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Sample records for attenuates asthma pathology

  1. Antagonism of the prostaglandin D2 receptor CRTH2 attenuates asthma pathology in mouse eosinophilic airway inflammation

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    Högberg Thomas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cell-derived prostaglandin D2 (PGD2, may contribute to eosinophilic inflammation and mucus production in allergic asthma. Chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells (CRTH2, a high affinity receptor for prostaglandin D2, mediates trafficking of TH2-cells, mast cells, and eosinophils to inflammatory sites, and has recently attracted interest as target for treatment of allergic airway diseases. The present study involving mice explores the specificity of CRTH2 antagonism of TM30089, which is structurally closely related to the dual TP/CRTH2 antagonist ramatroban, and compares the ability of ramatroban and TM30089 to inhibit asthma-like pathology. Methods Affinity for and antagonistic potency of TM30089 on many mouse receptors including thromboxane A2 receptor mTP, CRTH2 receptor, and selected anaphylatoxin and chemokines receptors were determined in recombinant expression systems in vitro. In vivo effects of TM30089 and ramatroban on tissue eosinophilia and mucus cell histopathology were examined in a mouse asthma model. Results TM30089, displayed high selectivity for and antagonistic potency on mouse CRTH2 but lacked affinity to TP and many other receptors including the related anaphylatoxin C3a and C5a receptors, selected chemokine receptors and the cyclooxygenase isoforms 1 and 2 which are all recognized players in allergic diseases. Furthermore, TM30089 and ramatroban, the latter used as a reference herein, similarly inhibited asthma pathology in vivo by reducing peribronchial eosinophilia and mucus cell hyperplasia. Conclusion This is the first report to demonstrate anti-allergic efficacy in vivo of a highly selective small molecule CRTH2 antagonist. Our data suggest that CRTH2 antagonism alone is effective in mouse allergic airway inflammation even to the extent that this mechanism can explain the efficacy of ramatroban.

  2. Antagonism of the prostaglandin D2 receptor CRTH2 attenuates asthma pathology in mouse eosinophilic airway inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uller, Lena; Mathiesen, Jesper Mosolff; Alenmyr, Lisa;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mast cell-derived prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), may contribute to eosinophilic inflammation and mucus production in allergic asthma. Chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells (CRTH2), a high affinity receptor for prostaglandin D2, mediates trafficking of TH2-cells......, mast cells, and eosinophils to inflammatory sites, and has recently attracted interest as target for treatment of allergic airway diseases. The present study involving mice explores the specificity of CRTH2 antagonism of TM30089, which is structurally closely related to the dual TP/CRTH2 antagonist...... inflammation even to the extent that this mechanism can explain the efficacy of ramatroban Udgivelsesdato: february...

  3. Afzelin attenuates asthma phenotypes by downregulation of GATA3 in a murine model of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Wenbo; Nie, Xiuhong

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a serious health problem causing significant mortality and morbidity globally. Persistent airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, increased immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and mucus hypersecretion are key characteristics of the condition. Asthma is mediated via a dominant T-helper 2 (Th2) immune response, causing enhanced expression of Th2 cytokines. These cytokines are responsible for the various pathological changes associated with allergic asthma. To investigate the anti-a...

  4. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Brent C. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Constant, Stephanie L. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Patierno, Steven R. [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); GW Cancer Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Jurjus, Rosalyn A. [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Ceryak, Susan M., E-mail: phmsmc@gwumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  5. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  6. Afzelin attenuates asthma phenotypes by downregulation of GATA3 in a murine model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenbo; Nie, Xiuhong

    2015-07-01

    Asthma is a serious health problem causing significant mortality and morbidity globally. Persistent airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, increased immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and mucus hypersecretion are key characteristics of the condition. Asthma is mediated via a dominant T-helper 2 (Th2) immune response, causing enhanced expression of Th2 cytokines. These cytokines are responsible for the various pathological changes associated with allergic asthma. To investigate the anti-asthmatic potential of afzelin, as well as the underlying mechanisms involved, its anti-asthmatic potential were investigated in a murine model of asthma. In the present study, BALB/c mice were systemically sensitized using ovalbumin (OVA) followed by aerosol allergen challenges. The effect of afzelin on airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilic infiltration, Th2 cytokine and OVA‑specific IgE production in a mouse model of asthma were investigated. It was found that afzelin‑treated groups suppressed eosinophil infiltration, allergic airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, OVA-specific IgE and Th2 cytokine secretion. The results of the present study suggested that the therapeutic mechanism by which afzelin effectively treats asthma is based on reduction of Th2 cytokine via inhibition of GATA-binding protein 3 transcription factor, which is the master regulator of Th2 cytokine differentiation and production. PMID:25738969

  7. Abietic acid attenuates allergic airway inflammation in a mouse allergic asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi; Zhaoyu, Liu; Xiangming, Fang; Chunyi, Lin; Jiayu, Pan; Lu, Shen; Jitao, Chen; Liangcai, Chen; Jifang, Liu

    2016-09-01

    Abietic acid (AA), one of the terpenoids isolated from Pimenta racemosa var. grissea, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. However, the anti-allergic effects of AA remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-allergic effects of AA in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma murine model. The model of mouse asthma was established by induction of OVA. AA (10, 20, 40mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage 1h after the OVA treatment on days 21 to 23. At 24h after the last challenge, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were collected to assess pathological changes, cytokines production, and NF-κB expression. The results showed that AA attenuated lung histopathologic changes, inflammatory cells infiltration, and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. AA also inhibited OVA-induced the nitric oxide (NO), IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and OVA-specific IgE production, as well as NF-κB activation. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that AA exhibited protective effects against OVA-induced allergic asthma in mice and the possible mechanism was involved in inhibiting NF-κB activation. PMID:27318791

  8. Aerobic Exercise Attenuates Airway Inflammatory Responses in a Mouse Model of Atopic Asthma

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    Pastva, Amy; Estell, Kim; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Atkinson, T. Prescott; Schwiebert, Lisa M

    2004-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that aerobic exercise improves the overall physical fitness and health of asthmatic patients. The specific exercise-induced improvements in the pathology of asthma and the mechanisms by which these improvements occur, however, are ill-defined; thus, the therapeutic potential of exercise in the treatment of asthma remains unappreciated. Using an OVA-driven mouse model, we examined the role of aerobic exercise in modulating inflammatory responses associated with atopic a...

  9. SOCS3 silencing attenuates eosinophil functions in asthma patients.

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    Zafra, Ma Paz; Cañas, Jose A; Mazzeo, Carla; Gámez, Cristina; Sanz, Veronica; Fernández-Nieto, Mar; Quirce, Santiago; Barranco, Pilar; Ruiz-Hornillos, Javier; Sastre, Joaquín; del Pozo, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are one of the key inflammatory cells in asthma. Eosinophils can exert a wide variety of actions through expression and secretion of multiple molecules. Previously, we have demonstrated that eosinophils purified from peripheral blood from asthma patients express high levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). In this article, SOCS3 gene silencing in eosinophils from asthmatics has been carried out to achieve a better understanding of the suppressor function in eosinophils. SOCS3 siRNA treatment drastically reduced SOCS3 expression in eosinophils, leading to an inhibition of the regulatory transcription factors GATA-3 and FoxP3, also interleukin (IL)-10; in turn, an increased STAT3 phosphorilation was observed. Moreover, SOCS3 abrogation in eosinophils produced impaired migration, adhesion and degranulation. Therefore, SOCS3 might be regarded as an important regulator implicated in eosinophil mobilization from the bone marrow to the lungs during the asthmatic process. PMID:25764157

  10. SOCS3 Silencing Attenuates Eosinophil Functions in Asthma Patients

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    Mª Paz Zafra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are one of the key inflammatory cells in asthma. Eosinophils can exert a wide variety of actions through expression and secretion of multiple molecules. Previously, we have demonstrated that eosinophils purified from peripheral blood from asthma patients express high levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3. In this article, SOCS3 gene silencing in eosinophils from asthmatics has been carried out to achieve a better understanding of the suppressor function in eosinophils. SOCS3 siRNA treatment drastically reduced SOCS3 expression in eosinophils, leading to an inhibition of the regulatory transcription factors GATA-3 and FoxP3, also interleukin (IL-10; in turn, an increased STAT3 phosphorilation was observed. Moreover, SOCS3 abrogation in eosinophils produced impaired migration, adhesion and degranulation. Therefore, SOCS3 might be regarded as an important regulator implicated in eosinophil mobilization from the bone marrow to the lungs during the asthmatic process.

  11. Chemical chaperones mitigate experimental asthma by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress.

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    Makhija, Lokesh; Krishnan, Veda; Rehman, Rakhshinda; Chakraborty, Samarpana; Maity, Shuvadeep; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Chakraborty, Kausik; Ghosh, Balaram; Agrawal, Anurag

    2014-05-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and consequent unfolded protein response (UPR) are important in inflammation but have been poorly explored in asthma. We used a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation (AAI) with features of asthma to understand the role of ER stress and to explore potential therapeutic effects of inhaled chemical chaperones, which are small molecules that can promote protein folding and diminish UPR. UPR markers were initially measured on alternate days during a 7-day daily allergen challenge model. UPR markers increased within 24 hours after the first allergen challenge and peaked by the third challenge, before AAI was fully established (from the fifth challenge onward). Three chemical chaperones-glycerol, trehalose, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO)-were initially administered during allergen challenge (preventive regimen). TMAO, the most effective of these chemical chaperones and 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical chaperone currently in clinical trials, were further tested for potential therapeutic activities after AAI was established (therapeutic regimen). Chemical chaperones showed a dose-dependent reduction in UPR markers, airway inflammation, and remodeling in both regimens. Our results indicate an early and important role of the ER stress pathway in asthma pathogenesis and show therapeutic potential for chemical chaperones.

  12. Memantine Attenuates Alzheimer's Disease-Like Pathology and Cognitive Impairment.

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    Xiaochuan Wang

    Full Text Available Deficiency of protein phosphatase-2A is a key event in Alzheimer's disease. An endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase-2A, inhibitor-1, I1PP2A, which inhibits the phosphatase activity by interacting with its catalytic subunit protein phosphatase-2Ac, is known to be upregulated in Alzheimer's disease brain. In the present study, we overexpressed I1PP2A by intracerebroventricular injection with adeno-associated virus vector-1-I1PP2A in Wistar rats. The I1PP2A rats showed a decrease in brain protein phosphatase-2A activity, abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau, neurodegeneration, an increase in the level of activated glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, enhanced expression of intraneuronal amyloid-beta and spatial reference memory deficit; littermates treated identically but with vector only, i.e., adeno-associated virus vector-1-enhanced GFP, served as a control. Treatment with memantine, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist which is an approved drug for treatment of Alzheimer's disease, rescued protein phosphatase-2A activity by decreasing its demethylation at Leu309 selectively and attenuated Alzheimer's disease-like pathology and cognitive impairment in adeno-associated virus vector-1-I1PP2A rats. These findings provide new clues into the possible mechanism of the beneficial therapeutic effect of memantine in Alzheimer's disease patients.

  13. [Lipid derivative of benzylidene malononitrile AG490 attenuates airway inflammation of mice with neutrophilic asthma].

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    Zhang, Min; Nong, Guangmin; Jiang, Min; Zhan, Wenjie

    2016-06-01

    Objective To observe the effect of lipid derivative of benzylidene malononitrile AG490 on the airway inflammation in a mouse model of neutrophilic asthma (NA). Methods Fifty-four specific pathogen-free (SPF) female C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: NA group, AG490-treated NA (NAAG) group, and normal control (NC) group, 18 mice in each group. The NA group and the NAAG group were sensitized by airway instillation of ovalbumin (OVA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on day 0, 6 and 13. The NAAG group was injected with AG490 (500 μg/mouse, i.p.) three times a week, from day 0 after the first sensitization, for 3 weeks. Mice were challenged on day 21, 22 for 1 hour/time with an aerosol of 10 g/L OVA. At 24 hours after the final challenge, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected. The total number and differential counts of nucleated cells and the percentage of each type were determined. HE staining and PAS staining was employed for observing the lung pathological changes. The percentages of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells (Treg) in the lung issue were determined by flow cytometry. The level of interleukin-17 (IL-17) in BALF was measured using ELISA. Results Compared with the NA group, the total number of nucleated cells, the percentage of neutrophils and the percentage of eosinophils in BALF in the NAAG group were obviously reduced; lung tissue pathologic changes were improved in the NAAG group; goblet cell hyperplasia and the level of IL-17 in BALF in the NAAG group were significantly down-regulated; the proportion of Treg in the lung increased and the proportion of Th17 cells in the lung decreased in the NAAG group. Conclusion After NA mice are treated with AG490 during the sensitization phase, the proportion of Treg in the lung would increase and the proportion of Th17 cells in the lung would decrease. AG490 could attenuate the airway inflammation in the mouse model of NA. PMID:27371836

  14. Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it as a kid. What Causes an Asthma Flare-Up? Anything that causes an asthma flare-up (attack) is called an asthma trigger. Different kids ... doctor will think about what causes the asthma flare-ups, how fast the flare-ups happen, and how ...

  15. Effect of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells on lung pathology and inflammation in ovalbumin-induced asthma in mouse

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    Maryam Mohammadian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs have attracted significant interest to treat asthma and its complication. In this study, the effects of BMSCs on lung pathology and inflammation in an ovalbumin-induced asthma model in mouse were examined. Materials and Methods:BALB/c mice were divided into three groups: control group (animals were not sensitized, asthma group (animals were sensitized by ovalbumin, asthma+BMSC group (animals were sensitized by ovalbumin and treated with BMSCs. BMSCs were isolated and characterized and then labeled with Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU. After that the cells transferred into asthmatic mice. Histopathological changes of the airways, BMSCs migration and total and differential white blood cell (WBC count in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid were evaluated. Results:A large number of BrdU-BMSCs were found in the lungs of mice treated with BMSCs. The histopathological changes, BAL total WBC counts and the percentage of neutrophils and eosinophils were increased in asthma group compared to the control group. Treatment with BMSCs significantly decreased airway pathological indices, inflammatory cell infiltration, and also goblet cell hyperplasia. Conclusion:The results of this study revealed that BMSCs therapy significantly suppressed the lung pathology and inflammation in the ovalbumin induced asthma model in mouse.

  16. Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by allergens or physical activity. Occasionally, doctors use X-rays to diagnose asthma. Doctors treat each asthma case ... them. If you get flare-ups during a game or workout, stop what you're doing until ...

  17. Zn/Ga−DFO iron–chelating complex attenuates the inflammatory process in a mouse model of asthma

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    Haim Bibi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: In this mouse model of allergic asthma, Zn/Ga−DFO attenuated allergic airway inflammation. The beneficial effects of treatment were in accord with iron overload abatement in asthmatic lungs by Zn/Ga−DFO. The findings in both cellular and tissue levels supported the existence of a significant anti-inflammatory effect of Zn/Ga−DFO.

  18. Asthma

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    Kim Harold

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is the most common respiratory disorder in Canada. Despite significant improvement in the diagnosis and management of this disorder, the majority of Canadians with asthma remain poorly controlled. In most patients, however, control can be achieved through the use of avoidance measures and appropriate pharmacological interventions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs represent the standard of care for the majority of patients. Combination ICS/long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA inhalers are preferred for most adults who fail to achieve control with ICS therapy. Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents a potentially disease-modifying therapy for many patients with asthma, but should only be prescribed by physicians with appropriate training in allergy. Regular monitoring of asthma control, adherence to therapy and inhaler technique are also essential components of asthma management. This article provides a review of current literature and guidelines for the appropriate diagnosis and management of asthma.

  19. Small gastrointestinal stromal tumours with focal areas of low attenuation on CT: pathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To describe the pathology of focal areas of low attenuation in small gastrointestinal stromal tumours on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), and to investigate the association of these areas as predictors of malignant potential. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Contrast-enhanced helical CT images were obtained of 39 small (up to 5 cm) gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Focal areas of low attenuation were retrospectively evaluated and correlated with histopathological findings. The relation between the mitotic rate of and the presence of focal areas of low attenuation in the tumours was analyzed using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Of the 39 small gastrointestinal stromal tumours, 15 contained focal areas of low attenuation on CT. These were found to be due to solid tumour (n=5), haemorrhage (n=3), haemorrhage with necrosis (n=2), cystic degeneration (n=2), fluid in ulcer (n=2), and fibrous septum (n=1); they were not found to be associated with a high mitotic rate (p=0.45). CONCLUSION: Focal areas of low attenuation on CT in small gastrointestinal stromal tumours represent varying pathological conditions and do not predict malignant potential

  20. Overexpression of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 attenuates airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma.

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    Kayla G Kinker

    Full Text Available Levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, are increased in lung, sputum, exhaled breath condensate and plasma samples from asthma patients. ADMA is metabolized primarily by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH1 and DDAH2. We determined the effect of DDAH1 overexpression on development of allergic inflammation in a mouse model of asthma. The expression of DDAH1 and DDAH2 in mouse lungs was determined by RT-quantitative PCR (qPCR. ADMA levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum samples were determined by mass spectrometry. Wild type and DDAH1-transgenic mice were intratracheally challenged with PBS or house dust mite (HDM. Airway inflammation was assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL total and differential cell counts. The levels of IgE and IgG1 in BALF and serum samples were determined by ELISA. Gene expression in lungs was determined by RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR. Our data showed that the expression of DDAH1 and DDAH2 was decreased in the lungs of mice following HDM exposure, which correlated with increased ADMA levels in BALF and serum. Transgenic overexpression of DDAH1 resulted in decreased BAL total cell and eosinophil numbers following HDM exposure. Total IgE levels in BALF and serum were decreased in HDM-exposed DDAH1-transgenic mice compared to HDM-exposed wild type mice. RNA-Seq results showed downregulation of genes in the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS signaling pathway in PBS-treated DDAH1-transgenic mice versus PBS-treated wild type mice and downregulation of genes in IL-13/FOXA2 signaling pathway in HDM-treated DDAH1-transgenic mice versus HDM-treated wild type mice. Our findings suggest that decreased expression of DDAH1 and DDAH2 in the lungs may contribute to allergic asthma and overexpression of DDAH1 attenuates allergen-induced airway inflammation through modulation of Th2 responses.

  1. Erythronium japonicum attenuates histopathological lung abnormalities in a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced asthma.

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    Seo, Ji-Hye; Bang, Mi-Ae; Kim, Gyeyeop; Cho, Seung Sik; Park, Dae-Hun

    2016-05-01

    Asthma is a chronic lung condition that can induce mucus hypersecretion and pulmonary obstruction and may even cause death, particularly in children and older individuals. Erythronium japonicum (E. japonicum) is a traditional herb used in Korea and East Asian countries that has been found to exert free radical scavenging activity and anti-proliferative effects in human colorectal carcinoma cells. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-asthmatic effects of an extract of E. japonicum in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)‑induced asthma. Female BALB/c mice were sensitized with an intraperitoneal injection of OVA and aluminum hydroxide hydrate on days 1 and 8 and then received the following treatments on days 21 to 25: i) control (no treatment), ii) sterilized tap water (given orally), iii) 1 mg/kg/day dexamethasone (administered orally), iv) 60 mg/kg/day E. japonicum extract, and v) 600 mg/kg/day E. japonicum extract. On the same days, all the mice except those in the control group were challenged 1 h later with nebulized 5% OVA for 30 min. We found that treatment with E. japonicum extract suppressed the OVA-induced increase in the number of white blood cells and decreased the IgE level in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples obtained from the mice. Histopathological analysis of the lung tissues revealed that E. japonicum attenuated the asthma-related morphological changes in the mouse lung tissue, including the increased secretion of mucus in the bronchioles, eosinophil infiltration around the bronchioles and vessels, and goblet cell and epithelial cell hyperplasia. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that treatment with E. japonicum extract suppressed the OVA-induced proliferation of T helper cells (CD4+) and B cells (CD19+) in the mouse lung tissue. Furthermore, treatment with E. japonicum extract modulated the expression of both T helper 2 cell-related factors [GATA binding protein 3 (GATA-3), tumor necrosis factor

  2. Simvastatin delivery via inhalation attenuates airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma.

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    Xu, Lan; Dong, Xing-wei; Shen, Liang-liang; Li, Fen-fen; Jiang, Jun-xia; Cao, Rui; Yao, Hong-yi; Shen, Hui-juan; Sun, Yun; Xie, Qiang-min

    2012-04-01

    The dose-response of the pleiotropic effects of statins on airway inflammation has not yet been established and may differ from that of their cholesterol-lowering effects. High oral doses of statins may have adverse effects, and it may be possible to overcome the side effects and low clinical efficacy by administering statins via inhalation. In this study, we hypothesize that simvastatin is a potential anti-inflammatory drug with biological and pharmacokinetic properties suitable for delivery by the inhaled route. Mice were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with aerosol OVA. Simvastatin was locally delivered by inhalation (i.h.) and intratracheal injection (i.t.) or systematically delivered by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) and gavage (i.g.) during the OVA challenge. In a mouse model of asthma, i.h. simvastatin significantly and dose-dependently attenuated airway inflammation, remodeling and hyperresponsiveness in a RhoA-dependent pathway. Upon comparing the pharmacodynamics, i.h. simvastatin had a more potent effect than that of i.g. and i.p. simvastatin, and the i.h. or i.t. delivery routes led to a higher drug concentration in local lung tissue and a lower drug concentration in the plasma than that obtained by the i.g. These results suggest that simvastatin is a potential anti-inflammatory drug for airway inflammatory diseases with properties suitable for delivery by inhalation, which will probably reduce the side effects and increase clinical efficacy. PMID:22326624

  3. Acupuncture Attenuated Inflammation and Inhibited Th17 and Treg Activity in Experimental Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Wei; Ming Dong; Hongying Zhang; Yubao Lv; Jiaqi Liu; Kai Wei; Qingli Luo; Jing Sun; Feng Liu; Fei Xu; Jingcheng Dong

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture is an effective therapeutic method in asthma treatment in traditional Chinese medicine. Here, we evaluated the effect of acupuncture on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and the associated inflammatory changes as well as Th17 and Treg activity in ovalbumin- (OVA-) induced experimental asthma. Our results revealed that acupuncture treatment significantly inhibited AHR, lung inflammation, and mucus secretion of experimental asthma mice. Furthermore, a decrease in lymphocytes and eosi...

  4. Anti-malarial drug artesunate attenuates experimental allergic asthma via inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

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    Chang Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway is linked to the development of asthma. Anti-malarial drug artesunate is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, the principal active component of a medicinal plant Artemisia annua, and has been shown to inhibit PI3K/Akt activity. We hypothesized that artesunate may attenuate allergic asthma via inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Female BALB/c mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA developed airway inflammation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was assessed for total and differential cell counts, and cytokine and chemokine levels. Lung tissues were examined for cell infiltration and mucus hypersecretion, and the expression of inflammatory biomarkers. Airway hyperresponsiveness was monitored by direct airway resistance analysis. Artesunate dose-dependently inhibited OVA-induced increases in total and eosinophil counts, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and eotaxin levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. It attenuated OVA-induced lung tissue eosinophilia and airway mucus production, mRNA expression of E-selectin, IL-17, IL-33 and Muc5ac in lung tissues, and airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. In normal human bronchial epithelial cells, artesunate blocked epidermal growth factor-induced phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream substrates tuberin, p70S6 kinase and 4E-binding protein 1, and transactivation of NF-κB. Similarly, artesunate blocked the phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream substrates in lung tissues from OVA-challenged mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of artesunate was further confirmed in a house dust mite mouse asthma model. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Artesunate ameliorates experimental allergic airway inflammation probably via negative regulation of PI3K/Akt pathway and the downstream NF-κB activity. These findings provide a novel therapeutic value for artesunate in the treatment of allergic asthma.

  5. Safranal of Crocus sativus L. inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase and attenuates asthma in a mouse model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Syed Imran; Pattnaik, Bijay; Rayees, Sheikh; Kaul, Sanjana; Dhar, Manoj K

    2015-04-01

    The present study involves evaluation of antioxidant potential of Crocus sativus and its main constituents, safranal (SFN) and crocin (CRO), in bronchial epithelial cells, followed antiinflammatory potential of the active constituent safranal, in a murine model of asthma. To investigate the antioxidizing potential of Crocus sativus and its main constituents in bronchial epithelial cells, the stress was induced in these cells by a combination of different cytokines that resulted in an increase in nitric oxide production (NO), induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels, peroxynitrite ion generation, and cytochrome c release. Treatment with saffron and its constituents safranal and crocin resulted in a decrease of NO, iNOS levels, peroxynitrite ion generation, and prevented cytochrome c release. However, safranal significantly reduced oxidative stress in bronchial epithelial cells via iNOS reduction besides preventing apoptosis in these cells. In the murine model of asthma study, antiinflammatory role of safranal was characterized by increased airway hyper-responsiveness, airway cellular infiltration, and epithelial cell injury. Safranal pretreatment to these allergically inflamed mice lead to a significant decrease in airway hyper-responsiveness and airway cellular infiltration to the lungs. It also reduced iNOS production, bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis, and Th2 type cytokine production in the lungs.

  6. Electroacupuncture Attenuates Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Asthma via Modulating CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Youngjoo Kwon; Sung-Hwa Sohn; Gihyun Lee; Youngeun Kim; Hyejung Lee; Minkyu Shin; Hyunsu Bae

    2012-01-01

    A mouse pulmonary hypersensitivity experimental model that mimics human asthma was developed, and electroacupuncture (EA) treatment was shown to reduce allergic inflammatory processes. In addition, we also assessed whether the beneficial effects of EA on allergic asthma could be correlated with CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg). Cellular profiles and histopathologic analysis demonstrated that peribronchial and perivascular inflammatory cell infiltrates were significantly decreased in ...

  7. 5-Aminosalicylic acid attenuates allergen-induced airway inflammation and oxidative stress in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, K Rama Satyanarayana; Kumar, M N Sathish; Gupta, Saurabh; Naga, Srinivas T; Shankar, Jaya K; Murthy, Vishakantha; Madhunapanthula, Subba Rao V; Mulukutla, Shashank; Ambhore, Nilesh S; Tummala, Shashank; Vishnuvarthan, V J; Azam, Afzal; Elango, Kannan

    2014-12-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines regulate the magnitude of allergic reactions during asthma. Tumor necrosis factor--alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) play a crucial role in aggravating the inflammatory conditions during allergic asthma. In addition, oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of asthma by altering the physiological condition resulting in the development of status asthmaticus. Anti-inflammatory corticosteroids are being widely used for treating allergic asthma. In the present study 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), a salicylic acid derivative, was evaluated, in vivo for its potential to suppress TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-13 using ovalbumin (OVA) induced allergic asthma in Balb/C mice. Oral administration of 65, 130 and 195 mg/kg 5-ASA significantly reduced the OVA induced total and differential leucocyte count, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-13, nitrite, nitrate, MDA, MPO and TPL levels in the lung lavage samples. Collectively, these findings suggest that 5-ASA is a potent immunomodulator and suppresses key Th2 cytokines production and oxidative stress in OVA-induced asthma.

  8. Acupuncture Attenuated Inflammation and Inhibited Th17 and Treg Activity in Experimental Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ying; Dong, Ming; Zhang, Hongying; Lv, Yubao; Liu, Jiaqi; Wei, Kai; Luo, Qingli; Sun, Jing; Liu, Feng; Xu, Fei; Dong, Jingcheng

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture is an effective therapeutic method in asthma treatment in traditional Chinese medicine. Here, we evaluated the effect of acupuncture on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and the associated inflammatory changes as well as Th17 and Treg activity in ovalbumin- (OVA-) induced experimental asthma. Our results revealed that acupuncture treatment significantly inhibited AHR, lung inflammation, and mucus secretion of experimental asthma mice. Furthermore, a decrease in lymphocytes and eosinophils as well as neutrophils was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of mice treated with acupuncture. Acupuncture reduced the OVA specific IgE level as well as the Th17 cytokine levels including IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 in the serum of the experimental asthma mice. Acupuncture treatment group also had reduced CD4+IL-17A+ cell numbers and increased CD4+Foxp3+ cell numbers in BALF. In addition, acupuncture could inhibit IL-17R, RORγt, p65, and the inhibitor of NF-κB kinase-α (IKKα) protein expression. Our results indicated that acupuncture was effective in inhibiting AHR and inflammation in OVA-induced experimental asthma, which may be associated with the regulation of Th17 and Treg activity and NF-κB pathway. PMID:26612993

  9. Acupuncture Attenuated Inflammation and Inhibited Th17 and Treg Activity in Experimental Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is an effective therapeutic method in asthma treatment in traditional Chinese medicine. Here, we evaluated the effect of acupuncture on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR and the associated inflammatory changes as well as Th17 and Treg activity in ovalbumin- (OVA- induced experimental asthma. Our results revealed that acupuncture treatment significantly inhibited AHR, lung inflammation, and mucus secretion of experimental asthma mice. Furthermore, a decrease in lymphocytes and eosinophils as well as neutrophils was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of mice treated with acupuncture. Acupuncture reduced the OVA specific IgE level as well as the Th17 cytokine levels including IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 in the serum of the experimental asthma mice. Acupuncture treatment group also had reduced CD4+IL-17A+ cell numbers and increased CD4+Foxp3+ cell numbers in BALF. In addition, acupuncture could inhibit IL-17R, RORγt, p65, and the inhibitor of NF-κB kinase-α (IKKα protein expression. Our results indicated that acupuncture was effective in inhibiting AHR and inflammation in OVA-induced experimental asthma, which may be associated with the regulation of Th17 and Treg activity and NF-κB pathway.

  10. Acupuncture Attenuated Inflammation and Inhibited Th17 and Treg Activity in Experimental Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ying; Dong, Ming; Zhang, Hongying; Lv, Yubao; Liu, Jiaqi; Wei, Kai; Luo, Qingli; Sun, Jing; Liu, Feng; Xu, Fei; Dong, Jingcheng

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture is an effective therapeutic method in asthma treatment in traditional Chinese medicine. Here, we evaluated the effect of acupuncture on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and the associated inflammatory changes as well as Th17 and Treg activity in ovalbumin- (OVA-) induced experimental asthma. Our results revealed that acupuncture treatment significantly inhibited AHR, lung inflammation, and mucus secretion of experimental asthma mice. Furthermore, a decrease in lymphocytes and eosinophils as well as neutrophils was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of mice treated with acupuncture. Acupuncture reduced the OVA specific IgE level as well as the Th17 cytokine levels including IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 in the serum of the experimental asthma mice. Acupuncture treatment group also had reduced CD4+IL-17A+ cell numbers and increased CD4+Foxp3+ cell numbers in BALF. In addition, acupuncture could inhibit IL-17R, RORγt, p65, and the inhibitor of NF-κB kinase-α (IKKα) protein expression. Our results indicated that acupuncture was effective in inhibiting AHR and inflammation in OVA-induced experimental asthma, which may be associated with the regulation of Th17 and Treg activity and NF-κB pathway. PMID:26612993

  11. Cerebrolysin attenuates blood-brain barrier and brain pathology following whole body hyperthermia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hari Shanker; Zimmermann-Meinzingen, Sibilla; Sharma, Aruna; Johanson, Conrad E

    2010-01-01

    The possibility that Cerebrolysin, a mixture of several neurotrophic factors, has some neuroprotective effects on whole body hyperthermia (WBH) induced breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB), brain edema formation and neuropathology were examined in a rat model. Rats subjected to a 4 h heat stress at 38 degrees C in a biological oxygen demand (BOD) incubator exhibited profound increases in BBB and BCSFB permeability to Evans blue and radioiodine tracers compared to controls. Hippocampus, caudate nucleus, thalamus and hypothalamus exhibited pronounced increase in water content and brain pathology following 4 h heat stress. Pretreatment with Cerebrolysin (1, 2 or 5 mL/kg i.v.) 24 h before WBH significantly attenuated breakdown of the BBB or BCSFB and brain edema formation. This effect was dose dependent. Interestingly, the cell and tissue injury following WBH in cerebrolysin-treated groups were also considerably reduced. These novel observations suggest that cerebrolysin can attenuate WBH induced BBB and BCSFB damage resulting in neuroprotection.

  12. RNA interference against interleukin-5 attenuates airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in an asthma model*

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shao-xing; Huang, Feng-Ying; Tan, Guang-Hong; Wang, Cai-chun; Huang, Yong-hao; WANG Hua; Zhou, Song-lin; Chen, Fan; Lin, Ying-Ying; Liu, Jun-bao

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin-5 (IL-5) accompanies the development of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness through the activation of eosinophils. Therefore, interference of IL-5 expression in lung tissue seems to be an accepted approach in asthma therapy. In this study, we designed a small interfering RNA (siRNA) to inhibit the expression of IL-5. The siRNAs against IL-5 were constructed in a lentivirus expressing system, and 1.5×106 IFU (inclusion-forming unit) lentiviruses were administered intratrach...

  13. Chronic Exposure to Beta-Blockers Attenuates Inflammation and Mucin Content in a Murine Asthma Model

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Long P.; Omoluabi, Ozozoma; Parra, Sergio; Frieske, Joanna M.; Clement, Cecilia; Ammar-Aouchiche, Zoulikha; Ho, Samuel B.; Ehre, Camille; Kesimer, Mehmet; Knoll, Brian J.; Tuvim, Michael J; Dickey, Burton F.; Bond, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Single-dose administration of beta-adrenoceptor agonists produces bronchodilation and inhibits airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and is the standard treatment for the acute relief of asthma. However, chronic repetitive administration of beta-adrenoceptor agonists may increase AHR, airway inflammation, and risk of death. Based upon the paradigm shift that occurred with the use of beta-blockers in congestive heart failure, we previously determined that chronic administration of beta-blockers de...

  14. Pathologic bladder microenvironment attenuates smooth muscle differentiation of skin derived precursor cells: implications for tissue regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Tolg

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle cell containing organs (bladder, heart, blood vessels are damaged by a variety of pathological conditions necessitating surgery or organ replacement. Currently, regeneration of contractile tissues is hampered by lack of functional smooth muscle cells. Multipotent skin derived progenitor cells (SKPs can easily be isolated from adult skin and can be differentiated in vitro into contractile smooth muscle cells by exposure to FBS. Here we demonstrate an inhibitory effect of a pathologic contractile organ microenvironment on smooth muscle cell differentiation of SKPs. In vivo, urinary bladder strain induces microenvironmental changes leading to de-differentiation of fully differentiated bladder smooth muscle cells. Co-culture of SKPs with organoids isolated from ex vivo stretched bladders or exposure of SKPs to diffusible factors released by stretched bladders (e.g. bFGF suppresses expression of smooth muscle markers (alpha SMactin, calponin, myocardin, myosin heavy chain as demonstrated by qPCR and immunofluorescent staining. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR signalling, previously observed to prevent bladder strain induced de-differentiation of fully differentiated smooth muscle cells in vitro, inhibits FBS-induced smooth muscle cell differentiation of undifferentiated SKPs. These results suggest that intended precursor cell differentiation may be paradoxically suppressed by the disease context for which regeneration may be required. Organ-specific microenvironment contexts, particularly prevailing disease, may play a significant role in modulating or attenuating an intended stem cell phenotypic fate, possibly explaining the variable and inefficient differentiation of stem cell constructs in in vivo settings. These observations must be considered in drafting any regeneration strategies.

  15. Electroacupuncture Attenuates Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Asthma via Modulating CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjoo Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A mouse pulmonary hypersensitivity experimental model that mimics human asthma was developed, and electroacupuncture (EA treatment was shown to reduce allergic inflammatory processes. In addition, we also assessed whether the beneficial effects of EA on allergic asthma could be correlated with CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg. Cellular profiles and histopathologic analysis demonstrated that peribronchial and perivascular inflammatory cell infiltrates were significantly decreased in the EA-treated groups when compared to the OVA and anti-CD25 Ab-injected (Treg depletion groups. Furthermore, total BAL cells were reduced in the EA groups when compared to other groups. Interestingly, the population of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Tregs in pneumonocytes increased in EA-treated group when compared to OVA and Treg depletion groups. These results imply that EA stimulation at ST 36 may affect CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg in an OVA-induced experimental model and may enhance Treg function by suppressing other T cells and limiting the immune response.

  16. K(Ca3.1 channel-blockade attenuates airway pathophysiology in a sheep model of chronic asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Van Der Velden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ca(2+-activated K(+ channel K(Ca3.1 is expressed in several structural and inflammatory airway cell types and is proposed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of asthma. The aim of the current study was to determine whether inhibition of K(Ca3.1 modifies experimental asthma in sheep. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Atopic sheep were administered either 30 mg/kg Senicapoc (ICA-17073, a selective inhibitor of the K(Ca3.1-channel, or vehicle alone (0.5% methylcellulose twice daily (orally. Both groups received fortnightly aerosol challenges with house dust mite allergen for fourteen weeks. A separate sheep group received no allergen challenges or drug treatment. In the vehicle-control group, twelve weeks of allergen challenges resulted in a 60±19% increase in resting airway resistance, and this was completely attenuated by treatment with Senicapoc (0.25±12%; n = 10, P = 0.0147. The vehicle-control group had a peak-early phase increase in lung resistance of 82±21%, and this was reduced by 58% with Senicapoc treatment (24±14%; n = 10, P = 0.0288. Senicapoc-treated sheep also demonstrated reduced airway hyperresponsiveness, requiring a significantly higher dose of carbachol to increase resistance by 100% compared to allergen-challenged vehicle-control sheep (20±5 vs. 52±18 breath-units of carbachol; n = 10, P = 0.0340. Senicapoc also significantly reduced eosinophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage taken 48 hours post-allergen challenge, and reduced vascular remodelling. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that K(Ca3.1-activity contributes to allergen-induced airway responses, inflammation and vascular remodelling in a sheep model of asthma, and that inhibition of K(Ca3.1 may be an effective strategy for blocking allergen-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in humans.

  17. Oral Bromelain Attenuates Inflammation in an Ovalbumin-Induced Murine Model of Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Secor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bromelain, a widely used pineapple extract with cysteine protease activity, has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects in a variety of immune system models. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of orally administered bromelain in an ovalbumin (OVA-induced murine model of acute allergic airway disease (AAD. To establish AAD, female C57BL/6J mice were sensitized with intraperitoneal (i.p. OVA/alum and then challenged with OVA aerosols for 3 days. Mice were gavaged with either (phosphate buffered salinePBS or 200 mg/kg bromelain in PBS, twice daily for four consecutive days, beginning 1 day prior to OVA aerosol challenge. Airway reactivity and methacholine sensitivity, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL cellular differential, Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13, and lung histology were compared between treatment groups. Oral bromelain-treatment of AAD mice demonstrated therapeutic efficacy as evidenced by decreased methacholine sensitivity (P ≤ 0.01, reduction in BAL eosinophils (P ≤ 0.02 and IL-13 concentrations (P ≤ 0.04 as compared with PBS controls. In addition, oral bromelain significantly reduced BAL CD19+ B cells (P ≤ 0.0001 and CD8+ T cells (P ≤ 0.0001 in AAD mice when compared with controls. These results suggest that oral treatment with bromelain had a beneficial therapeutic effect in this murine model of asthma and bromelain may also be effective in human conditions.

  18. Puerarin Attenuates Ovalbumin-Induced Lung Inflammation and Hemostatic Unbalance in Rat Asthma Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We aimed to investigate and evaluate the preventive activity of puerarin on the ovalbumin-induced asthma rat model. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were sensitized intraperitoneally on days 0, 7, and 14 and challenged to ovalbumin intratracheally on day 21. Groups of sensitized rats were treated randomly either with placebo, puerarin, dexamethasone, or puerarin combined with dexamethasone, from days 15 to 20. Inflammatory markers, including cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, inflammatory cytokines, histopathology, and coagulation parameters, such as coagulation tests and the activity of coagulation factors, were analyzed. Results. Puerarin significantly inhibited the recruitment of inflammatory cells in BALF and lung tissue. At the same time, the release of IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ in serum and the expression of mRNAs in lung tissue homogenate were changed by puerarin. Administration of puerarin also effectively rectified the coagulation disorder in asthmatic rats, such as prothrombin time (PT (P<0.01, thrombin time (TT (P<0.05, fibrinogen (FIB (P<0.01,the activity of factor II (FII (P<0.01, the activity of factor V (FV (P<0.05, the activity of factor VII (FVII (P<0.05, the activity of factor X (FX (P<0.05, the activity of factor VIII (FVIII (P<0.01, the activity of factor IX (FIX (P<0.05, and the activity of factor XII (FXII (P<0.05. Conclusions. Our results provide a clue that puerarin was useful for the preventive of allergic airway disease in rodents.

  19. Low-intensity aerobic exercise training attenuates airway inflammation and remodeling in a rat model of steroid-resistant asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Qingwu; Chen Xi; Feng Juntao; Qin Ling; Hu Chengping

    2014-01-01

    Background Aerobic exercise can improve symptoms,reduce airway inflammation,and even ameliorate airway remodeling in asthmatic animals and patients.However,previous studies have focused mainly on the effect of aerobic exercise on steroid-sensitive asthma (SSA).The goals of this study were to determine the effect of low-intensity aerobic exercise training on airway hyperresponsiveness,inflammation,and remodeling in a rat model of steroid-resistant asthma (SRA) and to identify the potential mechanisms underlying these effects.Methods Endotoxin-free ovalbumin with or without lipopolysaccharide were applied to establish rat models of SRA and SSA,respectively.Airway hyperresponsiveness,inflammation,remodeling,expression of interleukin (IL)-25,IL-33,thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP),high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1),and IL-17 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF),and the role of dexamethasone (DXM) were compared between these two asthmatic rat models.The effect of low-intensity aerobic exercise training and anti-HMGB1 treatment on airway hyperresponsiveness,inflammation,and remodeling in SRA rats also was evaluated.Results SRA rats developed neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation ((29.5±4.1)% of the total cell numbers in BALF),whereas SSA rats developed eosinophil-dominated airway inflammation ((24.0±6.1)% of the total cell numbers in BALF).Compared with SSA rats,SRA rats had more severe airway hyperresponsiveness,lower levels of IL-25 ((33.6±10.3) vs.(104.8±24.9) pg/ml),IL-33 ((87.5±25.0) vs.(226.6±40.7) pg/ml),and TSLP ((1 933.2±899.5) vs.(7 224.0±992.1) pg/ml),and higher levels of HMGB1 ((21.2±4.5) vs.(5.4±1.6) ng/ml) and IL-17 ((780.5±261.7) vs.(291.4±76.4) pg/ml) in BALF (all P <0.05).However,there was no significant difference in goblet cell hyperplasia,subepithelial collagen thickness,and airway smooth muscle remodeling between the two groups.Compared with control SSA rats,airway hyperresponsiveness,inflammation,and remodeling in SRA rats

  20. Chenodeoxycholic acid attenuates ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in murine model of asthma by inhibiting the T(H)2 cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Firdose Begum; Panati, Kalpana; Narasimha, Vydyanath R; Narala, Venkata Ramireddy

    2015-08-01

    Asthma is a complex highly prevalent airway disease that is a major public health problem for which current treatment options are inadequate. Recently, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory actions in various disease conditions, but there have been no reported investigations of Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a natural FXR agonist, in allergic airway inflammation. To test the CDCA effectiveness in airway inflammation, ovalbumin (OVA)-induced acute murine asthma model was established. We found that lung tissue express FXR and CDCA administration reduced the severity of the murine allergic airway disease as assessed by pathological and molecular markers associated with the disease. CDCA treatment resulted in fewer infiltrations of cells into the airspace and peribronchial areas, and decreased goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus secretion and serum IgE levels which was increased in mice with OVA-induced allergic asthma. The CDCA treatment further blocked the secretion of TH2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13) and proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α indicate that the FXR and its agonists may have potential for treating allergic asthma. PMID:26067554

  1. Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates airway inflammation in murine asthma model by inducing regulatory T cells and modulating dendritic cell functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Treatment with Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates OVA-induced airway inflammation and AHR to methacholine. → Induction of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells and IL-10 along with suppression of splenocyte proliferation by C. sinensis-derived total protein. → C. sinensis-derived total protein interferes with the expression of co-stimulatory molecules in DCs. -- Abstract: Asthma is characterized by Th2-mediated inflammation, resulting in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) through airway remodeling. Recent epidemiological and experimental reports have suggested an inverse relationship between the development of allergy and helminth infections. Infection by Clonorchis sinensis, a liver fluke that resides in the bile duct of humans, is endemic predominantly in Asia including Korea and China. Using a murine model for asthma, we investigated the effects of C. sinensis-derived total protein (Cs-TP) on allergen-induced airway inflammation and the mechanism underlying the protective effects of Cs-TP administration on asthma. Treatment with Cs-TP attenuated OVA-induced airway inflammation and methacholine-induced AHR, as well as eosinophilia development, lymphocyte infiltration into the lung, and goblet cell metaplasia. This protective effect of Cs-TP is associated with markedly reduced OVA-specific IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokine production. Moreover, Cs-TP increased the number of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells as well as their suppressive activity. In fact, proliferation of OVA-restimulated splenocytes was suppressed significantly. Cs-TP also inhibited the expression of such co-stimulatory molecules as CD80, CD86, and CD40 in LPS- or OVA-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that Cs-TP could interfere with the capacity of airway DCs to prime naive T cells. These data demonstrate the capacity of C. sinensis to ameliorate allergic asthma and broaden our understanding of the paradoxical relationship between the allergic immune response and

  2. Attenuation of signaling pathways stimulated by pathologically activated FGF-receptor 2 mutants prevents craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswarakumar, V P; Ozcan, F; Lew, E D; Bae, J H; Tomé, F; Booth, C J; Adams, D J; Lax, I; Schlessinger, J

    2006-12-01

    Craniosynostosis, the fusion of one or more of the sutures of the skull vault before the brain completes its growth, is a common (1 in 2,500 births) craniofacial abnormality, approximately 20% of which occurrences are caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGF receptors (FGFRs). We describe a genetic and pharmacological approach for the treatment of a murine model system of Crouzon-like craniosynostosis induced by a dominant mutation in Fgfr2c. Using genetically modified mice, we demonstrate that premature fusion of sutures mediated by Crouzon-like activated Fgfr2c mutant is prevented by attenuation of signaling pathways by selective uncoupling between the docking protein Frs2alpha and activated Fgfr2c, resulting in normal skull development. We also demonstrate that attenuation of Fgfr signaling in a calvaria organ culture with an Fgfr inhibitor prevents premature fusion of sutures without adversely affecting calvaria development. These experiments show that attenuation of FGFR signaling by pharmacological intervention could be applied for the treatment of craniosynostosis or other severe bone disorders caused by mutations in FGFRs that currently have no treatment. PMID:17132737

  3. Regulation of Th17/Treg function contributes to the attenuation of chronic airway inflammation by icariin in ovalbumin-induced murine asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ying; Liu, Baojun; Sun, Jing; Lv, Yubao; Luo, Qingli; Liu, Feng; Dong, Jingcheng

    2015-06-01

    Icariin which is a flavonoid glucoside isolated from Epimedium brevicornu Maxim, has been reported to have anti-osteoporotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-depressant-like activities. In this study, we observed the effect of icariin on airway inflammation of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine asthma model and the associated regulatory mode on T-helper (Th)17 and regulatory T (Treg) cell function. Our data revealed that chronic OVA inhalation induced a dramatic increase in airway resistance (RL) and decrease in the lung dynamic compliance (Cdyn), and icariin and DEX treatment caused significant attenuation of such airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). BALF cell counts demonstrated that icariin and DEX led to a prominent reduction in total leukocyte as well as lymphocyte, eosinophil, neutrophil, basophil and monocyte counts. Histological analysis results indicated that icariin and DEX alleviated the inflammatory cells infiltrating into the peribronchial tissues and goblet cells hyperplasia and mucus hyper-production. Flow cytometry test demonstrated that icariin or DEX administration resulted in a significant percentage reduction in CD4+RORγt+ T cells and elevation of CD4+Foxp3+ T cells in BALF. Furthermore, icariin or DEX caused a significant reduction in IL-6, IL-17 and TGF-β level in BALF. Unfortunately, icariin had no effect on IL-10 level in BALF. Western blot assay found that icariin or DEX suppressed RORγt and promoted Foxp3 expression in the lung tissue. qPCR analysis revealed that icariin and DEX resulted in a notable decrease in RORγt and increase in Foxp3 mRNA expression in isolated spleen CD4+ T cell. In conclusion, our results suggested that icariin was effective in the attenuation of AHR and chronic airway inflammatory changes in OVA-induced murine asthma model, and this effect was associated with regulation of Th17/Treg responses, which indicated that icariin may be used as a potential therapeutic method to treat asthma with Th17/Treg imbalance phenotype

  4. Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates airway inflammation in murine asthma model by inducing regulatory T cells and modulating dendritic cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Young-Il; Kim, Seung Hyun; Ju, Jung Won; Cho, Shin Hyeong; Lee, Won Ja; Park, Jin Wook; Park, Yeong-Min; Lee, Sang Eun

    2011-04-22

    Asthma is characterized by Th2-mediated inflammation, resulting in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) through airway remodeling. Recent epidemiological and experimental reports have suggested an inverse relationship between the development of allergy and helminth infections. Infection by Clonorchis sinensis, a liver fluke that resides in the bile duct of humans, is endemic predominantly in Asia including Korea and China. Using a murine model for asthma, we investigated the effects of C. sinensis-derived total protein (Cs-TP) on allergen-induced airway inflammation and the mechanism underlying the protective effects of Cs-TP administration on asthma. Treatment with Cs-TP attenuated OVA-induced airway inflammation and methacholine-induced AHR, as well as eosinophilia development, lymphocyte infiltration into the lung, and goblet cell metaplasia. This protective effect of Cs-TP is associated with markedly reduced OVA-specific IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokine production. Moreover, Cs-TP increased the number of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells as well as their suppressive activity. In fact, proliferation of OVA-restimulated splenocytes was suppressed significantly. Cs-TP also inhibited the expression of such co-stimulatory molecules as CD80, CD86, and CD40 in LPS- or OVA-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that Cs-TP could interfere with the capacity of airway DCs to prime naïve T cells. These data demonstrate the capacity of C. sinensis to ameliorate allergic asthma and broaden our understanding of the paradoxical relationship between the allergic immune response and helminth infection. PMID:21440530

  5. Activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) attenuates allergic airway inflammation in rat asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawale, Vaibhav Shrirang; Amara, Venkateswara Rao; Karpe, Pinakin Arun; Malek, Vajir; Patel, Deep; Tikoo, Kulbhushan

    2016-09-01

    Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) is positively correlated to asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is highly expressed in lungs. ACE2, the counteracting enzyme of ACE, was proven to be protective in pulmonary, cardiovascular diseases. In the present study we checked the effect of ACE2 activation in animal model of asthma. Asthma was induced in male wistar rats by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin and then treated with ACE2 activator, diminazene aceturate (DIZE) for 2weeks. 48h after last allergen challenge, animals were anesthetized, blood, BALF, femoral bone marrow lavage were collected for leucocyte count; trachea for measuring airway responsiveness to carbachol; lungs and heart were isolated for histological studies and western blotting. In our animal model, the characteristic features of asthma such as altered airway responsiveness to carbachol, eosinophilia and neutrophilia were observed. Western blotting revealed the increased pulmonary expression of ACE1, IL-1β, IL-4, NF-κB, BCL2, p-AKT, p-p38 and decreased expression of ACE2 and IκB. DIZE treatment prevented these alterations. Intraalveolar interstitial thickening, inflammatory cell infiltration, interstitial fibrosis, oxidative stress and right ventricular hypertrophy in asthma control animals were also reversed by DIZE treatment. Activation of ACE2 by DIZE conferred protection against asthma as evident from biochemical, functional, histological and molecular parameters. To the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time that activation of ACE2 by DIZE prevents asthma progression by altering AKT, p38, NF-κB and other inflammatory markers. PMID:27343405

  6. Synergistically increased ILC2 and Th9 cells in lung tissue jointly promote the pathological process of asthma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xinyu; Su, Zhaoliang; Bie, Qingli; Zhang, Pan; Yang, Huijian; Wu, Yumin; Xu, Yunyun; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Mengying; Wang, Shengjun; Xu, Huaxi

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, T helper (Th) 9 cells have been demonstrated to be key mediators in immune responses in asthmatic lungs, and innate lymphoid cells 2 (ILC2s) have been described as a novel type of innate immunocyte with the ability to enhance immunoglobulin E (IgE) production. However, the interaction between ILC2s and Th9 cells in the pulmonary system of a mouse model of asthma remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the response state of lung tissue with regards to Th9 and ILC2s in a mouse model of asthma was investigated by detecting Th9‑ and ILC2‑associated cytokine receptors. The present study also investigated the association between the expression levels of the cytokine receptors in lung tissue samples and the IgE levels in sera samples from mouse models of asthma. Results from the present study demonstrated that the frequency of ILC2s and Th9 cells was significantly increased in the lung tissue samples, indicating that a Th2-type immune response had occurred. In addition, high mRNA expression levels of RAR‑related orphan receptor α, interleukin 1 receptor‑like 1, transcription factor PU.1 and interleukin (IL)‑9 were observed. Furthermore, IL‑5Rα, IL‑13Rα2 and high‑affinity IgE receptor were increased in mouse models of asthma, and a positive association was observed between the expression levels of ILC2‑ or Th9‑associated receptors in tissue samples and IgE levels in the sera. This indicated that ILC2s and Th9 were in a state of polarization and may promote each other in the lung tissue of mouse models of asthma, and that the lung tissue was responding to the two types of cells via increased expression of receptors. PMID:27109139

  7. Beneficial effects of sitostanol on the attenuated immune function in asthma patients: results of an in vitro approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Brüll

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In vitro and animal studies have suggested that plant sterols and stanols increase cytokine production by T-helper-1 cells. This may be beneficial for patient groups characterized by a T-helper-2 dominant immune response, e.g. asthma patients. (1 to evaluate whether sitostanol induces a T-helper-1 shift in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from asthma patients, and (2 to unravel the role of regulatory T-cells in this respect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PBMCs from 10 asthma patients and 10 healthy subjects were isolated and incubated with 1.2 µM sitostanol, while stimulated with 5 µg/ml PHA. Similar amounts of cholesterol were used to determine whether effects were specific for plant stanols or for sterols in general. Changes in cytokine production were measured using antibody arrays and ELISAs. Changes in regulatory T-cell population size were measured by flow cytometry, using intracellular Foxp3 staining. Sitostanol increased production of IFNγ by 6.5% and IL-2 by 6.0% compared to cholesterol (p<0.01. No changes in IL-4 and IL-13 were found. Interestingly, this effect was only present in PBMCs from asthma patients. The number of Foxp3+ cells tended to increase and their activity, measured by IL-10 production, increased after sitostanol treatment in PBMCs from asthma patients compared to controls by 32.3% (p = 0.077 and 13.3% (p<0.05, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, the sitostanol-induced Thelper-1 shift in PBMCs from asthma patients and the stimulating effects of sitostanol on Treg cell numbers and activity indicate a possible novel approach for plant stanol ester enriched functional foods in the amelioration of asthmatic symptoms. Functional effects, however, require further evaluation.

  8. Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates airway inflammation in murine asthma model by inducing regulatory T cells and modulating dendritic cell functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young-Il [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyun [Div. of AIDS, National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Jung Won; Cho, Shin Hyeong; Lee, Won Ja [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Wook; Park, Yeong-Min [Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yang-San (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Eun, E-mail: ondalgl@cdc.go.kr [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates OVA-induced airway inflammation and AHR to methacholine. {yields} Induction of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} T cells and IL-10 along with suppression of splenocyte proliferation by C. sinensis-derived total protein. {yields} C. sinensis-derived total protein interferes with the expression of co-stimulatory molecules in DCs. -- Abstract: Asthma is characterized by Th2-mediated inflammation, resulting in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) through airway remodeling. Recent epidemiological and experimental reports have suggested an inverse relationship between the development of allergy and helminth infections. Infection by Clonorchis sinensis, a liver fluke that resides in the bile duct of humans, is endemic predominantly in Asia including Korea and China. Using a murine model for asthma, we investigated the effects of C. sinensis-derived total protein (Cs-TP) on allergen-induced airway inflammation and the mechanism underlying the protective effects of Cs-TP administration on asthma. Treatment with Cs-TP attenuated OVA-induced airway inflammation and methacholine-induced AHR, as well as eosinophilia development, lymphocyte infiltration into the lung, and goblet cell metaplasia. This protective effect of Cs-TP is associated with markedly reduced OVA-specific IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokine production. Moreover, Cs-TP increased the number of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T (Treg) cells as well as their suppressive activity. In fact, proliferation of OVA-restimulated splenocytes was suppressed significantly. Cs-TP also inhibited the expression of such co-stimulatory molecules as CD80, CD86, and CD40 in LPS- or OVA-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that Cs-TP could interfere with the capacity of airway DCs to prime naive T cells. These data demonstrate the capacity of C. sinensis to ameliorate allergic asthma and broaden our understanding of the paradoxical

  9. Clinical evaluation of the computed tomography attenuation correction map for myocardial perfusion imaging: the potential for incidental pathology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tootell, Andrew; Vinjamuri, Sobhan; Elias, Mark; Hogg, Peter

    2012-11-01

    The benefits of hybrid imaging in nuclear medicine have been proven to increase the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity of many procedures by localizing or characterizing lesions or by correcting emission data to more accurately represent radiopharmaceutical distribution. Single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) has a significant role in the diagnosis and follow-up of ischaemic heart disease with attenuation correction data being obtained on an integrated CT scanner. Initially, the CT component of hybrid SPECT/CT systems was what could be described as low specification utilizing fixed output parameters. As technology has progressed, the CT component of newer systems has specifications that are identical to that of stand-alone diagnostic systems. Irrespective of the type of scanner used, the computed tomography attenuation correction (CTAC) for myocardial perfusion imaging produces low-quality, limited-range CT images of the chest that include the mediastinum, lung fields and surrounding soft tissues. The diagnostic potential of this data set is unclear; yet, examples exist whereby significant pathology can be identified and investigated further. Despite guidance from a number of professional bodies suggesting that evaluation of the resulting images for every medical exposure be carried out, there is no indication as to whether this should include the evaluation of CTAC images. This review aims to initiate discussion by examining the ethical, legal, financial and practical issues (e.g. CT specification and image quality) surrounding the clinical evaluation of the CTAC for myocardial perfusion imaging images. Reference to discussions that have taken place, and continue to take place, in other modalities, current European and UK legislations, and guidelines and research in the field will be made.

  10. Icariin attenuates glucocorticoid insensitivity mediated by repeated psychosocial stress on an ovalbumin-induced murine model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bei; Duan, Xiaohong; Xu, Changqing; Wu, Jinfeng; Liu, Baojun; Du, Yiji; Luo, Qingli; Jin, Hualiang; Gong, Weiyi; Dong, Jingcheng

    2014-04-01

    Evidence shows that psychosocial stress exacerbates asthma, but there is little intervention to alleviate negative effects of psychosocial stress on asthma. We investigated the role of icariin in anti-inflammation and anti-anxiety potential in a murine model combined psychosocial stress with allergic exposure. The results indicated that icariin administered remarkable increased activity in the center of the open field, reversed airway hyperresponsivenesss, reduced inflammatory cytokine infiltration to the lung and whole body and also in part recovered glucocorticoid responsiveness. Furthermore, our data also showed that icariin significantly inhibited increases of corticosterone and markedly increased glucocorticoid receptor mRNA and protein expression in the lungs of mice exposed to both stress and allergen. Collectively, we speculate that inducing glucocorticoid receptor modulation might be the potential mechanisms of icariin to facilitate corticosteroid responsiveness of cytokine production.

  11. Nocturnal Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Director, Health Initiatives View full profile Nocturnal Asthma Worsening of asthma at night, or nocturnal asthma, ... give extra protection during the night. More Nocturnal Asthma Information Back to Asthma: Types Print Page Email ...

  12. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics Print A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  13. An extract of Crataegus pinnatifida fruit attenuates airway inflammation by modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in ovalbumin induced asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Sik Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese hawthorn has long been used as a herbal medicine in Asia and Europe. It has been used for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial weakness, tachycardia, hypertension and arteriosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Crataegus pinnatifida ethanolic extracts (CPEE on Th2-type cytokines, eosinophil infiltration, expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9, and other factors, using an ovalbumin (OVA-induced murine asthma model. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Airways of OVA-sensitized mice exposed to OVA challenge developed eosinophilia, mucus hypersecretion and increased cytokine levels. CPEE was applied 1 h prior to OVA challenge. Mice were administered CPEE orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg once daily on days 18-23. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was collected 48 h after the final OVA challenge. Levels of interleukin (IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA assays. Lung tissue sections 4 µm in thickness were stained with Mayer's hematoxylin and eosin for assessment of cell infiltration and mucus production with PAS staining, in conjunction with ELISA, and Western blot analyses for the expression of MMP-9, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1 protein expression. CPEE significantly decreased the Th2 cytokines including IL-4 and IL-5 levels, reduced the number of inflammatory cells in BALF and airway hyperresponsiveness, suppressed the infiltration of eosinophil-rich inflammatory cells and mucus hypersecretion and reduced the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MMP-9 and the activity of MMP-9 in lung tissue of OVA-challenged mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that CPEE can protect against allergic airway inflammation and can act as an MMP-9 modulator to induce a reduction in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. In conclusion, we strongly suggest the feasibility

  14. Aspirin attenuates the anti-inflammatory effects of theophylline via inhibition of cAMP production in mice with non-eosinophilic asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Hyung-Geun; Kim, You-sun; Choi, Jun-Pyo; Choi, Dong-Sic; Yoon, Chang Min; Jeon, Seong Gyu; Gho, Yong Song; Kim, Yoon-Keun

    2009-01-01

    Theophylline is commonly used to treat severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) characterized by non-eosinophilic inflammation. Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) is one of the most widely used medications worldwide, but up to 20% of patients with asthma experience aggravated respiratory symptoms after taking ASA. Here we evaluated the adverse effect of ASA on the therapeutic effect of theophylline in mice with non-eosinophilic asthma. A non-eosinophilic asthma mouse model was ...

  15. Difficult asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Uslu; Tülay Özdemir

    1989-01-01

    Difficult asthma is a distinct entity of asthma, comprising approximately %5 of asthmatic patients. There is no agreed definition of difficult asthma. It will include asthma uncontrolled by new standard therapy, steroid dependent, steroid resistant and severe asthma. In this study difficult asthma; clinical features, risk factors, pathophysiology and novel therapies are summarized by literatures.

  16. DNA vaccine and asthma therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Huan-zhong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Allergic asthma is currently considered a chronic airway inflammatory disorder associated with the presence of activated CD4+ Th2-type lymphocytes, eosinophils, and mast cells. Interestingly, therapeutic strategies based on immune deviation and suppression have been shown to successfully attenuate the development of the asthma phenotype.

  17. How Can Microarrays Unlock Asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Alen Faiz; Janette K. Burgess

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a complex disease regulated by the interplay of a large number of underlying mechanisms which contribute to the overall pathology. Despite various breakthroughs identifying genes related to asthma, our understanding of the importance of the genetic background remains limited. Although current therapies for asthma are relatively effective, subpopulations of asthmatics do not respond to these regimens. By unlocking the role of these underlying mechanisms, a source of novel and more ef...

  18. Pediatric Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MD Dept. of Pediatrics View full profile Pediatric Asthma: Overview For some children with asthma, their first ... Calendar Read the News View Daily Pollen Count Asthma Treatment Program At National Jewish Health, we offer ...

  19. miR-410 and miR-495 Are Dynamically Regulated in Diverse Cardiomyopathies and Their Inhibition Attenuates Pathological Hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Clark

    Full Text Available Noncoding RNAs have emerged as important modulators in cardiac development and pathological remodeling. Recently, we demonstrated that regulation of the Gtl2-Dio3 noncoding RNA locus is dependent on the MEF2 transcription factor in cardiac muscle, and that two of its encoded miRNAs, miR-410 and miR-495, induce robust cardiomyocyte proliferation. Given the possibility of manipulating the expression of these miRNAs to repair the damaged heart by stimulating cardiomyocyte proliferation, it is important to determine whether the Gtl2-Dio3 noncoding RNAs are regulated in cardiac disease and whether they function downstream of pathological cardiac stress signaling. Therefore, we examined expression of the above miRNAs processed from the Gtl2-Dio3 locus in various cardiomyopathies. These noncoding RNAs were upregulated in all cardiac disease models examined including myocardial infarction (MI and chronic angiotensin II (Ang II stimulation, and in the cardiomyopathies associated with muscular dystrophies. Consistent with these observations, we show that the Gtl2-Dio3 proximal promoter is activated by stress stimuli in cardiomyocytes and requires MEF2 for its induction. Furthermore, inhibiting miR-410 or miR-495 in stressed cardiomyocytes attenuated the hypertrophic response. Thus, the Gtl2-Dio3 noncoding RNA locus is a novel marker of cardiac disease and modulating the activity of its encoded miRNAs may mitigate pathological cardiac remodeling in these diseases.

  20. How can microarrays unlock asthma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faiz, Alen; Burgess, Janette K

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a complex disease regulated by the interplay of a large number of underlying mechanisms which contribute to the overall pathology. Despite various breakthroughs identifying genes related to asthma, our understanding of the importance of the genetic background remains limited. Although curr

  1. Ca2+-Activated K+ Channel–3.1 Blocker TRAM-34 Attenuates Airway Remodeling and Eosinophilia in a Murine Asthma Model

    OpenAIRE

    Girodet, Pierre-Olivier; Ozier, Annaig; Carvalho, Gabrielle; Ilina, Olga; Ousova, Olga; Gadeau, Alain-Pierre; Begueret, Hugues; Wulff, Heike; Marthan, Roger; Bradding, Peter; Berger, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Key features of asthma include bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), eosinophilic airway inflammation, and bronchial remodeling, characterized by subepithelial collagen deposition, airway fibrosis, and increased bronchial smooth muscle (BSM) mass. The calcium-activated K+ channel KCa3.1 is expressed by many cells implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, and is involved in both inflammatory and remodeling responses in a number of tissues. The specific KCa3.1 blocker 5-[(2-chlorophenyl)(dipheny...

  2. Wogonin, a plant flavone from Scutellariae radix, attenuated ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in mouse model of asthma via the suppression of IL-4/STAT6 signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Eun Kyung; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Jang, Eun Jeong; Choi, Yoon Suk; Kim, Seon Tae; Hahm, Ki Baik; Lee, Ho-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by a marked infiltration of eosinophils at the site of inflammation. Eotaxins are potent chemoattractants for eosinophils and play important roles in pathogenesis of asthma. In the course of screening for eotaxin-3 inhibitors, we found that wogonin showed potent inhibitory activity of interleukin-4 (IL-4)-induced eotaxin-3 expression in BEAS-2B cells. In this study, we examined the effects of wogonin on IL-4/STAT6...

  3. A focused salivary gland infection with attenuated MCMV: an animal model with prevention of pathology associated with systemic MCMV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Mark J; Kasman, Laura; Grewal, Jasvir; Bruorton, Mary E; Werner, Phil; London, Lucille; London, Steven D

    2007-06-01

    While the salivary gland has been recognized as an important effector site of the common mucosal immune system, a useful model for studying anti-viral salivary gland immune responses in vivo and for exploring the role of the salivary gland within the common mucosal system has been lacking. Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) is a beta-herpesvirus that displays a strong tropism for the salivary gland and produces significant morbidity in susceptible mice when introduced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation. This study tested the hypothesis that MCMV morbidity and pathology could be reduced by injecting the virus directly the submandibular salivary gland (intraglandular (i.g.)), using either in vivo derived MCMV or the less virulent, tissue-culture-derived MCMV (tcMCMV). Peak salivary gland viral titers were completely unaffected by infection route (i.p vs. i.g.) after inoculation with either MCMV or tcMCMV. However, i.g. tcMCMV inoculation reduced viremia in all systemic tissues tested compared to i.p. inoculation. Furthermore, systemic organ pathology observed in the liver and spleen after i.p. inoculation with either MCMV or tcMCMV was completely eliminated by i.g. inoculation with tcMCMV. Cellular infiltrates in the salivary glands, after i.p. or i.g. inoculation were composed of both B and T cells, indicating the potential for a local immune response to occur in the salivary gland. These results demonstrate that a focused MCMV infection of the salivary gland without systemic organ pathology is possible using i.g. delivery of tcMCMV. PMID:17320076

  4. Comparison of Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery Sequence with Spin Echo T2-Weighted MRI for Characterization of Brain Pathology

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, Indra Dev; Shrestha, Shanta Lal; Ghimire, Ram Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Twenty cases of different brain pathology have been studied via MRI using an open resistive magnet with magnetic field strength of 0.2 Tesla. The relative signal intensity with respect to the repetition time (TR) at fixed echo time (TE) 0.117 sec. has been studied. It was found that the signal intensity saturates for most lesions beyond a certain TR~6 sec in the T2 - weighted image. The signal intensity differs with respect to the inversion time (TI) for fat and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It was found that the intensity is nulled for CSF at TI ~1.5 sec. and for Fat at TI~0.10 sec in the FLAIR imaging sequence. Thus the intensity of the lesions is qualitatively different for the two sequences. From the radiological diagnostic point of view, it was concluded that the FLAIR sequence is more useful for the detection of lesions compared to T2 sequences.

  5. Wogonin, a plant flavone from Scutellariae radix, attenuated ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in mouse model of asthma via the suppression of IL-4/STAT6 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Eun Kyung; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Jang, Eun Jeong; Choi, Yoon Suk; Kim, Seon Tae; Hahm, Ki Baik; Lee, Ho-Jae

    2015-09-01

    Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by a marked infiltration of eosinophils at the site of inflammation. Eotaxins are potent chemoattractants for eosinophils and play important roles in pathogenesis of asthma. In the course of screening for eotaxin-3 inhibitors, we found that wogonin showed potent inhibitory activity of interleukin-4 (IL-4)-induced eotaxin-3 expression in BEAS-2B cells. In this study, we examined the effects of wogonin on IL-4/STAT6 signaling pathway and biological implication in a mouse model of asthma. Wogonin inhibited IL-4-induced activation and nuclear translocation of STAT6 which plays a key role in either the transcription of STAT6-response genes or Th2 cytokine-mediated inflammation. Oral administration of wogonin significantly reduced activation of STAT6 in the lung and the expression of eotaxin and RANTES in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Histological examination of lung tissue demonstrated that wogonin significantly inhibited allergen-induced eosinophilic inflammation. Administration of wogonin reduced the total IgE and ovalbumin-specific IgE levels compared with the ovalbumin-challenged group. All of these data demonstrated that wogonin could alleviate airway inflammation through inhibition of STAT6 activation induced by Th2 cytokines. Our finding implicates a potential therapeutic value of wogonin in the treatment of asthma through regulation of IL-4/STAT6 signaling pathway. PMID:26388667

  6. How Can Microarrays Unlock Asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Faiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a complex disease regulated by the interplay of a large number of underlying mechanisms which contribute to the overall pathology. Despite various breakthroughs identifying genes related to asthma, our understanding of the importance of the genetic background remains limited. Although current therapies for asthma are relatively effective, subpopulations of asthmatics do not respond to these regimens. By unlocking the role of these underlying mechanisms, a source of novel and more effective treatments may be identified. In the new age of high-throughput technologies, gene-expression microarrays provide a quick and effective method of identifying novel genes and pathways, which would be impossible to discover using an individual gene screening approach. In this review we follow the history of expression microarray technologies and describe their contributions to advancing our current knowledge and understanding of asthma pathology.

  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma-associated Proteobacteria, but not commensal Prevotella spp., promote Toll-like receptor 2-independent lung inflammation and pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Musavian, Hanieh Sadat; Butt, Tariq Mahmood;

    2015-01-01

    response to three Gram-negative commensal Prevotella strains (Prevotella melaninogenica, Prevotella nanceiensis and Prevotella salivae) and three Gram-negative pathogenic Proteobacteria known to colonize lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma (Haemophilus influenzae...... B, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis). The commensal Prevotella spp. and pathogenic Proteobacteria were found to exhibit intrinsic differences in innate inflammatory capacities on murine lung cells in vitro. In vivo in mice, non-typeable H.influenzae induced severe Toll...

  8. Foxp3(+)-Treg cells enhanced by repeated low-dose gamma-irradiation attenuate ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bum Soo; Hong, Gwan Ui; Ro, Jai Youl

    2013-05-01

    Gamma radiation is used for several therapeutic indications such as cancers and autoimmune diseases. Low-dose whole-body γ irradiation has been shown to activate immune responses in several ways, however, the effect and mechanism of irradiation on allergic asthma remains poorly understood. This study investigated whether or not irradiation exacerbates allergic asthma responses and its potential mechanism. C57BL/6 mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) to induce asthma. The mice received whole-body irradiation once daily for 3 consecutive days with a dose of 0.667 Gy using (137)Cs γ rays 24 h before every OVA challenge. Repeated low-dose irradiation reduced OVA-specific IgE levels, the number of inflammatory cells including mast cells, goblet cell hyperplasia, collagen deposition, airway hyperresponsiveness, expression of inflammatory cytokines, CCL2/CCR2, as well as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 activities. All of these factors were increased in BAL cells and lung tissue of OVA-challenged mice. Irradiation increased the number of Treg cells, expression of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-2 and IL-35 in BAL cells and lung tissue. Irradiation also increased Treg cell-expressed Foxp3 and IL-10 by NF-κB and RUNX1 in OVA-challenged mice. Furthermore, while Treg cell-expressing OX40 and IL-10 were enhanced in lung tissue or act-bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) with Treg cells, but BMMCs-expressing OX40L and TGF-β were decreased. The data suggest that irradiation enhances Foxp3(+)- and IL-10-producing Treg cells, which reduce OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation and tissue remodeling through the down-regulation of migration by the CCL2/CCR2 axis and activation of mast cells via OX40/OX40L in lung tissue of OVA-challenged mice. PMID:23560633

  9. Emerging therapeutic options for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colice, Gene L

    2011-04-01

    Asthma is characterized by eosinophilic airway inflammation and elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. Due to these pathologic features, the foundation of asthma treatment has historically been anti-inflammatory therapy with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). Numerous factors in addition to IgE and eosinophils, however, likely play important roles in mediating the airway inflammatory response characteristic of asthma. ICSs are effective therapy for some patients with persistent asthma, but clinical trials have shown that even increasing doses of ICSs under carefully controlled situations does not always result in acceptable asthma control. Consequently, other classes of medications, in addition to ICSs, are recommended in those patients with more severe asthma. The class of medication most commonly used in more severe asthma, along with ICSs, is long-acting inhaled beta2-agonists, but leukotriene modifying agents and anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies may also be used. Agents such as tiotropium, a long-acting inhaled anti-muscarinic agent, and those aimed at inhibiting cytokines, such as mepoluzimab, daclizumab, and etanercept, hold promise in the treatment of asthma. Other agents under investigation include phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitors and oligonucleotides. Bronchial thermoplasty, a nonpharmacologic option, may also be beneficial in patients with poorly controlled asthma. As our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of asthma increases, it will enable the development of novel therapeutic approaches for patients who are not responding well to traditional treatments. Although more studies are necessary to ensure the efficacy and safety of both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches, there is future promise for therapeutic advances in severe, persistent asthma. PMID:21761958

  10. Adenosine Receptors and Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Constance N; Nadeem, Ahmed; Spina, Domenico; Brown, Rachel; Page, Clive P.; Jamal Mustafa, S.

    2009-01-01

    The pathophysiological processes underlying respiratory diseases like asthma are complex, resulting in an overwhelming choice of potential targets for the novel treatment of this disease. Despite this complexity, asthmatic subjects are uniquely sensitive to a range of substances like adenosine, thought to act indirectly to evoke changes in respiratory mechanics and in the underlying pathology, and thereby to offer novel insights into the pathophysiology of this disease. Adenosine is of partic...

  11. Pulmonary remodeling in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberman, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The inflammatory and immunologic processes responsible for asthma can produce permanently fixed obstructive lung disease unresponsive to medical therapy. This can be manifested clinically by the failure of a childhood asthmatic to reach full expected lung capacity at adulthood and by an accelerated decline in pulmonary capacity in adults. Recent studies have furthered our insight into the pathologic processes underlying these changes and the potential effects of therapy to prevent them.

  12. Therapeutic potential of an orally effective small molecule inhibitor of plasminogen activator inhibitor for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui-Ming; Eldridge, Stephanie; Watanabe, Nobuo; Deshane, Jessy; Kuo, Hui-Chien; Jiang, Chunsun; Wang, Yong; Liu, Gang; Schwiebert, Lisa; Miyata, Toshio; Thannickal, Victor J

    2016-02-15

    Asthma is one of the most common respiratory diseases. Although progress has been made in our understanding of airway pathology and many drugs are available to relieve asthma symptoms, there is no cure for chronic asthma. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), a primary inhibitor of tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators, has pleiotropic functions besides suppression of fibrinolysis. In this study, we show that administration of TM5275, an orally effective small-molecule PAI-1 inhibitor, 25 days after ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization-challenge, significantly ameliorated airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-induced chronic asthma model. Furthermore, we show that TM5275 administration significantly attenuated OVA-induced infiltration of inflammatory cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes), the increase in the levels of OVA-specific IgE and Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5), the production of mucin in the airways, and airway subepithelial fibrosis. Together, the results suggest that the PAI-1 inhibitor TM5275 may have therapeutic potential for asthma through suppressing eosinophilic allergic response and ameliorating airway remodeling. PMID:26702150

  13. CT analysis of peripheral airway and lung lesions of patients with asthma and COPD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Takayuki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Sahara, Shin; Ohnishi, Tetsuro; Abe, Shosaku [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Koba, Hiroyuki [Teinekeijinkai Hospital, Sapporo (Japan); Ueno, Kan [Hitachi Medico Technology Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    We compared peripheral airway and lung parenchyma images among patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy controls using high-resolution CT images taken by a multidetector-row CT scanner (Aquillion, Toshiba, Japan). CT images were saved as digital image and communication (DICOM) files and %low attenuation area (LAA) (<-960 Hounsfield Unit) was calculated with the imaging software. %LAA was significantly increased in patients with COPD (p<0.0001) and smokers with stable asthma (p<0.01) as compared with healthy controls. In stable asthma, mucous plugging in the airway sometime appeared, while during asthma exacerbation small nodules and mosaic pattern of peripheral lung field appeared. Since smoker's patients with asthma have hyper-secretion of sputum due to smoking, mucous plugging and airway inflammation may easily occur and consequently air trapping may increase. In the future, image diagnosis of peripheral airway should develop for early detection of airway diseases as a non-invasive examination. On the other hand, micro focus X-ray computed tomography system (Hitachi Medico Technology Co., Japan) can display CT images closely similar to the pictures of microscopic findings and it will be a useful tool to analyze radiologic-pathologic correlations of peripheral airways and lung parenchyma. (author)

  14. CT analysis of peripheral airway and lung lesions of patients with asthma and COPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compared peripheral airway and lung parenchyma images among patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy controls using high-resolution CT images taken by a multidetector-row CT scanner (Aquillion, Toshiba, Japan). CT images were saved as digital image and communication (DICOM) files and %low attenuation area (LAA) (<-960 Hounsfield Unit) was calculated with the imaging software. %LAA was significantly increased in patients with COPD (p<0.0001) and smokers with stable asthma (p<0.01) as compared with healthy controls. In stable asthma, mucous plugging in the airway sometime appeared, while during asthma exacerbation small nodules and mosaic pattern of peripheral lung field appeared. Since smoker's patients with asthma have hyper-secretion of sputum due to smoking, mucous plugging and airway inflammation may easily occur and consequently air trapping may increase. In the future, image diagnosis of peripheral airway should develop for early detection of airway diseases as a non-invasive examination. On the other hand, micro focus X-ray computed tomography system (Hitachi Medico Technology Co., Japan) can display CT images closely similar to the pictures of microscopic findings and it will be a useful tool to analyze radiologic-pathologic correlations of peripheral airways and lung parenchyma. (author)

  15. Advances in asthma 2015: Across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Andrew H; Anderson, William C; Dutmer, Cullen M; Searing, Daniel A; Szefler, Stanley J

    2016-08-01

    In 2015, progress in understanding asthma ranged from insights to asthma inception, exacerbations, and severity to advancements that will improve disease management throughout the lifespan. 2015's insights to asthma inception included how the intestinal microbiome affects asthma expression with the identification of specific gastrointestinal bacterial taxa in early infancy associated with less asthma risk, possibly by promoting regulatory immune development at a critical early age. The relevance of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating asthma-related gene expression was strengthened. Predicting and preventing exacerbations throughout life might help to reduce progressive lung function decrease and disease severity in adulthood. Although allergy has long been linked to asthma exacerbations, a mechanism through which IgE impairs rhinovirus immunity and underlies asthma exacerbations was demonstrated and improved by anti-IgE therapy (omalizumab). Other key molecular pathways underlying asthma exacerbations, such as cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3) and orosomucoid like 3 (ORMDL3), were elucidated. New anti-IL-5 therapeutics, mepolizumab and reslizumab, were US Food and Drug Administration approved for the treatment of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. In a clinical trial the novel therapeutic inhaled GATA3 mRNA-specific DNAzyme attenuated early- and late-phase allergic responses to inhaled allergen. These current findings are significant steps toward addressing unmet needs in asthma prevention, severity modification, disparities, and lifespan outcomes. PMID:27497278

  16. Emerging molecular phenotypes of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anuradha; Oriss, Timothy B; Wenzel, Sally E

    2015-01-15

    Although asthma has long been considered a heterogeneous disease, attempts to define subgroups of asthma have been limited. In recent years, both clinical and statistical approaches have been utilized to better merge clinical characteristics, biology, and genetics. These combined characteristics have been used to define phenotypes of asthma, the observable characteristics of a patient determined by the interaction of genes and environment. Identification of consistent clinical phenotypes has now been reported across studies. Now the addition of various 'omics and identification of specific molecular pathways have moved the concept of clinical phenotypes toward the concept of molecular phenotypes. The importance of these molecular phenotypes is being confirmed through the integration of molecularly targeted biological therapies. Thus the global term asthma is poised to become obsolete, being replaced by terms that more specifically identify the pathology associated with the disease. PMID:25326577

  17. Wheezing and Asthma in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cooperate While Using the Nebulizer? Handling an Asthma Flare-Up What's an Asthma Flare-Up? Asthma Center Asthma Basics Managing Asthma When Your ... a Health Problem Asthma Center Handling an Asthma Flare-Up How Do Asthma Medicines Work? Asthma Asthma Center ...

  18. A water extract of Samchulkunbi-tang attenuates airway inflammation by inhibiting inos and MMP-9 activities in an ovalbumin-induced murine asthma model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Mee Young

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we investigated the effect of Samchulkunbi-tang water extract (SCTE in an established mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA-induced allergic asthma. The effects of SCTE on the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, eotaxin, and total and OVA-specific immunoglobulin E, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity were measured. Methods Mice were sensitized on days 0 and 14 with an intraperitoneal injection of 20 μg ovalbumin (OVA emulsified in 2 mg aluminum hydroxide in 200 μL PBS buffer. On days 21, 22, and 23, mice received an airway exposure to OVA (1%, w/v, in PBS for 1 h. SCTE was administered orally to mice at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg per day from days 18 to 23. Results SCTE reduced the number of inflammatory cells, cytokines, and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and iNOS expression and MMP-9 activity in mouse lung tissue. Histological studies using hematoxylin & eosin and periodic acid-schiff staining showed that SCTE substantially inhibited OVA-induced inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue and goblet cell hyperplasia in the airway. SCTE also reduced IL-4 and IL-13 expression in concanavalin-A-stimulated splenocytes. These results were similar to those obtained with montelukast as a positive control. Conclusions Collectively, these results suggest that SCTE may be an effective oral treatment for allergic airway inflammation by virtue of its anti-inflammatory activity.

  19. Asthma pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Minka L

    2014-02-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airway that leads to airway obstruction via bronchoconstriction, edema, and mucus hypersecretion. The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program has outlined evidence-based guidelines to standardize asthma therapy and improve outcomes. The initial recommendation of choice for persistent asthmatic patients is an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS). Long-acting beta-2 agonists in combination with ICS, oral corticosteroids, leukotriene modifiers, and anti-IgE therapeutic options can be considered for patients with persistent or worsening symptoms. Many novel therapies are being developed, with an emphasis on anti-inflammatory mechanisms, gene expression, and cytokine modification.

  20. Asthma and allergy - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - asthma and allergy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on asthma and allergies : Allergy and Asthma Network Mothers of Asthmatics -- www.aanma.org American Academy of Allergy, Asthma ...

  1. How Is Asthma Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Asthma Diagnosed? Your primary care doctor will diagnose asthma ... other disease may be causing your symptoms. Diagnosing Asthma in Young Children Most children who have asthma ...

  2. Exercise and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Exercise and Asthma Page Content Article Body Almost every ... children more likely to develop asthma. How does exercise cause asthma symptoms? The symptoms of asthma are ...

  3. Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... one child. Unfortunately, there is not a single test that provides all the answers. An allergist / immunologist, ...

  4. Occupational asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occupational exposure; Irritant-induced reactive airways disease Images Spirometry Respiratory system References Lemiere C, Vandenplas O. Occupational allergy and asthma. In: Adkinson NF Jr., Bochner BS, Burks AW, ...

  5. Genetics of asthma: a molecular biologist perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Balaram

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma belongs to the category of classical allergic diseases which generally arise due to IgE mediated hypersensitivity to environmental triggers. Since its prevalence is very high in developed or urbanized societies it is also referred to as "disease of civilizations". Due to its increased prevalence among related individuals, it was understood quite long back that it is a genetic disorder. Well designed epidemiological studies reinforced these views. The advent of modern biological technology saw further refinements in our understanding of genetics of asthma and led to the realization that asthma is not a disorder with simple Mendelian mode of inheritance but a multifactorial disorder of the airways brought about by complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Current asthma research has witnessed evidences that are compelling researchers to redefine asthma altogether. Although no consensus exists among workers regarding its definition, it seems obvious that several pathologies, all affecting the airways, have been clubbed into one common category called asthma. Needless to say, genetic studies have led from the front in bringing about these transformations. Genomics, molecular biology, immunology and other interrelated disciplines have unearthed data that has changed the way we think about asthma now. In this review, we center our discussions on genetic basis of asthma; the molecular mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis. Taking cue from the existing data we would briefly ponder over the future directions that should improve our understanding of asthma pathogenesis.

  6. Bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008049 Activation ralated genes of memory CD+4 T cells in asthma patients. PI Weifeng(皮卫峰),et al. Dept Respir Med, Xinhua Hosp, Sch Med, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ, Shanghai 200092. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2007;30(12):932-935. Objective To screen and identify the genes of activated memory CD+4 T cells in asthma. Methods Differential display polymerase chain reaction(DDPCR) was utilized to identify genes of memory CD+4 T cells after activation from asthmatic patients and normal individuals,

  7. Computed tomography (CT) of cervical lymph nodes in patients with oral cancer. Comparison of low-attenuation areas in lymph nodes on CT images with pathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to clarify the histopathological features of low-attenuation areas in computed tomography (CT) images of cervical metastatic and benign lymph nodes in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). CT images of 230 lymph nodes from 37 patients with oral SCC were classified into four categories and compared with histopathological findings. Metastatic lymph nodes were evaluated in terms of focal necrosis, keratinization, fibrous tissue, and the proportion of the lymph node showing focal necrosis. Benign lymph nodes were evaluated in terms of adipose tissue, follicular hyperplasia, sinus histiocytosis, hyperemia, focal hemorrhaging, and the amount of adipose tissue. Histopathologically, all 13 metastatic lymph nodes with rim enhancement on CT images included focal necrosis. However, most of the lymph nodes showed no focal necrosis. In addition, tumor cells, keratinization, and fibrous tissue were observed in the lymph nodes. Of the 26 metastatic lymph nodes with a heterogeneous appearance on CT images, four did not show focal necrosis. These lymph nodes showed keratinization or accumulation of lymph fluid. Histopathologically, 20 of 24 benign lymph nodes with a heterogeneous appearance on CT images (83.3%) had accompanying adipose tissue. Focal necrosis was the most important factor contributing to low attenuation in metastatic lymph nodes. However, other factors, such as tumor cells, keratinization, fibrous tissue, and accumulation of lymph fluid, also contributed. In benign lymph nodes, the presence of adipose tissue was a contributing factor in low-attenuation areas, as was focal hemorrhaging. (author)

  8. Animal models of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Akkoç, Tunç

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Allergic disease such as asthma, rhinitis, and eczema are increasing prevelanceand affect up to 15% of population in Westernized countries. Among them, asthma is achronic inflammatory disease of airways and the underlying physiological and immunologicalprocesses are not fully understood. Mouse models of asthma dupicates many featuresof human asthma, including airway hyperreactivity, andairway inflammation. Therefore, relevantmodels for asthma are important to understand the mechanis...

  9. Thunderstorm asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    AN ASSOCIATION between asthma and thunderstorms based on retrospective data has been noted in several papers. This study, however, draws on almost-real-time, anonymised attendance data from 35 emergency departments (EDs) in the UK, and lightning-strike plots from the Met Office. PMID:25270814

  10. [Severe asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Claudio D

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to investigate the frequency of severe asthma (SA) according to WHO definition and to compare SA patients' characteristics with those of non-severe asthma (NSA); secondly, to investigate the level of control reached throughout a period of regular treatment. Between 1-1-2005 and 12-31-2014, 471 medical records from patients with bronchial asthma assisted in Buenos Aires City were analyzed. SA frequency was 40.1% (189/471), being significantly higher among patients from the public health system (47.7%, 108/226 vs. 33%, 81/245, p = 0.001). SA patients were older than NSA ones (51.3 ± 17.4 vs. 42.6 ± 17.1 years, p = 0.000), presented longer time since onset of the disease (median 30 vs. 20 years, p = 0.000), lower educational levels (secondary level or higher 41.7% vs. 58.1%, p = 0.000), lower frequency of rhinitis (47% vs. 60.6%, p = 0.004), more severe levels of airway obstruction (FEV% 50.2 ± 13.7 vs. 77.7 ± 12.4, p = 0.000), more frequent antecedents of Near Fatal Asthma (11.1% vs. 2.8%, p = 0.000), higher levels of serum IgE (median of 410 vs. 279 UI/l, p = 0.01) and higher demand of systemic steroids requirements and hospitalizations (68.7% vs. 50.7%, p = 0.000 and 37.5% vs. 15.9%, p = 0.000, respectively). A 30.6% of SA patients (58/189) reached a follow-up period of 12 months, 13 (22.5%) of whom reached the controlled asthma level. The frequency of SA found seems to be considerable. Multicenter studies to investigate the levels of control reached by SA patients with access to proper treatment are recommended.

  11. Clinical application of inert gas Multiple Breath Washout in children and adolescents with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserloot, Annelies; Fuchs, Susanne I; Müller, Christina; Bisdorf, Kornelia; Gappa, Monika

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Children with asthma often have normal spirometry despite significant disease. The pathology of the small airways in asthma may be assessed using Multiple Breath Washout (MBW) and calculating the Lung Clearance Index (LCI). There are only few studies using MBW in children with asthma a

  12. Test Your Asthma Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Test Your Asthma Knowledge Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... Asthma: A Chance to Heal / Test Your Asthma Knowledge Fall 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 4 Page ...

  13. Asthma triggers (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... things make your asthma worse. These are called asthma "triggers". Avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. The most common asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors ...

  14. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are ...

  15. Allergies, asthma, and molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - mold; Bronchial asthma - mold; Triggers - mold; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Mold is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to mold, you are ...

  16. Asthma in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have asthma. Nearly 9 million of them are children. Children have smaller airways than adults, which makes asthma especially serious for them. Children with asthma may experience wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, ...

  17. Asthma and Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Asthma and Food Allergies Page Content Article Body A family history of ... child may develop asthma . Children with asthma and food allergies are at increased risk for anaphylaxis, a severe ...

  18. Asthma Medications and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MD Medical Director, Health Initiatives View full profile Asthma and Pregnancy: Asthma Medications We would like to avoid all medicine ... make sure you are using it correctly. Other Asthma Related Medication Treatment Annual influenza vaccine (flu shot) ...

  19. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma Print A ... previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with exercise-induced ...

  20. Asthma action plan

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2014-01-01

    This action plans allow each child (or parent/carer) to record his or her asthma treatment to help manage their asthma when they are well, when their symptoms get worse and when they are suffering an asthma attack.

  1. A Focused Salivary Gland Infection with attenuated MCMV: An Animal Model with Prevention of Pathology Associated with Systemic MCMV Infection1, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Mark J.; Kasman, Laura; Grewal, Jasvir; Bruorton, Mary E.; Werner, Phil; London, Lucille; London, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    While the salivary gland has been recognized as an important effector site of the common mucosal immune system, a useful model for studying anti-viral salivary gland immune responses in vivo and for exploring the role of the salivary gland within the common mucosal system has been lacking. Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) is a beta-herpesvirus that displays a strong tropism for the salivary gland and produces significant morbidity in susceptible mice when introduced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation. This study tested the hypothesis that MCMV morbidity and pathology could be reduced by injecting the virus directly the submandibular salivary gland (intraglandular (i.g.)), using either in vivo derived MCMV or the less virulent, tissue culture-derived MCMV (tcMCMV). Peak salivary gland viral titers were completely unaffected by infection route (i.p vs. i.g.) after inoculation with either MCMV or tcMCMV. However, i.g. tcMCMV inoculation reduced viremia in all systemic tissues tested compared to i.p. inoculation. Further, systemic organ pathology observed in the liver and spleen after i.p. inoculation with either MCMV or tcMCMV was completely eliminated by i.g. inoculation with tcMCMV. Cellular infiltrates in the salivary glands, after i.p. or i.g. inoculation were composed of both B and T cells, indicating the potential for a local immune response to occur in the salivary gland. These results demonstrate that a focused MCMV infection of the salivary gland without systemic organ pathology is possible using i.g. delivery of tcMCMV. PMID:17320076

  2. Emerging corticosteroid agonists for the treatment of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Christian G; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    on other pathological pathways, research in GRAs for asthma is sparse. However, a few promising agents acting selectively on the GR are currently under investigation and may reach approval for asthma treatment. These drugs exhibit improved pharmacodynamic properties due to selectivity in the mechanism...

  3. Administration of NaHS attenuates footshock-induced pathologies and emotional and cognitive dysfunction in triple transgenic Alzheimer’s mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei-Jen eHuang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Increasing evidence indicates that environmental risk factors in young adults may accelerate cognitive loss in AD and that hydrogen sulfide (H2S may represent an innovative treatment to slow the progression of AD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of NaHS, an H2S donor, in a triple transgenic AD mouse model (3×Tg-AD under footshock with situational reminders (SRs. Inescapable footshock with SRs induced anxiety and cognitive dysfunction as well as a decrease in the levels of plasma H2S and GSH and an increase in IL-6 levels in 3×Tg-AD mice. Under footshock with SR stimulus, amyloid deposition, tau protein hyperphosphorylation, and microgliosis were highly increased in the stress-responsive brain structures, including the hippocampus and amygdala, of the AD mice. Oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 levels were also increased, and the level of inactivated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β (pSer9 was decreased in the hippocampi of AD mice subjected to footshock with SRs. Furthermore, the numbers of cholinergic neurons in the medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MS/DB and noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC were also decreased in the 3×Tg-AD mice under footshock with SRs. These biochemical hallmarks and pathological presentations were all alleviated by the semi-acute administration of NaHS in the AD mice. Together, these findings suggest that footshock with SRs induces the impairment of spatial cognition and emotion, which involve pathological changes in the peripheral and central systems, including the hippocampus, MS/DB, LC, and BLA, and that the administration of NaHS may be a candidate strategy to ameliorate the progression of neurodegeneration.

  4. Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Researchers & Academics Sponsors & Supporters Donate Contact AAFA Asthma Asthma Triggers Allergens and Allergic Asthma Tobacco Smoke Air Pollution ... Feed Subscribe Asthma Capitals Asthma Facts Asthma Research Asthma Triggers Allergy Capitals Allergy Facts Allergy Research Allergy Treatment ...

  5. A STUDY OF ASSOCIATION OF BODY MASS INDEX WITH SEVERITY OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN 132 PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaykumar; Mahavir; Dattatray; Rakhi

    2014-01-01

    As the prevalence of both obesity and severity of asthma are in increasing trend, we study association between body mass index (BMI) and asthma severity in cross sectional study. OBJECTIVE: To study association between Body mass index and Asthma severity METHODOLOGY- We included adults (age >13yrs), who are diagnosed as patients of asthma by Pulmonologist and who are non -smoker, without any other lung pathology, are not on long term systemic steroids. Total of 132 patient...

  6. HSF1 and NF-κB p65 participate in the process of exercise preconditioning attenuating pressure overload-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tongyi [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, No. 401 Hospital of PLA, Qingdao (China); Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Ben [Centre of Cardiovascular Surgery, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Region, Guangzhou (China); Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Yang, Fan; Cai, Chengliang; Wang, Guokun [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Han, Qingqi, E-mail: handoctor@gmail.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Zou, Liangjian, E-mail: zouliangjiansh@gmail.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-05-08

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, often accompanied by hypertension, aortic stenosis and valvular defects, is typically associated with myocyte remodeling and cardiac dysfunction. Exercise preconditioning (EP) has been proven to enhance the tolerance of the myocardium to cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the effects of EP in pathological cardiac hypertrophy are rarely reported. 10-wk-old male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 80) were randomly divided into four groups: sham, TAC, EP + sham and EP + TAC. Two EP groups were subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill training, and the EP + TAC and TAC groups were followed by TAC operations. The sham and EP + sham groups underwent the same operation without aortic constriction. Eight weeks after the surgery, we evaluated the effects of EP by echocardiography, morphology, and histology and observed the expressions of the associated proteins. Compared with the respective control groups, hypertrophy-related indicators were significantly increased in the TAC and EP + TAC groups (p < 0.05). However, between the TAC and EP + TAC groups, all of these changes were effectively inhibited by EP treatment (p < 0.05). Furthermore, EP treatment upregulated the expression of HSF1 and HSP70, increased the HSF1 levels in the nuclear fraction, inhibited the expression of the NF-κB p65 subunit, decreased the NF-κB p65 subunit levels in the nuclear fraction, and reduced the IL2 levels in the myocardia of rats. EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC and may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70, activating HSF1 and then inhibiting the expression of NF-κB p65 and nuclear translocation. - Highlights: • EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC. • EP may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70 and then activating HSF1. • EP may play a protective role by inhibiting the expression

  7. Experimental infection of commercial layers with wild or attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum mutant strains: anatomic pathology, total blood cell count and serum protein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KO Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic alterations in commercial layers experimentally challenged with an attenuated vaccine candidate strain (SG∆cobS∆cbiA and other two pathogenic strains (SGDcobS and SGNalr of Gallinarum (SG. In total, 280 commercial layers were randomly divided into 4 groups (G1, G2, G3 and G4. At five days of age, birds from groups G1 received approximately 107 colony forming units (CFU of SGDcobS; meanwhile birds from group G2 and G3 received the same dose of SGNalr and SG∆cobS∆cbiA, respectively. Birds from G4 were not infected. At 24 hours before (DBI and 24 hours after (1 DAI, and three (3 DAI, five (5 DAI, seven (7 DAI ten (10 DAI, and fifteen (15 DAI days after the infection, 10 birds of each group were humanely killed and blood samples collected to hematological and serum tests. Samples of liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney and heart were also collected for the histological examination. Birds inoculated with SGDcobS and SGNalr showed similar alterations in hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic exams. On the other hand, the exams of birds inoculated with SG∆cobS∆cbiA strain were similar to those of the uninfected birds. However, changes could be noticed in levels of uric acid and cholesterol during the course of the infection of birds from G3. Decrease in levels of light IgG 3 DAI was also observed in birds from this group. Pyknosis in kidney cells was a microscopic alteration found in birds from G3. Further studies must be done to verify if these alterations will not interfere in the performance of the vaccinate birds with SG∆cobS∆cbiA strain.

  8. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth;

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma....

  9. Suppression of allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma by exogenous mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, Hai-Feng; Huang, Yun; Hu, Xing-Bin; Wu, Chang-Gui

    2011-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have significant immunomodulatory effects in the development of acute lung inflammation and fibrosis. However, it is still unclear as to whether MSCs could attenuate allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma. We firstly investigated whether exogenous MSCs can relocate to lung tissues in asthmatic mice and analyzed the chemotactic mechanism. Then, we evaluated the in vivo immunomodulatory effect of exogenous MSCs in asthma. MSCs (2 × 10(6)) were administered through the tail vein to mice one day before the first airway challenge. Migration of MSCs was evaluated by flow cytometry. The immunomodulatory effect of MSCs was evaluated by cell counting in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), histology, mast cell degranulation, airway hyperreactivity and cytokine profile in BALF. Exogenous MSCs can migrate to sites of inflammation in asthmatic mice through a stromal cell-derived factor-1α/CXCR4-dependent mechanism. MSCs can protect mice against a range of allergic airway inflammatory pathologies, including the infiltration of inflammatory cells, mast cell degranulation and airway hyperreactivity partly via shifting to a T-helper 1 (Th1) from a Th2 immune response to allergens. So, immunotherapy based on MSCs may be a feasible, efficient therapy for asthma. PMID:22114062

  10. Imaging of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John Caleb; Lynch, David; Koelsch, Tilman; Dyer, Debra

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is one of the most common diseases of the lung. Asthma manifests with common, although often subjective and nonspecific, imaging features at radiography and high-resolution computed tomography. The primary role of imaging is not to make a diagnosis of asthma but to identify complications, such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, or mimics of asthma, such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This article reviews the imaging features of asthma as well as common complications and mimics. PMID:27401624

  11. In vivo micro-CT assessment of airway remodeling in a flexible OVA-sensitized murine model of asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lederlin

    Full Text Available Airway remodeling is a major pathological feature of asthma. Up to now, its quantification still requires invasive methods. In this study, we aimed at determining whether in vivo micro-computed tomography (micro-CT is able to demonstrate allergen-induced airway remodeling in a flexible mouse model of asthma. Sixty Balb/c mice were challenged intranasally with ovalbumin or saline at 3 different endpoints (Days 35, 75, and 110. All mice underwent plethysmography at baseline and just prior to respiratory-gated micro-CT. Mice were then sacrificed to assess bronchoalveolar lavage and lung histology. From micro-CT images (voxel size = 46×46×46 µm, the numerical values of total lung attenuation, peribronchial attenuation (PBA, and PBA normalized by total lung attenuation were extracted. Each parameter was compared between OVA and control mice and correlation coefficients were calculated between micro-CT and histological data. As compared to control animals, ovalbumin-sensitized mice exhibited inflammation alone (Day 35, remodeling alone (Day 110 or both inflammation and remodeling (Day 75. Normalized PBA was significantly greater in mice exhibiting bronchial remodeling either alone or in combination with inflammation. Normalized PBA correlated with various remodeling markers such as bronchial smooth muscle size or peribronchial fibrosis. These findings suggest that micro-CT may help monitor remodeling non-invasively in asthmatic mice when testing new drugs targeting airway remodeling in pre-clinical studies.

  12. Stay away from asthma triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma triggers - stay away from; Asthma triggers - avoiding; Reactive airway disease - triggers; Bronchial asthma - triggers ... to them. Have someone who does not have asthma cut the grass, or wear a facemask if ...

  13. Obesity and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is more prevalent in obese compared with normal weight subjects. Our aim has been to review current knowledge of the impact of obesity on asthma severity, asthma control, and response to therapy.Several studies have shown that overweight and obesity is associated with more severe asthma...... and impaired quality of life compared with normal weight individuals. Furthermore, obesity is associated with poorer asthma control, as assessed by asthma control questionnaires, limitations in daily activities, breathlessness and wheezing, use of rescue medication, unscheduled doctor visits, emergency...... department visits, and hospitalizations for acute asthma. Studies of the impact of a high body mass index (BMI) on response to asthma therapy have, however, revealed conflicting results. Most studies show that overweight and obesity is associated with less favorable response to asthma therapy with regard...

  14. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma among Persons with Current Asthma Asthma and Obesity Percentage of People with Asthma who Smoke Insurance ... Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals ...

  15. For Parents of Children with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma > Managing Asthma For Parents of Children with Asthma Your Child's Asthma: A Parent's Guide to Better Breathing This step- ... health considerations you should keep in mind. Diagnosing Asthma in Young Children Most children who have asthma ...

  16. Asthma Control and Its Relationship with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Teodorescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives. Asthma in older individuals is poorly understood. We aimed to characterize the older asthma phenotype and test its association with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Pulmonary and Asthma/Allergy clinics. Participants. 659 asthma subjects aged 18–59 years (younger and 154 aged 60–75 (older. Measurements. Sleep Apnea scale of Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SA-SDQ, asthma severity step (1–4, severe if step 3 or 4, established OSA diagnosis, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP use, and comorbidities. Results. Older versus younger had worse control, as assessed by asthma step, lung function, and inhaled corticosteroid use. Among older subjects, after controlling for known asthma aggravators, OSA diagnosis was the only factor robustly associated with severe asthma: on average, OSA was associated with nearly 7 times greater likelihood of severe asthma in an older individual (OR=6.67. This relationship was of greater magnitude than in younger subjects (OR=2.16. CPAP use attenuated the likelihood of severe asthma in older subjects by 91% (P=0.005, much more than in the younger asthmatics. Conclusion. Diagnosed OSA increases the risk for worse asthma control in older patients, while CPAP therapy may have greater impact on asthma outcomes. Unrecognized OSA may be a reason for poor asthma control, particularly among older patients.

  17. Asthma, guides for diagnostic and handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper defines the asthma, includes topics as diagnostic, handling of the asthma, special situations as asthma and pregnancy, handling of the asthmatic patient's perioperatory and occupational asthma

  18. Paediatric asthma and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Sean R; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2006-12-01

    None of the explanations proposed for the increase in paediatric asthma have been adequate. It is becoming apparent that the cause of the increase in asthma must be multi-factorial. Increasing attention has been focused on the role of lifestyle in the development of asthma. Lifestyle changes that have occurred in children are those in diet and decreased physical activity, with obesity being the product of these changes. The increase in asthma, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle have occurred together. However, a temporal relationship between asthma, obesity and decreased physical activity has not been determined in the paediatric literature. Limited data suggest that decreased physical activity could be playing a role in the aetiology of asthma independent of obesity. Furthermore, there has been substantial research on the benefits of exercise programmes for paediatric patients with asthma. Longitudinal trials monitoring physical activity, obesity and the development of asthma are needed. PMID:17098637

  19. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - pollen; Bronchial asthma - pollen; Triggers - pollen; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. It is important to know your triggers because avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. ...

  20. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  1. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ...

  2. Managing Allergies, Asthma 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158635.html Managing Allergies, Asthma 101 Doctor offers advice to students who will ... 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Teens with allergies or asthma who are heading for college later this year ...

  3. Asthma in pregnancy - from immunology to clinical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamási Lilla

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is one of the most common chronic medical conditions that may complicate pregnancy. Asthma influences the outcome of pregnancy and, vice versa, pregnancy affects asthma severity, but the underlying immunological mechanisms of this interaction are not fully understood. As a sign of pregnancy-induced immunotolerance, attenuation of allergic responses can be detected in controlled asthmatic pregnant patients; however non controlled asthmatic pregnant women show significant asthma-associated immune reactions that may, beside other factors, influence fetal growth. Generally, although uncontrolled asthma may increase the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, women with well-controlled and adequately treated disease during pregnancy do not develop maternal or fetal complications.

  4. Identifying asthma triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Justin C; Ferguson, Berrylin J

    2014-02-01

    Asthma has many triggers including rhinosinusitis; allergy; irritants; medications (aspirin in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease); and obesity. Paradoxic vocal fold dysfunction mimics asthma and may be present along with asthma. This article reviews each of these triggers, outlining methods of recognizing the trigger and then its management. In many patients more than one trigger may be present. Full appreciation of the complexity of these relationships and targeted therapy to the trigger is needed to best care for the patient with asthma.

  5. Genetics of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon F

    2015-01-01

    Asthma runs in families, and children of asthmatic parents are at increased risk of asthma. Prediction of disease risk is pivotal for the clinician when counselling atopic families. However, this is not always an easy task bearing in mind the vast and ever-increasing knowledge about asthma genetics...... of methods and advances in asthma genetics in an attempt to help the clinician keep track of the most important knowledge in the field....

  6. Asthma in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel O D Addo-Yobo; Ashley Woodcock; Adorkor Allotey; Benjamin Baffoe-Bonnie; David Strachan; Adnan Custovic

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. The proportion of children with asthma is thought to be increasing worldwide, and particularly among children that live in more developed countries. However, it is not clear why this is, since many different aspects of lifestyle and the environment have been linked with the onset of asthma. In Africa, asthma has typically been thought of as being very uncommon, and indeed in many African dialects there is no word for asthma or the symptoms, such as wheezing, that ...

  7. Antifungals in severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parulekar, Amit D.; Diamant, Zuzana; Hanania, Nicola A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite guideline-based treatment, many patients with severe asthma continue to have uncontrolled disease. Fungal allergy is being increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis of severe asthma. Limited data exist on the approach to treatment of fungal asthma. This review summarizes

  8. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data has established increasing adiposity as a risk factor for incident asthma. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and asthma are incompletely understood. In the present paper, we review current knowledge of possible mechanisms mediating the observed...... association between obesity and asthma....

  9. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Causan asma las alergias? My daughter has asthma and I'm worried that her younger brother ...

  10. Repeated Bouts of Aerobic Exercise Enhance Regulatory T Cell Responses in a Murine Asthma Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lowder, Thomas; Dugger, Kari; Deshane, Jessy; Estell, Kim; Schwiebert, Lisa M

    2009-01-01

    We have reported previously that moderate intensity aerobic exercise training attenuates airway inflammation in a murine asthma model. Recent studies implicate regulatory T (Treg) cells in decreasing asthma-related airway inflammation; as such, the current study examined the effect of exercise on Treg cell function in a murine asthma model. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) prior to the start of exercise training at a moderate intensity 3× / week for 4 wks; exercise was performed as t...

  11. Asthma in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Lorenzo Urso

    2012-01-01

    As the population increases in age, the diseases of older age will have increasing prevalence and place a greater burden on the health system. Despite asthma being usually considered a disease of younger people, asthma mortality is currently greatest in the over 55 age-group. Symptoms and emergency presentations for health care due to asthma place a great burden on the quality of life of those over age 55 with asthma. Asthma in older people is under-diagnosed due to patient and physiological ...

  12. Musculoskeletal Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Frances J; Kawcak, Christopher E

    2015-08-01

    The current understanding of pathology as it relates to common diseases of the equine musculoskeletal system is reviewed. Conditions are organized under the fundamental categories of developmental, exercise-induced, infectious, and miscellaneous pathology. The overview of developmental pathology incorporates the new classification system of juvenile osteochondral conditions. Discussion of exercise-induced pathology emphasizes increased understanding of the contribution of cumulative microdamage caused by repetitive cyclic loading. Miscellaneous musculoskeletal pathology focuses on laminitis, which current knowledge indicates should be regarded as a clinical syndrome with a variety of possible distinct mechanisms of structural failure that are outlined in this overview. PMID:26037607

  13. Asthma and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatti, Rani Reddy; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2012-08-01

    Asthma is probably the most common serious medical disorder that may complicate pregnancy. A third of pregnant women with asthma will experience worsening of their symptoms, a third will see improvement of their symptoms and a third will see no change. The primary goal is to maintain optimal control of asthma for maternal health and well-being as well as fetal maturation. Vital patient education should cover the use of controller medication, avoidance of asthma triggers and early treatment of asthma exacerbations. Proper asthma management should ideally be started in the preconception period. Since smoking is probably the most modifiable risk factor of asthma, pregnant woman should avoid active and passive smoking. Acute asthma exacerbation during the first trimester is associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations. Poorly controlled asthma is associated with low birth weight, preeclampsia, and preterm birth. Medications used for asthma control in the non-pregnant population are generally the same in pregnancy with a few exceptions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the preferred controller therapy. Budesonide is the preferred ICS. Long-acting B-agonists (LABA) are the preferred add-on therapy to medium to high dose ICS. Major triggers for asthma exacerbations during pregnancy are viral infections and ICS nonadherence. PMID:21858482

  14. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Diamant, Zuzana; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant impact on asthma incidence and manifestations. The purpose of the review is to discuss recent observations regarding the association between obesity and asthma focusing on underlying mechanisms, clinical presentation, response to therapy and effect...... of weight reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obese patients with asthma may represent a unique phenotype, which is more difficult to control, less responsive to asthma medications and by that may have higher healthcare utilization. A number of common comorbidities...... have been linked to both obesity and asthma, and may, therefore, contribute to the obese-asthma phenotype. Furthermore, recently published studies indicate that even a modest weight reduction can improve clinical manifestations and outcome of asthma. SUMMARY: Compared with normal-weight patients, obese...

  15. Genomic and non-genomic actions of glucocorticoids in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Alangari Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the mainstay of asthma therapy. They are primarily used to suppress airway inflammation, which is the central pathological change in asthmatic patients′ airways. This is achieved by many different mechanisms. The classical mechanism is by suppression of the genetic transcription of many inflammatory cytokines that are key in asthma pathophysiology (transrepression). On the other hand, the transcription of certain inhibitory cytokines is activated by glucocorticoids ...

  16. Near Fatal Asthma: Clinical and Airway Biopsy Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Barbers, Richard G.; Papanikolaou, Ilias C.; Michael N. Koss; Ashish Patel ,; Elton Katagihara; Maggie Arenas; Khalid Chan; Azen, Colleen G.; Sharma, Om P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Inflammation and remodeling are integral parts of asthma pathophysiology. We sought to describe the clinical and pathologic features of near fatal asthma exacerbation (NFE). Methods. Bronchial biopsies were collected prospectively from NFE I subjects. Another NFE II group and a moderate severity exacerbation control group (ME II) were retrospectively identified—no biopsies obtained. Results. All NFE II ( = 9 ) subjects exhibited remodeling and significant inflammation (eosinophi...

  17. Inhibition of Asthma in OVA Sensitized Mice Model by a Traditional Uygur Herb Nepeta bracteata Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Wang; Feng-sen Li; Nan-nan Pang; Ge Tian; Min Jiang; Hong-ping Zhang; Jian-bing Ding

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic lung inflammation which affects many people. As current therapies for asthma mainly rely on administration of glucocorticoids and have many side effects, new therapy is needed. In this study, we investigated Nepeta bracteata Benth., a traditional Uygur Herb, for its therapeutics effect in OVA induced asthmatic mice model. Treatment of OVA sensitized asthma mice with extract from Nepeta bracteata Benth. demonstrated improved lung pathology, as well as reduced infiltration o...

  18. Handgrip strength test as a complementary tool in monitoring asthma in daily clinical practice in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ángel Latorre-Román

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate that handgrip strength test can discriminate the presence/absence of asthma and between intermittent and moderate persistent asthma in children. 140 children (70 healthy and 70 with asthma completed the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ and performed the handgrip strength test. Forty-eight hours later, subjects performed spirometry. The results showed Handgrip strength was significantly lower (p<0.001 in children with asthma compared with healthy ones. There were also significant differences (p= 0.024 according to the severity of the disease; children with moderate persistent asthma performed worse than children with intermittent asthma. Binary logistic regression analysis and ROC curve analysis revealed that the result in handgrip strength test was a predictive factor for asthma (cut-off at 16.84 kg and for severity of pathology (cut-off at 15.06 kg. Handgrip strength was reduced in children with asthma. Handgrip strength was positively associated with lung capacity and quality of life. The fact that the handgrip strength test was able to discriminate between presence/absence of asthma and between intermittent and moderate persistent asthma in children suggested that this test could be used as a complementary tool in the monitoring of asthma in daily clinical practice.

  19. Osler's pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, S A

    2000-12-01

    Sir William Osler, one of the giants of clinical medicine, had his initial training as a pathologist. He was one of the physicians responsible for the impact that autopsies have had on medicine. He also contributed to the development of laboratory medicine. Osler made significant discoveries in anatomic pathology and hematology. His expertise was restricted not just to human pathology, but also to veterinary pathology. His mentors played a fundamental role in his achievements in academics.

  20. Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS): current literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaiwannou, Antonis; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Spyratos, Dionysios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Pataka, Athanasia; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Arikas, Stamatis; Mpakas, Andreas; Tsiouda, Theodora; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Siminelakis, Stavros; Kolettas, Alexander; Kessis, George; Beleveslis, Thomas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are chronic diseases, very common in general population. These obstructive airway illnesses are manifested with chronic inflammation affecting the whole respiratory tract. Obstruction is usually intermittent and reversible in asthma, but is progressive and irreversible in COPD. Asthma and COPD may overlap and converge, especially in older people [overlap syndrome—asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS)]. Although ACOS accounts approximately 15-25% of the obstructive airway diseases, is not well recognised because of the structure of clinical trials. COPD studies exclude asthma patients and asthma studies exclude COPD patients, respectively. It is crucial to define asthma, COPD and overlap syndrome (ACOS), as notable clinical entities, which they share common pathologic and functional features, but they are characterized from differences in lung function, acute exacerbations, quality of life, hospital impact and mortality. PMID:24672688

  1. Asthma & Physical Activity in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some students experience asthma symptoms only when they exercise. Asthma varies from student to student and often from ... activities and other regular school activities. Table 1: BENEFITS OF ASTHMA CONTROL With good asthma management, students with asthma ...

  2. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I ...

  3. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I ...

  4. Examining the association between childhood asthma and parent and grandparent asthma status: Implications for Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Valerio, Melissa A.; Andreski, Patricia M.; Schoeni, Robert F.; McGonagle, Katherine A.

    2010-01-01

    Examination of intergenerational asthma beyond maternal asthma has been limited. The association between childhood asthma and intergenerational asthma status among a national cohort of children was examined.

  5. Asthma and Therapeutics: Recombinant Therapies in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Cockcroft Donald W

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Numerous recombinant therapies are being investigated for the treatment of asthma. This report reviews the current status of several of these novel agents. Anti-immunoglobulin (Ig)E (omalizumab, Xolair) markedly inhibits all aspects of the allergen challenge in subjects who have reduction of free serum IgE to undetectable levels. Several clinical studies in atopic asthma have demonstrated benefit by improved symptoms and lung function and a reduction in corticosteroid requirements. E...

  6. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant negative impact on asthma control and risk of exacerbations. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies evaluating the effects of weight reduction on asthma control in obese adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies have shown that weight...... reduction in obese patients is associated with improvements in symptoms, use of controller medication, and asthma-related quality of life together with a reduction in the risk for severe exacerbations. Furthermore, several studies have also revealed improvements in lung function and airway responsiveness...... reduction in obese adults with asthma leads to an overall improvement in asthma control, including airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Weight reduction should be a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with asthma....

  7. Psychological aspects of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Paul; Feldman, Jonathan; Giardino, Nicholas; Song, Hye-Sue; Schmaling, Karen

    2002-06-01

    Asthma can be affected by stress, anxiety, sadness, and suggestion, as well as by environmental irritants or allergens, exercise, and infection. It also is associated with an elevated prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders. Asthma and these psychological states and traits may mutually potentiate each other through direct psychophysiological mediation, nonadherence to medical regimen, exposure to asthma triggers, and inaccuracy of asthma symptom perception. Defensiveness is associated with inaccurate perception of airway resistance and stress-related bronchoconstriction. Asthma education programs that teach about the nature of the disease, medications, and trigger avoidance tend to reduce asthma morbidity. Other promising psychological interventions as adjuncts to medical treatment include training in symptom perception, stress management, hypnosis, yoga, and several biofeedback procedures. PMID:12090377

  8. Monitoring asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C. Lødrup Carlsen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. However, to date there is limited evidence on how to monitor patients with asthma. Childhood asthma introduces specific challenges in terms of deciding what, when, how often, by whom and in whom different assessments of asthma should be performed. The age of the child, the fluctuating course of asthma severity, variability in clinical presentation, exacerbations, comorbidities, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and environmental exposures may all influence disease activity and, hence, monitoring strategies. These factors will be addressed in herein. We identified large knowledge gaps in the effects of different monitoring strategies in children with asthma. Studies into monitoring strategies are urgently needed, preferably in collaborative paediatric studies across countries and healthcare systems.

  9. Basic mechanisms of asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Boushey, H A; Fahy, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    Results of studies of the epidemiology, physiology, histopathology, and cell biology of asthma have revised our conception of the disease. Epidemiologic studies have shown asthma to be an important cause of death, suffering, and economic hardship. Physiologic studies have shown that asthma is a chronic illness characterized by persistent bronchial hyperreactivity. Histopathologic studies have shown characteristic changes: epithelial damage, deposition of collagen beneath the basement membrane...

  10. Ketotifen and nocturnal asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Catterall, J R; Calverley, P M; Power, J T; Shapiro, C M; Douglas, N J; Flenley, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    Patients with asthma often wheeze at night and they also become hypoxic during sleep. To determine whether ketotifen, a drug with sedative properties, is safe for use at night in patients with asthma, we performed a double blind crossover study comparing the effects of a single 1 mg dose of ketotifen and of placebo on arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), breathing patterns, electroencephalographic (EEG) sleep stage, and overnight change in FEV1 in 10 patients with stable asthma. After taking ke...

  11. Epidemiological Trends in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Malcolm R

    1996-01-01

    Many markers of asthma morbidity have shown substantial increases over the past two decades, including family physician visits, use of anti-asthma medications, emergency room visits and hospital admissions. The reported prevalence of diagnosed asthma and of wheezing has increased, especially in children, with accompanying evidence of increased atopy and increased airway responsiveness. Allergen exposure and parental smoking are significant risk factors for childhood wheezing, whereas the infl...

  12. Asthma: Basic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physicians' office Health care providers - Medical clinics/physicians' office Health care providers - Other Parents - Home Case Studies Open Airways for Schools Asthma Care Training Wee Wheezers ...

  13. Asthma in Olympians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

    2016-01-01

    High prevalence of asthma has been reported repeatedly among elite athletes, especially among endurance athletes. So many athletes used asthma drugs that the objective demonstration of bronchial hyperresponsiveness was required to obtain approval for their use in international sports until 2012 when the most used inhaled asthma drugs was allowed for free use, but with a maximum dose for inhaled β2-agonists. Several factors contribute to the development of asthma among the Olympians causing airways inflammation and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. PMID:26631837

  14. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf;

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....

  15. Pharmacogenomics of pediatric asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Sarika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Asthma is a complex disease with multiple genetic and environmental factors contributing to it. A component of this complexity is a highly variable response to pharmacological therapy. Pharmacogenomics is the study of the role of genetic determinants in the variable response to therapy. A number of examples of possible pharmacogenomic approaches that may prove of value in the management of asthma are discussed below. Evidence Acquisition: A search of PubMed, Google scholar, E-Medicine, BMJ and Mbase was done using the key words "pharmacogenomics of asthma", "pharmacogenomics of β-agonist, glucocorticoids, leukotriene modifiers, theophylline, muscarinic antagonists in asthma". Results: Presently, there are limited examples of gene polymorphism that can influence response to asthma therapy. Polymorphisms that alter response to asthma therapy include Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu, Thr164Ile for β-agonist receptor, polymorphism of glucocorticoid receptor gene, CRHR1 variants and polymorphism of LTC4S, ALOX5. Polymorphic variants of muscarinic receptors, PDE4 and CYP450 gene variants. Conclusion: It was concluded that genetic variation can improve the response to asthma therapy. However, no gene polymorphism has been associated with consistent results in different populations. Therefore, asthma pharmacogenomic studies in different populations with a large number of subjects are required to make possible tailoring the asthma therapy according to the genetic characteristic of individual patient.

  16. Biomarkers in Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiao Chloe; Woodruff, Prescott G

    2016-08-01

    Biomarkers have been critical for studies of disease pathogenesis and the development of new therapies in severe asthma. In particular, biomarkers of type 2 inflammation have proven valuable for endotyping and targeting new biological agents. Because of these successes in understanding and marking type 2 inflammation, lack of knowledge regarding non-type 2 inflammatory mechanisms in asthma will soon be the major obstacle to the development of new treatments and management strategies in severe asthma. Biomarkers can play a role in these investigations as well by providing insight into the underlying biology in human studies of patients with severe asthma. PMID:27401625

  17. Nutrition and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase in the asthma prevalence in many countries over the recent decades, highlights the need for a greater understanding of the risk factors for asthma. Be-cause asthma is the result of interaction between genetic and environmental fac-tors, increasing prevalence is certainly the result of changes in environmental fac-tors because of process of wesernization. That is the reason for higher prevalence in countries where a traditional to a westernized lifestyle occurred earlier. This increasing prevalence has affected both rural and urban communities, suggesting that local environmental factors such as exposure to allergens or industrial air pol-lutions are not the sole cause. In the last few years, nutrition has represented an important conditioning factor of many cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and chronic pulmonary diseases. So it has been hypothesized that dietary constituents influence the immune system and thus, may also be actively involved in the onset of asthma and other allergic diseases. Dietary constituents can play beneficial as well as det-rimental role in asthma. The possible role of diet in the development of asthma can be described as follows: first, a food allergen can cause asthma. Second, there is role of breast-feeding for prevention of asthma later in life. Third, a low intake of antioxidative dietary constituents might be a risk factor for asthma. Moreover, role of cations such as sodium, potassium and magnesium has been described in development of asthma. Finally, intake of fatty acids specially the role of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids play important role in cause of asthma.

  18. Asthma and Therapeutics: Recombinant Therapies in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cockcroft Donald W

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerous recombinant therapies are being investigated for the treatment of asthma. This report reviews the current status of several of these novel agents. Anti-immunoglobulin (IgE (omalizumab, Xolair markedly inhibits all aspects of the allergen challenge in subjects who have reduction of free serum IgE to undetectable levels. Several clinical studies in atopic asthma have demonstrated benefit by improved symptoms and lung function and a reduction in corticosteroid requirements. Early use in atopic asthmatics may be even more effective. Several approaches target interleukin (IL-4. Soluble IL-4 receptor has been shown to effectively replace inhaled corticosteroid; further studies are under way. Recombinant anti-IL-5 and recombinant IL-12 inhibit blood and sputum eosinophils and allergen-induced eosinophilia without any effect on airway responsiveness, allergen-induced airway responses, or allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Efalizumab, a recombinant antibody that inhibits lymphocyte trafficking, is effective in psoriasis. A bronchoprovocation study showed a reduction in allergen-induced late asthmatic response and allergen-induced eosinophilia, which suggests that it should be effective in clinical asthma. These exciting novel therapies provide not only promise of new therapies for asthma but also valuable tools for investigation of asthma mechanisms.

  19. So You Have Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the night every night or competing in the Olympics. In other words, you should be able to live a normal active life! The following list shows what your life could be like if your asthma were controlled: As a rule, you should have: • Few, if any, asthma symptoms • ...

  20. Asthma in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Benedictis, Fernando Maria; Attanasi, Marina

    2016-03-01

    Several topics on childhood asthma were addressed in the Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session at the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress. With regard to the relationship between lower respiratory tract infections and asthma, it emerges that is the number of respiratory episodes in the first years of life, but not the particular viral trigger, to be associated with later asthma development. Understanding which characteristics of individual patients are associated with an increased risk for asthma exacerbation is a critical step to implement strategies preventing these seasonal events. Recent data suggest the possibility that exhaled volatile organic compounds may qualify as biomarkers in detecting early signs of asthma. Adding information of exhaled volatile organic compounds and expression of inflammation genes to a clinical tool significantly improves asthma prediction in preschool wheezy children. Personal communication with children and adolescents is likely more important than the tools actually used for monitoring asthma. Systemic corticosteroids do not affect the long-term prognosis in children with first viral-induced wheezing episode and should be used cautiously during acute episodes. Finally, stress and a polymorphism upstream of a specific gene are both associated with reduced bronchodilator response in children with asthma.

  1. Asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Maria de Benedictis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several topics on childhood asthma were addressed in the Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session at the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress. With regard to the relationship between lower respiratory tract infections and asthma, it emerges that is the number of respiratory episodes in the first years of life, but not the particular viral trigger, to be associated with later asthma development. Understanding which characteristics of individual patients are associated with an increased risk for asthma exacerbation is a critical step to implement strategies preventing these seasonal events. Recent data suggest the possibility that exhaled volatile organic compounds may qualify as biomarkers in detecting early signs of asthma. Adding information of exhaled volatile organic compounds and expression of inflammation genes to a clinical tool significantly improves asthma prediction in preschool wheezy children. Personal communication with children and adolescents is likely more important than the tools actually used for monitoring asthma. Systemic corticosteroids do not affect the long-term prognosis in children with first viral-induced wheezing episode and should be used cautiously during acute episodes. Finally, stress and a polymorphism upstream of a specific gene are both associated with reduced bronchodilator response in children with asthma.

  2. What Is Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that it is a combination of your family history and your environment. There is no cure for asthma. Once you ... administrators with information, education and resources to incorporate environmental management into clinical practices and standards of care for asthma patients. Top ...

  3. Advances in Pediatric Asthma in 2013: Coordinating Asthma Care

    OpenAIRE

    Szefler, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    Last year’s Advances in Pediatric Asthma: Moving Toward Asthma Prevention concluded that: “We are well on our way to creating a pathway around wellness in asthma care and also to utilize new tools to predict the risk for asthma and take steps to not only prevent asthma exacerbations but also to prevent the early manifestations of the disease and thus prevent its evolution to severe asthma.” This year’s summary will focus on recent advances in pediatric asthma on pre- and postnatal factors alt...

  4. Fertility outcomes in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend;

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is increasing of an association between asthma and aspects of female reproduction. However, current knowledge is limited and furthermore relies on questionnaire studies or small populations. In a prospective observational cohort study to investigate whether time to pregnancy, the number...... of fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...

  5. [Distinguishing asthma from COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Kouhei; Samukawa, Takuya; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2016-05-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are major public health burdens. Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation, airway narrowing with reversibility, and hyperresponsiveness of airways. COPD has been associated with smoking and exposure to environmental fumes, which typically characterized by persistent airflow limitation and chronic inflammation of the airways. These differences are most apparent when young non-smoker with asthma and older smokers with COPD are compared. However, it would be difficult to differentiate asthma from COPD, especially in elderly who currently smoke or have a significant history of smoking. Furthermore, some patients exhibit characteristics of both diseases, this may represent a phenotype known as asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). Therefore, the precise understanding of these diseases is important.

  6. Factors associated with asthma control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M.P. de; Bemt, E.A.J.M. van den; Lince, S.; Muris, J.W.M.; Thoonen, B.P.A.; Schayck, C.P. van

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate which factors are associated with asthma control experienced by asthma patients. In a cross-sectional study patients aged 16-60 years with mild to moderate asthma were selected. The influence of the following factors on asthma control was studied in a multivaria

  7. Asthma control: Patient and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.H.M. Rijssenbeek-Nouwens

    2015-01-01

    Control of asthma, the goal of asthma treatment, seems hard to obtain. However, it is largely unknown why control of asthma remains difficult in many patients in spite of available powerful medication. In this thesis we studied non-pharmacological factors influencing asthma control: patient related

  8. Old dilemma: asthma with irreversible airway obstruction or COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Fatemeh; Vonk, Judith M; Bulkmans, Nicole; Fleischeuer, Ruth; Gouw, Annette; Grünberg, Katrien; Mauad, Thais; Popper, Helmut; Felipe-Silva, Aloisio; Vrugt, Bart; Wright, Joanne L; Yang, Hui-Min; Kocks, Janwillem W H; Hylkema, Machteld N; Postma, Dirkje S; Timens, Wim; Ten Hacken, Nick H T

    2015-11-01

    Older asthmatic patients may develop fixed airway obstruction and clinical signs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated the added value of pathological evaluation of bronchial biopsies to help differentiate asthma from COPD, taking into account smoking, age, and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use. Asthma and COPD patients (24 of each category) were matched for ICS use, age, FEV(1), and smoking habits. Five pulmonary and five general pathologists examined bronchial biopsies using an interactive website, without knowing patient information. They were asked to diagnose asthma or COPD on biopsy findings in both a pairwise and randomly mixed order of cases during four different phases, with intervals of 4-6 weeks, covering a maximal period of 36 weeks. Clinically concordant diagnoses of asthma or COPD varied between 63 %-73 %, without important differences between pairwise vs randomly mixed examination or between general vs pulmonary pathologists. The highest percentage of concordant diagnoses was in young asthmatic patients without ICS use and in COPD patients with ICS use. In non ICS users with fixed airway obstruction, a COPD diagnosis was favored if abnormal presence of glands, squamous metaplasia, and submucosal infiltrate was present and an asthma diagnosis in case of abnormal presence of goblet cells. In ICS users with fixed airway obstruction, abnormal presence of submucosal infiltrates, basement membrane thickening, eosinophils, and glands was associated with asthma. Histological characteristics in bronchial biopsies are reproducibly recognized by pathologists, yet the differentiation by histopathology between asthma and COPD is difficult without information about ICS use.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Dimethylfumarate: A Potential New Therapy for Asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Seidel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, which results from the deregulated interaction of inflammatory cells and tissue forming cells. Beside the derangement of the epithelial cell layer, the most prominent tissue pathology of the asthmatic lung is the hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC bundles, which actively contributes to airway inflammation and remodeling. ASMCs of asthma patients secrete proinflammatory chemokines CXCL10, CCL11, and RANTES which attract immune cells into the airways and may thereby initiate inflammation. None of the available asthma drugs cures the disease—only symptoms are controlled. Dimethylfumarate (DMF is used as an anti-inflammatory drug in psoriasis and showed promising results in phase III clinical studies in multiple sclerosis patients. In regard to asthma therapy, DMF has been anecdotally reported to reduce asthma symptoms in patients with psoriasis and asthma. Here we discuss the potential use of DMF as a novel therapy in asthma on the basis of in vitro studies of its inhibitory effect on ASMC proliferation and cytokine secretion in ASMCs.

  10. [Common and inductors factors of inflammation in asthma and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Robledo, Gloria Bertha; Huerta-Gutiérrez de Velasco, Rodrigo; Rico-Rosillo, Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of asthma and obesity is increasing, therefore they have been classified as public health problems; epidemiology suggests a link between these diseases. It has been detected a relationship between the body mass index and lung function, moreover some works show a direct correlation between the aforementioned index and severity of asthma. By a search for articles in indexed journals from medical databases with the key words asthma and obesity: pathogenesis, inflammation, adipokines, hypoxia, nutrition, pregnancy, this paper deeps in the knowledge about basic elements that offer an asthma and obesity link. It was found that the association between body mass index and asthma is more frequent in women. Asthma and obesity might be influenced by genetic elements and fetal programming; at the same time obesity could influence asthma by several mechanisms such as inflammation, hormones and mechanical respiratory dysfunction. The existing coincidence between several inducers and factors which exacerbate these diseases as well as in some molecular routes shows a potential relation between both pathological entities.

  11. [Common and inductors factors of inflammation in asthma and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Robledo, Gloria Bertha; Huerta-Gutiérrez de Velasco, Rodrigo; Rico-Rosillo, Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of asthma and obesity is increasing, therefore they have been classified as public health problems; epidemiology suggests a link between these diseases. It has been detected a relationship between the body mass index and lung function, moreover some works show a direct correlation between the aforementioned index and severity of asthma. By a search for articles in indexed journals from medical databases with the key words asthma and obesity: pathogenesis, inflammation, adipokines, hypoxia, nutrition, pregnancy, this paper deeps in the knowledge about basic elements that offer an asthma and obesity link. It was found that the association between body mass index and asthma is more frequent in women. Asthma and obesity might be influenced by genetic elements and fetal programming; at the same time obesity could influence asthma by several mechanisms such as inflammation, hormones and mechanical respiratory dysfunction. The existing coincidence between several inducers and factors which exacerbate these diseases as well as in some molecular routes shows a potential relation between both pathological entities. PMID:26943829

  12. [Exacerbations of asthma--precipitating factors: drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfiorenzo, C; Pipet, A

    2011-10-01

    Asthmatic exacerbations are sometimes triggered by medications, primarily the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDS) and beta-blockers. Asthma attacks induced by NSAIDS occur rapidly and can be severe. Widal syndrome is a specific disease entity whose physiopathology remains incompletely explained. Asthma is characteristically severe and steroid dependent; desensitisation with aspirin has been proposed, but this remains controversial. Beta-blockers are contra-indicated in asthma; the β1 "cardioselectivity" of some agents is not absolute, disappearing at high doses and the "partial agonists" are not better tolerated. However, certain authors have called into question the harmful effect of beta-blockade in moderate and stable asthma. More studies are needed, but the current data suggest that in some cases beta-blockers may be safe but their use requires close supervision. Other molecules can pose problems in asthmatics (dipyridamole, synthetic sex hormones and certain excipients). On the whole, there has been little innovation concerning the hazard that drugs can pose for some asthmatics. The task for the future will be to specify the physiopathology of Widal syndrome, and to clarify the categories of patients in whom beta-blockers can be safely employed as the public health consequences of cardiovascular pathologies make this an important issue for lung specialists.

  13. The Significance of Asthma Follow-Up Consultations for Adherence to Asthma Medication, Asthma Medication Beliefs, and Asthma Control

    OpenAIRE

    Malin Axelsson; Linda Ekerljung; Bo Lundbäck

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate adherence to asthma medication treatment, medication beliefs, and asthma control in relation to asthma follow-up consultations in asthmatics in the general population. A further aim was to describe associations between adherence, medication beliefs, and asthma control. Method. In the population-based West Sweden Asthma Study, data allowing calculation of adherence for 4.5 years based on pharmacy records were obtained from 165 adult asthmatics. Additional ...

  14. Children with Asthma and Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Selda Yuzer; Sevinc Polat

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to the...

  15. Screening for asthma in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A.

    1994-01-01

    The primary health care team is at the forefront of asthma management and there is evidence of improved delivery of care via nurse run, audited, general practice clinics. However, hospital admissions for asthma continue to rise. Screening for childhood asthma would appear to have advantages for patient care. This review looks critically at the literature that addresses important issues in screening for childhood asthma, including the problem of defining asthma, its prevalence rate and the imp...

  16. Obstructive sleep apnea and asthma*

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Salles; Regina Terse-Ramos; Adelmir Souza-Machado; Cruz, Alvaro A

    2013-01-01

    Symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), are common in asthma patients and have been associated with asthma severity. It is known that asthma symptoms tend to be more severe at night and that asthma-related deaths are most likely to occur during the night or early morning. Nocturnal symptoms occur in 60-74% of asthma patients and are markers of inadequate control of the disease. Various pathophysiological mechanisms are related to the worseni...

  17. Tobaksrygning og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients with ast......Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients...... with asthma. Substantial evidence suggests that smoking affects asthma adversely. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, especially maternal smoking in children, may be a significant risk factor for asthma. Such exposure in patients with established asthma is not only associated with more severe symptoms......, but also with a poorer quality of life, reduced lung function, and increased utilisation of health care including hospital admissions. Active smoking does not appear to be a significant risk factor for asthma, but is associated with a worse outcome with regard to both longitudinal changes in lung function...

  18. Asthma in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Hem, Erlend; Stensrud, Trine

    2011-12-01

    Athletes active in endurance sports are at an increased risk of acquiring asthma through their sports activities, especially so for cross-country skiers, biathlon skiers, swimmers and athletes of other endurance sports. Asthma may be present from early childhood or develop while in active sports. This article focuses on the physical activity and sports activities in children and adolescents. Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is found in 8-10% of a normal child population of school age and in about 35% of children with current asthma. EIA is caused by the markedly increased ventilation during exercise, with increased heat and water loss through respiration, leading to bronchial constriction. The risk of developing asthma in the young athlete is related to the repeated daily training activity with increased epithelial damage of the airways, delayed repair due to the daily repetition of the training and increased airway mucosal inflammation. The increased environmental exposure through the sports activity to environmental agents, such as cold, dry air in skiers and chlorine compounds in swimmers, increases symptoms and signs of asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness, either worsening an existing asthma or leading to a novel disease in a previously healthy athlete. Several specific aspects of daily training life, environmental exposure, diagnostic procedures and aspects of treatment related to the regulations of medication use in sports need particular attention when addressing the adolescent athlete with respiratory symptoms.

  19. Digital pathology

    CERN Document Server

    Sucaet, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Digital pathology has experienced exponential growth, in terms of its technology and applications, since its inception just over a decade ago. Though it has yet to be approved for primary diagnostics, its values as a teaching tool, facilitator of second opinions and quality assurance reviews and research are becoming, if not already, undeniable. It also offers the hope of providing pathology consultant and educational services to under-served areas, including regions of the world that could not possibly sustain this level of services otherwise. And this is just the beginning, as its adoption b

  20. Eosinophilic Endotype of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Fernando; Lim, Hui Fang; Nair, Parameswaran

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical endotypes, depending on the type of airway inflammation, clinical severity, and response to treatment. This article focuses on the eosinophilic endotype of asthma, which is defined by the central role that eosinophils play in the pathophysiology of the condition. It is characterized by elevated sputum and/or blood eosinophils on at least 2 occasions and by a significant response to treatments that suppress eosinophilia. Histopathologic demonstration of eosinophils in the airways provides the most direct diagnosis of eosinophilic asthma; but it is invasive, thus, impractical in clinical practice. PMID:27401626

  1. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children ...

  2. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do ...

  3. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Breathing Easier [PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know ... Breathing Easier [PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File ...

  4. TCM Differential Treatment of Cough Variant Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong-de; DENG Yi-qi; ZHANG Yu; HAN Yun; LIN Lin; CHAO En-xiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cough variant asthma (CVA), also called latent asthma or cough asthma, is a special type of asthma. With gradually deepened understanding of CVA in recent years, good curative effect has been achieved in TCM treatment of CVA.

  5. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to ... PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: ...

  6. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Start ... Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma- ...

  7. Asthma Research: The NIH–NJRC Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... early life exposures to allergens may help protect children from asthma. Some of NJRC's most important research addresses the ... story. ) In pediatric asthma, doctors are studying and treating the progression of asthma, infant wheezing that leads to asthma, and severe ...

  8. Risk for asthma in offspring of asthmatic mothers versus fathers: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many human epidemiologic studies demonstrate that maternal asthma confers greater risk of asthma to offspring than does paternal disease. However, a handful have shown the opposite. Given this disparity, a meta-analysis is necessary to determine the veracity and magnitude of the "maternal effect." METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened the medical literature from 1966 to 2009 and performed a meta-analysis to compare the effect of maternal asthma vs. paternal asthma on offspring asthma susceptibility. Aggregating data from 33 studies, the odds ratio for asthma in children of asthmatic mothers compared with non-asthmatic mothers was significantly increased at 3.04 (95% confidence interval: 2.59-3.56. The corresponding odds ratio for asthma in children of asthmatic fathers was increased at 2.44 (2.14-2.79. When comparing the odds ratios, maternal asthma conferred greater risk of disease than did paternal asthma (3.04 vs. 2.44, p = 0.037. When analyzing the studies in which asthma was diagnosed by a physician the odds ratios were attenuated and no significant differences were observed (2.85 vs. 2.48, N = 18, p = 0.37. Similarly, no significant differences were observed between maternal and paternal odds ratios when analyzing the studies in which the patient population was 5 years or older (3.15 vs. 2.60, p = 0.14. However, in all cases the trend remained the same, that maternal asthma was a greater risk factor for asthma than paternal. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results show that maternal asthma increases offspring disease risk to a greater extent than paternal disease.

  9. Precipitating factors of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H

    1992-01-01

    Asthma is characterised by bronchial hyperresponsiveness. This feature of the asthmatic diathesis predisposes patients to wheezing in response to a number of different factors. These precipitating factors include specific allergen acting via sensitised mediator cells through an IgE-dependent mechanism. There are irritants which may work through a non-specific manner, or stimuli such as exercise and hyperventilation, which probably also act through mediator release via a non-IgE-dependent manner. The mechanism whereby physical stimuli such as exercise induce bronchoconstriction is of interest, because it increases the context in which the mast cell may participate in acute asthmatic bronchoconstriction. Respiratory infections also commonly provoke asthma, especially in infants and may, indeed, precipitate the asthmatic state itself. Finally, drugs can often trigger asthma attacks and the mechanisms of asthma precipitated by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin have been the subject of recent research.

  10. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  11. Zoneterapi og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, Thor; Heinig, John Hilligsøe; Collins, Philippa;

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Many patients with asthma seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology. Our aim was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten weeks of either active or simulated (placebo) reflexology were...... compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 40 patients with asthma. RESULTS: Objective lung function tests did not change. Subjective scores and bronchial sensitivity to histamine improved on both regimens, but no differences were found in the groups receiving active or placebo reflexology....... However, a trend in favour of reflexology became significant when a supplementary analysis of symptom diaries was carried out. At the same time a significant pattern compatible with subconscious un-blinding was found. DISCUSSION: We found no evidence that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond...

  12. Reflexology and bronchial asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, T; Heinig, J H; Collins, P;

    2001-01-01

    Many asthma patients seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology, whereby finger pressure is applied to certain parts of the body. The aim of the study was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. Ten weeks of active...... or simulated (placebo) reflexology given by an experienced reflexologist, were compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 20+20 outpatients with asthma. Objective lung function tests (peak flow morning and evening, and weekly spirometry at the clinic) did not change. Subjective scores (describing...... diaries was carried out. It was accompanied by a significant pattern compatible with subconscious unblinding, in that patients tended to guess which treatment they had been receiving. No evidence was found that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond placebo influence....

  13. Interleukin-16 in asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jing-min; SHI Huan-zhong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that is characterized by lymphocyte, eosinophil, and mast cell infiltration of the submucosa along with mucous gland hyperplasia and subepithelial fibrosis.

  14. Exercise and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... conducting a physical examination and performing a breathing test called spirometry. If your breathing test shows that ...

  15. Exercise-induced asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheezing - exercise-induced; Reactive airway disease - exercise ... Having asthma symptoms when you exercise does not mean you cannot or should not exercise. But be aware of your EIA triggers. Cold or dry air may ...

  16. Japanese Guideline for Adult Asthma 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Ohta; Masakazu Ichinose; Hiroyuki Nagase; Masao Yamaguchi; Hisatoshi Sugiura; Yuji Tohda; Kohei Yamauchi; Mitsuru Adachi; Kazuo Akiyama

    2014-01-01

    Adult bronchial asthma (hereinafter, asthma) is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, reversible airway narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling to cause intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased, and that of patients who die from asthma has decreased (1.5 per 100,000 patients in 2012). The aim of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to lead a normal life without any symptoms. A good relationship...

  17. Pharmacotherapy of severe asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Firszt, Rafael; Kraft, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Severe asthma is a complex and heterogeneous phenotype where management can be challenging. While many patients with severe asthma respond to high-dose inhaled corticosteroids in combination with a long-acting β-agonist, there remains a significant subset of patients that require oral corticosteroids to control symptoms. Alternative therapies are needed to help reduce the need for continuous oral corticosteroids; however, there are currently very few effective options. Several new alternative...

  18. Relvar Ellipta for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    ▼Relvar Ellipta (GSK) is a dry powder inhaler that contains a corticosteroid (fluticasone furoate) and a long-acting beta2 agonist (vilanterol trifenatate). It is licensed for once-daily use as maintenance therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. In a previous article we considered its use in the management of COPD.1 Here we review the evidence for Relvar Ellipta in the treatment of patients with asthma.

  19. [Clinical pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Jovan

    2006-05-01

    This work describes the basic elements of pathology used in clinical practice. Pathology plays an important role in clinical and scientific work, but only a few areas of pathology will be covered. Although the contribution of oncological and surgical pathology to therapy is the most well known, the cases chosen here will involve infectious pathology, diseases of the kidney and the liver, autoimmune diseases, as well as organ transplantation. Especially important is the description of methods that enable more accurate morphological diagnoses, such as histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and electronic microscopy. Previous experience and joint work with clinical doctors have enabled the definition of significant morphological elements as well as of essential methods of pathohistological diagnosis. Besides, as is often the case, although disease symptoms are difficult to discern and biochemical results do not show significant changes compared to normal values, the results of biopsy come as a surprise to clinical doctors. For example, in virus hepatitis B involving so-called asymptomatic HBsAg carriers, we discovered every morphological form of hepatitis, from minimal lesions to chronic, persistent, and active hepatitis. With hepatitis C, certain morphological lesions point to the etiopathogenesis of this disease and thus help to confirm the diagnosis and to instigate therapy on time. Another significant experience involves kidney biopsies in cases when clinical findings are asymptomatic. Often, in such cases, morphological findings point to glomerulonephritis and glomerulopathy at different stages. Timely and subtle morphological diagnostics offer a more precise explanation for the pathological injury of tissues than other diagnostic methods. In this way, by adopting new methods, the work of pathologists is included more and more in everyday clinical practice. The inclusion of pathologists in a transplantation team makes sure a proper selection of

  20. [Asthma, obesity and diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, P; Delgado, J; Gallego, L T; Bobolea, I; Pedrosa, Ma; García de Lorenzo, A; Quirce, S

    2012-01-01

    Asthma and obesity have a considerable impact on public health and their prevalence has increased in recent years. Numerous studies have linked both disorders. Most prospective studies show that obesity is a risk factor for asthma and have found a positive correlation between baseline body mass index (BMI) and the subsequent development of asthma, although these results are not conclusive when studying the association between airway hyperresponsiveness with BMI. Furthermore, several studies suggest that whereas weight gain increases the risk of asthma, weight loss improves the course of the illness. Different factors could explain this association. Obesity is capable of reducing pulmonary compliance, lung volumes and the diameter of peripheral respiratory airways as well as affecting the volume of blood in the lungs and the ventilation-perfusion relationship. Furthermore, the increase in the normal functioning of adipose tissue in obese subjects leads to a systemic proinflammatory state, which produces a rise in the serum concentrations of several cytokines, the soluble fractions of their receptors and chemokines. Many of these mediators are synthesized and secreted by cells from adipose tissue and receive the generic name of adipokines, including IL-6, IL-10, eotaxin, TNF-α, TGF- 1, PCR, leptin y adiponectin. Finally, specific regions of the human genome which are related to both asthma and obesity have been identified. Most studies point out that obesity is capable of increasing the prevalence and incidence of asthma, although this effect appears to be modest. The treatment of obese asthmatics must include a weight control program. PMID:22566313

  1. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children aged 5–17 Years Asthma Severity ... the Nation Fact Sheet State Data Profiles (2011) Work-related Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources ...

  2. Role of Asthma Education in the Management of Adult Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne Côté

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available When a patient is newly diagnosed as having asthma, he or she is often prescribed new medication without getting much information on the disease and its treatment. This article emphasizes the need to educate asthmatics. Asthma treatment should begin with a proper adjustment of the medication, allowing asthmatics to lead a normal life. All asthmatics should be shown how to use their inhalation device properly. They should he knowledgeable about the basic aspects of asthma, airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction, use or medication and early symptoms heralding an asthma attack. Environmental factors that may trigger an asthma attack should be explained. Patients should be able to self-monitor asthma using either symptom severity or a peak flow meter. Because asthma is an unpredictable disease, patients should have a self-action plan to implement when their asthma deteriorates.

  3. Domestic use of cleaning sprays and asthma activity in females. : Domestic cleaning sprays and asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Le Moual, Nicole; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Siroux, Valérie; Dumas, Orianne; Nadif, Rachel; Pin, Isabelle; Zock, Jean-Paul; Kauffmann, Francine

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to study the associations between the household use of cleaning sprays and asthma symptoms and control of asthma, in females from the Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA). Data were available for 683 females (mean age 44 yrs, 55% never smokers, 439 without asthma and 244 with current asthma). Both domestic exposures and asthma phenotypes (asthma symptom score, current asthma, poorly-controlled asthma (56%)) were evaluated as previously described in t...

  4. Influence of asthma definition on the asthma-obesity relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Cetlin Andrea; Gutierrez Manoel; Bettiol Heloísa; Barbieri Marco; Vianna Elcio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest an association between obesity and asthma in adults and children. Asthma diagnosis criteria are different among studies. The aim of this study was to test the influence of asthma definition on the asthma-obesity relationship. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis of 1922 men and women, subjects completed a translated questionnaire from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey and underwent spirometry and a bronchial challenge test. W...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... another allergic disorder, such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis) or food allergies. Asthma is sometimes part of ... the Symptoms of an Allergy? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease InfoSearch: Asthma Johns Hopkins Medicine: ...

  6. Precordial Catch Syndrome in Elite Swimmers With Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Don; Younger, Bradley R; Mansour, Heidi M; Strawbridge, Heather

    2016-02-01

    Precordial catch syndrome is a benign cause of chest pain in children and adolescents that remains underrecognized. Because of distinctive symptoms, precordial catch syndrome is not necessarily a diagnosis of exclusion. However, a detailed history eliciting diagnostic features is important, along with a physical examination excluding other pathologic disorders. We present the cases of 2 elite swimmers with asthma who had acute episodes of precordial catch syndrome, one associated with an acute asthma exacerbation and one not, while swimming during competitive swim meets that required rescue efforts for both and eventual evaluation in the emergency department. PMID:26835568

  7. The Asthma Cost in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano, Joan B; Zulfikar Habibullah; Al-Busaidi, Nasser H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates the direct costs of treating asthma in Oman. Methods: Asthma prevalence and unit cost estimates were based on results from a panel using the Delphi technique, and were appliedto the total Omani population aged 5 and older to obtain the number of people diagnosed with asthma. The estimates from the Delphi exercise were multiplied by the percentage of patients using government facilities to estimate the number of asthma patients managed in Oman. Treatment costs ...

  8. Asthma control: Patient and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bel, E.H.D.; Weersink, E.J.M.; Rijssenbeek-Nouwens, L.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Control of asthma, the goal of asthma treatment, seems hard to obtain. However, it is largely unknown why control of asthma remains difficult in many patients in spite of available powerful medication. In this thesis we studied non-pharmacological factors influencing asthma control: patient related factors, such as adherence and health status, as well as environmental related factors such as exposure to house dust mite allergen. Finally we studied the effect of a combination of these patient ...

  9. Asthma in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-06-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes have been shown to have a different distribution of airway inflammation and unequal response to bronchial provocative test. Elite athletes display signs of exercise-induced symptoms, for example, nonasthmatic inspiratory wheeze, vocal cord dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias, which could limit their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should be aware of the doping aspects. Systemic β2-agonist intake is strictly prohibited, whereas inhaled treatment is allowed in therapeutic doses when asthma is documented and dispensation has been granted when needed. PMID:21702657

  10. Rhinitis: a complication to asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J W; Thomsen, S F; Nolte, H;

    2010-01-01

    Asthma and rhinitis often co-occur, and this potentially increases the disease severity and impacts negatively on the quality of life. We studied disease severity, airway responsiveness, atopy, quality of life and treatment in subjects with both asthma and rhinitis compared to patients with asthma...

  11. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  12. Swimming pool-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, S; Vivaldo, T; Morelli, M; Carlucci, P; Zuccotti, G V

    2011-01-01

    A 13-year-old elite swimmer presented with wheezing after indoor swimming training. On the basis of her clinical history and the tests performed, exercise-induced asthma and mold-induced asthma were ruled out and a diagnosis of chlorine-induced asthma was made. PMID:21548454

  13. Asthma: where is it going?

    OpenAIRE

    D.S. Faffe

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by reversible airway obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway inflammation. Although our understanding of its pathophysiological mechanisms continues to evolve, the relative contributions of airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation are still debated. The first mechanism identified as important for asthma was bronchial hyperresponsiveness. In a second step, asthma was recognized also as an inflammatory disease, with chronic inflammation inducing structural...

  14. The effect of smoking cessation on airway inflammation in young asthma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Christian Grabow; Porsbjerg, C; Backer, V

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking has been shown to have several detrimental effects on asthma, including poor symptom control, attenuated treatment response and accelerated decline in lung function. In spite of this, smoking is at least as common among asthma patients as in the rest of the population. The agg......BACKGROUND: Smoking has been shown to have several detrimental effects on asthma, including poor symptom control, attenuated treatment response and accelerated decline in lung function. In spite of this, smoking is at least as common among asthma patients as in the rest of the population....... The aggravations of smoking on asthma may be caused by effects on airway inflammation, which has been found to be changed in asthmatic smokers. It is not known whether these smoking-induced airway inflammation changes are reversible after smoking cessation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess airway...... parameters. CONCLUSION: Smoking cessation improved asthma control, but the changes were not related to change in eosinophilic inflammation, and the reduction in neutrophils was small. Thus, airway inflammation with eosinophils and neutrophils may be less important drivers of asthma control in smokers than...

  15. Prolonged Treatment with Inhaled Corticosteroids does not Normalize High Activity of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Exhaled Breath Condensates of Children with Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Grzela, Katarzyna; Zagorska, Wioletta; Krejner, Alicja; Litwiniuk, Malgorzata; Zawadzka-Krajewska, Anna; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Kulus, Marek; Grzela, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The airway remodeling in asthma is associated with increased amount of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. High levels of MMP-9 were found in mucosal biopsies, sputum and in exhaled breath condensates (EBC) of asthma patients. However, there are no data concerning real in vivo activity. Inhaled corticosteroids are effective in asthma control, but it is unclear, whether they only attenuate inflammation, or also protect against progressive remodeling of respiratory tract. Therefore, the aim of th...

  16. Diagnostic tools assessing airway remodelling in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, L; Reche, M; Padial, M A; Valbuena, T; Pascual, C

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the lower airways characterised by the presence of airway inflammation, reversible airflow obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness and alterations on the normal structure of the airways, known as remodelling. Remodelling is characterised by the presence of metaplasia of mucous glands, thickening of the lamina reticularis, increased angiogenesis, subepithelial fibrosis and smooth muscle hypertrophy/hyperplasia. Several techniques are being optimised at present to achieve a suitable diagnosis for remodelling. Diagnostic tools could be divided into two groups, namely invasive and non-invasive methods. Invasive techniques bring us information about bronchial structural alterations, obtaining this information directly from pathological tissue, and permit measure histological modification placed in bronchi layers as well as inflammatory and fibrotic cell infiltration. Non-invasive techniques were developed to reduce invasive methods disadvantages and measure airway remodelling-related markers such as cytokines, inflammatory mediators and others. An exhaustive review of diagnostic tools used to analyse airway remodelling in asthma, including the most useful and usually employed methods, as well as the principal advantages and disadvantages of each of them, bring us concrete and summarised information about all techniques used to evaluate alterations on the structure of the airways. A deep knowledge of these diagnostic tools will make an early diagnosis of airway remodelling possible and, probably, early diagnosis will play an important role in the near future of asthma. PMID:22236733

  17. Atopic and Nonatopic Asthma in Children: two Different Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Lentze, PhD²

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the studies in the field of childhood asthma lie within the scope of allergy/atopic asthma; however, airway hyperresponsiveness is considered a marker of asthma, independent of the atopic status and should be regarded as a parallel pathological process that can lead to subsequent symptoms and clinical evidence of asthma in children, without the evidence of atopy. The aim of this study is to estimate the possible differences in clinical and lung functions, and the immunological status of children with atopic and nonatopic asthma phenotypes. In a prospective study design, 54 children (age 3-18 years in Germany were monitored via active surveillance, by twice-a-week phone calls. All the children were divided into two groups, based on their atopic status, clinical date and lung function tests. The first 27 patients had atopic asthma (AA, whereas the second set of 27 patients had nonatopic asthma (NA. All patients underwent IgE and RAST tests for the most common inhalant allergens, and a quantitative measurement of Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP by CAP-radioallergosorbent test-fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (UniCAP, Pharmacia Diagnostics, Germany. Further, the IgA, IgM, IgG subclasses, IL-6 and CRP levels in the serum were tested. The resultant data showed significant differences in the prevailing IgE level 317.5±58 g/l in AA versus 83±21 in NA. However, there was no significant distinction either in the ECP serum level in children with atopic and nonatopic asthma or in the IL-6 serum level. An unexpected result was the significant drop in the level of serum CRP in group NA – 0.68±0.37 g/l; while in group AA this result was 1.5±0.38 g/l. No significant differences were noted between the mean values of the IgM and IgG levels in patients of all groups; however, the IgG levels increased only in the children with nonatopic asthma. Our study did not reveal any type of immunoglobulin deficiency. The IgA level was relatively

  18. Traditional Therapies for Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Eileen; Hoyte, Flavia C L

    2016-08-01

    Severe asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease. The European Respiratory Society and American Thoracic Society guidelines define severe asthma for patients 6 years or older as "asthma which requires treatment with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids…plus a second controller or systemic corticosteroids to prevent it from becoming 'uncontrolled' or which remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy." This article reviews available traditional therapies, data behind their uses in severe asthma, and varying recommendations. As various asthma endotypes and phenotypes are better understood and characterized, targeted therapies should help improve disease outcomes, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:27401628

  19. Salmeterol in paediatric asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Byrnes, C; Shrewsbury, S.; Barnes, P; Bush, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The addition of long acting inhaled β2 agonists is recommended at step 3 of the British guidelines on asthma management but a recent study suggested no additional benefit in children with asthma.
METHODS—The aim of this study was to compare, in a double blind, three way, crossover study, the effects of the addition of salmeterol 50 µg bd, salmeterol 100 µg bd, and salbutamol 200 µg qds in asthmatic children who were symptomatic despite treatment with inhaled co...

  20. Pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

    2000-09-01

    With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG. PMID:10986732

  1. Convergence of the epidemiology and pathology of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Hogg, J C

    2006-01-01

    The epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been dominated by one hypothesis stating that cigarette smoking and chronic bronchitis were the key to pathogenesis and another that asthma, chronic bronchitis, and even emphysema are related to different expressions of a primar...... attempts to reconcile these findings with the pathology found in the lung....

  2. Reduced Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Capacity in Allergy and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, René; van Lieshout, Bas; Folisi, Caterina

    2015-11-01

    In asthma, reactive oxygen species induce damage to biomolecules like proteins. This oxidative stress can promote inflammation, but its contribution to asthma pathology is controversial, not in the least because antioxidant interventions have proven rather unsuccessful. Recent studies indicate that the oxidative stress at baseline can be predictive of the fall in FEV1 upon an allergen challenge and of sensitization to an allergen. Interestingly, this baseline oxidative stress correlated with the capacity of antioxidant and cytoprotective responses to deal with reactive oxygen species, but not with inflammatory parameters. These findings have led to several considerations in relation to antioxidant trials that are discussed. Trials should be complemented by in-depth analyses of the failing antioxidant and cytoprotective responses and their consequences for cellular function in asthma.

  3. Symptoms, physical findings and bronchial hypersensitivity in patients with bronchial asthma and normal spirometry

    OpenAIRE

    Aćimović Slobodan; Plavec Goran; Tomić Ilija; Karličić Vukoica; Aćimović Svetlana; Vuković Jelena; Lončarević Olivera

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aim. The diagnosis of bronchial asthma, a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract, is made on the basis of anamnesis, pathologic auscultatory findings of the lungs, lung function disturbances, skin tests, as well as the basic indices of immunologic condition in bronchial trunk. The aim of the study was to find out correlation of objective indices of the disease and than relation with the symptoms in the patients with bronchial asthma. Methods. The study included 60 yo...

  4. Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Lung Function Variables in Women with Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Farha, Samar; Asosingh, Kewal; Laskowski, Daniel; Hammel, Jeffrey; Dweik, Raed A; Wiedemann, Herbert P.; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Angiogenesis is a defining pathologic feature of airway remodeling and contributes to asthma severity. Women experience changes in asthma control over the menstrual cycle, a time when vessels routinely form and regress under the control of angiogenic factors. One vital function modulated over the menstrual cycle in healthy women is gas transfer, and this has been related to angiogenesis and cyclic expansion of the pulmonary vascular bed.

  5. The Three A's in Asthma - Airway Smooth Muscle, Airway Remodeling & Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keglowich, L F; Borger, P

    2015-01-01

    Asthma affects more than 300 million people worldwide and its prevalence is still rising. Acute asthma attacks are characterized by severe symptoms such as breathlessness, wheezing, tightness of the chest, and coughing, which may lead to hospitalization or death. Besides the acute symptoms, asthma is characterized by persistent airway inflammation and airway wall remodeling. The term airway wall remodeling summarizes the structural changes in the airway wall: epithelial cell shedding, goblet cell hyperplasia, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the airway smooth muscle (ASM) bundles, basement membrane thickening and increased vascular density. Airway wall remodeling starts early in the pathogenesis of asthma and today it is suggested that remodeling is a prerequisite for other asthma pathologies. The beneficial effect of bronchial thermoplasty in reducing asthma symptoms, together with the increased potential of ASM cells of asthmatics to produce inflammatory and angiogenic factors, indicate that the ASM cell is a major effector cell in the pathology of asthma. In the present review we discuss the ASM cell and its role in airway wall remodeling and angiogenesis. PMID:26106455

  6. Do Written Asthma Action Plans Improve Outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Kelso, John M.

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate management, children with asthma should expect few symptoms, no limits on activity, rare exacerbations, and normal lung function. Appropriate education of parents and other caregivers of children with asthma has clearly been shown to help achieve these goals. Although recommended in asthma guidelines, providing written asthma action plans does not improve outcomes beyond asthma education alone.

  7. Exercise training in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, A

    2000-12-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that is often limiting the exercise capacity. Rehabilitation programs are recommended and widely applied in asthmatic patients, and exercise prescription is a keystone of these programs. The impairment of exercise performance in asthmatics, the role of exercise training in such patients, the mechanisms of its beneficial effects and the suggested programs are discussed in a review, accordingly to the current evidence and available data in scientific literature. Exercise performance is impaired in most asthmatics. There is no conclusive evidence that asthma may involve a ventilatory limitation to exercise. The lesser fitness in asthmatics seems mainly due to inactivity and sedentary lifestyle. Exercise induced asthma (EIA) is a significant problem, and the best approach to minimise its effects on exercise capacity is prevention. Exercise training has been proved to have health-related benefits and to improve the quality of life. There is substantial evidence that exercise training increases exercise performance and fitness in asthmatics. It is still unclear whether physical training improves pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness. Since asthma ranges widely, exercise prescription varies for each patient. The proper selection of the patients and the choice of exercise programs are the steps required. Accordingly with the severity of the disease, exercise strategies may range from sports activities to, when the disease is severe, inpatient hospital programs that overlap with COPD rehabilitation. Further research to clarify some aspects (effects on pulmonary function and EIA, outcomes, cost-benefit relationship) is necessary. PMID:11296996

  8. Managing Asthma at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Julie A.

    2000-01-01

    School personnel must know which students have asthma, typical warning signs, and appropriate actions in an emergency. Administering appropriate medication and reducing environmental triggers are not enough. Policymaking in schools and workplaces and legislation to increase health care access and eliminate substandard housing and air pollution are…

  9. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...

  10. The microbiome in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yvonne J; Boushey, Homer A

    2015-01-01

    The application of recently developed sensitive, specific, culture-independent tools for identification of microbes is transforming concepts of microbial ecology, including concepts of the relationships between the vast complex populations of microbes associated with ourselves and with states of health and disease. Although most work initially focused on the community of microbes (microbiome) in the gastrointestinal tract and its relationship to gastrointestinal disease, interest has expanded to include study of the relationships of the airway microbiome to asthma and its phenotypes and to the relationships between the gastrointestinal microbiome, development of immune function, and predisposition to allergic sensitization and asthma. Here we provide our perspective on the findings of studies of differences in the airway microbiome between asthmatic patients and healthy subjects and of studies of relationships between environmental microbiota, gut microbiota, immune function, and asthma development. In addition, we provide our perspective on how these findings suggest the broad outline of a rationale for approaches involving directed manipulation of the gut and airway microbiome for the treatment and prevention of allergic asthma.

  11. Occupational Neutrophilic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Leigh

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational asthma is typically associated with an eosinophilic bronchitis. The case of a 41-year-old woman who developed symptoms of asthma after occupational exposure to metal working fluids is reported. The diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by an forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 of 1.7 (59% predicted, with 11% reversibility after inhaled bronchodilator and a provocation concentration of methacholine to cause a fall in FEV1 of 20% (PC20 of 0.4 mg/mL. Induced sputum examination showed a marked neutrophilia. Over the next six months, serial sputum analyses confirmed the presence of a marked sterile neutrophilic bronchitis during periods of occupational exposure to metal working fluids, which resolved when the patient was away from work and recurred when she returned to work. The sputum findings were mirrored by corresponding changes in spirometry and PC20 methacholine. The findings indicate the occurrence of occupational asthma associated with an intense, sterile neutrophilic bronchitis after exposure to metal working fluids.

  12. Common Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air pollution can trigger an asthma attack. This pollution can come from factories, cars, and other sources. Pay attention to air quality forecasts on radio, television, and the Internet and check your newspaper to plan ... levels will be low. Cockroach Allergen Cockroaches and ...

  13. Asthma Was Talking, But We Weren't Listening. Missed or Ignored Signals That Have Slowed Treatment Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, John V

    2016-03-01

    The discovery that eosinophilia and steroid responsiveness are dominant signals in patients with asthma led to the conclusion that inflammation characterized by up-regulation of the type 2 cytokines that mediate eosinophilia (IL -4, -5, and -13) (type 2 inflammation) is central to asthma pathogenesis in all patients and resulted in a singular emphasis on animal models of type 2 inflammation to unravel disease mechanisms. This in turn led to great progress in identifying drug targets and in developing inhibitors of type 2 inflammation. Despite this significant and clinically important progress, there has been a growing body of evidence that airway type 2 inflammation is not a ubiquitous pathologic feature of asthma and a growing acceptance that the type 2-centric asthma paradigm has held back understanding of mechanisms of disease in patients who do not have type 2 inflammation (helper T-cell type 2 [Th2]-low asthma). This "tyranny of the dominant paradigm" effect means that asthma clinicians have no effective controller treatments to offer their many patients with Th2-low asthma. It also means that asthma researchers are struggling to understand the mechanisms of disease that operate in Th2-low asthma and how these mechanisms might be modeled in vitro and in vivo to identify novel drug targets and provide a broader range of asthma treatments. PMID:27027957

  14. Ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography using energy-scaled amplitude ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Shin, Junseob; Huang, Lianjie

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound attenuation of breast tumors is related to their types and pathological states, and can be used to detect and characterize breast cancer. Particularly, ultrasound scattering attenuation can infer the margin properties of breast tumors. Ultrasound attenuation tomography quantitatively reconstructs the attenuation properties of the breast. Our synthetic-aperture breast ultrasound tomography system with two parallel transducer arrays records both ultrasound reflection and transmission signals. We develop an ultrasound attenuation tomography method using ultrasound energy-scaled amplitude decays of ultrasound transmission signals and conduct ultrasound attenuation tomography using a known sound-speed model. We apply our ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography method to a breast phantom dataset, and compare the ultrasound attenuation tomography results with conventional beamforming ultrasound images obtained using reflection signals. We show that ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography complements beamforming images in identifying breast lesions.

  15. Children with Asthma and Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Yuzer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to their physical, mental and psychological development and increases their quality of life. The most recommended sports for the children with asthma are swimming and water sports. Sports like tennis and volleyball are too advised. Choice of sports depends on severity of asthma, child and #8217;s choice and whether or not asthma is kept under control. Nursing approaches for the children with asthma include correction of symptoms, training of children and their families, assistance with disease adaptation, continuing asthma care at home and interventions to make children lead healthy activities of daily life of children. With protective measures to be taken by families and children; children should be encourage for sportive activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 241-244

  16. Global strategy for the diagnosis and management of asthma in children 5 years and younger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Soren Erik; Hurd, Suzanne S; Lemanske, Robert F; Becker, Allan; Zar, Heather J; Sly, Peter D; Soto-Quiroz, Manuel; Wong, Gary; Bateman, Eric D

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood and the leading cause of childhood morbidity from chronic disease as measured by school absences, emergency department visits, and hospitalisation. During the past two decades, many scientific advances have improved our understanding of asthma and our ability to manage and control it effectively. However, in children 5 years and younger, the clinical symptoms of asthma are variable and non-specific. Furthermore, neither airflow limitation nor airway inflammation, the main pathologic hallmarks of the condition, can be assessed routinely in this age group. For this reason, to aid in the diagnosis of asthma in young children, a symptoms-only descriptive approach that includes the definition of various wheezing phenotypes has been recommended. In 1993, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) was implemented to develop a network of individuals, organizations, and public health officials to disseminate information about the care of patients with asthma while at the same time assuring a mechanism to incorporate the results of scientific investigations into asthma care. Since then, GINA has developed and regularly revised a Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. Publications based on the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention have been translated into many different languages to promote international collaboration and dissemination of information. In this report, Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention in Children 5 Years and Younger, an effort has been made to present the special challenges that must be taken into account in managing asthma in children during the first 5 years of life, including difficulties with diagnosis, the efficacy and safety of drugs and drug delivery systems, and the lack of data on new therapies. Approaches to these issues will vary among populations in the world based on socioeconomic conditions, genetic diversity, cultural beliefs, and differences in

  17. Asthma in Adolescents: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of an Asthma Program for Adolescents and Young Adults with Severe Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L Cowie; Underwood, Margot F; Little, Cinde B; Ian Mitchell; Sheldon Spier; Ford, Gordon T

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is common and is often poorly controlled in adolescent subjects.OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of an age-specific asthma program on asthma control, particularly on exacerbations of asthma requiring emergency department treatment, and on the quality of life of adolescents with asthma.METHODS: The present randomized, controlled trial included patients who were 15 to 20 years of age and had visited emergency departments for management of their asthma. The interventional gr...

  18. Childhood Asthma Management Pre- and Post-Incident Asthma Hospitalization

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Marina; Clavenna, Antonio; Sequi, Marco; Bortolotti, Angela; Fortino, Ida; Merlino, Luca; Bonati, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Many hospitalizations for asthma could potentially be avoided with appropriate management. The aim of this study was to analyze data on disease management of a paediatric population with a hospitalization for asthma. The study population comprised 6–17 year old subjects belonging to three local health units of the Lombardy Region, northern Italy. Regional administrative databases were used to collect data on: the number of children with an incident hospitalization for asthma during the 2004–2...

  19. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Nation Fact Sheet State Data Profiles (2011) Work-related Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources ... Informs Design Other Evaluation Resources Multimedia Messages Agencies Working on Asthma Follow @CDCasthma on Twitter to learn ...

  20. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals ...

  1. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals School and Childcare Providers More Asthma Resources ...

  2. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma who Smoke Insurance coverage and barriers to care for people with asthma Tables and Graphs Asthma ... Home Pregnant Women - Medical clinics/physicians' office Health care providers - Medical clinics/physicians' office Health care providers - ...

  3. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance ... gaining control over their asthma. Quick Links Asthma Action Plan America Breathing Easier [PDF - 1.1 MB] ...

  4. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Baby's Growth Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Can the Weather Affect My ... empeorar el asma de mi hijo? Weather and Asthma The effect of weather on asthma symptoms isn' ...

  5. Quantitative computed tomography measurements of emphysema for diagnosing asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mengshuang Xie, Wei Wang, Shuang Dou, Liwei Cui, Wei Xiao Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Background: The diagnostic criteria of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS are controversial. Emphysema is characteristic of COPD and usually does not exist in typical asthma patients. Emphysema in patients with asthma suggests the coexistence of COPD. Quantitative computed tomography (CT allows repeated evaluation of emphysema noninvasively. We investigated the value of quantitative CT measurements of emphysema in the diagnosis of ACOS.Methods: This study included 404 participants; 151 asthma patients, 125 COPD patients, and 128 normal control subjects. All the participants underwent pulmonary function tests and a high-resolution CT scan. Emphysema measurements were taken with an Airway Inspector software. The asthma patients were divided into high and low emphysema index (EI groups based on the percentage of low attenuation areas less than −950 Hounsfield units. The characteristics of asthma patients with high EI were compared with those having low EI or COPD.Results: The normal value of percentage of low attenuation areas less than −950 Hounsfield units in Chinese aged >40 years was 2.79%±2.37%. COPD patients indicated more severe emphysema and more upper-zone-predominant distribution of emphysema than asthma patients or controls. Thirty-two (21.2% of the 151 asthma patients had high EI. Compared with asthma patients with low EI, those with high EI were significantly older, more likely to be male, had more pack-years of smoking, had more upper-zone-predominant distribution of emphysema, and had greater airflow limitation. There were no significant differences in sex ratios, pack-years of smoking, airflow limitation, or emphysema distribution between asthma patients with high EI and COPD patients. A greater number of acute exacerbations were seen in asthma patients with high

  6. Prevalence of asthma-like symptoms, asthma and its treatment in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Pedersen, L; Larsson, B;

    2008-01-01

    . Physician-diagnosed asthma was present in 16% and 14% had current asthma. Asthma medication was taken by 7% of the athletes, of whom 79% used inhaled corticosteroids and 21% used inhaled beta(2)-agonists only. Athletes participating in endurance sports had higher prevalences of current asthma (24%) and use...... of asthma medication (15%) than all other athletes (Pendurance sports have a higher prevalence of asthma and use of asthma medication. The frequency of asthma medication is lower than the prevalence of current asthma indicating that there is no overuse of asthma medication...

  7. Violence and Asthma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that exposure to community violence is, directly and indirectly, associated with asthma. This article reviews the findings on the impact of violence on asthma, and the pathways for the association of violence and asthma are suggested: 1 exposure to violence is directly associated with asthma, mainly through dysregulation of sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, 2 exposure to violence is associated with the change of susceptibility of outdoor air pollution on asthma, probably through the change of an immune response, and 3 behavioral change due to exposure to violence (e.g. keeping children indoors leads to more exposure to indoor pollutants. The suggested framework may be useful to develop health policy on asthma in high-violence communities.

  8. Asthma Is More Severe in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Zein, Joe G.; Dweik, Raed A.; Comhair, Suzy A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Moore, Wendy C.; Peters, Stephen P.; Busse, William W.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Calhoun, William J.; Castro, Mario; Chung, K. Fan; Fitzpatrick, Anne; Israel, Elliot; Teague, W. Gerald; Sally E. Wenzel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Severe asthma occurs more often in older adult patients. We hypothesized that the greater risk for severe asthma in older individuals is due to aging, and is independent of asthma duration. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of prospectively collected data from adult participants (N=1130; 454 with severe asthma) enrolled from 2002 – 2011 in the Severe Asthma Research Program. Results: The association between age and the probability of severe asthma, which was performed by ap...

  9. The Effects of Bronchiectasis on Asthma Exacerbation

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Hye Ran; Choi, Gyu-Sik; Park, Sun Jin; Song, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Jeong Min; Ha, Junghoon; Lee, Yung Hee; Lee, Byoung Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jae Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Background Bronchiectasis and asthma are different in many respects, but some patients have both conditions. Studies assessing the effect of bronchiectasis on asthma exacerbation are rare. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of bronchiectasis on asthma exacerbation. Methods We enrolled 2,270 asthma patients who were followed up in our hospital. Fifty patients had bronchiectasis and asthma. We selected fifty age- and sex-matched controls from the 2,220 asthma patients without br...

  10. Effects of smoking on asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, S K

    2014-03-01

    Tobacco smoking has several adverse associations with asthma.The odds ratios for prevalence of asthma are high for both active smoking and ETS exposures. In-utero exposure of foetus from maternal smoking, as well as its tertiary exposure from maternal passive-smoking are also known to be responsible for development of asthma in childhood. Smoking adversely affects the health and treatment-outcomes of asthma. There are increased requirements of drugs for smoker and ETS exposed asthmatics. Smoking is also an important factor in the development of airway remodelling, fixed airway obstruction and an exaggerated lung function decline. PMID:25327058

  11. Intravenous magnesium for acute asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Each year in the UK, around 1,500 people die from asthma. Standard treatment has been based on bronchodilators (e.g. beta 2-stimulants) and anti-inflammatory drugs (corticosteroids). The recently revised British Guideline on the Management of Asthma suggests also using a single dose of i.v. magnesium sulphate in patients with acute severe asthma, an unlicensed indication. Here we discuss the rationale for giving i.v. magnesium and whether it offers any advantage for patients with acute severe asthma.

  12. Getting control of uncontrolled asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Michael E

    2014-11-01

    Despite various treatment modalities, a large proportion of patients have asthma that remains uncontrolled. These patients remain at an increased risk of developing severe exacerbations, have a poor quality of life, and pose a high economic healthcare burden, with an estimated mean annual cost more than double that of patients with good symptom control. It is therefore important to accurately diagnose asthma and continually assess asthma control. Several validated tools are available to do this, including questionnaires, biomarker analysis, and bronchoscopy. Current guidelines advise physicians to establish a self-management program for the patient to assess and monitor asthma control. A further recommendation is the establishment of an educational action plan to increase treatment adherence and to improve asthma control. National and international guidelines provide long-term management strategies for these patients and recommend a stepwise approach for achieving and maintaining asthma control. Despite availability of a wide range of controller and reliever therapies, uncontrolled asthma remains a challenge and reflects the need for new therapeutic options. This review discusses current global guidelines for the assessment and management of asthma control and summarizes the broad spectrum of novel therapeutic agents currently under development for the treatment of asthma, including anticholinergics, chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecules expressed on T-helper 2 lymphocyte antagonists, and anti-interleukin (IL)-5, anti-IL-13, and anti-IL-4 agents. PMID:24844737

  13. Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition Exercise Coming Of Age Older Adults Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine Women Infant, Children and Teenagers Living With Lung ...

  14. Steroid resistant asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhadia, S K

    2014-03-01

    Inspite of very safe and effective treatment, Bronchial asthmatics do not respond well in 5-10% of cases which are labelled as Refractory Asthma. Besides compliance, presence of psychogenic and trigger factors and comorbid illness, steroid insensitiveness or resistance may play a significant role in the poorly controlled/responding asthmatics. Type I Steroid resistance is due to lack of binding affinity of steroids to glucocorticoid receptors and may respond to higher doses of steroids while type II steroid resistance is because of reduced number of cells with glucocorticoid receptors, which is very rare and do not respond to even higher doses of systemic steroids and these cases require alternative/novel therapies. Future treatment of steroid resistant and severe refractory asthma is likely to be targeted towards cytokines and Bronchial Thermoplasty.

  15. Allergens and thunderstorm asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Shuaib M; Pulimood, Thomas B

    2009-09-01

    Thunderstorm-related asthma is increasingly recognized in many parts of the world. This review focuses on important advances in the understanding of the mechanism of the role of allergens, in particular fungal spores such as Alternaria, in asthma epidemics associated with thunderstorms. From our observations, we have proposed that the prerequisites for this phenomenon are as follows: 1) a sensitized, atopic, asthmatic individual; 2) prior airway hyperresponsiveness before a sudden, large allergen exposure; 3) a large-scale thunderstorm with cold outflow occurring at a time and location during an allergen season in which large numbers of asthmatics are outdoors; and 4) sudden release of large amounts of respirable allergenic fragments, particularly fungal spores such as Alternaria. PMID:19671382

  16. Studies on provoked asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of adult patients with perennial bronchial asthma has been studied as to lung perfusion and alveolar ventilation (81m-Kr) at rest and after provocation of an acute attack. Asthma was provoked by exercise and by histamine inhalation. After provocation the peak expiratory flow values were reduced to less than 80% of the base line values. Perfusion was often deranged. Regional ventilation changed rapidly after provocation and not always in the same fashion after exercise and histamine. During attacks lung volume increased. The expansion decreased (in parallel with increased peak expiratory flow) after inhalator of a #betta#-2 agonist (terbutaline). 81m-Kr offers unique opportunities for studying acute regional changes in alveolar ventilation. (Author)

  17. Early life respiratory infections and asthma development: role in disease pathogenesis and potential targets for disease prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigelman, Avraham; Bacharier, Leonard B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To present recent findings and perspectives on the relationship between early life respiratory infections and asthma inception and to discuss emerging concepts on strategies that target these infectious agents for asthma prevention. Recent findings Cumulative evidence supports the role of early life viral infections, especially respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus, as major antecedents of childhood asthma. These viruses may have different mechanistic roles in the pathogenesis of asthma. The airway microbiome and virus-bacteria interactions in early life have emerged as additional determinants of childhood asthma. Innovative strategies for the prevention of these early life infections, or for attenuation of acute infection severity, are being investigated and may identify effective strategies for the primary and secondary prevention of childhood asthma. Summary Early life infections are major determinants of asthma development. The pathway from early life infections to asthma is the result of complex interactions between the specific type of the virus, genetic and environmental factors. Novel intervention strategies that target these infectious agents have been investigated in proof-of-concepts trials, and further study is necessary to determine their capacity for asthma prevention. PMID:26854761

  18. Omalizumab in the management of patients with allergic (IgE-mediated asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sandström

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas SandströmDepartment of Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, University Hospital, Umeå, SwedenAbstract: Immunoglobulin E (IgE is central to the pathophysiology of allergic asthma. Omalizumab, an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, binds to the FcεRI binding site on free IgE. As a result, circulating free IgE is reduced, IgE is prevented from attaching to mast cells and basophils, and FcεRI receptor expression is down-regulated. The inflammatory response to allergens and the acute and chronic effector phases of allergic inflammation are thereby attenuated. In clinical trials in adults and adolescents, omalizumab reduced asthma exacerbations, severe asthma exacerbations, inhaled corticosteroid requirements, and emergency visits, as well as significantly improving asthma-related quality of life, morning peak expiratory flow and asthma symptom scores in patients with severe allergic (IgE-mediated asthma. Results from clinical trials in children (< 12 years are consistent with those in the adult population. It is difficult to predict which patients will respond to omalizumab. Responders to omalizumab should be identified after a 16-week trial of therapy using the physician’s overall assessment. When treatment is targeted to these responders, omalizumab provides a cost-effective therapy for inadequately controlled severe allergic (IgE-mediated asthma. Long-term therapy with omalizumab shows the potential for disease-modification in asthma. Ongoing studies are also evaluating the use of omalizumab in other non-asthma IgE-mediated conditions.Keywords: omalizumab, IgE, allergic asthma

  19. Pathogenesis of Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Barlan, Işıl B.; Başaran, Müjdat M.

    2000-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is characterized by reversible airway obstruction in response to allergen chronic eosinophilic airway inflammation and nonspecific airway hyperreponsiveness Allergic reaction appears to be the result of a TH2 type T cell response to one or more common environmental allergens The allergen specific TH2 response represents the triggering event for the recruitment and the involvement of the other cell types as well as a large number of soluble factors and adhesion molecules thus ...

  20. Holy Saturday asthma

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Terence M; Cusack, Ruth; Landers, Sarah; Bredin, Charles Patrick

    2014-01-01

    A 61-year-old man complained of cough and dyspnoea after exposure to colophony-containing solder fumes at work. A histamine challenge test confirmed airway hyper-responsiveness, and colophony-challenge demonstrated a 16.7% drop in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), supporting a diagnosis of colophony-induced occupational asthma. At review, the patient presented with cough, dyspnoea and wheeze that occurred acutely when exposed to the fumes from burning incense during Easter Saturday services, ...

  1. Animal models of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Jason H.T.; Rincon, Mercedes; Irvin, Charles G.

    2009-01-01

    Studies in animal models form the basis for much of our current understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma, and are central to the preclinical development of drug therapies. No animal model completely recapitulates all features of the human disease, however. Research has focused primarily on ways to generate allergic inflammation by sensitizing and challenging animals with a variety of foreign proteins, leading to an increased understanding of the immunological factors that mediate the in...

  2. Beta-2-Adrenergic Receptor Methylation Influences Asthma Phenotype in The School Inner City Asthma Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood and inner city residents suffer a disproportionately high rate of asthma diagnosis and asthma morbidity. The School Inner City Asthma Study investigates the school classroom based environmental exposures that may lead to asthma morbidity in inner city school children with asthma. Within this cohort, we investigated the role of methylation at the promoter region of the beta-2-adrenergic receptor in relation to asthma morbidity. We found th...

  3. Acute bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Ramuscello

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the main causes of morbidity worldwide. It affects some 300 million individuals and has risen over the past 20 years, especially in the paediatric population. Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the airways, subject to periodic exacerbations, characterised by coughing and progressive dyspnoea. Clinical conditions may vary greatly, ranging from moderate exacerbation with an increase in nocturnal awakening and a less than 20% reduction in the flow peak, through to severe respiratory insufficiency that requires immediate intubation of the airways. Pharmacological treatment envisages a step approach that aims to obtain and maintain control over the symptoms, taking into consideration the effectiveness of the treatment available, potential side effects and cost. β2-agonists and corticosteroids are the drugs of election for both maintenance therapy and for treating exacerbations. Other therapeutic devices may prove useful in particular cases. One fundamental key point in treatment over time is the cooperation between patient and attending doctor. The latest review of the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA guidelines was published in 2006.

  4. Acute bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sudhanshu; Jindal, Atul; Bansal, Arun; Singhi, Sunit C

    2011-11-01

    Acute asthma is the third commonest cause of pediatric emergency visits at PGIMER. Typically, it presents with acute onset respiratory distress and wheeze in a patient with past or family history of similar episodes. The severity of the acute episode of asthma is judged clinically and categorized as mild, moderate and severe. The initial therapy consists of oxygen, inhaled beta-2 agonists (salbutamol or terbutaline), inhaled budesonide (three doses over 1 h, at 20 min interval) in all and ipratropium bromide and systemic steroids (hydrocortisone or methylprednisolone) in acute severe asthma. Other causes of acute onset wheeze and breathing difficulty such as pneumonia, foreign body, cardiac failure etc. should be ruled out with help of chest radiography and appropriate laboratory investigations in first time wheezers and those not responding to 1 h of inhaled therapy. In case of inadequate response or worsening, intravenous infusion of magnesium sulphate, terbutaline or aminophylline may be used. Magnesium sulphate is the safest and most effective alternative among these. Severe cases may need ICU care and rarely, ventilatory support. PMID:21769523

  5. Microbiota in allergy and asthma and the emerging relationship with the gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Kei E; Lynch, Susan V

    2015-05-13

    Asthma and atopy, classically associated with hyper-activation of the T helper 2 (Th2) arm of adaptive immunity, are among the most common chronic illnesses worldwide. Emerging evidence relates atopy and asthma to the composition and function of the human microbiome, the collection of microbes that reside in and on and interact with the human body. The ability to interrogate microbial ecology of the human host is due in large part to recent technological developments that permit identification of microbes and their products using culture-independent molecular detection techniques. In this review we explore the roles of respiratory, gut, and environmental microbiomes in asthma and allergic disease development, manifestation, and attenuation. Though still a relatively nascent field of research, evidence to date suggests that the airway and/or gut microbiome may represent fertile targets for prevention or management of allergic asthma and other diseases in which adaptive immune dysfunction is a prominent feature.

  6. AsthmaVent – Effect of Ventilation on Asthma Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogaard, Nina Viskum; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Halken, Susanne;

    and design of housing. Indoor environment factors that trigger the disease must be controlled as well as possible. The results of this project will be a significant contribution to the potential recommendations regarding the effect of ventilation on indoor air quality and asthma control of HDM allergic......Background House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma among children. Children spend 14 hours of their time indoor everyday in aberage, where they are exposed to different components in the indoor air. These components are children with asthma and HDM allergy specially...... sensitive towards. Reducing this exposure may improve the asthma control in these children. Previous studies give conflicting information on the effect of mechanical ventilation on asthma control in children. Objectives We aim at investigating whether mechanical ventilation is capable of improving indoor...

  7. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health.

  8. Asthma in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, A S; Skov, Lone; Skytthe, A;

    2015-01-01

    We read with interest the report by Fang and colleagues of the relationship between psoriasis and asthma in a large retrospective case-control study from Taiwan [1]. The study found a 1.38-fold increased risk of asthma among patients with psoriasis, and with an increasing risk according to higher...

  9. Adolescents and Exercise Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pamela; Bickanse, Shanna; Bogenreif, Mike; VanSickle, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article defines asthma and exercise induced asthma, and provides information on the triggers, signs, and symptoms of an attack. It also gives treatments for these conditions, along with prevention guidelines on how to handle an attack in the classroom or on the practice field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  10. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148

  11. Predicting adult asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, JM; Boezen, HM

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There still is no cure for asthma. Early identification of patients at risk for disease progression may lead to better treatment opportunities and hopefully better disease outcomes in adulthood. Recent literature on childhood risk factors associated with the outcome of asthma in a

  12. Environment and asthma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moual, Nicole; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Dumas, Orianne; Kauffmann, Francine; Nadif, Rachel

    2013-09-01

    The present review addresses recent advances and especially challenging aspects regarding the role of environmental risk factors in adult-onset asthma, for which the causes are poorly established. In the first part of the review, we discuss aspects regarding some environmental risk factors for adult-onset asthma: air pollution, occupational exposures with a focus on an emerging risk represented by exposure to cleaning agents (both at home and in the workplace), and lifestyle and nutrition. The second part is focused on perspectives and challenges, regarding relevant topics on which research is needed to improve the understanding of the role of environmental factors in asthma. Aspects of exposure assessment, the complexity of multiple exposures, the interrelationships of the environment with behavioral characteristics and the importance of studying biological markers and gene-environment interactions to identify the role of the environment in asthma are discussed. We conclude that environmental and lifestyle exposures play an important role in asthma or related phenotypes. The changes in lifestyle and the environment in recent decades have modified the specific risk factors in asthma even for well-recognized risks such as occupational exposures. To better understand the role of the environment in asthma, the use of objective (quantitative measurement of exposures) or modern tools (bar code, GPS) and the development of multidisciplinary collaboration would be very promising. A better understanding of the complex interrelationships between socio-economic, nutritional, lifestyle and environmental conditions might help to study their joint and independent roles in asthma.

  13. Smoking and Asthma (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Friend Who Cuts? Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth > For Teens > Smoking and Asthma Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? If You Smoke If Other People Smoke en español Fumar y el asma You may have family photo albums full of pictures with people smoking at all kinds of events, ...

  14. The management of acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, S

    1997-04-01

    Health professionals likely to come into contact with people experiencing an acute episode of asthma, such as school nurses, ambulance personnel and A&E staff, need clear guidelines on management. The British Thoracic Society guidelines, revised this year, advise on the categorisation of asthma, assessment and treatment.

  15. Asthma: where is it going?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Faffe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is characterized by reversible airway obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway inflammation. Although our understanding of its pathophysiological mechanisms continues to evolve, the relative contributions of airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation are still debated. The first mechanism identified as important for asthma was bronchial hyperresponsiveness. In a second step, asthma was recognized also as an inflammatory disease, with chronic inflammation inducing structural changes or remodeling. However, persistence of airway dysfunction despite inflammatory control is observed in chronic severe asthma of both adults and children. More recently, a potential role for epithelial-mesenchymal communication or transition is emerging, with epithelial injury often resulting in a self-sustaining phenotype of wound repair modulation by activation/reactivation of the epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit, suggesting that chronic asthma can be more than an inflammatory disease. It is noteworthy that the gene-environmental interactions critical for the development of a full asthma phenotype involve processes similar to those occurring in branching morphogenesis. In addition, a central role for airway smooth muscle in the pathogenesis of the disease has been explored, highlighting its secretory function as well as different intrinsic properties compared to normal subjects. These new concepts can potentially shed light on the mechanisms underlying some asthma phenotypes and improve our understanding of the disease in terms of the therapeutic strategies to be applied. How we understand asthma and its mechanisms along time will be the focus of this overview.

  16. The Saudi Initiative for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Moamary Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.

  17. "Kickin' Asthma": School-Based Asthma Education in an Urban Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magzamen, Sheryl; Patel, Bina; Davis, Adam; Edelstein, Joan; Tager, Ira B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: In urban communities with high prevalence of childhood asthma, school-based educational programs may be the most appropriate approach to deliver interventions to improve asthma morbidity and asthma-related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of "Kickin' Asthma", a school-based asthma curriculum…

  18. Asthma symptoms in obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2016-01-01

    The association between asthma and obesity is well-described, but not straightforward, and according to current guidelines asthma control is more difficult to achieve in obese patients. The currently available studies evaluating response to pharmacological asthma therapy in obese patients show...... that these patients have an altered, in general less favorable, response to both reliever and controller medication compared to normal weight patients. However, at present, the limited available evidence precludes evidence-based recommendations. The 'obesity-related asthma' phenotype has different characteristics......, including association with atopy and type of airway inflammation, compared to 'classic' asthma. Furthermore, weight loss in patients with this phenotype leads to an improvement in symptoms, lung function, and airway responsiveness, as well as a reduction in medication utilization and hospital admissions...

  19. Exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Z; Hansen, A V; Ulrik, C S

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is common among pregnant women, and the incidence of asthma exacerbations during pregnancy is high. This literature review provides an overview of the impact of exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy on pregnancy-related complications. The majority of published retrospective studies reveal...... that asthma exacerbations during pregnancy increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, placental abruption and placenta praevia. Furthermore, these women also have higher risk for breech presentation, haemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, caesarean delivery, maternal admission to the intensive care...... to these outcomes. In conclusion, asthma exacerbations during pregnancy are associated with complications of pregnancy, labour and delivery. Prevention of exacerbations is essential to reduce the risk of complications and poor outcome....

  20. Sources of Stress in Children with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michelle; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy M.

    1992-01-01

    Children with asthma were studied to determine their perceptions of the frequency and severity of stressors they experienced other than asthma. Results indicated children with asthma were similar to peers regarding perceptions of stressors. Perceptions of most stressors related more strongly to gender role development than to asthma. (SM)

  1. Exploring the obesity-asthma link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Vidal, C;

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and risk of asthma are linked. Different distributions of adiposity, such as visceral, subcutaneous or ectopic adiposity, may affect asthma risk differently.......Obesity and risk of asthma are linked. Different distributions of adiposity, such as visceral, subcutaneous or ectopic adiposity, may affect asthma risk differently....

  2. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma- ... 4. Gathering and Using Data 4A. Focus On: Data Collection Choices 4B. Focus on Using Mixed Methods 5. ...

  3. Transcriptional Profiling of Th2 Cells Identifies Pathogenic Features Associated with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seumois, Grégory; Zapardiel-Gonzalo, Jose; White, Brandie; Singh, Divya; Schulten, Veronique; Dillon, Myles; Hinz, Denize; Broide, David H; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern; Vijayanand, Pandurangan

    2016-07-15

    Allergic asthma and rhinitis are two common chronic allergic diseases that affect the lungs and nose, respectively. Both diseases share clinical and pathological features characteristic of excessive allergen-induced type 2 inflammation, orchestrated by memory CD4(+) T cells that produce type 2 cytokines (Th2 cells). However, a large majority of subjects with allergic rhinitis do not develop asthma, suggesting divergence in disease mechanisms. Because Th2 cells play a pathogenic role in both these diseases and are also present in healthy nonallergic subjects, we performed global transcriptional profiling to determine whether there are qualitative differences in Th2 cells from subjects with allergic asthma, rhinitis, and healthy controls. Th2 cells from asthmatic subjects expressed higher levels of several genes that promote their survival as well as alter their metabolic pathways to favor persistence at sites of allergic inflammation. In addition, genes that enhanced Th2 polarization and Th2 cytokine production were also upregulated in asthma. Several genes that oppose T cell activation were downregulated in asthma, suggesting enhanced activation potential of Th2 cells from asthmatic subjects. Many novel genes with poorly defined functions were also differentially expressed in asthma. Thus, our transcriptomic analysis of circulating Th2 cells has identified several molecules that are likely to confer pathogenic features to Th2 cells that are either unique or common to both asthma and rhinitis. PMID:27271570

  4. Asthma and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseid, S

    1982-01-01

    Physical activity regularly leads to a decline in lung function in children and adolescents with asthma. This decline is a consequence of what is known as exercise-induced asthma (EIA), and can be determined and graded with the help of lung function tests before and after submaximal workloads on the ergometer cycle or the treadmill. Typical EIA appears in asthmatic individuals with entirely normal lung function before the effort, but EIA may also become clinically manifest with exercise in patients who have a subclinical degree of obstruction. The grade of EIA is essentially dependent on the duration and intensity of effort but also on the type of exercise. For example, free running causes much greater bronchoconstriction than swimming. The temperature and humidity of the inspired air may partially explain this difference. At the Voksentoppen Allergy Institute we find that about 85% of children develop a fall in lung function of 15% or more after a six minute ergometer cycle test. With typical EIA the fall may be totally or partially abolished by prophylactic medication 10 minutes before the start of the test. Disodium cromoglycate (Intal) and/or beta-adrenergic drugs are regularly used before all physical activity. Training programmes must be based on the interval principle. Swimming, ball games, relay races and dancing are examples of useful activities in the training and rehabilitation of children and adolescents with asthma. Through prophylactic medication and physical training, the aerobic work capacity, muscle strength and lung function in asthmatic children is improved. Training also leads to a significant mobilisation of mental resources and an increase in social integration. PMID:6958045

  5. The poorly explored impact of uncontrolled asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Byrne, Paul M; Pedersen, Søren; Schatz, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    . Children with uncontrolled asthma also have a higher frequency of obesity than children with controlled asthma. Stress can affect asthma control, and children with poorly controlled asthma are more likely to have learning disabilities compared with those with good control. In adults, focused attention...... effects of poorly controlled asthma (for example, obesity, pneumonia, and risks to the fetus) can be perceived as side effects of ICSs. Poorly controlled asthma adversely affects children's cardiovascular fitness, while children with well-controlled asthma perform at the same level as their peers...

  6. Hu.4-1BB-Fc fusion protein inhibits allergic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Ju Kim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : 4-1BB (CD 137 is a costimulatory molecule expressed on activated T-cells. Repression by 4-1BB is thought to attenuate Th2-mediated allergic reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 4-1BB on allergic airway inflammation in a murine asthma model. Methods : BALB/c mice were sensitized to and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA. Hu.4-1BB-Fc was administered 1 day before the first OVA sensitization or 1 day after the second OVA sensitization. Following antigen challenge, airway responsiveness to methacholine was assessed and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid was analyzed. Total immunoglobulin (Ig E, OVA-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a levels in sera were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lung pathology was also evaluated. Results : In mice treated with Hu.4-1BB-Fc before the first OVA sensitization, there was a marked decrease in airway hyperresponsiveness, total cell count, and eosinophil count in the BAL fluid. In addition, Hu.4-1BB-Fc treatment decreased serum OVA-specific IgG1 levels and increased serum IgG2a level significantly compared with the corresponding levels in mice sensitized to and challenged with OVA. Hu.4-1BB-Fc-treated mice also showed suppressed peribronchial and perivascular inflammatory cell infiltration. In contrast, treatment with Hu.4-1BB-Fc 1 day after sensitization had no effect on airway hyperresponsiveness and showed less suppression of inflammation in lung tissue. Conclusion : Administration of Hu.4-1BB-Fc can attenuate airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. In addition, administration before sensitization may be more effective. These findings suggest that 4-1BB may be a useful therapeutic molecule against asthma.

  7. Childhood asthma management pre- and post-incident asthma hospitalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bianchi

    Full Text Available Many hospitalizations for asthma could potentially be avoided with appropriate management. The aim of this study was to analyze data on disease management of a paediatric population with a hospitalization for asthma. The study population comprised 6-17 year old subjects belonging to three local health units of the Lombardy Region, northern Italy. Regional administrative databases were used to collect data on: the number of children with an incident hospitalization for asthma during the 2004-2006 period, anti-asthma therapy, specialist visit referrals, and claims for spirometry, released in the 12 months before and after hospitalization. Each patient's asthma management profile was compared with GINA guideline recommendations. Among the 183 hospitalized subjects, 101 (55% received therapy before hospitalization and 82 (45% did not. 10% did not receive any therapy either before or after hospital admission and in 13% the therapy was discontinued afterward. Based on GINA guidelines, asthma management adhered to recommendations only for 55% of subjects. Results may suggest that for half of hospitalized subjects, inaccurate diagnosis, under-treatment/scarce compliance with asthma guidelines by physicians, and/or scarce compliance to therapy by patients/their parents occurred. In all these cases, hospitalization would be a proxy indicator of preventable poor control of disease, rather than a proxy indicator of severity.

  8. Asma ocupacional Occupational asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cebollero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Asma ocupacional es aquella entidad que se desarrolla por causas o condiciones derivadas de un determinado medio laboral y no por estímulos que se encuentran fuera del trabajo. El asma ocupacional constituye hoy en día la enfermedad respiratoria ocupacional más frecuente en la mayoría de los países industrializados y se calcula que la proporción de nuevos casos de asma atribuibles a la exposición laboral se sitúa en torno al 10-15%. Puede desarrollarse tanto por un mecanismo inmunológico como no inmunológico. En su desarrollo influyen el tipo de agente al que se está expuesto, el nivel y modo de exposición y factores genéticos de susceptibilidad. En el proceso diagnóstico concurre la confirmación de que el paciente tiene asma bronquial y la confirmación de que ésta se produce por causa laboral. Como demuestra la historia natural de la enfermedad, un diagnóstico precoz y las consiguientes acciones posteriores redundan en un mejor pronóstico de la misma.Occupational asthma is an entity caused by conditions deriving from a certain work milieu and not from stimuli found outside the workplace. Nowadays, occupational asthma is the most frequent respiratory occupational disease in the majority of the industrialised countries and it is estimated that the proportion of new cases of asthma that can be attributed to exposure at work is around 10-15%. It can be developed due to an immunological mechanism or to a non-immunological mechanism. Influential in its development are the type of agent exposed to, the level and form of exposure and genetic factors of susceptibility. In the diagnostic process there is a concurrent confirmation that the patient has bronchial asthma and that this has been caused by occupational reasons. As shown by the natural history of the disease, an early diagnosis and the consequent posterior actions result in an improved prognosis.

  9. Understanding mild persistent asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Szefler, Stanley J

    2005-01-01

    Limitations in asthma prevalence studies and difficulties in diagnosing pediatric asthma lead to uncertainty over the full extent of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents. Although recent surveys have reported that the majority of pediatric patients with asthma in the United States...... and Europe have symptoms consistent with mild disease, these surveys have limitations in design. Thus, the true prevalence of mild asthma remains unknown. It is unclear whether children with mild persistent asthma progress to more severe asthma, but the risk of severe asthma exacerbations seems...... to be unrelated to the symptom severity. Clinical studies restricted to pediatric patients with mild asthma are limited, but available data do suggest substantial morbidity of mild persistent asthma in this population and support inhaled corticosteroid intervention. There is a need for further investigation...

  10. The Danish Pathology Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Beth; Larsen, Ole B

    2011-01-01

    The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established.......The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established....

  11. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. ► Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. ► Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. ► Silibinin suppresses NF-κB transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Because NF-κB activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-κB activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-κB activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  12. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Ho [Department of Anatomy, Medical School, Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Guang Yu [Department of Radiology, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133002 (China); Guo, Hui Shu [Centralab, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011 (China); Piao, Hong Mei [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133000 (China); Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China); Lin, Zhen Hua [Department of Pathology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, YanJi 133000 (China); Yan, Guang Hai, E-mail: ghyan@ybu.edu.cn [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  13. In Vivo Micro-CT Assessment of Airway Remodeling in a Flexible OVA-Sensitized Murine Model of Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Lederlin, Mathieu; Ozier, Annaïg; Dournes, Gaël; Ousova, Olga; Girodet, Pierre-Olivier; Begueret, Hugues; Marthan, Roger; Montaudon, Michel; Laurent, François; Berger, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Airway remodeling is a major pathological feature of asthma. Up to now, its quantification still requires invasive methods. In this study, we aimed at determining whether in vivo micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is able to demonstrate allergen-induced airway remodeling in a flexible mouse model of asthma. Sixty Balb/c mice were challenged intranasally with ovalbumin or saline at 3 different endpoints (Days 35, 75, and 110). All mice underwent plethysmography at baseline and just prior to ...

  14. Recent developments regarding periostin in bronchial asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Kenji Izuhara; Hisako Matsumoto; Shoichiro Ohta; Junya Ono; Kazuhiko Arima; Masahiro Ogawa

    2015-01-01

    Although it is currently recognized that bronchial asthma is not a single disease but a syndrome, we have not yet made use of our new understanding of this heterogeneity as we treat asthma patients. To increase the efficacy of anti-asthma drugs and to decrease costs, it is important to stratify asthma patients into subgroups and to develop therapeutic strategies for each subgroup. Periostin has recently emerged as a biomarker for bronchial asthma, unique in that it is useful not in diagnosis ...

  15. Screening, Diagnostic and Outcome Tools for Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony M.J. Wever; Jopie Wever-Hess; Mark G. Britton

    1998-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, affecting about 10% of children and 5 to 7% of the adult population. Improved asthma control will not only benefit the patient but will also result in reduced financial expenditure in asthma healthcare. This article summarises the tools that are available for assessing asthma and attempts to quantify the usefulness of each tool in assessing asthma in different clinical contexts, whether it be screening for asthmatics within a populatio...

  16. Allergic rhinitis: evidence for impact on asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper reviews the current evidence indicating that comorbid allergic rhinitis may have clinically relevant effects on asthma. Discussion Allergic rhinitis is very common in patients with asthma, with a reported prevalence of up to 100% in those with allergic asthma. While the temporal relation of allergic rhinitis and asthma diagnoses can be variable, the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis often precedes that of asthma. Rhinitis is an independent risk factor for the subsequent dev...

  17. Innate lymphocyte cells in asthma phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Ozyigit, Leyla Pur; MORITA, Hideaki; Akdis, Mubeccel

    2015-01-01

    T helper type 2 (TH2) cells were previously thought to be the main initiating effector cell type in asthma; however, exaggerated TH2 cell activities alone were insufficient to explain all aspects of asthma. Asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome comprising different phenotypes that are characterized by their different clinical features, treatment responses, and inflammation patterns. The most-studied subgroups of asthma include TH2-associated early-onset allergic asthma, late-onset persistent eos...

  18. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents. The obj......BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents...... and extracted data from original articles that met the inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were used to express the results of the meta-analysis (forest plot). We explored heterogeneity using funnel plots and the Graphic Appraisal Tool for Epidemiology (GATE). RESULTS......: We retrieved 1,571 titles and selected 11 articles describing three cohort and eight cross-sectional studies for inclusion. A meta-analysis of the cohort studies revealed a risk of new-onset asthma in children with low PA (OR [95 % CI] 1.32 [0.95; 1.84] [random effects] and 1.35 [1.13; 1.62] [fixed...

  19. Prospect of vasoactive intestinal peptide therapy for COPD/PAH and asthma: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Dongwon; Wu Dongmei; Sung Yong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There is mounting evidence that pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) share important pathological features, including inflammation, smooth muscle contraction and remodeling. No existing drug provides the combined potential advantages of reducing vascular- and bronchial-constriction, and anti-inflammation. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is widely expressed throughout the cardiopulmonary system and exerts a variety of biolo...

  20. Bronchography in patients with the infections-allergic form of bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronchography has been performed on 154 patients, having the infectious-allergic form of bronchial asthma. Pathologic changes on the bronchograms have been detected in 99 (64.3 %) patients. Deforming bronchitis, characterized by the different degree of manifestness and stretch, has been more frequent (49.3%), while bronchoectases (14.3%) and cirrhosis (0.7%) have been rarer findings

  1. Holy Saturday asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Terence M; Cusack, Ruth; Landers, Sarah; Bredin, Charles Patrick

    2014-01-01

    A 61-year-old man complained of cough and dyspnoea after exposure to colophony-containing solder fumes at work. A histamine challenge test confirmed airway hyper-responsiveness, and colophony-challenge demonstrated a 16.7% drop in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), supporting a diagnosis of colophony-induced occupational asthma. At review, the patient presented with cough, dyspnoea and wheeze that occurred acutely when exposed to the fumes from burning incense during Easter Saturday services, necessitating his departure from the church. Inhalation challenge tests using two blends of incense used at his church (Greek and Vatican) led to identical symptoms and a significant reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s 15 min after exposure and PEFRs up to 48 h after exposure, indicating an early and late phase asthmatic reaction. This is the first report of coexistent colophony and incense-induced asthma. The similarities in chemical structures between abietic acid in colophony and boswellic acid in incense suggest a common mechanism. PMID:24626388

  2. Evaluation of quality of life according to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Matsunaga, Natasha Yumi; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Saad, Ivete Alonso Bredda; Morcillo, André Moreno; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Toro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality of life according to the level of asthma control and degree of asthma severity in children and adolescents. METHODS: We selected children and adolescents with asthma (7-17 years of age) from the Pediatric Pulmonology Outpatient Clinic of the State University of Campinas Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Asthma control and asthma severity were assessed by the Asthma Control Test and by the questionnaire based on the Global In...

  3. Researching asthma across the ages: Insights from the NHLBI Asthma Network

    OpenAIRE

    Cabana, Michael D; Kunselman, Susan J.; Nyenhuis, Sharmilee; Wechsler, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical asthma studies across different age groups, or ‘cross-age’ studies, can potentially offer insight into the similarities, differences and relationships between childhood and adult asthma. The National Institutes of Health Asthma Research Network (AsthmaNet) is unique and innovative in that it has merged pediatric and adult asthma research into one clinical research network. This combination enhances scientific exchange between pediatric and adult asthma investigators and encourages th...

  4. Level of asthma control and its relationship with medication use in asthma patients in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane Marchioro; Mariana Rodrigues Gazzotti; Oliver Augusto Nascimento; Federico Montealegre; James Fish; José Roberto Jardim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess asthma patients in Brazil in terms of the level of asthma control, compliance with maintenance treatment, and the use of rescue medication. METHODS: We used data from a Latin American survey of a total of 400 asthma patients in four Brazilian state capitals, all of whom completed a questionnaire regarding asthma control and treatment. RESULTS: In that sample, the prevalence of asthma was 8.8%. Among the 400 patients studied, asthma was classified, in accordance with the G...

  5. Role of Obesity in Asthma Control, the Obesity-Asthma Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon Novosad; Supriya Khan; Bruce Wolfe; Akram Khan

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a disease with distinct phenotypes that have implications for both prognosis and therapy. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between asthma and obesity. Further studies have shown that obese asthmatics have poor asthma control and more severe asthma. This obese-asthma group may represent a unique phenotype. The mechanisms behind poor asthma control in obese subjects remain unclear, but recent research has focused on adipokines and their effects on the airways as ...

  6. Evaluation of quality of life according to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha Yumi Matsunaga; Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira Ribeiro; Ivete Alonso Bredda Saad; André Moreno Morcillo; José Dirceu Ribeiro; Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera Toro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality of life according to the level of asthma control and degree of asthma severity in children and adolescents. METHODS: We selected children and adolescents with asthma (7-17 years of age) from the Pediatric Pulmonology Outpatient Clinic of the State University of Campinas Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Asthma control and asthma severity were assessed by the Asthma Control Test and by the questionnaire based on the Globa...

  7. Occupational asthma in maritime environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, David; Loddé, Brice; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis;

    2016-01-01

    In 2006 we published our first review based on the available literature on occupational asthma in maritime environments in the “International Maritime Health” journal. Since then, we have obtained a great deal of new knowledge on asthma in seafood workers and fishermen and on the impact of exposu...... of exposures from sulphites preservatives, container fumigants etc. in maritime workers. This review aims to provide an update of the current knowledge base about occupational asthma in a maritime context and to provide recommendations regarding medical surveillance of workers at risk....

  8. Thymoquinone inhibits inflammation, neoangiogenesis and vascular remodeling in asthma mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xinming; Ren, Yuan; Yu, Na; Kong, Lingfei; Kang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Asthma is a chronic obstructive disease which is characterized by recurring airway inflammation, reversible airway obstruction, airway hyper responsiveness and vascular remodeling. Thymoquinone (TQ), an active ingredient isolated from Nigella sativa, was reported to exhibit anti-inflammation and anti-proliferation of in various cancer cells as well as epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of TQ on the inflammation, neoangiogenesis and vascular remodeling induced by Ovalbumin (OVA) in asthma mice in vivo and the anti-angiogenesis effects of TQ in VEGF-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. Our results revealed that TQ inhibited the production of inflammatory factors interleukin-4/-5 (IL-4/-5) by enzyme-linked immunesorbent assay (ELISA). Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that the increase of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, which is also known as CD31 and α-smooth muscle actinalpha (α-SMA) expression in asthma mice challenged by OVA was suppressed by TQ. Moreover, TQ suppressed the activation of VEGFR2-PI3K-Akt pathway and up-regulated the expression of Slit glycoprotein-2 (Slit-2) both in vivo and in vitro with the inhibition of tube information in HUVEC cells. Meanwhile immunofluorescence analysis showed that Slit-2 and Roundabout-4 (Robo-4) were co-expressing after TQ treatment in OVA-challenged asthma mice. Our study demonstrates that TQ attenuated the inflammatory reaction by antagonizing IL-4/-5 while the anti-neoangiogenesis effect of TQ is mediated by inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression through VEGFR2/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which supports a potential role for TQ in ameliorating asthma. PMID:27240137

  9. Prevalence of asthma-like symptoms, asthma and its treatment in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, T; Pedersen, L; Larsson, B; Backer, V

    2009-04-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms and asthma and the use of asthma medication in Danish elite athletes. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of Danish elite athletes was conducted in 2006. All elite athletes (N=418) financially supported by the national organization of elite athletes comprised the study group; 329 (79%) completed the questionnaire concerning their sport, asthma-like symptoms, asthma and use of asthma medication. Asthma-like symptoms at rest were reported by 41% of respondents; 55% reported asthma-like symptoms at rest or at exercise. Physician-diagnosed asthma was present in 16% and 14% had current asthma. Asthma medication was taken by 7% of the athletes, of whom 79% used inhaled corticosteroids and 21% used inhaled beta(2)-agonists only. Athletes participating in endurance sports had higher prevalences of current asthma (24%) and use of asthma medication (15%) than all other athletes (Pendurance sports have a higher prevalence of asthma and use of asthma medication. The frequency of asthma medication is lower than the prevalence of current asthma indicating that there is no overuse of asthma medication among Danish elite athletes.

  10. The effect of asthma on the perimeter of the airway basement membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, John G; Budgeon, Charley A; Harji, Salima; Jones, Robyn L; James, Alan L; Green, Francis H

    2015-11-15

    When comparing the pathology of airways in individuals with and without asthma, the perimeter of the basement membrane (Pbm) is used as a marker of airway size, as it is independent of airway smooth muscle shortening or airway collapse. The extent to which the Pbm is itself altered in asthma has not been quantified. The aim of this study was to compare the Pbm from the same anatomical sites in postmortem lungs from subjects with (n = 55) and without (n = 30) asthma (nonfatal or fatal). Large and small airways were systematically sampled at equidistant "levels" from the apical segment of the left upper lobes and anterior and basal segments of the left lower lobes of lungs fixed in inflation. The length of the Pbm was estimated from cross sections of airway at each relative level. Linear mixed models were used to investigate the relationships between Pbm and sex, age, height, smoking status, airway level, and asthma group. The final model showed significant interactions between Pbm and airway level in small (<3 mm) airways, in subjects having asthma (P < 0.0001), and by sex (P < 0.0001). No significant interactions for Pbm between asthma groups were observed for larger airways (equivalent to a diameter of ∼3 mm and greater) or smoking status. Asthma is not associated with remodeling of the Pbm in large airways. In medium and small airways, the decrease in Pbm in asthma (≤20%) would not account for the published differences in wall area or area of smooth muscle observed in cases of severe asthma.

  11. Reticular basement membrane in asthma and COPD: Similar thickness, yet different composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen JW Liesker

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Jeroen JW Liesker1, Nick H Ten Hacken1, Mieke Zeinstra-Smith2, Steven R Rutgers1, Dirkje S Postma1, Wim Timens21Department of Pulmonology; 2Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Background: Reticular basement membrane (RBM thickening has been variably associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Even if RBM thickness is similar in both diseases, its composition might still differ. Objective: To assess whether RBM thickness and composition differ between asthma and COPD. Methods: We investigated 24 allergic asthmatics (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] 92% predicted, and 17 nonallergic COPD patients (FEV1 60% predicted, and for each group a control group of similar age and smoking habits (12 and 10 persons, respectively. Snap-frozen sections of bronchial biopsies were stained with hematoxylin/eosin and for collagen I, III, IV, V, laminin and tenascin. RBM thickening was assessed by digital image analysis. Relative staining intensity of each matrix component was determined.Results: Mean (SD RBM thickness was not significantly different between asthma and COPD 5.5 (1.3 vs 6.0 (1.8 μm, but significantly larger than in their healthy counterparts, ie, 4.7 (0.9 and 4.8 (1.2 μm, respectively. Collagen I and laminin stained significantly stronger in asthma than in COPD. Tenascin stained stronger in asthma than in healthy controls of similar age, and stronger in COPD controls than in asthma controls (p 0.05.Conclusion: RBM thickening occurs both in asthma and COPD. We provide supportive evidence that its composition differs in asthma and COPD. Keywords: reticular basement membrane thickness, reticular basement membrane composition, asthma, biopsy, COPD, remodeling

  12. Apolipoprotein Mimetic Peptides: A New Approach for the Treatment of Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglan eYao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available New treatments are needed for severe asthmatics to improve disease control and avoid severe toxicities associated with oral corticosteroids. We have used a murine model of house dust mite (HDM-induced asthma to identify steroid-unresponsive genes that might represent targets for new therapeutic approaches for severe asthma. This strategy identified apolipoprotein E as a steroid-unresponsive gene with increased mRNA expression in the lungs of HDM-challenged mice. Furthermore, apolipoprotein E functioned as an endogenous negative regulator of airway hyperreactivity and goblet cell hyperplasia in experimental HDM-induced asthma. The ability of apolipoprotein E, which is expressed by lung macrophages, to attenuate AHR and goblet cell hyperplasia is mediated by low density lipoprotein (LDL receptors expressed by airway epithelial cells. Consistent with this, administration of an apolipoprotein E mimetic peptide, corresponding to amino acids 130 to 149 of the LDL receptor-binding domain of the holo-apoE protein, significantly reduced AHR and goblet cell hyperplasia in HDM-challenged apoE-/- mice. These findings identified the apolipoprotein E - LDL receptor pathway as a new druggable target for asthma that can be activated by administration of apoE mimetic peptides. Similarly, apolipoprotein A-I may have therapeutic potential in asthma based upon its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-fibrotic properties. Furthermore, administration of apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides has attenuated airway inflammation, airway remodeling and airway hyperreactivity in murine models of experimental asthma. Thus, site-directed delivery of inhaled apolipoprotein E or apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides may represent novel treatment approaches that can be developed for asthma, including severe disease.

  13. Near Fatal Asthma: Clinical and Airway Biopsy Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Barbers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation and remodeling are integral parts of asthma pathophysiology. We sought to describe the clinical and pathologic features of near fatal asthma exacerbation (NFE. Methods. Bronchial biopsies were collected prospectively from NFE I subjects. Another NFE II group and a moderate severity exacerbation control group (ME II were retrospectively identified—no biopsies obtained. Results. All NFE II (=9 subjects exhibited remodeling and significant inflammation (eosinophilic, neutrophilic. NFE II group (=37 had a significant history of prior intubation and inhaled corticosteroids usage compared to ME II group (=41. They also exhibited leukocytosis, eosinophilia, and longer hospitalization days. Conclusions. Remodeling, eosinophilic, and neutrophilic inflammation were observed in NFE. NFE is associated with prior intubation and inhaled corticosteroids usage.

  14. Japanese Guideline for Adult Asthma 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ohta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult bronchial asthma (hereinafter, asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, reversible airway narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling to cause intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased, and that of patients who die from asthma has decreased (1.5 per 100,000 patients in 2012. The aim of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to lead a normal life without any symptoms. A good relationship between physicians and patients is indispensable for appropriate treatment. Long-term management with antiasthmatic agents and elimination of the causes and risk factors of asthma are fundamental to its treatment. Four steps in pharmacotherapy differentiate between mild and intensive treatments; each step includes an appropriate daily dose of an inhaled corticosteroid, varying from low to high. Long-acting 02-agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and sustained-release theophylline are recommended as concomitant drugs, while anti-immunoglobulin E antibody therapy has been recently developed for the most severe and persistent asthma involving allergic reactions. Inhaled 02-agonists, aminophylline, corticosteroids, adrenaline, oxygen therapy, and others are used as needed in acute exacerbations by choosing treatment steps for asthma exacerbations depending on the severity of attacks. Allergic rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, aspirin-induced asthma, pregnancy, asthma in athletes, and coughvariant asthma are also important issues that need to be considered.

  15. Adherence to asthma guidelines in general practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roghmann, M C; Sexton, M

    1999-06-01

    Adherence to asthma practice guidelines is low. Improved compliance could potentially improve care of patients with asthma. The purpose of this study was to determine if patients managed in a general practice with an associated asthma clinic are more likely to use asthma medications according to clinical practice guidelines than patients managed in the general surgery of the practice. A cross-sectional study of adult asthmatics, aged 18-55 years, was conducted in six British general practices. Prescription data on all asthma medication was collected for a 6-month period. Information on asthma clinic attendance, age, sex, employment status, other medical illness, and how patients used their inhaled beta2-agonist was collected through questionnaire. The prescription data for asthma medication and patient use of inhaled beta2-agonist were compared to the British Thoracic Society's (BTS) Guidelines for Management of Asthma in Adults to determine if the patient's asthma medication regimen was appropriate. There was no significant association found between appropriate asthma medication and asthma clinic attendance or other patient characteristics. Adherence to the BTS guidelines was low. Fifty-eight percent of the asthma patients used asthma medication regimens that were not consistent with the BTS guidelines published 1 year earlier. Adherence to the BTS guidelines was low regardless of patient characteristics, including asthma clinic attendance, age, sex, employment status, other medical illness, or individual practice. These findings underscore the need to document the utility of clinical practice guidelines which may improve physician compliance.

  16. What's an Asthma Action Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asthma action plan is to reduce or prevent flare-ups and emergency department visits through day-to-day ... can: avoid triggers identify early symptoms of a flare-up and treat them to prevent the flare-up ...

  17. Allergy and asthma prevention 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich; Bufe, Albrecht;

    2014-01-01

    Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy....... This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed formulas...... that antiviral vaccines could be useful in the future. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for the treatment of allergic patients with symptoms; the study of its value for primary and secondary prevention of asthma and allergy is in its very preliminary phases. The lack of success in the prevention...

  18. Exercising and asthma at school

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some exercises may be less likely to trigger asthma symptoms. Swimming is often a good choice. The warm, moist air may keep symptoms away. Football, baseball, and other sports that ... symptoms. Activities that are more intense and sustained, ...

  19. Flu and People with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Specific Groups People at High Risk Children Adults 65 Years and Older Pregnant Women Asthma Heart Disease & Stroke Diabetes HIV/AIDS Cancer Parents Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine ...

  20. The disease management approach to controlling asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haahtela, T

    2002-02-01

    Asthma has become an important public health issue worldwide and certain groups, such as children, are at particular risk of the disease. Often asthma remains under-diagnosed and under-treated. Despite these worrying trends, the disease management approach to asthma control can help most asthma patients achieve a 'normal' way of life. The increased prevalence and greater diagnostic awareness of asthma have placed increased demands on healthcare resources, but effective asthma control can minimize the personal, social and economic burdens of asthma. Early diagnosis and immediate anti-inflammatory treatment is the first step in gaining control of symptoms. A stepwise approach is then used to classify asthma severity and treatment, with the number and frequency of medications increasing (step up) as asthma severity increases and decreasing (step down) when asthma is under control. This stepwise approach to asthma management necessitates regular review of treatment once asthma is under control. However, effective asthma management is dependent on successful patient education, adherence to prescribed medication and good doctor patient partnerships. Current treatment guidelines recommend the use of a written asthma management plan that should be agreed between the doctor and patient. These plans should cover all aspects of asthma treatment, including prevention steps for long-term control and action steps to stop attacks once a worsening in asthma has been recognized. This comprehensive approach to asthma management increases the likelihood of achieving asthma control, which in turn reduces the need for emergency visits to the hospital or clinic and reduces the limitations on physical activity previously imposed by the condition.

  1. Asthma and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Xian Qiao; Yi Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To get a comprehensive understanding about the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and asthma by reviewing the epidemiology,pathophysiology,and clinical manifestation and then summarizing the latest progress on diagnosis and treatment.Data Sources:Articles referred in this review were mainly collected from a comprehensive search of the PubMed published in English from 1990 to 2015 with the terms "OSA" and “asthma'" as the main keywords.Highly regarded older publications were also included.Study Selection:Information about the features of the two diseases in common,the pathophysiologic association between them and their current treatments from the literature search were identified,retrieved,and summarized.Results:Both OSA and asthma are very prevalent conditions.The incidences of them have kept on rising in recent years.Asthma is often accompanied by snoring and apnea,and OSA often combines with asthma,as well.They have many predisposing and aggravating factors in common.Possible shared direct mechanistic links between them include mechanical effects,intermittent hypoxia,nerve reflex,inflammation,leptin,etc.Indirect mechanistic links include medication,nose diseases,smoking,obesity,and gastroesophageal reflux disease.Since OSA presents many similar features with nocturnal asthma,some scholars termed them as a sole syndrome "alternative overlap syndrome,"and proved that asthma symptoms in those patients could be improved through the treatment of continuous positive airway pressure.Conclusions:OSA and asthma are closely associated in pathogenesis,symptoms,and therapies.With the growing awareness of the relationship between them,we should raise our vigilance on the coexistence of OSA in those difficult-to-control asthmatic patients.Further studies are still needed to guide the clinical works.

  2. Therapeutic options for severe asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Jilcy; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Chandy, Dipak

    2012-01-01

    As the overall prevalence of asthma has escalated in the past decades, so has the population of patients with severe asthma. This condition is often difficult to manage due to the relative limitation of effective therapeutic options for the physician and the social and economic burden of the disease on the patient. Management should include an evaluation and elimination of modifiable risk factors such as smoking, allergen exposure, obesity and non-adherence, as well as therapy for co-morbidit...

  3. Exercise and asthma: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Giacco, Stefano R. Del; Firinu, Davide; Bjermer, Leif; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

    2015-01-01

    The terms ‘exercise-induced asthma’ (EIA) and ‘exercise-induced bronchoconstriction’ (EIB) are often used interchangeably to describe symptoms of asthma such as cough, wheeze, or dyspnoea provoked by vigorous physical activity. In this review, we refer to EIB as the bronchoconstrictive response and to EIA when bronchoconstriction is associated with asthma symptoms. EIB is a common occurrence for most of the asthmatic patients, but it also affects more than 10% of otherwise healthy individuals...

  4. Canadian asthma consensus report, 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Boulet, L. P.; A. Becker; Bérubé, D; Beveridge, R.; Ernst, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide physicians with current guidelines for the diagnosis and optimal management of asthma in children and adults, including pregnant women and the elderly, in office, emergency department, hospital and clinic settings. OPTIONS: The consensus group considered the roles of education, avoidance of provocative environmental and other factors, diverse pharmacotherapies, delivery devices and emergency and in-hospital management of asthma. OUTCOMES: Provision of the best control o...

  5. Chronic Infection and Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tara F; Kraft, Monica

    2016-08-01

    Chronic bacterial infection is implicated in both the development and severity of asthma. The atypical bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae have been identified in the airways of asthmatics and correlated with clinical features such as adult onset, exacerbation risks, steroid sensitivity, and symptom control. Asthmatic patients with evidence of bacterial infection may benefit from antibiotic treatment directed towards these atypical organisms. Examination of the airway microbiome may identify microbial communities that confer risk for or protection from severe asthma. PMID:27401621

  6. Childhood asthma: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aalderen, Wim M

    2012-01-01

    Many children suffer from recurrent coughing, wheezing and chest tightness. In preschool children one third of all children have these symptoms before the age of six, but only 40% of these wheezing preschoolers will continue to have asthma. In older school-aged children the majority of the children have asthma. Quality of life is affected by asthma control. Sleep disruption and exercised induced airflow limitation have a negative impact on participation in sports and social activities, and may influence family life. The goal of asthma therapy is to achieve asthma control, but only a limited number of patients are able to reach total control. This may be due to an incorrect diagnosis, co-morbidities or poor inhalation technique, but in the majority of cases non-adherence is the main reason for therapy failures. However, partnership with the parents and the child is important in order to set individually chosen goals of therapy and may be of help to improve control. Non-pharmacological measures aim at avoiding tobacco smoke, and when a child is sensitised, to avoid allergens. In pharmacological management international guidelines such as the GINA guideline and the British Guideline on the Management of Asthma are leading.

  7. Childhood Asthma: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim M. van Aalderen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many children suffer from recurrent coughing, wheezing and chest tightness. In preschool children one third of all children have these symptoms before the age of six, but only 40% of these wheezing preschoolers will continue to have asthma. In older school-aged children the majority of the children have asthma. Quality of life is affected by asthma control. Sleep disruption and exercised induced airflow limitation have a negative impact on participation in sports and social activities, and may influence family life. The goal of asthma therapy is to achieve asthma control, but only a limited number of patients are able to reach total control. This may be due to an incorrect diagnosis, co-morbidities or poor inhalation technique, but in the majority of cases non-adherence is the main reason for therapy failures. However, partnership with the parents and the child is important in order to set individually chosen goals of therapy and may be of help to improve control. Non-pharmacological measures aim at avoiding tobacco smoke, and when a child is sensitised, to avoid allergens. In pharmacological management international guidelines such as the GINA guideline and the British Guideline on the Management of Asthma are leading.

  8. Childhood Asthma Management and Environmental Triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbach, Jessica P; Cloutier, Michelle M

    2015-10-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease among children. It cannot be prevented but can be controlled. Industrialized countries experience high lifetime asthma prevalence that has increased over recent decades. Asthma has a complex interplay of genetic and environmental triggers. Studies have revealed complex interactions of lung structure and function genes with environmental exposures such as environmental tobacco smoke and vitamin D. Home environmental strategies can reduce asthma morbidity in children but should be tailored to specific allergens. Coupled with education and severity-specific asthma therapy, tailored interventions may be the most effective strategy to manage childhood asthma.

  9. A pathophysiological approach for FeNO: A biomarker for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardolo, Fabio L M; Sorbello, Valentina; Ciprandi, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The present review is focused on literature concerning the relevance of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in clinical practice from a pathophysiological point of view. There is increasing evidence that asthma is a heterogeneous pathological condition characterised by different phenotypes/endotypes related to specific biomarkers, including FeNO, helpful to predict therapeutic response in selected asthmatic populations. Nowadays FeNO, a non-invasive biomarker, appears to be useful to foresee asthma developing, to recognise specific asthma phenotypes, like the eosinophilic, to ameliorate asthma diagnosis and management in selected populations and to predict standard corticosteroid and biologic therapy efficacy. In addition, FeNO assessment may also be useful in patients with allergic rhinitis in order to detect the potential involvement of eosinophilic bronchial inflammation in "case finding" subjects at risk of asthma diagnosis. Therefore, it is possible to hypothesise a future with an appropriate use of FeNO by physicians dealing with worrisome clinical issues in specific asthma phenotypes. PMID:25796309

  10. Coeliac disease and asthma association in children: the role of antibiotic consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, Cristina; Pitter, Gisella; Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Romor, Pierantonio; Zanier, Loris; Zanotti, Renzo; Simonato, Lorenzo

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between coeliac disease and asthma has been scarcely investigated. Infant antibiotic exposure has been linked to both diseases. We evaluated the association between childhood coeliac disease and asthma and the role of antibiotics in the first year of life. We followed a cohort of children born in 1995-2011 in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region (Italy). Prescriptions for antibiotics in the first year of life and subsequent treated asthma were retrieved from drug prescription records; coeliac disease incident cases were identified from pathology reports, hospital discharges and exemption from prescription charges for clinical tests. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) using multivariate Poisson regression models. Among the 143,144 children, we identified 717 coeliac children and 34,969 asthmatics. Children with asthma were at increased risk of coeliac disease (IRR 1.46, 95% CI 1.25-1.67). Restricting the analysis to asthma that occurred before the diagnosis of coeliac disease, the excess risk disappeared, except for coeliac disease diagnosed after 5 years of age (IRR 1.37, 95% CI 1.09-1.71). Antibiotics were not a confounding factor in these associations. Childhood treated asthma and coeliac disease are significantly associated. This association is not confounded by antibiotic exposure in the first year of life and may be explained by other shared risk factors.

  11. Awareness regarding childhood asthma in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harbi, Saleh; Al-Harbi, Adel S.; Al-Khorayyef, Abdullah; Al-Qwaiee, Mansour; Al-Shamarani, Abdullah; Al-Aslani, Wafa; Kamfar, Hayat; Felemban, Osama; Barzanji, Mohammed; Al-Harbi, Naser; Dhabab, Ruqaia; Al-Omari, Mohammed Ahmed; Yousef, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Assessing the knowledge and awareness of the Saudi society about bronchial asthma in children. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were randomly distributed to 1039 Saudi Arabians in May 2014 at Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. RESULTS: The awareness of bronchial asthma questions showed that 67% of total sample thought that it could be a fatal disease, and only 13.2% thought that there is a difference between bronchial asthma and chest allergies in children. 86.1% thought that the symptoms of bronchial asthma include dyspnea and nocturnal cough, and 45.7% thought that fever, a runny nose and throat inflammation are not symptoms. 60.2% thought that infectious respiratory diseases may increase bronchial asthma progression. In addition, 40% thought that the use of antibiotics doesn’t help in diminishing bronchial asthma complications, and some thought that the patient can stop medication after an acute asthma attack. 34.1% thought that inhaled medication for asthma doesn’t cause addiction. Very highly significant results are shown between bronchial asthma knowledge and age, the level of education, marital status, and if the individual knows a person who suffers from bronchial asthma (P < 0.001). There are positive correlations between bronchial asthma knowledge and age, marital status, and level of education (r = 0.152, 0.150, 0.197), respectively. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that bronchial asthma knowledge in the Saudi Arabian population is insufficient, and efforts should be carried out to spread bronchial asthma management. PMID:26933459

  12. Photonic Crystal Fiber Attenuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo Beom Eom; Hokyung Kim; Jinchae Kim; Un-Chul Paek; Byeong Ha Lee

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel fiber attenuator based on photonic crystal fibers. The difference in the modal field diameters of a conventional single mode fiber and a photonic crystal fiber was used. A variable optical attenuator was also achieved by applying macro-bending on the PCF part of the proposed attenuator

  13. Korean Asthma Guideline 2014: Summary of Major Updates to the Korean Asthma Guideline 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deog Kyeom; Park, Yong Bum; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Jung, Ki-Suck; Yoo, Ji Hong; Yoo, Kwang-Ha; Kim, Kwan Hyung

    2016-07-01

    Asthma is a prevalent and serious health problem in Korea. Recently, the Korean Asthma Guideline has been updated by The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (KATRD) in an effort to improve the clinical management of asthma. This guideline focuses on adult patients with asthma and aims to deliver up to date scientific evidence and recommendations to general physicians for the management of asthma. For this purpose, this guideline was updated following systematic review and meta-analysis of recent studies and adapting some points of international guidelines (Global Initiative for Asthma [GINA] report 2014, National Asthma Education and Prevention Program [NAEPP] 2007, British Thoracic Society [BTS/SIGN] asthma guideline 2012, and Canadian asthma guideline 2012). Updated issues include recommendations derived using the population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) model, which produced 20 clinical questions on the management of asthma. It also covers a new definition of asthma, the importance of confirming various airflow limitations with spirometry, the epidemiology and the diagnostic flow of asthma in Korea, the importance and evidence for inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and ICS/formoterol as a single maintenance and acute therapy in the stepwise management of asthma, assessment of severity of asthma and management of exacerbation, and an action plan to cope with exacerbation. This guideline includes clinical assessments, and treatment of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome, management of asthma in specific conditions including severe asthma, elderly asthma, cough variant asthma, exercise-induced bronchial contraction, etc. The revised Korean Asthma Guideline is expected to be a useful resource in the management of asthma.

  14. Live attenuated intranasal influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Montinaro, Valentina; Groppali, Elena; Tenconi, Rossana; Semino, Margherita; Principi, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Annual vaccination is the most effective means of preventing and controlling influenza epidemics, and the traditional trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) is by far the most widely used. Unfortunately, it has a number of limitations, the most important of which is its poor immunogenicity in younger children and the elderly, the populations at greatest risk of severe influenza. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has characteristics that can overcome some of these limitations. It does not have to be injected because it is administered intranasally. It is very effective in children and adolescents, among whom it prevents significantly more cases of influenza than the traditional TIV. However, its efficacy in adults has not been adequately documented, which is why it has not been licensed for use by adults by the European health authorities. LAIV is safe and well tolerated by children aged > 2 y and adults, but some concerns arisen regarding its safety in younger children and subjects with previous asthma or with recurrent wheezing. Further studies are needed to solve these problems and to evaluate the possible role of LAIV in the annual vaccination of the general population.

  15. Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and COPD: differences and similarities Share | Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities This article has been reviewed ... or you could have Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) , such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis. Because asthma ...

  16. New Asthma Guidelines What You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which allergens or irritants are important. The guidelines stress that multiple measures are necessary to control exposure to allergens and irritants. You should get regular "asthma check-ups" to monitor your asthma control. Visits ...

  17. Asthma: New Information for the Early Interventionist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonsson, Nancy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article highlights key portions of the National Institutes of Health's National Asthma Education Program. Guidelines for understanding asthma triggers and medications are provided, and approaches to controlling environmental factors are suggested. (Author/PB)

  18. Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Orleans left buildings overrun with mold, a common asthma trigger," says Floyd J. Malveaux, M.D., Ph.D., ... Rhonda Brown. "It is one of the boys' asthma triggers, so I want to know more about it. ...

  19. Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Depart...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations in Children with Asthma, published in Volume 3,...

  20. Asthma mortality in the Danish child population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Inger Merete; Jensen, V B; Bülow, S;

    2003-01-01

    Child death due to asthma is a rare and potentially preventable event. We investigated possible risk factors for death due to asthma in children and adolescents, as a step towards preventing or minimizing asthma death in this age group, and improving asthma management and care. We reviewed all 108...... cases of asthma death in 1-19-year-olds in Denmark, 1973-1994. Copies of death certificates, hospital records, information from general practitioners, and autopsy records were obtained. The information was assessed with particular reference to: features and duration of asthma before death; severity...... of asthma; time and place of death; long-term and ongoing medical treatment; quality of medical care; circumstances of final illness; and medical treatment during the final episode of asthma. Age groups of 1-4 years, 5-14 years, and 15-19 years were analyzed separately and in aggregate. Death occurred...

  1. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3-2 Table 4-1 Table 4-2 Reports and Publications Asthma Surveillance Summaries MMWR Publications NCHS Reports and Publications Related Articles, Publications, and Links Asthma's ...

  2. Obesity-related asthma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Nikunj A; Lazarus, Angeline

    2016-08-01

    Obesity as a risk factor for asthma has been identified in previous studies. Additionally, a disproportionate number of patients with severe or difficult-to-control asthma are obese. Patients with obesity-related asthma tend to have worse asthma control and quality of life disproportionate to their pulmonary function tests, are less responsive to corticosteroid therapy, and are more likely to have obesity-related comorbidities such as obstructive sleep apnea and gastroesophageal disease that complicate asthma treatment. With the increasing prevalence of obesity, the prevalence of asthma is anticipated to grow proportionally. Addressing weight loss and encouraging activity is essential in the management of obesity-related asthma. This article briefly overviews the epidemiology, unique distinguishing features, potential mechanisms, and approach to management of patients with obesity-related asthma in adults. PMID:27336439

  3. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You can control your asthma and avoid an attack by taking your medicine ...

  4. Near-fatal asthma in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, Nydia

    2015-01-01

    Asthma affects the elderly as often as other age groups; however, it more often becomes fatal in the elderly. Unfortunately, asthma is often unmanaged or underdiagnosed in the older population. It is important for health care providers to recognize risk factors in the elderly and properly treat them before asthma becomes fatal. This article describes near-fatal asthma and identifies risk factors specifically for the elderly. Symptoms of asthma are reviewed as well as assessments and diagnostic tests to identify asthma severity and complications. Proper management needs to be urgently initiated to prevent worsening respiratory distress; this includes fast-acting drug treatments appropriate for elderly patients. Decompensated acute respiratory failure, secondary to severe asthma, requires the skills of an experienced anesthesiologist because these patients may rapidly deteriorate during induction and intubation. Ventilator management must include strategies to prevent worsening hyperinflation of the lungs. Elderly asthma patients have a higher mortality risk related to ventilator complications and other comorbidities. PMID:25470264

  5. Managing Asthma: Learning to Breathe Easier

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dr. Michelle Freemer, an NIH asthma expert. For youngsters, a doctor will do a physical exam and ... and treat asthma. Levine’s team is studying the effects of house dust mites inside the home. While ...

  6. Diagnosing Asthma in Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Diagnosing Asthma in Babies & Toddlers Page Content Article Body One ... family with recurrent bronchitis or sinus problems. When Asthma is Not the Cause Your pediatrician will listen ...

  7. Asthma Symptoms Can Bloom in Springtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159082.html Asthma Symptoms Can Bloom in Springtime Follow your care ... 27, 2016 FRIDAY, May 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Asthma symptoms increase in spring, making it especially important ...

  8. What's an Asthma Flare-Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know About Zika & Pregnancy What's an Asthma Flare-Up? KidsHealth > For Parents > What's an Asthma Flare-Up? ... in the neck and chest How a Flare-Up Affects Lungs Here's what's happening inside the body ...

  9. Breath formate is a marker of airway S-nitrosothiol depletion in severe asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roby Greenwald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Children with severe asthma have poor symptom control and elevated markers of airway oxidative and nitrosative stress. Paradoxically, they have decreased airway levels of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs, a class of endogenous airway smooth muscle relaxants. This deficiency results from increased activity of an enzyme that both reduces SNOs to ammonia and oxidizes formaldehyde to formic acid, a volatile carboxylic acid that is more easily detected in exhaled breath condensate (EBC than SNOs. We therefore hypothesize that depletion of airway SNOs is related to asthma pathology, and breath formate concentration may be a proxy measure of SNO catabolism. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected EBC samples from children and adolescents, including 38 with severe asthma, 46 with mild-to-moderate asthma and 16 healthy adolescent controls, and the concentration of ionic constituents was quantified using ion chromatography. The concentrations of EBC components with volatile conjugates were log-normally distributed. Formate was the principal ion that displayed a significant difference between asthma status classifications. The mean EBC formate concentration was 40% higher in samples collected from all asthmatics than from healthy controls (mean = 5.7 microM, mean+/-standard deviation = 3.1-10.3 microM vs. 4.0, 2.8-5.8 microM, p = 0.05. EBC formate was higher in severe asthmatics than in mild-to-moderate asthmatics (6.8, 3.7-12.3 microM vs. 4.9, 2.8-8.7 microM, p = 0.012. In addition, formate concentration was negatively correlated with methacholine PC(20 (r = -0.39, p = 0.002, asthmatics only, and positively correlated with the NO-derived ion nitrite (r = 0.46, p<0.0001 as well as with total serum IgE (r = 0.28, p = 0.016, asthmatics only. Furthermore, formate was not significantly correlated with other volatile organic acids nor with inhaled corticosteroid dose. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that EBC formate concentration is significantly higher in the breath of

  10. [Severe asthma--where are we today?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bülow, Anna; Backer, Vibeke; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2014-01-13

    Severe asthma is defined by persistent symptoms and frequent exacerbations despite intensive asthma therapy. The prevalence is estimated to be 5-10% of all asthmatics. Severe asthma is responsible for a major burden of illness including low quality of life and a disproportionate use of health-care resources. The clinical assessment of severe asthma must include verification of the correct diagnosis, adherence to medication, excluding differential diagnosis and identification and treatment of aggravating co-morbidities and trigger factors.

  11. Svær asthma bronchiale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Anna; Backer, Vibeke; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Severe asthma is defined by persistent symptoms and frequent exacerbations despite intensive asthma therapy. The prevalence is estimated to be 5-10% of all asthmatics. Severe asthma is responsible for a major burden of illness including low quality of life and a disproportionate use of health......-care resources. The clinical assessment of severe asthma must include verification of the correct diagnosis, adherence to medication, excluding differential diagnosis and identification and treatment of aggravating co-morbidities and trigger factors....

  12. Asthma care for children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among young children and adolescents. With high quality health care, most children and adolescents with asthma can live an active and normal life. Yet, many children and adolescents have uncontrolled asthma, with symptoms and exacerbations which may affect their daily life. Adolescence is a sensitive period and asthma may be difficult to treat due to poor adherence to treatment. Little is known about health care professionals’ adhe...

  13. Is Asthma Related to Choroidal Neovascularization?

    OpenAIRE

    Yaoyao Sun; Wenzhen Yu; Lvzhen Huang; Jing Hou; Peihua Gong; Yi Zheng; Mingwei Zhao; Peng Zhou; Xiaoxin Li

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age-related degeneration (AMD) and asthma are both diseases that are related to the activation of the complement system. The association between AMD and asthma has been debated in previous studies. The authors investigated the relationship between AMD and asthma systemically. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The epidemiological study showed that asthma was related to choroidal neovascularization (CNV) subtype (OR = 1.721, P = 0.023). However, the meta-analysis showed there was no association b...

  14. Psychiatric and social aspects of brittle asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Garden, G M; Ayres, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Many studies have shown that emotional factors play a part in asthma, but few have compared patients with differing severities of asthma. It was our impression that patients with "brittle" asthma (BA; more than 40% diurnal variation in peak flow on 15 or more days a month over a period of at least six months, and persistent symptoms despite multiple drug treatment) had greater psychosocial morbidity than asthmatic patients with less variable asthma. METHODS--Twenty patients with B...

  15. Psychosocial Components of Asthma Management in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, Shari L.

    2000-01-01

    Asthma is a growing health problem that affects 4.8 million children in the US alone. This paper considers empirical studies from the past 20 years examining the relationship between psychosocial factors and asthma management and morbidity. Research indicates that psychosocial factors, including risk and protective factors in the social environment, and knowledge, attitudes and skills pertaining to asthma management, can play an important role in asthma management, adherence and morbidity. Ca...

  16. Supported self-management for asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary Pinnock

    2015-01-01

    Key points Self-management education in asthma is not an optional extra. Healthcare professionals have a responsibility to ensure that everyone with asthma has personalised advice to enable them to optimise how they self-manage their condition.; Overviews of the extensive evidence-base conclude that asthma self-management supported by regular professional review, improves asthma control, reduces exacerbations and admissions, and improves quality of life.; Self-management education sh...

  17. Progress in the management of childhood asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Vichyanond, Pakit; Pensrichon, Rattana; Kurasirikul, Suruthai

    2012-01-01

    Asthma has become the most common chronic disease in childhood. Significant advances in epidemiological research as well as in therapy of pediatric asthma have been made over the past 2 decades. In this review, we look at certain aspects therapy of childhood asthma, both in the past and present. Literature review on allergen avoidance (including mites, cockroach and cat), intensive therapy with β2-agonists in acute asthma (administering via continuous nebulization and intravenous routes), a r...

  18. Utility of Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 in the assessment of asthma control*

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Mariana Nadal; Chong, Herberto José; Rabelo, Lêda Maria; Riedi, Carlos Antônio; Rosário, Nelson Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the reproducibility of Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 (ACQ-7) in asthma patients, comparing our results against those obtained with the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria. We evaluated 52 patients. Patients completed the ACQ-7, underwent spirometry, and were clinically assessed to determine the level of asthma control according to the GINA criteria, in two visits, 15 days apart. The ACQ-7 cutoff for uncontrolled asthma was a score of 1.5. The ACQ-7 show...

  19. Utility of Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 in the assessment of asthma control

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Nadal Cardoso; Herberto José Chong Neto; Lêda Maria Rabelo; Carlos Antônio Riedi; Nelson Augusto Rosário

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the reproducibility of Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 (ACQ-7) in asthma patients, comparing our results against those obtained with the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria. We evaluated 52 patients. Patients completed the ACQ-7, underwent spirometry, and were clinically assessed to determine the level of asthma control according to the GINA criteria, in two visits, 15 days apart. The ACQ-7 cutoff for uncontrolled asthma was a score of 1.5. The ACQ-7 show...

  20. Mechanical ventilation for severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, James

    2015-06-01

    Acute exacerbations of asthma can lead to respiratory failure requiring ventilatory assistance. Noninvasive ventilation may prevent the need for endotracheal intubation in selected patients. For patients who are intubated and undergo mechanical ventilation, a strategy that prioritizes avoidance of ventilator-related complications over correction of hypercapnia was first proposed 30 years ago and has become the preferred approach. Excessive pulmonary hyperinflation is a major cause of hypotension and barotrauma. An appreciation of the key determinants of hyperinflation is essential to rational ventilator management. Standard therapy for patients with asthma undergoing mechanical ventilation consists of inhaled bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and drugs used to facilitate controlled hypoventilation. Nonconventional interventions such as heliox, general anesthesia, bronchoscopy, and extracorporeal life support have also been advocated for patients with fulminant asthma but are rarely necessary. Immediate mortality for patients who are mechanically ventilated for acute severe asthma is very low and is often associated with out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest before intubation. However, patients who have been intubated for severe asthma are at increased risk for death from subsequent exacerbations and must be managed accordingly in the outpatient setting. PMID:26033128

  1. Asthma: Not Just a Childhood Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kandra

    2002-01-01

    Asthma has grown to epidemic proportions among school-age children, and nearly 10 million U.S. adults suffer from it. This paper describes asthma and its triggers and explains how to take measures to manage asthma symptoms within the school (e.g., dusting regularly and keeping medications available). A sidebar presents tips on controlling asthma…

  2. Children with Asthma: Strategies for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Getch, Yvette Q.

    1999-01-01

    Guidelines for managing the child with asthma in educational settings address effects of asthma on academic performance, psychosocial effects, the need for collaboration with parents and medical personnel, common triggers of asthmatic episodes, symptoms, communication with parents, and resources. A sample asthma care plan is attached. (DB)

  3. Understanding Children with Asthma: Trouble and Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, JungHa; Wood, Beatrice L.; Cheah, PoAnn

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common illnesses of childhood; in the United States, nearly 9% of children have the condition (Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2006). Among children with chronic illnesses, asthma is the most common cause for school absence and hospitalization (Akinbami, 2006). Asthma is a chronic disorder of the…

  4. Managing Asthma in the Early Childhood Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graville, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…

  5. Taking ACTion for better control of asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yong-chang

    2007-01-01

    @@ The global prevalence of asthma ranges from 1% to 18% of the population in different countries.1 In China, while national data of asthma prevalence are still lacking, an epidemiological study in Beijing showed that the prevalence of asthma in occupational populations was 1.25%.2

  6. The importance of genetic influences in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, H; Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS

    1999-01-01

    Asthma is a complex genetic disorder in which the mode of inheritance is not known. Many segregation studies suggest that a major gene could be involved in asthma, but until now different genetic models have been obtained, Twin studies, too, have shown evidence for genetic influences in asthma, but

  7. Jackie Joyner-Kersee: Living with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Asthma Jackie Joyner-Kersee: Living with Asthma Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents Jackie ... the heptathlon and long-jump competitions, despite severe asthma. While she was a top student-athlete at ...

  8. Epidemiology and Pulmonary Physiology of Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Jacqueline; Mikulic, Lucas; Kaminsky, David A

    2016-08-01

    The epidemiology and physiology of severe asthma are inherently linked because of varying phenotypes and expressions of asthma throughout the population. To understand how to better treat severe asthma, we must use both population data and physiologic principles to individualize therapies among groups with similar expressions of this disease. PMID:27401616

  9. The school environment and asthma in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Hauptman, Marissa; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the relationship between environmental exposures within the school environment and pediatric asthma morbidity. This article will conclude by reviewing novel school based asthma education and therapeutic programs and environmental interventions designed to help mitigate pediatric asthma morbidity.

  10. Neurotrophins in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renz Harald

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergic bronchial asthma (BA is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, development of airway hyperreactivity and recurrent reversible airway obstruction. T-helper 2 cells and their products have been shown to play an important role in this process. In contrast, the mechanisms by which immune cells interact with the cells residing in lung and airways, such as neurons, epithelial or smooth muscle cells, still remains uncertain. Sensory and motor neurons innervating the lung exhibit a great degree of functional plasticity in BA defined as 'neuronal plasticity'. These neurons control development of airway hyperresponsiveness and acute inflammatory responses, resulting in the concept of 'neurogenic inflammation'. Such quantitative and/or qualitative changes in neuronal functions are mediated to a great extent by a family of cytokines, the neurotrophins, which in turn are produced by activated immune cells, among others in BA. We have therefore developed the concept that neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor link pathogenic events in BA to dysfunctions of the immune and nervous system.

  11. 10. Occupational asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardana, Emil J

    2008-02-01

    A diversity of airborne dusts, gases, fumes, and vapors can induce dose-related respiratory symptoms in individuals exposed in the workplace. These agents can cause annoyance reactions, irritational effects, sensitization, or the induction of corrosive changes in the respiratory tract, depending on their composition, concentration, and duration of exposure. The prevalence of occupational asthma (OA) ranges from 9% to 15% of the asthmatic population. Factors that might influence the development of OA include the work environment, climatic conditions, genetic proclivities, tobacco and recreational drug use, respiratory infection, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and endotoxin exposure. Pathogenetically, new-onset OA can be allergic or nonallergic in origin. The allergic variants are usually caused by high-molecular-weight allergens, such as grain dust and animal or fish protein. Selected low-molecular-weight agents are also capable of inducing allergic OA. Symptoms ensue after a latent period of months to years. Nonallergic OA can be precipitated by a brief high-level exposure to a potent irritant. Symptoms occur immediately or within a few hours of the exposure. Once the diagnosis of allergic OA is established, the worker should be removed from further exposure in the workplace. In nonallergic OA the worker can return to work if the exposure was clearly a nonrecurring event. If the diagnosis is made in a timely fashion, most workers experience improvement. Prevention is the best therapeutic intervention. PMID:18241692

  12. Application of Molecular Pathology in Endocrine Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Ebru Serinsoz; Tezel, Gaye Güler

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth in knowledge of cell and molecular biology led to the increased usage of molecular techniques in anatomical pathology. This is also due to the advances achieved in the techniques introduced in the last few years which are less laborious as compared to the techniques used at the beginning of the "molecular era". The initial assays were also very expensive and were not performed except for selected centers. Moreover, the clinicians were not sure how to make use of the accumulating molecular information. That situation has also changed and molecular techniques are being performed in a wide variety of medical settings which also has a reflection on the endocrine system pathology among other organ systems. This review will provide an update of genetic changes observed in different endocrine system pathologies and their diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic values.

  13. Genomic and non-genomic actions of glucocorticoids in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alangari Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids are the mainstay of asthma therapy. They are primarily used to suppress airway inflammation, which is the central pathological change in asthmatic patients′ airways. This is achieved by many different mechanisms. The classical mechanism is by suppression of the genetic transcription of many inflammatory cytokines that are key in asthma pathophysiology (transrepression. On the other hand, the transcription of certain inhibitory cytokines is activated by glucocorticoids (transactivation, a mechanism that also mediates many of the adverse effects of glucocorticoids. The onset of action through these mechanisms is often delayed (4-24 hours. Other mechanisms mediated through non-genomic pathways are increasingly appreciated. These are delivered in part by binding of glucocorticoids to nonclassical membrane-bound glucocorticoid receptors or by potentiating the a1-adrenergic action on the bronchial arterial smooth muscles, in addition to other mechanisms. These effects are characterized by their rapid onset and short duration of action. Understanding these different mechanisms will help in the development of new and better drugs to treat this common disease and to develop new improved strategies in our approach to its management. Here, the genomic and non-genomic mechanisms of actions of glucocorticoids in asthma are briefly reviewed, with special emphasis on the current updates of the non-genomic mechanisms.

  14. Asthma in Primary Care : Severity, Treatment and Level of Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ställberg, Björn

    2008-01-01

    Aims. The overall aim was to examine the severity, treatment and level of control in patients with asthma in primary care in Sweden. The specific aims were to assess what matters to asthma patients, evaluate symptoms, medication and identify factors related to asthma severity, compare the extent of asthma control in 2001 and 2005, and investigate the development of asthma and degree of asthma control in adolescents and young adults who had reported asthma six years earlier. Methods. The first...

  15. Eosinophilic inflammation in allergic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Souza Possa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modulation of immune response, induction of airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, characteristic features of asthma. Various types of promising treatments for reducing asthmatic response are related to reduction in eosinophil counts both in human and experimental models of pulmonary allergic inflammation, showing that the recruitment of these cells really plays an important role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases such asthma.

  16. Eosinophilic bioactivities in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tara F; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Bochner, Bruce S; Rosenwasser, Lanny J

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is clearly related to airway or blood eosinophilia, and asthmatics with significant eosinophilia are at higher risk for more severe disease. Eosinophils actively contribute to innate and adaptive immune responses and inflammatory cascades through the production and release of diverse chemokines, cytokines, lipid mediators and other growth factors. Eosinophils may persist in the blood and airways despite guidelines-based treatment. This review details eosinophil effector mechanisms, surface markers, and clinical outcomes associated with eosinophilia and asthma severity. There is interest in the potential of eosinophils or their products to predict treatment response with biotherapeutics and their usefulness as biomarkers. This is important as monoclonal antibodies are targeting cytokines and eosinophils in different lung environments for treating severe asthma. Identifying disease state-specific eosinophil biomarkers would help to refine these strategies and choose likely responders to biotherapeutics. PMID:27386041

  17. Deficiency of RAMP1 attenuates antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyu Li

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the lung, characterized by breathing difficulty during an attack following exposure to an environmental trigger. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP is a neuropeptide that may have a pathological role in asthma. The CGRP receptor is comprised of two components, which include the G-protein coupled receptor, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR, and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1. RAMPs, including RAMP1, mediate ligand specificity in addition to aiding in the localization of receptors to the cell surface. Since there has been some controversy regarding the effect of CGRP on asthma, we sought to determine the effect of CGRP signaling ablation in an animal model of asthma. Using gene-targeting techniques, we generated mice deficient for RAMP1 by excising exon 3. After determining that these mice are viable and overtly normal, we sensitized the animals to ovalbumin prior to assessing airway resistance and inflammation after methacholine challenge. We found that mice lacking RAMP1 had reduced airway resistance and inflammation compared to wildtype animals. Additionally, we found that a 50% reduction of CLR, the G-protein receptor component of the CGRP receptor, also ameliorated airway resistance and inflammation in this model of allergic asthma. Interestingly, the loss of CLR from the smooth muscle cells did not alter the airway resistance, indicating that CGRP does not act directly on the smooth muscle cells to drive airway hyperresponsiveness. Together, these data indicate that signaling through RAMP1 and CLR plays a role in mediating asthma pathology. Since RAMP1 and CLR interact to form a receptor for CGRP, our data indicate that aberrant CGRP signaling, perhaps on lung endothelial and inflammatory cells, contributes to asthma pathophysiology. Finally, since RAMP-receptor interfaces are pharmacologically tractable, it may be possible to develop compounds targeting the RAMP1/CLR

  18. Exercise and asthma: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, Stefano R; Firinu, Davide; Bjermer, Leif; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

    2015-01-01

    The terms 'exercise-induced asthma' (EIA) and 'exercise-induced bronchoconstriction' (EIB) are often used interchangeably to describe symptoms of asthma such as cough, wheeze, or dyspnoea provoked by vigorous physical activity. In this review, we refer to EIB as the bronchoconstrictive response and to EIA when bronchoconstriction is associated with asthma symptoms. EIB is a common occurrence for most of the asthmatic patients, but it also affects more than 10% of otherwise healthy individuals as shown by epidemiological studies. EIA and EIB have a high prevalence also in elite athletes, especially within endurance type of sports, and an athlete's asthma phenotype has been described. However, the occurrence in elite athletes shows that EIA/EIB, if correctly managed, may not impair physical activity and top sports performance. The pathogenic mechanisms of EIA/EIB classically involve both osmolar and vascular changes in the airways in addition to cooling of the airways with parasympathetic stimulation. Airways inflammation plays a fundamental role in EIA/EIB. Diagnosis and pharmacological management must be carefully performed, with particular consideration of current anti-doping regulations, when caring for athletes. Based on the demonstration that the inhaled asthma drugs do not improve performance in healthy athletes, the doping regulations are presently much less strict than previously. Some sports are at a higher asthma risk than others, probably due to a high environmental exposure while performing the sport, with swimming and chlorine exposure during swimming as one example. It is considered very important for the asthmatic child and adolescent to master EIA/EIB to be able to participate in physical activity on an equal level with their peers, and a precise early diagnosis with optimal treatment follow-up is vital in this aspect. In addition, surprising recent preliminary evidences offer new perspectives for moderate exercise as a potential therapeutic tool for

  19. Cardiac arrhythmias in adult patients with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Rutten, Frans H; Kors, Jan A;

    2012-01-01

    and electrocardiographic characteristics of arrhythmogenicity (ECG) and to explore the role of β2-mimetics. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 158 adult patients with a diagnosis of asthma and 6303 participants without asthma from the cohort of the Utrecht Health Project-an ongoing, longitudinal, primary...... more common (OR: 12.4 [95% CI: 4.7-32.8] and 3.7 [95% CI: 1.3-10.5], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The adult patients with asthma more commonly show tachycardia and PVCs on the ECG than those without asthma. The patients with asthma received β2-mimetics; the risk of tachycardia and PVCs is even more...

  20. Linkage and Genetic Association in Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bridgette L; Rosenwasser, Lanny J

    2016-08-01

    A significant body of work in the genetics of asthma currently exists. However, current knowledge has not been clarifying in understanding the pathophysiology of asthma and therapeutic treatment of the disease. Severe asthma in adults and children is a significant burden in relation to disproportionate disease morbidity, mortality, and health utilization. This disease phenotype is not well understood; current effective treatment regimens are limited. Genetic studies may lead to improved understanding of the pathophysiology of severe asthma and identification of relevant subsets, which allow more targeted and effective therapies and the realization of Precision Medicine in asthma. PMID:27401617

  1. Epidemiological & Risk Factors In Childhood Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Harmesh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What are the epidemiological and risk factors associated with asthma in children. Objective: To determine epidemiological and risk factors in childhood bronchial asthma. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting Hospital based. Participants: Children suffering from bronchial asthma and their parents/ attendants. Sample size: 235 children. Study variables: Age, sex place of residence, socio-economic status, age of onset of asthma, no of siblings, fuel used for cooking, smoking, asthma in the family seasonal variation etc. Statistical analysis: percentages

  2. Defining and managing risk in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, J D; Zaidi, S; Shaw, D E

    2014-08-01

    Asthma attacks are a major global source of morbidity and cost. The incidence and impact of asthma attacks have not improved despite widespread adoption of effective universal treatment guidelines. Consequently, there is increasing interest in managing asthma based on specific assessments of both current symptoms and future risk. In this review, we consider 'risk' in asthma, and how it might be assessed from the patient's history and objective measurements. We also discuss the potential for encouraging shared decision-making and improving medical consensus through explicit communication of risk and highlight the potential opportunities and challenges in risk assessment to improve asthma management through individualised treatment strategies. PMID:24773229

  3. Free running asthma screening test.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsanakas, J N; Milner, R D; Bannister, O M; Boon, A W

    1988-01-01

    The free running asthma screening test (FRAST) was evaluated in 503 Sheffield schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years and compared with responses to an asthma questionnaire. The FRAST measured peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) before and at 1, 5, and 10 minutes after maximum voluntary running for at least 5 minutes in a standardised environment. A fall in PEFR of greater than 15% in at least two postexercise readings was defined as abnormal. Six (1%) children did not do the test and 69 (14%) failed ...

  4. Emerging Biologics in Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavord, Ian D; Hilvering, Bart; Shrimanker, Rahul

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical endotypes, depending on the type of airway inflammation, clinical severity, and response to treatment. This article focuses on the eosinophilic endotype of asthma, which is defined by the central role that eosinophils play in the pathophysiology of the condition. It is characterized by persistently elevated sputum and/or blood eosinophils and by a significant response to treatments that suppress eosinophilia. Eosinophil activity in the airway may be more important than their numbers and this needs to be investigated. Transcriplomic or Metabolomic signatures may also be useful to identify this endotype. PMID:27401629

  5. Variable laser attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprng one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength.

  6. [Pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of cough variant asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Masaki

    2014-05-01

    Cough variant asthma (CVA) has been recognized as a precursor of asthma or a pre-asthmatic state because of the mildly heightened bronchial responsiveness and efficacy of bronchodilator therapy. Nevertheless, the accumulating evidence indicates that the pathophysiology is different between CVA and bronchial asthma. The most fundamental physiologic feature is a heightened cough response to methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction in CVA, while this response is rather reduced in bronchial asthma. The sensitivity of cough receptors located in the superficial layer of the airway wall is normal in CVA as well as bronchial asthma, but heightened in atopic cough. The pathologic feature of CVA is eosinophilic inflammation of the central to peripheral airway, reflected by eosinophilia in induced sputum, biopsied bronchial mucosa, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The diagnosis of CVA has been commonly made based on therapeutic diagnostic procedures, while pathophysiologic diagnosis is ideal. The reason is that measurements of the sensitivity of cough receptors to inhaled capsaicin and cough response to induced bronchoconstriction are not possible at most chest clinics in the world. The efficacy of a beta2-agonist for a patient's coughing is evaluated to make a diagnosis of CVA. When the bronchodilator therapy is judged as efficacious, a tentative diagnosis of CVA is made. Then, induction therapy is initiated for resolution of the cough. The induction therapy consists of beta2-agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and inhaled corticosteroids. In some patients whose cough does not subside with the therapy, short-burst oral corticosteroids (1 to 3 weeks) may be added. If the cough still does not subside with the therapy, the patient should be referred to cough specialists. When the cough subsides with the induction therapy, long-term management is recommended using inhaled corticosteroids, because 30% of patients develop typical bronchial asthma within several years

  7. Overweight and obesity as risk factors for impaired lung function in patients with asthma: A real-life experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprandi, Giorgio; Schiavetti, Irene; Bellezza Fontana, Rossana; Sorbello, Valentina; Ricciardolo, Fabio L M

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have outlined a possible relationship between an increased body mass index (BMI) and asthma. The aim of the study was to investigate in patients with asthma, enrolled in a real-life setting, a possible relationship between BMI and asthma parameters, including lung function markers (i.e., forced vital capacity [FVC], forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], FEV1/FVC ratio, and forced expiratory flow at 25-75%), fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), asthma control level, Asthma Control Test (ACT), comorbid allergy, and allergic rhinitis (AR). The study included 286 patients with asthma. All subjects were evaluated performing clinical examination, spirometry, FeNO measurement, and ACT questionnaire. Ninety-six (33.6%) patients were overweight and 45 (14.1%) patients were obese. Lung function was significantly impaired in overweight and obese asthmatic patients in comparison with normal-weight ones. Increased BMI did not affect FeNO values and asthma control level. Overweight patients had double the risk (odds ratio [OR], 1.89) and obese patients had triple the risk (OR, 3.17) of having pathological FEV1 in comparison with normal-weight patients. Both in overweight (OR, 2.415) and obese patients (OR, 2.126), the risk to have pathological FEV1/FVC was about two times higher than in normal-weight patients. In overweight and obese asthmatic patients the probability of allergy was, respectively, 3.5 times (OR, 0.285) and 4.5 times (OR, 0.224) lower compared with normal-weight asthmatic patients. The risk of suffering from AR was three times lower in overweight (OR, 0.331) patients and six times lower in obese (OR, 0.163) patients. The present study suggests that BMI assessment should be routinely considered in asthmatic patients to reveal bronchial obstruction, also, in controlled asthma. PMID:24992544

  8. Antinuclear Antibodies in Asthma Patients- A Special Asthma Phenotype?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agache Ioana

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies reported the appearance of asthma and autoimmune conditions in the same patient, but the clinical significance of this association was not yet assessed. One hundred asthmatic patients were observed for one year evolution with death, severe exacerbations, intake of > 1000 micrograms of beclometasone or equivalent (high ICS and FEV1 decline >100 ml, in relation with ANA (ELISA, sputum and blood eosinophilia (EO, NSAID intolerance, BMI >25, chronic rhinosinusitis, smoking status and FEV1 After 1 year of observation, there were 5 deaths, 28 severe asthma exacerbations requiring hospitalisations, 24 cases requiring high inhaled corticosteroid intake, and 19 patients with fast FEV1 decline (>100 ml/year. Multiple regression analysis pointed out several different independent risk factors for severe asthma evolution: for death presence of ANA (P=0.037, NSAID intolerance (P100 ml ANA (P=0.006, sputum EO (P=0.037, BMI>25 (P=0.046 and NSAID intolerance (P=0.017The presence of ANA is an independent risk factor in asthma for evolution with death, severe exacerbations, high inhaled corticosteroid intake and FEV1 decline >100 ml.

  9. Childhood asthma prediction models: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Henriette A; Pinart, Mariona; Antó, Josep M; Keil, Thomas; Bousquet, Jean; Carlsen, Kai H; Moons, Karel G M; Hooft, Lotty; Carlsen, Karin C Lødrup

    2015-12-01

    Early identification of children at risk of developing asthma at school age is crucial, but the usefulness of childhood asthma prediction models in clinical practice is still unclear. We systematically reviewed all existing prediction models to identify preschool children with asthma-like symptoms at risk of developing asthma at school age. Studies were included if they developed a new prediction model or updated an existing model in children aged 4 years or younger with asthma-like symptoms, with assessment of asthma done between 6 and 12 years of age. 12 prediction models were identified in four types of cohorts of preschool children: those with health-care visits, those with parent-reported symptoms, those at high risk of asthma, or children in the general population. Four basic models included non-invasive, easy-to-obtain predictors only, notably family history, allergic disease comorbidities or precursors of asthma, and severity of early symptoms. Eight extended models included additional clinical tests, mostly specific IgE determination. Some models could better predict asthma development and other models could better rule out asthma development, but the predictive performance of no single model stood out in both aspects simultaneously. This finding suggests that there is a large proportion of preschool children with wheeze for which prediction of asthma development is difficult.

  10. Pathophysiology of the cysteinyl leukotrienes and effects of leukotriene receptor antagonists in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes, synthesized de novo from cell membrane phospholipids, are proinflammatory mediators that play an important role in the pathophysiology of asthma. These mediators are among the most potent of bronchoconstrictors and cause vasodilation, increased microvascular permeability, exudation of macromolecules and edema. The cysteinyl leukotrienes also have potent chemoattractant properties for eosinophils, causing an influx of eosinophils into the airway mucosa, which further fuels the inflammatory process. In addition, the cysteinyl leukotrienes are potent secretagogues and reduce ciliary motility, which may hinder mucociliary clearance. Asthmatic patients demonstrate increased production of cysteinyl leukotrienes during naturally occurring asthma and acute asthma attacks as well as after allergen and exercise challenge. The leukotriene receptor antagonists montelukast, zafirlukast and pranlukast inhibit bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients undergoing allergen, exercise, cold air or aspirin challenge. They attenuate the hallmarks of asthmatic inflammation, including eosinophilia in the airway mucosa and peripheral blood. Moreover, exhaled nitric oxide concentrations, another correlate of airway inflammation, are decreased during montelukast treatment in children. Cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis is not blocked by corticosteroid therapy. This important observation suggests that the leukotriene receptor antagonists represent a novel therapeutic approach, one that may provide benefits that are additive with corticosteroid therapy. This supposition is supported by clinical observations that treatment with leukotriene receptor antagonists significantly improve asthma control when added to inhaled corticosteroid therapy. Moreover, the bronchodilator properties of the leukotriene receptor antagonists are additive with those of beta agonists. These data provide strong support for the use of leukotriene receptor antagonists for treating asthma. PMID

  11. Relationship of circulating hyaluronic acid levels to disease control in asthma and asthmatic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eszes, Noémi; Toldi, Gergely; Bohács, Anikó; Ivancsó, István; Müller, Veronika; Rigó, János; Losonczy, György; Vásárhelyi, Barna; Tamási, Lilla

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled asthma is a risk factor for pregnancy-related complications. Hyaluronic acid (HA), a potential peripheral blood marker of tissue fibrosis in various diseases, promotes eosinophil survival and plays a role in asthmatic airway inflammation as well as in physiological processes necessary to maintain normal pregnancy; however the level of circulating HA in asthma and asthmatic pregnancy is unknown. We investigated HA levels in asthmatic patients (N = 52; asthmatic pregnant (AP) N = 16; asthmatic non-pregnant (ANP) N = 36) and tested their relationship to asthma control. Serum HA level was lower in AP than in ANP patients (27 [24.7-31.55] vs. 37.4 [30.1-66.55] ng/mL, p = 0.006); the difference attenuated to a trend after its adjustment for patients' age (p = 0.056). HA levels and airway resistance were positively (r = 0.467, p = 0.004), HA levels and Asthma Control Test (ACT) total score inversely (r = -0.437, p = 0.01) associated in ANP patients; these relationships remained significant even after their adjustments for age. The potential value of HA in the determination of asthma control was analyzed using ROC analysis which revealed that HA values discriminate patients with ACT total score ≥20 (controlled patients) and asthma control, as it correlates with airway resistance and has good sensitivity in the detection of impaired asthma control. Decrease of HA level in pregnancy may be the consequence of pregnancy induced immune tolerance.

  12. Breast regression protein-39 (BRP-39) promotes dendritic cell maturation in vitro and enhances Th2 inflammation in murine model of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qian; Chai, Shou-jie; Qian, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Min; Wang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To determine the roles of breast regression protein-39 (BRP-39) in regulating dendritic cell maturation and in pathology of acute asthma. Methods: Mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) were prepared, and infected with adenovirus over-expressing BRP-39. Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of acute asthma was made in female BALB/c mice by sensitizing and challenging with chicken OVA and Imject Alum. The transfected BMDCs were adoptively transferred into OVA-treated mice via in...

  13. Detection and characterization of OX40 ligand expression in human airway smooth muscle cells : a possible role in asthma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgess, Janette K; Carlin, Stephen; Pack, Robert A; Arndt, Greg M; Au, Wendy W; Johnson, Peter R A; Black, Judith L; Hunt, Nicholas H

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell, originally thought of as a passive structural cell, is now well recognized as an active participant in the pathologic events that occur during persistent asthma. Cell-surface molecules play an important role in the development of an immune response. A

  14. Asthma and Adolescents: Review of Strategies to Improve Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy-Harstad, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    One of every 10 adolescents in the United States has asthma. Adolescents who lack asthma control are at increased risk for severe asthma episodes and death. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 2007 asthma guidelines and research studies indicated that school nurses are instrumental in assisting adolescents to monitor their asthma, learn…

  15. Evaluation of an Educational Program for Adolescents with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jill; Tichacek, Mary J.; Theodorakis, Renee

    2004-01-01

    In addition to challenges of adolescence itself, teens with asthma face demands of asthma management and risks of asthma sequelae, including fatalities. Few asthma educational programs specifically address their needs. In response to school nurse concern, this pilot study evaluated an adolescent asthma education program, the "Power Breathing[TM]…

  16. Childhood asthma and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuština-Pribić Radmila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article summarizes the contribution of epidemiology to the understanding of childhood asthma. The first task in epidemiology is to determine prevalence and incidence of any disease. Prevalence. Epidemiological investigations are aimed at evaluating hypotheses about causes of disease by defining demographic characteristics of a certain population as well as by determining possible effects of environmental factors. In spite of some limitations, data obtained by epidemiological investigations have been valuable in confirming both the increasing incidence of asthma and the differences in prevalence in certain population groups. The observance of this phenomenon has led to much speculation and a lot of attempts to identify the reasons behind the rising prevalence. Risk factors. Epidemiological studies have identified risk factors for the development of childhood asthma and provided insight into natural history of disease and prognosis. Factors ranging from increased numbers of immunizations to increased air pollution have been suggested, but subsequent analysis has failed to provide the supporting evidence to implicate most of these possibilities. The concept known as the hygiene hypothesis has gained some support from epidemiological studies. Conclusion. The development of asthma as well as its severity are affected by numerous factors and their interactions can be explained by the heterogeneous nature of this disease.

  17. Obesity and Asthma: Physiological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Brashier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity induces some pertinent physiological changes which are conducive to either development of asthma or cause of poorly controlled asthma state. Obesity related mechanical stress forces induced by abdominal and thoracic fat generate stiffening of the lungs and diaphragmatic movements to result in reduction of resting lung volumes such as functional residual capacity (FRC. Reduced FRC is primarily an outcome of decreased expiratory reserve volume, which pushes the tidal breathing more towards smaller high resistance airways, and consequentially results in expiratory flow limitation during normal breathing in obesity. Reduced FRC also induces plastic alteration in the small collapsible airways, which may generate smooth muscle contraction resulting in increased small airway resistance, which, however, is not picked up by spirometric lung volumes. There is also a possibility that chronically reduced FRC may generate permanent adaptation in the very small airways; therefore, the airway calibres may not change despite weight reduction. Obesity may also induce bronchodilator reversibility and diurnal lung functional variability. Obesity is also associated with airway hyperresponsiveness; however, the mechanism of this is not clear. Thus, obesity has effects on lung function that can generate respiratory distress similar to asthma and may also exaggerate the effects of preexisting asthma.

  18. Carboxyhemoglobin and Methemoglobin in Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naples, Robert; Laskowski, Dan; McCarthy, Kevin; Mattox, Emmea; Comhair, Suzy A. A.; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) are synthesized at high levels in asthmatic airways. NO can oxidize hemoglobin (Hb) to methemoglobin (MetHb). CO binds to heme to produce carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). We hypothesized that MetHb and COHb may be increased in asthma. COHb, MetHb, and Hb were measured in venous blood of healthy controls (n=32) and asthmatics (n=31). Arterial COHb and oxyhemoglobin were measured by pulse CO-oximeter. Hb, oxyhemoglobin, and deoxyhemoglobin were similar among groups, but arterial COHb was higher in asthmatics than controls (p=0.04). Venous COHb was similar among groups, and thus arteriovenous COHb (a-v COHb) concentration difference was greater in asthma compared with controls. Venous MetHb was lower in asthma compared to controls (p=0.01) and correlated to venous NO (p=0.009). The greater a-v COHb in asthma suggests CO offloading to tissues, but lower than normal MetHb suggests countermeasures to avoid adverse effects of high NO on gas transfer. PMID:25680415

  19. Asthma and Respiratory Allergic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases such as allergy is complex and poorly understood. The causes of chronic allergic diseases including asthma involve to a large extent, immunomodulation of the adaptive and particularly the innate immune systems and are markedly influen...

  20. Cough variant asthma and airway remodeling%咳嗽变异性哮喘与气道重塑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝筱姬; 孟晓; 徐睿

    2014-01-01

    Cough variant asthma(CVA)is a special typologic bronchial asthma (asthma)which presents solely with chronic cough.CVA is a form of asthma,CVA shares a number of pathophysiological features with classic asthma. More importantly,30% to 40% of adult patients with CVA,unless adequately treated,may progress to classic asthma. Cellular infiltration and airway remodeling are pathological basis of CVA.CVA may call an insidious asthma,it was neglected freguently by clinician,and the patients were missed correct diagnosis and treatment.To know correctly pathophysiological features of CVA,it is important significance for clinical treatment,and may decrease incidence of asthma.In this review,we analyzed the correlation between CVA and inflammatory reaction,airway remodeling.%咳嗽变异性哮喘(cough variant asthma,CVA)是指以慢性咳嗽为主要或唯一症状的一种特殊类型哮喘,其病理生理改变与典型哮喘相同,若未及时诊治,约30%~40%可发展成为典型哮喘。气道炎细胞浸润和气道重塑是 CVA 的病理基础。CVA 可称之为一种隐匿性哮喘,常被临床医师所忽略,患者失去正确的诊断与治疗。正确认识 CVA 的病理生理特征,对临床诊断和治疗具有重要的指导意义,可降低典型哮喘的发病率。本文就 CVA 与气道炎性反应和气道重塑的关系作一综述。

  1. The “time-window” effect of early allergen exposure on a rat asthma model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yan; LIU Ping; LI Hai-chao; WANG Yue-dan

    2013-01-01

    Background The hygiene hypothesis has been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of asthma.Allergen exposure was shown to inhibit asthma in an animal model.But the optimal timing of allergen exposure remains unclear.This study aims to explore the time effcct of allergen exposure and the possible mechanisms.Methods Neonate Wistar rats were randomly divided into asthma group,control group and day 1,day 3,day 7,and day 14 groups.The day 1,day 3,day 7 and day 14 groups were injected with ovalbumin (OVA) subcutaneously on days 1,3,7 and 14 after birth,respectively.Six weeks later,all groups,except the control group,were sensitized and stimulated with OVA to make the asthma model.We observed the pulmonary pathologic changes,detected the regulatory T cells,and CD28 expression level in thymus and spleen by flow cytometry.Results The asthmatic inflammation in the day 1,day 3 and day 7 groups,but not the day 14 group,was alleviated.The asthma group and day 14 group had lower proportions of regulatory T cells in the thymus compared with the control group,day 1,day 3,and day 7 groups.There was no significant difference in the CD28 expression levels on the regulatory and conventional T cells among groups.But the control group and the day 1,day 3,and day 7 groups had relatively higher proportions of CD28 positive regulatory T cells in the thymus than the day 14 group and the asthma group.Conclusions There is a “time-window” for early allergen exposure.The impairment of regulatory T cells may promote the development of asthma.Allergen exposure in the “time-window” can make the thymus produce normal quantity of regulatory cells.The CD28 signal on regulatory T cells may participate in the production of regulatory T cells.

  2. Epidemiology of asthma in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramesh, H

    2002-04-01

    Allergic respiratory disorders, in particular asthma are increasing in prevalence, which is a global phenomenon. Even though genetic predisposition is one of the factors in children for the increased prevalence - urbanisation, air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke contribute more significantly. Our hospital based study on 20,000 children under the age of 18 years from 1979,1984,1989,1994 and 1999 in the city of Bangalore showed a prevalence of 9%,10.5%,18.5%, 24.5% and 29.5% respectively. The increased prevalence correlated well with demographic changes of the city. Further to the hospital study, a school survey in 12 schools on 6550 children in the age group of 6 to 15 years was undertaken for prevalence of asthma and children were categorized into three groups depending upon the geographical situation of the school in relation to vehicular traffic and the socioeconomic group of children. Group I-Children from schools of heavy traffic area showed prevalence of 19.34%, Group II-Children from heavy traffic region and low socioeconomic population had 31.14% and Group III-Children from low traffic area school had 11.15% respectively. (P: I & II; II & III <0.001). A continuation of study in rural areas showed 5.7% in children of 6-15 years. The persistent asthma also showed an increase from 20% to 27.5% and persistent severe asthma 4% to 6.5% between 1994-99. Various epidemiological spectra of asthma in children are discussed here. PMID:12019551

  3. Serum IgE reactivity profiling in an asthma affected cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Dottorini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence indicates that atopic asthma correlates with high serum IgE levels though the contribution of allergen specific IgE to the pathogenesis and the severity of the disease is still unclear. METHODS: We developed a microarray immunoassay containing 103 allergens to study the IgE reactivity profiles of 485 asthmatic and 342 non-asthmatic individuals belonging to families whose members have a documented history of asthma and atopy. We employed k-means clustering, to investigate whether a particular IgE reactivity profile correlated with asthma and other atopic conditions such as rhinitis, conjunctivitis and eczema. RESULTS: Both case-control and parent-to-siblings analyses demonstrated that while the presence of specific IgE against individual allergens correlated poorly with pathological conditions, particular reactivity profiles were significantly associated with asthma (p<10E-09. An artificial neural network (ANN-based algorithm, calibrated with the profile reactivity data, correctly classified as asthmatic or non-asthmatic 78% of the individual examined. Multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that the familiar relationships of the study population did not affect the observed correlations. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that asthma is a higher-order phenomenon related to patterns of IgE reactivity rather than to single antibody reactions. This notion sheds new light on the pathogenesis of the disease and can be readily employed to distinguish asthmatic and non-asthmatic individuals on the basis of their serum reactivity profile.

  4. Mitochondrial dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Ghosh, Balaram

    2013-01-01

    Though severe or refractory asthma merely affects less than 10% of asthma population, it consumes significant health resources and contributes significant morbidity and mortality. Severe asthma does not fell in the routine definition of asthma and requires alternative treatment strategies. It has been observed that asthma severity increases with higher body mass index. The obese-asthmatics, in general, have the features of metabolic syndrome and are progressively causing a significant burden for both developed and developing countries thanks to the westernization of the world. As most of the features of metabolic syndrome seem to be originated from central obesity, the underlying mechanisms for metabolic syndrome could help us to understand the pathobiology of obese-asthma condition. While mitochondrial dysfunction is the common factor for most of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, such as central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, the involvement of mitochondria in obese-asthma pathogenesis seems to be important as mitochondrial dysfunction has recently been shown to be involved in airway epithelial injury and asthma pathogenesis. This review discusses current understanding of the overlapping features between metabolic syndrome and asthma in relation to mitochondrial structural and functional alterations with an aim to uncover mechanisms for obese-asthma. PMID:23840225

  5. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulaganathan Mabalirajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Though severe or refractory asthma merely affects less than 10% of asthma population, it consumes significant health resources and contributes significant morbidity and mortality. Severe asthma does not fell in the routine definition of asthma and requires alternative treatment strategies. It has been observed that asthma severity increases with higher body mass index. The obese-asthmatics, in general, have the features of metabolic syndrome and are progressively causing a significant burden for both developed and developing countries thanks to the westernization of the world. As most of the features of metabolic syndrome seem to be originated from central obesity, the underlying mechanisms for metabolic syndrome could help us to understand the pathobiology of obese-asthma condition. While mitochondrial dysfunction is the common factor for most of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, such as central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, the involvement of mitochondria in obese-asthma pathogenesis seems to be important as mitochondrial dysfunction has recently been shown to be involved in airway epithelial injury and asthma pathogenesis. This review discusses current understanding of the overlapping features between metabolic syndrome and asthma in relation to mitochondrial structural and functional alterations with an aim to uncover mechanisms for obese-asthma.

  6. Recent developments regarding periostin in bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuhara, Kenji; Matsumoto, Hisako; Ohta, Shoichiro; Ono, Junya; Arima, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Masahiro

    2015-09-01

    Although it is currently recognized that bronchial asthma is not a single disease but a syndrome, we have not yet made use of our new understanding of this heterogeneity as we treat asthma patients. To increase the efficacy of anti-asthma drugs and to decrease costs, it is important to stratify asthma patients into subgroups and to develop therapeutic strategies for each subgroup. Periostin has recently emerged as a biomarker for bronchial asthma, unique in that it is useful not in diagnosis but in categorizing asthma patients. We first found that periostin is a novel component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma downstream of IL-13 signals. Thereafter, it was shown that periostin can be a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses, the basis of the notion that a detection system of serum periostin is potentially a companion diagnostic for type 2 antagonists. Furthermore, we have recently shown that serum periostin can predict resistance or hyporesponsiveness to inhaled corticosteroids, based on its contribution to tissue remodeling or fibrosis in bronchial asthma. Thus, serum periostin has two characteristics as a biomarker for bronchial asthma: it is both a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses and a biomarker reflecting tissue remodeling or fibrosis. We can take advantage of these characteristics to develop stratified medicine in bronchial asthma. PMID:26344077

  7. Recent developments regarding periostin in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Izuhara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it is currently recognized that bronchial asthma is not a single disease but a syndrome, we have not yet made use of our new understanding of this heterogeneity as we treat asthma patients. To increase the efficacy of anti-asthma drugs and to decrease costs, it is important to stratify asthma patients into subgroups and to develop therapeutic strategies for each subgroup. Periostin has recently emerged as a biomarker for bronchial asthma, unique in that it is useful not in diagnosis but in categorizing asthma patients. We first found that periostin is a novel component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma downstream of IL-13 signals. Thereafter, it was shown that periostin can be a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses, the basis of the notion that a detection system of serum periostin is potentially a companion diagnostic for type 2 antagonists. Furthermore, we have recently shown that serum periostin can predict resistance or hyporesponsiveness to inhaled corticosteroids, based on its contribution to tissue remodeling or fibrosis in bronchial asthma. Thus, serum periostin has two characteristics as a biomarker for bronchial asthma: it is both a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses and a biomarker reflecting tissue remodeling or fibrosis. We can take advantage of these characteristics to develop stratified medicine in bronchial asthma.

  8. Hip joint pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tijssen, M; van Cingel, R E H; de Visser, E;

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to (a) describe the clinical presentation of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and hip labral pathology; (b) describe the accuracy of patient history and physical tests for FAI and labral pathology as confirmed by hip arthroscopy. Patients (18...... FABER test or a positive AIT and a positive FABER test were the shortest most sensitive combinations. The results of this study point out that in clinical practice absence of groin as main location of pain combined with a negative FABER test or the combination of a negative AIT and a negative FABER test...... are suggested to rule out the diagnosis of symptomatic FAI and/or labral pathology....

  9. Extrinsic and intrinsic asthma: influence of classification on family history of asthma and allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, B

    1980-05-01

    The distributions of asthma, hay fever and eczema were examined in the first degree relatives of 516 asthmatics grouped according to atopic status, history of hay fever/eczema and history of asthma provoked by pollens, dust or animals. The prevalences of both asthma and eczema in relatives were strongly correlated with the presence of hay fever/eczema in probands and to a lesser extent with their atopic status. The prevalence of hay fever in relatives was strongly correlated with both the presence of hay fever/eczema and the degree of atopy in probands. In contrast, allergic provocation of asthma in probands did not influence the prevalences of asthma, hay fever or eczema. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that there is an increased risk of asthma in relatives of atopic asthmatics which may arise from the enhanced susceptibility to asthma of individuals who inherit both a predisposition to asthma and a predisposition to atopy.

  10. Asthma and Schools | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breathing Easier Asthma and Schools Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of ... of America 800–727–8462 www.aafa.org Asthma and Physical Activity Exercise-induced asthma is triggered ...

  11. Imaging diagnosis of bronchial asthma and related diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe imaging features of bronchial asthma and related diseases. The practical roles of imaging diagnosis are the evaluation of severity and complications of bronchial asthma and differential diagnosis of diseases showing asthmatic symptoms other than bronchial asthma. (author)

  12. Reticular basement membrane in asthma and COPD: Similar thickness, yet different composition

    OpenAIRE

    Jeroen JW Liesker; Ten Hacken, Nick H.; Mieke Zeinstra-Smith; Rutgers, Steven R; Dirkje S Postma; et al.

    2009-01-01

    Jeroen JW Liesker1, Nick H Ten Hacken1, Mieke Zeinstra-Smith2, Steven R Rutgers1, Dirkje S Postma1, Wim Timens21Department of Pulmonology; 2Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Background: Reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickening has been variably associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Even if RBM thickness is similar in both diseases, its composition might still differ. Objectiv...

  13. Evaluating T cell subsets in neutrophilic asthmatics and in exacerbation models of asthma and COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Banyard, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma and COPD are both complex inflammatory lung diseases. The hallmark features of these lung diseases are variable airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperreactivity and airway inflammation. T lymphocytes play a central role in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation. It is recognized that disease phenotypes exist, comprising subgroups of patients with distinct clinical or pathological characteristics associated with different prognosis or response to treatment. Neutrophilic airwa...

  14. Therapeutical Measures to Control Airway Tolerance in Asthma and Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Andreev, Katerina; Graser, Anna; Maier, Anja; Mousset, Stephanie; Finotto, Susetta

    2012-01-01

    Airway tolerance is a specialized immunological surveillance which is activated by the cells of the lung to deal with and distinguish between innocuous and pathogenic inhalants. However, this distinction does not always occur. Airway tolerance is necessary to avoid the development of allergic disorders, such as asthma, which is dominated by a pathological expansion of Th2 and Th17 cells in the airways. By contrast, tumor cells induce tolerogenic factors in their microenvironment to evade T-ce...

  15. Validation of The 30 Second Asthma Test™ as a measure of asthma control

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Ahmed; Pierre Ernst; Robyn Tamblyn; Neil Colman

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The primary objective of asthma management is to help patients establish and maintain optimal disease control. Simple and efficient tools are needed to assess patient-reported symptoms so that they can be used with or without airway function to evaluate asthma control.OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the validity of The 30 Second Asthma Test (GlaxoSmithKline Inc, Canada), based on the Canadian Asthma Guidelines, by estimating its relationship with crit...

  16. Antinuclear Antibodies in Asthma Patients- A Special Asthma Phenotype?

    OpenAIRE

    Agache Ioana; Duca Liliana; Anghel Mariana; Pamfil Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    Several studies reported the appearance of asthma and autoimmune conditions in the same patient, but the clinical significance of this association was not yet assessed. One hundred asthmatic patients were observed for one year evolution with death, severe exacerbations, intake of > 1000 micrograms of beclometasone or equivalent (high ICS) and FEV1 decline >100 ml, in relation with ANA (ELISA), sputum and blood eosinophilia (EO), NSAID intolerance, BMI >25, chronic rhinosinusitis, smoking stat...

  17. Childhood asthma in low income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Marianne Stubbe; Nantanda, Rebecca; Tumwine, James K;

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia has hitherto been considered the key cause of the high respiratory morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age (under-5s) in low-income countries, while asthma has not been stated as a significant reason. This paper explores the definitions and concepts...... and poor treatment results using antibiotics. Moreover, children diagnosed with recurrent pneumonia in infancy were often later diagnosed with asthma. Recent studies showed a 10-15% prevalence of preschool asthma in low-income countries, although under-5s with long-term cough and difficulty breathing...... in under-5s without fever, which suggests the diagnosis of asthma/wheezing rather than bacterial pneumonia. Ultimately, underlying asthma may have contributed to malnutrition and fatal bacterial pneumonia. In conclusion, preschool asthma in low-income countries may be significantly under...

  18. Asthma affects time to pregnancy and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth J; Thomsen, Simon F; Lindenberg, Svend;

    2014-01-01

    Coexistence of infertility and asthma has been observed clinically. Therefore, we investigated the association between asthma and delayed pregnancy in a nationwide population-based cohort of twins. A cohort of 15 250 twins living in Denmark (aged 12-41 years) participated in a questionnaire study...... including questions about the presence of asthma and fertility. Differences in time to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome were analysed in subjects with asthma, allergy and in healthy individuals using multiple regression analysis. Asthma was associated with an increased time to pregnancy, the percentage...... in those >30 years of age (32.2% versus 24.9%, OR (95% CI) 1.44 (1.1-1.9); p=0.04). Untreated asthmatics had a significant increased risk of prolonged time to pregnancy compared to healthy individuals (OR (95% CI) 1.79 (1.20-2.66); p=0.004), while asthmatics receiving any kind of treatment for asthma...

  19. Tiotropium – what role in asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Tiotropium solution for inhalation (Spiriva Respimat - Boehringer Ingelheim) is the first long-acting muscarinic antagonist to be marketed in the UK for the management of asthma. It is licensed as add-on maintenance bronchodilator treatment in adults with asthma who are using an inhaled corticosteroid (≥800μg budesonide/day or equivalent) and a long-acting beta2 agonist, and who have had one or more severe exacerbations in the previous year. This corresponds to use at step 4 of both the British asthma guideline and the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) strategy for the treatment of asthma in adults. Here we consider the evidence for tiotropium in the management of asthma and whether it offers any advantages over existing therapeutic options at step 4.

  20. Bronchial thermoplasty in asthma: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmanan B

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Balaji Laxmanan, D Kyle Hogarth Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT is a novel therapy for patients with severe asthma. Using radio frequency thermal energy, it aims to reduce the airway smooth muscle mass. Several clinical trials have demonstrated improvements in asthma-related quality of life and a reduction in the number of exacerbations following treatment with BT. In addition, recent data has demonstrated the long-term safety of the procedure as well as sustained improvements in rates of asthma exacerbations, reduction in health care utilization, and improved quality of life. Further study is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms that result in these improvements. In addition, improved characterization of the asthma subphenotypes likely to exhibit the largest clinical benefit is a critical step in determining the precise role of BT in the management of severe asthma. Keywords: bronchial thermoplasty, severe asthma, airway smooth muscle

  1. Perceived Triggers of Asthma: Key to Symptom Perception and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Janssens, Thomas; Ritz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Adequate asthma management depends on an accurate identification of asthma triggers. A review of the literature on trigger perception in asthma shows that individuals vary in their perception of asthma triggers and that the correlation between self-reported asthma triggers and allergy tests is only modest. In this paper, we provide an overview of psychological mechanisms involved in the process of asthma triggers identification. We identify sources of errors in trigger identification and targ...

  2. Validation of the Arabic version of the asthma control test

    OpenAIRE

    Lababidi H; Hijaoui A; Zarzour M

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Asthma control test (ACT) has been devised to assess the degree of asthma control in out-patients setting. The aim of this study is to validate the Arabic version of ACT. Materials and Methods: Patients completed the Arabic version of ACT during regular visit to one of two asthma specialists. Spirometry was obtained. The asthma specialist rated asthma control using a 5-point scale and indicated modification in management as step up, same or step down of asthma treatment. Results:...

  3. PILL Series. The ‘problematic’ asthma patient

    OpenAIRE

    Kui, Swee Leng; How, Choon How; Koh, Jansen

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a reversible chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that can be effectively controlled without causing any lifestyle limitation or burden on the quality of life of the majority of asthma patients. However, persistently uncontrolled asthma can be frustrating for both the patient and the managing physician. Patients who fail to respond to high-intensity asthma treatment fall into the category of ‘problematic’ asthma, which is further subdivided into ‘difficult’ asthma and ‘sever...

  4. The Relationship between Asthma and Obesity in Urban Early Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jay, Melanie; Wijetunga, N Ari; Stepney, Cesalie; Dorsey, Karen; Chua, Danica Marie; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Asthma and obesity, which have reached epidemic proportions, impact urban youth to a great extent. Findings are inconsistent regarding their relationship; no studies have considered asthma management. We explored the association of obesity and asthma-related morbidity, asthma-related health care utilization, and asthma management in urban adolescents with uncontrolled asthma. We classified 373 early adolescents (mean age=12.8 years; 82% Hispanic or Black) from New York City public middle scho...

  5. Asthma Risk Profiles of Children Participating in an Asthma Education and Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Candice; Rapp, Kristi Isaac; Jack, Leonard, Jr.; Hayes, Sandra; Post, Robert; Malveaux, Floyd

    2015-01-01

    Background: Focused risk assessment is essential in the effective management of asthma. Purpose: This study identified and examined correlations among areas of pediatric asthma risk and determined associations between these risks and demographic characteristics. Methods: This exploratory study identified risk factors that affect asthma management…

  6. My Child Is Diagnosed with Asthma, Now What?: Motivating Parents to Help Their Children Control Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepney, Cesalie; Kane, Katelyn; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric asthma is often undiagnosed, and therefore untreated. It negatively impacts children's functioning, including school attendance and performance, as well as quality of life. Schoolwide screening for asthma is becoming increasingly common, making identification of possible asthma particularly relevant for school nurses. Nurses may need to…

  7. Challenges of Asthma Management for School Nurses in Districts with High Asthma Hospitalization Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatos, Penny; Leone, Jennifer; Craig, Ann Marie; Frei, Elizabeth Mary; Fuentes, Natalie; Harris, India Marie

    2013-01-01

    Background: School nurses play a central role in assisting elementary school children in managing their asthma, especially those in higher-risk school districts that are at increased risk of uncontrolled asthma. Study purposes are to (1) identify barriers to asthma management by school nurses in higher-risk school districts; and (2) assess the…

  8. Scheduled asthma management in general practice generally improve asthma control in those who attend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Vibeke; Bornemann, Maja; Knudsen, Anja Dorte Brandt;

    2012-01-01

    Successful asthma management involves guideline-based treatment and regular follow-up. We aimed to study the level of disease control in asthmatic individuals managed by their GP and a dedicated nurse when using a systematic asthma consultation guide based on Global Initiative of Asthma guideline...

  9. Allergic rhinitis is associated with poor asthma control in children with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Eric P.; Nijkamp, Anke; Duiverman, Eric J.; Brand, Paul L. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma and allergic rhinitis are the two most common chronic disorders in childhood and adolescence. To date, no study has examined the impact of comorbid allergic rhinitis on asthma control in children. Objective To examine the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in children with asthma, and

  10. Are asthma-like symptoms in elite athletes associated with classical features of asthma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T.K.; Pedersen, L.; Anderson, S.D.;

    2009-01-01

    : The study group consisted of 54 elite athletes (19 with doctor-diagnosed asthma), 22 non-athletes with doctor-diagnosed asthma (steroid naive for 4 weeks before the examination) and 35 non-athletes without asthma; all aged 18-35 years. Examinations (1 day): questionnaires, exhaled nitric oxide (e...

  11. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  12. Determinants of pathologic mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Physiologic mineralization is necessary for the formation of skeletal tissues and for their appropriate functions during adulthood. Mineralization has to be controlled and restricted to specific regions. If the mineralization process occurs in regions that normally do not mineralize, there can be severe consequences (pathologic or ectopic mineralization). Recent findings have indicated that physiologic and pathologic mineralization events are initiated by matrix vesicles, membrane-enclosed particles released from the plasma membranes of mineralization-competent cells. The understanding of how these vesicles are released from the plasma membrane and initiate the mineralization process may provide novel therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic mineralization. In addition, other regulators (activators and inhibitors) of physiologic mineralization have been identified and characterized, and there is evidence that the same factors also contribute to the regulation of pathologic mineralization. Finally, programmed cell death (apoptosis) may be a contributor to physiologic mineralization and if occurring after tissue injury may induce pathologic mineralization and mineralization-related differentiation events in the injured and surrounding areas. This review describes how the understanding of mechanisms and factors regulating physiologic mineralization can be used to develop new therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic or ectopic mineralization events.

  13. The airway microvasculature and exercise induced asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, S. D.; Daviskas, E

    1992-01-01

    It has been proposed that exercise induced asthma is a result of "rapid expansion of the blood volume of peribronchial plexi" (McFadden ER, Lancet 1990;335:880-3). This hypothesis proposes that the development of exercise induced asthma depends on the thermal gradient in the airways at the end of hyperpnoea. The events that result in exercise induced asthma are vasoconstriction and airway cooling followed by reactive hyperaemia. We agree that the airway microcirculation has the potential for ...

  14. Clinical Asthma Phenotypes and Therapeutic Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Zedan, M.; Attia, G.; Zedan, M. M.; Osman, A; Abo-Elkheir, N.; Maysara, N.; Barakat, T.; Gamil, N.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that means not all asthmatics respond to the same treatment. We hypothesize an approach to characterize asthma phenotypes based on symptomatology (shortness of breath (SOB), cough, and wheezy phenotypes) in correlation with airway inflammatory biomarkers and FEV1. We aimed to detect whether those clinical phenotypes have an impact on the response to asthma medications. Two hundred three asthmatic children were allocated randomly to receive either montelukast ...

  15. Asthma, allergy, mood disorders, and nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Wilczynska-Kwiatek A; Bargiel-Matusiewicz K; Lapinski L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Growing evidence supports comorbidity of asthma and allergies with mood disorders and various connections between these diseases. It still remains unclear whether this comorbidity is caused by the same pathophysiological factors or whether there are other links between asthma and depression. There is no definite answer to the question of an optimal treatment to deal with both asthma and depression, when they occur simultaneously. Epidemiological and clinical trials on the ...

  16. Neutrophils in asthma--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepiela, Olga; Ostafin, Magdalena; Demkow, Urszula

    2015-04-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease, with an array of cells involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The role of neutrophils in the development of bronchial asthma is found to be complex, as they may trigger activation of immunocompetent cells and are a potent source of free oxygen radicals and enzymes participating in airway remodeling. The review highlights the role of neutrophils in bronchial asthma.

  17. Poliomyelitis-like illness associated with asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Blomquist, H. K.; Björkstén, B

    1980-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl with a combination of paralytic disease, resembling poliomyelitis, and asthma is described. The girl developed neurological symptoms 5 days after a severe attack of asthma. No aetiology to the flaccid paralysis could be demonstrated although Coxsackie B5 virus was isolated from a stool. A similar poliomyelitis-like illness associated with asthma has previously been reported in 13 cases from Australia and the UK.

  18. Pathophysiological characterization of asthma transitions across adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Arshad, Syed Hasan; Raza, Abid; Lau, Laurie; Bawakid, Khalid; Karmaus, Wilfried; Zhang, Hongmei; Ewart, Susan; Patil, Veersh; Roberts, Graham; Kurukulaaratchy, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a period of change, which coincides with disease remission in a significant proportion of subjects with childhood asthma. There is incomplete understanding of the changing characteristics underlying different adolescent asthma transitions. We undertook pathophysiological characterization of transitional adolescent asthma phenotypes in a longitudinal birth cohort. Methods The Isle of Wight Birth Cohort (N = 1456) was reviewed at 1, 2, 4, 10 and 18-years. Characterizat...

  19. Creating an Asthma-Friendly School

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-08

    This podcast features real-life success stories of students with asthma who, thanks to their schools' implementation of asthma-friendly policies and programs, now have their asthma under control.  Created: 11/8/2007 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Adolescent and School Health (DASH).   Date Released: 5/20/2008.

  20. Neutrophils in asthma--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepiela, Olga; Ostafin, Magdalena; Demkow, Urszula

    2015-04-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease, with an array of cells involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The role of neutrophils in the development of bronchial asthma is found to be complex, as they may trigger activation of immunocompetent cells and are a potent source of free oxygen radicals and enzymes participating in airway remodeling. The review highlights the role of neutrophils in bronchial asthma. PMID:25511380

  1. Predicting patient attitudes to asthma medication.

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, L M; Russell, I.T.; Friend, J. A.; Legge, J. S.; Douglas, J G

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Studies of patient attitudes to asthma and its control have focused on crisis action, and little attention has been paid to attitudes to regular preventive medication. It is not clear whether attitudes to regular medication are related to the degree of distress or interference with life perceived by patients as being caused by their asthma. For this reason this study examined how far dislike of medication related to dislike of other aspects of interference of asthma with daily lif...

  2. Yoga for bronchial asthma: a controlled study.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarathna, R; Nagendra, H R

    1985-01-01

    Fifty three patients with asthma underwent training for two weeks in an integrated set of yoga exercises, including breathing exercises, suryanamaskar, yogasana (physical postures), pranayama (breath slowing techniques), dhyana (meditation), and a devotional session, and were told to practise these exercises for 65 minutes daily. They were then compared with a control group of 53 patients with asthma matched for age, sex, and type and severity of asthma, who continued to take their usual drug...

  3. Adapting physical education to pupils with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Diklić, Dajana

    2013-01-01

    Asthma »is the most common chronic disease among children« (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs307/en/index.html). This disease affects the small airways in the lungs, which are hypersensitive to one or more triggers. During the asthma attack airways narrow, airway mucosa swells and secretion of mucus increases. That makes breathing more difficult, especially exhalation (Corrigan, Berger, Meredith, Jenkis and Mason, 2009). Pupils with asthma are chronically ill children. That is ...

  4. Interleukin 17 decrease the polarization of macrophage and attenuate the pathology of obliterative bronchiolitis after trachea transplant modulated%白细胞介素-17对巨噬细胞分化的影响及在闭塞性细支气管炎中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建刚; 周晓慧; 倪寅凯; 史乾; 曹浩; 范慧敏

    2012-01-01

    .Conclusion IL-17 deficiency decreased the polarization of monocytes to macrophages and attenuate the pathology of obliteral bronchiolitis in murine model after trachea transplantaion.

  5. Perceived triggers of asthma: key to symptom perception and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, T; Ritz, T

    2013-09-01

    Adequate asthma management depends on an accurate identification of asthma triggers. A review of the literature on trigger perception in asthma shows that individuals vary in their perception of asthma triggers and that the correlation between self-reported asthma triggers and allergy tests is only modest. In this article, we provide an overview of psychological mechanisms involved in the process of asthma triggers identification. We identify sources of errors in trigger identification and targets for behavioural interventions that aim to improve the accuracy of asthma trigger identification and thereby enhance asthma control.

  6. Sibship Characteristics and Risk of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Tine; Rostgaard, Klaus; Wohlfahrt, Jan;

    2005-01-01

    asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings......asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings...

  7. CD137-mediated immunotherapy for allergic asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Polte, Tobias; Foell, Juergen; Werner, Christoph; Hoymann, Heinz-Gerd; Braun, Armin; Burdach, Stefan; Mittler, Robert S.; Hansen, Gesine

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma continues to increase. Asthma is caused by a Th2 cell–driven immune response. Its optimal treatment remains a challenge, and a sufficient immunotherapeutic approach to treating asthma has yet to be found. Using a murine asthma model, we show that a single injection of an anti-CD137 (4-1BB) mAb prevents the development of airway hyperreactivity, eosinophilic airway inflammation, excessive mucus production, and elevated IgE during the observation period of 7 weeks. Most...

  8. National Asthma Control Program State Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physicians' office Health care providers - Medical clinics/physicians' office Health care providers - Other Parents - Home Case Studies Open Airways for Schools Asthma Care Training Wee Wheezers ...

  9. Is asthma related to choroidal neovascularization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoyao Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related degeneration (AMD and asthma are both diseases that are related to the activation of the complement system. The association between AMD and asthma has been debated in previous studies. The authors investigated the relationship between AMD and asthma systemically. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The epidemiological study showed that asthma was related to choroidal neovascularization (CNV subtype (OR = 1.721, P = 0.023. However, the meta-analysis showed there was no association between AMD and asthma. In an animal model, we found more fluoresce in leakage of CNV lesions by FA analysis and more angiogenesis by histological analysis in rats with asthma. Western blot demonstrated an elevated level of C3α-chain, C3α'-chain and VEGF. After compstatin was intravitreally injected, CNV leakage decreased according to FA analysis, with the level of C3 and VEGF protein decreasing at the same time. SIGNIFICANCE: This study first investigated the relationship between AMD and asthma systematically, and it was found that asthma could be a risk factor for the development of AMD. The study may provide a better understanding of the disease, which may advance the potential for screening asthma patients in clinical practice.

  10. Compliance and noncompliance in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Harold B

    2007-01-01

    Compliance and noncompliance are big issues in asthma management. It has been well established that compliant patients experience less exacerbations than less compliant patients and that compliance rates often are <50%. The reasons for noncompliance are multiple and complex and not always clearly understood. Methods proposed to improve compliance include patient education, more partnership care, less frequent dosing, simple schedules, diaries, etc. Less dosing and simple schedules are most effective. It is difficult to improve compliance overall and despite extensive research and efforts, rates of compliance remain low. Noncompliance in asthma management is a fact of life and no single compliance-improving strategy probably will be as effective as a good physician-patient relationship. PMID:18034967

  11. New combination therapies for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, J F; Ohar, J A

    2001-03-01

    Combination products often have useful clinical benefits in asthma. The scientific rationale for combination therapy includes the fact that different agents have complimentary modes of action. Long-acting beta(2)-agonists have effects on airway smooth muscle, and inhaled corticosteroids have potent topical antiinflammatory effect. This combination has been shown to effectively reduce exacerbations and improve symptoms. Substantial clinical trial data provide a rationale for dual-control therapy supported by basic scientific data. Another combined therapy is inhaled steroids plus leukotriene-receptor antagonists, which provides the patient with two effective therapies. Leukotriene-receptor antagonist can also be combined with antihistamines for improved asthma control. Older therapies including theophylline and controlled release albuterol have been effectively added to inhaled corticosteroids, enabling a reduction in the dose of the inhaled steroids. Many other combination therapies are presently being tested. PMID:11224725

  12. Asthma severity is associated with body mass index and early menarche in women. : Body mass index and asthma severity

    OpenAIRE

    Varraso, Raphaëlle; Siroux, Valérie; Maccario, Jean; Pin, Isabelle; Kauffmann, Francine

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Asthma severity in relation to body mass index (BMI) has rarely been studied. The relation between BMI and asthma severity was studied by sex in 366 adults with asthma from the Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma, a case-control and family study on asthma. Factors related to asthma severity and BMI such as smoking, FEV(1), bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and dyspnea were taken into account. The influence of early menarche was studied to asses...

  13. Assessment of asthma control using asthma control test in chest clinics in Cameroon: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo, Mbatchou Ngahane Bertrand; Walter, Pefura-Yone Eric; Maïmouna, Mama; Malea, Nganda Motto; Ubald, Olinga; Adeline, Wandji; Bruno, Tengang; Emmanuel, Nyankiyé; Emmanuel, Afane Ze; Christopher, Kuaban

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain and maintain a good control of symptoms. Investigating factors associated with inadequately control asthma could help in strategies to improve asthma control. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with inadequately controlled asthma in asthma patients under chest specialist care. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2012 to May 2013. Physician-diagnosed asthma patients aged 12 years and...

  14. 间充质干细胞与支气管哮喘%Mesenchymal stem cells and bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁; 莫碧文

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are pluripotent adult stem cells,which have powerful immunomodulatory capacity.These cells have dual character in the treatment of bronchial asthma (asthma).One is they can reduce airway inflammation and conducive to the treatment of asthma.On the other hand,they can involve in airway remodeling and aggravate the pathological changes of asthma.If they could be done an in-depth inquiry,to clarify their mechanism of action in asthma,and to avoid the disadvantages,the prospects of treatment of asthma will have a extensive future.%间充质干细胞是一种具有多向分化潜能的成体干细胞,拥有强大的免疫调节能力.它可减轻支气管哮喘(简称哮喘)的气道炎症,有利于哮喘的治疗,又可参与哮喘的气道重塑,加重哮喘病理改变,具有双面性.若能深入探讨、明确其在哮喘中的作用机制,趋利避害,可望给哮喘的治疗开辟更广阔的前景.

  15. Eosinophilic inflammation in allergic asthma

    OpenAIRE

    IolandaFátima Lopes CalvoTibério; CarlaMáximoPrado

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modu...

  16. Eosinophilic Inflammation in Allergic Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Possa, Samantha S.; Leick, Edna A; Carla M. Prado; Martins, Mílton A.; Tibério, Iolanda F. L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modu...

  17. Resolution of Inflammation in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Bruce D.; Vachier, Isabelle; Serhan, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The resolution of inflammation in healthy airways is an active process with specialized mediators and cellular mechanisms that are enlisted to restore tissue homeostasis. In this article, we will focus on recent discoveries of natural mediators derived from essential fatty acids, including omega-3 fatty acids, that have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions. These specialized pro-resolving mediators serve as agonists at specific receptors. Asthma is a disease of chronic, non-resolving i...

  18. Moses Maimonides' Treatise on Asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosner, F

    1981-01-01

    This paper contains an analysis and appreciation of one of Moses Maimonides' authentic medical works, his Treatise on Asthma. After a brief biographical section, passages from the work are cited and analysed to illustrate the approach of this medieval physician who organised the knowledge of Greeks and others who preceded him. Maimonides presents a logical and systematic approach to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, an approach which is clearly evident in his Treatise on As...

  19. Circulating catecholamines in acute asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Ind, P. W.; Causon, R C; Brown, M. J.; Barnes, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma catecholamine concentrations were measured in 15 patients (six male) aged 14-63 years attending the casualty department with acute severe asthma (peak expiratory flow 27% (SEM 3%) of predicted). Nine patients were admitted and six were not. The plasma noradrenaline concentration, reflecting sympathetic nervous discharge, was two to three times normal in all patients and was significantly higher in those who required admission compared with those discharged home (mean 7.7 (SEM 0.6) v 4....

  20. Perception of asthma as a factor in career choice among young adults with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Sacha Bhinder; Lisa Cicutto; Husam M. Abdel-Qadir; Tarlo, Susan M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Asthma is a common chronic condition that can be aggravated by workplace exposures. Young adults with asthma should know how their future occupation might affect their asthma, and potentially, their quality of life. The aim of the present study was to assess the awareness of young adults to occupational risks for asthma and high-risk occupations, as well as their perception of the role of asthma in career choice.METHODS: Young adults 16 to 22 years of age with reported physici...

  1. Effect of gender on hospital admissions for asthma and prevalence of self-reported asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1997-01-01

    . RESULTS: At baseline 315 subjects (2.3%) reported asthma, 2.2% of women and 2.5% of men. During follow up 160 subjects were admitted to hospital for asthma. After controlling for self-reported asthma and smoking, women had a higher risk of being admitted to hospital than men (relative risk 1.7, 95......% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.4). This increased risk was not due to misclassification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as asthma. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate gender-related differences in either the severity, perception, or management of asthma....

  2. Periportal low-attenuation: a CT sign of lymphatic obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Chong Soo; Yang, Doo Hyun; Lee, Sang Yong; Lee, Young Whan; Chung, Gyung Ho; Han, Young Min; Sohn, Myung Hee; Choi, Ki Chul [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-15

    Periportal low attenuation, defined as a low attenuation rim around the portal vein and its branches which is seen on contrast material-enhanced CT scans, has been described in a variety of conditions. We tried to document that lymphatic obstruction is one of the major cause of periportal low attenuation. We retrospectively analyzed 57 cases of periportal low attenuation of abdominal CT scans and also reviewed the surgical records in 32 cases. Lymph node enlargement in the hepatoduodenal ligament which is a main lymphatic channel from the liver were analyzed the calculated the ratio of the transeverse diameter between the inferior vena cava and the aorta at the level of right adrenal gland. After complete surgical interruption of the lymphatic drainage from the liver in a dog, follow up CT scans were obtained and correlated with pathologic findings. Fifty patients (88%) had underlying disease which could cause impairment of lymphatic drainage. Periportal low attenuation was identified in several clinical conditions, including surgical lymph node dissection, lymphadenopathy in the hepatoduodenal ligament, blunt trauma. In animal model, CT scan showed prominent periportal low attenuation at 5 days after surgery. Histologic examination revealed numerous dilated lymphatic vessels and a marked lymphedema in the connective tissues surrounding the portal vein and its major branches. One of the major cause of periportal low attenuation was impaired lymphatic drainage and periportal low attenuation corresponding to the numerous dilated lymphatic vessels and a marked lymphedema in the connective tissues surrounding the portal vein and its major branches.

  3. A case of isocyanate-induced asthma possibly complicated by food allergy after peanut consumption: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Xhixha Fatmira; Gjata Enkelejda; Mingomataj Ervin Ç; Hyso Entela

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Isocyanates are extensively used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams, plastics, coatings or adhesives. They are a major cause of occupational asthma in a proportion of exposed workers. Recent findings in animal models have demonstrated that isocyanate-induced asthma does not always represent an IgE-mediated sensitization, but still a mixed profile of CD4+ Th1 and TH2, as well as a CD8+ immune response. Despite immunologic similarities between this pathology and IgE-me...

  4. Pathologic conditions in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma authors suggested that MR imaging could rapresent an effective diagnostic alternative in the study of pathologic conditions of mother and fetus during pregnancy. To verify the actual role of MR imaging, we examined 20 patients in the 2nd and 3rd trimester of gestation, after a preliminary US examination. Fifteen patients presented fetal or placental pathologies; in 4 patients the onset of the pathologic condition occurred during pregnancy; in 1 case of US diagnosis of fetal ascites, MR findings were nornal and the newborn was healty. As for placental pathologies, our series included a case of placental cyst, two hematomas between placenta and uterine wall, and two cases of partial placenta previa. As for fetal malformation, we evaluated a case of omphalocele, one of Prune-Belly syndrome, a case of femoral asimmetry, one of thanatophoric dwarfism, a case of thoracopagus twins with cardiovascular abnormalities, two fetal hydrocephali, and three cases of pyelo-ureteral stenosis. As for maternal pathologies during pregnancy, we observed a case of subserous uterine fibromyoma, one of of right hydronephrosis, one of protrusion of lumbar invertebral disk, and a large ovarian cyst. In our experience, MR imaging exhibited high sensitivity and a large field of view, which were both useful in the investigation of the different conditions occurring during pregnancy. In the evaluation of fetal and placental abnormalities, especially during the 3rd trimester, the diagnostic yieldof MR imaging suggested it as a complementary technique to US for the evaluation of fetal malformation and of intrauterine growth retardation

  5. Asthma in elite athletes: how do we manage asthma-like symptoms and asthma in elite athletes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Kromann

    2009-01-01

    -asthmatic medication was currently taken by 24 (7%) elite athletes. Elite athletes participating in endurance sports had higher prevalences of asthma-like symptoms (74%), use of anti-asthmatic medication (15%) and current asthma (24%) than all other athletes (P

  6. Cough During Infancy and Subsequent Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Eyal; Rothers, Janet; Stern, Debra A.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Halonen, Marilyn; Wright, Anne L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Wheezing in infancy has been associated with subsequent asthma, but whether cough similarly influences asthma risk has been little studied. We sought to determine whether prolonged cough and cough without cold in the first year of life are associated with childhood asthma. METHODS Participants in the Infant Immune Study, a non-selected birth cohort, were surveyed 7 times in the first 9 months of life regarding presence of wheeze and cough. Cough for more than 28 days was defined as prolonged. Parents were asked at 1 year if the child ever coughed without a cold. Asthma was defined as parental report of physician diagnosis of asthma, with symptoms or medication use between 2–9 years. Logistic regression was used to assess adjusted odds for asthma associated with cough characteristics. RESULTS 24% (97) of children experienced prolonged cough and 23% (95) cough without cold in the first 9 months, respectively. Prolonged cough was associated with increased risk of asthma relative to brief cough (OR 3.57, CI: 1.88, 6.76), with the risk being particularly high among children of asthmatic mothers. Cough without cold (OR 3.13, 95% CI: 1.76, 5.57) was also independently associated with risk of childhood asthma. Both relations persisted after adjustment for wheeze and total IgE at age 1. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Prolonged cough in infancy and cough without cold are associated with childhood asthma, independent of infant wheeze. These findings suggest that characteristics of cough in infancy are early markers of asthma susceptibility, particularly among children with maternal asthma. PMID:26011047

  7. Comparison of clinically diagnosed asthma with parental assessment of children's asthma in a questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hederos, C.A.; Hasselgren, M.; Hedlin, G.;

    2007-01-01

    corresponding medical records in the same region. An International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC)-based WQ was answered by 75% of the parents of 6295 children aged 1-6 yr. Clinically diagnosed asthma, recorded in connection with admissions to the hospital or a visit to any of the outpatient...... medical record of asthma. Forty percent of the children claimed by their parents to be asthmatic had no medical record of asthma. An ISAAC-based parentally completed WQ provided an acceptable estimation of the prevalence of asthma in children 2-6 yr of age, although only half of the individual patients......Epidemiological evaluations of the prevalence of asthma are usually based on written questionnaires (WQs) in combination with validation by clinical investigation. In the present investigation, we compared parental assessment of asthma among their preschool children in response to a WQ with the...

  8. Current asthma control predicts future risk of asthma exacerbation: a 12-month prospective cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Hua-hua; ZHOU Ting; WANG Lan; ZHANG Hong-ping; FU Juan-juan; WANG Lei; JI Yu-lin; WANG Gang

    2012-01-01

    Background The performance of asthma control test (ACT) at baseline for predicting future risk of asthma exacerbation has not been previously demonstrated.This study was designed to explore the ability of the baseline ACT score to predict future risk of asthma exacerbation during a 12-month follow-up.Methods This post hoc analysis included data from a 12-month prospective cohort study in patients with asthma (n=290).The time to the first asthma exacerbation was analyzed and the association between baseline ACT scores and future risk of asthma exacerbation was calculated as adjusted odds ratio (OR) using Logistic regression models.Further,sensitivity and specificity were estimated at each cut-point of ACT scores for predicting asthma exacerbations.Results The subjects were divided into three groups,which were uncontrolled (U,n=128),partly-controlled (PC,n=111),and well controlled (C,n=51) asthma.After adjustment,the decreased ACT scores at baseline in the U and PC groups were associated with an increased probability of asthma exacerbations (OR 3.65 and OR 5.75,respectively),unplanned visits (OR 8.03 and OR 8.21,respectively) and emergency visits (OR 20.00 and OR 22.60,respectively) over a 12-month follow-up period.The time to the first asthma exacerbation was shorter in the groups with U and PC asthma (all P<0.05).The baseline ACT of 20 identified as the cut-point for screening the patients at high risk of asthma exacerbations had an increased sensitivity of over 90.0% but a lower specificity of about 30.0%.Conclusion Our findings indicate that the baseline ACT score with a high sensitivity could rule out patients at low risk of asthma exacerbations and oredict future risk of asthma exacerbations in clinical practice.

  9. Clinical update on the use of biomarkers of airway inflammation in the management of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorscheid DR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SJ Wadsworth1,2, DD Sin1,2, DR Dorscheid1,21UBC James Hogg Research Centre, Providence Heart and Lung Institute, St Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada; 2Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Biological markers are already used in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Biomarkers have great potential use in the clinic as a noninvasive means to make more accurate diagnoses, monitor disease progression, and create personalized treatment regimes. Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with several different phenotypes, generally triggered by multiple gene-environment interactions. Pulmonary function tests are most often used objectively to confirm the diagnosis. However, airflow obstruction can be variable and thus missed using spirometry. Furthermore, lung function measurements may not reflect the precise underlying pathological processes responsible for different phenotypes. Inhaled corticosteroids and ß2-agonists have been the mainstay of asthma therapy for over 30 years, but the heterogeneity of the disease means not all asthmatics respond to the same treatment. High costs and undesired side effects of drugs also drive the need for better targeted treatment of asthma. Biomarkers have the potential to indicate an individual's disease phenotype and thereby guide clinicians in their decisions regarding treatment. This review focuses on biomarkers of airway inflammation which may help us to identify, monitor, and guide treatment of asthmatics. We discuss biomarkers obtained from multiple physiological sources, including sputum, exhaled gases, exhaled breath condensate, serum, and urine. We discuss the inherent limitations and benefits of using biomarkers in a heterogeneous disease such as asthma. We also discuss how we may modify our study designs to improve the identification and potential use of potential biomarkers in asthma.Keywords: asthma, inflammation, airway

  10. Predicting asthma in preschool children with asthma symptoms: study rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafkamp-de Groen Esther

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In well-child care it is difficult to determine whether preschool children with asthma symptoms actually have or will develop asthma at school age. The PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy Risk Score has been proposed as an instrument that predicts asthma at school age, using eight easy obtainable parameters, assessed at the time of first asthma symptoms at preschool age. The aim of this study is to present the rationale and design of a study 1 to externally validate and update the PIAMA Risk Score, 2 to develop an Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool to predict asthma at school age in (specific subgroups of preschool children with asthma symptoms and 3 to test implementation of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care. Methods and design The study will be performed within the framework of Generation R, a prospective multi-ethnic cohort study. In total, consent for postnatal follow-up was obtained from 7893 children, born between 2002 and 2006. At preschool age the PIAMA Risk Score will be assessed and used to predict asthma at school age. Discrimination (C-index and calibration will be assessed for the external validation. We will study whether the predictive ability of the PIAMA Risk Score can be improved by removing or adding predictors (e.g. preterm birth. The (updated PIAMA Risk Score will be converted to the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool- to predict asthma at school age in preschool children with asthma symptoms. Additionally, we will conduct a pilot study to test implementation of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care. Discussion Application of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care will help to distinguish preschool children at high- and low-risk of developing asthma at school age when asthma symptoms appear. This study will increase knowledge about the validity of the PIAMA risk score and might improve risk assessment of developing asthma at school age in (specific subgroups

  11. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice. PMID:26372537

  12. Effect of diosmetin on airway remodeling in a murine model of chronic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ai; Liu, Yanan; Zeng, Xiaoning; Kong, Hui; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Jiaxiang; Bai, Fangfang; Huang, Mao

    2015-08-01

    Bronchial asthma, one of the most common allergic diseases, is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammation, and remodeling. The anti-oxidant flavone aglycone diosmetin ameliorates the inflammation in pancreatitis, but little is known about its impact on asthma. In this study, the effects of diosmetin on chronic asthma were investigated with an emphasis on the modulation of airway remodeling in BALB/c mice challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). It was found that diosmetin significantly relieved inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia, and collagen deposition in the lungs of asthmatic mice and notably reduced AHR in these animals. The OVA-induced increases in total cell and eosinophil counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were reversed, and the level of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E in serum was attenuated by diosmetin administration, implying an anti-Th2 activity of diosmetin. Furthermore, diosmetin remarkably suppressed the expression of smooth muscle actin alpha chain, indicating a potent anti-proliferative effect of diosmetin on airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). Matrix metallopeptidase-9, transforming growth factor-β1, and vascular endothelial growth factor levels were also alleviated by diosmetin, suggesting that the remission of airway remodeling might be attributed to the decline of these proteins. Taken together, our findings provided a novel profile of diosmetin with anti-remodeling therapeutic benefits, highlighting a new potential of diosmetin in remitting the ASMC proliferation in chronic asthma. PMID:26033789

  13. Asthma and cystic fibrosis: A tangled web.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Brian D

    2014-03-01

    Successfully diagnosing concomitant asthma in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) is a challenging proposition, and the utility of conventional diagnostic criteria of asthma in CF populations remains uncertain. Nonetheless, the accurate identification of individuals with CF and asthma allows appropriate tailoring of therapy, and should reduce the unnecessary use of asthma medication in broader CF cohorts. In this review, we discuss the diagnostic challenge posed by asthma in CF, both in terms of clinical evaluation, and of interpretation of pulmonary function testing and non-invasive markers of airway inflammation. We also examine how the role of cross-sectional thoracic imaging in CF and asthma can assist in the diagnosis of asthma in these patients. Finally, we critically appraise the evidence base behind the use of asthma medications in CF populations, with a particular focus on the use of inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators. As shall be discussed, the gaps in the current literature make further high-quality research in this field imperative. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2014; 49:205-213. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Identifying novel genes contributing to asthma pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holloway, John W.; Koppelman, Gerard H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of review To illustrate recent examples of novel asthma genes such as those encoding G-protein-coupled receptor for asthma susceptibility, filaggrin and tenascin-C, and to describe the process that is needed to translate these findings to the clinic. Recent findings Many hundreds of studies

  15. Sleep Problems in Asthma and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep Mini Series #5 Sleep Problems in Asthma and COPD NORMAL AIRWAY Good quality sleep is important for everyone. People with asthma and/or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) may have sleep issues that can lead to nighttime awakenings and ...

  16. How Is Asthma Treated and Controlled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as children, pregnant women, or those for whom exercise brings on asthma symptoms—will be adjusted to meet their special ... whether young children who wheeze or have other asthma symptoms will benefit from long-term control medicines. (Quick-relief medicines ...

  17. Cough in asthma triggered by reflux episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Devendra; He, Zhaoping; Padman, Raj

    2014-05-01

    With combined pH and impedance monitoring, non-acid, as well as acid reflux episodes, are more commonly detected immediately prior to cough in asthma in children. Gastroesophageal reflux should be evaluated as a trigger for cough in difficult childhood asthma.

  18. Macrophages Regulators of Sex Differences in Asthma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melgert, Barbro N.; Oriss, Timothy B.; Qi, Zengbiao; Dixon-McCarthy, Barbara; Geerlings, Marie; Hylkema, Machteld N.; Ray, Anuradha

    2010-01-01

    Females are more susceptible to development of asthma than are males. In a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation, with aggravated disease in females compared with males, we studied interactions between immune and resident lung cells during asthma development to elucidate which process

  19. Thunderstorm-asthma and pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; Frenguelli, G

    2007-01-01

    Thunderstorms have been linked to asthma epidemics, especially during the pollen seasons, and there are descriptions of asthma outbreaks associated with thunderstorms, which occurred in several cities, prevalently in Europe (Birmingham and London in the UK and Napoli in Italy) and Australia (Melbourne and Wagga Wagga). Pollen grains can be carried by thunderstorm at ground level, where pollen rupture would be increased with release of allergenic biological aerosols of paucimicronic size, derived from the cytoplasm and which can penetrate deep into lower airways. In other words, there is evidence that under wet conditions or during thunderstorms, pollen grains may, after rupture by osmotic shock, release into the atmosphere part of their content, including respirable, allergen-carrying cytoplasmic starch granules (0.5-2.5 microm) or other paucimicronic components that can reach lower airways inducing asthma reactions in pollinosis patients. The thunderstorm-asthma outbreaks are characterized, at the beginning of thunderstorms by a rapid increase of visits for asthma in general practitioner or hospital emergency departments. Subjects without asthma symptoms, but affected by seasonal rhinitis can experience an asthma attack. No unusual levels of air pollution were noted at the time of the epidemics, but there was a strong association with high atmospheric concentrations of pollen grains such as grasses or other allergenic plant species. However, subjects affected by pollen allergy should be informed about a possible risk of asthma attack at the beginning of a thunderstorm during pollen season. PMID:17156336

  20. Asthma in children : origins and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer - Kooijker, K.

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world. At school age, 4-7% of all children is experiencing asthmatic symptoms. Improvement of asthma control and health related quality of life (HRQOL) may lower the huge burden of this disease. This requires insight into the determinants of a

  1. Regulatory T-lymphocytes in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterhout, AJM; Bloksma, N

    2005-01-01

    T-helper cell type (Th)2 lymphocytes play an important role in the initiation, progression and persistence of allergic diseases, including asthma. However, little is known about immunoregulatory mechanisms that determine susceptibility to, severity of, or persistence of asthma. The concept of a dist

  2. Exhaled nitric oxide and asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.P. van der Valk (Ralf)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAsthma was first described in the medical literature of Greek antiquity. It is difficult to determine whether by referring to “asthma”, Hippocrates and his school (460-360 B.C.) meant an autonomous clinical entity or a symptom. The clinical presentation of asthma nowadays has probably ch

  3. Age at menarche and risk of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Sofie; Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Brok, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested a relationship between the age at menarche and risk of asthma development. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between the age at menarche and the risk of asthma. METHODS: This systematic review and meta...

  4. Vascular Biomarkers in Asthma and COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakakos, Petros; Patentalakis, George; Papi, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain a global health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. The changes in bronchial microvasculature that occurin asthma and COPD contribute to airway wall remodeling. Angiogenesis seems to be more prevalent in asthma and vasodilatation seemsmore relevant in COPD while vascular leak is present in both diseases. Recently, there has been increased interest in the vascular component of airway remodeling in chronic bronchial inflammation of asthma and COPD although its role in the progression of the diseases has not been fully elucidated. Various cells andmediators are involved in the vascular remodeling in asthma and COPD while proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors exert angiogenic and antiangiogenic effects. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of blood vessel growth mainly in asthma but also in COPD. In asthmatic airways VEGF promotes proliferation and differentiation of endothelial cells and induces vascular leakage and permeability. It has also been involved in enhanced allergic sensitization, upregulated subsequent T-helper-2 type inflammatory responses, chemotaxis for monocytes and eosinophils, and airway oedema. Impaired VEGF signaling has been associated with emphysema in animal models. Studies on lung biopsies have shown a decreasing effect of anti-asthma drugs to the vascular component of airway remodeling. There is less available evidence on the effect of the currently used drugs on airway microvascular network in COPD. This review article explores the current knowledge regarding vascular biomarkers in asthma and COPD as well as the therapeutic implications of these mediators. PMID:26420364

  5. Sleep and psychological disturbance in nocturnal asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Stores, G; Ellis, A.; Wiggs, L.; Crawford, C.; Thomson, A.

    1998-01-01

    Subjective and objective sleep disturbance was studied in children with nocturnal asthma. Relations between such disturbance and daytime psychological function were also explored, including possible changes in learning and behaviour associated with improvements in nocturnal asthma and sleep. Assessments included home polysomnography, parental questionnaires concerning sleep disturbance, behaviour, and mood and cognitive testing. Compared with matched controls, children with ...

  6. Epidemiology of asthma in western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpin, D; Vervloet, D; Charpin, J

    1988-10-01

    Asthma deaths are uncommon, but have recently increased in some countries due to problems in the management of the disease. Morbidity rates show large variations, which can be attributed to differences in defining the disease, but also to genuine variations, with a trend towards less asthma in northern Europe. It has been suggested that allergic diseases as a whole, and asthma in particular, may exhibit an upward secular trend. Risk factors include a genetic background and environmental triggering factors. The importance of genetic factors is illustrated by family studies and by extreme prevalence rates observed in some communities. Environmental factors include rapid air pollution variations which act as a trigger for asthma attacks. However, at levels currently prevailing in western Europe, air pollutants do not induce a higher incidence of asthma. Altitude generates a gradual decrease in Dermatophagoides, thus explaining both the clinical improvement in asthmatics living in altitude and a lower prevalence of asthma in populations born and living there. Among the other aero-allergens, grass pollens plays a major role in spring, elicitating asthma attacks. Some natural allergens transformed by man (castor bean, soja) can be responsible for asthma epidemics.

  7. Asthma medication delivery : Mists and myths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottier, Bart L.; Rubin, Bruce K.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is usually treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and bronchodilators generated from pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI), dry powder inhalers (DPI), or nebulizers. The target areas for ICS and beta 2-agonists in the treatment of asthma are explained. Drug deposition not only depends

  8. What defines airflow obstruction in asthma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerveri, I.; Corsico, A. G.; Accordini, S.; Cervio, G.; Ansaldo, E.; Grosso, A.; Niniano, R.; Tegomo, E. Tsana; Anto, J. M.; Kuenzli, N.; Janson, C.; Sunyer, J.; Svanes, C.; Heinrich, J.; Schouten, J. P.; Wjst, M.; Pozzi, E.; de Marco, R.

    2009-01-01

    Asthma guidelines from the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) and from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute provide conflicting definitions of airflow obstruction, suggesting a fixed forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) cut-off point and the lower limit of nor

  9. Forced oscillation, integer and fractional-order modeling in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Alvaro C D; Veiga, Juliana; Lopes, Agnaldo J; Melo, Pedro L

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of fractional-order (FrOr) modeling in asthma. To this end, three FrOr models were compared with traditional parameters and an integer-order model (InOr). We investigated which model would best fit the data, the correlation with traditional lung function tests and the contribution to the diagnostic of airway obstruction. The data consisted of forced oscillation (FO) measurements obtained from healthy (n=22) and asthmatic volunteers with mild (n=22), moderate (n=19) and severe (n=19) obstructions. The first part of this study showed that a FrOr was the model that best fit the data (relative distance: FrOr=4.3±2.4; InOr=5.1±2.6%). The correlation analysis resulted in reasonable (R=0.36) to very good (R=0.77) associations between FrOr parameters and spirometry. The closest associations were observed between parameters related to peripheral airway obstruction, showing a clear relationship between the FrOr models and lung mechanics. Receiver-operator analysis showed that FrOr parameters presented a high potential to contribute to the detection of the mild obstruction in a clinical setting. The accuracy [area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC)] observed in these parameters (AUC=0.954) was higher than that observed in traditional FO parameters (AUC=0.732) and that obtained from the InOr model (AUC=0.861). Patients with moderate and severe obstruction were identified with high accuracy (AUC=0.972 and 0.977, respectively). In conclusion, the results obtained are in close agreement with asthma pathology, and provide evidence that FO measurement associated with FrOr models is a non-invasive, simple and radiation-free method for the detection of biomechanical abnormalities in asthma. PMID:27040828

  10. [Underdiagnosed asthma in third-grade children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walus, I; Richard, G; Laquerrière, B; Perucca, M; Tuveri, R; Einbinder, V; Muller, B; Beydon, N

    2016-01-01

    Undiagnosed asthma has been poorly studied before adolescence since it can go unnoticed by parents and doctors. Moreover, it is unusual to look for undiagnosed asthma by directly questioning children on the presence of current respiratory symptoms. Epidemiologic studies show that more adolescents quote symptoms suggestive of asthma than the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma, but respiratory symptoms compatible with asthma remain undetected by parents of younger children more frequently than doctors diagnose asthma in their children. We attempted to evaluate the relevance of a questionnaire used since 2011 by school doctors in Paris to detect asthma. In this questionnaire, the family history of atopy and asthma were completed by the parents when they met the school doctor (last year of preschool) and questions on current respiratory symptoms were answered by third-grade children seen alone by the school doctor. One hundred and thirty-one children out of 1135 children questioned had a positive questionnaire for suspected asthma. In three-quarters of the cases, questionnaires were positive based on the children's answers on their respiratory symptoms (without a positive answer on personal or family history being necessary). The outcome of 41 children screened by the questionnaire was known. Twenty (49%) children had received a final diagnosis of asthma, of whom 12 were put on asthma controllers. Among these 20 children, two children underwent lung function testing and two others underwent tests for allergy. In eight children, tests had been requested by the child's GP, but no final diagnosis was reported by the parents. None of the 13 children in whom asthma was ruled out had any test performed. It was concluded that it is possible to detect undiagnosed asthma in children as young as 8 years by directly asking them about their respiratory symptoms. The knowledge of personal and family history can improve screening for asthma in these children. A more thorough

  11. Planetary Ices Attenuation Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Christine; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    In this chapter, we review the topic of energy dissipation in the context of icy satellites experiencing tidal forcing. We describe the physics of mechanical dissipation, also known as attenuation, in polycrystalline ice and discuss the history of laboratory methods used to measure and understand it. Because many factors - such as microstructure, composition and defect state - can influence rheological behavior, we review what is known about the mechanisms responsible for attenuation in ice and what can be inferred from the properties of rocks, metals and ceramics. Since attenuation measured in the laboratory must be carefully scaled to geologic time and to planetary conditions in order to provide realistic extrapolation, we discuss various mechanical models that have been used, with varying degrees of success, to describe attenuation as a function of forcing frequency and temperature. We review the literature in which these models have been used to describe dissipation in the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Finally, we address gaps in our present knowledge of planetary ice attenuation and provide suggestions for future inquiry.

  12. Assessment of problematic severe asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, K. C. L.; Hedlin, G.; Bush, A.;

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of problematic severe asthma in children should be performed in a stepwise manner to ensure an optimal approach. A four-step assessment scheme is proposed. First, a full diagnostic work-up is performed to exclude other diseases which mimic asthma. Secondly, a multi-disciplinary assessm......Assessment of problematic severe asthma in children should be performed in a stepwise manner to ensure an optimal approach. A four-step assessment scheme is proposed. First, a full diagnostic work-up is performed to exclude other diseases which mimic asthma. Secondly, a multi...... in our current knowledge in all these steps are highlighted, and recommendations for current clinical practice and future research are made. The lack of good data and the heterogeneity of problematic severe asthma still limit our ability to optimise the management on an individual basis in this small...

  13. Genetic and environmental influence on asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skadhauge, L.R.; Christensen, Kaare; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm;

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on the aetiology of asthma. The classic twin study design was used to analyse data on self-reported asthma obtained by a questionnaire mailed to 34,076 individuals, aged 12-41 yrs and originating from...... the Danish Twin Register. The cumulative incidence of asthma was 6.2% in the pooled sample. The data showed a decreasing cumulative incidence with age for males, but no sex or zygosity difference was observed. Substantially higher concordance rates, odds ratios and correlations for asthma were estimated...... in the monozygotic than in the dizygotic twins. Using biometric modelling, a model including additive genetic and nonshared environmental effects provided the best overall fit to the data. According to this model, 73% of the variation in liability to asthma was explained by genetic factors. No sex difference or age...

  14. Role of leukotrienes in asthma pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    2000-01-01

    Inflammation is an essential component of asthma pathophysiology. While beta(2)-agonists are often used for short-term relief of acute bronchospasm, anti-inflammatory agents are required for the long-term management of chronic inflammation in this disease. Corticosteroids have emerged as the first......-line anti-inflammatory therapy for asthma management. However, in some patients, especially children, the high doses of corticosteroids that may be required to control features of hyperresponsiveness, including exercise-induced asthma, raise safety concerns. Thus, there is a need for complementary anti......-inflammatory, steroid-sparing agents in asthma therapy. Several inflammatory mediators have been targeted in an attempt to thwart this inflammatory process, but so far with little success. The cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLT), LTC(4), LTD(4), and LTE(4), have been shown to be essential mediators in asthma, making them...

  15. Use of inhaled corticosteroids in pediatric asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    1997-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids reduce asthma symptoms and exacerbations, improve lung function, and reduce airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity more effectively than other treatments. However, inhaled corticosteroids may be unable to return lung function and bronchial hyperreactivity...... to normal when introduced for moderately severe asthma. This finding highlights the need to improve treatment strategy in pediatric asthma. The natural progression of persistent asthma may lead to loss of lung function and chronic bronchial hyperreactivity for children and adults. There is evidence...... to suggest that asthma acts via a chronic inflammatory process that causes remodeling of the airways with mucosal thickening and smooth muscle hypertrophy. An optimal treatment strategy would be one aimed at reducing the ongoing airway inflammation. Inhaled steroids ameliorate the inflammation, whereas...

  16. Breathing exercises for adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Asthma is a common long-term condition that remains poorly controlled in many people despite the availability of pharmacological interventions, evidence-based treatment guidelines and care pathways.(1) There is considerable public interest in the use of non-pharmacological approaches for the treatment of asthma.(2) A survey of people with asthma reported that many have used complementary and alternative medicine, often without the knowledge of their clinical team.(3) Such interventions include breathing techniques, herbal products, homeopathy and acupuncture. The role of breathing exercises within the management of asthma has been controversial, partly because early claims of effectiveness were exaggerated.(4) UK national guidance and international guidelines on the management of asthma have included the option of breathing exercise programmes as an adjuvant to pharmacological treatment.(5,6) Here we discuss the types of breathing exercises used and review the evidence for their effectiveness. PMID:26563876

  17. TC pathological Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation is about different imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT, RNM, PET-CT. These techniques permit to detect head and neck tumors, breast and digestive pathologies as well as congenital diseases and glandular tumor in the thyroid, parathyroid, muscles, lymphatic, nerves and vessels

  18. Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

  19. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  20. Next-Generation Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caie, Peter D; Harrison, David J

    2016-01-01

    The field of pathology is rapidly transforming from a semiquantitative and empirical science toward a big data discipline. Large data sets from across multiple omics fields may now be extracted from a patient's tissue sample. Tissue is, however, complex, heterogeneous, and prone to artifact. A reductionist view of tissue and disease progression, which does not take this complexity into account, may lead to single biomarkers failing in clinical trials. The integration of standardized multi-omics big data and the retention of valuable information on spatial heterogeneity are imperative to model complex disease mechanisms. Mathematical modeling through systems pathology approaches is the ideal medium to distill the significant information from these large, multi-parametric, and hierarchical data sets. Systems pathology may also predict the dynamical response of disease progression or response to therapy regimens from a static tissue sample. Next-generation pathology will incorporate big data with systems medicine in order to personalize clinical practice for both prognostic and predictive patient care.