TBI group. Calcitriol dramatically increased VDR protein expression compared with the untreated counterparts at 1, 3 and 7 days post-TBI (P < 0.05. The rate of apoptotic cells in calcitriol-treated rats was significantly reduced compared to that observed in the TBI group (P < 0.05. The LC3II/LC3I ratio was decreased in the cortex region at 1

  6. Near infra-red light attenuates corneal endothelial cell dysfunction in situ and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Álvarez, Claudia; Del Olmo-Aguado, Susana; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Osborne, Neville N

    2017-08-01

    In the present study mechanical damage to the corneal endothelium was induced by elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP, 140 mmHg, 60 min) to one eye of rats, delivered either in complete darkness or in the presence of red light (16.5 W/m2, 3000 lx, 625-635 nm). IOP raised in the dark revealed the endothelium to be damaged as staining for the gap junction protein ZO-1 was irregular in appearance with some cells displaced in position or lost to leave gaps or holes. This damage was clearly attenuated when red light was focused through the pupil during the insult of raised IOP. Moreover, staining of endothelium with JC-1 dye showed mitochondria to be activated by both elevated IOP and red light but the activation of mitochondria persisted longer for red light. We interpret this finding to suggest that raised IOP causes apoptosis of endothelial cells and that their mitochondria are activated in the initial stages of the process. In contrast, red light activates mitochondria to induce a protective mechanism to counteract the negative influence of raised IOP on endothelial cells. Evidence is provided to support this notion by the finding that red light stimulates mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase IV (COX IV). Moreover, mitochondria in corneal endothelial cell cultures are activated by red light, revealed by staining with JC-1, that results in an increased rate of proliferation and are also able to counteract toxic insults (sodium azide or cobalt chloride) to the cultures. The present studies therefore show that a non-toxic level of red light attenuates damage to the corneal endothelium both in situ and in vitro through action on COX IV located in mitochondria that results in an enhancement of a cell's survival mechanisms. The study provides proof of principle for the non-invasive use of red-light therapy to attenuate any dysfunctions associated with the corneal endothelium and so preserve maximum visual acuity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias and vagal dysfunction in Chagas disease patients with no apparent cardiac involvement

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    Henrique Silveira Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmia (EIVA and autonomic imbalance are considered as early markers of heart disease in Chagas disease (ChD patients. The objective of the present study was to verify the differences in the occurrence of EIVA and autonomic maneuver indexes between healthy individuals and ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement. METHODS : A total of 75 ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement, aged 44.7 (8.5 years, and 38 healthy individuals, aged 44.0 (9.2 years, were evaluated using echocardiography, symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing and autonomic function tests. RESULTS : The occurrence of EIVA was higher in the chagasic group (48% than in the control group (23.7% during both the effort and the recovery phases. Frequent ventricular contractions occurred only in the patient group. Additionally, the respiratory sinus arrhythmia index was significantly lower in the chagasic individuals compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS : ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement had a higher frequency of EIVA as well as more vagal dysfunction by respiratory sinus arrhythmia. These results suggest that even when asymptomatic, ChD patients possess important arrhythmogenic substrates and subclinical disease.

  8. Aerobic exercise training delays cardiac dysfunction and improves autonomic control of circulation in diabetic rats undergoing myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Bruno; Jorge, Luciana; Mostarda, Cristiano T; Rosa, Kaleizu T; Medeiros, Alessandra; Malfitano, Christiane; de Souza, Alcione L; Viegas, Katia Aparecida da Silva; Lacchini, Silvia; Curi, Rui; Brum, Patricia C; De Angelis, Kátia; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia

    2012-09-01

    Exercise training (ET) has been used as a nonpharmacological strategy for treatment of diabetes and myocardial infarction (MI) separately. We evaluated the effects ET on functional and molecular left ventricular (LV) parameters as well as on autonomic function and mortality in diabetics after MI. Male Wistar rats were divided into control (C), sedentary-diabetic infarcted (SDI), and trained-diabetic infarcted (TDI) groups. MI was induced after 15 days of streptozotocin-diabetes induction. Seven days after MI, the trained group underwent ET protocol (90 days, 50-70% maximal oxygen consumption-VO(2)max). LV function was evaluated noninvasively and invasively; baroreflex sensitivity, pulse interval variability, cardiac output, tissue blood flows, VEGF mRNA and protein, HIF1-α mRNA, and Ca(2+) handling proteins were measured. MI area was reduced in TDI (21 ± 4%) compared with SDI (38 ± 4%). ET induced improvement in cardiac function, hemodynamics, and tissue blood flows. These changes were probable consequences of a better expression of Ca(2+) handling proteins, increased VEGF mRNA and protein expression as well as improvement in autonomic function, that resulted in reduction of mortality in TDI (33%) compared with SDI (68%) animals. ET reduced cardiac and peripheral dysfunction and preserved autonomic control in diabetic infarcted rats. Consequently, these changes resulted in improved VO(2)max and survival after MI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Latent cardiac dysfunction as assessed by echocardiography in bed-bound patients following cerebrovascular accidents: comparison with nutritional status.

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    Masugata, Hisashi; Senda, Shoichi; Goda, Fuminori; Yoshihara, Yumiko; Yoshikawa, Kay; Fujita, Norihiro; Himoto, Takashi; Okuyama, Hiroyuki; Taoka, Teruhisa; Imai, Masanobu; Kohno, Masakazu

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the cardiac function in bed-bound patients following cerebrovascular accidents. In accord with the criteria for activities of daily living (ADL) of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, 51 age-matched poststroke patients without heart disease were classified into 3 groups: rank A (house-bound) (n = 16, age, 85 +/- 6 years), rank B (chair-bound) (n = 16, age, 84 +/- 8 years), and rank C (bed-bound) (n = 19, age, 85 +/- 9 years). Using echocardiography, the left ventricular (LV) diastolic function was assessed by the ratio of early filling (E) and atrial contraction (A) transmitral flow velocities (E/A) of LV inflow. LV systolic function was assessed by LV ejection fraction (LVEF), and the Tei index was also measured to assess both LV systolic and diastolic function. No difference was observed in the E/A and LVEF among the 3 groups. The Tei index was higher in rank C (0.56 +/- 0.17) than in rank A (0.39 +/- 0.06) and rank B (0.48 +/- 0.17), and a statistically significant difference was observed between rank A and rank C (P cerebrovascular accidents. The Tei index may be a useful index of cardiac dysfunction in bed-bound patients because it is independent of the cardiac loading condition.

  10. [Nitrid oxide, levosimendan and sildenafile in a patient with right ventricle dysfunction and severe pulmonary hypertension after cardiac surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, L; Cortell, J; Vicente, R; Herrera, P; Loro, J M; Valera, F

    2014-11-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) and the resulting right ventricle dysfunction are important risk factors in patients who undergo cardiac surgery. The treatment of PHT and right ventricle dysfunction should be focused on maintaining the correct right ventricle after load, improving right ventricle function and reducing the right ventricle pre-load and therefore reducing pulmonary vascular resistance by means of vasodilators. A combined therapy of vasodilators and medicines which have different mechanisms of action, is becoming an option for the treatment of PHT. We present a 65 year old woman that suffered from mitral regurgitation, aortic valve disease, tricuspid and ascending aortic dilation with 115mmHg of pulmonary artery pressure (by ultrasound evaluation). The patient was operated on of mitral, aortic valve and tricuspid plastia and proximal aortic artery plastia as well. Previosly to surgery the patient suffered right ventricle dysfunction and PHT and was treated with nitric oxide, intravenous sildenafil and levosimendan. Subsequent evolution was satisfactory, PHT being controlled, without arterial hypotension nor respiratory alterations. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. S-52, a novel nootropic compound, protects against β-amyloid induced neuronal injury by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Zheng, Chun Yan; Qin, Guo Wei; Tang, Xi Can; Zhang, Hai Yan

    2012-10-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced oxidative DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction may initiate and contribute to the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study evaluated the neuroprotective effects of S-52, a novel nootropic compound, on Aβ-induced mitochondrial failure. In an established paradigm of moderate cellular injury induced by Aβ, S-52 was observed to attenuate the toxicity of Aβ to energy metabolism, mitochondrial membrane structure, and key enzymes in the electron transport chain and tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition, S-52 also effectively inhibited reactive oxygen species accumulation dose dependently not only in Aβ-harmed cells but also in unharmed, normal cells. The role of S-52 as a scavenger of free radicals is involved in the antioxidative effect of this compound. The beneficial effects on mitochondria and oxidative stress extend the neuroprotective effects of S-52. The present study provides crucial information for better understanding the beneficial profiles of this compound and discovering novel potential drug candidates for AD therapy. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Interleukin-6 deficiency attenuates angiotensin II-induced cardiac pathogenesis with increased myocyte hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fan; Chen, Dandan; Zhang, Yubin; Jin, Liang; Zhang, Han; Wan, Miyang; Pan, Tianshu; Wang, Xiaochuan; Su, Yuheng; Xu, Yitao; Ye, Junmei

    2017-12-16

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling is critical for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, while the role of IL-6 in the pathogenesis of myocardium hypertrophy remains controversial. To determine the essential role of IL-6 signaling for the cardiac development during AngII-induced hypertension, and to elucidate the mechanisms, wild-type (WT) and IL-6 knockout (IL-6 KO) mice were infused subcutaneously with either vehicle or AngII (1.5 μg/h/mouse) for 1 week. Immunohistological and serum studies revealed that the extents of cardiac fibrosis, inflammation and apoptosis were reduced in IL-6 KO heart during AngII-stimulation, while cardiac hypertrophy was obviously induced. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, by using myocardial tissue and neonatal cardiomyocytes, we observed that IL-6/STAT3 signaling was activated under the stimulation of AngII both in vivo and in vitro. Further investigation suggested that STAT3 activation enhances the inhibitory effect of EndoG on MEF2A and hampers cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Our study is the first to show the important role of IL-6 in regulating cardiac pathogenesis via inflammation and apoptosis during AngII-induced hypertension. We also provide a novel link between IL-6/STAT3 and EndoG/MEF2A pathway that affects cardiac hypertrophy during AngII stimulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Garlic oil attenuates the cardiac apoptosis in hamster-fed with hypercholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Chang; Chang, Mu-Hsin; Tsai, Cheng-Chih; Chen, Tung-Sheng; Fan, Chung-Chen; Lin, Chien-Chung; Lai, Chao-Hung; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Lin, James A; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2013-02-15

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well established risk factor for cardiac cell apoptosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of garlic oil on cardiac apoptosis induced by a hypercholesterol diet. Twenty-four male Golden-Syrian hamsters at 3 months of age were randomly divided into three groups, control, cholesterol and garlic oil groups received a chow diet, chow diet with 2% cholesterol, and chow diet with 2% cholesterol and 1% garlic oil for 8 weeks, respectively. The TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells, and several apoptotic proteins were significantly induced in the excised left ventricle in cholesterol group, whereas significant reduction was observed in cholesterol plus garlic oil group. The IGFI receptor dependent survival pathway was inhibited in cholesterol group whereas it was obviously reversed in cholesterol plus garlic oil group. Our results suggest that administration of garlic oil shows protective effects on cardiac apoptosis in rats with high cholesterol intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dysfunctional Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Ion Channels in Cardiac Diseases

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    Xiaoqi Zhao

    Full Text Available Abstract Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels are reverse voltage-dependent, and their activation depends on the hyperpolarization of the membrane and may be directly or indirectly regulated by the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP or other signal-transduction cascades. The distribution, quantity and activation states of HCN channels differ in tissues throughout the body. Evidence exhibits that HCN channels play critical roles in the generation and conduction of the electrical impulse and the physiopathological process of some cardiac diseases. They may constitute promising drug targets in the treatment of these cardiac diseases. Pharmacological treatment targeting HCN channels is of benefit to these cardiac conditions.

  15. Antioxidant catalase rescues against high fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction via an IKKβ-AMPK-dependent regulation of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lei; Shou, Xi-Ling; Zhao, Hai-Kang; Ren, Gu-Qun; Wang, Jian-Bang; Wang, Xi-Hui; Ai, Wen-Ting; Maris, Jackie R; Hueckstaedt, Lindsay K; Ma, Ai-Qun; Zhang, Yingmei

    2015-02-01

    Autophagy, a conservative degradation process for long-lived and damaged proteins, participates in a variety of biological processes including obesity. However, the precise mechanism of action behind obesity-induced changes in autophagy still remains elusive. This study was designed to examine the role of the antioxidant catalase in high fat diet-induced changes in cardiac geometry and function as well as the underlying mechanism of action involved with a focus on autophagy. Wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice with cardiac overexpression of catalase were fed low or high fat diet for 20 weeks prior to assessment of myocardial geometry and function. High fat diet intake triggered obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, the effects of which were unaffected by catalase transgene. Myocardial geometry and function were compromised with fat diet intake as manifested by cardiac hypertrophy, enlarged left ventricular end systolic and diastolic diameters, fractional shortening, cardiomyocyte contractile capacity and intracellular Ca²⁺ mishandling, the effects of which were ameliorated by catalase. High fat diet intake promoted reactive oxygen species production and suppressed autophagy in the heart, the effects of which were attenuated by catalase. High fat diet intake dampened phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B kinase β(IKKβ), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) while promoting phosphorylation of mTOR, the effects of which were ablated by catalase. In vitro study revealed that palmitic acid compromised cardiomyocyte autophagy and contractile function in a manner reminiscent of fat diet intake, the effect of which was significantly alleviated by inhibition of IKKβ, activation of AMPK and induction of autophagy. Taken together, our data revealed that the antioxidant catalase counteracts against high fat diet-induced cardiac geometric and functional anomalies possibly via an IKKβ-AMPK-dependent restoration of myocardial

  16. Cardiac myocyte follistatin-like 1 functions to attenuate hypertrophy following pressure overload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimano, Masayuki; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Kazuto; van Wijk, Bram; Ohashi, Koji; Asaumi, Yasuhide; Higuchi, Akiko; Pimentel, David R.; Sam, Flora; Murohara, Toyoaki; van den Hoff, Maurice J. B.; Walsh, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Factors secreted by the heart, referred to as "cardiokines," have diverse actions in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis and remodeling. Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) is a secreted glycoprotein expressed in the adult heart and is induced in response to injurious conditions that promote myocardial

  17. Activation of liver X receptors with T0901317 attenuates cardiac hypertrophy in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Irma; Li, Jiang; Vreeswijk-Baudoin, Inge; Koster, Johan; van der Harst, Pim; Sillje, Herman H. W.; Kuipers, Folkert; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; de Boer, Rudolf A.

    2010-01-01

    Liver X receptor (LXR) is a nuclear receptor regulating cholesterol metabolism. Liver X receptor has also been shown to exert anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we evaluated the effect of LXR activation on cardiac hypertrophy in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with the

  18. ICD function and dysfunction in patients with arrhythmogenic cardiac diseases: the role of home monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmundis, C. de; Ricciardi, D.; Namdar, M.; Pappaert, G.; Rodriguez-Manero, M.; Wauters, K.; Casado-Arroyo, R.; Rao, J.J.; Bayrak, F.; Chierchia, G.B.; Sarkozy, A.; Brugada, P.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since their implementation in clinical practice, remote home monitoring systems (HM) have undoubtedly become an added value in patients with implantable devices for cardiac rhythm management. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of HM on clinical management and outcome in

  19. Cardiac diastolic dysfunction and metabolic syndrome in young women after placental syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, M.; Stekkinger, E.; Vlugt, M.J. van der; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Lotgering, F.K.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether women with a recent history of a placental syndrome and concomitant metabolic syndrome have reduced cardiac diastolic function. METHODS: In this cohort study, women with a history of a placental syndrome were included. We assessed body mass index, blood pressure,

  20. Azelnidipine prevents cardiac dysfunction in streptozotocin-diabetic rats by reducing intracellular calcium accumulation, oxidative stress and apoptosis

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    Kain Vasundhara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous evidences suggest that diabetic heart is characterized by compromised ventricular contraction and prolonged relaxation attributable to multiple causative factors including calcium accumulation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therapeutic interventions to prevent calcium accumulation and oxidative stress could be therefore helpful in improving the cardiac function under diabetic condition. Methods This study was designed to examine the effect of long-acting calcium channel blocker (CCB, Azelnidipine (AZL on contractile dysfunction, intracellular calcium (Ca2+ cycling proteins, stress-activated signaling molecules and apoptosis on cardiomyocytes in diabetes. Adult male Wistar rats were made diabetic by a single intraperitoneal (IP injection of streptozotocin (STZ. Contractile functions were traced from live diabetic rats to isolated individual cardiomyocytes including peak shortening (PS, time-to-PS (TPS, time-to-relengthening (TR90, maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (± dL/dt and intracellular Ca2+ fluorescence. Results Diabetic heart showed significantly depressed PS, ± dL/dt, prolonged TPS, TR90 and intracellular Ca2+ clearing and showed an elevated resting intracellular Ca2+. AZL itself exhibited little effect on myocyte mechanics but it significantly alleviated STZ-induced myocyte contractile dysfunction. Diabetes increased the levels of superoxide, enhanced expression of the cardiac damage markers like troponin I, p67phox NADPH oxidase subunit, restored the levels of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, calcium regulatory proteins RyR2 and SERCA2a, and suppressed the levels of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. All of these STZ-induced alterations were reconciled by AZL treatment. Conclusion Collectively, the data suggest beneficial effect of AZL in diabetic cardiomyopathy via altering intracellular Ca2+ handling proteins and preventing apoptosis by its antioxidant property.

  1. Coronary microvascular dysfunction is an early feature of cardiac involvement in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberli, Benedetta; Cecchi, Franco; Sciagrà, Roberto; Berti, Valentina; Lisi, Francesca; Torricelli, Francesca; Morrone, Amelia; Castelli, Gabriele; Yacoub, Magdi H; Olivotto, Iacopo

    2013-12-01

    Male patients with Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) often exhibit cardiac involvement, characterized by LV hypertrophy (LVH), associated with severe coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD). Whether CMD is present in patients without LVH, particularly when female, remains unresolved. The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of CMD by positron emission tomography (PET) in AFD patients of both genders, with and without evidence of LVH. We assessed myocardial blood flow following dipyridamole infusion (Dip-MBF) with 13N-labelled ammonia by PET in 30 AFD patients (age 51 ± 13 years; 18 females) and in 24 healthy controls. LVH was defined as echocardiographic maximal LV wall thickness ≥13 mm. LVH was present in 67% of patients (n = 20; 10 males and 10 females). Dip-MBF was reduced in all patients compared with controls (1.8 ± 0.5 and 3.2 ± 0.5 mL/min/g, respectively, P Coronary microvascular function is markedly impaired in AFD patients irrespective of LVH and gender. CMD may represent the only sign of cardiac involvement in AFD patients, with potentially important implications for clinical management.

  2. Alpha-lipoic acid attenuates cardiac fibrosis in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats

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    Lee Jung Eun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperglycemia leads to cardiac oxidative stress and an imbalance in glucose homeostasis. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterised by cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of diabetic cardiomyopathy are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA on cardiac energy metabolism, antioxidant effect, and fibrosis in the hearts of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF rats. Methods Animals were separated into non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO rats and diabetes-prone OLETF rats with or without ALA (200 mg/kg/day administration for 16 weeks. Diabetic cardiomyopathy was assessed by staining with Sirius Red. The effect of ALA on AMPK signalling, antioxidant enzymes, and fibrosis-related genes in the heart of OLETF rats were performed by Western blot analysis or immunohistochemistry. Results Western blot analysis showed that cardiac adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK signalling was lower in OLETF rats than in LETO rats, and that ALA treatment increased the signalling in OLETF rats. Furthermore, the low antioxidant activity in OLETF rats was increased by ALA treatment. In addition to increased Sirius red staining of collagen deposits, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF were expressed at higher levels in OLETF rat hearts than in LETO rat hearts, and the levels of these factors were decreased by ALA. Conclusions ALA enhances AMPK signalling, antioxidant, and antifibrogenic effect. Theses findings suggest that ALA may have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  3. Cardiac Function and Diastolic Dysfunction in Behcet’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Fawad Aslam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular involvement in Behcet’s disease (BD is reported and has variable manifestations. It is not clear if diastolic dysfunction (DD is increased in BD. Our objective was to evaluate the existing literature to determine if cardiac dysfunction, particularly DD, was more prevalent in these patients. Methods. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the available studies analyzing the echocardiographic findings in BD was conducted using a random-effects model. Mean differences were used to calculate the effect sizes of the echocardiographic parameters of interest. Results. A total of 22 studies with 1624 subjects were included in the analysis. Patients with BD had statistically significantly larger mean left atrial dimension (0.08, p=0.0008, greater aortic diameter (0.16, p=0.02, significantly reduced ejection fraction (−1.08, p<0.0001, significantly prolonged mitral deceleration time (14.20, p<0.0001, lower E/A ratio (−0.24, p=0.05, and increased isovolumetric relaxation time (7.29, p<0.00001. Conclusion. DD is increased in patients with BD by the presence of several echocardiographic parameters favoring DD as compared to controls. The meta-analysis also identified that LA dimension is increased in BD patients. EF has also been found to be lower in BD patients. Aortic diameter was also increased in BD patients as compared to controls.

  4. Chronic intermittent hypoxia induces cardiac inflammation and dysfunction in a rat obstructive sleep apnea model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qin; Bian, Yeping; Yu, Fuchao; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Guanghao; Li, Yang; Song, Songsong; Ren, Xiaomei; Tong, Jiayi

    2016-11-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia is considered to play an important role in cardiovascular pathogenesis during the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We used a well-described OSA rat model induced with simultaneous intermittent hypoxia. Male Sprague Dawley rats were individually placed into plexiglass chambers with air pressure and components were electronically controlled. The rats were exposed to intermittent hypoxia 8 hours daily for 5 weeks. The changes of cardiac structure and function were examined by ultrasound. The cardiac pathology, apoptosis, and fibrosis were analyzed by H&E staining, TUNNEL assay, and picosirius staining, respectively. The expression of inflammation and fibrosis marker genes was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Chronic intermittent hypoxia/low pressure resulted in significant increase of left ventricular internal diameters (LVIDs), end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), and blood lactate level and marked reduction in ejection fraction and fractional shortening. Chronic intermittent hypoxia increased TUNNEL-positive myocytes, disrupted normal arrangement of cardiac fibers, and increased Sirius stained collagen fibers. The expression levels of hypoxia induced factor (HIF)-1α, NF-kB, IL-6, and matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP-2) were significantly increased in the heart of rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia. In conclusion, the left ventricular function was adversely affected by chronic intermittent hypoxia, which is associated with increased expression of HIF-1α and NF-kB signaling molecules and development of cardiac inflammation, apoptosis and fibrosis. © 2016 by the Journal of Biomedical Research. All rights reserved.

  5. Cardiac and renal dysfunction is associated with progressive hearing loss in patients with Fabry disease.

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    Maria Köping

    Full Text Available Fabry disease (FD is an X-linked recessive hereditary lysosomal storage disorder which results in the accumulation of globotriaosylceramid (Gb3 in tissues of kidney and heart as well as central and peripheral nervous system. Besides prominent renal and cardiac organ involvement, cochlear symptoms like high-frequency hearing loss and tinnitus are frequently found with yet no comprehensive data available in the literature.To examine hearing loss in patients with FD depending on cardiac and renal function.Single-center study with 68 FD patients enrolled between 2012 and 2016 at the Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Head and Neck Surgery of the University of Würzburg. Every subject underwent an oto-rhino-laryngological examination as well as behavioral, electrophysiological and electroacoustical audiological testing. High-frequency thresholds were evaluated by using a modified PTA6 (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and HF-PTA (6, 8 kHz. Renal function was measured by eGFR, cardiac impairment was graduated by NYHA class.Sensorineural hearing loss was detected in 58.8% of the cohort, which occurred typically in sudden episodes and affected especially high frequencies. Hearing loss is asymmetric, beginning unilaterally and affecting the contralateral ear later. Tinnitus was reported by 41.2%. Renal and cardiac impairment influenced the severity of hearing loss (p < 0.05.High frequency hearing loss is a common problem in patients with FD. Although not life-threatening, it can seriously reduce quality of life and should be taken into account in diagnosis and therapy. Optimized extensive hearing assessment including higher frequency thresholds should be used.

  6. Rapid development of cardiac dysfunction in a canine model of insulin resistance and moderate obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Josiane L; Nelson, Michael D; Kolka, Cathryn M; Bediako, Isaac Asare; Paszkiewicz, Rebecca L; Smith, Laura; Szczepaniak, Edward W; Stefanovski, Darko; Szczepaniak, Lidia S; Bergman, Richard N

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of obesity and diabetes continues to rise at an alarming rate. A major cause of the morbidity and mortality associated with obesity and diabetes is heart disease, yet the mechanisms that lead to cardiovascular complications remain unclear. We performed cardiac MRI to assess left ventricular morphology and function during the development of moderate obesity and insulin resistance in a well-established canine model (n = 26). To assess the influence of dietary fat composition, we randomised animals to a traditional lard diet (rich in saturated and monounsaturated fat; n = 12), a salmon oil diet (rich in polyunsaturated fat; n = 8) or a control diet (n = 6). High-fat feeding with lard increased body weight and fasting insulin and markedly reduced insulin sensitivity. Lard feeding also significantly reduced left ventricular function, evidenced by a worsening of circumferential strain and impairment in left ventricular torsion. High-fat feeding with salmon oil increased body weight; however, salmon oil feeding did not impair insulin sensitivity or cardiac function. These data emphasise the importance of dietary fat composition on both metabolic and cardiac function, and have important implications for the relationship between diet and health.

  7. Biomass fuel smoke exposure was associated with adverse cardiac remodeling and left ventricular dysfunction in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs Peña, M S; Velazquez, E J; Rivera, J D; Alenezi, F; Wong, C; Grigsby, M; Davila-Roman, V G; Gilman, R H; Miranda, J J; Checkley, W

    2017-07-01

    While household air pollution from biomass fuel combustion has been linked to cardiovascular disease, the effects on cardiac structure and function have not been well described. We sought to determine the association between biomass fuel smoke exposure and cardiac structure and function by transthoracic echocardiography. We identified a random sample of urban and rural residents living in the high-altitude region of Puno, Peru. Daily biomass fuel use was self-reported. Participants underwent transthoracic echocardiography. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the relationship of biomass fuel use with echocardiographic measures of cardiac structure and function, adjusting for age, sex, height, body mass index, diabetes, physical activity, and tobacco use. One hundred and eighty-seven participants (80 biomass fuel users and 107 non-users) were included in this analysis (mean age 59 years, 58% women). After adjustment, daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke was associated with increased left ventricular internal diastolic diameter (P=.004), left atrial diameter (P=.03), left atrial area (four-chamber) (P=.004) and (two-chamber) (P=.03), septal E' (P=.006), and lateral E' (P=.04). Exposure to biomass fuel smoke was also associated with worse global longitudinal strain in the two-chamber view (P=.01). Daily biomass fuel use was associated with increased left ventricular size and decreased left ventricular systolic function by global longitudinal strain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Inhibition of PKR protects against H2O2-induced injury on neonatal cardiac myocytes by attenuating apoptosis and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongyi; Men, Min; Xie, Bo; Shan, Jianggui; Wang, Chengxi; Liu, Jidong; Zheng, Hui; Yang, Wengang; Xue, Song; Guo, Changfa

    2016-12-08

    Reactive oxygenation species (ROS) generated from reperfusion results in cardiac injury through apoptosis and inflammation, while PKR has the ability to promote apoptosis and inflammation. The aim of the study was to investigate whether PKR is involved in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced neonatal cardiac myocytes (NCM) injury. In our study, NCM, when exposed to H2O2, resulted in persistent activation of PKR due to NCM endogenous RNA. Inhibition of PKR by 2-aminopurine (2-AP) or siRNA protected against H2O2 induced apoptosis and injury. To elucidate the mechanism, we revealed that inhibition of PKR alleviated H2O2 induced apoptosis companied by decreased caspase3/7 activity, BAX and caspase-3 expression. We also revealed that inhibition of PKR suppressed H2O2 induced NFκB pathway and NLRP3 activation. Finally, we found ADAR1 mRNA and protein expression were both induced after H2O2 treatment through STAT-2 dependent pathway. By gain and loss of ADAR1 expression, we confirmed ADAR1 modulated PKR activity. Therefore, we concluded inhibition of PKR protected against H2O2-induced injury by attenuating apoptosis and inflammation. A self-preservation mechanism existed in NCM that ADAR1 expression is induced by H2O2 to limit PKR activation simultaneously. These findings identify a novel role for PKR/ADAR1 in myocardial reperfusion injury.

  9. Thaliporphine preserves cardiac function of endotoxemic rabbits by both directly and indirectly attenuating NFκB signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Lee

    Full Text Available Cardiac depression in sepsis is associated with the increased morbidity and mortality. Although myofilaments damage, autonomic dysfunction, and apoptosis play roles in sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction, the underlying mechanism is not clear. All of these possible factors are related to NFκB signaling, which plays the main role in sepsis signaling. Thaliporphine was determined to possess anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective activity by suppressing NFκB signaling in rodents. The purpose of this study is to further prove this protective effect in larger septic animals, and try to find the underlying mechanisms. The systolic and diastolic functions were evaluated in vivo by pressure-volume analysis at different preloads. Both preload-dependent and -independent hemodynamic parameters were performed. Inflammatory factors of whole blood and serum samples were analyzed. Several sepsis-related signaling pathways were also determined at protein level. Changes detected by conductance catheter showed Thaliporphine could recover impaired left ventricular systolic function after 4 hours LPS injection. It could also reverse the LPS induced steeper EDPVR and gentler ESPVR, thus improve Ees, Ea, and PRSW. Thaliporphine may exert this protective effect by decreasing TNFα and caspase3 dependent cell apoptosis, which was consistent with the decreased serum cTnI and LDH concentration. Thaliporphine could protect sepsis-associated myocardial dysfunction in both preload-dependent and -independent ways. It may exert these protective effects by both increase of "good"-PI3K/Akt/mTOR and decrease of "bad"-p38/NFκB pathways, which followed by diminishing TNFα and caspase3 dependent cell apoptosis.

  10. TNFα/IFNγ Mediated Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction Is Attenuated by MicroRNA-93 Downregulation of PTK6 in Mouse Colonic Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricci J Haines

    Full Text Available Since inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD represent significant morbidity and mortality in the US, the need for defining novel drug targets and inflammatory mechanisms would be of considerable benefit. Although protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6, also known as breast tumor kinase BRK has been primarily studied in an oncogenic context, it was noted that PTK6 null mice exhibited significantly enhanced colonic epithelial barrier function. Considering that the inflammatory functions of PTK6 have not yet been explored, we hypothesized that cytokines responsible for mediating IBD, such as TNFα/IFNγ, may solicit the action of PTK6 to alter barrier function. After first assessing critical mediators of TNFα/IFNγ driven epithelial barrier dysfunction, we further explored the possibility of PTK6 in this inflammatory context. In this report, we showed that PTK6 siRNA and PTK6 null young adult mouse colonic epithelial cells (YAMC exhibited significant attenuation of TNFα/IFNγ induced barrier dysfunction as measured by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS assay and permeability assays. In addition, PTK6 null cells transfected with PTK6 cDNA displayed restored barrier dysfunction in response to TNFα/IFNγ, while the cells transfected with vector alone showed similar attenuation of barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, using subcellular fractionation and immunocytochemistry experiments, we found that PTK6 plays a role in FoxO1 nuclear accumulation leading to down-regulation of claudin-3, a tight junction protein. Moreover, we searched for relevant miRNA candidates putative for targeting PTK6 in order to identify and assess the impact of microRNA that target PTK6 with respect to TNFα/IFNγ induced barrier dysfunction. Subsequently, we assayed likely targets and determined their effectiveness in attenuating PTK6 expression as well as cytokine induced barrier dysfunction. Results showed that miR-93 reduced PTK6 expression and attenuated TNF

  11. A knowledge-based method for reducing attenuation artefacts caused by cardiac appliances in myocardial PET/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, James J.; Brunken, Richard C.; Bybel, Bohdan; Di Filippo, Frank P.; Faul, David D.

    2006-06-01

    Attenuation artefacts due to implanted cardiac defibrillator leads have previously been shown to adversely impact cardiac PET/CT imaging. In this study, the severity of the problem is characterized, and an image-based method is described which reduces the resulting artefact in PET. Automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) leads cause a moving-metal artefact in the CT sections from which the PET attenuation correction factors (ACFs) are derived. Fluoroscopic cine images were measured to demonstrate that the defibrillator's highly attenuating distal shocking coil moves rhythmically across distances on the order of 1 cm. Rhythmic motion of this magnitude was created in a phantom with a moving defibrillator lead. A CT study of the phantom showed that the artefact contained regions of incorrect, very high CT values and adjacent regions of incorrect, very low CT values. The study also showed that motion made the artefact more severe. A knowledge-based metal artefact reduction method (MAR) is described that reduces the magnitude of the error in the CT images, without use of the corrupted sinograms. The method modifies the corrupted image through a sequence of artefact detection procedures, morphological operations, adjustments of CT values and three-dimensional filtering. The method treats bone the same as metal. The artefact reduction method is shown to run in a few seconds, and is validated by applying it to a series of phantom studies in which reconstructed PET tracer distribution values are wrong by as much as 60% in regions near the CT artefact when MAR is not applied, but the errors are reduced to about 10% of expected values when MAR is applied. MAR changes PET image values by a few per cent in regions not close to the artefact. The changes can be larger in the vicinity of bone. In patient studies, the PET reconstruction without MAR sometimes results in anomalously high values in the infero-septal wall. Clinical performance of MAR is assessed by two

  12. Severe Hypoglycemia-Induced Fatal Cardiac Arrhythmias Are Augmented by Diabetes and Attenuated by Recurrent Hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reno, Candace M; VanderWeele, Jennifer; Bayles, Justin; Litvin, Marina; Skinner, Allie; Jordan, Andrew; Daphna-Iken, Dorit; Fisher, Simon J

    2017-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that insulin-mediated severe hypoglycemia induces lethal cardiac arrhythmias. However, whether chronic diabetes and insulin deficiency exacerbates, and whether recurrent antecedent hypoglycemia ameliorates, susceptibility to arrhythmias remains unknown. Thus, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: 1) nondiabetic (NONDIAB), 2) streptozotocin-induced insulin deficiency (STZ), 3) STZ with antecedent recurrent (3 days) hypoglycemia (∼40-45 mg/dL, 90 min) (STZ+RH), and 4) insulin-treated STZ (STZ+Ins). Following treatment protocols, all rats underwent hyperinsulinemic (0.2 units ⋅ kg-1 ⋅ min-1), severe hypoglycemic (10-15 mg/dL) clamps for 3 h with continuous electrocardiographic recordings. During matched nadirs of severe hypoglycemia, rats in the STZ+RH group required a 1.7-fold higher glucose infusion rate than those in the STZ group, consistent with the blunted epinephrine response. Second-degree heart block was increased 12- and 6.8-fold in the STZ and STZ+Ins groups, respectively, compared with the NONDIAB group, yet this decreased 5.4-fold in the STZ+RH group compared with the STZ group. Incidence of third-degree heart block in the STZ+RH group was 5.6%, 7.8-fold less than the incidence in the STZ group (44%). Mortality due to severe hypoglycemia was 5% in the STZ+RH group, 6.2-fold less than that in the STZ group (31%). In summary, severe hypoglycemia-induced cardiac arrhythmias were increased by insulin deficiency and diabetes and reduced by antecedent recurrent hypoglycemia. In this model, recurrent moderate hypoglycemia reduced fatal severe hypoglycemia-induced cardiac arrhythmias. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  13. Dasatinib Attenuates Pressure Overload Induced Cardiac Fibrosis in a Murine Transverse Aortic Constriction Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaravadivel Balasubramanian

    Full Text Available Reactive cardiac fibrosis resulting from chronic pressure overload (PO compromises ventricular function and contributes to congestive heart failure. We explored whether nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NTKs play a key role in fibrosis by activating cardiac fibroblasts (CFb, and could potentially serve as a target to reduce PO-induced cardiac fibrosis. Our studies were carried out in PO mouse myocardium induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC. Administration of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, dasatinib, via an intraperitoneally implanted mini-osmotic pump at 0.44 mg/kg/day reduced PO-induced accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM proteins and improved left ventricular geometry and function. Furthermore, dasatinib treatment inhibited NTK activation (primarily Pyk2 and Fak and reduced the level of FSP1 positive cells in the PO myocardium. In vitro studies using cultured mouse CFb showed that dasatinib treatment at 50 nM reduced: (i extracellular accumulation of both collagen and fibronectin, (ii both basal and PDGF-stimulated activation of Pyk2, (iii nuclear accumulation of Ki67, SKP2 and histone-H2B and (iv PDGF-stimulated CFb proliferation and migration. However, dasatinib did not affect cardiomyocyte morphologies in either the ventricular tissue after in vivo administration or in isolated cells after in vitro treatment. Mass spectrometric quantification of dasatinib in cultured cells indicated that the uptake of dasatinib by CFb was greater that that taken up by cardiomyocytes. Dasatinib treatment primarily suppressed PDGF but not insulin-stimulated signaling (Erk versus Akt activation in both CFb and cardiomyocytes. These data indicate that dasatinib treatment at lower doses than that used in chemotherapy has the capacity to reduce hypertrophy-associated fibrosis and improve ventricular function.

  14. Dominant negative Ras attenuates pathological ventricular remodeling in pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Kuri, Manuel; Rapti, Kleopatra; Mehel, Hind; Zhang, Shihong; Dhandapany, Perundurai S.; Liang, Lifan; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Bobe, Regis; Fischmeister, Rodolphe; Adnot, Serge; Lebeche, Djamel; Hajjar, Roger J.; Lipskaia, Larissa; Chemaly, Elie R.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the oncogene Ras in cardiac hypertrophy is well appreciated. The hypertrophic effects of the constitutively active mutant Ras-Val12 are revealed by clinical syndromes due to the Ras mutations and experimental studies. We examined the possible anti-hypertrophic effect of Ras inhibition in vitro using rat neonatal cardiomyocytes (NRCM) and in vivo in the setting of pressure-overload left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (POH) in rats. Ras functions were modulated via adenovirus directed gene transfer of active mutant Ras-Val12 or dominant negative mutant N17-DN-Ras (DN-Ras). Ras-Val12 expression in vitro activates NFAT resulting in pro-hypertrophic and cardio-toxic effects on NRCM beating and Z-line organization. In contrast, the DN-Ras was antihypertrophic on NRCM, inhibited NFAT and exerted cardio-protective effects attested by preserved NRCM beating and Z line structure. Additional experiments with silencing H-Ras gene strategy corroborated the antihypertrophic effects of siRNA-H-Ras on NRCM. In vivo, with the POH model, both Ras mutants were associated with similar hypertrophy two weeks after simultaneous induction of POH and Ras-mutant gene transfer. However, LV diameters were higher and LV fractional shortening lower in the Ras-Val12 group compared to control and DN-Ras. Moreover, DN-Ras reduced the cross-sectional area of cardiomyocytes in vivo, and decreased the expression of markers of pathologic cardiac hypertrophy. In isolated adult cardiomyocytes after 2 weeks of POH and Ras-mutant gene transfer, DN-Ras improved sarcomere shortening and calcium transients compared to Ras-Val12. Overall, DN-Ras promotes a more physiological form of hypertrophy, suggesting an interesting therapeutic target for pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26260012

  15. RORγt-expressing cells attenuate cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daichi Enomoto

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor γt (RORγt is a transcriptional factor responsible for IL-17-producing T-cell differentiation. Although it was demonstrated that RORγt plays essential roles in the onset of autoimmune myocarditis, pathophysiological significance of RORγt in cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI remains to be fully elucidated.MI was generated by ligating coronary artery. The expression of RORγt and IL-17A transcripts increased in murine hearts after MI. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining revealed that RORγt-expressing cells infiltrated in the border zone after MI. Flow cytometric analysis showed that RORγt-expressing cells were released from the spleen at day 1 after MI. Though RORγt-expressing cells in spleen expressed γδTCR or CD4, γδTCR+ cells were major population of RORγt-expressing cells that infiltrated into post-infarct myocardium. To address the biological functions of RORγt-expressing cells in infarcted hearts, we used mice with enhanced GFP gene heterozygously knocked-in at RORγt locus (RORγt+/- mice, which physiologically showed reduced expression of RORγt mRNA in thymus. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that MI-induced mortality was higher in RORγt+/- mice than wild-type (WT mice. Masson's trichrome staining demonstrated that cardiac injury was exacerbated in RORγt+/- mice 7 days after MI (Injured area: RORγt+/-; 42.1±6.5%, WT; 34.0±3.7%, circumference of injured myocardium: RORγt+/-; 61.8±4.8%, WT; 49.6±5.1%, accompanied by exacerbation of cardiac function (fractional shortening: RORγt+/-; 32.9±2.9%, WT; 38.3±3.6%. Moreover, immunohistochemical analyses revealed that capillary density in border zone was significantly reduced in RORγt+/- mice after MI, compared with WT mice, associated with the reduced expression of angiopoietin 2. Finally, the mRNA expression of RORγt, IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-23 receptor (IL-23R mRNA and protein expression of IL-10

  16. Attenuation of human carotid-cardiac vagal baroreflex responses after physical detraining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Fritsch, Janice M.

    1992-01-01

    Astronauts who are occupied with prelaunch schedules may have to limit their regular physical exercise routines. To assess a potential effect on blood pressure control, carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses of 16 men were evaluated before and after two weeks of exercise detraining that followed ten weeks of regular scheduled exercise (30 min/d, 4 d/week at 75 percent V(O2) max). After detraining, the baroreflex stimulus-response relationship had a reduced slope 0.4 msec/mmHg and range of response. In addition, there was a resetting of the relationship on the R-R interval axis. Both the minimum and maximum R-R interval responses to the stimulus were significantly reduced after detraining. Baseline systolic pressure did not change with detraining, and the carotid baroreceptor-cardiac response relationship did not shift on the pressure axis. These results suggest that detraining from regular exercise can compromise vagally-mediated mechanisms of blood pressure regulation.

  17. Chronic infusion of enalaprilat into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Dong-Mei [Department of Physiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Yu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Qing; Qi, Jie; Su, Qing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Suo, Yu-Ping [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shanxi Provincial People' s Hospital, Taiyuan 030012 (China); Yue, Li-Ying [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China)

    2014-02-01

    The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We hypothesized that inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension via restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines. Rats underwent subcutaneous infusions of ANG II or saline and bilateral PVN infusions of ACE inhibitor enalaprilat (ENL, 2.5 μg/h) or vehicle for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide and beta-myosin heavy chain. These ANG II-infused rats had higher PVN levels of glutamate, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and lower PVN levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, interleukin (IL)-10 and the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and higher plasma levels of PICs, norepinephrine and aldosterone, and lower plasma IL-10, and higher renal sympathetic nerve activity. However, PVN treatment with ENL attenuated these changes. PVN microinjection of ANG II induced increases in IL-1β and IL-6, and a decrease in IL-10 in the PVN, and pretreatment with angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) antagonist losartan attenuated these changes. These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN, and PVN inhibition of the RAS restores neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, thereby attenuating ANG II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Chronic ANG II infusion results in sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of ACE

  18. Inhibition of TNF-α in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting neurohormonal excitation in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xin-Ai; Jia, Lin-Lin [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Cui, Wei [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Meng [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Chen, Wensheng [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Yuan, Zu-Yi [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Guo, Jing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Li, Hui-Hua [Key Laboratory of Remodeling-related Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Liu, Hao, E-mail: haoliu75@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2014-11-15

    We hypothesized that chronic inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) delays the progression of hypertension and attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by up-regulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs), decreasing nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and NAD(P)H oxidase activities, as well as restoring the neurotransmitters balance in the PVN of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Adult normotensive Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) and SHR rats received bilateral PVN infusion of a TNF-α blocker (pentoxifylline or etanercept) or vehicle for 4 weeks. SHR rats showed higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy compared with WKY rats, as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) mRNA expressions. Compared with WKY rats, SHR rats had higher PVN levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, PICs, the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), NF-κB p65 activity, mRNA expressions of NOX-2 and NOX-4, and lower PVN levels of IL-10 and 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and higher plasma norepinephrine. PVN infusion of pentoxifylline or etanercept attenuated all these changes in SHR rats. These findings suggest that SHR rats have an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, as well as an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN; and chronic inhibition of TNF-α in the PVN delays the progression of hypertension by restoring the balances of neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, and attenuating PVN NF-κB p65 activity and oxidative stress, thereby attenuating hypertension-induced sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibit neurohormonal excitation in the PVN. • PVN inhibition of

  19. Statins attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction induced by exposure to urban particulate matter (PM{sub 10})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Ryohei; Hiraiwa, Kunihiko; Cheng, Jui Chih [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Bai, Ni [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Vincent, Renaud [Environmental Health Sciences and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Francis, Gordon A.; Sin, Don D. [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Van Eeden, Stephan F., E-mail: Stephan.vanEeden@hli.ubc.ca [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (particles less than 10 μm or PM{sub 10}) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have well-established anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of statins on the adverse functional and morphological changes in blood vessels induced by PM{sub 10}. New Zealand White rabbits fed with a high fat diet were subjected to balloon injury to their abdominal aorta followed by PM{sub 10}/saline exposure for 4 weeks ± lovastatin (5 mg/kg/day) treatment. PM{sub 10} exposure accelerated balloon catheter induced plaque formation and increased intimal macrophages and lipid accumulation while lovastatin attenuated these changes and promoted smooth muscle cell recruitment into plaques. PM{sub 10} impaired vascular acetylcholine (Ach) responses and increased vasoconstriction induced by phenylephrine as assessed by wire myograph. Supplementation of nitric oxide improved the impaired Ach responses. PM{sub 10} increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in blood vessels and increased the plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1). Incubation with specific inhibitors for iNOS, COX-2 or ET-1 in the myograph chambers significantly improved the impaired vascular function. Lovastatin decreased the expression of these mediators in atherosclerotic lesions and improved endothelial dysfunction. However, lovastatin was unable to reduce blood lipid levels to the baseline level in rabbits exposed to PM{sub 10}. Taken together, statins protect against PM{sub 10}-induced cardiovascular disease by reducing atherosclerosis and improving endothelial function via their anti-inflammatory properties. - Highlights: • Coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) accelerated balloon injury-induced plaque formation. • Lovastatin decreased intimal

  20. Oral Contraceptives Attenuate Cardiac Autonomic Responses to Musical Auditory Stimulation: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Réveni Carmem; Plassa, Bruna Oliveira; Guida, Heraldo Lorena; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Gomes, Rayana L; Garner, David M; Valenti, Vitor E

    2015-01-01

    The literature presents contradictory results regarding the effects of contraceptives on cardiac autonomic regulation. The research team aimed to evaluate the effects of musical auditory stimulation on cardiac autonomic regulation in women who use oral contraceptives. The research team designed a transversal observational pilot study. The setting was the Centro de Estudos do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo (CESNA) in the Departamento de Fonoaudiologia at the Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) in Marília, SP, Brazil. Participants were 22 healthy nonathletic and nonsedentary females, all nonsmokers and aged between 18 and 27 y. Participants were divided into 2 groups: (1) 12 women who were not taking oral contraceptives, the control group; and (2) 10 women who were taking oral contraceptives, the oral contraceptive group. In the first stage, a rest control, the women sat with their earphones turned off for 20 min. After that period, the participants were exposed to 20 min of classical baroque music (ie, "Canon in D Major," Johann Pachelbel), at 63-84 dB. Measurements of the equivalent sound levels were conducted in a soundproof room, and the intervals between consecutive heartbeats (R-R intervals) were recorded, with a sampling rate of 1000 Hz. For calculation of the linear indices, the research team used software to perform an analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Linear indices of HRV were analyzed in the time domain: (1) the standard deviation of normal-to-normal R-R intervals (SDNN), (2) the root-mean square of differences between adjacent normal R-R intervals in a time interval (RMSSD), and (3) the percentage of adjacent R-R intervals with a difference of duration greater than 50 ms (pNN50). The study also analyzed the frequency domain-low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and LF/HF ratio. For the control group, the musical auditory stimulation reduced (1) the SDNN from 52.2 ± 10 ms to 48.4 ± 16 ms (P = .0034); (2) the RMSSD from 45.8 ± 22 ms to 41.2

  1. Cardiac dysfunction and peri-weaning mortality in malonyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase (MCD) knockout mice as a consequence of restricting substrate plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksentijević, Dunja; McAndrew, Debra J; Karlstädt, Anja; Zervou, Sevasti; Sebag-Montefiore, Liam; Cross, Rebecca; Douglas, Gillian; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Lopaschuk, Gary D; Neubauer, Stefan; Lygate, Craig A

    2014-10-01

    Inhibition of malonyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase (MCD) shifts metabolism from fatty acid towards glucose oxidation, which has therapeutic potential for obesity and myocardial ischemic injury. However, ~40% of patients with MCD deficiency are diagnosed with cardiomyopathy during infancy. To clarify the link between MCD deficiency and cardiac dysfunction in early life and to determine the contributing systemic and cardiac metabolic perturbations. MCD knockout mice ((-/-)) exhibited non-Mendelian genotype ratios (31% fewer MCD(-/-)) with deaths clustered around weaning. Immediately prior to weaning (18days) MCD(-/-) mice had lower body weights, elevated body fat, hepatic steatosis and glycogen depletion compared to wild-type littermates. MCD(-/-) plasma was hyperketonemic, hyperlipidemic, had 60% lower lactate levels and markers of cellular damage were elevated. MCD(-/-) hearts exhibited hypertrophy, impaired ejection fraction and were energetically compromised (32% lower total adenine nucleotide pool). However differences between WT and MCD(-/-) converged with age, suggesting that, in surviving MCD(-/-) mice, early cardiac dysfunction resolves over time. These observations were corroborated by in silico modelling of cardiomyocyte metabolism, which indicated improvement of the MCD(-/-) metabolic phenotype and improved cardiac efficiency when switched from a high-fat diet (representative of suckling) to a standard post-weaning diet, independent of any developmental changes. MCD(-/-) mice consistently exhibited cardiac dysfunction and severe metabolic perturbations while on a high-fat, low carbohydrate diet of maternal milk and these gradually resolved post-weaning. This suggests that dysfunction is a common feature of MCD deficiency during early development, but that severity is dependent on composition of dietary substrates. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Dietary nitrite supplementation attenuates cardiac remodeling in l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

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    Sonoda, Kunihiro; Ohtake, Kazuo; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Ito, Junta; Uchida, Masaki; Natsume, Hideshi; Tamada, Hazuki; Kobayashi, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability underlies the development of hypertensive heart disease. We investigated the effects of dietary nitrite on N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: an untreated control group, an l-NAME-treated group, and three other l-NAME-treated groups supplemented with 10 mg/L or 100 mg/L of nitrite or 100 mg/L of captopril in drinking water. After the 8-week experimental period, mean arterial blood pressure was measured, followed by sampling of blood and heart tissue for assessment of nitrite/nitrate levels in the plasma and heart, the plasma level of angiotensin II (AT II), and the heart transcriptional levels of AT II type 1 receptor (AT1R), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and connective tissue proteins such as type 1 collagen and fibronectin. Heart tissue was analyzed by histopathological morphometry, including assessments of ventricular and coronary vascular hypertrophy and fibrosis, as well as immunohistochemistry analyses of myocardial expression of AT1R. l-NAME treatment reduced the plasma nitrate level and led to the development of hypertension, with increased plasma levels of AT II and increased heart transcriptional levels of AT1R and TGF-β1-mediated connective tissue proteins, showing myocardial and coronary arteriolar hypertrophy and fibrosis. However, dietary nitrite supplementation inhibited TGF-β1-mediated cardiac remodeling by suppressing AT II and AT1R. These results suggest that dietary nitrite levels achievable via a daily high-vegetable diet could improve hypertensive heart disease by inhibiting AT II-AT1R-mediated cardiac remodeling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence, Diagnosis, Perioperative Monitoring and Treatment of Right Ventricular Dysfunction and/or Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Cardiac Surgical Patients in Germany-A Postal Survey.

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    Heringlake, Matthias; Schön, Julika; Pliet, Teresa; Haake, Nils; Reinecke, Alexander; Habicher, Marit; Sander, Michael; Markewitz, Andreas; Reuter, Daniel A; Groesdonk, Heinrich Volker; Trummer, Georg; Pilarzyk, Kevin; von der Brelie, Michael; Bein, Berthold; Schirmer, Uwe

    2017-12-01

    Background Sparse data are available on the prevalence of right ventricular dysfunction and/or pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients scheduled for cardiac surgery in Germany as well as on the intensity and modalities used for diagnosis, perioperative monitoring, and treatment of these comorbidities. Methods A postal survey including questions on the prevalence of preoperative right ventricular dysfunction and/or pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients undergoing cardiac surgery in 2009 was sent to 81 German heart centers. Total 47 of 81 (58%) heart centers returned the questionnaires. The centers reported data on 51,095 patients, and 49.8% of the procedures were isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. Results Data on the prevalence of preoperative pulmonary hypertension and/or right ventricular dysfunction were not available in 54% and 64.6% of centers. In the remaining hospitals, 19.5% of patients presented right heart dysfunction and 10% pulmonary arterial hypertension. Preoperative echocardiography was performed in only 45.3% of the coronary artery bypass grafting cases. Preoperative pharmacologic treatment of pulmonary hypertension or right ventricular dysfunction with oral sildenafil, inhaled prostanoids, or nitric oxide was initiated in 71% and 95.7% of the centers, respectively. Intra- and postoperative treatment was most frequently accomplished with phosphodiesterase-III inhibitors. Conclusion The prevalence of preoperative right heart dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension in cardiac surgical patients in Germany seems to be substantial. However, in more than 50% of the patients, no preoperative data on right ventricular function and pulmonary arterial pressure are available. This may lead to underestimation of perioperative risk and inappropriate management of this high-risk population. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Never in mitosis gene A related kinase-6 attenuates pressure overload-induced activation of the protein kinase B pathway and cardiac hypertrophy.

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    Zhouyan Bian

    Full Text Available Cardiac hypertrophy appears to be a specialized form of cellular growth that involves the proliferation control and cell cycle regulation. NIMA (never in mitosis, gene A-related kinase-6 (Nek6 is a cell cycle regulatory gene that could induce centriole duplication, and control cell proliferation and survival. However, the exact effect of Nek6 on cardiac hypertrophy has not yet been reported. In the present study, the loss- and gain-of-function experiments were performed in Nek6 gene-deficient (Nek6-/- mice and Nek6 overexpressing H9c2 cells to clarify whether Nek6 which promotes the cell cycle also mediates cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by transthoracic aorta constriction (TAC and then evaluated by echocardiography, pathological and molecular analyses in vivo. We got novel findings that the absence of Nek6 promoted cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction, which were accompanied by a significant activation of the protein kinase B (Akt signaling in an experimental model of TAC. Consistent with this, the overexpression of Nek6 prevented hypertrophy in H9c2 cells induced by angiotonin II and inhibited Akt signaling in vitro. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the cell cycle regulatory gene Nek6 is also a critical signaling molecule that helps prevent cardiac hypertrophy and inhibits the Akt signaling pathway.

  5. Wheat germ supplementation alleviates insulin resistance and cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction in an animal model of diet-induced obesity.

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    Ojo, Babajide; Simenson, Ashley J; O'Hara, Crystal; Wu, Lei; Gou, Xin; Peterson, Sandra K; Lin, Daniel; Smith, Brenda J; Lucas, Edralin A

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with insulin resistance (IR), along with mitochondrial dysfunction to metabolically active tissues and increased production of reactive O2 species (ROS). Foods rich in antioxidants such as wheat germ (WG), protect tissues from damage due to ROS and modulate some negative effects of obesity. This study examined the effects of WG supplementation on markers of IR, mitochondrial substrate metabolism and innate antioxidant markers in two metabolically active tissues (i.e. liver and heart) of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat-high-sucrose (HFS) diet. Male C57BL/6 mice, 6-week-old, were randomised into four dietary treatment groups (n 12 mice/group): control (C, 10 % fat kcal), C+10 % WG, HFS (60 % fat kcal) or HFS+10 % WG (HFS+WG). After 12 weeks of treatment, HFS+WG mice had significantly less visceral fat (-16 %, P=0·006) compared with the HFS group. WG significantly reduced serum insulin (P=0·009), the insulinotropic hormone, gastric inhibitory peptide (P=0·0003), and the surrogate measure of IR, homoeostatic model assessment of IR (P=0·006). HFS diet significantly elevated (45 %, P=0·02) cardiac complex 2 mitochondrial VO2, suggesting increased metabolic stress, whereas WG stabilised this effect to the level of control. Consequently, genes which mediate antioxidant defense and mitochondrial biogenesis (superoxide dismutase 2 (Sod2) and PPARγ coactivator 1-α (Pgc1a), respectively) were significantly reduced (Pheart of the HFS group, whereas WG supplementation tended to up-regulate both genes. WG significantly increased hepatic gene expression of Sod2 (P=0·048) but not Pgc1a. Together, these results showed that WG supplementation in HFS diet, reduced IR and improved cardiac mitochondrial metabolic functions.

  6. Overexpression myocardial inducible nitric oxide synthase exacerbates cardiac dysfunction and beta-adrenergic desensitization in experimental hypothyroidism.

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    Shao, Qun; Cheng, Heng-Jie; Callahan, Michael F; Kitzman, Dalane W; Li, Wei-Min; Cheng, Che Ping

    2016-02-01

    Altered nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). Recent evidence links hypothyroidism to the pathology of HF. However, the precise mechanisms are incompletely understood. The alterations and functional effects of cardiac NOS in hypothyroidism are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that hypothyroidism increases cardiomyocyte inducible NOS (iNOS) expression, which plays an important role in hypothyroidism-induced depression of cardiomyocyte contractile properties, [Ca(2+)]i transient ([Ca(2+)]iT), and β-adrenergic hyporesponsiveness. We simultaneously evaluated LV functional performance and compared myocyte three NOS, β-adrenergic receptors (AR) and SERCA2a expressions and assessed cardiomyocyte contractile and [Ca(2+)]iT responses to β-AR stimulation with and without pretreatment of iNOS inhibitor (1400 W, 10(-5)mol/L) in 26 controls and 26 rats with hypothyroidism induced by methimazole (~30 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks in the drinking water). Compared with controls, in hypothyroidism, total serum T3 and T4 were significantly reduced followed by significantly decreased LV contractility (EES) with increased LV time constant of relaxation. These LV abnormalities were accompanied by concomitant significant decreases in myocyte contraction (dL/dtmax), relaxation (dR/dtmax), and [Ca(2+)]iT. In hypothyroidism, isoproterenol (10(-8)M) produced significantly smaller increases in dL/dtmax, dR/dtmax and [Ca(2+)]iT. These changes were associated with decreased β1-AR and SERCA2a, but significantly increased iNOS. Moreover, only in hypothyroidism, pretreatment with iNOS inhibitor significantly improved basal and isoproterenol-stimulated myocyte contraction, relaxation and [Ca(2+)]iT. Hypothyroidism produces intrinsic defects of LV myocyte force-generating capacity and relaxation with β-AR desensitization. Up-regulation of cardiomyocyte iNOS may promote progressive cardiac dysfunction in hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  7. Overexpression Myocardial Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Exacerbates Cardiac Dysfunction and Beta-Adrenergic Desensitization in Experimental Hypothyroidism☆,☆☆

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    Shao, Qun; Cheng, Heng-Jie; Callahan, Michael F.; Kitzman, Dalane W; Li, Wei-Min; Cheng, Che Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Altered nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). Recent evidence links hypothyroidism to the pathology of HF. However, the precise mechanisms are incompletely understood. The alterations and functional effects of cardiac NOS in hypothyroidism are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that hypothyroidism increases cadiomyocyte inducible NOS (iNOS) expression, which plays an important role in hypothyroidism-induced depression of cardiomyocyte contractile properties, [Ca2+]i transient ([Ca2+]iT), and β-adrenergic hyporesponsiveness. Methods and Results We simultaneously evaluated LV functional performance and compared myocyte three NOS, β-adrenergic receptors (AR) and SERCA2a expressions and assessed cardiomyocyte contractile and [Ca2+]iT responses to β-AR stimulation with and without pretreatment of iNOS inhibitor (1400W, 10−5 mol/L) in 26 controls and 26 rats with hypothyroidism induced by methimazole (~30 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks in the drinking water). Compared with controls, in hypothyroidism, total serum T3 and T4 were significantly reduced followed by significantly decreased LV contractility (EES) with increased LV time constant of relaxation. These LV abnormalities were accompanied by concomitant significant decreases in myocyte contraction (dL/dtmax), relaxation (dR/dtmax), and [Ca2+]iT. In hypothyroidism, isoproterenol (10−8 M) produced significantly smaller increases in dL/dtmax, dR/dtmax and [Ca2+]iT. These changes were associated with decreased β1-AR and SERCA2a, but significantly increased iNOS. Moreover, only in hypothyroidism, pretreatment with iNOS inhibitor significantly improved basal and isoproterenol-stimulated myocyte contraction, relaxation and [Ca2+]iT. Conclusions Hypothyroidism produces intrinsic defects of LV myocyte force-generating capacity and relaxation with β-AR desensitization. Up-regulation of cadiomyocyte iNOS may promote progressive cardiac dysfunction in

  8. Long-Lived αMUPA Mice Show Attenuation of Cardiac Aging and Leptin-Dependent Cardioprotection.

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    Esther Levy

    Full Text Available αMUPA transgenic mice spontaneously consume less food compared with their wild type (WT ancestors due to endogenously increased levels of the satiety hormone leptin. αMUPA mice share many benefits with mice under caloric restriction (CR including an extended life span. To understand mechanisms linked to cardiac aging, we explored the response of αMUPA hearts to ischemic conditions at the age of 6, 18, or 24 months. Mice were subjected to myocardial infarction (MI in vivo and to ischemia/reperfusion ex vivo. Compared to WT mice, αMUPA showed functional and histological advantages under all experimental conditions. At 24 months, none of the WT mice survived the first ischemic day while αMUPA mice demonstrated 50% survival after 7 ischemic days. Leptin, an adipokine decreasing under CR, was consistently ~60% higher in αMUPA sera at baseline. Leptin levels gradually increased in both genotypes 24h post MI but were doubled in αMUPA. Pretreatment with leptin neutralizing antibodies or with inhibitors of leptin signaling (AG-490 and Wortmannin abrogated the αMUPA benefits. The antibodies also reduced phosphorylation of the leptin signaling components STAT3 and AKT specifically in the αMUPA myocardium. αMUPA mice did not show elevation in adiponectin, an adipokine previously implicated in CR-induced cardioprotection. WT mice treated for short-term CR exhibited cardioprotection similar to that of αMUPA, however, along with increased adiponectin at baseline. Collectively, the results demonstrate a life-long increased ischemic tolerance in αMUPA mice, indicating the attenuation of cardiac aging. αMUPA cardioprotection is mediated through endogenous leptin, suggesting a protective pathway distinct from that elicited under CR.

  9. Long-Lived αMUPA Mice Show Attenuation of Cardiac Aging and Leptin-Dependent Cardioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Esther; Kornowski, Ran; Gavrieli, Reut; Fratty, Ilana; Greenberg, Gabriel; Waldman, Maayan; Birk, Einat; Shainberg, Asher; Akirov, Amit; Miskin, Ruth; Hochhauser, Edith

    2015-01-01

    αMUPA transgenic mice spontaneously consume less food compared with their wild type (WT) ancestors due to endogenously increased levels of the satiety hormone leptin. αMUPA mice share many benefits with mice under caloric restriction (CR) including an extended life span. To understand mechanisms linked to cardiac aging, we explored the response of αMUPA hearts to ischemic conditions at the age of 6, 18, or 24 months. Mice were subjected to myocardial infarction (MI) in vivo and to ischemia/reperfusion ex vivo. Compared to WT mice, αMUPA showed functional and histological advantages under all experimental conditions. At 24 months, none of the WT mice survived the first ischemic day while αMUPA mice demonstrated 50% survival after 7 ischemic days. Leptin, an adipokine decreasing under CR, was consistently ~60% higher in αMUPA sera at baseline. Leptin levels gradually increased in both genotypes 24h post MI but were doubled in αMUPA. Pretreatment with leptin neutralizing antibodies or with inhibitors of leptin signaling (AG-490 and Wortmannin) abrogated the αMUPA benefits. The antibodies also reduced phosphorylation of the leptin signaling components STAT3 and AKT specifically in the αMUPA myocardium. αMUPA mice did not show elevation in adiponectin, an adipokine previously implicated in CR-induced cardioprotection. WT mice treated for short-term CR exhibited cardioprotection similar to that of αMUPA, however, along with increased adiponectin at baseline. Collectively, the results demonstrate a life-long increased ischemic tolerance in αMUPA mice, indicating the attenuation of cardiac aging. αMUPA cardioprotection is mediated through endogenous leptin, suggesting a protective pathway distinct from that elicited under CR.

  10. Alcohol Dehydrogenase Protects against Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction via Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Autophagy: Role of PTEN-Akt-mTOR Signaling.

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    Jiaojiao Pang

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER plays an essential role in ensuring proper folding of the newly synthesized proteins. Aberrant ER homeostasis triggers ER stress and development of cardiovascular diseases. ADH is involved in catalyzing ethanol to acetaldehyde although its role in cardiovascular diseases other than ethanol metabolism still remains elusive. This study was designed to examine the impact of ADH on ER stress-induced cardiac anomalies and underlying mechanisms involved using cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH.ADH and wild-type FVB mice were subjected to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (1 mg/kg, i.p., for 48 hrs. Myocardial mechanical and intracellular Ca(2+ properties, ER stress, autophagy and associated cell signaling molecules were evaluated.ER stress compromised cardiac contractile function (evidenced as reduced fractional shortening, peak shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening, prolonged relengthening duration and impaired intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis, oxidative stress and upregulated autophagy (increased LC3B, Atg5, Atg7 and p62, along with dephosphorylation of PTEN, Akt and mTOR, all of which were attenuated by ADH. In vitro study revealed that ER stress-induced cardiomyocyte anomaly was abrogated by ADH overexpression or autophagy inhibition using 3-MA. Interestingly, the beneficial effect of ADH was obliterated by autophagy induction, inhibition of Akt and mTOR. ER stress also promoted phosphorylation of the stress signaling ERK and JNK, the effect of which was unaffected by ADH transgene.Taken together, these findings suggested that ADH protects against ER stress-induced cardiac anomalies possibly via attenuation of oxidative stress and PTEN/Akt/mTOR pathway-regulated autophagy.

  11. Heart selenoproteins status of metabolic syndrome-exposed pups: A potential target for attenuating cardiac damage.

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    Serrano, Alejandra; Nogales, Fátima; Sobrino, Paula; Murillo, María Luisa; Carreras, Olimpia; Ojeda, María Luisa

    2016-12-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is the greatest complication in metabolic syndrome (MS), in dams and in offspring. The most effective therapies to avoid the evolution of MS are anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatories, and insulin sensitizers. Among anti-oxidant elements, Selenium (Se) exerts its functions through selenoproteins, which are essential for the correct functioning of the cardiovascular system. The aim of the study is analyze selenoproteins' implication in the transmission of future cardiovascular problems to MS progeny. Heart Se deposits, antioxidant enzymes' activities, biomolecular oxidation, and the expression of selenoproteins, AMPK, and NF-kB were measured in the offspring of dams exposed to a fructose-rich diet (65%) during gestation and lactation, with a normal Se content (0.1 ppm). Thyroid hormones and MCP-1 serum levels, as well as blood pressure and heart rate were also measured. Fructose-exposed pups have cardiomegaly, oxidation, and depletion in Se heart deposits, a decrease in selenoproteins' expression and in the p-AMPK/AMPKt energy ratio; an increase in NF-kB p65 expression, and a decrease of thyroid hormones and MCP-1. Heart rate and blood pressure were altered. These data indicate that dietary Se supplementation could be an inexpensive therapy for avoiding future cardiovascular complication in the progeny of MS dams. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Myocardial overexpression of Mecr, a gene of mitochondrial FAS II leads to cardiac dysfunction in mouse.

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    Zhijun Chen

    Full Text Available It has been recently recognized that mammalian mitochondria contain most, if not all, of the components of fatty acid synthesis type II (FAS II. Among the components identified is 2-enoyl thioester reductase/mitochondrial enoyl-CoA reductase (Etr1/Mecr, which catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of trans-2-enoyl thioesters, generating saturated acyl-groups. Although the FAS type II pathway is highly conserved, its physiological role in fatty acid synthesis, which apparently occurs simultaneously with breakdown of fatty acids in the same subcellular compartment in mammals, has remained an enigma. To study the in vivo function of the mitochondrial FAS in mammals, with special reference to Mecr, we generated mice overexpressing Mecr under control of the mouse metallothionein-1 promoter. These Mecr transgenic mice developed cardiac abnormalities as demonstrated by echocardiography in vivo, heart perfusion ex vivo, and electron microscopy in situ. Moreover, the Mecr transgenic mice showed decreased performance in endurance exercise testing. Our results showed a ventricular dilatation behind impaired heart function upon Mecr overexpression, concurrent with appearance of dysmorphic mitochondria. Furthermore, the data suggested that inappropriate expression of genes of FAS II can result in the development of hereditary cardiomyopathy.

  13. The Cardiac Sympathetic Nerve Activity in the Elderly Is Attenuated in the Right Lateral Decubitus Position

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    Sasaki, Konosuke; Haga, Mayu; Bao, Sarina; Sato, Haruka; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Maruyama, Ryoko

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the supine, left lateral decubitus, and right lateral decubitus positions on autonomic nervous activity in elderly adults by using spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Method: Forty-five adults aged 73.6 ± 5.7 years were enrolled. After lying in the supine position, all participants moved to the lateral decubitus positions in a random order and maintained the positions for 10 min, while electrocardiographic data were recorded to measure HRV. Results: The lowest heart rate continued for 10 min when participants were in the left lateral decubitus position compared with the other two positions (p < .001), while the HRV indexes remained unchanged. The low-frequency HRV to high-frequency HRV ratio (LF/HF) for the right lateral decubitus position was significantly lower than that for the other positions. Discussion: The right lateral decubitus position may attenuate sympathetic nerve activity in elderly adults. PMID:28516131

  14. When cardiac failure, kidney dysfunction, and kidney injury intersect in acute conditions: the case of cardiorenal syndrome.

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    Legrand, Matthieu; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Ronco, Claudio; Januzzi, James L

    2014-09-01

    To review and describe diagnostic and prognostic value of biomarkers of renal function and renal injury in the cardiorenal syndrome complicating acutely decompensated heart failure. PubMed search and review of relevant medical literature. Two reviewers screened and selected studies in English with diagnostic or prognostic assessment of biomarkers of renal injury. Narrative review of the medical literature. Cardiorenal syndrome has a complex pathophysiology and has a generally poor prognosis in patients with acutely decompensated heart failure. Among the methods to recognize risk for cardiorenal syndrome may be the use of circulating or urinary biomarkers, which may allow for more accurate early diagnosis and risk stratification; use of biomarkers may provide important pathophysiologic understanding beyond risk prediction. However, different phenotypes of patients with acute renal dysfunction may be present, which has ramifications with respect to response to treatment strategies. Addition of biomarkers of renal injury may provide additional prognostic value to biomarkers of renal or cardiac function, but more data are needed. Biomarkers reflecting renal function and injury are likely to better phenotype subgroups of patients with cardiorenal syndrome and to provide unique prognostic information. Future studies are needed relative to strategies using such biomarkers to guide care of affected patients.

  15. Sulforaphane improves oxidative status without attenuating the inflammatory response or cardiac impairment induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rats.

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    Bonetto, Jéssica Hellen Poletto; Fernandes, Rafael Oliveira; Seolin, Bruna Gazzi de Lima; Müller, Dalvana Daneliza; Teixeira, Rayane Brinck; Araujo, Alex Sander; Vassallo, Dalton; Schenkel, Paulo Cavalheiro; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2016-05-01

    Sulforaphane, a natural isothiocyanate, demonstrates cardioprotection associated with its capacity to stimulate endogenous antioxidants and to inhibit inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sulforaphane is capable of attenuating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through the TLR4/MyD88/NFκB pathway, and thereby could modulate post-ischemic ventricular function in isolated rat hearts submitted to ischemia and reperfusion. Male Wistar rats received sulforaphane (10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or vehicle i.p. for 3 days. Global ischemia was performed using isolated hearts, 24 h after the last injection, by interruption of the perfusion flow. The protocol included a 20 min pre-ischemic period followed by 20 min of ischemia and a 20 min reperfusion. Although no changes in mechanical function were observed, sulforaphane induced a significant increase in superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase-1 expression (both 66%) and significantly reduced reactive oxygen species levels (7%). No differences were observed for catalase and glutathione peroxidase expression or their activities, nor for thioredoxin reductase, glutaredoxin reductase and glutathione-S-transferase. No differences were found in lipid peroxidation or TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB expression. In conclusion, although sulforaphane was able to stimulate endogenous antioxidants modestly, this result did not impact inflammatory signaling or cardiac function of hearts submitted to ischemia and reperfusion.

  16. Cardiac diastolic dysfunction in high-fat diet fed mice is associated with lipotoxicity without impairment of cardiac energetics in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdurrachim, Desiree; Ciapaite, Jolita; Wessels, Bart; Nabben, Miranda; Luiken, Joost J. F. P.; Nicolay, Klaas; Prompers, Jeanine J.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is often associated with abnormalities in cardiac morphology and function. This study tested the hypothesis that obesity-related cardiomyopathy is caused by impaired cardiac energetics. In a mouse model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, we applied in vivo cardiac P-31 magnetic

  17. Desmodium gangeticum root extract attenuates isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophic growth in rats.

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    Divya Hitler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Desmodium gangeticum (L DC (Fabaceae; DG, a medicinal plant that grows in tropical habitats, is widely used to treat various ailments including digestive and inflammatory disorders. Aims: To investigate the possible cardioprotective activity of a DG root extract against isoproterenol (ISO-induced left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy (LVH in adult Wistar rats. Methods: Daily intraperitoneal administration of ISO (10 mg/kg body weight, single injection for 7 days induced LVH in rats. The LVH rats were post-treated orally with DG (100 mg/kg body weight for a period of 30 days. Thereafter, changes in heart weight (HW and body weight (BW, HW/BW ratio, percent of hypertrophy, collagen accumulation, activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP -2 and -9, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT enzymes, and the level of an oxidative stress marker, lipid peroxide (LPO, were determined. Results: HW/BW ratio, an indicator of hypertrophic growth, was significantly reduced in DG root post-treated LVH rats as compared with that for the non-treated LVH rats. The altered levels of ventricular LPO, collagen, MMPs-2 and -9, and antioxidant enzymes in the ISO-treated animals reverted back to near normal upon DG treatment. Further, the anti-hypertrophic activity of DG was comparable to that of the standard drug losartan (10 mg/kg. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that the aqueous root extract of DG exhibited anti-hypertrophic activity in-vivo by inhibiting ISO-induced ROS generation and MMP activities.

  18. Neuroendocrine and Cardiac Metabolic Dysfunction and NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Adipose Tissue and Pancreas following Chronic Spinal Cord Injury in the Mouse

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    Gregory E. Bigford

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available CVD (cardiovascular disease represents a leading cause of mortality in chronic SCI (spinal cord injury. Several component risk factors are observed in SCI; however, the underlying mechanisms that contribute to these risks have not been defined. Central and peripheral chronic inflammation is associated with metabolic dysfunction and CVD, including adipokine regulation of neuroendocrine and cardiac function and inflammatory processes initiated by the innate immune response. We use female C57 Bl/6 mice to examine neuroendocrine, cardiac, adipose and pancreatic signaling related to inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in response to experimentally induced chronic SCI. Using immunohistochemical, -precipitation, and -blotting analysis, we show decreased POMC (proopiomelanocortin and increased NPY (neuropeptide-Y expression in the hypothalamic ARC (arcuate nucleus and PVN (paraventricular nucleus, 1-month post-SCI. Long-form leptin receptor (Ob-Rb, JAK2 (Janus kinase/STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/p38 and RhoA/ROCK (Rho-associated kinase signaling is significantly increased in the heart tissue post-SCI, and we observe the formation and activation of the NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome in VAT (visceral adipose tissue and pancreas post-SCI. These data demonstrate neuroendocrine signaling peptide alterations, associated with central inflammation and metabolic dysfunction post-SCI, and provide evidence for the peripheral activation of signaling mechanisms involved in cardiac, VAT and pancreatic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction post-SCI. Further understanding of biological mechanisms contributing to SCI-related inflammatory processes and metabolic dysfunction associated with CVD pathology may help to direct therapeutic and rehabilitation countermeasures.

  19. Normovolaemic haemodilution attenuates cardiac depression induced by sodium bicarbonate in canine metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, M; Nishikawa, T; Mizutani, T

    1996-09-01

    This study was designed to determine if coexisting metabolic acidosis or normovolaemic haemodilution, or both, modifies the acute cardiodepressant effect of i.v. sodium bicarbonate. Thirty-one mongrel dogs were anaesthetized with halothane, and the lungs ventilated mechanically; dogs were allocated randomly to one of four groups: control group (pHa 7.39 (SD 0.03), base excess -1.0 (1.6) mmol litre-1, haemoglobin 13.9 (2.5) g dl-1 (n = 8)), metabolic acidosis group (pHa 7.21 (0.05), base excess -11.2 (2.1) mmol litre1, haemoglobin 13.4 (2.6) g dl-1 (n = 8)), anaemia group (pHa 7.40 (0.04), base excess 0.1 (2.0) mmol litre-1, haemoglobin 7.2 (1.1) g dl-1 (n = 8)) or anaemia acidosis group (pHa 7.22 (0.04), base excess -11.0 (2.2) mmol litre-1, haemoglobin 7.4 (0.3) g dl-1 (n = 7)). Metabolic acidosis was induced by continuous i.v. infusion of hydrochloric acid 2 mol litre-1. Normovolaemic haemodilution was undertaken by phlebotomy and simultaneous exchange with lactated Ringer's solution at 37 degrees C. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulmonary artery pressure, right atrial pressure (RAP), maximum rate of change of pressure in the right ventricle (RV dP/dtmax) and pulmonary blood flow (PBF) were measured at 30 s, 1 and 3 min after administration of 7% sodium bicarbonate solution 1 mmol kg-1 given into the right atrium over 5 s. Sodium bicarbonate produced significant decreases in MAP and RV dP/dtmax at 30 s in all groups except for the anaemia acidosis group (P sodium bicarbonate 1 mmol kg-1 i.v. during metabolic acidosis was more pronounced than without acidosis, but was attenuated in the presence of normovolaemic haemodilution.

  20. Efficacy and effects on cardiac function of radiofrequency catheter ablation vs. direct current cardioversion of persistent atrial fibrillation with left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

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    Maojing Wang

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of catheter ablation vs. direct current synchronized cardioversion (DCC in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF and left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and to define baseline features of patients that will get more benefit from ablation.From July 2013 to October 2014, 97 consecutive single-center patients with persistent AF and symptomatic heart failure (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF 20% or to over 55% in 31 (54.39% patients with worse baseline cardiac function and ventricular rate control.Catheter ablation relative to cardioversion of persistent AF with symptomatic heart failure yielded better 12-month SR maintenance and cardiac function. Compared with non-responders, patients with improved LVEF post-ablation had poorer ventricular rate control and cardiac function at baseline, suggesting a significant component of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy in this group.

  1. Bariatric Surgery Restores Cardiac and Sudomotor Autonomic C-Fiber Dysfunction towards Normal in Obese Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes.

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    Carolina M Casellini

    shows that bariatric surgery can restore both cardiac and sudomotor autonomic C-fiber dysfunction in subjects with diabetes, potentially impacting morbidity and mortality.

  2. Cardiac Shock Wave Therapy Attenuates H9c2 Myoblast Apoptosis by Activating the AKT Signal Pathway

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    Weiwei Yu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that Cardiac Shock Wave Therapy (CSWT improves myocardial perfusion and cardiac function in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia and also ameliorates myocardial ischemia in patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD. Apoptosis plays a key role in ischemic myocardial pathogenesis. However, it remains unclear whether CSWT is beneficial for ischemia/hypoxia (I/H-induced myocardial cell apoptosis and by which mechanism CSWT could improve heart function. We put forward the hypothesis that CSWT might protect heart function during ischemia/hypoxia by decreasing apoptosis. Methods: We generated ischemia/hypoxia (I/H-induced apoptosis in the H9c2 myoblast cell line to examine the CSWT function and possible mechanisms. H9c2 cells were treated under hypoxic serum-starved conditions for 24 h and then treated with or without CSWT (500 shots, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12mJ/mm2. The apoptotic cell rate was determined by flow cytometry assay, cell viability was examined by the MTT assay, nuclear fragmentation was detected by Hoechst 33342 staining, and the mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis was assessed by the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 protein and Caspase3 activation. Results: First, apoptosis could be induced by ischemia/hypoxia in H9c2 cells. Second, CSWT attenuates the cell death and decreases the H9c2 cell apoptosis rate induced by ischemia and hypoxia. Third, CSWT suppresses the expression of apoptosis molecules that regulate the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in H9c2 cells. Fourth, CSWT increases the phosphorylation of AKT, which indicates the activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway. Conclusions: These results indicate that CSWT exerts a protective effect against I/H-induced cell death, potentially by preventing the activation of components of the mitochondrial-dependent intrinsic apoptotic pathway. We also demonstrate that the PI3K-Akt pathway may be involved in the CSWT effects on

  3. Post-procedural hemodiafiltration in acute coronary syndrome patients with associated renal and cardiac dysfunction undergoing urgent and emergency coronary angiography.

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    Marenzi, Giancarlo; Mazzotta, Gianfranco; Londrino, Francesco; Gistri, Roberto; Moltrasio, Marco; Cabiati, Angelo; Assanelli, Emilio; Veglia, Fabrizio; Rombolà, Giuseppe

    2015-02-15

    We investigated the use of a 3-hr treatment with hemodiafiltration, initiated soon after emergency or urgent coronary angiography in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with associated severe renal and cardiac dysfunction. Patients with ACS and severe combined renal and cardiac dysfunction have a particularly high mortality risk. In them, the ideal strategy to both optimize treatment of coronary disease and minimize renal injury risk is currently unknown. This was an interventional study. ACS patients (STEMI and NSTEMI) with associated severe renal (eGFR ≤30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) ) and cardiac (LVEF ≤40%) dysfunction, admitted at La Spezia Hospital <24 hr from symptoms onset, underwent a prophylactic 3-hr hemodiafiltration treatment, which was started soon after urgent or emergency coronary procedure. Controls were patients matched for age, gender, Mehran's risk score, and kind of ACS, admitted at the Centro Cardiologico Monzino Milan. In-hospital and 1-year outcomes were evaluated. Sixty patients (30% STEMI), 30 hemodiafiltration-treated patients and 30 controls, with similar baseline characteristics, were included. In-hospital and cumulative 1-year mortality rates were significantly lower in hemodiafiltration-treated patients than in controls (3% vs. 23%; P = 0.05, and 10% vs. 53%; P < 0.001, respectively). Moreover, they had a lower incidence of severe AKI (10% vs. 40%; P = 0.015) and lower need for rescue renal replacement therapy during hospitalization (7% vs. 27%; P = 0.04). Our pilot study suggests that, in ACS patients with severe renal and cardiac insufficiency, treatment with an aggressive prophylactic hemodiafiltration session after urgent or emergency coronary angiography seems to be associated with a relevant improvement in survival. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Glyoxalase-1 overexpression reduces endothelial dysfunction and attenuates early renal impairment in a rat model of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwers, Olaf; Niessen, Petra M G; Miyata, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In diabetes, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and the AGE precursor methylglyoxal (MGO) are associated with endothelial dysfunction and the development of microvascular complications. In this study we used a rat model of diabetes, in which rats transgenically overexpressed ...

  5. Deletion of interleukin-6 prevents cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and dysfunction without affecting blood pressure in angiotensin II-high salt-induced hypertension.

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    González, Germán E; Rhaleb, Nour-Eddine; D'Ambrosio, Martin A; Nakagawa, Pablo; Liu, Yunhe; Leung, Pablo; Dai, Xiangguo; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Peterson, Edward L; Carretero, Oscar A

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation has been proposed as a key component in the development of hypertension and cardiac remodeling associated with different cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in the chronic stage of hypertension is not well defined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that deletion of interleukin-6 protects against the development of hypertension, cardiac inflammation, fibrosis, remodeling and dysfunction induced by high salt diet and angiotensin II (Ang II). Male C57BL/6J and interleukin-6-knock out (KO) mice were implanted with telemetry devices for blood pressure (BP) measurements, fed a 4% NaCl diet, and infused with either vehicle or Ang II (90 ng/min per mouse subcutaneously) for 8 weeks. We studied BP and cardiac function by echocardiography at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. Myocyte cross-sectional area (MCSA), macrophage infiltration, and myocardial fibrosis were also assessed. BP increased similarly in both strains when treated with Ang II and high salt (Ang II-high salt); however, C57BL/6J mice developed a more severe decrease in left ventricle ejection fraction, fibrosis, and macrophage infiltration compared with interleukin-6-KO mice. No differences between strains were observed in MCSA, capillary density and MCSA to capillary density ratio. In conclusion, absence of interleukin -6 did not alter the development of Ang II-high salt-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy, but it prevented the development of cardiac dysfunction, myocardial inflammation, and fibrosis. This indicates that interleukin-6 plays an important role in hypertensive heart damage but not in the development of hypertension.

  6. Deletion of interleukin-6 prevents cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and dysfunction without affecting blood pressure in angiotensin II-high salt-induced hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Germán E.; Rhaleb, Nour-Eddine; D’ambrosio, Martin A.; Nakagawa, Pablo; Liu, Yunhe; Leung, Pablo; Dai, Xiangguo; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Peterson, Edward L.; Carretero, Oscar A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Inflammation has been proposed as a key component in the development of hypertension and cardiac remodeling associated with different cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in the chronic stage of hypertension is not well defined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that deletion of interleukin-6 protects against the development of hypertension, cardiac inflammation, fibrosis, remodeling and dysfunction induced by high salt diet and angiotensin II (Ang II). Methods Male C57BL/6J and interleukin-6-knock out (KO) mice were implanted with telemetry devices for blood pressure (BP) measurements, fed a 4% NaCl diet, and infused with either vehicle or Ang II (90 ng/min per mouse subcutaneously) for 8 weeks. We studied BP and cardiac function by echocardiography at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. Results Myocyte cross-sectional area (MCSA), macrophage infiltration, and myocardial fibrosis were also assessed. BP increased similarly in both strains when treated with Ang II and high salt (Ang II-high salt); however, C57BL/6J mice developed a more severe decrease in left ventricle ejection fraction, fibrosis, and macrophage infiltration compared with interleukin-6-KO mice. No differences between strains were observed in MCSA, capillary density and MCSA to capillary density ratio. Conclusion In conclusion, absence of interleukin -6 did not alter the development of Ang II-high salt-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy, but it prevented the development of cardiac dysfunction, myocardial inflammation, and fibrosis. This indicates that interleukin-6 plays an important role in hypertensive heart damage but not in the development of hypertension. PMID:25304471

  7. Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein-C Autoantibodies Are Potential Early Indicators of Cardiac Dysfunction and Patient Outcome in Acute Coronary Syndrome

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    Thomas L. Lynch, IVPhD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The degradation and release of cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C upon cardiac damage may stimulate an inflammatory response and autoantibody (AAb production. We determined whether the presence of cMyBP-C-AAbs associated with adverse cardiac function in cardiovascular disease patients. Importantly, cMyBP-C-AAbs were significantly detected in acute coronary syndrome patient sera upon arrival to the emergency department, particularly in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients. Patients positive for cMyBP-C-AAbs had reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and elevated levels of clinical biomarkers of myocardial infarction. We conclude that cMyBP-C-AAbs may serve as early predictive indicators of deteriorating cardiac function and patient outcome in acute coronary syndrome patients prior to the infarction. Key Words: acute myocardial infarction, autoantibodies, cardiac myosin binding protein-c, cardiomyopathy

  8. Muscular, cardiac, ventilatory and metabolic dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis: Implications for screening, clinical care and endurance and resistance exercise therapy, a scoping review.

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    Wens, Inez; Eijnde, Bert O; Hansen, Dominique

    2016-08-15

    In the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), exercise training is now considered a cornerstone. However, most clinicians tend to focus on neurologic deficits only, and thus prefer to prescribe rehabilitation programs specifically to counteract these deficits. However, the present comprehensive review shows that patients with MS (pwMS) also experience significant muscular, cardiac, ventilatory and metabolic dysfunction, which significantly contribute, next to neurologic deficits, to exercise intolerance. In addition, these anomalies also might increase the risk for frequent hospitalization and morbidity and can reduce life expectancy. Unfortunately, the impact of exercise intervention on these anomalies in pwMS are mostly unknown. Therefore, it is suggested that pwMS should be screened systematically for muscular, cardiac, ventilatory and metabolic function during exercise testing. The detection of such anomalies should lead to adaptations and optimisation of exercise training prescription and clinical care/medical treatment of pwMS. In addition, future studies should focus on the impact of exercise intervention on muscular, cardiac, ventilatory and metabolic (dys)function in pwMS, to contribute to improved treatment and care. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Prolongation of heart rate-corrected QT interval is a predictor of cardiac autonomic dysfunction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

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    Nomura, Atsushi; Kishimoto, Mitsumasa; Takahashi, Osamu; Deshpande, Gautam A; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Okada, Masato

    2014-05-01

    Heart rate-corrected QT interval duration (QTc) has been shown to be related to cardiac autonomic dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus, although this association has not been previously described in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 91 SLE patients and 144 non-SLE connective tissue disease patients visiting our clinic from November 2010 to April 2011. We compared ambulatory heart rate identified by pulse measured by automated machine in an outpatient waiting area versus resting heart rate identified on prior screening electrocardiogram. Heart rate differences were analyzed in relation to QTc interval and other characteristics. Ambulatory and resting heart rate differences were larger among SLE patients with QTc prolongation (QTc > 430 ms) than those without QTc prolongation (mean difference, 15.9 vs. 9.6, p = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, differences in heart rate were associated with QTc prolongation (OR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.01-1.21; p = 0.038), independent of age, duration of disease, immunosuppressant use, hydroxychloroquine use, diabetes mellitus, cardiac abnormality, anti-Ro/SS-A antibody positivity, or resting heart rate. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction is a common manifestation of SLE and may be related to QTc prolongation.

  10. Predictive Value of Beat-to-Beat QT Variability Index across the Continuum of Left Ventricular Dysfunction: Competing Risks of Non-cardiac or Cardiovascular Death, and Sudden or Non-Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, Larisa G.; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; McNitt, Scott; Vazquez, Rafael; Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Han, Lichy; Sur, Sanjoli; Couderc, Jean-Philippe; Berger, Ronald D.; de Luna, Antoni Bayes; Zareba, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to determine the predictive value of beat-to-beat QT variability in heart failure (HF) patients across the continuum of left ventricular dysfunction. Methods and Results Beat-to-beat QT variability index (QTVI), heart rate variance (LogHRV), normalized QT variance (QTVN), and coherence between heart rate variability and QT variability have been measured at rest during sinus rhythm in 533 participants of the Muerte Subita en Insuficiencia Cardiaca (MUSIC) HF study (mean age 63.1±11.7; males 70.6%; LVEF >35% in 254 [48%]) and in 181 healthy participants from the Intercity Digital Electrocardiogram Alliance (IDEAL) database. During a median of 3.7 years of follow-up, 116 patients died, 52 from sudden cardiac death (SCD). In multivariate competing risk analyses, the highest QTVI quartile was associated with cardiovascular death [hazard ratio (HR) 1.67(95%CI 1.14-2.47), P=0.009] and in particular with non-sudden cardiac death [HR 2.91(1.69-5.01), P<0.001]. Elevated QTVI separated 97.5% of healthy individuals from subjects at risk for cardiovascular [HR 1.57(1.04-2.35), P=0.031], and non-sudden cardiac death in multivariate competing risk model [HR 2.58(1.13-3.78), P=0.001]. No interaction between QTVI and LVEF was found. QTVI predicted neither non-cardiac death (P=0.546) nor SCD (P=0.945). Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) rather than increased QT variability was the reason for increased QTVI in this study. Conclusions Increased QTVI due to depressed HRV predicts cardiovascular mortality and non-sudden cardiac death, but neither SCD nor excracardiac mortality in HF across the continuum of left ventricular dysfunction. Abnormally augmented QTVI separates 97.5% of healthy individuals from HF patients at risk. PMID:22730411

  11. Spironolactone treatment attenuates vascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mice by decreasing oxidative stress and restoring NO/GC signaling

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    Marcondes Alves Barbosa Da Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (DM2 increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Aldosterone, which has pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects in the cardiovascular system, is positively regulated in DM2. We assessed whether blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR with spironolactone decreases ROS-associated vascular dysfunction and improves vascular NO signaling in diabetes. Leptin receptor knockout [LepRdb/LepRdb (db/db] mice, a model of DM2, and their counterpart controls [LepRdb/LepR+, (db/+ mice] received spironolactone (50 mg/kg body weight/day or vehicle (ethanol 1% via oral per gavage for 6 weeks. Spironolactone treatment abolished the endothelial dysfunction and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS phosphorylation (Ser1177, determined by acetylcholine-induced relaxation and Western Blot analysis, respectively. MR antagonist therapy also abrogated augmented ROS-generation in aorta from diabetic mice, determined by lucigenin luminescence assay. Spironolactone treatment increased superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1 and catalase expression, improved sodium nitroprusside (SNP and BAY 41-2272-induced relaxation, as well as increased soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC subunit β protein expression in arteries from db/db mice. Our results demonstrate that spironolactone decreases diabetes-associated vascular oxidative stress and prevents vascular dysfunction through processes involving increased expression of antioxidant enzymes and sGC. These findings further elucidate redox-sensitive mechanisms whereby spironolactone protects against vascular injury in diabetes.

  12. Ginsenosides attenuate d-galactose- and AlCl3-inducedspatial memory impairment by restoring the dysfunction of the neurotransmitter systems in the rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

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    Zhang, Yan; Pi, Zifeng; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang

    2016-12-24

    Panax ginseng C.A.Mey. is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which has been used to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) for thousands of years. Ginsenoside is one of the major compounds found in P. ginseng. This study aimed to explore the attenuation of spatial memory impairment by ginsenosides and its correlation with restoring the dysfunction of the neurotransmitter systems in AD model rats to understand the mechanism underlying the anti-AD effect of P. ginseng. In this study, the AD model was established by combining d-galactose (d-gal) with AlCl3 (Al) for 60 days. From day 30, the ginsenosides group was intragastrically administered with ginsenosides for 30 days. The ethology of rats was tested through the Morris water maze test(MWM). Histopathological changes in the hippocampus of rats were observed through hematoxylin and eosin staining. The expressions of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) and phospho-tau (p-tau) in the hippocampus and cortex of rats were detected by immunohistochemistry. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assay was used to measure neurotransmitter concentrations in the hippocampus, cortex, and blood. Ginsenosides could significantly decrease the escape latency time and the average latency time in the place navigation test and increase the times of crossing the platform area, the percentage of residence time, and the distance in the original platform quadrant in the spatial probe test. Ginsenosides could repair the damage of the hippocampus and reduce the expressions of Aβ and p-tau. Ginsenosides could also increase γ-aminobutyric acid, acetylcholine, and dopamine levels and decrease glutamate and aspartic acid levels in the hippocampus and cortex and increase glycine and serotonin levels in the blood. After effectively administrated, ginsenosides attenuate d-gal- and Al-induced spatial memory impairment. The possible mechanism of the beneficial effect is restoring the dysfunction of various neurotransmitters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  13. Inflammation and microvascular dysfunction in cardiac syndrome X patients without conventional risk factors for coronary artery disease.

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    Recio-Mayoral, Alejandro; Rimoldi, Ornella E; Camici, Paolo G; Kaski, Juan Carlos

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) and inflammation are related in cardiac syndrome X (CSX). CMD can lead to CSX, defined as typical angina and transient myocardial ischemia despite normal coronary arteriograms. Inflammation has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia in CSX. We assessed 21 CSX patients (age 52 ± 10 years; 17 women) without traditional cardiovascular risk factors and 21 matched apparently healthy control subjects. Positron emission tomography was used to measure myocardial blood flow (MBF) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) in response to intravenous adenosine, whereas high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured to assess inflammation. Patients were subdivided a priori into 2 groups according to CRP concentrations at study entry (i.e., ≤3 or >3 mg/l). There were no differences in resting (1.20 ± 0.23 ml/min/g vs. 1.14 ± 0.20 ml/min/g; p = 0.32) or hyperemic MBF (3.28 ± 1.02 ml/min/g vs. 3.68 ± 0.89 ml/min/g; p = 0.18) between CSX patients and the control group, whereas CFR was mildly reduced in CSX patients compared with the control group (2.77 ± 0.80 vs. 3.38 ± 0.80; p = 0.02). Patients with CRP >3 mg/l had more severe impairment of CFR (2.14 ± 0.33 vs. 3.16 ± 0.76; p = 0.001) and more ischemic electrocardiographic changes during adenosine administration than patients with lower CRP, and a negative correlation between CRP levels and CFR (r = -0.49, p = 0.02) was found in CSX patients. CSX patients with elevated CRP levels had a significantly reduced CFR compared with the control group, which is indicative of CMD. Our study thus suggests a role for inflammation in the modulation of coronary microvascular responses in patients with CSX. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein-C Autoantibodies are Potential Early Indicators of Cardiac Dysfunction and Patient Outcome in Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Thomas L; Kuster, Diederik W D; Gonzalez, Beverly; Balasubramanian, Neelam; Nair, Nandini; Day, Sharlene; Calvino, Jenna E; Tan, Yanli; Liebetrau, Christoph; Troidl, Christian; Hamm, Christian W; Güçlü, Ahmet; McDonough, Barbara; Marian, Ali J; van der Velden, Jolanda; Seidman, Christine E; Huggins, Gordon S; Sadayappan, Sakthivel

    2017-04-01

    The degradation and release of cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) upon cardiac damage may stimulate an inflammatory response and autoantibody (AAb) production. We determined whether the presence of cMyBP-C-AAbs associated with adverse cardiac function in CVD patients. Importantly, cMyBP-C-AAbs were significantly detected in ACS patient sera upon arrival to the emergency department, particularly in STEMI patients. Patients positive for cMyBP-C-AAbs had a reduced LVEF and elevated levels of clinical biomarkers of MI. We conclude that cMyBP-C-AAbs may serve as early predictive indicators of deteriorating cardiac function and patient outcome in ACS patients prior to the infarction.

  15. The Attenuation of Moutan Cortex on Oxidative Stress for Renal Injury in AGEs-Induced Mesangial Cell Dysfunction and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy Rats

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    Minghua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS has been regarded as one of the major pathogeneses of diabetic nephropathy (DN through damaging kidney which is associated with renal cells dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Moutan Cortex (MC could protect kidney function against oxidative stress in vitro or in vivo. The compounds in MC extract were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS. High-glucose-fat diet and STZ (30 mg kg−1 were used to induce DN rats model, while 200 μg mL−1 AGEs were for HBZY-1 mesangial cell damage. The treatment with MC could significantly increase the activity of SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX, and catalase (CAT. However, lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA was reduced markedly in vitro or in vivo. Furthermore, MC decreased markedly the levels of blood glucose, serum creatinine, and urine protein in DN rats. Immunohistochemical assay showed that MC downregulated significantly transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2 protein expression in renal tissue. Our data provided evidence to support this fact that MC attenuated OS in AGEs-induced mesangial cell dysfunction and also in high-glucose-fat diet and STZ-induced DN rats.

  16. Allogeneic cardiospheres delivered via percutaneous transendocardial injection increase viable myocardium, decrease scar size, and attenuate cardiac dilatation in porcine ischemic cardiomyopathy.

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    Kristine Yee

    Full Text Available Epicardial injection of heart-derived cell products is safe and effective post-myocardial infarction (MI, but clinically-translatable transendocardial injection has never been evaluated. We sought to assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of percutaneous transendocardial injection of heart-derived cells in porcine chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy.We studied a total of 89 minipigs; 63 completed the specified protocols. After NOGA-guided transendocardial injection, we quantified engraftment of escalating doses of allogeneic cardiospheres or cardiosphere-derived cells in minipigs (n = 22 post-MI. Next, a dose-ranging, blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled ("dose optimization" study of transendocardial injection of the better-engrafting product was performed in infarcted minipigs (n = 16. Finally, the superior product and dose (150 million cardiospheres were tested in a blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled ("pivotal" study (n = 22. Contrast-enhanced cardiac MRI revealed that all cardiosphere doses preserved systolic function and attenuated remodeling. The maximum feasible dose (150 million cells was most effective in reducing scar size, increasing viable myocardium and improving ejection fraction. In the pivotal study, eight weeks post-injection, histopathology demonstrated no excess inflammation, and no myocyte hypertrophy, in treated minipigs versus controls. No alloreactive donor-specific antibodies developed over time. MRI showed reduced scar size, increased viable mass, and attenuation of cardiac dilatation with no effect on ejection fraction in the treated group compared to placebo.Dose-optimized injection of allogeneic cardiospheres is safe, decreases scar size, increases viable myocardium, and attenuates cardiac dilatation in porcine chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy. The decreases in scar size, mirrored by increases in viable myocardium, are consistent with therapeutic regeneration.

  17. Physical phantom evaluation of EM-IntraSPECT (EMIS) algorithm for nonuniform attenuation correction in cardiac imaging

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    Krol, Andrzej; Bowsher, James E.; Feiglin, David H.; Gagne, George M.; Hellwig, Bradford J.; Tornai, Martin P.; Thomas, Frank D.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance of the EM-IntraSPECT (EMIS) algorithm for non-uniform attenuation correction in the chest. EMIS is a maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) algorithm for simultaneously estimating SPECT emission and attenuation parameters from emission data alone. EMIS uses the activity within the patient as transmission tomography sources, with which attenuation coefficients can be estimated. A thorax phantom with a normal heart was used. The activity images reconstructed by EMIS were compared to images reconstructed using a conventional MLEM with a fixed uniform attenuation map. Uniformity of normal heart was improved with EMIS as compared to a conventional MLEM.

  18. Left ventricular dysfunction with reduced functional cardiac reserve in diabetic and non-diabetic LDL-receptor deficient apolipoprotein B100-only mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Suvi E; Merentie, Mari; Hedman, Marja; Mäkinen, Petri I; Loponen, Elina; Kholová, Ivana; Bosch, Fatima; Laakso, Markku; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2011-06-30

    Lack of suitable mouse models has hindered the studying of diabetic macrovascular complications. We examined the effects of type 2 diabetes on coronary artery disease and cardiac function in hypercholesterolemic low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient apolipoprotein B100-only mice (LDLR-/-ApoB100/100). 18-month-old LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 (n = 12), diabetic LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mice overexpressing insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) in pancreatic beta cells (IGF-II/LDLR-/-ApoB100/100, n = 14) and age-matched C57Bl/6 mice (n = 15) were studied after three months of high-fat Western diet. Compared to LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mice, diabetic IGF-II/LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mice demonstrated more calcified atherosclerotic lesions in aorta. However, compensatory vascular enlargement was similar in both diabetic and non-diabetic mice with equal atherosclerosis (cross-sectional lesion area ~60%) and consequently the lumen area was preserved. In coronary arteries, both hypercholesterolemic models showed significant stenosis (~80%) despite positive remodeling. Echocardiography revealed severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction and anteroapical akinesia in both LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 and IGF-II/LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mice. Myocardial scarring was not detected, cardiac reserve after dobutamine challenge was preserved and ultrasructural changes revealed ischemic yet viable myocardium, which together with coronary artery stenosis and slightly impaired myocardial perfusion suggest myocardial hibernation resulting from chronic hypoperfusion. LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mice develop significant coronary atherosclerosis, severe left ventricular dysfunction with preserved but diminished cardiac reserve and signs of chronic myocardial hibernation. However, the cardiac outcome is not worsened by type 2 diabetes, despite more advanced aortic atherosclerosis in diabetic animals.

  19. Left ventricular dysfunction with reduced functional cardiac reserve in diabetic and non-diabetic LDL-receptor deficient apolipoprotein B100-only mice

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    Bosch Fatima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of suitable mouse models has hindered the studying of diabetic macrovascular complications. We examined the effects of type 2 diabetes on coronary artery disease and cardiac function in hypercholesterolemic low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient apolipoprotein B100-only mice (LDLR-/-ApoB100/100. Methods and results 18-month-old LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 (n = 12, diabetic LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mice overexpressing insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II in pancreatic beta cells (IGF-II/LDLR-/-ApoB100/100, n = 14 and age-matched C57Bl/6 mice (n = 15 were studied after three months of high-fat Western diet. Compared to LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mice, diabetic IGF-II/LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mice demonstrated more calcified atherosclerotic lesions in aorta. However, compensatory vascular enlargement was similar in both diabetic and non-diabetic mice with equal atherosclerosis (cross-sectional lesion area ~60% and consequently the lumen area was preserved. In coronary arteries, both hypercholesterolemic models showed significant stenosis (~80% despite positive remodeling. Echocardiography revealed severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction and anteroapical akinesia in both LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 and IGF-II/LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mice. Myocardial scarring was not detected, cardiac reserve after dobutamine challenge was preserved and ultrasructural changes revealed ischemic yet viable myocardium, which together with coronary artery stenosis and slightly impaired myocardial perfusion suggest myocardial hibernation resulting from chronic hypoperfusion. Conclusions LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mice develop significant coronary atherosclerosis, severe left ventricular dysfunction with preserved but diminished cardiac reserve and signs of chronic myocardial hibernation. However, the cardiac outcome is not worsened by type 2 diabetes, despite more advanced aortic atherosclerosis in diabetic animals.

  20. MicroRNA-200a is up-regulated in aged rats with erectile dysfunction and could attenuate endothelial function via SIRT1 inhibition

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    Feng Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MiR-200a was shown to be upregulated in the corpus cavernosum (CC of rats with aging-related erectile dysfunction (A-ED in our previous study. Among its target genes, SIRT1 was also reported as a protective factor in erectile function by our groups previously. Thus, miR-200a might attenuate the erectile function in A-ED via SIRT1 inhibition. In the present study, three animal groups were included: aged rats with ED (group AE, n = 8, aged rats with normal erectile function (group AN, n = 8, and young rats as normal controls (group YN, n = 8. CCs from each group were collected for histological and molecular measurements to validate the dysregulation of miR-200a and SIRT1. After that, the cavernous endothelial cells (CECs from CC of aged rats with normal erectile function were transfected with miR-200a in vitro. Then the expression of SIRT1 and molecules within the eNOS/NO/PKG pathway were measured to investigate whether the transfection could imitate the attenuated process of erectile function in the aged. As a result, miR-200a was upregulated while the SIRT1, the levels of eNOS and cGMP were all downregulated in the CCs from AE group. After transfection in vitro, the miR-200a was upregulated while the SIRT1 and levels of eNOS and cGMP were obviously downregulated. Finally, based on the results of our previous study, we further verify that up-regulation of miR-200a could participate in the mechanisms of A-ED via SIRT1 inhibition, and mainly attenuate endothelial function via influencing the eNOS/NO/PKGpathway.

  1. Doxycycline reduces cardiac matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity but does not ameliorate myocardial dysfunction during reperfusion in coronary artery bypass patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Costas J; Castro, Michele M; Kandasamy, Arulmozhi D; Cena, Jonathan; Bryden, Courtney; Wang, Shoa H; Koshal, Arvind; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Finegan, Barry A; Schulz, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 proteolyzes intracellular proteins in the heart and induces acute myocardial contractile dysfunction in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Doxycycline, a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, prevented matrix metalloproteinase-2-induced troponin I cleavage in rat hearts and improved contractile function following ischemia-reperfusion. In patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, increased atrial matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity was inversely correlated with cardiac mechanical function at 3 hours reperfusion. We performed a study in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing primary elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass to determine whether doxycycline reduces cardiac mechanical dysfunction, matrix metalloproteinase activity, and troponin I degradation after reperfusion. Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. University of Alberta Hospital. Forty-two patients with coronary artery disease undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were randomized to receive either oral administration of 20 mg of doxycycline or matching placebo pill twice a day at least 2 days prior to surgery, on the day of surgery, and for the first 3 postoperative days. Left ventricular stroke work index was examined prior to cardiopulmonary bypass and at 24 hours reperfusion. Right atrial biopsies were collected before cardiopulmonary bypass and 10 minutes after aortic cross-clamp release to determine matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity and troponin I level. Blood was collected to determine matrix metalloproteinase activity and interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and troponin I levels. Cardiac 72-kDa matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity was lower upon reperfusion in biopsies from the doxycycline group (p = 0.01), and the increase of matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity in the placebo group due to reperfusion did not appear in the

  2. Cardiac dysfunction induced by high-fat diet is associated with altered myocardial insulin signalling in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwens, D.M.; de Boer, C.; Fodor, M.; Galan, P.; Heine, R.J.; Maassen, J.A.; Diamant, M.

    2005-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is common in type 2 diabetes. In DCM, insulin resistance may alter cardiac substrate supply and utilisation leading to changes in myocardial metabolism and cardiac function. In rats, exposure to excessive alimentary fat, inducing a type 2 diabetic

  3. Diesel Exhaust-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction Is Mediated by Sympathetic Dominance in Heart Failure-Prone Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short-term exposure to vehicular emissions is associated with adverse cardiac events. Diesel exhaust (DE) may provoke cardiac events through defective co-ordination of the two main autonomic nervous system (ANS) branches. We exposed heart failure-prone rats once to DE (500 g/m3 ...

  4. Gastrointestinal dysfunction induced by early weaning is attenuated by delayed weaning and mast cell blockade in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeser, Adam J; Ryan, Kathleen A; Nighot, Prashant K; Blikslager, Anthony T

    2007-08-01

    Our previous work has demonstrated that weaning at 19 days of age has deleterious effects on mucosal barrier function in piglet intestine that are mediated through peripheral CRF receptor signaling pathways. The objectives of the present study were to assess the impact of piglet age on weaning-associated intestinal dysfunction and to determine the role that mast cells play in weaning-induced breakdown of mucosal barrier function. Nursing Yorkshire-cross piglets were either weaned at 19 days of age (early-weaned, n = 8) or 28 days of age (late-weaned, n = 8) and housed in nursery pens. Twenty-four hours postweaning, segments of midjejunum and ascending colon from piglets within each weaning age group were harvested and mounted on Ussing chambers for measurements of transepithelial electrical resistance and serosal-to-mucosal [(3)H]mannitol fluxes. Early weaning resulted in reductions in transepithelial electrical resistance and increases in mucosal permeability to [(3)H]mannitol in the jejunum and colon (P piglets weaned at 28 days of age. Early-weaned piglet intestinal mucosa had increased expression of CRF receptor 1 protein, increased mucosal mast cell tryptase levels, and evidence of enhanced mast cell degranulation compared with late-weaned intestinal mucosa. Pretreatment of piglets with the mast cell stabilizer drug cromolyn, injected intraperitoneally 30 min prior to weaning, abolished the early-weaning-induced intestinal barrier disturbances. Our results indicate that early-weaning stress induces mucosal dysfunction mediated by intestinal mast cell activation and can be prevented by delaying weaning.

  5. Donepezil attenuates Aβ-associated mitochondrial dysfunction and reduces mitochondrial Aβ accumulation in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chun Yan; Lei, Yun; Tang, Xi Can; Zhang, Hai Yan

    2015-08-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of donepezil, a well-known acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, on amyloid-β (Aβ)-associated mitochondrial dysfunction, in order to gain a better understanding of the neuroprotective effects of this clinically used anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug. First, our study verifies the ameliorative effects of donepezil on behavioral deficits in both working memory and anxiety in APP/PS1 double transgenic mice, at a time point that AChE is not inhibited. Meanwhile, we demonstrate that donepezil enhances the resistance of brain mitochondria of APP/PS1 mice to the induction of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) by calcium ions. Moreover, the level of mitochondrial Aβ in the brain of donepezil-treated APP/PS1 transgenic mice is significantly lower than that of vehicle-treated APP/PS1 mice. Our in vitro study using isolated mitochondria from rat brains, which is expected as an AChE-free subcellular system, further confirms the ameliorative effects of donepezil on oligomeric Aβ1-42 induced mitochondrial swelling and ATP reduction. In addition, donepezil treatment also significantly blocks the Aβ accumulation in the isolated mitochondria. Our study reported for the first time that the protective effects of donepezil against Aβ-associated mitochondrial dysfunction are closely associated with the reduction of Aβ accumulation in the mitochondria. Above observation led us to assume that, besides potent AChE inhibitory effect, other non-cholinergic mechanisms may be involved in the neuroprotective profiles of donepezil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiac {sup 31}P-MRS compared to echocardiographic findings in patients with hypertensive heart disease without overt systolic dysfunction-Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhard, Thorsten [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt/Main, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt/Main (Germany)], E-mail: Thorsten.Burkhard@web.de; Herzog, Christopher [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt/Main, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt/Main (Germany)], E-mail: c.herzog@em.uni-frankfurt.de; Linzbach, Sven [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Frankfurt/Main, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt/Main (Germany)], E-mail: s.linzbach@arcor.de; Spyridopoulos, Ioakim [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Frankfurt/Main, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt/Main (Germany)], E-mail: spyridopoulos@em.uni-frankfurt.de; Huebner, Frank [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt/Main, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt/Main (Germany)], E-mail: Frank.Huebner@kgu.de; Vogl, Thomas J. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt/Main, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt/Main (Germany)], E-mail: t.vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.de

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate changes in high energy phosphate (HEP) metabolism in patients with hypertension and diastolic dysfunction but with normal LVEF > 55% assessed by echocardiography and tissue Doppler. Material and methods: 20 patients (16 men and 4 women, mean age 57 {+-} 13 years) were studied with phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy and echocardiography. MRS was performed at 1.5 T using an ECG-gated CSI sequence with nuclear Overhauser effect. According to echocardiographical findings 12 patients were found to have a diastolic dysfunction, whereas 8 patients were identified as normal, serving as control group in the following statistical analysis. All patients had normal systolic function (LVEF > 55%).Statistical analysis was made by using mean {+-} S.D. for description of the data, Spearman correlation and two-tailed Student's t-test for independent samples. Results: No differences were found in weight, age, LVEF, endsystolic volume, end-diastolic volume, cardiac output and BNP levels between patients and control group. Myocardial mass at end-diastole correlated significantly with PCr/ATP ratio (r = -0.66; p = 0.04) in patients and control group. Myocardial PCr/ATP ratio in patients was significantly decreased compared to controls (1.21 {+-} 0.22 vs. 1.54 {+-} 0.24; p = 0.006). Conclusions: Cardiac {sup 31}P-MRS might offer a noninvasive means for detecting early states of heart failure in hypertensive patients.

  7. Impairment of cardiac function and remodeling induced by myocardial infarction in rats are attenuated by the nonpeptide angiotensin-(1-7) analog AVE 0991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wu-tao; Chen, Wei-yan; Leng, Xiu-yu; Tang, Li-long; Sun, Xiu-ting; Li, Cui-ling; Dai, Gang

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated effects of the nonpeptide angiotensin (ANG)-(1-7) analog AVE 0991 (AVE) on cardiac function and remodeling as well as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1)/tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression in myocardial infarction rat models. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either sham surgery or coronary ligation. They were divided into four groups: sham, control, AVE, and AVE+A-779 [[D-Ala(7) ]-ANG-(1-7), a selective antagonist for the ANG-(1-7)] group. After 4 weeks of treatment, the AVE group displayed a significant elevation in left ventricular fractional shorting (LVFS) (25.5 ± 7.3% vs. 18.4 ± 3.3%, P AVE group when compared to the control group. There were no differences in LVFS, LVEF, myocyte diameter, and infarct size between the control and AVE+A-779 groups. AVE also markedly attenuated the increased mRNA expression of collagen I (P AVE could improve cardiac function and attenuate ventricular remodeling in MI rat models. It may involve the inhibition of inflammatory factors TGF-β1/TNF-α overexpression and the action on the specific receptor Mas of ANG-(1-7). © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Atorvastatin therapy during the peri-infarct period attenuates left ventricular dysfunction and remodeling after myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Liang Tang

    Full Text Available Although statins impart a number of cardiovascular benefits, whether statin therapy during the peri-infarct period improves subsequent myocardial structure and function remains unclear. Thus, we evaluated the effects of atorvastatin on cardiac function, remodeling, fibrosis, and apoptosis after myocardial infarction (MI. Two groups of rats were subjected to permanent coronary occlusion. Group II (n = 14 received oral atorvastatin (10 mg/kg/d daily for 3 wk before and 4 wk after MI, while group I (n = 12 received equivalent doses of vehicle. Infarct size (Masson's trichrome-stained sections was similar in both groups. Compared with group I, echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and fractional area change (FAC were higher while LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV and LV end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters (LVESD and LVEDD were lower in treated rats. Hemodynamically, atorvastatin-treated rats exhibited significantly higher dP/dt(max, end-systolic elastance (Ees, and preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW and lower LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP. Morphometrically, infarct wall thickness was greater in treated rats. The improvement of LV function by atorvastatin was associated with a decrease in hydroxyproline content and in the number of apoptotic cardiomyocyte nuclei. We conclude that atorvastatin therapy during the peri-infarct period significantly improves LV function and limits adverse LV remodeling following MI independent of a reduction in infarct size. These salubrious effects may be due in part to a decrease in myocardial fibrosis and apoptosis.

  9. Uric Acid-Induced Adipocyte Dysfunction Is Attenuated by HO-1 Upregulation: Potential Role of Antioxidant Therapy to Target Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodhi, Komal; Hilgefort, Jordan; Banks, George; Gilliam, Chelsea; Stevens, Sarah; Ansinelli, Hayden A.; Getty, Morghan; Abraham, Nader G.; Shapiro, Joseph I.

    2016-01-01

    Increased uric acid levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. To examine the mechanisms by which this occurs, we hypothesized that an increase in heme oxygenase 1, a potent antioxidant gene, will decrease uric acid levels and adipocyte dysfunction via suppression of ROS and xanthine oxidase (XO) levels. We examined the effect of uric acid on adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the presence and absence of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), an HO-1 inducer, and tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), an HO activity inhibitor. Uric acid increased adipogenesis by increasing NADPH oxidase expression and elevation in the adipogenesis markers C/EBPα, PPARγ, and Mest, while decreasing small lipid droplets and Wnt10b levels. We treated MSCs with fructose, a fuel source that increases uric acid levels. Our results showed that fructose increased XO expression as compared to the control and concomitant treatment with CoPP significantly decreased XO expression and uric acid levels. These beneficial effects of CoPP were reversed by SnMP, supporting a role for HO activity in mediating these effects. These findings demonstrate that increased levels of HO-1 appear crucial in modulating the phenotype of adipocytes exposed to uric acid and in downregulating XO and NADPH oxidase levels. PMID:26681956

  10. Uric Acid-Induced Adipocyte Dysfunction Is Attenuated by HO-1 Upregulation: Potential Role of Antioxidant Therapy to Target Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Sodhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased uric acid levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. To examine the mechanisms by which this occurs, we hypothesized that an increase in heme oxygenase 1, a potent antioxidant gene, will decrease uric acid levels and adipocyte dysfunction via suppression of ROS and xanthine oxidase (XO levels. We examined the effect of uric acid on adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in the presence and absence of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP, an HO-1 inducer, and tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP, an HO activity inhibitor. Uric acid increased adipogenesis by increasing NADPH oxidase expression and elevation in the adipogenesis markers C/EBPα, PPARγ, and Mest, while decreasing small lipid droplets and Wnt10b levels. We treated MSCs with fructose, a fuel source that increases uric acid levels. Our results showed that fructose increased XO expression as compared to the control and concomitant treatment with CoPP significantly decreased XO expression and uric acid levels. These beneficial effects of CoPP were reversed by SnMP, supporting a role for HO activity in mediating these effects. These findings demonstrate that increased levels of HO-1 appear crucial in modulating the phenotype of adipocytes exposed to uric acid and in downregulating XO and NADPH oxidase levels.

  11. Activation of the Nkx2.5–Calr–p53 signaling pathway by hyperglycemia induces cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in adult zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyi Sun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for diabetic cardiomyopathy in humans; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been thoroughly elucidated. Zebrafish (Danio rerio was used in this study as a novel vertebrate model to explore the signaling pathways of human adult cardiomyopathy. Hyperglycemia was induced by alternately immersing adult zebrafish in a glucose solution or water. The hyperglycemic fish gradually exhibited some hallmarks of cardiomyopathy such as myocardial hypertrophy and apoptosis, myofibril loss, fetal gene reactivation, and severe arrhythmia. Echocardiography of the glucose-treated fish demonstrated diastolic dysfunction at an early stage and systolic dysfunction at a later stage, consistent with what is observed in diabetic patients. Enlarged hearts with decreased myocardial density, accompanied by decompensated cardiac function, indicated that apoptosis was critical in the pathological process. Significant upregulation of the expression of Nkx2.5 and its downstream targets calreticulin (Calr and p53 was noted in the glucose-treated fish. High-glucose stimulation in vitro evoked marked apoptosis of primary cardiomyocytes, which was rescued by the p53 inhibitor pifithrin-μ. In vitro experiments were performed using compound treatment and genetically via cell infection. Genetically, knockout of Nkx2.5 induced decreased expression of Nkx2.5, Calr and p53. Upregulation of Calr resulted in increased p53 expression, whereas the level of Nkx2.5 remained unchanged. An adult zebrafish model of hyperglycemia-induced cardiomyopathy was successfully established. Hyperglycemia-induced myocardial apoptosis was mediated, at least in part, by activation of the Nkx2.5–Calr–p53 pathway in vivo, resulting in cardiac dysfunction and hyperglycemia-induced cardiomyopathy.

  12. Daily exercise prevents diastolic dysfunction and oxidative stress in a female mouse model of western diet induced obesity by maintaining cardiac heme oxygenase-1 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, Brian; Aroor, Annayya R; Habibi, Javad; Durante, William; Ma, Lixin; DeMarco, Vincent G; Garro, Mona; Hayden, Melvin R; Booth, Frank W; Sowers, James R

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic with profound cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications. Obese women are particularly vulnerable to CVD, suffering higher rates of CVD compared to non-obese females. Diastolic dysfunction is the earliest manifestation of CVD in obese women but remains poorly understood with no evidence-based therapies. We have shown early diastolic dysfunction in obesity is associated with oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis. Recent evidence suggests exercise may increase levels of the antioxidant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Accordingly, we hypothesized that diastolic dysfunction in female mice consuming a western diet (WD) could be prevented by daily volitional exercise with reductions in oxidative stress, myocardial fibrosis and maintenance of myocardial HO-1 levels. Four-week-old female C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat/high-fructose WD for 16weeks (N=8) alongside control diet fed mice (N=8). A separate cohort of WD fed females was allowed a running wheel for the entire study (N=7). Cardiac function was assessed at 20weeks by high-resolution cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Functional assessment was followed by immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blotting to identify pathologic mechanisms and assess HO-1 protein levels. There was no significant body weight decrease in exercising mice, normalized body weight 14.3g/mm, compared to sedentary mice, normalized body weight 13.6g/mm (p=0.38). Total body fat was also unchanged in exercising, fat mass of 6.6g, compared to sedentary mice, fat mass 7.4g (p=0.55). Exercise prevented diastolic dysfunction with a significant reduction in left ventricular relaxation time to 23.8ms for exercising group compared to 33.0ms in sedentary group (pstress and myocardial fibrosis with improved mitochondrial architecture. HO-1 protein levels were increased in the hearts of exercising mice compared to sedentary WD fed females. This study provides seminal evidence that exercise

  13. Reversing dobutamine-induced tachycardia using ivabradine increases stroke volume with neutral effect on cardiac energetics in left ventricular post-ischaemia dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkehaug, J P; Naesheim, T; Torgersen Engstad, E; Kildal, A B; Myrmel, T; How, O-J

    2016-10-01

    Compensatory tachycardia can potentially be deleterious in acute heart failure. In this study, we tested a therapeutic strategy of combined inotropic support (dobutamine) and selective heart rate (HR) reduction through administration of ivabradine. In an open-chest pig model (n = 12) with left ventricular (LV) post-ischaemia dysfunction, cardiac function was assessed by LV pressure catheter and sonometric crystals. Coronary flow and blood samples from the coronary sinus were used to measure myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2 ). LV energetics was assessed by comparing MVO2 with cardiac work at a wide range of workloads. In the post-ischaemia heart, dobutamine (5 μg kg(-1)  min(-1) ) increased cardiac output (CO) by increasing HR from 102 ± 21 to 131 ± 16 bpm (beats per min; P efficiency. Similar findings on efficiency and LV function were also seen using an ex vivo working mouse heart protocol. A combined infusion of dobutamine and ivabradine had a neutral effect on post-ischaemia LV efficiency and increased left ventricular output without an increase in HR. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Fruit vinegars attenuate cardiac injury via anti-inflammatory and anti-adiposity actions in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounihi, Abdenour; Bitam, Arezki; Bouazza, Asma; Yargui, Lyece; Koceir, Elhadj Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Fruit vinegars (FVs) are used in Mediterranean folk medicine for their hypolipidemic and weight-reducing properties. To investigate the preventive effects of three types of FV, commonly available in Algeria, namely prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill (Cectaceae)], pomegranate [Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae)], and apple [Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae)], against obesity-induced cardiomyopathy and its underlying mechanisms. Seventy-two male Wistar rats were equally divided into 12 groups. The first group served as normal control (distilled water, 7 mL/kg bw), and the remaining groups were respectively treated with distilled water (7 mL/kg bw), acetic acid (0.5% w/v, 7 mL/kg bw) and vinegars of pomegranate, apple or prickly pear (at doses of 3.5, 7 and 14 mL/kg bw, acetic acid content as mentioned above) along with a high-fat diet (HFD). The effects of the oral administration of FV for 18 weeks on the body and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) weights, plasma inflammatory and cardiac enzymes biomarkers, and in heart tissue were evaluated. Vinegars treatments significantly (p < .05) attenuated the HFD-induced increase in bw (0.2-0.5-fold) and VAT mass (0.7-1.8-fold), as well as increase in plasma levels of CRP (0.1-0.3-fold), fibrinogen (0.2-0.3-fold), leptin (1.7-3.7-fold), TNF-α (0.1-0.6-fold), AST (0.9-1.4-fold), CK-MB (0.3-1.4-fold) and LDH (2.7-6.7-fold). Moreover, vinegar treatments preserved myocardial architecture and attenuated cardiac fibrosis. These findings suggest that pomegranate, apple and prickly pear vinegars may prevent HFD-induced obesity and obesity-related cardiac complications, and that this prevention may result from the potent anti-inflammatory and anti-adiposity properties of these vinegars.

  15. Activation of angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis in the brain lowers blood pressure and attenuates cardiac remodeling in hypertensive transgenic (mRen2)27 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangussu, Lucas M; Guimaraes, Priscila S; Nadu, Ana Paula; Melo, Marcos B; Santos, Robson A S; Campagnole-Santos, Maria Jose

    2015-10-01

    Activation of the peripheral angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis of the renin-angiotensin system produces important cardioprotective actions, counterbalancing the deleterious actions of an overactivity of Ang II/AT1 axis. In the present study we evaluated whether the chronic increase in Ang-(1-7) levels in the brain could ameliorate cardiac disorders observed in transgenic (mRen2)27 hypertensive rats through actions on Mas receptor. Sprague Dawley (SD) and transgenic (mRen2)27 hypertensive rats, instrumented with telemetry probe for arterial pressure (AP) measurement were subjected to 14 days of ICV infusion of Ang-(1-7) (200 ng/h) or Ang-(1-7) associated with Mas receptor antagonist (A779, 1 μg/h) or 0.9% sterile saline (0.5 μl/h) through osmotic mini-pumps. Ang-(1-7) infusion in (mRen2)27 rats reduced blood pressure, normalized the baroreflex control of HR, restored cardiac autonomic balance, reduced cardiac hypertrophy and pre-fibrotic alterations and decreased the altered imbalance of Ang II/Ang-(1-7) in the heart. In addition, there was an attenuation of the increased levels of atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, collagen I, fibronectin and TGF-β in the heart of (mRen2)27 rats. Furthermore, most of these effects were mediated in the brain by Mas receptor, since were blocked by its selective antagonist, A779. These data indicate that increasing Ang-(1-7) levels in the brain can attenuate cardiovascular disorders observed in (mRen2)27 hypertensive rats, probably by improving the autonomic balance to the heart due to centrally-mediated actions on Mas receptor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel p38α MAPK inhibitor suppresses brain proinflammatory cytokine up-regulation and attenuates synaptic dysfunction and behavioral deficits in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNamara Laurie K

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An accumulating body of evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that excessive or prolonged increases in proinflammatory cytokine production by activated glia is a contributor to the progression of pathophysiology that is causally linked to synaptic dysfunction and hippocampal behavior deficits in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD. This raises the opportunity for the development of new classes of potentially disease-modifying therapeutics. A logical candidate CNS target is p38α MAPK, a well-established drug discovery molecular target for altering proinflammatory cytokine cascades in peripheral tissue disorders. Activated p38 MAPK is seen in human AD brain tissue and in AD-relevant animal models, and cell culture studies strongly implicate p38 MAPK in the increased production of proinflammatory cytokines by glia activated with human amyloid-beta (Aβ and other disease-relevant stressors. However, the vast majority of small molecule drugs do not have sufficient penetrance of the blood-brain barrier to allow their use as in vivo research tools or as therapeutics for neurodegenerative disorders. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that brain p38α MAPK is a potential in vivo target for orally bioavailable, small molecules capable of suppressing excessive cytokine production by activated glia back towards homeostasis, allowing an improvement in neurologic outcomes. Methods A novel synthetic small molecule based on a molecular scaffold used previously was designed, synthesized, and subjected to analyses to demonstrate its potential in vivo bioavailability, metabolic stability, safety and brain uptake. Testing for in vivo efficacy used an AD-relevant mouse model. Results A novel, CNS-penetrant, non-toxic, orally bioavailable, small molecule inhibitor of p38α MAPK (MW01-2-069A-SRM was developed. Oral administration of the compound at a low dose (2.5 mg/kg resulted in attenuation of

  17. TiO2 nanoparticles cause mitochondrial dysfunction, activate inflammatory responses, and attenuate phagocytosis in macrophages: A proteomic and metabolomic insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qun; Wang, Ningning; Zhu, Mingjiang; Lu, Jianhong; Zhong, Huiqin; Xue, Xinli; Guo, Shuoyuan; Li, Min; Wei, Xinben; Tao, Yongzhen; Yin, Huiyong

    2017-12-28

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used in food and cosmetics but the health impact of human exposure remains poorly defined. Emerging evidence suggests that TiO2 NPs may elicit immune responses by acting on macrophages. Our proteomic study showed that treatment of macrophages with TiO2 NPs led to significant re-organization of cell membrane and activation of inflammation. These observations were further corroborated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments, which demonstrated that TiO2 NPs were trapped inside of multi-vesicular bodies (MVB) through endocytotic pathways. TiO2 NP caused significant mitochondrial dysfunction by increasing levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreasing ATP generation, and decreasing metabolic flux in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle from 13C-labelled glutamine using GC-MS-based metabolic flux analysis. Further lipidomic analysis showed that TiO2 NPs significantly decreased levels of cardiolipins, an important class of mitochondrial phospholipids for maintaining proper function of electron transport chains. Furthermore, TiO2 NP exposure activates inflammatory responses by increasing mRNA levels of TNF-α, iNOS, and COX-2. Consistently, our targeted metabolomic analysis showed significantly increased production of COX-2 metabolites including PGD2, PGE2, and 15d-PGJ2. In addition, TiO2 NP also caused significant attenuation of phagocytotic function of macrophages. In summary, our studies utilizing multiple powerful omic techniques suggest that human exposure of TiO2 NPs may have profound impact on macrophage function through activating inflammatory responses and causing mitochondrial dysfunction without physical presence in mitochondria. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Low-Molecular-Weight Fucoidan Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Improves Neurological Outcome After Traumatic Brain Injury in Aged Mice: Involvement of Sirt3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhu, Mang; He, Zhong-Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and long-term disability. Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown algae, possesses potent anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Considering TBI happens frequently in adults, especially in aged individuals, we herein sought to define the protective effects of low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMWF) in the aged mice. 16- to 18-month-old mice administered with LMWF (1-50 mg/kg) or vehicle were subjected to TBI using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model. LMWF at the doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg significantly reduced both cortical and hippocampal lesion volume. This protection was associated with reduced neuronal apoptosis, as evidenced by TUNEL staining. Importantly, LMWF was effective even when administered up to 4 h after TBI. Treatment with LMWF improved long-term neurobehavioral outcomes, including sensorimotor function, and hippocampus-associated spatial learning and memory. In addition, LMWF significantly suppressed protein carbonyl, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, as well as mitochondrial dysfunction, which was evidenced by mitochondrial cytochrome c release and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). To evaluate the underlying molecular mechanisms, the expression of sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. The results showed that TBI significantly increased the expression of Sirt3, which was further elevated by LMWF treatment. Knockdown of Sirt3 using intracerebroventricular injection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) partially prevented the therapeutic effects of LMWF. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that LMWF exerts neuroprotection against TBI in the aged brain, which may be associated with the attenuation of mitochondrial dysfunction through Sirt3 activation.

  19. Selective endothelin A-receptor blockade attenuates coronary microvascular dysfunction after coronary stenting in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Östlund Papadogeorgos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaos Östlund Papadogeorgos, Mattias Bengtsson, Majid KalaniKarolinska Institute, Department of Clinical Sciences, Department of Cardiology, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: Endothelin-1 may be involved in the development of diabetic microangiopathy. We studied the effect of endothelin-1 blockade on myocardial microcirculation during coronary stenting.Patients and methods: Patients with type 2 diabetes and stable coronary artery disease undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI were randomized to bolus dose of 500 mg bosentan (n = 4, a dual endothelin receptor blocker, or intracoronary administration of 0.03 mmol BQ123 (n = 6, a selective endothelin A-receptor blocker, or placebo (n = 5, respectively. Coronary flow reserve (CFR was measured immediately post-PCI. CFR was also measured in five nondiabetic controls post-coronary stenting.Results: Patients in the placebo group had (P < 0.05 lower values of CFR (2.3 ± 1.2 as compared to those who received endothelin blockade (n = 10; 3.1 ± 0.7 and nondiabetic controls (4.9 ± 2.3. Patients who received BQ123 showed significantly higher CFR (3.3 ± 0.5; P < 0.05 as compared to those on placebo. Nondiabetic patients had significantly higher CFR as compared to patients with diabetes (4.9 ± 2.3 and 2.8 ± 1.0, respectively; P < 0.05. Conclusion: Coronary microvascular dysfunction is present during coronary stenting in patients with type 2 diabetes and may be reversed by selective endothelin A-receptor blockade. Targeting endothelin system may be of importance in protecting the myocardium against ischemic events during elective PCI in type 2 diabetic patients.Keywords: coronary flow reserve, diabetes, endothelin-1, coronary artery disease, coronary angioplasty

  20. NAC attenuates LPS-induced toxicity in aspirin-sensitized mouse macrophages via suppression of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

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    Haider Raza

    Full Text Available Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. Our aim was to study the effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, an antioxidant precursor of GSH synthesis, on aspirin-sensitized macrophages treated with LPS. We investigated the effects of LPS alone and in conjunction with a sub-toxic concentration of ASA, on metabolic and oxidative stress, apoptosis, and mitochondrial function using J774.2 mouse macrophage cell line. Protection from LPS-induced toxicity by NAC was also studied. LPS alone markedly induced ROS production and oxidative stress in macrophage cells. When ASA was added to LPS-treated macrophages, the increase in oxidative stress was significantly higher than that with LPS alone. Similarly, alteration in glutathione-dependent redox metabolism was also observed in macrophages after treatment with LPS and ASA. The combination of LPS and ASA selectively altered the CYP 3A4, CYP 2E1 and CYP 1A1 catalytic activities. Mitochondrial respiratory complexes and ATP production were also inhibited by LPS-ASA treatment. Furthermore a higher apoptotic cell death was also observed in LPS-ASA treated macrophages. NAC pre-treatment showed protection against oxidative stress induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. These effects are presumed, at least in part, to be associated with alterations in NF-κB/Nrf-2 mediated cell signaling. These results suggest that macrophages are more sensitive to LPS when challenged with ASA and that NAC pre-treatment protects the macrophages from these deleterious effects.

  1. Cardiac aging in mice and humans: the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Dao-Fu; Rabinovitch, Peter S

    2009-10-01

    Age is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, not only because it prolongs exposure to several other cardiovascular risks, but also owing to intrinsic cardiac aging, which reduces cardiac functional reserve, predisposes the heart to stress, and contributes to increased cardiovascular mortality in the elderly. Intrinsic cardiac aging in the murine model closely recapitulates age-related cardiac changes in humans, including left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction. Cardiac aging in mice is accompanied by accumulation of mitochondrial protein oxidation, increased mitochondrial DNA mutations, increased mitochondrial biogenesis, as well as decreased cardiac SERCA2 protein. All of these age-related changes are significantly attenuated in mice overexpressing catalase targeted to mitochondria. These findings demonstrate the critical role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in cardiac aging and support the potential application of mitochondrial antioxidants to cardiac aging and age-related cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Insulin and resveratrol act synergistically, preventing cardiac dysfunction in diabetes, but the advantage of resveratrol in diabetics with acute heart attack is antagonized by insulin.

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    Huang, Jiung-Pang; Huang, Shiang-Suo; Deng, Jen-Ying; Chang, Chih-Chun; Day, Yuan-Ji; Hung, Li-Man

    2010-12-01

    Resveratrol (RSV), a natural phenolic compound, has been found to display cardiovascular protective and insulin-sensitizing properties. In this study, the effects of RSV and its combination with insulin on mortality, hemodynamics, insulin signaling, and nitrosative stress were compared in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with or without acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Under normoxic conditions, cardiac systolic and diastolic functions and insulin-mediated Akt/GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4) activation were impaired in STZ-diabetic rats. The combination of RSV and insulin significantly prevented the above diabetes-associated abnormalities. Notwithstanding that, the diabetic state rendered the animals more susceptible to myocardial I/R injury, and the mortality rate and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/nitrotyrosine protein expression and superoxide anion production were also further increased in I/R-injured diabetic hearts. In contrast, RSV treatment alone resulted in a lower mortality rate (from 62.5 to 18%) and better cardiac systolic function than its combination with insulin. RSV also inhibited iNOS/nitrotyrosine protein overexpression and superoxide anion overproduction in I/R-injured diabetic myocardium. Hyperglycemia, impairment of insulin signaling, overexpression of iNOS/nitrotyrosine, and superoxide anion overproduction were markedly rescued by the combination treatment, which did not show an improvement in mortality rate (30%) or cardiac performance over RSV treatment alone. These results indicate that insulin and RSV synergistically prevented cardiac dysfunction in diabetes and this may be in parallel with activation of the insulin-mediated Akt/GLUT4 signaling pathway. Although activation of the protective signal (Akt/GLUT4) and suppression of the adverse markers (iNOS, nitrotyrosine, and superoxide anion) were simultaneously observed in insulin and RSV combination treatment, insulin counteracted the advantage of RSV in

  3. Dysregulation of microRNAs and renin-angiotensin system in high salt diet-induced cardiac dysfunction in uninephrectomized rats.

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    Amara, Venkateswara Rao; Surapaneni, Sunil Kumar; Tikoo, Kulbhushan

    2017-01-01

    Uninephrectomy is not associated with major adverse events in cardiovascular and renal functions of live kidney donors. The effect of high salt diet on the quality of life of live kidney donors is largely unknown. Hence in this study, we aimed to determine the effect of high salt diet on the alterations of renin-angiotensin system and microRNAs leading to CV and renal dysfunction in uninephrectomized rats. In order to mimic clinical scenario, uninephrectomized male Sprague Dawley rats were fed initially with normal pellet diet for 12 weeks and then for 20 weeks with high salt (10% w/w NaCl) diet. At the end of the study, biochemical, functional, histological and molecular parameters were measured. High salt diet feeding resulted in renal dysfunction & fibrosis, decreased baroreflex sensitivity, increased in vivo cardiovascular reactivity to angiotensin II owing to upregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptors and L-type calcium channels leading to cardiovascular dysfunction in uninephrectomized rats (UNX+HSD) worse than that of normal (binephric) rats fed with high salt diet (HSD). Protein expression of functional and hypertrophic protein markers revealed decreased SERCA, p-AMPK and increased p-AKT. Interestingly, levels of miR-25, miR-451 and miR-155 increased and miR-99 decreased in heart of uninephrectomized rats fed with high salt. However, circulating miR-25 and miR-451 levels decreased and miR-99b increased in these animals. Our study points out that since tissue and circulating levels of miRNAs are not similar, caution must be exercised during the usage of miRs as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. To our knowledge, we are the first to show that epigenetic alterations result in cardiac dysfunction in uninephrectomized rats fed with high salt diet.

  4. Right Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Chagas Disease Defined by Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography: A Comparative Study with Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Henrique T; Volpe, Gustavo J; Marin-Neto, José A; Nwabuo, Chike C; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Gali, Luis G; Almeida-Filho, Oswaldo C; Romano, Minna M D; Pazin-Filho, Antonio; Maciel, Benedito C; Lima, João A C; Schmidt, André

    2017-05-01

    Chagas disease leads to biventricular heart failure, usually with prominent systemic congestion. Although echocardiography is widely used in clinical routine, the utility of echocardiographic parameters to detect right ventricular (RV) systolic dysfunction in patients with Chagas disease is unknown. We sought to study the diagnostic value of echocardiography, including speckle-tracking parameters, to distinguish individuals with RV systolic dysfunction from those with normal RV systolic function in Chagas disease using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) as the reference method. In this cross-sectional study, 63 individuals with Chagas disease underwent echocardiography and CMR evaluations. Conventional echocardiographic parameters for RV functional evaluation were tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, RV systolic excursion velocity, fractional area change, and RV index of myocardial performance. Strain and strain rate were obtained by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography and defined as "RV free wall," when based only in segments from RV free wall, or "RV free wall and septum," when segments from both free RV wall and interventricular septum were included. RV systolic dysfunction was defined as RV ejection fraction (RVEF) -22.5% for men and >-23.3% for women) exhibited the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve = 0.829) to differentiate the presence from the absence of RV systolic dysfunction in Chagas disease, with a sensitivity and specificity of 67% and 83%, respectively. RV free wall strain is an appropriate and superior echocardiographic variable for evaluating RV systolic function in Chagas disease, and it should be the method of choice for this purpose. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. HSF1 and NF-κB p65 participate in the process of exercise preconditioning attenuating pressure overload-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy

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    Xu, Tongyi [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, No. 401 Hospital of PLA, Qingdao (China); Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Ben [Centre of Cardiovascular Surgery, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Region, Guangzhou (China); Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Yang, Fan; Cai, Chengliang; Wang, Guokun [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Han, Qingqi, E-mail: handoctor@gmail.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Zou, Liangjian, E-mail: zouliangjiansh@gmail.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-05-08

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, often accompanied by hypertension, aortic stenosis and valvular defects, is typically associated with myocyte remodeling and cardiac dysfunction. Exercise preconditioning (EP) has been proven to enhance the tolerance of the myocardium to cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the effects of EP in pathological cardiac hypertrophy are rarely reported. 10-wk-old male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 80) were randomly divided into four groups: sham, TAC, EP + sham and EP + TAC. Two EP groups were subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill training, and the EP + TAC and TAC groups were followed by TAC operations. The sham and EP + sham groups underwent the same operation without aortic constriction. Eight weeks after the surgery, we evaluated the effects of EP by echocardiography, morphology, and histology and observed the expressions of the associated proteins. Compared with the respective control groups, hypertrophy-related indicators were significantly increased in the TAC and EP + TAC groups (p < 0.05). However, between the TAC and EP + TAC groups, all of these changes were effectively inhibited by EP treatment (p < 0.05). Furthermore, EP treatment upregulated the expression of HSF1 and HSP70, increased the HSF1 levels in the nuclear fraction, inhibited the expression of the NF-κB p65 subunit, decreased the NF-κB p65 subunit levels in the nuclear fraction, and reduced the IL2 levels in the myocardia of rats. EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC and may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70, activating HSF1 and then inhibiting the expression of NF-κB p65 and nuclear translocation. - Highlights: • EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC. • EP may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70 and then activating HSF1. • EP may play a protective role by inhibiting the expression

  6. Attenuated Cardiac Mitochondrial-Dependent Apoptotic Effects by Li-Fu Formula in Hamsters Fed with a Hypercholesterol Diet

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    Wei-Wen Kuo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis involves in the pathogenesis of various cardiac abnormalities. This study intends to evaluate the effects of Li-Fu formula on cardiac apoptosis induced by hyper-cholesterol diet. Twenty-four male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into Control, Cholesterol and Li-Fu formula groups. Histopathological analysis, western blotting and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assays were performed to measure the effects of Li-Fu formula on left ventricle. Significantly reduced TUNEL-positive cells and mitochondria- dependent apoptosis were observed in the left ventricle of hamsters from Li-Fu formula group compared to the Cholesterol group. Additionally, induced cardiac insulin like growth factor I receptor (IGFIR-dependent survival pathway was detected in the Li-Fu formula group compared to the Cholesterol group. Besides, minor fibrosis, increased collagen deposition, and myofibril disarray was detected in the Cholesterol group, whereas the reductions of collagen deposition and myofibril disarray were observed in the Li-Fu formula group. This study demonstrated that Li-Fu formula not only reduced the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and fibrosis, but also enhanced the IGF-I survival pathway in the left ventricle from high cholesterol-fed hamsters. We suggest the protective effects of Li-Fu formula on cardiac apoptosis and therapeutic potentials against cardiovascular disease.

  7. Loss of TRADD attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy through regulating TAK1/P38 MAPK signalling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lianpin; Cao, Zhiyong; Ji, Ling; Mei, Liqin; Jin, Qike; Zeng, Jingjing; Lin, Jiafeng; Chu, Maoping; Li, Lei; Yang, Xiangjun

    2017-02-05

    We investigated the role of tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated death domain (TRADD) on pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and the underlying molecular mechanisms by using a TRADD deficiency mice model. 6-8 weeks wild-type and TRADD knockout mice were performed to transverse aorta constriction (TAC) or sham operation (6-8 mice for each group). 14 days after TAC, cardiac function was measured by echocardiography, as well as by pathological and molecular analyses of heart samples. The expressions of cardiac hypertrophic and fibrotic markers were detected by qPCR. Phosphorylated and total TAK1, Akt, and p38 MAPK levels were examined by Western blotting. The ratios of lung or heart/body weight, wall thickness/chamber diameter of left ventricular and cross area of cardiomyocyte were significantly reduced in TRADD knockout (KO) mice than those of wild-type mice after TAC. Moreover, cardiac hypertrophic and fibrotic markers were downregulated in TRADD knockout mice than those of wild-type mice following TAC. Protein expression analysis showed phosphorylated TAK1, p38 MAPK and AKT were upregulated after TAC in both wild-type and TRADD KO mice, phosphorylation of TAK1 and p38 MAPK was reduced more remarkably after TRADD deficiency, while phosphorylated AKT expression was similar between TRADD KO and wild-type mice following TAC. Our data suggest that TRADD KO blunts pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy through mediating TAK1/p38 MAPK but not AKT phosphorylation in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cardiac resynchronization therapy for exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction in the setting of left bundle branch block: A case report and review of the literature

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    JoEllyn M. Abraham, MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced dyspnea is one of the most common symptoms that cause a patient to see a physician and a broad differential diagnosis is required. In this case report, we describe a patient with this complaint who had a left bundle branch block and preserved left ventricular function at rest. On stress echocardiography, she had significant exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction and associated mitral regurgitation but a coronary angiogram demonstrated normal coronary arteries. Both of the echocardiographic findings, as well as her symptoms, improved with the placement of a bi-ventricular pacemaker. A brief review of the literature on cardiac resynchronization therapy for indications beyond the current guidelines is also provided.

  9. Impairment of insulin-stimulated Akt/GLUT4 signaling is associated with cardiac contractile dysfunction and aggravates I/R injury in STZ-diabetic Rats

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    Deng Jen-Ying

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we established systemic in-vivo evidence from molecular to organism level to explain how diabetes can aggravate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury and revealed the role of insulin signaling (with specific focus on Akt/GLUT4 signaling molecules. The myocardial I/R injury was induced by the left main coronary artery occlusion for 1 hr and then 3 hr reperfusion in control, streptozotocin (STZ-induced insulinopenic diabetes, and insulin-treated diabetic rats. The diabetic rats showed a significant decrease in heart rate, and a prolonged isovolumic relaxation (tau which lead to decrease in cardiac output (CO without changing total peripheral resistance (TPR. The phosphorylated Akt and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4 protein levels were dramatically reduced in both I/R and non-I/R diabetic rat hearts. Insulin treatment in diabetes showed improvement of contractile function as well as partially increased Akt phosphorylation and GLUT 4 protein levels. In the animals subjected to I/R, the mortality rates were 25%, 65%, and 33% in the control, diabetic, and insulin-treated diabetic group respectively. The I/R-induced arrhythmias and myocardial infarction did not differ significantly between the control and the diabetic groups. Consistent with its anti-hyperglycemic effects, insulin significantly reduced I/R-induced arrhythmias but had no effect on I/R-induced infarctions. Diabetic rat with I/R exhibited the worse hemodynamic outcome, which included systolic and diastolic dysfunctions. Insulin treatment only partially improved diastolic functions and elevated P-Akt and GLUT 4 protein levels. Our results indicate that cardiac contractile dysfunction caused by a defect in insulin-stimulated Akt/GLUT4 may be a major reason for the high mortality rate in I/R injured diabetic rats.

  10. Probucol Attenuates Cyclophosphamide-induced Oxidative Apoptosis, p53 and Bax Signal Expression in Rat Cardiac Tissues

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    Yousif A. Asiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide (CP is a widely used drug in cancer chemotherapy and immunosuppression, which could cause toxicity of the normal cells due to its toxic metabolites. Probucol, a cholesterol-lowering drug, acts as potential inhibitor of DNA damage and shows to protect against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy by enhancing the endogenous antioxidant system including glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase. This study examined the possible protective effects of probucol, a lipid-lowering compound with strong antioxidant properties, against CPinduced cardiotoxicity. This objective could be achieved through studying the gene expression-based on the possible protective effects of probucol against CP-induced cardiac failure in rats. Adult male Wistar albino rats were assigned into four treatment groups: Animals in the first (control and second (probucol groups were injected intraperitoneally with corn oil and probucol (61 mg/kg/day, respectively, for two weeks. Animals in the third (CP and fourth (probucol plus CP groups were injected with the same doses of corn oil and probucol (61 mg/kg/day, respectively, for one week before and one week after a single dose of CP (200 mg/kg, I.P.. The p53, Bax, Bcl2 and oxidative genes signal expression were measured by real time PCR. CP-induced cardiotoxicity was clearly observed by a significant increase in serum creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme (CK-MB (117%, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH (64%, free (69% and esterified cholesterol (42% and triglyceride (69% compared to control group. In cardiac tissues, CP significantly increases the mRNA expression levels of apoptotic genes, p53 with two-fold and Bax with 1.6-fold, and decreases the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2 with 0.5-fold. Moreover, CP caused downregulation of antioxidant genes, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase and increased the lipid peroxidation and decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP (40% and ATP/ADP (44% in cardiac

  11. Therapeutic hypothermia attenuates global cerebral reperfusion-induced mitochondrial damage by suppressing dynamin-related protein 1 activation and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in a cardiac arrest rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jingjing; Cai, Shenquan; Zhong, Hao; Cao, Liangbin; Hui, Kangli; Xu, Miaomiao; Duan, Manlin; Xu, Jianguo

    2017-04-24

    Therapeutic hypothermia is effective to attenuate brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury after cardiac arrest, and multiple mechanisms have been proposed. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a large GTPases of dynamin superfamily, predominantly controls mitochondrial fission and is related to IR-induced Cyt C release and apoptosis. However, the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on Drp1 and mitochondrial fission after cardiac arrest remains still unclear. In this study, non-cardiac arrest and post-cardiac arrest rats received 6-h normothermia (37-38°C) or therapeutic hypothermia (32-34°C), and the hippocampus was harvested at 6h and 72h after cardiac arrest. Results showed the expression of Drp1 and Cyt C increased after cardiac arrest, but therapeutic hypothermia partially reversed this increase at 6h after cardiac arrest. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) also showed a change in morphology following therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Moreover, therapeutic hypothermia could decrease the histopathological damage, inhibit the apoptosis of CA1 neurons and improve the survival and neurological outcomes at 72h after cardiac arrest. Taken together, our study demonstrates that therapeutic hypothermia is neuroprotective against global cerebral I/R injury, which is, at least partially, ascribed to the inhibition Drp1 and Cyt C expression and the protection of mitochondrial structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Erectile dysfunction

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    Yafi, Faysal A.; Jenkins, Lawrence; Albersen, Maarten; Corona, Giovanni; Isidori, Andrea M.; Goldfarb, Shari; Maggi, Mario; Nelson, Christian J.; Parish, Sharon; Salonia, Andrea; Tan, Ronny; Mulhall, John P.; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a multidimensional but common male sexual dysfunction that involves an alteration in any of the components of the erectile response, including organic, relational and psychological. Roles for nonendocrine (neurogenic, vasculogenic and iatrogenic) and endocrine pathways have been proposed. Owing to its strong association with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, cardiac assessment may be warranted in men with symptoms of erectile dysfunction. Minimally invasive interventions to relieve the symptoms of erectile dysfunction include lifestyle modifications, oral drugs, injected vasodilator agents and vacuum erection devices. Surgical therapies are reserved for the subset of patients who have contraindications to these nonsurgical interventions, those who experience adverse effects from (or are refractory to) medical therapy and those who also have penile fibrosis or penile vascular insufficiency. Erectile dysfunction can have deleterious effects on a man’s quality of life; most patients have symptoms of depression and anxiety related to sexual performance. These symptoms, in turn, affect his partner’s sexual experience and the couple’s quality of life. This Primer highlights numerous aspects of erectile dysfunction, summarizes new treatment targets and ongoing preclinical studies that evaluate new pharmacotherapies, and covers the topic of regenerative medicine, which represents the future of sexual medicine. PMID:27188339

  13. Possible mechanisms of cardiac contractile dysfunction and electrical changes in ammonium chloride induced chronic metabolic acidosis in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasheen, N N; Mohamed, G F

    2016-12-13

    Metabolic acidosis could occur due to either endogenous acids accumulation or bicarbonate loss from the gastrointestinal tract or commonly from the kidney. This study aimed to investigate the possible underlying mechanism(s) of chronic acidosis-induced cardiac contractile and electrical changes in rats. Twenty four adult Wistar rats, of both sexes, were randomly divided into control group and chronic metabolic acidosis group, which received orally 0.28 M NH(4)Cl in the drinking water for 2 weeks. At the end of experimental period, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were measured. On the day of sacrifice, rats were anesthetized by i.p. pentobarbitone (40 mg/kg b.w.), transthoracic echocardiography and ECG were performed. Blood samples were obtained from abdominal aorta for complete blood count and determination of pH, bicarbonate, chloride, sodium, potassium, troponin I, CK-MB, IL-6, renin and aldosterone levels. Hearts from both groups were studied for cardiac tissue IL-6 and aldosterone in addition to histopathological examination. Compared to control group, chronic metabolic acidosis group showed anemia, significant systolic and diastolic hypotension accompanied by significant reduction of ejection fraction and fraction of shortening, significant bradycardia, prolonged QTc interval and higher widened T wave as well as significantly elevated plasma levels of renin, aldosterone, troponin I, CK-MB and IL-6, and cardiac tissue aldosterone and IL-6. The left ventricular wall of the acidosis group showed degenerated myocytes with fibrosis and apoptosis. Thus, chronic metabolic acidosis induced negative inotropic and chronotropic effects and cardiomyopathy, possibly by elevated aldosterone and IL-6 levels released from the cardiac tissue.

  14. Resveratrol Co-Treatment Attenuates the Effects of HIV Protease Inhibitors on Rat Body Weight and Enhances Cardiac Mitochondrial Respiration.

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    Burger Symington

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS emerged as a global health pandemic, with sub-Saharan Africa the hardest hit. While the successful roll-out of antiretroviral (ARV therapy provided significant relief to HIV-positive individuals, such treatment can also elicit damaging side-effects. Here especially HIV protease inhibitors (PIs are implicated in the onset of cardio-metabolic complications such as type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. As there is a paucity of data regarding suitable co-treatments within this context, this preclinical study investigated whether resveratrol (RSV, aspirin (ASP or vitamin C (VitC co-treatment is able to blunt side-effects in a rat model of chronic PI exposure (Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment for 4 months. Body weights and weight gain, blood metabolite levels (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, echocardiography and cardiac mitochondrial respiration were assessed in PI-treated rats ± various co-treatments. Our data reveal that PI treatment significantly lowered body weight and cardiac respiratory function while no significant changes were found for heart function and blood metabolite levels. Moreover, all co-treatments ameliorated the PI-induced decrease in body weight after 4 months of PI treatment, while RSV co-treatment enhanced cardiac mitochondrial respiratory capacity in PI-treated rats. This pilot study therefore provides novel hypotheses regarding RSV co-treatment that should be further assessed in greater detail.

  15. [Perinatal outcome and cardiac dysfunction in preterm growth-restricted neonates in relation to placental impairment severity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel Pau, Júlia; Castillo Salinas, Félix; Perapoch López, Josep; Carrascosa Lezcano, Antonio; Sánchez García, Olga; Llurba Olivé, Elisa

    2016-10-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and prematurity have been associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality and also with cardiovascular foetal programming. However, there are few studies on the impact of placenta-related IUGR on perinatal outcomes and cardiovascular biomarkers in pre-term infants. To determine differences in neonatal morbidity, mortality and cord blood biomarkers of cardiovascular dysfunction between pre-term placenta-related IUGR and non-IUGR new-borns, and to analyse their relationship with the severity of IUGR according to foetal Doppler evaluation. Prospective cohort study: pre-term infants with placenta-related IUGR and matched pre-term infants without IUGR. A Doppler scan was performed, and placenta-IUGR was classified according to severity. Comparative analysis of perinatal outcomes, neonatal morbidity and mortality, and cord blood levels of biomarkers of cardiovascular dysfunction was performed. IUGR new-borns present lower weight, length, head circumference, and Apgar score at birth, as well as increased neonatal and cardiovascular dysfunction biomarker levels, compared with pre-term new-borns without IUGR. These differences increase with the severity of IUGR determined by prenatal umbilical artery Doppler scan. Placenta-related-IUGR pre-term infants, irrespective of gestational age, present increased neonatal morbidity and mortality that is significantly proportional to the severity of IUGR. Placental impairment and severity also determine levels of cardiovascular dysfunction biomarkers at birth. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Pre-Conditioning with CDP-Choline Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Cardiac Myocyte Death in a Hypoxia/Reperfusion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pacheco, Héctor; Méndez-Domínguez, Aurelio; Hernández, Salomón; López-Marure, Rebeca; Vazquez-Mellado, Maria J.; Aguilar, Cecilia; Rocha-Zavaleta, Leticia

    2014-01-01

    Background. CDP-choline is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which is an essential component of cellular membranes, and a cell signalling mediator. CDP-choline has been used for the treatment of cerebral ischaemia, showing beneficial effects. However, its potential benefit for the treatment of myocardial ischaemia has not been explored yet. Aim. In the present work, we aimed to evaluate the potential use of CDP-choline as a cardioprotector in an in vitro model of ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Methods. Neonatal rat cardiac myocytes were isolated and subjected to hypoxia/reperfusion using the coverslip hypoxia model. To evaluate the effect of CDP-choline on oxidative stress-induced reperfusion injury, the cells were incubated with H2O2 during reperfusion. The effect of CDP-choline pre- and postconditioning was evaluated using the cell viability MTT assay, and the proportion of apoptotic and necrotic cells was analyzed using the Annexin V determination by flow cytometry. Results. Pre- and postconditioning with 50 mg/mL of CDP-choline induced a significant reduction of cells undergoing apoptosis after hypoxia/reperfusion. Preconditioning with CDP-choline attenuated postreperfusion cell death induced by oxidative stress. Conclusion. CDP-choline administration reduces cell apoptosis induced by oxidative stress after hypoxia/reperfusion of cardiac myocytes. Thus, it has a potential as cardioprotector in ischaemia/reperfusion-injured cardiomyocytes. PMID:24578622

  17. Benefit of combining quantitative cardiac CT parameters with troponin I for predicting right ventricular dysfunction and adverse clinical events in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Mathias, E-mail: mr.meyer.mathias@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Fink, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Fink@umm.de [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Roeger, Susanne, E-mail: susanne.roeger@umm.de [1st Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Apfaltrer, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Apfaltrer@umm.de [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Haghi, Dariush, E-mail: dariush.haghi@umm.de [1st Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Kaminski, Wolfgang E., E-mail: wolfgang.kaminski@umm.de [Department of Clinical Chemistry, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Neumaier, Michael, E-mail: michael.neumaier@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Clinical Chemistry, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Schoenberg, Stefan O., E-mail: Stefan.Schoenberg@umm.de [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); and others

    2012-11-15

    Objective: To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of quantitative cardiac CT parameters alone and in combination with troponin I for the assessment of right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) and adverse clinical events in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Materials and results: This prospective study had institutional review board approval and was HIPAA compliant. In total 83 patients with confirmed PE underwent echocardiography and troponin I serum level measurements within 24 h. Three established cardiac CT measurements for the assessment of RVD were obtained (RV/LV{sub axial}, RV/LV{sub 4-CH}, and RV/LV{sub volume}). CT measurements and troponin I serum levels were correlated with RVD found on echocardiography and adverse clinical events according to Management Strategies and Prognosis in Pulmonary Embolism Trial-3 (MAPPET-3 criteria. 31 of 83 patients with PE had RVD on echocardiography and 39 of 83 patients had adverse clinical events. A RV/LV{sub volume} ratio > 1.43 showed the highest area under the curve (AUC) (0.65) for the prediction of adverse clinical events when compared to RV/LV{sub axial}, RV/LV{sub 4Ch} and troponin I. The AUC for the detection of RVD of RV/LV{sub axial}, RV/LV{sub 4Ch}, RV/LV{sub volume}, and troponin I were 0.86, 0.86, 0.92, and 0.69, respectively. Combination of RV/LV{sub axial}, RV/LV{sub 4Ch}, RV/LV{sub volume} with troponin I increased the AUC to 0.87, 0.87 and 0.93, respectively. Conclusion: A combination of cardiac CT parameters and troponin I measurements improves the diagnostic accuracy for detecting RVD and predicting adverse clinical events if compared to either test alone.

  18. Coronary microvascular dysfunction and diastolic load correlate with cardiac troponin T release measured by a highly sensitive assay in patients with nonischemic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashio, Seiji; Yamamuro, Megumi; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Sugiyama, Seigo; Kojima, Sunao; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Tsujita, Kenichi; Tanaka, Tomoko; Tayama, Shinji; Kaikita, Koichi; Hokimoto, Seiji; Ogawa, Hisao

    2013-08-13

    This study investigated factors associated with cardiac troponin T (cTnT) release from failing myocardium. Persistent and modest elevation of serum cTnT is frequently observed in heart failure (HF) patients free of coronary artery disease, although the mechanisms underlying this finding remain unclear. We evaluated serum cTnT levels in the aortic root (Ao) and coronary sinus (CS) using a highly sensitive assay in 90 nonischemic HF patients and 47 non-HF patients. Transcardiac cTnT and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) release were described as the differences between CS and Ao cTnT levels [ΔcTnT (CS-Ao)] and BNP levels [ΔBNP (CS-Ao)], respectively. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) was measured in 68 HF patients using an intracoronary Doppler guidewire. ΔcTnT (CS-Ao) levels were available in 76 HF patients and 28 non-HF patients (84% vs. 60%; p = 0.001), and higher in HF patients than non-HF patients (p Coronary microvascular dysfunction, diagnosed by CFR coronary microvascular dysfunction (4.8 [2.0 to 8.1] ng/l) than those without (2.0 [1.2 to 4.6] ng/l; p = 0.04). cTnT release from failing myocardium correlated with diastolic load and coronary microvascular dysfunction in nonischemic HF patients. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Diazoxide Attenuates Postresuscitation Brain Injury in a Rat Model of Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest by Opening Mitochondrial ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidong Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigated whether and how diazoxide can attenuate brain injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR by selective opening of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoKATP channels. Methods. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with induced cerebral ischemia (n=10 per group received an intraperitoneal injection of 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide (1 mL; vehicle group, diazoxide (10 mg/kg; DZ group, or diazoxide (10 mg/kg plus 5-hydroxydecanoate (5 mg/kg; DZ + 5-HD group 30 min after CPR. The control group (sham group, n=5 underwent sham operation, without cardiac arrest. Mitochondrial respiratory control rate (RCR was determined. Brain cell apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL staining. Expression of Bcl-2, Bax, and protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε in the cerebral cortex was determined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results. The neurological deficit scores (NDS in the vehicle group decreased significantly at 24 h and 48 h after CPR. Diazoxide significantly improved NDS and mitochondrial RCR after CPR at both time points; 5-HD cotreatment abolished these effects. Diazoxide decreased TUNEL-positive cells following CPR, upregulated Bcl-2 and PKCε, downregulated Bax, and increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio; 5-HD cotreatment reversed these effects. Conclusions. Diazoxide attenuates postresuscitation brain injury, protects mitochondrial function, inhibits brain cell apoptosis, and activates the PKC pathway by opening mitoKATP channels.

  20. Validation of attenuation correction using transmission truncation compensation with a small field of view dedicated cardiac SPECT camera system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Gavin L; Ahlberg, Alan W; Kokkirala, Aravind Rao; Cullom, S James; Bateman, Timothy M; Cyr, Giselle M; Katten, Deborah M; Tadeo, Glenn D; Case, James A; O'Sullivan, David M; Heller, Gary V

    2009-01-01

    Although attenuation correction (AC) has been successfully applied to large field of view (LFOV) cameras, applicability to small field of view (SFOV) cameras is a concern due to truncation. This study compared perfusion images between a LFOV and SFOV camera with truncation compensation, using the same AC solution. Seventy-eight clinically referred patients underwent rest-stress single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using both a SFOV and LFOV camera in a randomized sequence. Blinded images were interpreted by a consensus of three experienced readers. The percentage of normal images for SFOV and LFOV was significantly higher with than without AC (72% vs 44% and 72% vs 49%, both P cameras was better with than without AC (kappa = 0.736 to 0.847 vs 0.545 to 0.774). Correlation for the summed stress score was higher with than without AC (r (2) = 0.892 vs 0.851, both P camera yields similar results to a LFOV camera. The higher interpretive agreement between cameras after attenuation correction suggests that such images are preferable to non-attenuation-corrected images.

  1. Deficiency of adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein alleviates myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury and diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mi; Bao, Yuqian; Li, Haobo; Pan, Yong; Shu, Lingling; Xia, Zhengyuan; Wu, Donghai; Lam, Karen S L; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Xu, Aimin; Jia, Weiping; Hoo, Ruby L-C

    2015-10-01

    Clinical evidence shows that circulating levels of adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein (A-FABP) are elevated in patients with diabetes and closely associated with ischaemic heart disease. Patients with diabetes are more susceptible to myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. The experiments in the present study investigated the role of A-FABP in MI/R injury with or without diabetes. Non-diabetic and diabetic (streptozotocin-induced) A-FABP knockout and wild-type mice were subjected to MI/R or sham intervention. After MI/R, A-FABP knockout mice exhibited reductions in myocardial infarct size, apoptotic index, oxidative and nitrative stress, and inflammation. These reductions were accompanied by an improved left ventricular function compared with the relative controls under non-diabetic or diabetic conditions. After diabetes induction, A-FABP knockout mice exhibited a preserved cardiac function compared with that in wild-type mice. Endothelial cells, but not cardiomyocytes, were identified as the most likely source of cardiac A-FABP. Cardiac and circulating A-FABP levels were significantly increased in mice with diabetes or MI/R. Diabetes-induced superoxide anion production was significantly elevated in wild-type mice, but diminished in A-FABP knockout mice, and this elevation contributed to the exaggeration of MI/R-induced cardiac injury. Phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and production of nitric oxide (NO) were enhanced in both diabetic and non-diabetic A-FABP knockout mice after MI/R injury, but diminished in wild-type mice. The beneficial effects of A-FABP deficiency on MI/R injury were abolished by the NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Thus, A-FABP deficiency protects mice against MI/R-induced and/or diabetes-induced cardiac injury at least partially through activation of the eNOS/NO pathway and reduction in superoxide anion production. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  2. Adenosine A2A  receptor agonist prevents cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive male rats after myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva JS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jaqueline S da Silva,1 Daniele Gabriel-Costa,1 Roberto T Sudo,1 Hao Wang,2 Leanne Groban,2 Emanuele B Ferraz,3 José Hamilton M Nascimento,3 Carlos Alberto M Fraga,1 Eliezer J Barreiro,1 Gisele Zapata-Sudo1 1Research Program Development of Drugs, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 3Institute of Biophysics Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Background: This work evaluated the hypothesis that 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoyl-2- thienylhydrazone (LASSBio-294, an agonist of adenosine A2A  receptor, could be beneficial for preventing cardiac dysfunction due to hypertension associated with myocardial infarction (MI. Methods: Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR were randomly divided into four groups (six animals per group: sham-operation (SHR-Sham, and myocardial infarction rats (SHR-MI were treated orally either with vehicle or LASSBio-294 (10 and 20 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 4 weeks. Echocardiography and in vivo hemodynamic parameters measured left ventricle (LV structure and function. Exercise tolerance was evaluated using a treadmill test. Cardiac remodeling was accessed by LV collagen deposition and tumor necrosis factor α expression. Results: Early mitral inflow velocity was significantly reduced in the SHR-MI group, and there was significant recovery in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with LASSBio-294. Exercise intolerance observed in the SHR-MI group was prevented by 10 mg.kg-1.d-1 of LASSBio-294, and exercise tolerance exceeded that of the SHR-Sham group at 20 mg.kg-1.d-1. LV end-diastolic pressure increased after MI, and this was prevented by 10 and 20 mg.kg-1.d-1 of LASSBio-294. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase levels were restored in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with LASSBio-294. Fibrosis and inflammatory processes were also

  3. Uncoupling of attenuated myo-(3H)inositol uptake and dysfunction in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity in hypergalactosemic cultured bovine lens epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cammarata, P.R.; Tse, D.; Yorio, T. (Department of Anatomy, Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine/University of North Texas, Fort Worth (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Attenuation of both the active transport of myo-inositol and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity has been implicated in the onset of sugar cataract and other diabetic complications in cell culture and animal models of the disease. Cultured bovine lens epithelial cells (BLECs) maintained in galactose-free Eagle's minimal essential medium (MEM) or 40 mM galactose with and without sorbinil for up to 5 days were examined to determine the temporal effects of hypergalactosemia on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and myo-inositol uptake. The Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity after 5 days of continuous exposure to galactose did not change, as demonstrated by 86Rb uptake. The uptake of myo-(3H)inositol was lowered after 20 h of incubation in galactose and remained below that of the control throughout the 5-day exposure period. The coadministration of sorbinil to the galactose medium normalized the myo-(3H)inositol uptake. No significant difference in the rates of passive efflux of myo-(3H)inositol or 86Rb from preloaded galactose-treated and control cultures was observed. Culture-media reversal studies were also carried out to determine whether the galactose-induced dysfunction in myo-inositol uptake could be corrected. BLECs were incubated in galactose for 5 days, then changed to galactose-free physiological medium with and without sorbinil for a 1-day recovery period. myo-Inositol uptake was reduced to 34% of control after 6 days of continuous exposure to galactose. Within 24 h of media reversal, myo-inositol uptake returned to or exceeded control values in BLECs switched to either MEM or MEM with sorbinil.2+ reversible and occurred independently of changes in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity in cultured lens epithelium, indicating that the two parameters are not strictly associated and that the deficit in myo-inositol uptake occurs rapidly during hypergalactosemia.

  4. Sanguis draconis, a Dragon’s Blood Resin, Attenuates High Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycaemia, a characteristic feature of diabetes mellitus, induces endothelial dysfunction and vascular complications by limiting the proliferative potential of these cells. Here we aimed to investigate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Sanguis draconis (SD, a kind of dragon’s blood resin that is obtained from Daemonorops draco (Palmae, on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC under high-glucose (HG stimulation and its underlying mechanism. Concentration-dependent (0–50 μg/mL assessment of cell viability showed that SD does not affect cell viability with a similar trend up to 48 h. Remarkably, SD (10–50 μg/mL significantly attenuated the high-glucose (25 and 50 mM induced cell toxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. SD inhibited high glucose-induced nitrite (NO and lipid peroxidation (MDA production and reactive oxygen species (ROS formation in HUVEC. Western blot analysis revealed that SD treatments abolished HG-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2, nuclear transcription factor, κB (NF-κB, VCAM-1, and E-selectin, and it also blocked the breakdown of PARP-116 kDa protein in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that SD increased the expression of Bcl-2 and decreased Bax protein expression in HG-stimulated HUVEC. Thus, these results of this study demonstrate for the first time that SD inhibits glucose induced oxidative stress and vascular inflammation in HUVEC by inhibiting the ERK/NF-κB/PARP-1/Bax signaling cascade followed by suppressing the activation of VCAM-1 and E-selectin. These data suggest that SD may have a therapeutic potential in vascular inflammation due to the decreased levels of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and PARP-1 activation.

  5. Sanguis draconis, a dragon's blood resin, attenuates high glucose-induced oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi; Chang, Ting-Chen; Lee, Jie-Jen; Chang, Nen-Chung; Huang, Yung-Kai; Choy, Cheuk-Sing; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycaemia, a characteristic feature of diabetes mellitus, induces endothelial dysfunction and vascular complications by limiting the proliferative potential of these cells. Here we aimed to investigate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Sanguis draconis (SD), a kind of dragon's blood resin that is obtained from Daemonorops draco (Palmae), on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) under high-glucose (HG) stimulation and its underlying mechanism. Concentration-dependent (0-50 μg/mL) assessment of cell viability showed that SD does not affect cell viability with a similar trend up to 48 h. Remarkably, SD (10-50 μg/mL) significantly attenuated the high-glucose (25 and 50 mM) induced cell toxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. SD inhibited high glucose-induced nitrite (NO) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in HUVEC. Western blot analysis revealed that SD treatments abolished HG-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), nuclear transcription factor, κB (NF-κB), VCAM-1, and E-selectin, and it also blocked the breakdown of PARP-116 kDa protein in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that SD increased the expression of Bcl-2 and decreased Bax protein expression in HG-stimulated HUVEC. Thus, these results of this study demonstrate for the first time that SD inhibits glucose induced oxidative stress and vascular inflammation in HUVEC by inhibiting the ERK/NF-κB/PARP-1/Bax signaling cascade followed by suppressing the activation of VCAM-1 and E-selectin. These data suggest that SD may have a therapeutic potential in vascular inflammation due to the decreased levels of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and PARP-1 activation.

  6. The association between renal impairment and cardiac structure and function in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Mads; Valeur, Nana; Hassager, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Renal dysfunction in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) is an important predictor of short- and long-term outcome. Cardiac abnormalities dominated by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy are common in patients with chronic renal dysfunction. However, limited data exists...... on the association between LV systolic- and diastolic function assessed by comprehensive echocardiography and renal dysfunction in contemporary unselected patients with acute MI. METHODS: We prospectively included 1054 patients with acute MI (mean age 63 years, 73% male) and performed echocardiographic assessment...... fraction or GLS attenuated its importance considerably. CONCLUSION: Renal dysfunction in patients with acute MI is independently associated with echocardiographic evidence of increased LV filling pressure. However, the prognostic importance of renal dysfunction is attenuated to a greater degree by LV...

  7. Qiliqiangxin Attenuates Phenylephrine-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy through Downregulation of MiR-199a-5p

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    Haifeng Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Qiliqiangxin (QL, a traditional Chinese medicine, has long been used to treat chronic heart failure. Previous studies demonstrated that QL could prevent cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy in response to hypertensive or ischemic stress. However, little is known about whether QL could modulate cardiac hypertrophy in vitro, and (if so whether it is through modulation of specific hypertrophy-related microRNA. Methods: The primary neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes were isolated, cultured, and treated with phenylephrine (PE, 50 µmol/L, 48 h to induce hypertrophy in vitro, in the presence or absence of pretreatment with QL (0.5 µg/ml, 48 h. The cell surface area was determined by immunofluorescent staining for α-actinin. The mRNA levels of hypertrophic markers including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP, and β-myosin heavy chain (MYH7 were assayed by qRT-PCRs. The protein synthesis of cardiomyocytes was determined by the protein/DNA ratio. The miR-199a-5p expression level was quantified in PE-treated cardiomyocytes and heart samples from acute myocardial infarction (AMI mouse model. MiR-199a-5p overexpression was used to determine its role in the anti-hypertrophic effect of QL on cardiomyocytes. Results: PE induced obvious enlargement of cell surface in cardiomyocytes, paralleling with increased ANP, BNP, and MYH7 mRNA levels and elevated protein/DNA ratio. All these changes were reversed by the treatment with QL. Meanwhile, miR-199a-5p was increased in AMI mouse heart tissues. Of note, the increase of miR-199a-5p in PE-treated cardiomyocytes was reversed by the treatment with QL. Moreover, overexpression of miR-199a-5p abolished the anti-hypertrophic effect of QL on cardiomyocytes. Conclusion: QL prevents PE-induced cardiac hypertrophy. MiR-199a-5p is increased in cardiac hypertrophy, while reduced by treatment with QL. miR-199a-5p suppression is essential for the anti-hypertrophic effect of QL

  8. Autoantibodies to the beta(1)-Adrenoceptor from Patients with Periodontitis as a Risk Factor for Cardiac Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Segovia, Marcela; Reina, Silvia Lorena; Borda, Enri Santiago; Sterin, Leonor Josefina

    2017-01-01

    The presence of serum autoantibodies in periodontitis (P) patients against â(1)-adrenoceptor (â(1)-AR), using cardiac membranes or a synthetic â(1)-AR peptide corresponding to the second extracellular loop of human â(1)-AR as antigens, permit us to detect circulating antibody from 40 P patients but not in 20 normal individuals (control). Simultaneously, the P patients exhibited a decrease in HRV. Anti-â(1)-AR IgG titters correlated with the decrease in HRV of the same patients and the anti-â(...

  9. Low-dose vasopressin infusion results in increased mortality and cardiac dysfunction following ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrambarya, Toonchai; Boyd, John H; Wang, Yingjin; McConechy, Melissa; Walley, Keith R

    2009-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin is a vasoactive drug commonly used in distributive shock states including mixed shock with a cardiac component. However, the direct effect of arginine vasopressin on the function of the ischemia/reperfusion injured heart has not been clearly elucidated. We measured left ventricular ejection fraction using trans-thoracic echocardiography in C57B6 mice, both in normal controls and following ischemia/reperfusion injury induced by a one hour ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Mice were treated with one of normal saline, dobutamine (8.33 microg/kg/min), or arginine vasopressin (0.00057 Units/kg/min, equivalent to 0.04 Units/min in a 70 kg human) delivered by an intraperitoneal micro-osmotic pump. Arterial blood pressure was measured using a micromanometer catheter. In addition, mortality was recorded and cardiac tissues processed for RNA and protein. Baseline left ventricular ejection fraction was 65.6% (60 to 72). In normal control mice, there was no difference in left ventricular ejection fraction according to infusion group. Following ischemia/reperfusion injury, AVP treatment significantly reduced day 1 left ventricular ejection fraction 46.2% (34.4 to 52.0), both in comparison with baseline and day 1 saline treated controls 56.9% (42.4 to 60.2). There were no significant differences in preload (left ventricular end diastolic volume), afterload (blood pressure) or heart rate to account for the effect of AVP on left ventricular ejection fraction. The seven-day mortality rate was highest in the arginine vasopressin group. Following ischemia/reperfusion injury, we found no change in cardiac V1 Receptor expression but a 40% decrease in Oxytocin Receptor expression. Arginine vasopressin infusion significantly depressed the myocardial function in an ischemia/reperfusion model and increased mortality in comparison with both saline and dobutamine treated animals. The use of vasopressin may be contraindicated in non

  10. Effects of adding intravenous nicorandil to standard therapy on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and myocyte dysfunction in patients with acute decompensated heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan (Kitakanto Cardiovascular Hospital), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Toyama, Takuji; Funada, Ryuichi; Takama, Noriaki; Koitabashi, Norimichi; Kurabayashi, Masahiko [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Ichikawa, Shuichi [Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan (Kitakanto Cardiovascular Hospital), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Matsumoto, Naoya [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, Yuichi [Health Park Clinic, Department of Imaging, Takasaki, Gunma (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    Nicorandil, an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, improves cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) in ischemic heart disease or chronic heart failure. However, its effects on CSNA and myocyte dysfunction in acute heart failure (AHF) remain unclear. We investigated the effects of adding intravenous nicorandil to standard therapy on CSNA and myocyte dysfunction in AHF. We selected 70 patients with mild to moderate nonischemic AHF who were treated with standard conventional therapy soon after admission. Thirty-five patients were assigned to additionally receive intravenous nicorandil (4-12 mg/h; group A), whereas the remaining patients continued their current drug regimen (group B). Delayed total defect score (TDS), delayed heart to mediastinum count (H/M) ratio, and washout rate (WR) were determined by {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy within 3 days of admission and 4 weeks later. High sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) level was also measured at the same time points. After treatment, MIBG scintigraphic parameters significantly improved in both groups. However, the extent of the changes in these parameters in group A significantly exceeded the extent of the changes in group B [TDS -11.3 ± 4.3 in group A vs -4.0 ± 6.0 in group B (p < 0.01); H/M ratio 0.31 ± 0.16 vs 0.14 ± 0.16 (p < 0.01); WR -13.8 ± 7.8 % vs -6.1 ± 8.9 % (p < 0.01)]. The hs-TnT level decreased significantly from 0.052 ± 0.043 to 0.041 ± 0.033 ng/ml (p < 0.05) in group A, but showed no significant change in group B. Moreover, in both groups, no relationships between the extent of changes in MIBG parameters and hs-TnT level were observed. Adding intravenous nicorandil to standard therapy provides additional benefits for CSNA and myocyte dysfunction over conventional therapy alone in AHF patients. Furthermore, the mechanisms of improvement in CSNA and myocyte dysfunction after nicorandil treatment in AHF patients were distinct. (orig.)

  11. Clinical usefulness of {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy in diabetic patients with cardiac sympathetic nerve dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyanaga, Hajime; Yoneyama, Satoshi; Kamitani, Tadaaki; Kawasaki, Shingo; Takahashi, Toru; Kunishige, Hiroshi [Matsushita Memorial Hospital, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    To assess the clinical utility of {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy in evaluating cardiac sympathetic nerve disturbance in diabetic patients, we performed MIBG scintigraphy in 18 diabetic patients and 11 normal controls. Diabetic patients with symptomatic neuropathy (DM2) had a significantly lower heart to mediastinum uptake ratio than did those without neuropathy or normal controls in initial and delayed images (initial image, 1.90{+-}0.27 vs 2.32{+-}0.38, 2.41{+-}0.40, p<0.01; delayed image, 1.80{+-}0.31 vs 2.48{+-}0.35, 2.56{+-}0.28, p<001, respectively). Defect score, assessed visually, were higher in DM2 patients than in patients in the other two groups (initial image, 7{+-}2.6 vs 1.5{+-}1.9, 0.7{+-}0.9; delayed image 10.6{+-}3.3 vs 4.0{+-}2.5, 1.7{+-}1.6 p<0.01, respectively). The maximum washout rate in DM2 patients was also higher than those in patients in the other two groups. The findings of these indices obtained from MIBG scintigraphy coincided with the % low-frequency power extracted from heart rate fluctuations using a power spectral analysis and the results of the Schellong test, which were used to evaluate sympathetic function. These results suggest that MIBG scintigraphy may be useful for evaluating cardiac sympathetic nerve disturbance in patients with diabetes. (author).

  12. Safe Oral Triiodo-L-Thyronine Therapy Protects from Post-Infarct Cardiac Dysfunction and Arrhythmias without Cardiovascular Adverse Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Rajagopalan

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence suggests that thyroid hormones (THs are beneficial for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. We have shown that 3 days of triiodo-L-thyronine (T3 treatment in myocardial infarction (MI rats increased left ventricular (LV contractility and decreased myocyte apoptosis. However, no clinically translatable protocol is established for T3 treatment of ischemic heart disease. We hypothesized that low-dose oral T3 will offer safe therapeutic benefits in MI.Adult female rats underwent left coronary artery ligation or sham surgeries. T3 (~6 μg/kg/day was available in drinking water ad libitum immediately following MI and continuing for 2 month(s (mo. Compared to vehicle-treated MI, the oral T3-treated MI group at 2 mo had markedly improved anesthetized Magnetic Resonance Imaging-based LV ejection fract