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Sample records for attenuates aba signalling

  1. ABA signal in rice under stress conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Nenghui; Jia, Liguo; Zhang, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    Ever since its discovery, abscisic acid (ABA) has been intensively studied due to its versatile functions in plant developmental and physiological processes. Many signaling details of ABA have been well elucidated and reviewed. The identification of ABA receptors is a great breakthrough in the field of ABA study, whereas the discovery of ABA transporter has changed our concept that ABA is delivered solely by passive transport. The intensity of ABA signaling pathway is well known to be control...

  2. ABA signal in rice under stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Ever since its discovery, abscisic acid (ABA) has been intensively studied due to its versatile functions in plant developmental and physiological processes. Many signaling details of ABA have been well elucidated and reviewed. The identification of ABA receptors is a great breakthrough in the field of ABA study, whereas the discovery of ABA transporter has changed our concept that ABA is delivered solely by passive transport. The intensity of ABA signaling pathway is well known to be controlled by multi-regulators. Nonetheless, the interaction and coordination among ABA biosynthesis, catabolism, conjugation and transportation are seldom discussed. Here, we summarize the biological functions of ABA in response to different stresses, especially the roles of ABA in plant defense to pathogen attack, and discuss the possible relationships of these determinants in controlling the specificity and intensity of ABA signaling pathway in the rice. PMID:24764501

  3. Transcriptional regulation by an NAC (NAM-ATAF1,2-CUC2) transcription factor attenuates ABA signalling for efficient basal defence towards Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Michael K; Hagedorn, Peter H; de Torres-Zabala, Marta; Grant, Murray R; Rung, Jesper H; Collinge, David B; Lyngkjaer, Michael F

    2008-12-01

    ATAF1 is a member of a largely uncharacterized plant-specific gene family encoding NAC transcription factors, and is induced in response to various abiotic and biotic stimuli in Arabidopsis thaliana. Previously, we showed that a mutant allele of ATAF1 compromises penetration resistance in Arabidopsis with respect to the non-host biotrophic pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). In this study, we have used genome-wide transcript profiling to characterize signalling perturbations in ataf1 plants following Bgh inoculation. Comparative transcriptomic analyses identified an over-representation of abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive genes, including the ABA biosynthesis gene AAO3, which is significantly induced in ataf1 plants compared to wild-type plants following inoculation with Bgh. Additionally, we show that Bgh inoculation results in decreased endogenous ABA levels in an ATAF1-dependent manner, and that the ABA biosynthetic mutant aao3 showed increased penetration resistance to Bgh compared to wild-type plants. Furthermore, we show that ataf1 plants show ABA-hyposensitive phenotypes during seedling development and germination. Our data support a negative correlation between ABA levels and penetration resistance, and identify ATAF1 as a new stimuli-dependent attenuator of ABA signalling for the mediation of efficient penetration resistance in Arabidopsis upon Bgh attack.

  4. A Novel Chemical Inhibitor of ABA Signaling Targets All ABA Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yajin; Zhou, Lijuan; Liu, Xue; Liu, Hao; Li, Deqiang; Cao, Minjie; Chen, Haifeng; Xu, Lin; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Zhao, Yang

    2017-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), the most important stress-induced phytohormone, regulates seed dormancy, germination, plant senescence, and the abiotic stress response. ABA signaling is repressed by group A type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), and then ABA binds to its receptor of the ACTIN RESISTANCE1 (PYR1), PYR1-LIKE (PYL), and REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORS (RCAR) family, which, in turn, inhibits PP2Cs and activates downstream ABA signaling. The agonist/antagonist of ABA receptors have the potential to reveal the ABA signaling machinery and to become lead compounds for agrochemicals; however, until now, no broad-spectrum antagonists of ABA receptors blocking all PYR/PYL-PP2C interactions have been identified. Here, using chemical genetics screenings, we identified ABA ANTAGONIST1 (AA1), the first broad-spectrum antagonist of ABA receptors in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Physiological analyses revealed that AA1 is sufficiently active to block ABA signaling. AA1 interfered with all the PYR/PYL-HAB1 interactions, and the diminished PYR/PYL-HAB1 interactions, in turn, restored the activity of HAB1. AA1 binds to all 13 members. Molecular dockings, the non-AA1-bound PYL2 variant, and competitive binding assays demonstrated that AA1 enters into the ligand-binding pocket of PYL2. Using AA1, we tested the genetic relationships of ABA receptors with other core components of ABA signaling, demonstrating that AA1 is a powerful tool with which to sidestep this genetic redundancy of PYR/PYLs. In addition, the application of AA1 delays leaf senescence. Thus, our study developed an efficient broad-spectrum antagonist of ABA receptors and demonstrated that plant senescence can be chemically controlled through AA1, with a simple and easy-to-synthesize structure, allowing its availability and utility as a chemical probe synthesized in large quantities, indicating its potential application in agriculture. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. The Heat Stress Factor HSFA6b Connects ABA Signaling and ABA-Mediated Heat Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Chen; Niu, Chung-Yen; Yang, Chen-Ru; Jinn, Tsung-Luo

    2016-10-01

    Heat stress response (HSR) is a conserved mechanism developed to increase the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) via a heat shock factor (HSF)-dependent mechanism. Signaling by the stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in acquired thermotolerance as well. Analysis of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) microarray databases revealed that the expression of HSFA6b, a class A HSF, extensively increased with salinity, osmotic, and cold stresses, but not heat. Here, we show that HSFA6b plays a pivotal role in the response to ABA and in thermotolerance. Salt-inducible HSFA6b expression was down-regulated in ABA-insensitive and -deficient mutants; however, exogenous ABA application restored expression in ABA-deficient, but not -insensitive plants. Thus, ABA signaling is required for proper HSFA6b expression. A transcriptional activation assay of protoplasts revealed that ABA treatment and coexpression of an ABA signaling master effector, ABA-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN1, could activate the HSFA6b promoter. In addition, HSFA6b directly bound to the promoter of DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN2A and enhanced its expression. Analysis of ABA responses in seed germination, cotyledon greening, and root growth as well as salt and drought tolerance in HSFA6b-null, overexpression, and dominant negative mutants revealed that HSFA6b is a positive regulator participating in ABA-mediated salt and drought resistance. Thermoprotection tests showed that HSFA6b was required for thermotolerance acquisition. Our study reveals a network in which HSFA6b operates as a downstream regulator of the ABA-mediated stress response and is required for heat stress resistance. This new ABA-signaling pathway is integrated into the complex HSR network in planta. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Evolutionary Conservation of ABA Signaling for Stomatal Closure1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuqing; Dai, Fei; Franks, Peter J.; Nevo, Eviatar; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Xue, Dawei; Zhang, Guoping; Pogson, Barry J.

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA)-driven stomatal regulation reportedly evolved after the divergence of ferns, during the early evolution of seed plants approximately 360 million years ago. This hypothesis is based on the observation that the stomata of certain fern species are unresponsive to ABA, but exhibit passive hydraulic control. However, ABA-induced stomatal closure was detected in some mosses and lycophytes. Here, we observed that a number of ABA signaling and membrane transporter protein families diversified over the evolutionary history of land plants. The aquatic ferns Azolla filiculoides and Salvinia cucullata have representatives of 23 families of proteins orthologous to those of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and all other land plant species studied. Phylogenetic analysis of the key ABA signaling proteins indicates an evolutionarily conserved stomatal response to ABA. Moreover, comparative transcriptomic analysis has identified a suite of ABA-responsive genes that differentially expressed in a terrestrial fern species, Polystichum proliferum. These genes encode proteins associated with ABA biosynthesis, transport, reception, transcription, signaling, and ion and sugar transport, which fit the general ABA signaling pathway constructed from Arabidopsis and Hordeum vulgare. The retention of these key ABA-responsive genes could have had a profound effect on the adaptation of ferns to dry conditions. Furthermore, stomatal assays have shown the primary evidence for ABA-induced closure of stomata in two terrestrial fern species P. proliferum and Nephrolepis exaltata. In summary, we report, to our knowledge, new molecular and physiological evidence for the presence of active stomatal control in ferns. PMID:28232585

  7. Elevated CO2-Induced Responses in Stomata Require ABA and ABA Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Caspar; Peng, Kai; Movahedi, Mahsa; Dunn, Jessica A; Walker, Heather J; Liang, Yun-Kuan; McLachlan, Deirdre H; Casson, Stuart; Isner, Jean Charles; Wilson, Ian; Neill, Steven J; Hedrich, Rainer; Gray, Julie E; Hetherington, Alistair M

    2015-10-19

    An integral part of global environment change is an increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 ([CO2]) [1]. Increased [CO2] reduces leaf stomatal apertures and density of stomata that plays out as reductions in evapotranspiration [2-4]. Surprisingly, given the importance of transpiration to the control of terrestrial water fluxes [5] and plant nutrient acquisition [6], we know comparatively little about the molecular components involved in the intracellular signaling pathways by which [CO2] controls stomatal development and function [7]. Here, we report that elevated [CO2]-induced closure and reductions in stomatal density require the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby adding a new common element to these signaling pathways. We also show that the PYR/RCAR family of ABA receptors [8, 9] and ABA itself are required in both responses. Using genetic approaches, we show that ABA in guard cells or their precursors is sufficient to mediate the [CO2]-induced stomatal density response. Taken together, our results suggest that stomatal responses to increased [CO2] operate through the intermediacy of ABA. In the case of [CO2]-induced reductions in stomatal aperture, this occurs by accessing the guard cell ABA signaling pathway. In both [CO2]-mediated responses, our data are consistent with a mechanism in which ABA increases the sensitivity of the system to [CO2] but could also be explained by requirement for a CO2-induced increase in ABA biosynthesis specifically in the guard cell lineage. Furthermore, the dependency of stomatal [CO2] signaling on ABA suggests that the ABA pathway is, in evolutionary terms, likely to be ancestral. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolutionary Conservation of ABA Signaling for Stomatal Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shengguan; Chen, Guang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Huang, Yuqing; Marchant, D Blaine; Wang, Yizhou; Yang, Qian; Dai, Fei; Hills, Adrian; Franks, Peter J; Nevo, Eviatar; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Sessa, Emily; Wolf, Paul G; Xue, Dawei; Zhang, Guoping; Pogson, Barry J; Blatt, Michael R; Chen, Zhong-Hua

    2017-06-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA)-driven stomatal regulation reportedly evolved after the divergence of ferns, during the early evolution of seed plants approximately 360 million years ago. This hypothesis is based on the observation that the stomata of certain fern species are unresponsive to ABA, but exhibit passive hydraulic control. However, ABA-induced stomatal closure was detected in some mosses and lycophytes. Here, we observed that a number of ABA signaling and membrane transporter protein families diversified over the evolutionary history of land plants. The aquatic ferns Azolla filiculoides and Salvinia cucullata have representatives of 23 families of proteins orthologous to those of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and all other land plant species studied. Phylogenetic analysis of the key ABA signaling proteins indicates an evolutionarily conserved stomatal response to ABA. Moreover, comparative transcriptomic analysis has identified a suite of ABA-responsive genes that differentially expressed in a terrestrial fern species, Polystichum proliferum These genes encode proteins associated with ABA biosynthesis, transport, reception, transcription, signaling, and ion and sugar transport, which fit the general ABA signaling pathway constructed from Arabidopsis and Hordeum vulgare The retention of these key ABA-responsive genes could have had a profound effect on the adaptation of ferns to dry conditions. Furthermore, stomatal assays have shown the primary evidence for ABA-induced closure of stomata in two terrestrial fern species Pproliferum and Nephrolepis exaltata In summary, we report, to our knowledge, new molecular and physiological evidence for the presence of active stomatal control in ferns. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. RPN1a negatively regulates ABA signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dashi; Li, Xiushan; Zhao, Xiaoying; Du, Changqing; Chen, Jia; Li, Chiyu; Sun, Mengsi; Wang, Long; Lin, Jianzhong; Tang, Dongying; Yu, Feng; Liu, Xuanming

    2016-11-01

    The 26S proteasome selectively regulates key abscisic acid (ABA) signaling proteins, but the physiological functions and mechanisms of RPN1a (a subunit of the 26S proteasome) in ABA signaling remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that the mRNA expression of RPN1a was suppressed by ABA treatment, and that RPN1a protein was expressed abundantly in guard cells. In the presence of ABA, rpn1a mutants showed rapid stomatal closure, low water loss, delayed germination, and inhibited root elongation. In addition, the transcripts of key ABA signaling genes, including ABI5, RD22, RD29A, and RD29B, were upregulated in rpn1a mutant plants in response to ABA. Furthermore, the ABI5 protein level was higher in rpn1a mutants subjected to ABA treatment. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that RPN1a interacts with ABI1. Overall, these findings suggest that RPN1a negatively regulates ABA signaling in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Reactive Carbonyl Species Mediate ABA Signaling in Guard Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Moshiul; Ye, Wenxiu; Matsushima, Daiki; Munemasa, Shintaro; Okuma, Eiji; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Biswas, Sanaullah; Mano, Jun'ichi; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2016-12-01

    Drought is responsible for a massive reduction in crop yields. In response to drought, plants synthesize the hormone ABA, which induces stomatal closure, thus reducing water loss. In guard cells, ABA triggers production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is mediated by NAD(P)H oxidases. The production of ROS is a key factor for ABA-induced stomatal closure, but it remains to be clarified how the production of ROS is transduced into downstream signaling components in guard cells. We investigated roles of reactive carbonyl species (RCS) in ABA-induced stomatal closure using transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) overexpressing Arabidopsis 2-alkenal reductase (AER-OE), which scavenges RCS. ABA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced accumulation of RCS including acrolein and 4-hydroxy-(E)-2-nonenal in wild-type tobacco but not in AER-OE. Stomatal closure and RCS accumulation in response to ABA and H2O2 were inhibited in AER-OE unlike in the wild type, while ABA-induced H2O2 production in guard cells was observed in AER-OE as well as in the wild type. Moreover, ABA inhibited inward-rectifying K(+) channels in wild-type guard cells but not in AER-OE guard cells. These results suggest that RCS is involved in ABA-induced stomatal closure and functions downstream of H2O2 production in the ABA signaling pathway in guard cells. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. AtRAE1 is involved in degradation of ABA receptor RCAR1 and negatively regulates ABA signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dekuan; Zhang, Liang; Li, Xiaoyi; Kong, Xiangge; Wang, Xiaoyu; Li, Ying; Liu, Zhibin; Wang, Jianmei; Li, Xufeng; Yang, Yi

    2017-10-18

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in regulating plant growth, development and adaption to various environmental stresses. Regulatory components of ABA receptors (RCARs, also known as PYR/PYLs) sense ABA and initiate ABA signaling through inhibiting the activities of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) in Arabidopsis. However, the way in which ABA receptors are regulated is not well known. A DWD protein AtRAE1 (for RNA export factor 1 in Arabidopsis), which may act as a substrate receptor of CUL4-DDB1 E3 ligase, is an interacting partner of RCAR1/PYL9. The physical interaction between RCAR1 and AtRAE1 is confirmed in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of AtRAE1 in Arabidopsis causes reduced sensitivity of plants to ABA, while suppression of AtRAE1 causes increased sensitivity to ABA. Analysis of protein stability demonstrates that RCAR1 is ubiquitinated and degraded in plant cells and AtRAE1 regulates the degradation speed of RCAR1. Our findings indicate that AtRAE1 likely participates in ABA signaling through regulating the degradation of ABA receptor RCAR1. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. ESCRT-I Component VPS23A Affects ABA Signaling by Recognizing ABA Receptors for Endosomal Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feifei; Lou, Lijuan; Tian, Miaomiao; Li, Qingliang; Ding, Yanglin; Cao, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Yaorong; Belda-Palazon, Borja; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Yang, Shuhua; Xie, Qi

    2016-12-05

    Recent discovery of PYR/PYL/RCAR-type abscisic acid (ABA) receptors has become one of most significant advances in plant science in the past decade. In mammals, endosomal sorting acts as an important pathway to downregulate different types of receptors, but its role in plant hormone signaling is poorly understood. Here, we report that an ubiquitin E2-like protein, VPS23A, which is a key component of ESCRT-I, negatively regulates ABA signaling. VPS23A has epistatic relationship with PYR/PYL/RCAR-type ABA receptors and disruption of VPS23A enhanced the activity of key kinase OST1 in the ABA signaling pathway under ABA treatment. Moreover, VPS23A interacts with PYR1/PYLs and K63-linked diubiquitin, and PYL4 possesses K63-linked ubiquitinated modification in vivo. Further analysis revealed that VPS23A affects the subcellular localization of PYR1 and the stability of PYL4. Taken together, our results suggest that VPS23A affects PYR1/PYL4 via vacuole-mediated degradation, providing an advanced understanding of both the turnover of ABA receptors and ESCRTs in plant hormone signaling. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. SCFAtPP2-B11 modulates ABA signaling by facilitating SnRK2.3 degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chunhong; Wang, Zhijuan; Ren, Ziyin; Zhi, Liya; Yao, Bin; Su, Chao; Liu, Liu; Li, Xia

    2017-08-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential part of the plant response to abiotic stressors such as drought. Upon the perception of ABA, pyrabactin resistance (PYR)/PYR1-like (PYL)/regulatory components of ABA receptor (RCAR) proteins interact with co-receptor protein phosphatase type 2Cs to permit activation Snf1-related protein kinase2 (SnRK2) kinases, which switch on ABA signaling by phosphorylating various target proteins. Thus, SnRK2 kinases are central regulators of ABA signaling. However, the mechanisms that regulate SnRK2 degradation remain elusive. Here, we show that SnRK2.3 is degradated by 26S proteasome system and ABA promotes its degradation. We found that SnRK2.3 interacts with AtPP2-B11 directly. AtPP2-B11 is an F-box protein that is part of a SKP1/Cullin/F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that negatively regulates plant responses to ABA by specifically promoting the degradation of SnRK2.3. AtPP2-B11 was induced by ABA, and the knockdown of AtPP2-B11 expression markedly increased the ABA sensitivity of plants during seed germination and postgerminative development. Overexpression of AtPP2-B11 does not affect ABA sensitivity, but inhibits the ABA hypersensitive phenotypes of SnRK2.3 overexpression lines. These results reveal a novel mechanism through which AtPP2-B11 specifically degrades SnRK2.3 to attenuate ABA signaling and the abiotic stress response in Arabidopsis.

  14. Type One Protein Phosphatase 1 and Its Regulatory Protein Inhibitor 2 Negatively Regulate ABA Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Xie, Shaojun; Batelli, Giorgia; Wang, Bangshing; Duan, Cheng-Guo; Wang, Xingang; Xing, Lu; Lei, Mingguang; Yan, Jun; Zhu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant growth, development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The core ABA signaling pathway consists of three major components: ABA receptor (PYR1/PYLs), type 2C Protein Phosphatase (PP2C) and SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2). Nevertheless, the complexity of ABA signaling remains to be explored. To uncover new components of ABA signal transduction pathways, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen for SnRK2-interacting proteins. We found that Type One Protein Phosphatase 1 (TOPP1) and its regulatory protein, At Inhibitor-2 (AtI-2), physically interact with SnRK2s and also with PYLs. TOPP1 inhibited the kinase activity of SnRK2.6, and this inhibition could be enhanced by AtI-2. Transactivation assays showed that TOPP1 and AtI-2 negatively regulated the SnRK2.2/3/6-mediated activation of the ABA responsive reporter gene RD29B, supporting a negative role of TOPP1 and AtI-2 in ABA signaling. Consistent with these findings, topp1 and ati-2 mutant plants displayed hypersensitivities to ABA and salt treatments, and transcriptome analysis of TOPP1 and AtI-2 knockout plants revealed an increased expression of multiple ABA-responsive genes in the mutants. Taken together, our results uncover TOPP1 and AtI-2 as negative regulators of ABA signaling. PMID:26943172

  15. Post-translational control of ABA signalling: the roles of protein phosphorylation and ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenqi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xiaoxue

    2017-01-01

    The plant phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays significant roles in integrating environmental signals with embryogenesis, germination, seedling establishment, the floral transition and the adaptation of plants to stressful environments by modulating stomatal movement and stress-responsive gene expression. ABA signalling consists of ABA perception, signal transduction and ABA-induced responses. ABA receptors such as members of the PYR/PYL family, group A type 2C protein phosphatases (as negative regulators), SnRK2 protein kinases (as positive regulators), bZIP transcription factors and ion channels are key components of ABA signalling. Post-translational modifications, including dephosphorylation, phosphorylation and ubiquitination, play important roles in regulating ABA signalling. In this review, we focus on the roles of post-translational modifications in ABA signalling. The studies presented provide a detailed picture of the ABA signalling network. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A novel family of transcription factors conserved in angiosperms is required for ABA signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hainan; Chen, Siyu; Yang, Wenting; Wang, Tianya; Zheng, Kaijie; Wang, Yating; Cheng, Yuxin; Zhang, Na; Liu, Shanda; Li, Dongqiu; Liu, Bao; Wang, Shucai

    2017-08-30

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses. Interplay of several different proteins including the PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors, A-group PP2C protein phosphatases, SnRK2 protein kinases, and downstream transcription factors regulates ABA signalling. We report here the identification of a family of ABA-induced transcription repressors (AITRs) that act as feedback regulators in ABA signalling. We found that the expression of all the 6 Arabidopsis AITR genes was induced by exogenously ABA, and their expression levels were decreased in ABA biosynthesis mutant aba1-5. BLAST searches showed that AITRs are exclusively present in angiosperms. When recruited to the promoter region of a reporter gene by a fused DNA binding domain, all AITRs inhibited reporter gene expression in transfected protoplasts. In Arabidopsis, aitr mutants showed reduced sensitivity to ABA and to stresses such as salt and drought. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the ABA-induced response of PP2C and some PYR/PYL/RCAR genes was reduced in AITR5 transgenic plants but increased in an aitr2 aitr5 aitr6 triple mutant. These results provide important new insights into the regulation of ABA signalling in plants, and such information may lead to the production of plants with enhanced resistance to environmental stresses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Molecular Basis of the Core Regulatory Network in ABA Responses: Sensing, Signaling and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Kazuo; Miyakawa, Takuya; Kuromori, Takashi; Tanokura, Masaru; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2010-01-01

    ABA is a major phytohormone that regulates a broad range of plant traits and is especially important for adaptation to environmental conditions. Our understanding of the molecular basis of ABA responses in plants improved dramatically in 2009 and 2010, banner years for ABA research. There are three major components; PYR/PYL/ RCAR (an ABA receptor), type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C; a negative regulator) and SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2; a positive regulator), and they offer a double negative regulatory system, [PYR/PYL/RCAR—| PP2C—| SnRK2]. In the absence of ABA, PP2C inactivates SnRK2 by direct dephosphorylation. In response to environmental or developmental cues, ABA promotes the interaction of PYR/PYL/RCAR and PP2C, resulting in PP2C inhibition and SnRK2 activation. This signaling complex can work in both the nucleus and cytosol, as it has been shown that SnRK2 phosphorylates basic-domain leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors or membrane proteins. Several structural analyses of PYR/PYL/RCAR have provided the mechanistic basis for this ‘core signaling’ model, by elucidating the mechanism of ABA binding of receptors, or the ‘gate–latch–lock’ mechanism of interaction with PP2C in inhibiting activity. On the other hand, intercellular ABA transport had remained a major issue, as had intracellular ABA signaling. Recently, two plasma membrane-type ABC transporters were identified and shed light on the influx/efflux system of ABA, resolving how ABA is transported from cell to cell in plants. Our knowledge of ABA responses in plants has been greatly expanded from intracellular signaling to intercellular transport of ABA. PMID:20980270

  18. Comprehensive Analysis of ABA Effects on Ethylene Biosynthesis and Signaling during Tomato Fruit Ripening.

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    Wangshu Mou

    Full Text Available ABA has been widely acknowledged to regulate ethylene biosynthesis and signaling during fruit ripening, but the molecular mechanism underlying the interaction between these two hormones are largely unexplored. In the present study, exogenous ABA treatment obviously promoted fruit ripening as well as ethylene emission, whereas NDGA (Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis application showed the opposite biological effects. Combined RNA-seq with time-course RT-PCR analysis, our study not only helped to illustrate how ABA regulated itself at the transcription level, but also revealed that ABA can facilitate ethylene production and response probably by regulating some crucial genes such as LeACS4, LeACO1, GR and LeETR6. In addition, investigation on the fruits treated with 1-MCP immediately after ABA exposure revealed that ethylene might be essential for the induction of ABA biosynthesis and signaling at the onset of fruit ripening. Furthermore, some specific transcription factors (TFs known as regulators of ethylene synthesis and sensibility (e.g. MADS-RIN, TAGL1, CNR and NOR were also observed to be ABA responsive, which implied that ABA influenced ethylene action possibly through the regulation of these TFs expression. Our comprehensive physiological and molecular-level analysis shed light on the mechanism of cross-talk between ABA and ethylene during the process of tomato fruit ripening.

  19. Comprehensive Analysis of ABA Effects on Ethylene Biosynthesis and Signaling during Tomato Fruit Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Jianwen; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Khan, Zia Ullah; Luo, Zisheng; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2016-01-01

    ABA has been widely acknowledged to regulate ethylene biosynthesis and signaling during fruit ripening, but the molecular mechanism underlying the interaction between these two hormones are largely unexplored. In the present study, exogenous ABA treatment obviously promoted fruit ripening as well as ethylene emission, whereas NDGA (Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis) application showed the opposite biological effects. Combined RNA-seq with time-course RT-PCR analysis, our study not only helped to illustrate how ABA regulated itself at the transcription level, but also revealed that ABA can facilitate ethylene production and response probably by regulating some crucial genes such as LeACS4, LeACO1, GR and LeETR6. In addition, investigation on the fruits treated with 1-MCP immediately after ABA exposure revealed that ethylene might be essential for the induction of ABA biosynthesis and signaling at the onset of fruit ripening. Furthermore, some specific transcription factors (TFs) known as regulators of ethylene synthesis and sensibility (e.g. MADS-RIN, TAGL1, CNR and NOR) were also observed to be ABA responsive, which implied that ABA influenced ethylene action possibly through the regulation of these TFs expression. Our comprehensive physiological and molecular-level analysis shed light on the mechanism of cross-talk between ABA and ethylene during the process of tomato fruit ripening. PMID:27100326

  20. Genetic interactions between DET1 and intermediate genes in Arabidopsis ABA signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, V C Dilukshi; Schroeder, Dana F

    2015-10-01

    Seed germination is regulated positively by light and negatively by the dormancy-promoting phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). DE-ETIOLATED 1 (DET1) is a negative regulator of light signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana. In contrast, the bZIP transcription factor LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) is a positive regulator of light signalling. HY5 also positively regulates ABA signalling by promoting the expression of ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5), a dormancy promoting transcription factor. Here we show that germination in det1 mutants is sensitive to ABA. Double mutant analysis indicates that det1 ABA sensitive germination requires HY5 and ABI5. DET1 forms a complex with DAMAGED DNA BINDING protein 1A/B (DDB1A/B). Another DDB1 complex containing DWA1 and 2 (DWD hypersensitive to ABA 1/2) has also been shown to negatively regulate ABA response. Double mutant analysis indicates that DWA1, DWA2, DDB1A, and DDB1B are also required for the det1 ABA sensitive germination phenotype. We also examined water loss in adult plants and found that the det1 rapid water loss phenotype is independent of HY5, ABI5, DWA1, DWA2, and DDB1B. These findings provide insight into interactions between ABA and light signalling in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition of FUSCA3 degradation at high temperature is dependent on ABA signaling and is regulated by the ABA/GA ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Rex Shun; Saleh, Yazan; Gazzarrini, Sonia

    2016-11-01

    During seed imbibition at supra-optimal temperature, an increase in the abscisic acid (ABA)/gibberellin (GA) ratio imposes secondary dormancy to prevent germination (thermoinhibition). FUSCA3 (FUS3), a positive regulator of seed dormancy, accumulates in seeds imbibed at high temperature and increases ABA levels to inhibit germination. Recently, we showed that ABA inhibits FUS3 degradation at high temperature, and that ABA and high temperature also inhibit the ubiquitin-proteasome system, by dampening both proteasome activity and protein polyubiquitination. Here, we investigated the role of ABA signaling components and the ABA antagonizing hormone, GA, in the regulation of FUS3 levels. We show that the ABA receptor mutant, pyl1-1, is less sensitive to ABA and thermoinhibition. In this mutant background, FUS3 degradation in vitro is faster. Similarly, GA alleviates thermoinhibition and also increases FUS3 degradation. These results indicate that inhibition of FUS3 degradation at high temperature is dependent on a high ABA/GA ratio and a functional ABA signaling pathway. Thus, FUS3 constitutes an important node in ABA-GA crosstalk during germination at supra-optimal temperature.

  2. ABA receptors: The START of a new paradigm in phytohormone signalling

    KAUST Repository

    Klingler, John

    2010-06-03

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in plant development and in plant adaptation to both biotic and abiotic stressors. In recent years, knowledge of ABA metabolism and signal transduction has advanced rapidly to provide detailed glimpses of the hormone\\'s activities at the molecular level. Despite this progress, many gaps in understanding have remained, particularly at the early stages of ABA perception by the plant cell. The search for an ABA receptor protein has produced multiple candidates, including GCR2, GTG1, and GTG2, and CHLH. In addition to these candidates, in 2009 several research groups converged on a novel family of Arabidopsis proteins that bind ABA, and thereby interact directly with a class of protein phosphatases that are well known as critical players in ABA signal transduction. The PYR/PYL/RCAR receptor family is homologous to the Bet v 1-fold and START domain proteins. It consists of 14 members, nearly all of which appear capable of participating in an ABA receptor-signal complex that responds to the hormone by activating the transcription of ABA-responsive genes. Evidence is provided here that PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors can also drive the phosphorylation of the slow anion channel SLAC1 to provide a fast and timely response to the ABA signal. Crystallographic studies have vividly shown the mechanics of ABA binding to PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors, presenting a model that bears some resemblance to the binding of gibberellins to GID1 receptors. Since this ABA receptor family is highly conserved in crop species, its discovery is likely to usher a new wave of progress in the elucidation and manipulation of plant stress responses in agricultural settings. © 2010 The Author(s).

  3. The Role of MAPK Modules and ABA during Abiotic Stress Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Zélicourt, Axel de

    2016-05-01

    To respond to abiotic stresses, plants have developed specific mechanisms that allow them to rapidly perceive and respond to environmental changes. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) was shown to be a pivotal regulator of abiotic stress responses in plants, triggering major changes in plant physiology. The ABA core signaling pathway largely relies on the activation of SnRK2 kinases to mediate several rapid responses, including gene regulation, stomatal closure, and plant growth modulation. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have also been implicated in ABA signaling, but an entire ABA-activated MAPK module was uncovered only recently. In this review, we discuss the evidence for a role of MAPK modules in the context of different plant ABA signaling pathways. Abiotic stresses impact average yield in agriculture by more than 50% globally.Since ABA is a key regulator of abiotic stress responses, an understanding of its functioning at the molecular level is essential for plant breeding. Although the ABA core signaling pathway has been unraveled, several downstream events are still unclear.MAPKs are involved in most plant developmental stages and in response to stresses. Several members of the MAPK family were shown to be directly or indirectly activated by the ABA core signaling pathway.Recent evidence shows that the complete MAP3K17/18-MKK3-MPK1/2/7/14 module is under the control of ABA, whose members are under the transcriptional and post-translational control of the ABA core signaling pathway. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in ABA Signaling: From Perception to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feifei; Wu, Yaorong; Xie, Qi

    2016-01-04

    Protein post-translational modification (PTM) by ubiquitination has been observed during many aspects of plant growth, development, and stress responses. The ubiquitin-proteasome system precisely regulates phytohormone signaling by affecting protein activity, localization, assembly, and interaction ability. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major phytohormone, and plays important roles in plants under normal or stressed growth conditions. The ABA signaling pathway is composed of phosphatases, kinases, transcription factors, and membrane ion channels. It has been reported that multiple ABA signaling transducers are subjected to the regulations by ubiquitination. In particular, recent studies have identified different types of E3 ligases that mediate ubiquitination of ABA receptors in different cell compartments. This review focuses on modulation of these components by monoubiquitination or polyubiquitination that occurs in the plasma membrane, endomembranes, and from the cytosol to the nucleus; this implies the existence of retrograde and trafficking processes that are regulated by ubiquitination in ABA signaling. A number of single-unit E3 ligases, components of multi-subunit E3 ligases, E2s, and specific subunits of the 26S proteasome involved in ABA signal regulation are discussed. Dissecting the precise functions of ubiquitination in the ABA pathway may help us understand key factors in the signaling of other phytohormones regulated by ubiquitination and other types of PTMs. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Membrane-associated transcription factor peptidase, site-2 protease, antagonizes ABA signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shun-Fan; Sun, Le; Valdés, Ana Elisa; Engström, Peter; Song, Ze-Ting; Lu, Sun-Jie; Liu, Jian-Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Abscisic acid plays important roles in maintaining seed dormancy while gibberellins (GA) and other phytohormones antagonize ABA to promote germination. However, how ABA signaling is desensitized during the transition from dormancy to germination is still poorly understood. We functionally characterized the role of membrane-associated transcription factor peptidase, site-2 protease (S2P), in ABA signaling during seed germination in Arabidopsis. Genetic analysis showed that loss-of-function of S2P conferred high ABA sensitivity during seed germination, and expression of the activated form of membrane-associated transcription factor bZIP17, in which the transmembrane domain and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen-facing C-terminus were deleted, in the S2P mutant rescued its ABA-sensitive phenotype. MYC and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged bZIP17 were processed and translocated from the ER to the nucleus in response to ABA treatment. Furthermore, genes encoding negative regulators of ABA signaling, such as the transcription factor ATHB7 and its target genes HAB1, HAB2, HAI1 and AHG3, were up-regulated in seeds of the wild-type upon ABA treatment; this up-regulation was impaired in seeds of S2P mutants. Our results suggest that S2P desensitizes ABA signaling during seed germination through regulating the activation of the membrane-associated transcription factor bZIP17 and therefore controlling the expression level of genes encoding negative regulators of ABA signaling. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. ABA Regulates Subcellular Redistribution of OsABI-LIKE2, a Negative Regulator in ABA Signaling, to Control Root Architecture and Drought Resistance in Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengxiang; Shen, Hongyun; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xuelu

    2015-12-01

    The phytohormone ABA is a key stress signal in plants. Although the identification of ABA receptors led to significant progress in understanding the Arabidopsis ABA signaling pathway, there are still many unsolved mysteries regarding ABA signaling in monocots, such as rice. Here, we report that a rice ortholog of AtABI1 and AtABI2, named OsABI-LIKE2 (OsABIL2), plays a negative role in rice ABA signaling. Overexpression of OsABIL2 not only led to ABA insensitivity, but also significantly altered plant developmental phenotypes, including stomatal density and root architecture, which probably caused the hypersensitivity to drought stress. OsABIL2 interacts with OsPYL1, SAPK8 and SAPK10 both in vitro and in vivo, and the phosphatase activity of OsABIL2 was repressed by ABA-bound OsPYL1. However, unlike many other solely nuclear-localized clade A type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), OsABIL2 is localized in both the nucleus and cytosol. Furthermore, OsABIL2 interacts with and co-localized with OsPYL1 mainly in the cytosol, and ABA treatment regulates the nucleus-cytosol distribution of OsABIL2, suggesting a different mechanism for the activation of ABA signaling. Taken together, this study provides significant insights into rice ABA signaling and indicates the important role of OsABIL2 in regulating root development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Structural insights into ABA perception and signalling: structure of ABA receptor PYR1

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Cuellar, Julia

    2011-01-01

    La sequía y la salinidad representan estreses ambientales que afectan de forma crítica el crecimiento de las plantas y limitan enormemente su potencial agrícola. La fitohormona ácido abcísico (ABA) juega un papel fundamental en la coordinación de la respuesta y adaptación de las plantas a este tipo de estreses, así como en la regulación del crecimiento y desarrollo vegetal. Elementos intermediarios de la ruta de señalización ya habían sido caracterizados, pero aún se desconocía el mecanismo d...

  8. Role of PP2C-mediated ABA signaling in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    OpenAIRE

    Sakata, Yoichi; Komatsu, Kenji; Taji, Teruaki; Tanaka, Shigeo

    2009-01-01

    Plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is found in a wide range of land plants, from mosses to angiosperms. However, our knowledge concerning the function of ABA is limited to some angiosperm plant species. We have shown that the basal land plant Physcomitrella patens and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana share a conserved abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway mediated through ABI1-related type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis abi1-1, a dominant allele of ABI1 ...

  9. Guard cell ABA and CO2 signaling network updates and Ca2+ sensor priming hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, Maria; Siegel, Robert S; Young, Jared; Hashimoto, Mimi; Iba, Koh; Schroeder, Julian I

    2006-12-01

    Stomatal pores in the epidermis of plants enable gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere, a process vital to plant life. Pairs of specialized guard cells surround and control stomatal apertures. Stomatal closing is induced by abscisic acid (ABA) and elevated CO(2) concentrations. Recent advances have been made in understanding ABA signaling and in characterizing CO(2) transduction mechanisms and CO(2) signaling mutants. In addition, models of Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent signaling in guard cells have been developed and a new hypothesis has been formed in which physiological stimuli are proposed to prime Ca(2+) sensors, thus enabling specificity in Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction.

  10. A Novel RNA-Binding Protein Involves ABA Signaling by Post-transcriptionally Repressing ABI2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianwen; Chen, Yihan; Qian, Luofeng; Mu, Rong; Yuan, Xi; Fang, Huimin; Huang, Xi; Xu, Enshun; Zhang, Hongsheng; Huang, Ji

    2017-01-01

    The Stress Associated RNA-binding protein 1 (SRP1) repressed by ABA, salt and cold encodes a C2C2-type zinc finger protein in Arabidopsis. The knock-out mutation in srp1 reduced the sensitivity of seed to ABA and salt stress during germination and post-germinative growth stages. In contrast, SRP1-overexpressing seedlings were more sensitive to ABA and salt compared to wild type plants. In the presence of ABA, the transcript levels of ABA signaling and germination-related genes including ABI3. ABI5. EM1 and EM6 were less induced in srp1 compared to WT. Interestingly, expression of ABI2 encoding a protein phosphatase 2C protein were significantly up-regulated in srp1 mutants. By in vitro analysis, SRP1 was identified as a novel RNA-binding protein directly binding to 3'UTR of ABI2 mRNA. Moreover, transient expression assay proved the function of SRP1 in reducing the activity of luciferase whose coding sequence was fused with the ABI2 3'UTR. Together, it is suggested that SRP1 is involved in the ABA signaling by post-transcriptionally repressing ABI2 expression in Arabidopsis.

  11. Type 2C Phosphatase 1 of Artemisia annua L. Is a Negative Regulator of ABA Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA plays an important role in plant development and environmental stress response. Additionally, ABA also regulates secondary metabolism such as artemisinin in the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. Although an earlier study showed that ABA receptor, AaPYL9, plays a positive role in ABA-induced artemisinin content improvement, many components in the ABA signaling pathway remain to be elucidated in Artemisia annua L. To get insight of the function of AaPYL9, we isolated and characterized an AaPYL9-interacting partner, AaPP2C1. The coding sequence of AaPP2C1 encodes a deduced protein of 464 amino acids, with all the features of plant type clade A PP2C. Transcriptional analysis showed that the expression level of AaPP2C1 is increased after ABA, salt, and drought treatments. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays (BiFC showed that AaPYL9 interacted with AaPP2C1. The P89S, H116A substitution in AaPYL9 as well as G199D substitution or deletion of the third phosphorylation site-like motif in AaPP2C1 abolished this interaction. Furthermore, constitutive expression of AaPP2C1 conferred ABA insensitivity compared with the wild type. In summary, our data reveals that AaPP2C1 is an AaPYL9-interacting partner and involved in the negative modulation of the ABA signaling pathway in A. annua L.

  12. Arabidopsis CPR5 independently regulates seed germination and postgermination arrest of development through LOX pathway and ABA signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilan Gao

    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA and the lipoxygenases (LOXs pathway play important roles in seed germination and seedling growth and development. Here, we reported on the functional characterization of Arabidopsis CPR5 in the ABA signaling and LOX pathways. The cpr5 mutant was hypersensitive to ABA in the seed germination, cotyledon greening and root growth, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing CPR5 were insensitive. Genetic analysis demonstrated that CPR5 gene may be located downstream of the ABI1 in the ABA signaling pathway. However, the cpr5 mutant showed an ABA independent drought-resistant phenotype. It was also found that the cpr5 mutant was hypersensitive to NDGA and NDGA treatment aggravated the ABA-induced delay in the seed germination and cotyledon greening. Taken together, these results suggest that the CPR5 plays a regulatory role in the regulation of seed germination and early seedling growth through ABA and LOX pathways independently.

  13. Can prolonged exposure to low VPD disturb the ABA signalling in stomatal guard cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliniaeifard, Sasan; van Meeteren, Uulke

    2013-01-01

    The response of stomata to many environmental factors is well documented. Multiple signalling pathways for abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure have been proposed over the last decades. However, it seems that exposure of a leaf for a long time (several days) to some environmental conditions generates a sort of memory in the guard cells that results in the loss of suitable responses of the stomata to closing stimuli, such as desiccation and ABA. In this review paper we discuss changes in the normal pattern of signal transduction that could account for disruption of guard cell signalling after long-term exposure to some environmental conditions, with special emphasis on long-term low vapour pressure deficit (VPD). PMID:23956410

  14. Abscisic Acid Is a Major Regulator of Grape Berry Ripening Onset: New Insights into ABA Signaling Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Pilati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine is a world-wide cultivated economically relevant crop. The process of berry ripening is non-climacteric and does not rely on the sole ethylene signal. Abscisic acid (ABA is recognized as an important hormone of ripening inception and color development in ripening berries. In order to elucidate the effect of this signal at the molecular level, pre-véraison berries were treated ex vivo for 20 h with 0.2 mM ABA and berry skin transcriptional modulation was studied by RNA-seq after the treatment and 24 h later, in the absence of exogenous ABA. This study highlighted that a small amount of ABA triggered its own biosynthesis and had a transcriptome-wide effect (1893 modulated genes characterized by the amplification of the transcriptional response over time. By comparing this dataset with the many studies on ripening collected within the grapevine transcriptomic compendium Vespucci, an extended overlap between ABA- and ripening modulated gene sets was observed (71% of the genes, underpinning the role of this hormone in the regulation of berry ripening. The signaling network of ABA, encompassing ABA metabolism, transport and signaling cascade, has been analyzed in detail and expanded based on knowledge from other species in order to provide an integrated molecular description of this pathway at berry ripening onset. Expression data analysis was combined with in silico promoter analysis to identify candidate target genes of ABA responsive element binding protein 2 (VvABF2, a key upstream transcription factor of the ABA signaling cascade which is up-regulated at véraison and also by ABA treatments. Two transcription factors, VvMYB143 and VvNAC17, and two genes involved in protein degradation, Armadillo-like and Xerico-like genes, were selected for in vivo validation by VvABF2-mediated promoter trans-activation in tobacco. VvNAC17 and Armadillo-like promoters were induced by ABA via VvABF2, while VvMYB143 responded to ABA in a VvABF2

  15. Abscisic Acid Is a Major Regulator of Grape Berry Ripening Onset: New Insights into ABA Signaling Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilati, Stefania; Bagagli, Giorgia; Sonego, Paolo; Moretto, Marco; Brazzale, Daniele; Castorina, Giulia; Simoni, Laura; Tonelli, Chiara; Guella, Graziano; Engelen, Kristof; Galbiati, Massimo; Moser, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine is a world-wide cultivated economically relevant crop. The process of berry ripening is non-climacteric and does not rely on the sole ethylene signal. Abscisic acid (ABA) is recognized as an important hormone of ripening inception and color development in ripening berries. In order to elucidate the effect of this signal at the molecular level, pre-véraison berries were treated ex vivo for 20 h with 0.2 mM ABA and berry skin transcriptional modulation was studied by RNA-seq after the treatment and 24 h later, in the absence of exogenous ABA. This study highlighted that a small amount of ABA triggered its own biosynthesis and had a transcriptome-wide effect (1893 modulated genes) characterized by the amplification of the transcriptional response over time. By comparing this dataset with the many studies on ripening collected within the grapevine transcriptomic compendium Vespucci, an extended overlap between ABA- and ripening modulated gene sets was observed (71% of the genes), underpinning the role of this hormone in the regulation of berry ripening. The signaling network of ABA, encompassing ABA metabolism, transport and signaling cascade, has been analyzed in detail and expanded based on knowledge from other species in order to provide an integrated molecular description of this pathway at berry ripening onset. Expression data analysis was combined with in silico promoter analysis to identify candidate target genes of ABA responsive element binding protein 2 (VvABF2), a key upstream transcription factor of the ABA signaling cascade which is up-regulated at véraison and also by ABA treatments. Two transcription factors, VvMYB143 and VvNAC17, and two genes involved in protein degradation, Armadillo-like and Xerico-like genes, were selected for in vivo validation by VvABF2-mediated promoter trans-activation in tobacco. VvNAC17 and Armadillo-like promoters were induced by ABA via VvABF2, while VvMYB143 responded to ABA in a VvABF2-independent manner. This

  16. Modulation of ABA Signaling by Altering VxGΦL Motif of PP2Cs in Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungsu; Min, Myung Ki; Lee, Su-Youn; Lim, Chae Woo; Bhatnagar, Nikita; Lee, Yeongmok; Shin, Donghyuk; Chung, Ka Young; Lee, Sung Chul; Kim, Beom-Gi; Lee, Sangho

    2017-09-12

    The abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway is regulated by clade A type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2CAs) in plants. In the presence of ABA, PP2Cs release stress/ABA-activated protein kinases by binding to ABA-bound receptors (PYL/RCARs) for activation. Although the wedging tryptophan in PP2Cs is critical in the interaction with PYL/RCARs in Arabidopsis and rice, it remains elusive as to how other interface regions are involved in the interaction. Here, we report the identification of a conserved region on PP2Cs, termed the VxGΦL motif, which modulates the interaction with PYL/RCARs through its second and fourth residues. The effects of the second and fourth residues on the interaction of OsPP2C50 with several OsPYL/RCAR proteins were investigated by systematic mutagenesis. One OsPP2C50 mutant, VFGML ("FM") mutant, lowered the affinity to OsPYL/RCAR3 by ∼15-fold in comparison with the wild-type. Comparison of the crystal structures of wild-type OsPP2C50:ABA:OsPYL/RCAR3 with those composed of FM mutant revealed local conformational changes near the VxGΦL motif, further supported by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. In rice protoplasts, ABA signaling was altered by mutations in the VxGΦL motif. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsPP2C50 and OsPP2C50FM showed altered ABA sensitivity. Taken together, the VxGΦL motif of PP2Cs appears to modulate the affinity of PP2Cs with PYL/RCARs and thus likely to alter the ABA signaling, leading to the differential sensitivity to ABA in planta. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CML20, an Arabidopsis Calmodulin-like Protein, Negatively Regulates Guard Cell ABA Signaling and Drought Stress Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Guard cells shrink in response to drought and abscisic acid (ABA, which is caused by efflux of ions that in turn reduces stomatal aperture and improves the plant’s ability to retain moisture. Cytosolic free calcium is an essential secondary messenger in guard cell ABA signaling, but the details of this regulatory pathway remain sketchy. Here, the calmodulin-like protein CML20, which has four EF-hand domains and calcium-binding activity in vitro, was found to be a negative regulator of ABA-induced stomatal movement in Arabidopsis. The guard cells of cml20 loss-of-function mutant plants were hypersensitive to both ABA-activated S-type anion currents, and ABA inhibited inward K+ currents than those of wild type. Additional, due to smaller stomatal aperture, cml20 showed less water loss from the leaves than wild type. These phenotypes of CML20 overexpressing plants contrasted with wild type in the opposite direction. In the cml20 mutant, the transcripts of stress responsive genes, such as MYB2, RAB18, ERD10, COR47, and RD29A were up-regulated in response to drought and ABA, while down-regulated of APX2 transcription and higher reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation. These observations support the CML20, a functional Ca2+ sensor, is a negative regulator in guard cell ABA signaling.

  18. Type B Heterotrimeric G Protein γ-Subunit Regulates Auxin and ABA Signaling in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Gayathery; Trusov, Yuri; Lopez-Encina, Carlos; Hayashi, Satomi; Batley, Jacqueline; Botella, José Ramón

    2016-02-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins composed of α, β, and γ subunits are central signal transducers mediating the cellular response to multiple stimuli in most eukaryotes. Gγ subunits provide proper cellular localization and functional specificity to the heterotrimer complex. Plant Gγ subunits, divided into three structurally distinct types, are more diverse than their animal counterparts. Type B Gγ subunits, lacking a carboxyl-terminal isoprenylation motif, are found only in flowering plants. We present the functional characterization of type B Gγ subunit (SlGGB1) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We show that SlGGB1 is the most abundant Gγ subunit in tomato and strongly interacts with the Gβ subunit. Importantly, the green fluorescent protein-SlGGB1 fusion protein as well as the carboxyl-terminal yellow fluorescent protein-SlGGB1/amino-terminal yellow fluorescent protein-Gβ heterodimer were localized in the plasma membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm. RNA interference-mediated silencing of SlGGB1 resulted in smaller seeds, higher number of lateral roots, and pointy fruits. The silenced lines were hypersensitive to exogenous auxin, while levels of endogenous auxins were lower or similar to those of the wild type. SlGGB1-silenced plants also showed strong hyposensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination but not in other related assays. Transcriptome analysis of the transgenic seeds revealed abnormal expression of genes involved in ABA sensing, signaling, and response. We conclude that the type B Gγ subunit SlGGB1 mediates auxin and ABA signaling in tomato. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates grape bud dormancy, and dormancy release stimuli may act through modification of ABA metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chuanlin; Halaly, Tamar; Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Or, Etti

    2015-01-01

    In warm-winter regions, induction of dormancy release by hydrogen cyanamide (HC) is mandatory for commercial table grape production. Induction of respiratory stress by HC leads to dormancy release via an uncharacterized biochemical cascade that could reveal the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Previous studies proposed a central role for abscisic acid (ABA) in the repression of bud meristem activity, and suggested its removal as a critical step in the HC-induced cascade. In the current study, support for these assumptions was sought. The data show that ABA indeed inhibits dormancy release in grape (Vitis vinifera) buds and attenuates the advancing effect of HC. However, HC-dependent recovery was detected, and was affected by dormancy status. HC reduced VvXERICO and VvNCED transcript levels and induced levels of VvABA8’OH homologues. Regulation of these central players in ABA metabolism correlated with decreased ABA and increased ABA catabolite levels in HC-treated buds. Interestingly, an inhibitor of ethylene signalling attenuated these effects of HC on ABA metabolism. HC also modulated the expression of ABA signalling regulators, in a manner that supports a decreased ABA level and response. Taken together, the data support HC-induced removal of ABA-mediated repression via regulation of ABA metabolism and signalling. Expression profiling during the natural dormancy cycle revealed that at maximal dormancy, the HC-regulated VvNCED1 transcript level starts to drop. In parallel, levels of VvA8H-CYP707A4 transcript and ABA catabolites increase sharply. This may provide initial support for the involvement of ABA metabolism also in the execution of natural dormancy. PMID:25560179

  20. Electrical signaling, stomatal conductance, ABA and Ethylene content in avocado trees in response to root hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurovich, Luis; Schaffer, Bruce; García, Nicolás; Iturriaga, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) trees are among the most sensitive of fruit tree species to root hypoxia as a result of flooded or poorly drained soil. Similar to drought stress, an early physiological response to root hypoxia in avocado is a reduction of stomatal conductance. It has been previously determined in avocado trees that an extracellular electrical signal between the base of stem and leaves is produced and related to reductions in stomatal conductance in response to drought stress. The current study was designed to determine if changes in the extracellular electrical potential between the base of the stem and leaves in avocado trees could also be detected in response to short-term (min) or long-term (days) root hypoxia, and if these signals could be related to stomatal conductance (gs), root and leaf ABA and ACC concentrations, ethylene emission from leaves and leaf abscission. In contrast to previous observations for drought-stressed trees, short-term or long-term root hypoxia did not stimulate an electrical potential difference between the base of the stem and leaves. Short-term hypoxia did not result in a significant decrease in gs compared with plants in the control treatment, and no differences in ABA concentration were found between plants subjected to hypoxia and control plants. Long-term hypoxia in the root zone resulted in a significant decrease in gs, increased leaf ethylene and increased leaf abscission. The results indicate that for avocado trees exposed to root hypoxia, electrical signals do not appear to be the primary root-to-shoot communication mechanism involved in signaling for stomatal closure as a result of hypoxia in the root zone. PMID:19649181

  1. Release of GTP Exchange Factor Mediated Down-Regulation of Abscisic Acid Signal Transduction through ABA-Induced Rapid Degradation of RopGEFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waadt, Rainer; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is critical to plant development and stress responses. Abiotic stress triggers an ABA signal transduction cascade, which is comprised of the core components PYL/RCAR ABA receptors, PP2C-type protein phosphatases, and protein kinases. Small GTPases of the ROP/RAC family act as negative regulators of ABA signal transduction. However, the mechanisms by which ABA controls the behavior of ROP/RACs have remained unclear. Here, we show that an Arabidopsis guanine nucleotide exchange factor protein RopGEF1 is rapidly sequestered to intracellular particles in response to ABA. GFP-RopGEF1 is sequestered via the endosome-prevacuolar compartment pathway and is degraded. RopGEF1 directly interacts with several clade A PP2C protein phosphatases, including ABI1. Interestingly, RopGEF1 undergoes constitutive degradation in pp2c quadruple abi1/abi2/hab1/pp2ca mutant plants, revealing that active PP2C protein phosphatases protect and stabilize RopGEF1 from ABA-mediated degradation. Interestingly, ABA-mediated degradation of RopGEF1 also plays an important role in ABA-mediated inhibition of lateral root growth. The presented findings point to a PP2C-RopGEF-ROP/RAC control loop model that is proposed to aid in shutting off ABA signal transduction, to counteract leaky ABA signal transduction caused by “monomeric” PYL/RCAR ABA receptors in the absence of stress, and facilitate signaling in response to ABA. PMID:27192441

  2. Quantitative Proteomic Analyses Identify ABA-related Proteins and Signal Pathways in Maize Leaves Under Drought Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zhao Yulong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of major factors resulting in maize yield loss. The roles of abscisic acid (ABA have been widely studied in crops in response to drought stress. However, more attention is needed to identify key ABA-related proteins and also gain deeper molecular insights about drought stress in maize. Based on this need, the physiology and proteomics of the ABA-deficient maize mutant vp5 and its wild-type Vp5 under drought stress were examined and analyzed. Malondialdehyde content increased and quantum efficiency of photosystem II decreased under drought stress in both genotypes. However, the magnitude of the increase or decrease was significantly higher in vp5 than in Vp5. A total of 7051 proteins with overlapping expression patterns among three replicates in the two genotypes were identified by Multiplex run iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods, of which the expression of only 150 proteins (130 in Vp5, 27 in vp5 showed changes of at least 1.5-fold under drought stress. Among the 150 proteins, 67 and 60 proteins were up-regulated and down-regulated by drought stress in an ABA-dependent way, respectively. ABA was found to play active roles in regulating signaling pathways related to photosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation (mainly related to ATP synthesis, and glutathione metabolism (involved in antioxidative reaction in the maize response to drought stress. Our results provide an extensive dataset of ABA-dependent, drought-regulated proteins in maize plants, which may help to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of ABA-enhanced tolerance to drought stress in maize.

  3. Quantitative Proteomic Analyses Identify ABA-Related Proteins and Signal Pathways in Maize Leaves under Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yulong; Wang, Yankai; Yang, Hao; Wang, Wei; Wu, Jianyu; Hu, Xiuli

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is one of major factors resulting in maize yield loss. The roles of abscisic acid (ABA) have been widely studied in crops in response to drought stress. However, more attention is needed to identify key ABA-related proteins and also gain deeper molecular insights about drought stress in maize. Based on this need, the physiology and proteomics of the ABA-deficient maize mutant vp5 and its wild-type Vp5 under drought stress were examined and analyzed. Malondialdehyde content increased and quantum efficiency of photosystem II decreased under drought stress in both genotypes. However, the magnitude of the increase or decrease was significantly higher in vp5 than in Vp5. A total of 7051 proteins with overlapping expression patterns among three replicates in the two genotypes were identified by Multiplex run iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods, of which the expression of only 150 proteins (130 in Vp5, 27 in vp5) showed changes of at least 1.5-fold under drought stress. Among the 150 proteins, 67 and 60 proteins were up-regulated and down-regulated by drought stress in an ABA-dependent way, respectively. ABA was found to play active roles in regulating signaling pathways related to photosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation (mainly related to ATP synthesis), and glutathione metabolism (involved in antioxidative reaction) in the maize response to drought stress. Our results provide an extensive dataset of ABA-dependent, drought-regulated proteins in maize plants, which may help to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of ABA-enhanced tolerance to drought stress in maize.

  4. Interactions of ABA signaling core components (SlPYLs, SlPP2Cs, and SlSnRK2s) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei; Sun, Yu-Fei; Kai, Wen-Bin; Liang, Bin; Zhang, Yu-Shu; Zhai, Xia-Wan; Jiang, Li; Du, Yang-Wei; Leng, Ping

    2016-10-20

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates fruit development and ripening via its signaling. However, the exact role of ABA signaling core components in fruit have not yet been clarified. In this study, we investigated the potential interactions of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) ABA signaling core components using yeast two-hybrid analysis, with or without ABA at different concentrations. The results showed that among 12 PYR/PYL/RCAR ABA receptors (SlPYLs), SlPYL1, SlPYL2, SlPYL4, SlPYL5, SlPYL 7, SlPYL8, SlPYL9, SlPYL10, SlPYL11, and SlPYL13 were ABA-dependent receptors, while SlPYL3 and SlPYL12 were ABA-independent receptors. Among five SlPP2Cs (type 2C protein phosphatases) and seven SlSnRK2s (subfamily 2 of SNF1-related kinases), all SlSnRK2s could interact with SlPP2C2, while SlSnRK2.8 also interacted with SlPP2C3. SlSnRK2.5 could interact with SlABF2/4 (ABA-responsive element binding factors). Expressions of SlPYL1, SlPYL2, SlPYL8, and SlPYL10 were upregulated under exogenous ABA but downregulated under nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) at the mature green stage of fruit ripening. The expressions of SlPP2C1, SlPP2C2, SlPP2C3, and SlPP2C5 were upregulated in ABA-treated fruit, but downregulated in NDGA-treated fruit at the mature green stage. The expressions of SlSnRK2.4, SlSnRK2.5, SlSnRK2.6, and SlSnRK2.7 were upregulated by ABA, but downregulated by NDGA. However, SlSnRK2.2 was down regulated by ABA. Expression of SlABF2/3/4 was enhanced by ABA but decreased by NDGA. Based on these results, we concluded that the majority of ABA receptor PYLs interact with SlPP2Cs in an ABA-dependent manner. SlPP2C2 and SlPP2C3 can interact with SlSnRK2s. SlSnRK2.5 could interact with SlABF2/4. Most ABA signaling core components respond to exogenous ABA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. BnSIP1-1, a Trihelix Family Gene, Mediates Abiotic Stress Tolerance and ABA Signaling in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junling; Tang, Shaohua; Mei, Fengling; Peng, Xiaojue; Li, Jun; Li, Xiaofei; Yan, Xiaohong; Zeng, Xinhua; Liu, Fang; Wu, Yuhua; Wu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    The trihelix family genes have important functions in light-relevant and other developmental processes, but their roles in response to adverse environment are largely unclear. In this study, we identified a new gene, BnSIP1-1, which fell in the SIP1 (6b INTERACTING PROTEIN1) clade of the trihelix family with two trihelix DNA binding domains and a fourth amphipathic α-helix. BnSIP1-1 protein specifically targeted to the nucleus, and its expression can be induced by abscisic acid (ABA) and different stresses. Overexpression of BnSIP1-1 improved seed germination under osmotic pressure, salt, and ABA treatments. Moreover, BnSIP1-1 decreased the susceptibility of transgenic seedlings to osmotic pressure and ABA treatments, whereas there was no difference under salt stress between the transgenic and wild-type seedlings. ABA level in the transgenic seedlings leaves was higher than those in the control plants under normal condition. Under exogenous ABA treatment and mannitol stress, the accumulation of ABA in the transgenic plants was higher than that in the control plants; while under salt stress, the difference of ABA content before treatment was gradually smaller with the prolongation of salt treatment time, then after 24 h of treatment the ABA level was similar in transgenic and wild-type plants. The transcription levels of several general stress marker genes (BnRD29A, BnERD15, and BnLEA1) were higher in the transgenic plants than the wild-type plants, whereas salt-responsive genes (BnSOS1, BnNHX1, and BnHKT) were not significantly different or even reduced compared with the wild-type plants, which indicated that BnSIP1-1 specifically exerted different regulatory mechanisms on the osmotic- and salt-response pathways in seedling period. Overall, these findings suggested that BnSIP1-1 played roles in ABA synthesis and signaling, salt and osmotic stress response. To date, information about the involvement of the Brassica napus trihelix gene in abiotic response is scarce

  6. Chlorine signal attenuation in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; ur-Rehman, Khateeb; Al-Amoudi, O S B

    2015-11-01

    The intensity of prompt gamma-ray was measured at various depths from chlorine-contaminated silica fume (SF) concrete slab concrete specimens using portable neutron generator-based prompt gamma-ray setup. The intensity of 6.11MeV chloride gamma-rays was measured from the chloride contaminated slab at distance of 15.25, 20.25, 25.25, 30.25 and 35.25cm from neutron target in a SF cement concrete slab specimens. Due to attenuation of thermal neutron flux and emitted gamma-ray intensity in SF cement concrete at various depths, the measured intensity of chlorine gamma-rays decreases non-linearly with increasing depth in concrete. A good agreement was noted between the experimental results and the results of Monte Carlo simulation. This study has provided useful experimental data for evaluating the chloride contamination in the SF concrete utilizing gamma-ray attenuation method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Arabidopsis transcription factor ABIG1 relays ABA signaled growth inhibition and drought induced senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Longhurst, Adam D; Talavera-Rauh, Franklin; Hokin, Samuel A; Barton, M Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Drought inhibits plant growth and can also induce premature senescence. Here we identify a transcription factor, ABA INSENSITIVE GROWTH 1 (ABIG1) required for abscisic acid (ABA) mediated growth inhibition, but not for stomatal closure. ABIG1 mRNA levels are increased both in response to drought and in response to ABA treatment. When treated with ABA, abig1 mutants remain greener and produce more leaves than comparable wild-type plants. When challenged with drought, abig1 mutants have fewer yellow, senesced leaves than wild-type. Induction of ABIG1 transcription mimics ABA treatment and regulates a set of genes implicated in stress responses. We propose a model in which drought acts through ABA to increase ABIG1 transcription which in turn restricts new shoot growth and promotes leaf senescence. The results have implications for plant breeding: the existence of a mutant that is both ABA resistant and drought resistant points to new strategies for isolating drought resistant genetic varieties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13768.001 PMID:27697148

  8. Negative regulation of ABA signaling by WRKY33 is critical for Arabidopsis immunity towards Botrytis cinerea 2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shouan; Kracher, Barbara; Ziegler, Jörg; Birkenbihl, Rainer P; Somssich, Imre E

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis mutant wrky33 is highly susceptible to Botrytis cinerea. We identified >1680 Botrytis-induced WRKY33 binding sites associated with 1576 Arabidopsis genes. Transcriptional profiling defined 318 functional direct target genes at 14 hr post inoculation. Comparative analyses revealed that WRKY33 possesses dual functionality acting either as a repressor or as an activator in a promoter-context dependent manner. We confirmed known WRKY33 targets involved in hormone signaling and phytoalexin biosynthesis, but also uncovered a novel negative role of abscisic acid (ABA) in resistance towards B. cinerea 2100. The ABA biosynthesis genes NCED3 and NCED5 were identified as direct targets required for WRKY33-mediated resistance. Loss-of-WRKY33 function resulted in elevated ABA levels and genetic studies confirmed that WRKY33 acts upstream of NCED3/NCED5 to negatively regulate ABA biosynthesis. This study provides the first detailed view of the genome-wide contribution of a specific plant transcription factor in modulating the transcriptional network associated with plant immunity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07295.001 PMID:26076231

  9. Structural basis for basal activity and autoactivation of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling SnRK2 kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Ley-Moy; Soon, Fen-Fen; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric (Van Andel); (Scripps); (Purdue); (NU Singapore)

    2014-10-02

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone that controls plant growth, development, and responses to abiotic stresses. Central for ABA signaling is the ABA-mediated autoactivation of three monomeric Snf1-related kinases (SnRK2.2, -2.3, and -2.6). In the absence of ABA, SnRK2s are kept in an inactive state by forming physical complexes with type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). Upon relief of this inhibition, SnRK2 kinases can autoactivate through unknown mechanisms. Here, we report the crystal structures of full-length Arabidopsis thaliana SnRK2.3 and SnRK2.6 at 1.9- and 2.3-{angstrom} resolution, respectively. The structures, in combination with biochemical studies, reveal a two-step mechanism of intramolecular kinase activation that resembles the intermolecular activation of cyclin-dependent kinases. First, release of inhibition by PP2C allows the SnRK2s to become partially active because of an intramolecular stabilization of the catalytic domain by a conserved helix in the kinase regulatory domain. This stabilization enables SnRK2s to gain full activity by activation loop autophosphorylation. Autophosphorylation is more efficient in SnRK2.6, which has higher stability than SnRK2.3 and has well-structured activation loop phosphate acceptor sites that are positioned next to the catalytic site. Together, these data provide a structural framework that links ABA-mediated release of PP2C inhibition to activation of SnRK2 kinases.

  10. Abscisic acid (ABA) and key proteins in its perception and signaling pathways are ancient, but their roles have changed through time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussmilch, Frances C; Atallah, Nadia M; Brodribb, Timothy J; Banks, Jo Ann; McAdam, Scott A M

    2017-09-02

    Homologs of the Arabidopsis core abscisic acid (ABA) signaling component OPEN STOMATA1 (OST1) are best known for their role in closing stomata in angiosperm species. We recently characterized a fern OST1 homolog, GAMETOPHYTES ABA INSENSITIVE ON ANTHERDIOGEN 1 (GAIA1), which is not required for stomatal closure in ferns, consistent with physiologic evidence that shows the stomata of these plants respond passively to changes in leaf water status. Instead, gaia1 mutants reveal a critical role in ABA signaling for spore dormancy and sex determination, in a system regulated by antagonism between ABA and the gibberellin (GA)-derived fern hormone antheridiogen (ACE). ABA and key proteins, including ABA receptors from the PYR/PYL/RCAR family and negative regulators of ABA-signaling from Group A of the type-2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), in addition to OST1 homologs, can be found in all terrestrial land plant lineages, ranging from liverworts that lack stomata, to angiosperms. As land plants have evolved and diversified over the past 450 million years, so too have the roles of this important plant hormone and the genes involved in its signaling and perception.

  11. ABA-dependent control of GIGANTEA signalling enables drought escape via up-regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboni, Matteo; Robustelli Test, Alice; Galbiati, Massimo; Tonelli, Chiara; Conti, Lucio

    2016-12-01

    One strategy deployed by plants to endure water scarcity is to accelerate the transition to flowering adaptively via the drought escape (DE) response. In Arabidopsis thaliana, activation of the DE response requires the photoperiodic response gene GIGANTEA (GI) and the florigen genes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF). The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is also required for the DE response, by promoting the transcriptional up-regulation of the florigen genes. The mode of interaction between ABA and the photoperiodic genes remains obscure. In this work we use a genetic approach to demonstrate that ABA modulates GI signalling and consequently its ability to activate the florigen genes. We also reveal that the ABA-dependent activation of FT, but not TSF, requires CONSTANS (CO) and that impairing ABA signalling dramatically reduces the expression of florigen genes with little effect on the CO transcript profile. ABA signalling thus has an impact on the core genes of photoperiodic signalling GI and CO by modulating their downstream function and/or activities rather than their transcript accumulation. In addition, we show that as well as promoting flowering, ABA simultaneously represses flowering, independent of the florigen genes. Genetic analysis indicates that the target of the repressive function of ABA is the flowering-promoting gene SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1), a transcription factor integrating floral cues in the shoot meristem. Our study suggests that variations in ABA signalling provide different developmental information that allows plants to co-ordinate the onset of the reproductive phase according to the available water resources. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura 78 (AtATL78) mediates ABA-dependent ROS signaling in response to drought stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suh, Ji Yeon; Kim, Soo Jin; Oh, Tae Rin

    2016-01-01

    Plants have developed a variety of complicated responses to cope with drought, one of the most challenging environmental stresses. As a quick response, plants rapidly inhibit stomatal opening under the control of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway, in order to preserve water. Here, we report...... that Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATL), a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, mediates the ABA-dependent stomatal closure. In contrast to wild-type plants, the stomatal closure was fully impaired in atatl78 mutant plants even in the presence of exogenous ABA and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Besides, under high...... concentrations of Ca(2+), a down-stream signaling molecule of ABA signaling pathway, atatl78 mutant plants successfully closed the pores. Furthermore, AtATL78 protein indirectly associated with catalases and the deficiency of AtATL78 led the reduction of catalase activity and H2O2, implying the function of At...

  13. Maize membrane-bound transcription factor Zmbzip17 is a key regulator in the cross-talk of ER quality control and ABA signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Ge; Lv, Wei-Tao; Li, Mei-Jing; Wang, Bo; Sun, Dong-Mei; Deng, Xin

    2013-12-01

    Abiotic stresses disrupt protein folding and induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which in turn activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to aid in the refolding or degradation of misfolded proteins. The phytohormone ABA regulates many aspects of plant development and plays a central role in the stress response; however, the role of ABA in transducing stress signals to activate the UPR has not been recognized. In this study, a gene encoding the maize ortholog of AtbZIP17, a transmembrane transcription factor functioning as an ER stress transducer, was identified from the MaizeGDB database, and designated ZmbZIP17. ZmbZIP17 was induced by both ABA and ER stress-eliciting agents such as dithiotreitol (DTT) and tunicamycin (TM). Transiently expressed yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-ZmbZIP17 co-localized with the ER marker HDEL-mCherry under control conditions, but partially translocated into the nucleus upon TM treatment or removal of the transmembrane domain. TM-induced processing of ZmbZIP17 was confirmed by Western blot analysis. When overexpressed in Arabidopsis, ZmbZIP17 triggered ER stress response gene expression and tolerance to DTT and TM, elevated ABA-responsive gene expression and ABA sensitivity both pre- and post-germination. Additionally, ABA was found to induce ER stress response gene expression, alone or synergistically with ZmbZIP17, in the absence of DTT or TM; while ZmbZIP17 was capable of interacting with ABA-responsive cis-elements (ABREs) that exist in promoters of known ABA-responsive genes. Together, our results reveal a direct link between ER stress and ABA signaling pathways involving the ZmbZIP17 transcription factor.

  14. Analysis of Signal Attenuation in UHF Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Michalek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with signal attenuation in ultra-high-frequency bands caused by rain. We focus mainly on the effect of the rain on the radio waves propagation in the frequency band 2.1 GHz. Two exact approaches for investigating this dependency are used. In the first approach, we use the fitting probability density function for determination Rician distribution K-factor. In the second approach, we want to find more concrete rain-rate dependency with using linear regression. The results achieved in our long-term investigation clearly indicate that the strong impact of rain itself is a minor. So-called secondary rain impacts such as scattering of reflections from wet surfaces cause the main attenuation contribution.

  15. Attenuation characteristic of UWB signals propagation in free space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Huang, Zhonghua

    2016-10-01

    Researching attenuation characteristic of UWB signals propagation in free-space is necessary for ultra-wideband (UWB) radio fuze optimized design. Research attenuation characteristic of UWB signals propagation in free space can be achieved by learning attenuation characteristic of radio waves propagation in free-space and UWB signal power spectral density. 50ps, 100ps and 200ps of pulse width UWB fuze transmission narrow pulse signal propagation in free-space are simulated and analyzed. The attenuation of UWB signals at 3m, 6m and 9m are contrasted. The simulation, analysis and contrast is theoretical basis of UWB radio fuze optimized design.

  16. Sulforaphane attenuates EGFR signaling in NSCLC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Yuan; Yu, Zhu-Yun; Chuang, Yen-Shu; Huang, Rui-Mei; Wang, Tzu-Chien V

    2015-06-03

    EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is frequently overexpressed and mutated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been widely used in the treatment of many cancers, including NSCLC. However, intrinsic and acquired resistance to TKI remains a common obstacle. One strategy that may help overcome EGFR-TKI resistance is to target EGFR for degradation. As EGFR is a client protein of heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) and sulforaphane is known to functionally regulate HSP90, we hypothesized that sulforaphane could attenuate EGFR-related signaling and potentially be used to treat NSCLC. Our study revealed that sulforaphane displayed antitumor activity against NSCLC cells both in vitro and in vivo. The sensitivity of NSCLC cells to sulforaphane appeared to positively correlate with the inhibition of EGFR-related signaling, which was attributed to the increased proteasomal degradation of EGFR. Combined treatment of NSCLC cells with sulforaphane plus another HSP90 inhibitor (17-AAG) enhanced the inhibition of EGFR-related signaling both in vitro and in vivo. We have shown that sulforaphane is a novel inhibitory modulator of EGFR expression and is effective in inhibiting the tumor growth of EGFR-TKI-resistant NSCLC cells. Our findings suggest that sulforaphane should be further explored for its potential clinical applications against NSCLC.

  17. Expression of CdDHN4, a Novel YSK2-Type Dehydrin Gene from Bermudagrass, Responses to Drought Stress through the ABA-Dependent Signal Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Aimin; Fan, Nana; Xie, Jianping; Yuan, Shili; An, Yuan; Zhou, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Dehydrin improves plant resistance to many abiotic stresses. In this study, the expression profiles of a dehydrin gene, CdDHN4, were estimated under various stresses and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments in two bermudagrasses (Cynodon dactylon L.): Tifway (drought-tolerant) and C299 (drought-sensitive). The expression of CdDHN4 was up-regulated by high temperatures, low temperatures, drought, salt and ABA. The sensitivity of CdDHN4 to ABA and the expression of CdDHN4 under drought conditions were higher in Tifway than in C299. A 1239-bp fragment, CdDHN4-P, the partial upstream sequence of the CdDHN4 gene, was cloned by genomic walking from Tifway. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the CdDHN4-P sequence possessed features typical of a plant promoter and contained many typical cis elements, including a transcription initiation site, a TATA-box, an ABRE, an MBS, a MYC, an LTRE, a TATC-box and a GT1-motif. Transient expression in tobacco leaves demonstrated that the promoter CdDHN4-P can be activated by ABA, drought and cold. These results indicate that CdDHN4 is regulated by an ABA-dependent signal pathway and that the high sensitivity of CdDHN4 to ABA might be an important mechanism enhancing the drought tolerance of bermudagrass.

  18. Measurement and modelling of ABA signalling in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) during partial root-zone drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fulai; Song, Ri; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2008-01-01

    was shifted between columns when the theta of the drying soil column had decreased to 7-8%; (3) non-irrigation (NI), where irrigation was withheld after onset of treatments and lasted for 5 days until theta had decreased to 7%. In the PRD plants, the fraction of soil water extraction (FSWE) by the dry roots......The objective of this study was to develop a simple mechanistic model to predict the magnitude of ABA signalling ([X-ABA]) of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) exposed to partial root-zone drying (PRD). Potatoes were grown in pots in a glasshouse with the roots split equally between two soil columns....... At tuber initiation stage, plants were subjected to three irrigation treatments: (1) both soil columns were fully irrigated (FI) daily to a volumetric soil water content (theta) of 18.0%; (2) PRD, in which one soil column was irrigated daily to 18.0% while the other was allowed to dry, and the irrigation...

  19. Long-distance ABA transport can mediate distal tissue responses by affecting local ABA concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenrao; de Ollas, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C

    2017-10-20

    Environmental stresses that perturb plant water relations influence abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations, but it is unclear whether long-distance ABA transport contributes to changes in local ABA levels. To determine the physiological relevance of ABA transport, we made reciprocal- and self-grafts of ABA-deficient flacca mutant and wild-type (WT) tomato plants, in which low phosphorus (P) conditions decreased ABA concentrations while salinity increased ABA concentrations. Whereas foliar ABA concentrations in the WT scions were rootstock independent under normal conditions, salinity resulted in long-distance transport of ABA: flacca scions had approximately twice as much ABA when grafted on WT rootstocks compared to flacca rootstocks. Root ABA concentrations were scion dependent: both WT and flacca rootstocks had less ABA with the flacca mutant scion than with the WT scion under normal conditions. In WT scions, whereas rootstock genotype had limited effects on stomatal conductance under normal conditions, a flacca rootstock resulted in decreased leaf area in stressed plants, presumably due to attenuated root-to-shoot ABA transport. In flacca scions, a WT rootstock decreased stomatal conductance but increased leaf area of stressed plants, likely due to enhanced root-to-shoot ABA transport. Thus, long-distance ABA transport can affect responses in distal tissues by changing local ABA concentrations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Pepper protein phosphatase type 2C, CaADIP1 and its interacting partner CaRLP1 antagonistically regulate ABA signalling and drought response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae Woo; Lee, Sung Chul

    2016-07-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key phytohormone that regulates plant growth and developmental processes, including seed germination and stomatal closing. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of a novel type 2C protein phosphatase, CaADIP1 (Capsicum annuum ABA and Drought-Induced Protein phosphatase 1). The expression of CaADIP1 was induced in pepper leaves by ABA, drought and NaCl treatments. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing CaADIP1 (CaADIP1-OX) exhibited an ABA-hyposensitive and drought-susceptible phenotype. We used a yeast two-hybrid screening assay to identify CaRLP1 (Capsicum annuum RCAR-Like Protein 1), which interacts with CaADIP1 in the cytoplasm and nucleus. In contrast to CaADIP1-OX plants, CaRLP1-OX plants displayed an ABA-hypersensitive and drought-tolerant phenotype, which was characterized by low levels of transpirational water loss and increased expression of stress-responsive genes relative to those of wild-type plants. In CaADIP1-OX/CaRLP1-OX double transgenic plants, ectopic expression of the CaRLP1 gene led to strong suppression of CaADIP1-induced ABA hyposensitivity during the germinative and post-germinative stages, indicating that CaADIP1 and CaRLP1 act in the same signalling pathway and CaADIP1 functions downstream of CaRLP1. Our results indicate that CaADIP1 and its interacting partner CaRLP1 antagonistically regulate the ABA-dependent defense signalling response to drought stress. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Alkaline-stress response in Glycine soja leaf identifies specific transcription factors and ABA-mediated signaling factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ying; Li, Yong; Lv, De-Kang; Bai, Xi; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Wang, Ao-Xue; Zhu, Yan-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Transcriptome of Glycine soja leaf tissue during a detailed time course formed a foundation for examining transcriptional processes during NaHCO(3) stress treatment. Of a total of 2,310 detected differentially expressed genes, 1,664 genes were upregulated and 1,704 genes were downregulated at various time points. The number of stress-regulated genes increased dramatically after a 6-h stress treatment. GO category gene enrichment analysis revealed that most of the differentially expressed genes were involved in cell structure, protein synthesis, energy, and secondary metabolism. Another enrichment test revealed that the response of G. soja to NaHCO(3) highlights specific transcription factors, such as the C2C2-CO-like, MYB-related, WRKY, GARP-G2-like, and ZIM families. Co-expressed genes were clustered into ten classes (P < 0.001). Intriguingly, one cluster of 188 genes displayed a unique expression pattern that increases at an early stage (0.5 and 3 h), followed by a decrease from 6 to 12 h. This group was enriched in regulation of transcription components, including AP2-EREBP, bHLH, MYB/MYB-related, C2C2-CO-like, C2C2-DOF, C2C2, C3H, and GARP-G2-like transcription factors. Analysis of the 1-kb upstream regions of transcripts displaying similar changes in abundance identified 19 conserved motifs, potential binding sites for transcription factors. The appearance of ABA-responsive elements in the upstream of co-expression genes reveals that ABA-mediated signaling participates in the signal transduction in alkaline response.

  2. Transcriptomic network analyses of leaf dehydration responses identify highly connected ABA and ethylene signaling hubs in three grapevine species differing in drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Daniel W; Ghan, Ryan; Schlauch, Karen A; Cramer, Grant R

    2016-05-23

    Grapevine is a major food crop that is affected by global climate change. Consistent with field studies, dehydration assays of grapevine leaves can reveal valuable information of the plant's response at physiological, transcript, and protein levels. There are well-known differences in grapevine rootstocks responses to dehydration. We used time-series transcriptomic approaches combined with network analyses to elucidate and identify important physiological processes and network hubs that responded to dehydration in three different grapevine species differing in their drought tolerance. Transcriptomic analyses of the leaves of Cabernet Sauvignon, Riparia Gloire, and Ramsey were evaluated at different times during a 24-h controlled dehydration. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that approximately 11,000 transcripts changed significantly with respect to the genotype x treatment interaction term and approximately 6000 transcripts changed significantly according to the genotype x treatment x time interaction term indicating massive differential changes in gene expression over time. Standard analyses determined substantial effects on the transcript abundance of genes involved in the metabolism and signaling of two known plant stress hormones, abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene. ABA and ethylene signaling maps were constructed and revealed specific changes in transcript abundance that were associated with the known drought tolerance of the genotypes including genes such as VviABI5, VviABF2, VviACS2, and VviWRKY22. Weighted-gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) confirmed these results. In particular, WGCNA identified 30 different modules, some of which had highly enriched gene ontology (GO) categories for photosynthesis, phenylpropanoid metabolism, ABA and ethylene signaling. The ABA signaling transcription factors, VviABI5 and VviABF2, were highly connected hubs in two modules, one being enriched in gaseous transport and the other in ethylene signaling. VviABI5 was

  3. FYVE1/FREE1 Interacts with the PYL4 ABA Receptor and Mediates its Delivery to the Vacuolar Degradation Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda-Palazon, Borja; Rodriguez, Lesia; Fernandez, Maria A; Castillo, Mari-Cruz; Anderson, Erin A; Gao, Caiji; González-Guzmán, Miguel; Peirats-Llobet, Marta; Zhao, Qiong; De Winne, Nancy; Gevaert, Kris; De Jaeger, Geert; Jiang, Liwen; Leon, Jose; Mullen, Robert T; Rodriguez, Pedro L

    2016-08-05

    Recently, we described the ubiquitylation of PYL4 and PYR1 by the RING E3 ubiquitin ligase RSL1 at the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana. This suggested that ubiquitylated ABA receptors might be targeted to the vacuolar degradation pathway because such ubiquitylation is usually an internalization signal for the endocytic route. Here, we show that FYVE1 (previously termed FREE1), a recently described component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, interacted with RSL1-receptor complexes and recruited PYL4 to endosomal compartments. Although the ESCRT pathway has been assumed to be reserved for integral membrane proteins, we show the involvement of this pathway in the degradation of ABA receptors, which can be associated with membranes but are not integral membrane proteins. Knock-down fyve1 alleles are hypersensitive to ABA, illustrating the biological relevance of the ESCRT pathway for the modulation of ABA signaling. In addition, fyve1 mutants are impaired in the targeting of ABA receptors for vacuolar degradation, leading to increased accumulation of PYL4 and an enhanced response to ABA. Pharmacological and genetic approaches revealed a dynamic turnover of ABA receptors from the plasma membrane to the endosomal/vacuolar degradation pathway, which was mediated by FYVE1 and was dependent on RSL1. This process involves clathrin-mediated endocytosis and trafficking of PYL4 through the ESCRT pathway, which helps to regulate the turnover of ABA receptors and attenuate ABA signaling. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  4. The Pepper RING Finger E3 Ligase, CaDIR1, Regulates the Drought Stress Response via ABA-Mediated Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Wook Han

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress from soil or air limits plant growth and development, leading to a reduction in crop productivity. Several E3 ligases positively or negatively regulate the drought stress response. In the present study, we show that the pepper (Capsicum annuum Drought Induced RING type E3 ligase 1, CaDIR1, regulates the drought stress response via abscisic acid (ABA-mediated signaling. CaDIR1 contains a C3HC4-type RING finger domain in the N-terminal region; this domain functions during protein degradation via attachment of ubiquitins to the substrate target proteins. The expression levels of the CaDIR1 gene were suppressed and induced by ABA and drought treatments, respectively. We conducted loss-of-function and gain-of function genetic studies to examine the in vivo function of CaDIR1 in response to ABA and drought stress. CaDIR1-silenced pepper plants displayed a drought-tolerant phenotype characterized by a low level of transpirational water loss via increased stomatal closure and elevated leaf temperatures. CaDIR1-overexpressing (OX Arabidopsis plants exhibited an ABA-hypersensitive phenotype during the germination stage, but an ABA-hyposensitive phenotype—characterized by decreased stomatal closure and reduced leaf temperatures—at the adult stage. Moreover, adult CaDIR1-OX plants exhibited a drought-sensitive phenotype characterized by high levels of transpirational water loss. Our results indicate that CaDIR1 functions as a negative regulator of the drought stress response via ABA-mediated signaling. Our findings provide a valuable insight into the plant defense mechanism that operates during drought stress.

  5. ABA Receptors: Past, Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jianjun [Harvard University; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Weston, David [ORNL; Chen, Jay [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is the key plant stress hormone. Consistent with the earlier studies in support of the presence of both membrane- and cytoplasm-localized ABA receptors, recent studies have identified multiple ABA receptors located in various subcellular locations. These include a chloroplast envelope-localized receptor (the H subunit of Chloroplast Mg2+-chelatase/ABA Receptor), two plasma membrane-localized receptors (G-protein Coupled Receptor 2 and GPCR-type G proteins), and one cytosol/nucleus-localized Pyrabactin Resistant (PYR)/PYR-Like (PYL)/Regulatory Component of ABA Receptor 1 (RCAR). Although the downstream molecular events for most of the identified ABA receptors are currently unknown, one of them, PYR/PYL/RACR was found to directly bind and regulate the activity of a long-known central regulator of ABA signaling, the A-group protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C). Together with the Sucrose Non-fermentation Kinase Subfamily 2 (SnRK2s) protein kinases, a central signaling complex (ABA-PYR-PP2Cs-SnRK2s) that is responsible for ABA signal perception and transduction is supported by abundant genetic, physiological, biochemical and structural evidence. The identification of multiple ABA receptors has advanced our understanding of ABA signal perception and transduction while adding an extra layer of complexity.

  6. Radio wave propagation through vegetation: Factors influencing signal attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Nick; Ndzi, David; Seville, Andrew; Vilar, Enric; Austin, John

    2003-10-01

    The paper describes an extensive wideband channel sounding measurement campaign to investigate signal propagation through vegetation. The measurements have been conducted at three frequencies (1.3, 2 and 11.6 GHz) at sites with different measurement geometries and tree species. The data have been used to evaluate current narrowband empirical vegetation attenuation models and study the prevailing propagation mechanisms. Evaluation of the modified exponential decay (MED), maximum attenuation (MA) and nonzero gradient (NZG) models show that on a site by site basis, the NZG model gives the best prediction of excess attenuation due to vegetation. The MA model has been found to be the worst of the three models. The studies have shown that the measurement site used to obtain the NZG model parameter values given in () [2001] is influenced by metal lampposts and passing traffic, and thus was based on corrupted data. The results show that the leaf state, measurement geometry and vegetation density are more important factors influencing signal attenuation than tree species or leaf shape. Generally, the 11.6 GHz signal was attenuated much more than the 1.3 and 2 GHz signals by vegetation in-leaf, but the differences in attenuation were not significant in the out-of-leaf state. A successful excess attenuation model due to vegetation must consider the measurement geometry and vegetation descriptive parameters as well as any contributions from ground reflection and/or diffraction over the top or round edges of the trees.

  7. Molecular and genetic analyses of the PP2C-ABA receptor interaction in the abscisic acid signaling pathway.

    OpenAIRE

    Antoni Alandes, Regina

    2013-01-01

    La fitohormona ácido abscísico (ABA) juega un papel crucial en el control de la respuesta a estrés y en la regulación del crecimiento y desarrollo de la planta. La unión del ABA a los receptores intracelulares PYR/PYL/RCAR conlleva la inhibición de las PP2Cs del clado A tales como ABI1 o HAB1, causando la activación de la ruta de señalización del ABA. Para obtener más información en la señalización del ABA nos hemos centrado en la caracterización de miembros de estas dos famil...

  8. A maize jasmonate Zim-domain protein, ZmJAZ14, associates with the JA, ABA, and GA signaling pathways in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojin Zhou

    Full Text Available Jasmonate (JA is an important signaling molecule involved in the regulation of many physiological and stress-related processes in plants. Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ proteins have been implicated in regulating JA signaling pathways and the cross talk between various phytohormones. Maize is not only an important cereal crop, but also a model plant for monocotyledon studies. Although many JAZ proteins have been characterized in Arabidopsis and rice, few reports have examined the function of JAZ proteins in maize. In this report, we examined the phylogenetic relationship and expression pattern of JAZ family genes in maize. In addition, a tassel and endosperm-specific JAZ gene, ZmJAZ14, was identified using microarray data analysis and real-time RT-PCR, and its expression was induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG, jasmonate (JA, abscisic acid (ABA, and gibberellins (GAs. ZmJAZ14 was shown to be localized in the nucleus and possessed no transcriptional activating activity, suggesting that it functions as a transcriptional regulator. We found that overexpression of ZmJAZ14 in Arabidopsis enhanced plant tolerance to JA and ABA treatment, as well as PEG stress, while it promoted growth under GA stimulus. Moreover, ZmJAZ14 interacted with a subset of transcription factors in Arabidopsis, and the accumulation of several marker genes involved in JA, ABA, and GA signaling pathways were altered in the overexpression lines. These results suggest that ZmJAZ14 may serve as a hub for the cross talk among the JA, ABA, and GA signaling pathways. Our results can be used to further characterize the function of JAZ family proteins in maize, and the gene cloned in this study may serve as a candidate for drought tolerance and growth promotion regulation in maize.

  9. Stomatal malfunctioning under low VPD conditions: induced by alterations in stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy or in the ABA signaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliniaeifard, Sasan; Malcolm Matamoros, Priscila; van Meeteren, Uulke

    2014-12-01

    Exposing plants to low VPD reduces leaf capacity to maintain adequate water status thereafter. To find the impact of VPD on functioning of stomata, stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy, fava bean plants were grown at low (L, 0.23 kPa) or moderate (M, 1.17 kPa) VPDs and some plants that developed their leaves at moderate VPD were then transferred for 4 days to low VPD (M→L). Part of the M→L-plants were sprayed with ABA (abscisic acid) during exposure to L. L-plants showed bigger stomata, larger pore area, thinner leaves and less spongy cells compared with M-plants. Stomatal morphology (except aperture) and leaf anatomy of the M→L-plants were almost similar to the M-plants, while their transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were identical to that of L-plants. The stomatal response to ABA was lost in L-plants, but also after 1-day exposure of M-plants to low VPD. The level of foliar ABA sharply decreased within 1-day exposure to L, while the level of ABA-GE (ABA-glucose ester) was not affected. Spraying ABA during the exposure to L prevented loss of stomatal closing response thereafter. The effect of low VPD was largely depending on exposure time: the stomatal responsiveness to ABA was lost after 1-day exposure to low VPD, while the responsiveness to desiccation was gradually lost during 4-day exposure to low VPD. Leaf anatomical and stomatal morphological alterations due to low VPD were not the main cause of loss of stomatal closure response to closing stimuli. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  10. ABA signaling is necessary but not sufficient for RD29B transcriptional memory during successive dehydration stresses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virlouvet, Laetitia; Ding, Yong; Fujii, Hiroaki; Avramova, Zoya; Fromm, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Plants subjected to a prior dehydration stress were seen to have altered transcriptional responses during a subsequent dehydration stress for up to 5 days after the initial stress. The abscisic acid (ABA) inducible RD29B gene of Arabidopsis thaliana was strongly induced after the first stress and displayed transcriptional memory with transcript levels nine-fold higher during the second dehydration stress. These increased transcript levels were due to an increased rate of transcription and are associated with an altered chromatin template during the recovery interval between the dehydration stresses. Here we use a combination of promoter deletion/substitutions, mutants in the trans-acting transcription factors and their upstream protein kinases, and treatments with exogenous ABA or dehydration stress to advance our understanding of the features required for transcriptional memory of RD29B. ABA Response Elements (ABREs) are sufficient to confer transcriptional memory on a minimal promoter, although there is a context effect from flanking sequences. Different mutations in Snf1 Related Protein Kinase 2 (SnRK2) genes positively and negatively affected the response, suggesting that this effect is important for transcriptional memory. Although exogenous ABA treatments could prime transcriptional memory, a second ABA treatment was not sufficient to activate transcriptional memory. Therefore, we concluded that transcriptional memory requires ABA and an ABA-independent factor that is induced or activated by a subsequent dehydration stress and directly or indirectly results in a more active RD29B chromatin template. These results advance our knowledge of the cis- and trans-acting factors that are required for transcriptional memory of RD29B. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Transcription factor WRKY46 modulates the development of Arabidopsis lateral roots in osmotic/salt stress conditions via regulation of ABA signaling and auxin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhong Jie; Yan, Jing Ying; Li, Chun Xiao; Li, Gui Xin; Wu, Yun Rong; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2015-10-01

    The development of lateral roots (LR) is known to be severely inhibited by salt or osmotic stress. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying LR development in osmotic/salt stress conditions are poorly understood. Here we show that the gene encoding the WRKY transcription factor WRKY46 (WRKY46) is expressed throughout lateral root primordia (LRP) during early LR development and that expression is subsequently restricted to the stele of the mature LR. In osmotic/salt stress conditions, lack of WRKY46 (in loss-of-function wrky46 mutants) significantly reduces, while overexpression of WRKY46 enhances, LR development. We also show that exogenous auxin largely restores LR development in wrky46 mutants, and that the auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) inhibits LR development in both wild-type (WT; Col-0) and in a line overexpressing WRKY46 (OV46). Subsequent analysis of abscisic acid (ABA)-related mutants indicated that WRKY46 expression is down-regulated by ABA signaling, and up-regulated by an ABA-independent signal induced by osmotic/salt stress. Next, we show that expression of the DR5:GUS auxin response reporter is reduced in roots of wrky46 mutants, and that both wrky46 mutants and OV46 display altered root levels of free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and IAA conjugates. Subsequent RT-qPCR and ChIP-qPCR experiments indicated that WRKY46 directly regulates the expression of ABI4 and of genes regulating auxin conjugation. Finally, analysis of wrky46 abi4 double mutant plants confirms that ABI4 acts downstream of WRKY46. In summary, our results demonstrate that WRKY46 contributes to the feedforward inhibition of osmotic/salt stress-dependent LR inhibition via regulation of ABA signaling and auxin homeostasis. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Feedback Regulation of ABA Signaling and Biosynthesis by a bZIP Transcription Factor Targets Drought-Resistance-Related Genes1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Yang, Jun; Peng, Lei; Ma, Siqi; Xu, Yan; Li, Guoliang

    2016-01-01

    The OsbZIP23 transcription factor has been characterized for its essential role in drought resistance in rice (Oryza sativa), but the mechanism is unknown. In this study, we first investigated the transcriptional activation of OsbZIP23. A homolog of SnRK2 protein kinase (SAPK2) was found to interact with and phosphorylate OsbZIP23 for its transcriptional activation. SAPK2 also interacted with OsPP2C49, an ABI1 homolog, which deactivated the SAPK2 to inhibit the transcriptional activation activity of OsbZIP23. Next, we performed genome-wide identification of OsbZIP23 targets by immunoprecipitation sequencing and RNA sequencing analyses in the OsbZIP23-overexpression, osbzip23 mutant, and wild-type rice under normal and drought stress conditions. OsbZIP23 directly regulates a large number of reported genes that function in stress response, hormone signaling, and developmental processes. Among these targets, we found that OsbZIP23 could positively regulate OsPP2C49, and overexpression of OsPP2C49 in rice resulted in significantly decreased sensitivity of the abscisic acid (ABA) response and rapid dehydration. Moreover, OsNCED4 (9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase4), a key gene in ABA biosynthesis, was also positively regulated by OsbZIP23. Together, our results suggest that OsbZIP23 acts as a central regulator in ABA signaling and biosynthesis, and drought resistance in rice. PMID:27325665

  13. GhCAX3 gene, a novel Ca(2+/H(+ exchanger from cotton, confers regulation of cold response and ABA induced signal transduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Xu

    Full Text Available As a second messenger, Ca(2+ plays a major role in cold induced transduction via stimulus-specific increases in [Ca(2+]cyt, which is called calcium signature. During this process, CAXs (Ca(2+/H(+ exchangers play critical role. For the first time, a putative Ca(2+/H(+ exchanger GhCAX3 gene from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. 'YZ-1' was isolated and characterized. It was highly expressed in all tissues of cotton except roots and fibers. This gene may act as a regulator in cotton's response to abiotic stresses as it could be up-regulated by Ca(2+, NaCl, ABA and cold stress. Similar to other CAXs, it was proved that GhCAX3 also had Ca(2+ transport activity and the N-terminal regulatory region (NRR through yeast complementation assay. Over-expression of GhCAX3 in tobacco showed less sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and seedling stages, and the phenotypic difference between wild type (WT and transgenic plants was more significant when the NRR was truncated. Furthermore, GhCAX3 conferred cold tolerance in yeast as well as in tobacco seedlings based on physiological and molecular studies. However, transgenic plant seeds showed more sensitivity to cold stress compared to WT during seed germination, especially when expressed in N-terminal truncated version. Finally, the extent of sensitivity in transgenic lines was more severe than that in WT line under sodium tungstate treatment (an ABA repressor, indicating that ABA could alleviate cold sensitivity of GhCAX3 seeds, especially in short of its NRR. Meanwhile, we also found that overexpression of GhCAX3 could enhance some cold and ABA responsive marker genes. Taken together, these results suggested that GhCAX3 plays important roles in the cross-talk of ABA and cold signal transduction, and compared to full-length of GhCAX3, the absence of NRR could enhance the tolerance or sensitivity to cold stress, depending on seedling's developmental stages.

  14. GhCAX3 gene, a novel Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger from cotton, confers regulation of cold response and ABA induced signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lian; Zahid, Kashif Rafiq; He, Liangrong; Zhang, Wenwen; He, Xin; Zhang, Xianlong; Yang, Xiyan; Zhu, Longfu

    2013-01-01

    As a second messenger, Ca(2+) plays a major role in cold induced transduction via stimulus-specific increases in [Ca(2+)]cyt, which is called calcium signature. During this process, CAXs (Ca(2+)/H(+) exchangers) play critical role. For the first time, a putative Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger GhCAX3 gene from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. 'YZ-1') was isolated and characterized. It was highly expressed in all tissues of cotton except roots and fibers. This gene may act as a regulator in cotton's response to abiotic stresses as it could be up-regulated by Ca(2+), NaCl, ABA and cold stress. Similar to other CAXs, it was proved that GhCAX3 also had Ca(2+) transport activity and the N-terminal regulatory region (NRR) through yeast complementation assay. Over-expression of GhCAX3 in tobacco showed less sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and seedling stages, and the phenotypic difference between wild type (WT) and transgenic plants was more significant when the NRR was truncated. Furthermore, GhCAX3 conferred cold tolerance in yeast as well as in tobacco seedlings based on physiological and molecular studies. However, transgenic plant seeds showed more sensitivity to cold stress compared to WT during seed germination, especially when expressed in N-terminal truncated version. Finally, the extent of sensitivity in transgenic lines was more severe than that in WT line under sodium tungstate treatment (an ABA repressor), indicating that ABA could alleviate cold sensitivity of GhCAX3 seeds, especially in short of its NRR. Meanwhile, we also found that overexpression of GhCAX3 could enhance some cold and ABA responsive marker genes. Taken together, these results suggested that GhCAX3 plays important roles in the cross-talk of ABA and cold signal transduction, and compared to full-length of GhCAX3, the absence of NRR could enhance the tolerance or sensitivity to cold stress, depending on seedling's developmental stages.

  15. Calcium-dependent protein kinase 21 phosphorylates 14-3-3 proteins in response to ABA signaling and salt stress in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixing; Zhou, Xiaojin; Chang, Shu; Chu, Zhilin; Wang, Hanmeng; Han, Shengcheng; Wang, Yingdian

    2017-12-02

    The calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are a class of plant-specific kinase that directly bind Ca2+ and mediate the calcium-signaling pathways to play important physiological roles in growth and development. The rice genome contains 31 CDPK genes, one of which, OsCPK21, is known to modulate the abscisic acid (ABA) and salt stress responses in this crop; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation are largely unknown. In the present study, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening, glutathione S-transferase pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays to confirm the interaction between OsCPK21 and one of its putative targets, Os14-3-3 (OsGF14e). We used an in vitro kinase assay and site-directed mutagenesis to verify that OsCPK21 phosphorylates OsGF14e at Tyr-138. We used real-time PCR to reveal that several ABA and salt inducible genes were more highly expressed in the OsCPK21-OE and OsGF14e WT-OE plants than in the mutant OsGF14e Y138A-OE and wild-type plants. These results suggest that OsCPK21 phosphorylates OsGF14e to facilitate the response to ABA and salt stress. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Signal attenuation as a rat model of obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltseker, Koral; Yankelevitch-Yahav, Roni; Albelda, Noa S; Joel, Daphna

    2015-01-09

    In the signal attenuation rat model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), lever-pressing for food is followed by the presentation of a compound stimulus which serves as a feedback cue. This feedback is later attenuated by repeated presentations of the stimulus without food (without the rat emitting the lever-press response). In the next stage, lever-pressing is assessed under extinction conditions (i.e., no food is delivered). At this stage rats display two types of lever-presses, those that are followed by an attempt to collect a reward, and those that are not. The latter are the measure of compulsive-like behavior in the model. A control procedure in which rats do not experience the attenuation of the feedback cue serves to distinguish between the effects of signal attenuation and of extinction. The signal attenuation model is a highly validated model of OCD and differentiates between compulsive-like behaviors and behaviors that are repetitive but not compulsive. In addition the measures collected during the procedure eliminate alternative explanations for differences between the groups being tested, and are quantitative, unbiased and unaffected by inter-experimenter variability. The major disadvantages of this model are the costly equipment, the fact that it requires some technical know-how and the fact that it is time-consuming compared to other models of OCD (11 days). The model may be used for detecting the anti- or pro-compulsive effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological manipulations and for studying the neural substrate of compulsive behavior.

  17. A hydraulic signal in root-to-shoot signalling of water shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann, Alexander; Weiler, Elmar W; Steudle, Ernst; Grill, Erwin

    2007-10-01

    Photosynthesis and biomass production of plants are controlled by the water status of the soil. Upon soil drying, plants can reduce water consumption by minimizing transpiration through stomata, the closable pores of the leaf. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) mediates stomatal closure, and is the assigned signal for communicating water deficit from the root to the shoot. However, our study does not support ABA as the proposed long-distance signal. The shoot response to limited soil water supply is not affected by the capacity to generate ABA in the root; however, the response does require ABA biosynthesis and signalling in the shoot. Soil water stress elicits a hydraulic response in the shoot, which precedes ABA signalling and stomatal closure. Attenuation of the hydraulic response in various plants prevented long-distance signalling of water stress, consistent with root-to-shoot communication by a hydraulic signal.

  18. A salt-stress-regulator from the Poplar R2R3 MYB family integrates the regulation of lateral root emergence and ABA signaling to mediate salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qing; Jiang, Tianzhi; Xu, Liangxiang; Liu, Hai; Mao, Hui; Wang, Xianqiang; Jiao, Bo; Duan, Yanjiao; Wang, Qiong; Dong, Qiannan; Yang, Li; Tian, Guozheng; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Yifeng; Liu, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haiyang; Fan, Di; Wang, Bangjun; Luo, Keming

    2017-05-01

    The roles of most MYB transcription factors (TFs) in the poplar remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that PtrSSR1, a salt-stress-regulator in the Populus trichocarpa R2R3 MYB gene family, mediates the tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis plants to salt stress. The transcripts of PtrSSR1 could be induced by salt stress rapidly in poplar. Subcellular localization and yeast assays indicated that PtrSSR1 encoded a nuclear protein with transactivation activity. The Arabidopsis transformants overexpressing PtrSSR1 clearly displayed lateral root emergence (LRE) inhibition compared with wild-type (Wt) under normal conditions; while upon NaCl treatment, the transformants showed improved tolerance, and the LRs emerged faster from salt-induced inhibition. A strong correlation could exist between the LRE mediated by PtrSSR1 and abscisic acid (ABA), mainly because the transformants displayed more sensitivity to exogenous ABA during both seed germination and LRE, and had a distinctly increased level of endogenous ABA. Furthermore, several ABA- and salt-related genes, such as NCED3, ABI1 and CBL1, were up-regulated. Thus, our results suggest that elevation in the endogenous ABA content bring alteration of plant LR development, and that the poplar R2R3 MYB TF PtrSSR1 vitally improve salt stress tolerance by integrating the regulation of LRE and ABA signaling in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. StCDPK3 Phosphorylates In Vitro Two Transcription Factors Involved in GA and ABA Signaling in Potato: StRSG1 and StABF1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Grandellis

    Full Text Available Calcium-dependent protein kinases, CDPKs, decode calcium (Ca2+ transients and initiate downstream responses in plants. In order to understand how CDPKs affect plant physiology, their specific target proteins must be identified. In tobacco, the bZIP transcription factor Repression of Shoot Growth (NtRSG that modulates gibberellin (GA content is a specific target of NtCDPK1. StCDPK3 from potato is homologous (88% identical to NtCDPK1 even in its N-terminal variable domain. In this work, we observe that NtRSG is also phosphorylated by StCDPK3. The potato RSG family of transcription factors is composed of three members that share similar features. The closest homologue to NtRSG, which was named StRSG1, was amplified and sequenced. qRT-PCR data indicate that StRSG1 is mainly expressed in petioles, stems, lateral buds, and roots. In addition, GA treatment affected StRSG1 expression. StCDPK3 transcripts were detected in leaves, petioles, stolons, roots, and dormant tubers, and transcript levels were modified in response to GA. The recombinant StRSG1-GST protein was produced and tested as a substrate for StCDPK3 and StCDPK1. 6xHisStCDPK3 was able to phosphorylate the potato StRSG1 in a Ca2+-dependent way, while 6xHisStCDPK1 could not. StCDPK3 also interacts and phosphorylates the transcription factor StABF1 (ABRE binding factor 1 involved in ABA signaling, as shown by EMSA and phosphorylation assays. StABF1 transcripts were mainly detected in roots, stems, and stolons. Our data suggest that StCDPK3 could be involved in the cross-talk between ABA and GA signaling at the onset of tuber development.

  20. Brassinosteroids modulate ABA-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yunmi; Shang, Yun; Nam, Kyoung Hee

    2016-12-01

    Stomatal movement in response to water availability is an important physiological process in the survival of land plants. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate stomatal closure. The physiological functions of ABA and BRs, including germination, cell elongation and stomatal movement, are generally known to be antagonistic. Here, we investigated how BRs affect stomatal movement alone and in combination with ABA. We demonstrate that brassinoslide (BL), the most active BR, promotes stomatal closure in an ABA-independent manner. Interestingly, BL also inhibited ABA-induced stomatal closure when a high concentration of BL was added to ABA. Furthermore, we found that the induction of some genes for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by ABA (AtrbohD, NIA1 and NIA2) and subsequent ROS production were repressed by BL treatment. The BR signaling mutant bri1-301 failed to inhibit ABA-induced stomatal closure upon BL treatment. However, BRI1-overexpressing transgenic plants were hypersensitive to ABA during stomatal closure, and BL reversed ABA-induced stomatal closure more completely than in wild type plants. Taken together, these results suggest that BRs can positively and negatively modulate ABA-induced stomatal closure. Therefore, interactions between ABA and BR signaling are important for the regulation of stomatal closure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Involvement of CmWRKY10 in Drought Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the ABA-Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Muhammad Abuzar; Song, Aiping; Faheem, Muhammad; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Liu, Chen; Fan, Qingqing; Chen, Fadi

    2016-05-11

    Drought is one of the important abiotic factors that adversely affects plant growth and production. The WRKY transcription factor plays a pivotal role in plant growth and development, as well as in the elevation of many abiotic stresses. Among three major groups of the WRKY family, the group IIe WRKY has been the least studied in floral crops. Here, we report functional aspects of group IIe WRKY member, i.e., CmWRKY10 in chrysanthemum involved in drought tolerance. The transactivation assay showed that CmWRKY10 had transcriptional activity in yeast cells and subcellular localization demonstrated that it was localized in nucleus. Our previous study showed that CmWRKY10 could be induced by drought in chrysanthemum. Moreover, the overexpression of CmWRKY10 in transgenic chrysanthemum plants improved tolerance to drought stress compared to wild-type (WT). High expression of DREB1A, DREB2A, CuZnSOD, NCED3A, and NCED3B transcripts in overexpressed plants provided strong evidence that drought tolerance mechanism was associated with abscisic acid (ABA) pathway. In addition, lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher enzymatic activity of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in CmWRKY10 overexpressed lines than that of WT demonstrates its role in drought tolerance. Together, these findings reveal that CmWRKY10 works as a positive regulator in drought stress by regulating stress-related genes.

  2. Involvement of CmWRKY10 in Drought Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the ABA-Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abuzar Jaffar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the important abiotic factors that adversely affects plant growth and production. The WRKY transcription factor plays a pivotal role in plant growth and development, as well as in the elevation of many abiotic stresses. Among three major groups of the WRKY family, the group IIe WRKY has been the least studied in floral crops. Here, we report functional aspects of group IIe WRKY member, i.e., CmWRKY10 in chrysanthemum involved in drought tolerance. The transactivation assay showed that CmWRKY10 had transcriptional activity in yeast cells and subcellular localization demonstrated that it was localized in nucleus. Our previous study showed that CmWRKY10 could be induced by drought in chrysanthemum. Moreover, the overexpression of CmWRKY10 in transgenic chrysanthemum plants improved tolerance to drought stress compared to wild-type (WT. High expression of DREB1A, DREB2A, CuZnSOD, NCED3A, and NCED3B transcripts in overexpressed plants provided strong evidence that drought tolerance mechanism was associated with abscisic acid (ABA pathway. In addition, lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and higher enzymatic activity of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in CmWRKY10 overexpressed lines than that of WT demonstrates its role in drought tolerance. Together, these findings reveal that CmWRKY10 works as a positive regulator in drought stress by regulating stress-related genes.

  3. Loss of ACS7 confers abiotic stress tolerance by modulating ABA sensitivity and accumulation in Arabidopsis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hui Dong; Zhiqin Zhen; Jinying Peng; Li Chang; Qingqiu Gong; Ning Ning Wang

    2011-01-01

    The phytohormones ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) play essential roles in the abiotic stress adaptation of plants, with both cross-talk of ethylene signalling and ABA biosynthesis and signalling reported...

  4. Modeling skull's acoustic attenuation and dispersion on photoacoustic signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, L.; Behnam, H.; Nasiriavanaki, M. R.

    2017-03-01

    Despite the great promising results of a recent new transcranial photoacoustic brain imaging technology, it has been shown that the presence of the skull severely affects the performance of this imaging modality. In this paper, we investigate the effect of skull on generated photoacoustic signals with a mathematical model. The developed model takes into account the frequency dependence attenuation and acoustic dispersion effects occur with the wave reflection and refraction at the skull surface. Numerical simulations based on the developed model are performed for calculating the propagation of photoacoustic waves through the skull. From the simulation results, it was found that the skull-induced distortion becomes very important and the reconstructed image would be strongly distorted without correcting these effects. In this regard, it is anticipated that an accurate quantification and modeling of the skull transmission effects would ultimately allow for skull aberration correction in transcranial photoacoustic brain imaging.

  5. Signal Integration by ABA in the Blue Light-Induced Acidification of Leaf Pavement Cells in Pea (Pisum sativum L. var. Argenteum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Os, Désirée; Staal, Marten; Elzenga, J Theo M

    2007-05-01

    Leaf pavement cell expansion in light depends on apoplastic acidification by a plasma membrane proton-pumping ATPase, modifying cell wall extensibility and providing the driving force for uptake of osmotically active solutes generating turgor. This paper shows that the plant hormone ABA inhibits light-induced leaf disk growth as well as the blue light-induced pavement cell growth in pea (Pisum sativum L.). In the phytochrome chromophore-deficient mutant pcd2, the effect of ABA on the blue light-induced apoplastic acidification response, which exhibits a high fluence phase via phytochrome and a low fluence phase via an unknown blue light receptor, is still present, indicating an interaction of ABA with the blue light receptor pathway. Furthermore, it is shown that ABA inhibits the blue light-induced apoplastic acidification reversibly. These results indicate that the effect of ABA on apoplastic acidification can provide a mechanism for short term, reversible adjustment of leaf growth rate to environmental change.

  6. The cotton WRKY transcription factor GhWRKY17 functions in drought and salt stress in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana through ABA signaling and the modulation of reactive oxygen species production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huiru; Jia, Haihong; Chen, Xiaobo; Hao, Lili; An, Hailong; Guo, Xingqi

    2014-12-01

    Drought and high salinity are two major environmental factors that significantly limit the productivity of agricultural crops worldwide. WRKY transcription factors play essential roles in the adaptation of plants to abiotic stresses. However, WRKY genes involved in drought and salt tolerance in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) are largely unknown. Here, a group IId WRKY gene, GhWRKY17, was isolated and characterized. GhWRKY17 was found to be induced after exposure to drought, salt, H2O2 and ABA. The constitutive expression of GhWRKY17 in Nicotiana benthamiana remarkably reduced plant tolerance to drought and salt stress, as determined through physiological analyses of the germination rate, root growth, survival rate, leaf water loss and Chl content. GhWRKY17 transgenic plants were observed to be more sensitive to ABA-mediated seed germination and root growth. However, overexpressing GhWRKY17 in N. benthamiana impaired ABA-induced stomatal closure. Furthermore, we found that GhWRKY17 modulated the increased sensitivity of plants to drought by reducing the level of ABA, and transcript levels of ABA-inducible genes, including AREB, DREB, NCED, ERD and LEA, were clearly repressed under drought and salt stress conditions. Consistent with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced proline contents and enzyme activities, elevated electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde, and lower expression of ROS-scavenging genes, including APX, CAT and SOD, the GhWRKY17 transgenic plants exhibited reduced tolerance to oxidative stress compared with wild-type plants. These results therefore indicate that GhWRKY17 responds to drought and salt stress through ABA signaling and the regulation of cellular ROS production in plants. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Mechanism of attenuation of leptin signaling under chronic ligand stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamberg-Lemper Simone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that acts via its hypothalamic receptor (LEPRb to regulate energy balance. A downstream effect essential for the weight-regulatory action of leptin is the phosphorylation and activation of the latent transcription factor STAT3 by LEPRb-associated Janus kinases (JAKs. Obesity is typically associated with chronically elevated leptin levels and a decreased ability of LEPRb to activate intracellular signal transduction pathways (leptin resistance. Here we have studied the roles of the intracellular tyrosine residues in the negative feedback regulation of LEPRb-signaling under chronic leptin stimulation. Results Mutational analysis showed that the presence of either Tyr985 and Tyr1077 in the intracellular domain of LEPRb was sufficient for the attenuation of STAT3 phosphorylation, whereas mutation of both tyrosines rendered LEPRb resistant to feedback regulation. Overexpression and RNA interference-mediated downregulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 revealed that both Tyr985 and Tyr1077 were capable of supporting the negative modulatory effect of SOCS3 in reporter gene assays. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of SOCS1 was enhanced by the presence of Tyr985 but not Tyr1077. Finally, the reduction of the STAT-phosphorylating activity of the LEPRb complex after 2 h of leptin stimulation was not accompanied by the dephosphorylation or degradation of LEPRb or the receptor-associated JAK molecule, but depended on Tyr985 and/or Tyr1077. Conclusions Both Tyr985 and Tyr1077 contribute to the negative regulation of LEPRb signaling. The inhibitory effects of SOCS1 and SOCS3 differ in the dependence on the tyrosine residues in the intracellular domain of LEPRb.

  8. H2O2 and ABA signaling are responsible for the increased Na+ efflux and water uptake in Gossypium hirsutum L. roots in the non-saline side under non-uniform root zone salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangqiang; Luo, Zhen; Dong, Hezhong; Eneji, A Egrinya; Li, Weijiang

    2016-04-01

    Non-uniform root salinity increases the Na(+)efflux, water use, and growth of the root in non-saline side, which may be regulated by some form of signaling induced by the high-salinity side. However, the signaling and its specific function have remained unknown. Using a split-root system to simulate a non-uniform root zone salinity in Gossypium hirsutum L., we showed that the up-regulated expression of sodium efflux-related genes (SOS1, SOS2, PMA1, and PMA2) and water uptake-related genes (PIP1 and PIP2) was possibly involved in the elevated Na(+) efflux and water use in the the roots in the non-saline side. The increased level of indole acetic acid (IAA) in the non-saline side was the likely cause of the increased root growth. Also, the abscisic acid (ABA) and H2O2 contents in roots in the non-saline side increased, possibly due to the increased expression of their key biosynthesis genes, NCED and RBOHC, and the decreased expression of ABA catabolic CYP707A genes. Exogenous ABA added to the non-saline side induced H2O2 generation by up-regulating the RBOHC gene, but this was decreased by exogenous fluridone. Exogenous H2O2 added to the non-saline side reduced the ABA content by down-regulating NCED genes, which can be induced by diphenylene iodonium (DPI) treatment in the non-saline side, suggesting a feedback mechanism between ABA and H2O2.Both exogenous ABA and H2O2 enhanced the expression of SOS1, PIP1;7 ,PIP2;2, and PIP2;10 genes, but these were down-regulated by fluridone and DPI, suggesting that H2O2 and ABA are important signals for increasing root Na(+) efflux and water uptake in the roots in the non-saline side. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Gladiolus hybridus ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (GhABI5) is an important transcription factor in ABA signaling that can enhance Gladiolus corm dormancy and Arabidopsis seed dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Sui, Juanjuan; Vonapartis, Eliana; Luo, Xian; Gong, Benhe; Liu, Chen; Wu, Chenyu; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and is crucial for abiotic stress response. In this study, cold storage contributes to reducing endogenous ABA content, resulting in dormancy breaking of Gladiolus. The ABA inhibitor fluridone also promotes germination, suggesting that ABA is an important hormone that regulates corm dormancy. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the Gladiolus ABI5 homolog (GhABI5), which is a basic leucine zipper motif transcriptional factor (TF). GhABI5 is expressed in dormant vegetative organs (corm, cormel, and stolon) as well as in reproductive organs (stamen), and it is up-regulated by ABA or drought. Complementation analysis reveals that GhABI5 rescues the ABA insensitivity of abi5-3 during seed germination and induces the expression of downstream ABA response genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (EM1, EM6, and RD29B). Down-regulation of GhABI5 in dormant cormels via virus induced gene silence promotes sprouting and reduces the expression of downstream genes (GhLEA and GhRD29B). The results of this study reveal that GhABI5 regulates bud dormancy (vegetative organ) in Gladiolus in addition to its well-studied function in Arabidopsis seeds (reproductive organ).

  10. Interaction network of ABA receptors in grey poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacek, Michael; Christmann, Alexander; Grill, Erwin

    2017-10-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a key player in responses to abiotic stress. ABA regulates a plant's water status and mediates drought tolerance by controlling stomatal gas exchange, water conductance and differential gene expression. ABA is recognized and bound by the Regulatory Component of ABA Receptors (RCARs)/PYR1/PYL (Pyrabactin Resistance 1/PYR1-like). Ligand binding stabilizes the interaction of RCARs with type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2C), which are ABA co-receptors. While the core pathway of ABA signalling has been elucidated, the large number of different ABA receptors and co-receptors within a plant species generates a complexity of heteromeric receptor complexes that has not functionally been resolved in any plant species to date. In this study, we characterized ABA receptors and co-receptors of grey poplar (Populus x canescens [Ait.] Sm.) and their capacity to regulate ABA responses. We observed a high number of regulatory combinations of holo-receptor complexes, but also some preferential and selective RCAR-PP2C interactions. Poplar and Arabidopsis ABA receptor components revealed a strong structural and functional conservation. Heterologous receptor complexes of poplar and Arabidopsis components showed functionality in vitro and regulated ABA-responsive gene expression in cells of both species. ABA-responsive promoters of Arabidopsis were also active in poplar, which was explored to generate poplar reporter lines expressing green fluorescent protein in response to ABA. The study presents a detailed analysis of receptor complexes of a tree species and shows high conservation of ABA receptor components between an annual and a perennial plant. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Influence of attenuation on acoustic emission signals in carbon fiber reinforced polymer panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamene, Kassahun; Hudson, Larry; Sundaresan, Mannur

    2015-05-01

    Influence of attenuation on acoustic emission (AE) signals in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) crossply and quasi-isotropic panels is examined in this paper. Attenuation coefficients of the fundamental antisymmetric (A0) and symmetric (S0) wave modes were determined experimentally along different directions for the two types of CFRP panels. In the frequency range from 100 kHz to 500 kHz, the A0 mode undergoes significantly greater changes due to material related attenuation compared to the S0 mode. Moderate to strong changes in the attenuation levels were noted with propagation directions. Such mode and frequency dependent attenuation introduces major changes in the characteristics of AE signals depending on the position of the AE sensor relative to the source. Results from finite element simulations of a microscopic damage event in the composite laminates are used to illustrate attenuation related changes in modal and frequency components of AE signals. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Seed dormancy and ABA metabolism in Arabidopsis and barley: the role of ABA 8'-hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Anthony A; Jacobsen, John V; Ross, John J; Helliwell, Chris A; Poole, Andrew T; Scofield, Graham; Reid, James B; Gubler, Frank

    2006-03-01

    We have investigated the relationship between seed dormancy and abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism in the monocot barley and the dicot Arabidopsis. Whether dormant (D) or non-dormant (ND), dry seed of Arabidopsis and embryos of dry barley grains all had similarly high levels of ABA. ABA levels decreased rapidly upon imbibition, although they fell further in ND than in D. Gene expression profiles were determined in Arabidopsis for key ABA biosynthetic [the 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenasegene family] and ABA catabolic [the ABA 8'-hydroxylase gene family (CYP707A)] genes. Of these, only the AtCYP707A2 gene was differentially expressed between D and ND seeds, being expressed to a much higher level in ND seeds. Similarly, a barley CYP707 homologue, (HvABA8'OH-1) was expressed to a much higher level in embryos from ND grains than from D grains. Consistent with this, in situ hybridization studies showed HvABA8'OH-1 mRNA expression was stronger in embryos from ND grains. Surprisingly, the signal was confined in the coleorhiza, suggesting that this tissue plays a key role in dormancy release. Constitutive expression of a CYP707A gene in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in decreased ABA content in mature dry seeds and a much shorter after-ripening period to overcome dormancy. Conversely, mutating the CYP707A2 gene resulted in seeds that required longer after-ripening to break dormancy. Our results point to a pivotal role for the ABA 8'-hydroxylase gene in controlling dormancy and that the action of this enzyme may be confined to a particular organ as in the coleorhiza of cereals.

  13. The Pepper WPP Domain Protein, CaWDP1, Acts as a Novel Negative Regulator of Drought Stress via ABA Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chanmi; Lim, Woo Chae; Baek, Woonhee; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lim, Sohee; Kim, Hyon Sang; Kim, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Chul Sung

    2017-04-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by various environmental stresses, including high salinity and drought, and they have evolved defense mechanisms to counteract the deleterious effects of these stresses. The plant hormone ABA regulates plant growth and developmental processes and mediates abiotic stress responses. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a novel CaWDP1 (Capsicum annuum) protein. The expression of CaWDP1 in pepper leaves was induced by ABA, drought and NaCl treatments, suggesting its role in the abiotic stress response. CaWDP1 proteins show conserved sequence homology with other known WDP1 proteins, and they are localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm. We generated CaWDP1-silenced peppers via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). We evaluated the responses of these CaWDP1-silenced pepper plants and CaWDP1-overexpressing (OX) transgenic Arabidopsis plants to ABA and drought. CaWDP1-silenced pepper plants displayed enhanced tolerance to drought stress, and this was characterized by low levels of leaf water loss in the drought-treated leaves. In contrast to CaWDP1-silenced plants, CaWDP1-OX plants exhibited an ABA-hyposensitive and drought-susceptible phenotype, which was accompanied by high levels of leaf water loss, low leaf temperatures, increased stomatal pore size and low expression levels of stress-responsive genes. Our results indicate that CaWDP1, a novel pepper negative regulator of ABA, regulates the ABA-mediated defense response to drought stress. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Root-to-shoot ABA signaling does not contribute to genotypic variation in stomatal functioning induced by high relative air humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, Dália R.A.; Fanourakis, D.; Correia, M.J.; Monteiro, J.A.; Araújo-Alves, J.P.L.; Vasconcelos, M.W.; Almeida, D.P.F.; Heuvelink, E.; Pinto de Carvalho, S.

    2016-01-01

    High relative air humidity (RH ≥85%) during leaf expansion hampers stomatal responsiveness to closing stimuli, a genotype-dependent effect. Genotypes with reduced stomatal closure in response to closing stimuli (i.e., sensitive genotypes) show low bulk leaf abscisic acid concentration ([ABA]). We

  15. ABA and cytokinins: challenge and opportunity for plant stress research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verslues, Paul E

    2016-08-01

    Accumulation of the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) induces many cellular mechanisms associated with drought resistance. Recent years have seen a rapid advance in our knowledge of how increased ABA levels are perceived by ABA receptors, particularly the PYL/RCAR receptors, but there has been relatively less new information about how ABA accumulation is controlled and matched to stress severity. ABA synthesis and catabolism, conjugation and deconjugation to glucose, and ABA transport all are involved in controlling ABA levels. This highly buffered system of ABA metabolism represents both a challenge and opportunity in developing a mechanistic understanding of how plants detect and respond to drought. Recent data have also shown that direct manipulation of cytokinin levels in transgenic plants has dramatic effect on drought phenotypes and prompted new interest in the role of cytokinins and cytokinin signaling in drought. Both ABA and cytokinins will continue to be major foci of drought research but likely with different trajectories both in terms of basic research and in translational research aimed at increasing plant performance during drought.

  16. Identification and Characterization of ABA Receptors in Oryza sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan; Hao, Qi; Li, Wenqi; Yan, Chuangye

    2014-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential phytohormone that regulates plant stress responses. ABA receptors in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPYLs) have been extensively investigated by structural, biochemical, and in vivo studies. In contrast, relatively little is known about the ABA signal transduction cascade in rice. Besides, the diversities of AtPYLs manifest that the information accumulated in Arabidopsis cannot be simply adapted to rice. Thus, studies on rice ABA receptors are compulsory. By taking a bioinformatic approach, we identified twelve ABA receptor orthologs in Oryza sativa (japonica cultivar-group) (OsPYLs), named OsPYL1–12. We have successfully expressed and purified OsPYL1–3, 6 and 10–12 to homogeneity, tested the inhibitory effects on PP2C in Oryza sativa (OsPP2C), and measured their oligomerization states. OsPYL1–3 mainly exhibit as dimers and require ABA to inhibit PP2C’s activity. On the contrary, OsPYL6 retains in the monomer-dimer equilibrium state and OsPYL10–11 largely exist as monomers, and they all display an ABA-independent phosphatase inhibition manner. Interestingly, although OsPYL12 seems to be a dimer, it abrogates the phosphatase activity of PP2Cs in the absence of ABA. Toward a further understanding of OsPYLs on the ABA binding and PP2C inhibition, we determined the crystal structure of ABA-OsPYL2-OsPP2C06 complex. The bioinformatic, biochemical and structural analysis of ABA receptors in rice provide important foundations for designing rational ABA-analogues and breeding the stress-resistant rice for commercial agriculture. PMID:24743650

  17. Multiple impacts of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2 on nutrient and ABA relations of Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; Chen, Lin; Belimov, Andrey A; Shaposhnikov, Alexander I; Gong, Fan; Meng, Xu; Hartung, Wolfram; Jeschke, Dieter W; Davies, William J; Dodd, Ian C

    2012-11-01

    Resolving the physiological mechanisms by which rhizobacteria enhance plant growth is difficult, since many such bacteria contain multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To understand further how the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (ACCd)-containing rhizobacterium Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2 affects plant growth, the flows and partitioning of mineral nutrients and abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolism were studied in pea (Pisum sativum) plants following rhizosphere bacterial inoculation. Although root architecture was not affected, inoculation increased root and shoot biomass, and stomatal conductance, by 20, 15, and 24%, respectively, and increased N, P, K, Ca, and Mg uptake by 16, 81, 50, 46, and 58%, respectively. P deposition in inoculated plant roots was 4.9 times higher than that in uninoculated controls. Rhizobacterial inoculation increased root to shoot xylem flows and shoot to root phloem flows of K by 1.8- and 2.1-fold, respectively. In control plants, major sinks for K deposition were the roots and upper shoot (43% and 49% of total uptake, respectively), while rhizobacterial inoculation increased K distribution to the lower shoot at the expense of other compartments (xylem, phloem, and upper shoot). Despite being unable to metabolize ABA in vitro, V. paradoxus 5C-2 decreased root ABA concentrations and accumulation by 40-60%. Although inoculation decreased xylem ABA flows, phloem ABA flows increased. Whether bacterial ACCd attenuates root to shoot ABA signalling requires further investigation, since ABA is critical to maintain growth of droughted plants, and ACCd-containing organisms have been advocated as a means of minimizing growth inhibition of plants in drying soil.

  18. OsASR5 enhances drought tolerance through a stomatal closure pathway associated with ABA and H2 O2 signalling in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinjie; Li, Yang; Yin, Zhigang; Jiang, Jihong; Zhang, Minghui; Guo, Xiao; Ye, Zhujia; Zhao, Yan; Xiong, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhanying; Shao, Yujie; Jiang, Conghui; Zhang, Hongliang; An, Gynheung; Paek, Nam-Chon; Ali, Jauhar; Li, Zichao

    2017-02-01

    Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses that directly implicate plant growth and crop productivity. Although many genes in response to drought stress have been identified, genetic improvement to drought resistance especially in food crops is showing relatively slow progress worldwide. Here, we reported the isolation of abscisic acid, stress and ripening (ASR) genes from upland rice variety, IRAT109 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica), and demonstrated that overexpression of OsASR5 enhanced osmotic tolerance in Escherichia coli and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis and rice by regulating leaf water status under drought stress conditions. Moreover, overexpression of OsASR5 in rice increased endogenous ABA level and showed hypersensitive to exogenous ABA treatment at both germination and postgermination stages. The production of H2 O2 , a second messenger for the induction of stomatal closure in response to ABA, was activated in overexpression plants under drought stress conditions, consequently, increased stomatal closure and decreased stomatal conductance. In contrast, the loss-of-function mutant, osasr5, showed sensitivity to drought stress with lower relative water content under drought stress conditions. Further studies demonstrated that OsASR5 functioned as chaperone-like protein and interacted with stress-related HSP40 and 2OG-Fe (II) oxygenase domain containing proteins in yeast and plants. Taken together, we suggest that OsASR5 plays multiple roles in response to drought stress by regulating ABA biosynthesis, promoting stomatal closure, as well as acting as chaperone-like protein that possibly prevents drought stress-related proteins from inactivation. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. ABA inducible rice protein phosphatase 2C confers ABA insensitivity and abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjeet Singh

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis PP2C belonging to group A have been extensively worked out and known to negatively regulate ABA signaling. However, rice (Oryza sativa orthologs of Arabidopsis group A PP2C are scarcely characterized functionally. We have identified a group A PP2C from rice (OsPP108, which is highly inducible under ABA, salt and drought stresses and localized predominantly in the nucleus. Genetic analysis revealed that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsPP108 are highly insensitive to ABA and tolerant to high salt and mannitol stresses during seed germination, root growth and overall seedling growth. At adult stage, OsPP108 overexpression leads to high tolerance to salt, mannitol and drought stresses with far better physiological parameters such as water loss, fresh weight, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic potential (Fv/Fm in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression profile of various stress marker genes in OsPP108 overexpressing plants revealed interplay of ABA dependent and independent pathway for abiotic stress tolerance. Overall, this study has identified a potential rice group A PP2C, which regulates ABA signaling negatively and abiotic stress signaling positively. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing this gene might provide an answer to the problem of low crop yield and productivity during adverse environmental conditions.

  20. The role of NMDA receptors in the signal attenuation rat model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albelda, Noa; Bar-On, Nitza; Joel, Daphna

    2010-05-01

    In recent years, an increasing body of evidence points to the involvement of the glutamatergic system and specifically the glutamatergic ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). To test the role of NMDA receptors in compulsive behavior using the signal attenuation rat model of OCD. In this model, 'compulsive' behavior is induced by attenuating a signal indicating that a lever-press response was effective in producing food. The NMDA antagonist, MK 801 (0.025-0.100 mg/kg) and the partial NMDA agonist, D-cycloserine (3-100 mg/kg) were administered to rats just before assessing their lever-press responding following signal attenuation (Experiments 1 and 2, respectively). Because the effects of signal attenuation are assessed under extinction conditions, drug doses that were effective in Experiments 1 and 2 were also tested in an extinction session of lever-press responding that was not preceded by signal attenuation (Experiment 3). Systemic administration of D: -cycloserine (15 mg/kg) selectively decreased compulsive lever pressing, whereas systemic administration of MK 801 did not affect compulsive lever-pressing but dramatically increased resistance to extinction. Activation of NMDA receptors may have an anti-compulsive effect in OCD patients.

  1. Signal preserving and seismic random noise attenuation by Hurst exponent based time-frequency peak filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Li, Yue; Lin, Hongbo; Yang, Baojun

    2015-11-01

    Attenuating random noise is of great significance in seismic data processing. In recent years, time-frequency peak filtering (TFPF) has been successfully applied to seismic random noise attenuation field. However, a fixed window length (WL) is used in the conventional TFPF. Since a short WL in the TFPF is used to preserve signals while a long WL can eliminate random noise effectively, signal preserving and noise attenuation cannot be balanced by a fixed WL especially when the signal-to-noise ratio of the noisy seismic record is low. Thus, we need to divide a noisy signal into signal and noise segments before the filtering. Then a short WL is used to the signal segments to preserve signals and a long WL is chosen for noise segments to eliminate random noise. In this paper, we test the smoothness of signals and random noise in time using the Hurst exponent which is a statistic for representing smoothness characteristics of signals. The time-series of signals with higher smoothness which lead to larger Hurst exponent values, however random noise is a random series in time without fixed waveforms and thus its smoothness is low, so the signal and noise segments can be divided by the Hurst exponent values. After the segmentation, we can adopt different filtering WLs in the TFPF for different segments to make a trade-off between signal preserving and random noise attenuation. Synthetic and real data experiments demonstrate that the proposed method can remove random noise from seismic record and preserve reflection events effectively.

  2. Attenuation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ signaling restrains autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Mhairi J; Tsantikos, Evelyn; Kong, Anne M; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart; Tarlinton, David M; Hibbs, Margaret L

    2012-06-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies against nuclear components. Lyn-deficient mice are an excellent animal model of SLE manifesting clinical, pathological and biochemical features seen in the human disease. They develop autoreactive antibodies, glomerulonephritis and show generalized inflammation, and their B cells have a hyperactive phenotype. Since loss of Lyn confers hyper-activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, we studied the effect of down-modulating PI3K in Lyn-deficient mice. We found that heterozygous inactivation of the p110δ isoform of PI3K was sufficient to restrain disease in Lyn-deficient mice, leading to significantly decreased autoantibody development and autoimmune-mediated kidney pathology, and improved survival. Intriguingly, haploinsufficiency of p110δ did not dampen signaling in Lyn-deficient B cells. However, plasma cell numbers, serum immunoglobulin titers, inflammation and T cell signaling and activation were significantly moderated in Lyn(-/-)p110δ(+/KD) mice. Importantly, we have shown that haploinsufficiency of p110δ has minor effects on the B cell compartment per se but leads to significant defects in T cell activation and B cell class-switching. These studies suggest that agents targeting p110δ PI3K need not achieve full blockade of the enzyme to be of great benefit in the treatment of SLE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardiac Effects of Attenuating Gsα - Dependent Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus R Streit

    Full Text Available Inhibition of β-adrenergic signalling plays a key role in treatment of heart failure. Gsα is essential for β-adrenergic signal transduction. In order to reduce side-effects of beta-adrenergic inhibition diminishing β-adrenergic signalling in the heart at the level of Gsα is a promising option.We analyzed the influence of Gsα on regulation of myocardial function and development of cardiac hypertrophy, using a transgenic mouse model (C57BL6/J mice overexpressing a dominant negative Gsα-mutant under control of the α-MHC-promotor. Cardiac phenotype was characterized in vivo and in vitro and under acute and chronic β-adrenergic stimulation. At rest, Gsα-DN-mice showed bradycardia (602 ± 13 vs. 660 ± 17 bpm, p<0.05 and decreased dp/dtmax (5037 ± 546- vs. 6835 ± 505 mmHg/s, p = 0.02. No significant differences were found regarding ejection fraction, heart weight and cardiomyocyte size. β-blockade by propranolol revealed no baseline differences of hemodynamic parameters between wildtype and Gsα-DN-mice. Acute adrenergic stimulation resulted in decreased β-adrenergic responsiveness in Gsα-DN-mice. Under chronic adrenergic stimulation, wildtype mice developed myocardial hypertrophy associated with increase of LV/BW-ratio by 23% (4.4 ± 0.2 vs. 3.5 ± 0.1 mg/g, p<0.01 and cardiac myocyte size by 24% (14927 ± 442 px vs. 12013 ± 583 px, p<0.001. In contrast, both parameters were unchanged in Gsα-DN-mice after chronic isoproterenol stimulation.Overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of Gsα leads to decreased β-adrenergic responsiveness and is protective against isoproterenol-induced hypertrophy. Thus, Gsα-DN-mice provide novel insights into β-adrenergic signal transduction and its modulation in myocardial overload and failure.

  4. A role for ABA in the plants response to chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Americo Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a biopolymer of glucosamine residue that can be produced by deacetylation of chitin present in seafood wastes such as shrimp or crab shell. Chitosan and its derivatives are nontoxic and biodegradable, and have been used in applications like cosmetics, medicine or agriculture. When used to enhance plant defenses, chitosan induces host defense responses in both monocotyledons and dicotyledons. These responses include lignification, chitinase and glucanase activation, phytoalexin biosynthesis, among others (El Hadrami et al., 2010. Reduction of plant leaves transpiration due to stomatal closure without affecting the photosynthetic rate or production yields has also been described in plants treated with chitosan. This effect was observed in different plants like bean (Phaseolus vulgaris(Khokon et al., 2010, pepper (Capsicum sp(Bittelli et al., 2001 or barley (Hordeum vulgare (Koers et al., 2011 among others. Abscisic acid (ABA plays a crucial role in the regulation of stomata aperture (Kim et al., 2010 but the role of this phytohormone in the chitosan induced stomatal closure is not clearly understood. Chitosan treatment of bean leaves triggers a 3 times increase in ABA content indicating an involvement of ABA in chitosan induced stomatal closure (Iriti et al., 2009. However, in Arabidopsis, aba2-2 mutants and wild type plants treated with an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor presented chitosan induced stomatal closure similar to wild type untreated plants suggesting that endogenous ABA is not required for this effect (Issak et al., 2013. The involvement of ABA in this process is also suggested by the observation that chitosan and ABA have convergent signaling components, like calcium and reactive oxygen species (Srivastava et al., 2009. The aim of this work is to better understand the role of ABA in chitosan induced stomatal closure, leading to a reduction of transpiration and concomitantly to higher water-use efficiency, using molecular and

  5. Soil Moisture Retrieval Based on GPS Signal Strength Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Koch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture (SM is a highly relevant variable for agriculture, the emergence of floods and a key variable in the global energy and water cycle. In the last years, several satellite missions have been launched especially to derive large-scale products of the SM dynamics on the Earth. However, in situ validation data are often scarce. We developed a new method to retrieve SM of bare soil from measurements of low-cost GPS (Global Positioning System sensors that receive the freely available GPS L1-band signals. The experimental setup of three GPS sensors was installed at a bare soil field at the German Weather Service (DWD in Munich for almost 1.5 years. Two GPS antennas were installed within the soil column at a depth of 10 cm and one above the soil. SM was successfully retrieved based on GPS signal strength losses through the integral soil volume. The results show high agreement with measured and modelled SM validation data. Due to its non-destructive, cheap and low power setup, GPS sensor networks could also be used for potential applications in remote areas, aiming to serve as satellite validation data and to support the fields of agriculture, water supply, flood forecasting and climate change.

  6. VSV infection is sensed by Drosophila, attenuates nutrient signaling, and thereby activates antiviral autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Sara

    2009-10-01

    Innate immune mechanisms are the first line of defense against pathogens including viruses. This work identifies autophagy, an innate intracellular degradative pathway, as antiviral against Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) in Drosophila. VSV is sensed by cells via the surface glycoprotein leading to the attenuation of the nutrient signaling pathway thereby activating an antiviral autophagic program.

  7. Acetyl salicylic acid attenuates cardiac hypertrophy through Wnt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitau, Samuel Chege; Li, Xuelian; Zhao, Dandan; Guo, Zhenfeng; Liang, Haihai; Qian, Ming; Lv, Lifang; Li, Tianshi; Xu, Bozhi; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Chaoqian; Lu, Yanjie; Du, Zhiming; Shan, Hongli; Yang, Baofeng

    2015-12-01

    Ventricular hypertrophy is a powerful and independent predictor of cardiovascular morbid events. The vascular properties of low-dose acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) provide cardiovascular benefits through the irreversible inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase 1; however, the possible anti-hypertrophic properties and potential mechanism of aspirin have not been investigated in detail. In this study, healthy wild-type male mice were randomly divided into three groups and subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham operation. The TAC-operated mice were treated with the human equivalent of low-dose aspirin (10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)); the remaining mice received an equal amount of phosphate buffered saline with 0.65% ethanol, which was used as a vehicle. A cardiomyocyte hypertrophy model induced by angiotensin II (10 nmol·L(-1)) was treated with the human equivalent of low (10 or 100 μmol·L(-1)) and high (1000 μmol·L(-1)) aspirin concentrations in plasma. Changes in the cardiac structure and function were assessed through echocardiography and transmission electron microscopy. Gene expression was determined through RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Results indicated that aspirin treatment abrogated the increased thickness of the left ventricular anterior and posterior walls, the swelling of mitochondria, and the increased surface area in in vivo and in vitro hypertrophy models. Aspirin also normalized the upregulated hypertrophic biomarkers, β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Aspirin efficiently reversed the upregulation of β-catenin and P-Akt expression and the TAC- or ANG II-induced downregulation of GSK-3β. Therefore, low-dose aspirin possesses significant anti-hypertrophic properties at clinically relevant concentrations for anti-thrombotic therapy. The downregulation of β-catenin and Akt may be the underlying signaling mechanism of the effects of aspirin.

  8. Toll-like receptor 4 signalling attenuates experimental allergic conjunctivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S-H; Choi, S H; Cho, K J; Joo, C-K

    2011-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis from an allergen-driven T helper type 2 (Th2) response is characterized by conjunctival eosinophilic infiltration. Association between signalling through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and adaptive immune responses has been observed in allergic airway disease. We examined whether administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a prototypic bacterial product that activates immune cells via TLR-4, could affect the development of allergic conjunctivitis and modify the immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) allergen in an experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) model. Mice were challenged with two doses of OVA via conjunctival sac after systemic challenge with OVA in alum. Several indicators for allergy were evaluated in wild-type and TLR-4−/− mice with or without adding of different doses of LPS into OVA in alum. Mice challenged with OVA via conjunctival sac following systemic challenge with OVA in alum had severe allergic conjunctivitis. Of interest, LPS administration markedly suppressed immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated and eosinophil-dependent conjunctival inflammation. In addition, mice sensitized with OVA plus LPS had less interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and eotaxin secretion than mice sensitized with OVA only. The suppression of allergic response by LPS administration was due to Th1 shift. In contrast, the presence of LPS during sensitization with OVA had no effect on severity of allergic conjunctivitis and Th2 responses in TLR4-4−/− mice. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that LPS suppresses Th2 responses via the TLR-4-dependent pathway in the EAC model. PMID:21391988

  9. New ABA-Hypersensitive Arabidopsis Mutants Are Affected in Loci Mediating Responses to Water Deficit and Dickeya dadantii Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessis, Anne; Cournol, Raphaël; Effroy, Delphine; Silva Pérez, Viridiana; Botran, Lucy; Kraepiel, Yvan; Frey, Anne; Sotta, Bruno; Cornic, Gabriel; Leung, Jeffrey; Giraudat, Jérôme; Marion-Poll, Annie; North, Helen M.

    2011-01-01

    On water deficit, abscisic acid (ABA) induces stomata closure to reduce water loss by transpiration. To identify Arabidopsis thaliana mutants which transpire less on drought, infrared thermal imaging of leaf temperature has been used to screen for suppressors of an ABA-deficient mutant (aba3-1) cold-leaf phenotype. Three novel mutants, called hot ABA-deficiency suppressor (has), have been identified with hot-leaf phenotypes in the absence of the aba3 mutation. The defective genes imparted no apparent modification to ABA production on water deficit, were inherited recessively and enhanced ABA responses indicating that the proteins encoded are negative regulators of ABA signalling. All three mutants showed ABA-hypersensitive stomata closure and inhibition of root elongation with little modification of growth and development in non-stressed conditions. The has2 mutant also exhibited increased germination inhibition by ABA, while ABA-inducible gene expression was not modified on dehydration, indicating the mutated gene affects early ABA-signalling responses that do not modify transcript levels. In contrast, weak ABA-hypersensitivity relative to mutant developmental phenotypes suggests that HAS3 regulates drought responses by both ABA-dependent and independent pathways. has1 mutant phenotypes were only apparent on stress or ABA treatments, and included reduced water loss on rapid dehydration. The HAS1 locus thus has the required characteristics for a targeted approach to improving resistance to water deficit. In contrast to has2, has1 exhibited only minor changes in susceptibility to Dickeya dadantii despite similar ABA-hypersensitivity, indicating that crosstalk between ABA responses to this pathogen and drought stress can occur through more than one point in the signalling pathway. PMID:21633512

  10. Blue light-induced apoplastic acidification of Arabidopsis thaliana guard cells : Inhibition by ABA is mediated through protein phosphatases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, MRG; Staal, M; Prins, HBA

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits blue light-induced apoplastic acidification of guard cells. The signal transduction pathway of ABA, mediating this response, was studied using ABA-insensitive (abi) mutants of Arapidopsis thaliana. Apoplastic acidification was monitored with a flat

  11. Attenuation compensation of GPR signal based on generalized S-transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shufan; Zhao, Yonghui; Qin, Tan; An, Cong

    2017-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR), as a nondestructive technique, has been widely used in civil engineering. Due to the complexity of the engineering conditions and attenuation of the GPR signal with depth, the radargram contained deep information usually shows a low resolution and S/N ratio. It might be one of the most difficult problems to GPR data interpretation, which limits the further application of the GPR method in civil engineering. The traditional way, such as a manual or automatic gain technique, was commonly used to enhance the weak GPR signal of deep target. However, due to the non-stationary of GPR signal, only the energy compensation in time or frequency domain may be not appropriate while using the manual or automatic gain methods. In this sense, neither the automatic gain compensation nor the other gain method seem likely difficult to obtain better results. In fact, it's not reasonable to separate the information in time and frequency domain from GPR data. The S-transform is a time-frequency analysis technique, which makes it possible for analyzing the GPR signal in time and frequency domain simultaneously. In addition, use S-transform to GPR data can preserve the original information in a wide frequency range. Here, we proposed a generalized S-transform based on exponential function and used it to the attenuation compensation of GPR signal. Firstly, the GPR data were transform to time-frequency domain using generalized S-transform trace by trace. Then the high-frequency component will be weighted at each time sample according to the attenuation ratio of low-frequency component. In this way the spectrum difference of each frequency component between late and early sampling time have the same ratio factor, which greatly compensates the attenuation of high-frequency component. Finally, the well compensated GPR data were obtained by inverse S-transform. Synthetic and real GPR data were used to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of the ABA-specific glucosyltransferase gene from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Chung, Gyuhwa; Kim, Sang Hyon; Yang, Seung Hwan

    2015-04-15

    Levels of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) are maintained in homeostasis by a balance of its biosynthesis, catabolism and conjugation. The detailed molecular and signaling events leading to strict homeostasis are not completely understood in crop plants. In this study, we obtained cDNA of an ABA-inducible, ABA-specific UDP-glucosyltransferase (ABAGT) from the bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) involved in conjugation of a glucose residue to ABA to form inactive ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE) to examine its role during development and abiotic stress in bean. The bacterially expressed PvABAGTase enzyme showed ABA-specific glucosylation activity in vitro. A higher level of the PvABAGT transcript was observed in mature leaves, mature flowers, roots, seed coats and embryos as well as upon rehydration following a period of dehydration. Overexpression of 35S::PvABAGT in Arabidopsis showed reduced sensitivity to ABA compared with WT. The transgenic plants showed a high level of ABA-GE without significant decrease in the level of ABA compared with the wild type (WT) during dehydration stress. Upon rehydration, the levels of ABA and phaseic acid (PA) decreased in the WT and the PvABAGT-overexpressing lines with high levels of ABA-GE only in the transgenic plants. Our findings suggest that the PvABAGT gene could play a role in ABA homeostasis during development and stress responses in bean and its overexpression in Arabidopsis did not alter ABA homeostasis during dehydration stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification and characterization of an ABA-activated MAP kinase cascade in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Danquah, Agyemang

    2015-04-01

    Summary Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major phytohormone involved in important stress-related and developmental plant processes. Recent phosphoproteomic analyses revealed a large set of ABA-triggered phosphoproteins as putative mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) targets, although the evidence for MAPKs involved in ABA signalling is still scarce. Here, we identified and reconstituted in vivo a complete ABA-activated MAPK cascade, composed of the MAP3Ks MAP3K17/18, the MAP2K MKK3 and the four C group MAPKs MPK1/2/7/14. In planta, we show that ABA activation of MPK7 is blocked in mkk3-1 and map3k17mapk3k18 plants. Coherently, both mutants exhibit hypersensitivity to ABA and altered expression of a set of ABA-dependent genes. A genetic analysis further reveals that this MAPK cascade is activated by the PYR/PYL/RCAR-SnRK2-PP2C ABA core signalling module through protein synthesis of the MAP3Ks, unveiling an atypical mechanism for MAPK activation in eukaryotes. Our work provides evidence for a role of an ABA-induced MAPK pathway in plant stress signalling. Significance Statement We report in this article the identification of a complete MAPK module, composed of MAP3K17/18, MKK3 and MPK1/2/7/14, which is activated by ABA through the ABA core signalling complex. We showed that the activation of this module requires the MAP3K protein synthesis which occurs after hours of stress treatment, suggesting that the pathway is involved in a delayed wave of cellular responses to ABA and drought. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. ABA crosstalk with ethylene and nitric oxide in seed dormancy and germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arc, Erwann; Sechet, Julien; Corbineau, Françoise; Rajjou, Loïc; Marion-Poll, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Dormancy is an adaptive trait that enables seed germination to coincide with favorable environmental conditions. It has been clearly demonstrated that dormancy is induced by abscisic acid (ABA) during seed development on the mother plant. After seed dispersal, germination is preceded by a decline in ABA in imbibed seeds, which results from ABA catabolism through 8′-hydroxylation. The hormonal balance between ABA and gibberellins (GAs) has been shown to act as an integrator of environmental cues to maintain dormancy or activate germination. The interplay of ABA with other endogenous signals is however less documented. In numerous species, ethylene counteracts ABA signaling pathways and induces germination. In Brassicaceae seeds, ethylene prevents the inhibitory effects of ABA on endosperm cap weakening, thereby facilitating endosperm rupture and radicle emergence. Moreover, enhanced seed dormancy in Arabidopsis ethylene-insensitive mutants results from greater ABA sensitivity. Conversely, ABA limits ethylene action by down-regulating its biosynthesis. Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as a common actor in the ABA and ethylene crosstalk in seed. Indeed, convergent evidence indicates that NO is produced rapidly after seed imbibition and promotes germination by inducing the expression of the ABA 8′-hydroxylase gene, CYP707A2, and stimulating ethylene production. The role of NO and other nitrogen-containing compounds, such as nitrate, in seed dormancy breakage and germination stimulation has been reported in several species. This review will describe our current knowledge of ABA crosstalk with ethylene and NO, both volatile compounds that have been shown to counteract ABA action in seeds and to improve dormancy release and germination. PMID:23531630

  15. Common and unique elements of the ABA-regulated transcriptome of Arabidopsis guard cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zhixin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the presence of drought and other desiccating stresses, plants synthesize and redistribute the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA. ABA promotes plant water conservation by acting on specialized cells in the leaf epidermis, guard cells, which border and regulate the apertures of stomatal pores through which transpirational water loss occurs. Following ABA exposure, solute uptake into guard cells is rapidly inhibited and solute loss is promoted, resulting in inhibition of stomatal opening and promotion of stomatal closure, with consequent plant water conservation. There is a wealth of information on the guard cell signaling mechanisms underlying these rapid ABA responses. To investigate ABA regulation of gene expression in guard cells in a systematic genome-wide manner, we analyzed data from global transcriptomes of guard cells generated with Affymetrix ATH1 microarrays, and compared these results to ABA regulation of gene expression in leaves and other tissues. Results The 1173 ABA-regulated genes of guard cells identified by our study share significant overlap with ABA-regulated genes of other tissues, and are associated with well-defined ABA-related promoter motifs such as ABREs and DREs. However, we also computationally identified a unique cis-acting motif, GTCGG, associated with ABA-induction of gene expression specifically in guard cells. In addition, approximately 300 genes showing ABA-regulation unique to this cell type were newly uncovered by our study. Within the ABA-regulated gene set of guard cells, we found that many of the genes known to encode ion transporters associated with stomatal opening are down-regulated by ABA, providing one mechanism for long-term maintenance of stomatal closure during drought. We also found examples of both negative and positive feedback in the transcriptional regulation by ABA of known ABA-signaling genes, particularly with regard to the PYR/PYL/RCAR class of soluble ABA receptors and

  16. Common and unique elements of the ABA-regulated transcriptome of Arabidopsis guard cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In the presence of drought and other desiccating stresses, plants synthesize and redistribute the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). ABA promotes plant water conservation by acting on specialized cells in the leaf epidermis, guard cells, which border and regulate the apertures of stomatal pores through which transpirational water loss occurs. Following ABA exposure, solute uptake into guard cells is rapidly inhibited and solute loss is promoted, resulting in inhibition of stomatal opening and promotion of stomatal closure, with consequent plant water conservation. There is a wealth of information on the guard cell signaling mechanisms underlying these rapid ABA responses. To investigate ABA regulation of gene expression in guard cells in a systematic genome-wide manner, we analyzed data from global transcriptomes of guard cells generated with Affymetrix ATH1 microarrays, and compared these results to ABA regulation of gene expression in leaves and other tissues. Results The 1173 ABA-regulated genes of guard cells identified by our study share significant overlap with ABA-regulated genes of other tissues, and are associated with well-defined ABA-related promoter motifs such as ABREs and DREs. However, we also computationally identified a unique cis-acting motif, GTCGG, associated with ABA-induction of gene expression specifically in guard cells. In addition, approximately 300 genes showing ABA-regulation unique to this cell type were newly uncovered by our study. Within the ABA-regulated gene set of guard cells, we found that many of the genes known to encode ion transporters associated with stomatal opening are down-regulated by ABA, providing one mechanism for long-term maintenance of stomatal closure during drought. We also found examples of both negative and positive feedback in the transcriptional regulation by ABA of known ABA-signaling genes, particularly with regard to the PYR/PYL/RCAR class of soluble ABA receptors and their downstream targets

  17. Surface Wave Constraints on Q in the Upper Mantle: Isolating the Signal of Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, C.; Ekström, G.

    2003-12-01

    We use more than 60,000 surface wave amplitude measurements in the period range 150-300 seconds (Ekström et al., 1997) to construct maps of attenuation, or 1/Q, in the upper mantle. We initially calculate Q by constructing a datum that uses four consecutive wave trains to desensitize the amplitudes to effects from the source, instrument, and elastic structure. These Q measurements are inverted for maps of even-degree attenuation structure, and the results show variations of approximately 50% from PREM. When the Q measurements are averaged for nearly coincident great-circle paths, the resulting attenuation maps are nearly identical to the original ones, confirming that, despite extraneous effects, there is a robust signal in the amplitudes. Using the method of Selby and Woodhouse (2002), we invert minor- and major-arc Rayleigh and Love wave amplitudes for even- and odd-degree Q structure. When we assume that the amplitude anomaly is due entirely to intrinsic attenuation, the ability of the models obtained through this process to fit the data is poor. We next include terms in the inversion that allow the source moment and instrument gain to be corrected. These corrections greatly improve the fit of the data by the models. The path integral approximation to the amplitude anomaly (Woodhouse and Wong, 1986) is used both to predict the effect of focusing from existing phase velocity maps and to jointly invert for attenuation and phase velocity. We also perform a pure-path regionalized inversion using a six-tectonic-region model of the Earth, GTR1 (Jordan, 1981). On the most simplistic level, the results show that oceans are more strongly attenuating than continents at all periods, and that the surface wave attenuation values of PREM fall in between those of continents and oceans. The results using the great-circle Q measurements show many familiar patterns, in particular that young oceans are more highly attenuating than older oceans. Although the data set of minor- and

  18. ABA-HYPERSENSITIVE BTB/POZ PROTEIN 1 functions as a negative regulator in ABA-mediated inhibition of germination in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hani; Kim, Soon-Hee; Seo, Dong Hye; Chung, Sunglan; Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Woo Taek; Lee, Jae-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    To elucidate the contribution of CRL3-ABA-mediated responses, we attempted to find CRL3 substrate receptors involved in ABA signaling. One gene named ABA-HYPERSENSITIVE BTB/POZ PROTEIN 1 (AHT1) was upregulated more than 2.5 times by ABA, and its coding region possessed a BTB/POZ domain, which is the common feature of CRL3 substrate receptors. Loss of AHT1 led to retardation of the germination process, not inhibition of root growth. AHT1 transcripts also increased in response to mannitol, NaCl and drought treatments at the seedling stage and in dry seeds. High expression of AHT1 in dry seeds was inhibited by the defect of ABA signaling components such as ABI1, ABI3 and SRKs indicating that the expression of AHT1 is dependent on ABA signaling. Among bZIP transcription factors participating in ABA signaling, the losses of ABI5/DPBF1, AREB1/ABF2, EEL/DPBF4 and DPBF2/bZIP67 resulted in reduced AHT1 expression, showing that these transcription factors play a positive role in ABA-induced AHT1 expression. While loss of AHT1 did not affect the expression pattern of NCED3, ABI2, SRKs and AREB/ABF genes, it led to hyperinduction of ABI5/DPBF genes such as ABI5/DPBF1, EEL/DPBF4 and AREB3/DPBF3, which are mainly involved in seed development and germination, as well as ABA-inducible genes transactivated by ABI5. Overall, these findings indicate that AHT1 negatively regulates ABA-mediated inhibition of germination, possibly by repressing the expression of a subset of ABI5/DPBF subfamily genes, and that AHT1 may be regulated by a negative feedback process through its linkage with a part of ABI5/DPBF proteins.

  19. Real-Time Rain Rate Evaluation via Satellite Downlink Signal Attenuation Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetti, Filippo; Reggiannini, Ruggero; Moretti, Marco; Adirosi, Elisa; Baldini, Luca; Facheris, Luca; Antonini, Andrea; Melani, Samantha; Bacci, Giacomo; Petrolino, Antonio; Vaccaro, Attilio

    2017-08-12

    We present the NEFOCAST project (named by the contraction of "Nefele", which is the Italian spelling for the mythological cloud nymph Nephele, and "forecast"), funded by the Tuscany Region, about the feasibility of a system for the detection and monitoring of precipitation fields over the regional territory based on the use of a widespread network of new-generation Eutelsat "SmartLNB" (smart low-noise block converter) domestic terminals. Though primarily intended for interactive satellite services, these devices can also be used as weather sensors, as they have the capability of measuring the rain-induced attenuation incurred by the downlink signal and relaying it on an auxiliary return channel. We illustrate the NEFOCAST system architecture, consisting of the network of ground sensor terminals, the space segment, and the service center, which has the task of processing the information relayed by the terminals for generating rain field maps. We discuss a few methods that allow the conversion of a rain attenuation measurement into an instantaneous rainfall rate. Specifically, we discuss an exponential model relating the specific rain attenuation to the rainfall rate, whose coefficients were obtained from extensive experimental data. The above model permits the inferring of the rainfall rate from the total signal attenuation provided by the SmartLNB and from the link geometry knowledge. Some preliminary results obtained from a SmartLNB installed in Pisa are presented and compared with the output of a conventional tipping bucket rain gauge. It is shown that the NEFOCAST sensor is able to track the fast-varying rainfall rate accurately with no delay, as opposed to a conventional gauge.

  20. Contrasting transcriptional responses of PYR1/PYL/RCAR ABA receptors to ABA or dehydration stress between maize seedling leaves and roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenqiang; Zhao, Mengyao; Li, Suxin; Bai, Xue; Li, Jia; Meng, Haowei; Mu, Zixin

    2016-04-21

    The different actions of abscisic acid (ABA) in the aboveground and belowground parts of plants suggest the existence of a distinct perception mechanism between these organs. Although characterization of the soluble ABA receptors PYR1/PYL/RCAR as well as core signaling components has greatly advanced our understanding of ABA perception, signal transduction, and responses, the environment-dependent organ-specific sensitivity of plants to ABA is less well understood. By performing real-time quantitative PCR assays, we comprehensively compared transcriptional differences of core ABA signaling components in response to ABA or osmotic/dehydration stress between maize (Zea mays L.) roots and leaves. Our results demonstrated up-regulation of the transcript levels of ZmPYLs homologous to dimeric-type Arabidopsis ABA receptors by ABA in maize primary roots, whereas those of ZmPYLs homologous to monomeric-type Arabidopsis ABA receptors were down-regulated. However, this trend was reversed in the leaves of plants treated with ABA via the root medium. Although the mRNA levels of ZmPYL1-3 increased significantly in roots subjected to polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced osmotic stress, ZmPYL4-11 transcripts were either maintained at a stable level or increased only slightly. In detached leaves subjected to dehydration, the transcripts of ZmPYL1-3 together with ZmPYL5, ZmPYL6, ZmPYL10 and ZmPYL11 were decreased, whereas those of ZmPYL4, ZmPYL7 and ZmPYL8 were significantly increased. Our results also showed that all of the evaluated transcripts of PP2Cs and SnRK2 were quickly up-regulated in roots by ABA or osmotic stress; conversely they were either up-regulated or maintained at a constant level in leaves, depending on the isoforms within each family. There is a distinct profile of PYR/PYL/RCAR ABA receptor gene expression between maize roots and leaves, suggesting that monomeric-type ABA receptors are mainly involved in the transmission of ABA signals in roots but that dimeric

  1. Analyzing Signal Attenuation in PFG Anomalous Diffusion via a Modified Gaussian Phase Distribution Approximation Based on Fractal Derivative Model

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Guoxing

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed field gradient (PFG) has been increasingly employed to study anomalous diffusions in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). However, the analysis of PFG anomalous diffusion is complicated. In this paper, a fractal derivative model based modified Gaussian phase distribution method is proposed to describe PFG anomalous diffusion. By using the phase distribution obtained from the effective phase shift diffusion method based on fractal derivatives, and employing some of the traditional Gaussian phase distribution approximation techniques, a general signal attenuation expression for free fractional diffusion is derived. This expression describes a stretched exponential function based attenuation, which is distinct from both the exponential attenuation for normal diffusion obtained from conventional Gaussian phase distribution approximation, and the Mittag-Leffler function based attenuation for anomalous diffusion obtained from fractional derivative. The obtained signal attenu...

  2. Dimethyl fumarate inhibits osteoclasts via attenuation of reactive oxygen species signalling by augmented antioxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yuuki; Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Katsumata, Yuta; Itohiya, Kanako; Fukaya, Sari; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Narimiya, Tsuyoshi; Wada, Satoshi; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2018-02-01

    Bone destructive diseases are common worldwide and are caused by dysregulation of osteoclast formation and activation. During osteoclastogenesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in the intracellular signalling triggered by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) stimulation. Previously, we demonstrated that induction of antioxidant enzymes by Nrf2 activation using Nrf2-gene transfer, an ETGE-peptide or polyphenols, successfully ameliorated RANKL-dependent osteoclastogenesis. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has been shown to activate Nrf2 signalling and has been lately used in clinical trials for neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that Nrf2 activation by DMF would inhibit osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction via attenuation of intracellular ROS signalling through antioxidant mechanisms. RAW 264.7 cells were used as osteoclast progenitor cells. We found that DMF induced Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus, augmented Nrf2 promoter-luciferase reporter activity and increased antioxidant enzyme expression. Using flow cytometry, we found that DMF attenuated RANKL-mediated intracellular ROS generation, which resulted in the inhibition of RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. Local DMF injection into the calvaria of male BALB/c mice resulted in attenuated bone destruction in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice. In conclusion, we demonstrated in a preclinical setting that DMF inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction via induction of Nrf2-mediated transcription of antioxidant genes and consequent decrease in intracellular ROS levels. Our results suggest that DMF may be a promising inhibitor of bone destruction in diseases like periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  3. Chronic hypoxia attenuates VEGF signaling and angiogenic responses by downregulation of KDR in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska-Pazdrak, Barbara; Hein, Travis W; Olszewska, Paulina; Carney, Darrell H

    2009-05-01

    Coronary artery disease results in progressive vascular stenosis associated with chronic myocardial ischemia. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates endothelial cell angiogenic responses to revascularize ischemic tissues; however, the effect of chronic hypoxia on the responsiveness of endothelial cells to VEGF remains unclear. We, therefore, investigated whether hypoxia alters VEGF-stimulated signaling and angiogenic responses in primary human coronary artery endothelial (HCAE) cells. Exposure of HCAE cells to hypoxia (1% O(2)) for 24 h decreased VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell migration ( approximately 82%), proliferation ( approximately 30%), and tube formation. Hypoxia attenuated VEGF-stimulated activation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) ( approximately 72%) and reduced NO production in VEGF-stimulated cells from 237 +/- 38.8 to 61.3 +/- 28.4 nmol/l. Moreover, hypoxia also decreased the ratio of phosphorylated eNOS to total eNOS in VEGF-stimulated cells by approximately 50%. This effect was not observed in thrombin-stimulated cells, suggesting that hypoxia specifically inhibited VEGF signaling upstream of eNOS phosphorylation. VEGF-induced activation of Akt, ERK1/2, p38, p70S6 kinases, and S6 ribosomal protein was also attenuated in hypoxic cells. Moreover, VEGF-stimulated phosphorylation of VEGF receptor-2 (KDR) at Y996 and Y1175 was decreased by hypoxia. This decrease correlated with a 70 +/- 12% decrease in KDR protein expression. Analysis of mRNA from these cells showed that hypoxia reduced steady-state levels of KDR mRNA by 52 +/- 16% and decreased mRNA stability relative to normoxic cells. Our findings demonstrate that chronic hypoxia attenuates VEGF-stimulated signaling in HCAE cells by specific downregulation of KDR expression. These data provide a novel explanation for the impaired angiogenic responses to VEGF in endothelial cells exposed to chronic hypoxia.

  4. Signal attenuation of PFG restricted anomalous diffusions in plate, sphere, and cylinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guoxing; Zheng, Shaokuan; Liao, Xinli

    2016-11-01

    Pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR is a noninvasive tool to study anomalous diffusion, which exists widely in many systems such as in polymer or biological systems, in porous material, in single file structures and in fractal geometries. In a real system, the diffusion could be a restricted or a tortuous anomalous diffusion, rather than a free diffusion as the domains for fast and slow transport could coexist. Though there are signal attenuation expressions for free anomalous diffusion in literature, the signal attenuation formalisms for restricted anomalous diffusion is very limited, except for a restricted time-fractional diffusion within a plate reported recently. To better understand the PFG restricted fractional diffusion, in this paper, the PFG signal attenuation expressions were derived for three typical structures (plate, sphere, and cylinder) based on two models: fractal derivative model and fractional derivative model. These signal attenuation expressions include two parts, the time part Tn(t) and the space part Xn(r). Unlike normal diffusion, the time part Tn(t) in time-fractional diffusion can be either a Mittag-Leffler function from the fractional derivative model or a stretched exponential function from the fractal derivative model. However, provided the restricted normal diffusion and the restricted time-fractional diffusion are in an identical structure, they will have the same space part Xn(r) as both diffusions have the same space derivative parameter β equaling 2, therefore, they should have similar diffractive patterns. The restricted general fractional diffusion within a plate is also investigated, which indicates that at a long time limit, the diffusion type is insignificant to the diffractive pattern that depends only on the structure and the gradient pulses. The expressions describing the time-dependent behaviors of apparent diffusion coefficient Df,app for restricted anomalous diffusion are also proposed in this paper. Both the short and long

  5. Signal attenuation of PFG restricted anomalous diffusions in plate, sphere, and cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guoxing; Zheng, Shaokuan; Liao, Xinli

    2016-11-01

    Pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR is a noninvasive tool to study anomalous diffusion, which exists widely in many systems such as in polymer or biological systems, in porous material, in single file structures and in fractal geometries. In a real system, the diffusion could be a restricted or a tortuous anomalous diffusion, rather than a free diffusion as the domains for fast and slow transport could coexist. Though there are signal attenuation expressions for free anomalous diffusion in literature, the signal attenuation formalisms for restricted anomalous diffusion is very limited, except for a restricted time-fractional diffusion within a plate reported recently. To better understand the PFG restricted fractional diffusion, in this paper, the PFG signal attenuation expressions were derived for three typical structures (plate, sphere, and cylinder) based on two models: fractal derivative model and fractional derivative model. These signal attenuation expressions include two parts, the time part Tn(t) and the space part Xn(r). Unlike normal diffusion, the time part Tn(t) in time-fractional diffusion can be either a Mittag-Leffler function from the fractional derivative model or a stretched exponential function from the fractal derivative model. However, provided the restricted normal diffusion and the restricted time-fractional diffusion are in an identical structure, they will have the same space part Xn(r) as both diffusions have the same space derivative parameter β equaling 2, therefore, they should have similar diffractive patterns. The restricted general fractional diffusion within a plate is also investigated, which indicates that at a long time limit, the diffusion type is insignificant to the diffractive pattern that depends only on the structure and the gradient pulses. The expressions describing the time-dependent behaviors of apparent diffusion coefficient Df,app for restricted anomalous diffusion are also proposed in this paper. Both the short and long

  6. Meclozine facilitates proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes by attenuating abnormally activated FGFR3 signaling in achondroplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Matsushita

    Full Text Available Achondroplasia (ACH is one of the most common skeletal dysplasias with short stature caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGFR3 encoding the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3. We used the drug repositioning strategy to identify an FDA-approved drug that suppresses abnormally activated FGFR3 signaling in ACH. We found that meclozine, an anti-histamine drug that has long been used for motion sickness, facilitates chondrocyte proliferation and mitigates loss of extracellular matrix in FGF2-treated rat chondrosarcoma (RCS cells. Meclozine also ameliorated abnormally suppressed proliferation of human chondrosarcoma (HCS-2/8 cells that were infected with lentivirus expressing constitutively active mutants of FGFR3-K650E causing thanatophoric dysplasia, FGFR3-K650M causing SADDAN, and FGFR3-G380R causing ACH. Similarly, meclozine alleviated abnormally suppressed differentiation of ATDC5 chondrogenic cells expressing FGFR3-K650E and -G380R in micromass culture. We also confirmed that meclozine alleviates FGF2-mediated longitudinal growth inhibition of embryonic tibia in bone explant culture. Interestingly, meclozine enhanced growth of embryonic tibia in explant culture even in the absence of FGF2 treatment. Analyses of intracellular FGFR3 signaling disclosed that meclozine downregulates phosphorylation of ERK but not of MEK in FGF2-treated RCS cells. Similarly, meclozine enhanced proliferation of RCS cells expressing constitutively active mutants of MEK and RAF but not of ERK, which suggests that meclozine downregulates the FGFR3 signaling by possibly attenuating ERK phosphorylation. We used the C-natriuretic peptide (CNP as a potent inhibitor of the FGFR3 signaling throughout our experiments, and found that meclozine was as efficient as CNP in attenuating the abnormal FGFR3 signaling. We propose that meclozine is a potential therapeutic agent for treating ACH and other FGFR3-related skeletal dysplasias.

  7. Meclozine Facilitates Proliferation and Differentiation of Chondrocytes by Attenuating Abnormally Activated FGFR3 Signaling in Achondroplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Masaki; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Ohkawara, Bisei; Mishima, Kenichi; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Ito, Mikako; Masuda, Akio; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ohno, Kinji

    2013-01-01

    Achondroplasia (ACH) is one of the most common skeletal dysplasias with short stature caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGFR3 encoding the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3. We used the drug repositioning strategy to identify an FDA-approved drug that suppresses abnormally activated FGFR3 signaling in ACH. We found that meclozine, an anti-histamine drug that has long been used for motion sickness, facilitates chondrocyte proliferation and mitigates loss of extracellular matrix in FGF2-treated rat chondrosarcoma (RCS) cells. Meclozine also ameliorated abnormally suppressed proliferation of human chondrosarcoma (HCS-2/8) cells that were infected with lentivirus expressing constitutively active mutants of FGFR3-K650E causing thanatophoric dysplasia, FGFR3-K650M causing SADDAN, and FGFR3-G380R causing ACH. Similarly, meclozine alleviated abnormally suppressed differentiation of ATDC5 chondrogenic cells expressing FGFR3-K650E and -G380R in micromass culture. We also confirmed that meclozine alleviates FGF2-mediated longitudinal growth inhibition of embryonic tibia in bone explant culture. Interestingly, meclozine enhanced growth of embryonic tibia in explant culture even in the absence of FGF2 treatment. Analyses of intracellular FGFR3 signaling disclosed that meclozine downregulates phosphorylation of ERK but not of MEK in FGF2-treated RCS cells. Similarly, meclozine enhanced proliferation of RCS cells expressing constitutively active mutants of MEK and RAF but not of ERK, which suggests that meclozine downregulates the FGFR3 signaling by possibly attenuating ERK phosphorylation. We used the C-natriuretic peptide (CNP) as a potent inhibitor of the FGFR3 signaling throughout our experiments, and found that meclozine was as efficient as CNP in attenuating the abnormal FGFR3 signaling. We propose that meclozine is a potential therapeutic agent for treating ACH and other FGFR3-related skeletal dysplasias. PMID:24324705

  8. Dietary intervention in acne: Attenuation of increased mTORC1 signaling promoted by Western diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  9. Embedded Spherical Localization for Micro Underwater Vehicles Based on Attenuation of Electro-Magnetic Carrier Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duecker, Daniel-André; Geist, A René; Hengeler, Michael; Kreuzer, Edwin; Pick, Marc-André; Rausch, Viktor; Solowjow, Eugen

    2017-04-26

    Self-localization is one of the most challenging problems for deploying micro autonomous underwater vehicles ( μ AUV) in confined underwater environments. This paper extends a recently-developed self-localization method that is based on the attenuation of electro-magnetic waves, to the μ AUV domain. We demonstrate a compact, low-cost architecture that is able to perform all signal processing steps present in the original method. The system is passive with one-way signal transmission and scales to possibly large μ AUV fleets. It is based on the spherical localization concept. We present results from static and dynamic position estimation experiments and discuss the tradeoffs of the system.

  10. Arabidopsis thaliana RECEPTOR DEAD KINASE1 Functions as a Positive Regulator in Plant Responses to ABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dhinesh; Kumar, Ritesh; Baek, Dongwon; Hyun, Tae-Kyung; Chung, Woo Sik; Yun, Dae-Jin; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2017-02-13

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major phytohormone involved in important stress-related and developmental plant processes. Membrane-delimited ABA signal transduction plays an important role in early ABA signaling, but the molecular mechanisms connecting core signaling components to the plasma membrane remain unclear. Plants have evolved a large number of receptor-like kinases (RLKs) to modulate diverse biological processes by perceiving extracellular stimuli and activating downstream signaling responses. In this study, a putative leucine-rich repeat-RLK gene named RECEPTOR DEAD KINASE1 (AtRDK1) was identified and characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. RDK1 promoter-GUS analysis revealed that RDK1 is expressed ubiquitously in the various tissues in Arabidopsis, and its expression is mainly induced by ABA. In the presence of ABA, RDK1-deficient rdk1-1 and rdk1-2 lines showed significant resistance in cotyledon greening and root growth, whereas RDK1-overexpressing lines showed enhanced sensitivity. Consistently, the expression of ABA-responsive genes was significantly downregulated in rdk1 mutant seedlings, which were also hypersensitive to drought stress with increased water loss. Interestingly, RDK1 was found to be an atypical kinase localized to the plasma membrane and did not require its kinase activity during ABA-mediated inhibition of seedling development. Accordingly, RDK1 interacted in the plasma membrane with type 2C protein phosphatase ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE1 (ABI1); this interaction was further enhanced by exogenous application of ABA, suggesting that RDK1-mediated recruitment of ABI1 onto the plasma membrane is important for ABA signaling. Taken together, these results reveal an important role for RDK1 in plant responses to abiotic stress conditions in an ABA-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental Enrichment Attenuated Sevoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity through the PPAR-γ Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sevoflurane is the most widely used inhaled anesthetic. Environmental enrichment (EE can reverse sevoflurane-induced learning and memory impairment in young mice. However, the mechanism by which EE elicits this effect is unclear. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR regulatory pathway plays a critical role in the regulation of inflammation in central nervous system diseases. In this study, we investigated whether EE attenuates sevoflurane-induced learning and memory disability via the PPAR signaling pathway. Six-day-old mice were treated with 3% sevoflurane for 2 hours daily from postnatal day 6 (P6 to P8. Then, the mice were treated with EE. The effects of sevoflurane on learning and memory function, PPAR-γ expression in the brain, and the numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells and 5-bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells in the hippocampus were determined. Sevoflurane induced neuronal apoptosis and neurogenesis inhibition, which may impair learning and memory in young mice. Furthermore, sevoflurane downregulated PPAR-γ expression. Both EE and the PPAR-γ agonist, rosiglitazone, attenuated sevoflurane-induced neuronal apoptosis, neurogenesis inhibition, and learning and memory impairment. Our findings suggest that EE ameliorated sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and learning and memory impairment through the PPAR-γ signaling pathway. PPAR-γ may be a potential therapeutic target for preventing or treating sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity.

  12. Attenuated PDGF signaling drives alveolar and microvascular defects in neonatal chronic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak, Prajakta; Pritzke, Tina; Thiel, Isabella; Koschlig, Markus; Mous, Daphne S; Windhorst, Anita; Jain, Noopur; Eickelberg, Oliver; Foerster, Kai; Schulze, Andreas; Goepel, Wolfgang; Reicherzer, Tobias; Ehrhardt, Harald; Rottier, Robbert J; Ahnert, Peter; Gortner, Ludwig; Desai, Tushar J; Hilgendorff, Anne

    2017-11-01

    Neonatal chronic lung disease (nCLD) affects a significant number of neonates receiving mechanical ventilation with oxygen-rich gas (MV-O2). Regardless, the primary molecular driver of the disease remains elusive. We discover significant enrichment for SNPs in the PDGF-Rα gene in preterms with nCLD and directly test the effect of PDGF-Rα haploinsufficiency on the development of nCLD using a preclinical mouse model of MV-O2 In the context of MV-O2, attenuated PDGF signaling independently contributes to defective septation and endothelial cell apoptosis stemming from a PDGF-Rα-dependent reduction in lung VEGF-A. TGF-β contributes to the PDGF-Rα-dependent decrease in myofibroblast function. Remarkably, endotracheal treatment with exogenous PDGF-A rescues both the lung defects in haploinsufficient mice undergoing MV-O2 Overall, our results establish attenuated PDGF signaling as an important driver of nCLD pathology with provision of PDGF-A as a protective strategy for newborns undergoing MV-O2. © 2017 Helmholtz Zentrum München Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  13. Dual Function of NAC072 in ABF3-Mediated ABA-Responsive Gene Regulation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyun; Li, Xiaoling; Li, Meijuan; Yan, Youcheng; Liu, Xu; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    The NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2 (NAC) domain proteins play various roles in plant growth and stress responses. Arabidopsis NAC transcription factor NAC072 has been reported as a transcriptional activator in Abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive gene expression. However, the exact function of NAC072 in ABA signaling is still elusive. In this study, we present evidence for the interrelation between NAC072 and ABA-responsive element binding factor 3 (ABF3) that act as a positive regulator of ABA-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis. The transcript of NAC072 is up-regulated by ABF3 in ABA response, and NAC072 protein interacts with ABF3. Enhanced ABA sensitivity occurs in nac072 mutant plants that overexpressed ABF3. However, overexpression of NAC072 weakened the ABA sensitivity in the abf3 mutant plants, but instead of recovering the ABA sensitivity of abf3. NAC072 and ABF3 cooperate to regulate RD29A expression, but are antagonistic when regulating RD29B expression. Therefore, NAC072 displays a dual function in ABF3-mediated ABA-responsive gene regulation.

  14. Does ozone increase ABA levels by non-enzymatic synthesis causing stomata to close?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Erin L; Brodribb, Timothy J; McAdam, Scott A M

    2017-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are widely recognized as important regulators of stomatal aperture and plant gas exchange. The pathways through which stomata perceive ROS share many common linkages with the well characterized signalling pathway for the hormone abscisic acid (ABA), a major driver of stomatal closure. Given reports that ABA receptor mutants have no stomatal response to ozone-triggered ROS production, as well as evidence that all steps in the ABA biosynthetic pathway can be non-enzymatically converted by ROS, here we investigated the possibility that ozone closes stomata by directly converting ABA precursors to ABA. In plants where stomata were responsive to ozone, we found that foliar ABA levels rapidly increased upon exposure to ozone. Recovery of gas exchange post-exposure occurred only when ABA levels declined. Our data suggest that stomatal closure in response to ozone exposure occurs as a result of direct oxidation of ABA precursors leading to ABA production, but the importance of this ROS interaction remains uncertain under normal photosynthetic conditions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The role of the cholinergic system in the signal attenuation rat model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelevitch-Yahav, Roni; Roni, Yankelevitch-Yahav; Joel, Dapha; Daphna, Joel

    2013-11-01

    In comparison to studies of the involvement of the serotonergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic systems in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), research on the involvement of the cholinergic system in this disorder has remained sparse. The aim of this study was to test the role of the cholinergic system in compulsive behavior using the signal attenuation rat model of OCD. In this model, "compulsive" behavior is induced by attenuating a signal indicating that a lever-press response was effective in producing food. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine (0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 mg/kg), the nicotinic agonist nicotine (0.03, 0.06, 0.10, 0.30, 0.60, and 1.00 mg/kg), the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (1, 3, 5, and 8 mg/kg), the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine (0.0075, 0.0150, and 0.0300 mg/kg), and the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (0.15, 0.50, 1.00, and 1.50 mg/kg) were acutely administered to rats just before assessing their lever-press responding following signal attenuation (experiments 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9, respectively). Because the effects of signal attenuation are assessed under extinction conditions, drug doses that were effective in the above experiments were also tested in an extinction session of lever-press responding that was not preceded by signal attenuation (experiments 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10). Acute systemic administration of the cholinergic agents did not exert a selective anti- or pro-compulsive effect in the signal attenuation model. Acetylcholine does not seem to play a role in the signal attenuation rat model of OCD.

  16. Sprouty2 attenuates epidermal growth factor receptor ubiquitylation and endocytosis, and consequently enhances Ras/ERK signalling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Esther Sook Miin; Fong, Chee Wai; Yusoff, Permeen; Guy, Graeme R; Langdon, Wallace Y; Low, Boon Chuan; Lim, Jormay

    2002-01-01

    ... of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), where it acts to attenuate downstream signalling. Casci . (1999) identified dSpry to be an intracellular protein that interacts in vitro with Drk ( Drosophila homologue of Grb2) and Gap‐1, a Ras GTPase‐activating protein, to potentially inhibit Ras signalling. Currently, four mammalian genes ha...

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis of the bZIP Gene Family Identifies Two ABI5-Like bZIP Transcription Factors, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, as Positive Modulators of ABA Signalling in Chinese Cabbage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Bai

    Full Text Available bZIP (basic leucine zipper transcription factors coordinate plant growth and development and control responses to environmental stimuli. The genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa encodes 136 putative bZIP transcription factors. The bZIP transcription factors in Brassica rapa (BrbZIP are classified into 10 subfamilies. Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that subfamily A consists of 23 BrbZIPs. Two BrbZIPs within subfamily A, Bra005287 and Bra017251, display high similarity to ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5. Expression of subfamily A BrbZIPs, like BrABI5a (Bra005287/BrbZIP14 and BrABI5b (Bra017251/BrbZIP13, are significantly induced by the plant hormone ABA. Subcellular localization assay reveal that both BrABI5a and BrABI5b have a nuclear localization. BrABI5a and BrABI5b could directly stimulate ABA Responsive Element-driven HIS (a HIS3 reporter gene, which confers His prototrophy or LUC (LUCIFERASE expression in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplast. Deletion of the bZIP motif abolished BrABI5a and BrABI5b transcriptional activity. The ABA insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 is completely suppressed in transgenic lines expressing BrABI5a or BrABI5b. Overall, these results suggest that ABI5 orthologs, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, have key roles in ABA signalling in Chinese cabbage.

  18. A Comprehensive Proteomic Survey of ABA-Induced Protein Phosphorylation in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiehua; Hou, Yuxuan; Wang, Yifeng; Li, Zhiyong; Zhao, Juan; Tong, Xiaohong; Lin, Haiyan; Wei, Xiangjin; Ao, Hejun; Zhang, Jian

    2017-01-03

    abscisic acid (ABA) is a key phytohormone regulating plant development and stress response. The signal transduction of ABA largely relies on protein phosphorylation. However; little is known about the phosphorylation events occurring during ABA signaling in rice thus far. By employing a label-free; MS (Mass Spectrometry)-based phosphoproteomic approach; we identified 2271 phosphosites of young rice seedlings and their intensity dynamics in response to ABA; during which 1060 proteins were found to be differentially phosphorylated. Western-blot analysis verified the differential phosphorylation pattern of D1, SMG1 and SAPK9 as indicated by the MS result; suggesting the high reliability of our phosphoproteomic data. The DP (differentially phosphorylated) proteins are extensively involved in ABA as well as other hormone signaling pathways. It is suggested that ABA antagonistically regulates brassinosteroid (BR) signaling via inhibiting BR receptor activity. The result of this study not only expanded our knowledge of rice phosphoproteome, but also shed more light on the pattern of protein phosphorylation in ABA signaling.

  19. Towards the Identification of New Genes Involved in ABA-Dependent Abiotic Stresses Using Arabidopsis Suppressor Mutants of abh1 Hypersensitivity to ABA during Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Szarejko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid plays a pivotal role in the abiotic stress response in plants. Although great progress has been achieved explaining the complexity of the stress and ABA signaling cascade, there are still many questions to answer. Mutants are a valuable tool in the identification of new genes or new alleles of already known genes and in elucidating their role in signaling pathways. We applied a suppressor mutation approach in order to find new components of ABA and abiotic stress signaling in Arabidopsis. Using the abh1 (ABA hypersensitive 1 insertional mutant as a parental line for EMS mutagenesis, we selected several mutants with suppressed hypersensitivity to ABA during seed germination. Here, we present the response to ABA and a wide range of abiotic stresses during the seed germination and young seedling development of two suppressor mutants—soa2 (suppressor of abh1 hypersensitivity to ABA 2 and soa3 (suppressor of abh1 hypersensitivity to ABA 3. Generally, both mutants displayed a suppression of the hypersensitivity of abh1 to ABA, NaCl and mannitol during germination. Both mutants showed a higher level of tolerance than Columbia-0 (Col-0—the parental line of abh1 in high concentrations of glucose. Additionally, soa2 exhibited better root growth than Col-0 in the presence of high ABA concentrations. soa2 and soa3 were drought tolerant and both had about 50% fewer stomata per mm2 than the wild-type but the same number as their parental line—abh1. Taking into account that suppressor mutants had the same genetic background as their parental line—abh1, it was necessary to backcross abh1 with Landsberg erecta four times for the map-based cloning approach. Mapping populations, derived from the cross of abh1 in the Landsberg erecta background with each suppressor mutant, were created. Map based cloning in order to identify the suppressor genes is in progress.

  20. ABA-Mediated ROS in Mitochondria Regulate Root Meristem Activity by Controlling PLETHORA Expression in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Zhang, Jing; He, Junna; Qin, Yingying; Hua, Deping; Duan, Ying; Chen, Zhizhong; Gong, Zhizhong

    2014-01-01

    Although research has determined that reactive oxygen species (ROS) function as signaling molecules in plant development, the molecular mechanism by which ROS regulate plant growth is not well known. An aba overly sensitive mutant, abo8-1, which is defective in a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein responsible for the splicing of NAD4 intron 3 in mitochondrial complex I, accumulates more ROS in root tips than the wild type, and the ROS accumulation is further enhanced by ABA treatment. The ABO8 mutation reduces root meristem activity, which can be enhanced by ABA treatment and reversibly recovered by addition of certain concentrations of the reducing agent GSH. As indicated by low ProDR5:GUS expression, auxin accumulation/signaling was reduced in abo8-1. We also found that ABA inhibits the expression of PLETHORA1 (PLT1) and PLT2, and that root growth is more sensitive to ABA in the plt1 and plt2 mutants than in the wild type. The expression of PLT1 and PLT2 is significantly reduced in the abo8-1 mutant. Overexpression of PLT2 in an inducible system can largely rescue root apical meristem (RAM)-defective phenotype of abo8-1 with and without ABA treatment. These results suggest that ABA-promoted ROS in the mitochondria of root tips are important retrograde signals that regulate root meristem activity by controlling auxin accumulation/signaling and PLT expression in Arabidopsis. PMID:25522358

  1. Neuroglobin attenuates Alzheimer-like tau hyperphosphorylation by activating Akt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Ming; Xiong, Yan-Si; Kong, Fan-Li; Qu, Min; Wang, Qun; Chen, Xiao-Qian; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Zhu, Ling-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a recently identified member of hemoglobin family, distributed mainly in central and peripheral nervous systems. Recent studies suggest that Ngb can protect neural cells from β-amyloid-induced toxicity in Alzheimer disease (AD). Hyperphosphorylation of tau is another characterized pathological hallmark in the AD brains; however, it is not reported whether Ngb also affects tau phosphorylation. In this study, we found that the level of Ngb was significantly reduced in Tg2576 mice (a recognized mouse model of AD) and TgMAPt mice, and the level of Ngb was negatively correlated with tau phosphorylation. Over-expression of Ngb attenuates tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple AD-related sites induced by up-regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a crucial tau kinase. While Ngb activates Akt and thus inhibits GSK-3β, simultaneously inhibition of Akt abolishes the effects of Ngb on GSK-3β inhibition and tau hyperphosphorylation. Our data indicate that Ngb may attenuate tau hyperphosphorylation through activating Akt signaling pathway, implying a therapeutic target for AD. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  2. Celastrol attenuates pain and cartilage damage via SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling pathway in osteoarthritis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifeng; Ha, Chengzhi; Lin, Tao; Wang, Dawei; Wang, Yuanhe; Gong, Mingzhi

    2018-01-01

    Celastrol has attracted wide interests for its anticancer and anti-inflammation properties, and studies have demonstrated that celastrol negatively modulates the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) signalling. We aim in this study to investigate the effects of celastrol in osteoarthritis (OA) in vivo and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. We established a monoiodoacetate (MIA)-induced rat OA model and evaluated the joint pain and cartilage damage with or without celastrol treatments. We further assessed the alterations of the SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway and cartilage-specific genes, at both mRNA and protein levels. Celastrol significantly attenuated the joint pain and cartilage damage induced by MIA in OA rats and suppressed the upregulation of SDF-1/CXCR4 and associated genes caused by MIA injections. Furthermore, MIA induced a decrease in cartilage-specific genes which was also prevented by celastrol treatments. Celastrol ameliorate OA in vivo as evidenced by the attenuated joint pain and less cartilage damage in OA rats given celastrol treatments, an effect mediated via suppression of the SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Forskolin, a hedgehog signalling inhibitor, attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Agroudy, Nermeen N; El-Naga, Reem N; El-Razeq, Rania Abd; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2016-11-01

    Liver fibrosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide with very limited therapeutic options. Given the pivotal role of activated hepatic stellate cells in liver fibrosis, attention has been directed towards the signalling pathways underlying their activation and fibrogenic functions. Recently, the hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway has been identified as a potentially important therapeutic target in liver fibrosis. The present study was designed to explore the antifibrotic effects of the potent Hh signalling inhibitor, forskolin, and the possible molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either CCl4 and/or forskolin for 6 consecutive weeks. Serum hepatotoxicity markers were determined, and histopathological evaluation was performed. Hepatic fibrosis was assessed by measuring α-SMA expression and collagen deposition by Masson's trichrome staining and hydroxyproline content. The effects of forskolin on oxidative stress markers (GSH, GPx, lipid peroxides), inflammatory markers (NF-κB, TNF-α, COX-2, IL-1β), TGF-β1 and Hh signalling markers (Ptch-1, Smo, Gli-2) were also assessed. Hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4 was significantly reduced by forskolin, as indicated by decreased α-SMA expression and collagen deposition. Forskolin co-treatment significantly attenuated oxidative stress and inflammation, reduced TGF-β1 levels and down-regulated mRNA expression of Ptch-1, Smo and Gli-2 through cAMP-dependent PKA activation. In our model, forskolin exerted promising antifibrotic effects which could be partly attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as to its inhibition of Hh signalling, mediated by cAMP-dependent activation of PKA. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Genistein attenuates hypoxic pulmonary hypertension via enhanced nitric oxide signaling and the erythropoietin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Sachiko; Morio, Yoshiteru; Toba, Michie; Nagaoka, Tetsutaro; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Iwakami, Shin-Ichiro; Seyama, Kuniaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-06-01

    Upregulation of the erythropoietin (EPO)/EPO receptor (EPOR) system plays a protective role against chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (hypoxic PH) through enhancement of endothelial nitric oxide (NO)-mediated signaling. Genistein (Gen), a phytoestrogen, is considered to ameliorate NO-mediated signaling. We hypothesized that Gen attenuates and prevents hypoxic PH. In vivo, Sprague-Dawley rats raised in a hypobaric chamber were treated with Gen (60 mkg/kg) for 21 days. Pulmonary hemodynamics and vascular remodeling were ameliorated in Gen-treated hypoxic PH rats. Gen also restored cGMP levels and phosphorylated endothelial NO synthase (p-eNOS) at Ser(1177) and p-Akt at Ser(473) expression in the lungs. Additionally, Gen potentiated plasma EPO concentration and EPOR-positive endothelial cell counts. In experiments with hypoxic PH rats' isolated perfused lungs, Gen caused NO- and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt-dependent vasodilation that reversed abnormal vasoconstriction. In vitro, a combination of EPO and Gen increased the p-eNOS and the EPOR expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells under a hypoxic environment. Moreover, Gen potentiated the hypoxic increase in EPO production from human hepatoma cells. We conclude that Gen may be effective for the prevention of hypoxic PH through the improvement of PI3K/Akt-dependent, NO-mediated signaling in association with enhancement of the EPO/EPOR system. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  5. CD6 attenuates early and late signaling events, setting thresholds for T-cell activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marta I; Gonçalves, Carine M; Pinto, Mafalda; Fabre, Stéphanie; Santos, Ana Mafalda; Lee, Simon F; Castro, Mónica A A; Nunes, Raquel J; Barbosa, Rita R; Parnes, Jane R; Yu, Chao; Davis, Simon J; Moreira, Alexandra; Bismuth, Georges; Carmo, Alexandre M

    2012-01-01

    The T lineage glycoprotein CD6 is generally considered to be a costimulator of T-cell activation. Here, we demonstrate that CD6 significantly reduces early and late T-cell responses upon superantigen stimulation or TCR triggering by Abs. Measuring calcium mobilization in single cells responding to superantigen, we found that human T cells expressing rat CD6 react significantly less well compared with T cells not expressing the exogenous receptor. When the cytoplasmic domain of rat CD6 was removed, calcium responses were recovered, indicating that the inhibitory properties of CD6 are attributable to its cytoplasmic domain. Calcium responses, and also late indicators of T-cell activation such as IL-2 release, were also diminished in TCR-activated Jurkat cells expressing human CD6, compared with CD6-deficient cells or cells expressing a cytoplasmic deletion mutant of human CD6. Similarly, calcium signals triggered by anti-CD3 were enhanced in human T lymphocytes following morpholino-mediated suppression of CD6 expression. Finally, the proliferation of T lymphocytes was increased when the CD6–CD166 interaction was blocked with anti-CD166 Abs, but inhibited when anti-CD6 Abs were used. Our data suggest that CD6 is a signaling attenuator whose expression alone, i.e. in the absence of ligand engagement, is sufficient to restrain signaling in T cells. PMID:21956609

  6. Abscisic (ABA)-aldehyde is a precursor to, and 1 prime ,4 prime -trans-ABA-diol a catabolite of, ABA in apple. [Malus domestica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, C.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Previous {sup 18}O labeling studies of abscisic acid (ABA) have shown that apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Granny Smith) fruits synthesize a majority of ({sup 18}O)ABA with the label incorporated in the 1{prime}-hydroxyl position and unlabeled in the carboxyl group (JAD Zeevaart, TG Heath, DA Gage (1989) Plant Physiol 91: 1594-1601). It was proposed that exchange of {sup 18}O in the side chain with the medium occurred at an aldehyde intermediate stage of ABA biosynthesis. We have isolated ABA-aldehyde and 1{prime}-4{prime}-trans-ABA-diol (ABA-trans-diol) from {sup 18}O-labeled apple fruit tissue and measured the extent and position of {sup 18}O incorporation by tandem mass spectrometry. {sup 18}O-Labeling patterns of ABA-aldehyde, ABA-trans-diol, and ABA indicate that ABA-aldehyde is a precursor to, and ABA-trans-diol a catabolite of, ABA. Exchange of {sup 18}O in the carbonyl of ABA-aldehyde can be the cause of loss of {sup 18}O from the side chain of ({sup 18}O)ABA. Results of feeding experiments with deuterated substrates provide further support for the precursor-product relationship of ABA-aldehyde {yields} ABA {yields} ABA-trans-diol. The ABA-aldehyde and ABA-trans-diol contents of fruits and leaves were low, approximately 1 and 0.02 nanograms per gram fresh weight for ABA-aldehyde and ABA-trans-diol, respectively, while ABA levels in fruits ranged from 10 to 200 nanograms per gram fresh weight. ABA biosynthesis was about 10-fold lower in fruits than in leaves. In fruits, the majority of ABA was conjugated to {beta}-D-glucopyranosyl abscisate, whereas in leaves ABA was mainly hydroxylated to phaseic acid. Parallel pathways for ABA and trans-ABA biosynthesis and conjugation in fruits and leaves are proposed.

  7. Experimental Investigations of Microwave Signal Attenuation in Radio Link within Geophysical Information Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goponenko, A. S.; Stukach, O. V.; Kochumeev, V. A.; Mirmanov, A. B.

    2014-10-01

    The paper describes the basic results of the project "Borehole Microwave" as researchers design microwave pulse signal transfer through a drilling pipe as a new communication channel. Methods of the telemetry information transfer are investigated. The "measurements while drilling" (MWD) mock-up of system based on the new concept of creation of telemetry equipment is developed. The experimental bench for electro-physical researches of various media in the drilling pipes is carried out. Investigations of measurement of attenuation of microwave pulse in drilling pipes are presented. Results show a possibility of operation in perspective field of investigations. The data transfer through a new communication channel in microwave band will open new possibilities of improving of the measurement-while-drilling equipment.

  8. Melatonin attenuated brain death tissue extract-induced cardiac damage by suppressing DAMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Pei-Hsun; Lee, Fan-Yen; Lin, Ling-Chun; Chen, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Hung-Sheng; Shao, Pei-Lin; Li, Yi-Chen; Chen, Yi-Ling; Lin, Kun-Chen; Yuen, Chun-Man; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Lee, Mel S; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2018-01-09

    We tested the hypothesis that melatonin prevents brain death (BD) tissue extract (BDEX)-induced cardiac damage by suppressing inflammatory damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) signaling in rats. Six hours after BD induction, levels of a DAMP component (HMGB1) and inflammatory markers (TLR-2, TLR-4, MYD88, IκB, NF-κB, IL-1β, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6) were higher in brain tissue from BD animals than controls. Levels of HMGB1 and inflammatory markers were higher in BDEX-treated H9C2 cardiac myoblasts than in cells treated with healthy brain tissue extract. These increases were attenuated by melatonin but re-induced with luzindole (all P DAMP inflammatory axis.

  9. Damage quantification using attenuation based signal processing for health monitoring in carbon fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Whitney; Chattopadhyay, Aditi

    2008-03-01

    Carbon-fiber composites will increasingly be used in next generation air transportation vehicles. Therefore, it is critical to develop state awareness models that can accurately capture the damage states and predict remaining useful life based on current and future loading conditions. In the current research, a structural health monitoring (SHM) and prognosis framework is being developed for heterogeneous material systems. The objective of this paper is to present some of the experimental components of this work. In the experiments preformed, the use of a pitch catch method using piezoelectric transducers for both the actuator and sensor were employed for collecting information on the damage status. The focus of this work is to quantify damage within the sample by relating parameters in the sensor signal to damage intensity. Good correlation has been observed in several tests between damage level and wave attenuation. These results are confirmed using off-the-shelf NDE techniques.

  10. Exercise training attenuates cerebral ischemic hyperglycemia by improving hepatic insulin signaling and β-cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Sunna

    2013-08-06

    Preventing hyperglycemia after acute stroke attenuates complications of cerebral ischemia and reduces the risk of mortality. We investigated whether regular exercise prevents neuronal cell death and post-stroke hyperglycemia in gerbils after cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was induced by carotid artery occlusion for 8min. The gerbils that underwent ischemic or sham operations were randomly subdivided into exercise (ran on inclined treadmill at 20m/min for 30min 5days per week for 1week prior to surgery) or non-exercise groups. Gerbils were fed a 40% fat diet and after 28days, glucose metabolism, serum cytokine levels and cognitive function was measured. Artery occlusion resulted in a 64% reduction in hippocampal CA1 neurons in comparison to the sham gerbils, and caused decreased neuronal mass and impaired cognitive function. Exercise partially prevented neuronal death and improved ischemia-induced glucose intolerance. Ischemia decreased hepatic insulin signaling and exacerbated insulin resistance whereas exercise prevented the disturbance. Insulin secretion was lower in ischemic gerbils than sham gerbils, due to lowered pancreatic β-cell mass caused by increased β-cell apoptosis and decreased β-cell proliferation, which were also prevented by exercise. Increase of apoptosis was associated with elevated caspase-3 activity, consistent with increased serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β levels. Hippocampal neuronal cell death induces hyperglycemia due to attenuated hepatic insulin signaling and decreased β-cell mass by increased β-cell apoptosis through increased TNF-α and IL-1β levels. Exercise partially prevents this phenomenon suggesting that exercise training may provide neuroprotective benefits from cerebral ischemic hyperglycemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Attenuation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling by growth hormone (GH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Lorena; Miquet, Johanna G; Irene, Pablo E; Díaz, M Eugenia; Rossi, Soledad P; Sotelo, Ana I; Frungieri, Mónica B; Hill, Cristal M; Bartke, Andrzej; Turyn, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Transgenic mice overexpressing growth hormone (GH) show increased hepatic protein content of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is broadly associated with cell proliferation and oncogenesis. However, chronically elevated levels of GH result in desensitization of STAT-mediated EGF signal and similar response of ERK1/2 and AKT signaling to EGF compared to normal mice. To ascertain the mechanisms involved in GH attenuation of EGF signaling and the consequences on cell cycle promotion, phosphorylation of signaling mediators was studied at different time points after EGF stimulation, and induction of proteins involved in cell cycle progression was assessed in normal and GH-overexpressing transgenic mice. Results from kinetic studies confirmed the absence of STAT3 and 5 activation and comparable levels of ERK1/2 phosphorylation upon EGF stimulation, which was associated with diminished or similar induction of c-MYC, c-FOS, c-JUN, CYCLIN D1 and CYCLIN E in transgenic compared to normal mice. Accordingly, kinetics of EGF-induced c-SRC and EGFR phosphorylation at activating residues demonstrated that activation of these proteins was lower in the transgenic mice with respect to normal animals. In turn, EGFR phosphorylation at serine 1046/1047, which is implicated in the negative regulation of the receptor, was increased in the liver of GH-overexpressing transgenic mice both in basal conditions and upon EGF stimulus. Increased basal phosphorylation and activation of the p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase might account for increased Ser 1046/1047 EGFR. Hyperphosphorylation of EGFR at serine residues would represent a compensatory mechanism triggered by chronically elevated levels of GH to mitigate the proliferative response induced by EGF. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  12. Lactoferrin attenuates fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity via Akt signaling in hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Satoru; Tomita, Keiko; Ono, Tomoji; Murakoshi, Michiaki; Saito, Kenji; Sugiyama, Keikichi; Nishino, Hoyoku; Kato, Hisanori

    2015-12-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) describes a spectrum of lesions ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The excess influx of fatty acids (FAs) into the liver is recognized as a main cause of simple steatosis formation and progression to NASH. Recently, administration of lactoferrin (LF), a glycoprotein present in milk, was suggested to prevent NAFLD development. However, the effect of LF on the contribution of FA to NAFLD development remains unclear. In this study, the effects of LF on FA mixture (FAm)-induced lipotoxicity using human hepatocarcinoma G2 cells were assessed. FAm significantly decreased cell viability and increased intracellular lipid accumulation, whereas LF significantly recovered cell viability without affecting lipid accumulation. FAm-induced lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and caspase-3/7 activities were significantly decreased by LF and SP600125, a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) specific inhibitor. We also found that LF added to FAm-treated cells induced Akt phosphorylation, which contributed to inhibition of JNK signaling pathway-dependent apoptosis. Akt inhibitor VIII, an allosteric Akt inhibitor, significantly attenuated the effect of LF on LDH activity and abrogated the ones on cell viability and caspase-3/7 activity. In summary, the present study has revealed that LF has a protective effect on FAm-induced lipotoxicity in a HepG2 model of NAFLD and identified the activation of the Akt signaling pathway as a possibly major mechanism.

  13. The FBA motif-containing protein AFBA1 acts as a novel positive regulator of ABA response in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Young; Cui, Mei Hua; Noh, Min Soo; Jung, Kwang Wook; Shin, Jeong Sheop

    2017-03-01

    ABA plays a critical role in regulating seed germination and stomatal movement in response to drought stress. Screening ABA-responsive genes led to the identification of a novel Arabidopsis gene encoding a protein which contained a conserved F-box-associated (FBA) domain, subsequently named ABA-responsive FBA domain-containing protein 1 (AFBA1). Expression of ProAFBA1:GUS revealed that this gene was mainly expressed in guard cells. Expression of AFBA1 increased following the application of exogenous ABA and exposure to salt (NaCl) and drought stresses. Seed germination of the loss-of-function mutant (afba1) was insensitive to ABA, salt or mannitol, whereas AFBA1-overexpressing (Ox) seeds were more sensitive to these stresses than the wild-type seeds. The afba1 plants showed decreased drought tolerance, increased water loss rate and ABA-insensitive stomatal movement compared with the wild-type. In contrast, AFBA1-Ox plants exhibited enhanced drought tolerance and a rapid ABA-induced stomatal closure response. The expression of genes encoding serine/threonine protein phosphatases that are known negative regulators of ABA signaling increased in afba1 plants but decreased in AFBA1-Ox plants. AFBA1 was also found to be localized in the nucleus and to interact with an R2R3-type transcription factor, MYB44, leading to the suggestion that it functions in the stabilization of MYB44. Based on these results, we suggest that AFBA1 functions as a novel positive regulator of ABA responses, regulating the expression of genes involved in ABA signal transduction in Arabidopsis through its interaction with positive regulators of ABA signaling including MYB44, and increasing their stability during ABA-mediated responses. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. ABA accumulation in water-stressed Citrus roots does not rely on carotenoid content in this organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Matías; Lado, Joanna; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2016-11-01

    Sustained abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in dehydrated citrus roots depends on the transport from aerial organs. Under this condition, the role of the β,β-carotenoids (ABA precursors) to the de novo synthesis of ABA in roots needs to be clarified since their low availability in this organ restricts its accumulation. To accomplish that, detached citrus roots were exposed to light (to increase their carotenoid content) and subsequently dehydrated (to trigger ABA accumulation). Stress imposition sharply decreased the pool of β,β-carotenoids but, unexpectedly, no concomitant rise in ABA content was observed. Contrastingly, roots of intact plants (with low levels of carotenoids) showed a similar decrease of ABA precursor together with a significant ABA accumulation. Furthermore, upon dehydration both types of roots showed similar upregulation of the key genes involved in biosynthesis of carotenoids and ABA (CsPSY3a; CsβCHX1; CsβCHX2; CsNCED1; CsNCED2), demonstrating a conserved transcriptional response triggered by water stress. Thus, the sharp decrease in root carotenoid levels in response to dehydration should be related to other stress-related signals instead of contributing to ABA biosynthesis. In summary, ABA accumulation in dehydrated-citrus roots largely relies on the presence of the aerial organs and it is independent of the amount of available root β,β-carotenoids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analyzing signal attenuation in PFG anomalous diffusion via a non-Gaussian phase distribution approximation approach by fractional derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Guoxing

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous diffusion exists widely in polymer and biological systems. Pulsed field gradient (PFG) techniques have been increasingly used to study anomalous diffusion in NMR and MRI. However, the interpretation of PFG anomalous diffusion is complicated. Moreover, there is not an exact signal attenuation expression based on fractional derivatives for PFG anomalous diffusion, which includes the finite gradient pulse width effect. In this paper, a new method, a Mainardi-Luchko-Pagnini (MLP) phase distribution approximation, is proposed to describe PFG fractional diffusion. MLP phase distribution is a non-Gaussian phase distribution. From the fractional diffusion equation based on fractional derivatives in both real space and phase space, the obtained probability distribution function is a MLP distribution. The MLP distribution leads to a Mittag-Leffler function based PFG signal attenuation rather than the exponential or stretched exponential attenuation that is obtained from a Gaussian phase distribution (GPD) und...

  16. Inhibiting TNF-α signaling does not attenuate induction of endotoxin tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loosbroock C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Loosbroock, Kenneth W Hunter Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV, USA Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α is a central mediator of inflammatory responses elicited by Toll-like receptor agonists, such as the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS. TNF-α is responsible for altering vascular permeability and activating infiltrating inflammatory cells, such as monocytes and neutrophils. Interestingly, TNF-α has also demonstrated the ability to induce tolerance to subsequent challenges with TNF-α or LPS in monocyte and macrophage cell populations. Tolerance is characterized by the inability to mount a typical inflammatory response during subsequent challenges following the initial exposure to an inflammatory mediator such as LPS. The ability of TNF-α to induce a tolerant-like state with regard to LPS is most likely a regulatory mechanism to prevent excessive inflammation. We hypothesized that the induction of tolerance or the degree of tolerance is dependent upon the production of TNF-α during the primary response to LPS. To investigate TNF-α-dependent tolerance, human monocytic THP-1 cells were treated with TNF-α-neutralizing antibodies or antagonistic TNF-α receptor antibodies before primary LPS stimulation and then monitored for the production of TNF-α during the primary and challenge stimulation. During the primary stimulation, anti-TNF-α treatment effectively attenuated the production of TNF-α and interleukin-1β; however, this reduced production did not impact the induction of endotoxin tolerance. These results demonstrate that interfering with TNF-α signaling attenuates production of inflammatory cytokines without affecting the induction of tolerance. Keywords: endotoxin tolerance, lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha, THP-1 cells

  17. Potentiation of ghrelin signaling attenuates cancer anorexia–cachexia and prolongs survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitsuka, N; Asakawa, A; Uezono, Y; Minami, K; Yamaguchi, T; Niijima, A; Yada, T; Maejima, Y; Sedbazar, U; Sakai, T; Hattori, T; Kase, Y; Inui, A

    2011-01-01

    Cancer anorexia–cachexia syndrome is characterized by decreased food intake, weight loss, muscle tissue wasting and psychological distress, and this syndrome is a major source of increased morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. This study aimed to clarify the gut–brain peptides involved in the pathogenesis of the syndrome and determine effective treatment for cancer anorexia–cachexia. We show that both ghrelin insufficiency and resistance were observed in tumor-bearing rats. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) decreased the plasma level of acyl ghrelin, and its receptor antagonist, α-helical CRF, increased food intake of these rats. The serotonin 2c receptor (5-HT2cR) antagonist SB242084 decreased hypothalamic CRF level and improved anorexia, gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility and body weight loss. The ghrelin receptor antagonist (D-Lys3)-GHRP-6 worsened anorexia and hastened death in tumor-bearing rats. Ghrelin attenuated anorexia–cachexia in the short term, but failed to prolong survival, as did SB242084 administration. In addition, the herbal medicine rikkunshito improved anorexia, GI dysmotility, muscle wasting, and anxiety-related behavior and prolonged survival in animals and patients with cancer. The appetite-stimulating effect of rikkunshito was blocked by (D-Lys3)-GHRP-6. Active components of rikkunshito, hesperidin and atractylodin, potentiated ghrelin secretion and receptor signaling, respectively, and atractylodin prolonged survival in tumor-bearing rats. Our study demonstrates that the integrated mechanism underlying cancer anorexia–cachexia involves lowered ghrelin signaling due to excessive hypothalamic interactions of 5-HT with CRF through the 5-HT2cR. Potentiation of ghrelin receptor signaling may be an attractive treatment for anorexia, muscle wasting and prolong survival in patients with cancer anorexia–cachexia. PMID:22832525

  18. Molecular characterization of an AtPYL1-like protein, BrPYL1, as a putative ABA receptor in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanlin; Wang, Dandan; Sun, Congcong; Hu, Xiaochen; Mu, Xiaoqian; Hu, Jingjiang; Yang, Yongqing; Zhang, Yanfeng; Xie, Chang Gen; Zhou, Xiaona

    2017-06-03

    Abscisic acid (ABA)-induced physiological changes are conserved in many land plants and underlie their responses to environmental stress and pathogens. The PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE1/PYR1-LIKE/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORS (PYLs)-type receptors perceive the ABA signal and initiate signal transduction. Here, we show that the genome of Brassica rapa encodes 24 putative AtPYL-like proteins. The AtPYL-like proteins in Brassica rapa (BrPYLs) can also be classified into 3 subclasses. We found that nearly all BrPYLs displayed high expression in at least one tissue. Overexpression of BrPYL1 conferred ABA hypersensitivity to Arabidopsis. Further, ABA activated the expression of an ABA-responsive reporter in Arabidopsis protoplasts expressing BrPYL1. Overall, these results suggest that BrPYL1 is a putative functional ABA receptor in Brassica rapa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Analyzing signal attenuation in PFG anomalous diffusion via a non-Gaussian phase distribution approximation approach by fractional derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guoxing

    2016-11-21

    Anomalous diffusion exists widely in polymer and biological systems. Pulsed-field gradient (PFG) techniques have been increasingly used to study anomalous diffusion in nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging. However, the interpretation of PFG anomalous diffusion is complicated. Moreover, the exact signal attenuation expression including the finite gradient pulse width effect has not been obtained based on fractional derivatives for PFG anomalous diffusion. In this paper, a new method, a Mainardi-Luchko-Pagnini (MLP) phase distribution approximation, is proposed to describe PFG fractional diffusion. MLP phase distribution is a non-Gaussian phase distribution. From the fractional derivative model, both the probability density function (PDF) of a spin in real space and the PDF of the spin's accumulating phase shift in virtual phase space are MLP distributions. The MLP phase distribution leads to a Mittag-Leffler function based PFG signal attenuation, which differs significantly from the exponential attenuation for normal diffusion and from the stretched exponential attenuation for fractional diffusion based on the fractal derivative model. A complete signal attenuation expression Eα(-Dfbα,β(*)) including the finite gradient pulse width effect was obtained and it can handle all three types of PFG fractional diffusions. The result was also extended in a straightforward way to give a signal attenuation expression of fractional diffusion in PFG intramolecular multiple quantum coherence experiments, which has an n(β) dependence upon the order of coherence which is different from the familiar n(2) dependence in normal diffusion. The results obtained in this study are in agreement with the results from the literature. The results in this paper provide a set of new, convenient approximation formalisms to interpret complex PFG fractional diffusion experiments.

  20. Analyzing signal attenuation in PFG anomalous diffusion via a non-Gaussian phase distribution approximation approach by fractional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guoxing

    2016-11-01

    Anomalous diffusion exists widely in polymer and biological systems. Pulsed-field gradient (PFG) techniques have been increasingly used to study anomalous diffusion in nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging. However, the interpretation of PFG anomalous diffusion is complicated. Moreover, the exact signal attenuation expression including the finite gradient pulse width effect has not been obtained based on fractional derivatives for PFG anomalous diffusion. In this paper, a new method, a Mainardi-Luchko-Pagnini (MLP) phase distribution approximation, is proposed to describe PFG fractional diffusion. MLP phase distribution is a non-Gaussian phase distribution. From the fractional derivative model, both the probability density function (PDF) of a spin in real space and the PDF of the spin's accumulating phase shift in virtual phase space are MLP distributions. The MLP phase distribution leads to a Mittag-Leffler function based PFG signal attenuation, which differs significantly from the exponential attenuation for normal diffusion and from the stretched exponential attenuation for fractional diffusion based on the fractal derivative model. A complete signal attenuation expression Eα(-Dfbα,β * ) including the finite gradient pulse width effect was obtained and it can handle all three types of PFG fractional diffusions. The result was also extended in a straightforward way to give a signal attenuation expression of fractional diffusion in PFG intramolecular multiple quantum coherence experiments, which has an nβ dependence upon the order of coherence which is different from the familiar n2 dependence in normal diffusion. The results obtained in this study are in agreement with the results from the literature. The results in this paper provide a set of new, convenient approximation formalisms to interpret complex PFG fractional diffusion experiments.

  1. Hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide regulation of phenolic metabolism under water stress and ABA in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rattanpreet; Zhawar, Vikramjit Kaur

    2017-06-01

    Wheat cultivar PBW644 (drought tolerant) and PBW343 (drought sensitive) were found as ABA-higher sensitive and ABA-lesser sensitive, respectively, in the screen of six wheat cultivars. Both cultivars were studied for H2O2 (ROS)/nitric oxide (NO)-regulation of growth and phenolic metabolism under ABA and water stress (WS) by supplying ROS/NO producers as well as scavengers. Endogenous ROS/NO under ABA/WS increased growth, such effect was higher in PBW644. In PBW343, reduced growth under WS was improved by exogenous ROS/NO. Exogenous ROS/NO under ABA/WS decreased lignin and increased phenolics in PBW343 but such relation was not found in PBW644. Endogenous NO under WS increased flavonoids in both cultivars. Both ROS/NO under ABA/WS increased flavonoids in PBW644, however, in PBW343, only ROS increased these in roots. Under WS, PBW644 showed higher levels of cell wall peroxidase (CW-POX) and lower levels of soluble peroxidase (S-POX) than PBW343. However, under ABA, it showed higher levels of both peroxidases. ROS/NO signals under ABA increased both types of POX in both cultivars while under WS, these signals increased both types in PBW343 but CW-POX only in PBW644. Polyphenol oxidases were ABA-upregulated in PBW644 only. Under WS, these enzymes were maintained higher in PBW343. This study indicated that tolerant cultivar under WS contained sufficient endogenous ROS/NO signalling to which susceptible cultivar lacked but showed improvement on exogenous applications. Secondly, tolerant cultivar was using less phenolic activity under WS which could be due to the presence of sufficient levels of primary antioxidants.

  2. Loss of ACS7 confers abiotic stress tolerance by modulating ABA sensitivity and accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hui; Zhen, Zhiqin; Peng, Jinying; Chang, Li; Gong, Qingqiu; Wang, Ning Ning

    2011-10-01

    The phytohormones ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) play essential roles in the abiotic stress adaptation of plants, with both cross-talk of ethylene signalling and ABA biosynthesis and signalling reported. Any reciprocal effects on each other's biosynthesis, however, remain elusive. ACC synthase (ACS) acts as the key enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis. A pilot study on changes in ACS promoter activities in response to abiotic stresses revealed the unique involvement in abiotic stress responses of the only type 3 ACC synthase, ACS7, among all nine ACSs of Arabidopsis. Hence an acs7 mutant was characterized and its abiotic stress responses were analysed. The acs7 mutant germinated slightly faster than the wild type and subsequently maintained a higher growth rate at the vegetative growth stage. Ethylene emission of acs7 was merely one-third of that of the wild type. acs7 exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt, osmotic, and heat stresses. Furthermore, acs7 seeds were hypersensitive to both ABA and glucose during germination. Transcript analyses revealed that acs7 had elevated transcript levels of the stress-responsive genes involved in the ABA-dependent pathway under salt stress. The ABA level was also higher in acs7 following salt treatment. Our data suggest that ACS7 acts as a negative regulator of ABA sensitivity and accumulation under stress and appears as a node in the cross-talk between ethylene and ABA.

  3. Production of ABA responses requires both the nuclear and cytoplasmic functional involvement of PYR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, EunJoo; Kim, Tae-Houn

    2017-02-26

    Abscisic acid (ABA) enhances stress tolerant responses in plants against unfavorable environmental conditions. In Arabidopsis, ABA promotes interactions between PYR/PYL/RCARs and PP2C, thereby allowing SnRK2s to phosphorylate downstream components required for the regulation of gene expression or for gating ion channels. Because PYR1 is known to localize to nucleus and cytoplasm it is a question whether nuclear or cytoplasmic PYR1 confer different functions to the ABA signaling pathway, as has been previously shown for regulatory proteins. In order to answer this question, transgenic lines expressing nuclear PYR1 were generated in an ABA insensitive mutant background. Enforced nuclear expression of PYR1 was examined by confocal microscopy and western blot analysis. Physiological analyses of the transgenic lines demonstrated that nuclear PYR1 is sufficient to generate ABA responses, such as, the inhibition of seed germination, root growth inhibition, the induction of gene expression, and stomatal closing movement. However, for the full recovery of ABA responses in the mutant background cytoplasmic PYR1 was required. The study suggests both nuclear and cytoplasmic PYR1 participate in the control of ABA signal transduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Degradation of the ABA co-receptor ABI1 by PUB12/13 U-box E3 ligases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingyao; Cheng, Jinkui; Zhu, Yujuan; Ding, Yanglin; Meng, Jingjing; Chen, Zhizhong; Xie, Qi; Guo, Yan; Li, Jigang; Yang, Shuhua; Gong, Zhizhong

    2015-01-01

    Clade A protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs) are abscisic acid (ABA) co-receptors that block ABA signalling by inhibiting the downstream protein kinases. ABA signalling is activated after PP2Cs are inhibited by ABA-bound PYR/PYL/RCAR ABA receptors (PYLs) in Arabidopsis. However, whether these PP2Cs are regulated by other factors remains unknown. Here, we report that ABI1 (ABA-INSENSITIVE 1) can interact with the U-box E3 ligases PUB12 and PUB13, but is ubiquitinated only when it interacts with ABA receptors in an in vitro assay. A mutant form of ABI1-1 that is unable to interact with PYLs is more stable than the wild-type protein. Both ABI1 degradation and all tested ABA responses are reduced in pub12 pub13 mutants compared with the wild type. Introducing the abi1-3 loss-of-function mutation into pub12 pub13 mutant recovers the ABA-insensitive phenotypes of the pub12 pub13 mutant. We thus uncover an important regulatory mechanism for regulating ABI1 levels by PUB12 and PUB13. PMID:26482222

  5. Melatonin attenuates titanium particle-induced osteolysis via activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Zichuan; Hu, Xuanyang; Wang, Liangliang; Shi, Jiawei; Tao, Yunxia; Wu, Xiexing; Hou, Zhenyang; Guo, Xiaobin; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Huilin; Xu, Yaozeng; Wang, Zhirong; Geng, Dechun

    2017-03-15

    Wear debris-induced inhibition of bone regeneration and extensive bone resorption were common features in peri-prosthetic osteolysis (PPO). Here, we investigated the effect of melatonin on titanium particle-stimulated osteolysis in a murine calvariae model and mouse-mesenchymal-stem cells (mMSCs) culture system. Melatonin inhibited titanium particle-induced osteolysis and increased bone formation at osteolytic sites, confirmed by radiological and histomorphometric data. Furthermore, osteoclast numbers decreased dramatically in the low- and high-melatonin administration mice, as respectively, compared with the untreated animals. Melatonin alleviated titanium particle-induced depression of osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization in mMSCs. Mechanistically, melatonin was found to reduce the degradation of β-catenin, levels of which were decreased in presence of titanium particles both in vivo and in vitro. To further ensure whether the protective effect of melatonin was mediated by the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, ICG-001, a selective β-catenin inhibitor, was added to the melatonin-treated groups and was found to attenuate the effect of melatonin on mMSC mineralization. We also demonstrated that melatonin modulated the balance between receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand and osteoprotegerin via activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. These findings strongly suggest that melatonin represents a promising candidate in the treatment of PPO. Peri-prosthetic osteolysis, initiated by wear debris-induced inhibition of bone regeneration and extensive bone resorption, is the leading cause for implant failure and reason for revision surgery. In the current study, we demonstrated for the first time that melatonin can induce bone regeneration and reduce bone resorption at osteolytic sites caused by titanium-particle stimulation. These effects might be mediated by activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and enhancing osteogenic

  6. Analyzing signal attenuation in PFG anomalous diffusion via a modified Gaussian phase distribution approximation based on fractal derivative model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guoxing

    2017-02-01

    Pulsed field gradient (PFG) technique is a noninvasive tool, and has been increasingly employed to study anomalous diffusions in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). However, the analysis of PFG anomalous diffusion is much more complicated than normal diffusion. In this paper, a fractal derivative model based modified Gaussian phase distribution method is proposed to describe PFG anomalous diffusion. By using the phase distribution obtained from the effective phase shift diffusion method based on fractal derivatives, and employing some of the traditional Gaussian phase distribution approximation techniques, a general signal attenuation expression for free fractional diffusion is derived. This expression describes a stretched exponential function based attenuation, which is distinct from both the exponential attenuation for normal diffusion obtained from conventional Gaussian phase distribution approximation, and the Mittag-Leffler function based attenuation for anomalous diffusion obtained from fractional derivative. The obtained signal attenuation expression can analyze the finite gradient pulse width (FGPW) effect. Additionally, it can generally be applied to all three types of PFG fractional diffusions classified based on time derivative order α and space derivative order β. These three types of fractional diffusions include time-fractional diffusion with { 0 < α ≤ 2 , β = 2 } , space-fractional diffusion with { α = 1 , 0 < β ≤ 2 } , and general fractional diffusion with { 0 < α , β ≤ 2 } . The results in this paper are consistent with reported results based on effective phase shift diffusion equation method and instantaneous signal attenuation method. This method provides a new, convenient approximation formalism for analyzing PFG anomalous diffusion experiments. The expression that can simultaneously interpret general fractional diffusion and FGPW effect could be especially important in PFG MRI, where the narrow

  7. Carbon Monoxide Attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis via Inhibition of GSK-3β Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jamal Uddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO is produced by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 which mediates the degradation of heme into CO, iron, and biliverdin. Also, CO ameliorates the human inflammatory bowel diseases and ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanism for the effect of CO on the inflammatory bowel disease has not yet been known. In this study, we showed that CO significantly increases survival percentage, body weight, colon length as well as histologic parameters in DSS-treated mice. In addition, CO inhalation significantly decreased DSS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibition of GSK-3β in mice model. To support the in vivo observation, TNF-α, iNOS and IL-10 after CO and LiCl treatment were measured in mesenteric lymph node cells (MLNs and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs from DSS treated mice. In addition, we determined that CO potentially inhibited GSK-3β activation and decreased TNF-α and iNOS expression by inhibition of NF-κB activation in LPS-stimulated U937 and MLN cells pretreated with CO. Together, our findings indicate that CO attenuates DSS-induced colitis via inhibition of GSK-3β signaling in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, this is the first report that investigated the molecular mechanisms mediated the novel effects of CO via inhibition GSK-3β in DSS-induced colitis model.

  8. Doxycycline Attenuates Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis by Prostaglandin E2-EP4 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingwen; Su, Wenru; Chen, Xiaoqing; Cheng, Xiaokang; Dai, Ye; Han, Longhui; Liang, Dan

    2015-10-01

    We explored the anti-inflammatory effects of doxycycline in experimental uveitis and the underlying mechanisms. Rats with endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) received doxycycline (1.5 mg/kg) or the control vehicle via intraperitoneal injection. Clinical scores were graded under a slit lamp. Rat peritoneal macrophages were used in vitro to further explore the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of doxycycline. The levels of nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α, IL-1β, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, I kappa B-α (IκB-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Akt, caspase-3, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were analyzed. Treatment with doxycycline dramatically reduced the clinical scores of EIU (P doxycycline significantly inhibited the production of NO, IL-1β, and TNF-α in peritoneal macrophages by modulating the PI3K/Akt/IκB-α/NF-κB pathway. Importantly, we found that doxycycline significantly enhanced COX2 expression and PGE2 production both in vivo and in vitro. More importantly, blockade of the EP4 receptor of PGE2 significantly reversed the doxycycline-mediated inhibition of macrophages and the PI3K/Akt pathway in vitro. Furthermore, simultaneous injection of an EP4 antagonist and doxycycline significantly blocked the doxycycline-mediated attenuation of EIU. Doxycycline can ameliorate EIU, and PGE2-EP4 signaling is essential for the anti-inflammatory effects of doxycycline in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Dapper1 attenuates hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis by activating PI3K/Akt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Jian-Ren; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Leng, Wei-Ling; Lei, Xiao-Tian; Liang, Zi-Wen

    2017-05-15

    Studies have shown that hepatic insulin resistance, a disorder of glucose and lipid metabolism, plays a vital role in type 2 diabetes (T2D). To clarify the function of Dapper1 in glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver, we investigated the relationships between Dapper1 and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)- and Ca 2+ -mediated activation of PI3K/Akt. We observed a reduction in hepatic Dapper1 in db/db (mice that are homozygous for a spontaneous diabetes mutation) and HFD-induced diabetic mice with T2D. Hepatic overexpression of Dapper1 improved hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and fatty liver. It also increased Akt (pAkt) signaling and repressed both gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis. Conversely, Ad-shDapper1-induced knockdown of hepatic Dapper1 promoted gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis. Furthermore, Dapper1 activated PI3K p110α/Akt in an insulin-independent manner by inducing ATP production and secretion in vitro. Blockade of P2 ATP receptors, the downstream phospholipase C (PLC), or the inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R all reduced the Dapper1-induced increase in cytosolic free calcium and Dapper1-mediated PI3K/Akt activation, as did removal of calcium in the medium. In conclusion, Dapper1 attenuates hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis in T2D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Targeting FLT3-ITD signaling mediates ceramide-dependent mitophagy and attenuates drug resistance in AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dany, Mohammed; Gencer, Salih; Nganga, Rose; Thomas, Raquela J; Oleinik, Natalia; Baron, Kyla D; Szulc, Zdzislaw M; Ruvolo, Peter; Kornblau, Steven; Andreeff, Michael; Ogretmen, Besim

    2016-10-13

    Signaling pathways regulated by mutant Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-internal tandem duplication (ITD), which mediate resistance to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell death, are poorly understood. Here, we reveal that pro-cell death lipid ceramide generation is suppressed by FLT3-ITD signaling. Molecular or pharmacologic inhibition of FLT3-ITD reactivated ceramide synthesis, selectively inducing mitophagy and AML cell death. Mechanistically, FLT3-ITD targeting induced ceramide accumulation on the outer mitochondrial membrane, which then directly bound autophagy-inducing light chain 3 (LC3), involving its I35 and F52 residues, to recruit autophagosomes for execution of lethal mitophagy. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of LC3 prevented AML cell death in response to FLT3-ITD inhibition by crenolanib, which was restored by wild-type (WT)-LC3, but not mutants of LC3 with altered ceramide binding (I35A-LC3 or F52A-LC3). Mitochondrial ceramide accumulation and lethal mitophagy induction in response to FLT3-ITD targeting was mediated by dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) activation via inhibition of protein kinase A-regulated S637 phosphorylation, resulting in mitochondrial fission. Inhibition of Drp1 prevented ceramide-dependent lethal mitophagy, and reconstitution of WT-Drp1 or phospho-null S637A-Drp1 but not its inactive phospho-mimic mutant (S637D-Drp1), restored mitochondrial fission and mitophagy in response to crenolanib in FLT3-ITD+ AML cells expressing stable shRNA against endogenous Drp1. Moreover, activating FLT3-ITD signaling in crenolanib-resistant AML cells suppressed ceramide-dependent mitophagy and prevented cell death. FLT3-ITD+ AML drug resistance is attenuated by LCL-461, a mitochondria-targeted ceramide analog drug, in vivo, which also induced lethal mitophagy in human AML blasts with clinically relevant FLT3 mutations. Thus, these data reveal a novel mechanism which regulates AML cell death by ceramide-dependent mitophagy in response to

  11. ABA- and ethylene-mediated responses in osmotically stressed tomato are regulated by the TSS2 and TOS1 loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Abel; Amaya, Iraida; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Cuartero, Jesús; Botella, Miguel A; Borsani, Omar

    2006-01-01

    The study of mutants impaired in the sensitivity or synthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) has become a powerful tool to analyse the interactions occurring between the ABA and ethylene signalling pathways, with potential to change the traditional view of the role of ABA as just being involved in growth inhibition. The tss2 tomato mutant, which is hypersensitive to NaCl and osmotic stress, shows enhanced growth inhibition in the presence of exogenous ABA. The tos1 tomato mutant is also hypersensitive to osmotic stress, but in contrast to tss2, shows decreased sensitivity to ABA. Surprisingly, blocking ethylene signalling suppresses the growth defect of tss2 seedlings on ABA, NaCl, and osmotic stress, but not the osmotic hypersensitivity of tos1. The ethylene production of tss2 seedlings is increased compared with that of control seedlings under osmotic stress. In addition, the tss2 plants are hypersensitive to root growth inhibition by the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). This suggests that, in addition to ABA regulation, TSS2 acts as a negative regulator of endogenous ethylene accumulation. As previously shown in Arabidopsis, it is shown here that extensive cross-talk occurs between the ABA and ethylene signalling pathways in tomato and that the TSS2 and TOS1 loci appear as regulators of this cross-talk.

  12. Lab-Attenuated Rabies Virus Causes Abortive Infection and Induces Cytokine Expression in Astrocytes by Activating Mitochondrial Antiviral-Signaling Protein Signaling Pathway

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    Bin Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is an ancient disease but remains endemic in most parts of the world and causes approximately 59,000 deaths annually. The mechanism through which the causative agent, rabies virus (RABV, evades the host immune response and infects the host central nervous system (CNS has not been completely elucidated thus far. Our previous studies have shown that lab-attenuated, but not wild-type (wt, RABV activates the innate immune response in the mouse and dog models. In this present study, we demonstrate that lab-attenuated RABV causes abortive infection in astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the CNS. Furthermore, we found that lab-attenuated RABV produces more double-stranded RNA (dsRNA than wt RABV, which is recognized by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I or melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5. Activation of mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, the common adaptor molecule for RIG-I and MDA5, results in the production of type I interferon (IFN and the expression of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes, which suppress RABV replication and spread in astrocytes. Notably, lab-attenuated RABV replicates in a manner identical to that of wt RABV in MAVS−/− astrocytes. It was also found that lab-attenuated, but not wt, RABV induces the expression of inflammatory cytokines via the MAVS- p38/NF-κB signaling pathway. These inflammatory cytokines increase the blood–brain barrier permeability and thus enable immune cells and antibodies infiltrate the CNS parenchyma, resulting in RABV control and elimination. In contrast, wt RABV restricts dsRNA production and thus evades innate recognition by RIG-I/MDA5 in astrocytes, which could be one of the mechanisms by which wt RABV evades the host immune response in resident CNS cells. Our findings suggest that astrocytes play a critical role in limiting the replication of lab-attenuated RABV in the CNS.

  13. Synthetic RGDS peptide attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary inflammation by inhibiting integrin signaled MAP kinase pathways

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    Hah Jong

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic peptides containing the RGD sequence inhibit integrin-related functions in different cell systems. Here, we investigated the effects of synthetic Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS peptide on key inflammatory responses to intratracheal (i.t. lipopolysaccharide (LPS treatment and on the integrin signaled mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase pathway during the development of acute lung injury. Methods Saline or LPS (1.5 mg/kg was administered i.t. with or without a single dose of RGDS (1, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg, i.p., anti-αv or anti-β3 mAb (5 mg/kg, i.p.. Mice were sacrificed 4 or 24 h post-LPS. Results A pretreatment with RGDS inhibited LPS-induced increases in neutrophil and macrophage numbers, total protein levels and TNF-α and MIP-2 levels, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid at 4 or 24 h post-LPS treatment. RGDS inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and MAP kinases, including ERK, JNK, and p38 MAP kinase, in lung tissue. Importantly, the inhibition of the inflammatory responses and the kinase pathways were still evident when this peptide was administered 2 h after LPS treatment. Similarly, a blocking antibody against integrin αv significantly inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory cell migration into the lung, protein accumulation and proinflammatory mediator production in BAL fluid, at 4 or 24 h post-LPS. Anti-β3 also inhibited all LPS-induced inflammatory responses, except the accumulation of BAL protein at 24 h post-LPS. Conclusion These results suggest that RGDS with high specificity for αvintegrins attenuates inflammatory cascade during LPS-induced development of acute lung injury.

  14. Overexpression of SDH confers tolerance to salt and osmotic stress, but decreases ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Pu; Ren, Jing-Jing; Yu, Qin; Zhou, Shu-Mei; Ren, Qiu-Ping; Kong, Lan-Jing; Wang, Xiu-Ling

    2017-11-10

    Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) catalyzes the reversible oxidation of sorbitol, xylitol and ribitol to their corresponding ketoses. In this study, we investigated the expression and role of Arabidopsis SDH in salt and osmotic stress tolerance, and abscisic acid (ABA) response. The expression patterns of SDH were investigated using transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing beta-glucuronidase (GUS) under the control of promoter with the first intron of SDH. qRT-PCR and histochemical assay of GUS activity were used to study SDH expression regulation by ABA, salt and osmotic stress. The SDH-overexpression lines of Arabidopsis were used to investigate the role of SDH involved in salt and osmotic stress, and ABA response. Arabidopsis SDH was predominantly expressed in source organs such as green cotyledons, fully expanded leaves and sepals, especially in the vascular tissues of theses organs. The SDH expression was inhibited by NaCl and mannitol treatments. Seed germination and post-germination growth of SDH-overexpressing lines exhibited decreased sensitivity toward salt and osmotic stress compared to wild-type plants. The transcript of SDH was induced by ABA. Overexpression of SDH decreased sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and post-germination growth. Expression of AAO3 was increased but ABI5 and MYB2 was decreased in SDH-overexpressing lines after ABA treatment. This study demonstrated that the expression of SDH is regulated by ABA, salt and osmotic stress. SDH functions in plant tolerance to salt and osmotic stress, and ABA response via specific regulating gene expression of ABA synthesis and signaling in Arabidopsis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Salt Stress Represses Soybean Seed Germination by Negatively Regulating GA Biosynthesis While Positively Mediating ABA Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Shu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important and staple oilseed crop worldwide. Salinity stress has adverse effects on soybean development periods, especially on seed germination and post-germinative growth. Improving seed germination and emergence will have positive effects under salt stress conditions on agricultural production. Here we report that NaCl delays soybean seed germination by negatively regulating gibberellin (GA while positively mediating abscisic acid (ABA biogenesis, which leads to a decrease in the GA/ABA ratio. This study suggests that fluridone (FLUN, an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, might be a potential plant growth regulator that can promote soybean seed germination under saline stress. Different soybean cultivars, which possessed distinct genetic backgrounds, showed a similar repressed phenotype during seed germination under exogenous NaCl application. Biochemical analysis revealed that NaCl treatment led to high MDA (malondialdehyde level during germination and the post-germinative growth stages. Furthermore, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities also changed after NaCl treatment. Subsequent quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis showed that the transcription levels of ABA and GA biogenesis and signaling genes were altered after NaCl treatment. In line with this, phytohormone measurement also revealed that NaCl considerably down-regulated active GA1, GA3, and GA4 levels, whereas the ABA content was up-regulated; and therefore ratios, such as GA1/ABA, GA3/ABA, and GA4/ABA, are decreased. Consistent with the hormonal quantification, FLUN partially rescued the delayed-germination phenotype caused by NaCl-treatment. Altogether, these results demonstrate that NaCl stress inhibits soybean seed germination by decreasing the GA/ABA ratio, and that FLUN might be a potential plant growth regulator that could promote soybean seed germination under salinity stress.

  16. Significant contribution from foliage-derived ABA in regulating gas exchange in Pinus radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Patrick J; McAdam, Scott A M; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2017-02-01

    The complex regulatory system controlling stomata involves physical and chemical signals that affect guard cell turgor to bring about changes in stomatal conductance (gs). Abscisic acid (ABA) closes stomata, yet the mechanisms controlling foliar ABA status in tree species remain unclear. The importance of foliage-derived ABA in regulating gas exchange was evaluated under treatments that affected phloem export through girdling and reduced water availability in the tree species, Pinus radiata (D. Don). Branch- and whole-plant girdling increased foliar ABA levels leading to declines in gs, despite no change in plant water status. Changes in gs were largely independent of the more transient increases in foliar non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), suggesting that gradual accumulation of foliar ABA was the primary mechanism for reductions in gs and assimilation. Whole-plant girdling eventually reduced root NSC, hindering root water uptake and decreasing foliar water potential, causing a dramatic increase in ABA level in leaves and concentrations in the xylem sap of shoots (4032 ng ml-1), while root xylem sap concentrations remained low (43 ng ml-1). Contrastingly, the drought treatment caused similar increases in xylem sap ABA in both roots and shoots, suggesting that declines in water potential result in relatively consistent changes in ABA along the hydraulic pathway. ABA levels in plant canopies can be regulated independently of changes in root water status triggered by changes by both phloem export and foliar water status. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Salt Stress Represses Soybean Seed Germination by Negatively Regulating GA Biosynthesis While Positively Mediating ABA Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Kai; Qi, Ying; Chen, Feng; Meng, Yongjie; Luo, Xiaofeng; Shuai, Haiwei; Zhou, Wenguan; Ding, Jun; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Weiguo; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun; Feng, Yuqi; Yang, Wenyu

    2017-01-01

    Soybean is an important and staple oilseed crop worldwide. Salinity stress has adverse effects on soybean development periods, especially on seed germination and post-germinative growth. Improving seed germination and emergence will have positive effects under salt stress conditions on agricultural production. Here we report that NaCl delays soybean seed germination by negatively regulating gibberellin (GA) while positively mediating abscisic acid (ABA) biogenesis, which leads to a decrease in the GA/ABA ratio. This study suggests that fluridone (FLUN), an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, might be a potential plant growth regulator that can promote soybean seed germination under saline stress. Different soybean cultivars, which possessed distinct genetic backgrounds, showed a similar repressed phenotype during seed germination under exogenous NaCl application. Biochemical analysis revealed that NaCl treatment led to high MDA (malondialdehyde) level during germination and the post-germinative growth stages. Furthermore, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities also changed after NaCl treatment. Subsequent quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis showed that the transcription levels of ABA and GA biogenesis and signaling genes were altered after NaCl treatment. In line with this, phytohormone measurement also revealed that NaCl considerably down-regulated active GA1, GA3, and GA4 levels, whereas the ABA content was up-regulated; and therefore ratios, such as GA1/ABA, GA3/ABA, and GA4/ABA, are decreased. Consistent with the hormonal quantification, FLUN partially rescued the delayed-germination phenotype caused by NaCl-treatment. Altogether, these results demonstrate that NaCl stress inhibits soybean seed germination by decreasing the GA/ABA ratio, and that FLUN might be a potential plant growth regulator that could promote soybean seed germination under salinity stress.

  18. Regulation of interferon signaling by the C and V proteins from attenuated and wild-type strains of measles virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Judith M; Bankamp, Bettina; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2008-04-25

    The C and V proteins of the measles virus (MV) have been shown to block the signaling of type I and II interferon (IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma). The relative contribution of the C and V proteins to the inhibition of IFN signaling and the extent to which this activity differs in attenuated or wild-type strains of MV remains undefined. This study presents a comparison of the IFN-antagonist activities of C and V proteins from four attenuated and two wild-type strains of MV. The V proteins were more potent inhibitors of IFN-inducible reporter gene expression than the C proteins, and this effect was unrelated to whether the protein originated from an attenuated or wild-type strain. The results also demonstrated the importance of the tyrosine at position 110 in the inhibition of IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma signaling by the V protein, and identified a non-recombinant MV expressing a V protein that was impaired due to a mutation at this residue.

  19. An apple CIPK protein kinase targets a novel residue of AREB transcription factor for ABA-dependent phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qi-Jun; Sun, Mei-Hong; Lu, Jing; Liu, Ya-Jing; You, Chun-Xiang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2017-10-01

    Phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many important processes in plants. It is a major molecule facilitating signal transduction during the abiotic stress response. In this study, an ABA-inducible transcription factor gene, MdAREB2, was identified in apple. Transgenic analysis was performed to characterize its function in ABA sensitivity. Overexpression of the MdAREB2 gene increased ABA sensitivity in the transgenic apple compared with the wild-type (WT) control. In addition, it was found that the protein MdAREB2 was phosphorylated at a novel site Thr(411) in response to ABA. A yeast two-hybridization screen of an apple cDNA library demonstrated that a protein kinase, MdCIPK22, interacted with MdAREB2. Their interaction was further verified with Pull Down and Co-IP assays. A series of transgenic analyses in apple calli and plantlets showed that MdCIPK22 was required for ABA-induced phosphorylation at Thr(411) of the MdAREB2 protein and enhanced its stability and transcriptional activity. Finally, it was found that MdCIPK22 increased ABA sensitivity in an MdAREB2-dependent manner. Our findings indicate a novel phosphorylation site in CIPK-AREB regulatory module for the ABA signalling pathway, which would be helpful for researchers to identify the functions of uncharacterized homologs in the future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Diagnosis of retrodiscal tissue in painful temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Migiwa; Otonari-Yamamoto, Mika; Sano, Tsukasa; Fujikura, Mamiko; Wakoh, Mamoru

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal intensity of the retrodiscal tissue in a painful temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and to develop a diagnostic system based on FLAIR data. The study was based on 33 joints of 17 patients referred for MR imaging of the TMJ. Regions of interest were placed over retrodiscal tissue and gray matter (GM) on FLAIR images. Using signal intensities of GM as reference points, signal intensity ratios (SIR) of retrodiscal tissue were calculated. SIRs in painful TMJ were compared with those in painless TMJ. Wilcoxon's Rank Sum Test was used to analyze the difference in SIRs between the painful and painless groups (Ppainful joints than in painless joints. FLAIR sequences provide a high signal in patients having painful TMJ, and it suggests that retrodiscal tissue in painful TMJ contains elements such as protein.

  1. The ABA receptor PYL8 promotes lateral root growth by enhancing MYB77-dependent transcription of auxin-responsive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Xing, Lu; Wang, Xingang; Hou, Yueh-Ju; Gao, Jinghui; Wang, Pengcheng; Duan, Cheng-Guo; Zhu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2014-06-03

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant growth, development, and abiotic stress responses. ABA signaling is mediated by a group of receptors known as the PYR1/PYL/RCAR family, which includes the pyrabactin resistance 1-like protein PYL8. Under stress conditions, ABA signaling activates SnRK2 protein kinases to inhibit lateral root growth after emergence from the primary root. However, even in the case of persistent stress, lateral root growth eventually recovers from inhibition. We showed that PYL8 is required for the recovery of lateral root growth, following inhibition by ABA. PYL8 directly interacted with the transcription factors MYB77, MYB44, and MYB73. The interaction of PYL8 and MYB77 increased the binding of MYB77 to its target MBSI motif in the promoters of multiple auxin-responsive genes. Compared to wild-type seedlings, the lateral root growth of pyl8 mutant seedlings and myb77 mutant seedlings was more sensitive to inhibition by ABA. The recovery of lateral root growth was delayed in pyl8 mutant seedlings in the presence of ABA, and the defect was rescued by exposing pyl8 mutant seedlings to the auxin IAA (3-indoleacetic acid). Thus, PYL8 promotes lateral root growth independently of the core ABA-SnRK2 signaling pathway by enhancing the activities of MYB77 and its paralogs, MYB44 and MYB73, to augment auxin signaling. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Morin Attenuates Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Inflammation by Modulating Oxidative Stress-Responsive MAPK Signaling

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    Yuan Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most common inflammatory diseases characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and remodeling. Morin, an active ingredient obtained from Moraceae plants, has been demonstrated to have promising anti-inflammatory activities in a range of disorders. However, its impacts on pulmonary diseases, particularly on asthma, have not been clarified. This study was designed to investigate whether morin alleviates airway inflammation in chronic asthma with an emphasis on oxidative stress modulation. In vivo, ovalbumin- (OVA- sensitized mice were administered with morin or dexamethasone before challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and lung tissues were obtained to perform cell counts, histological analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro, human bronchial epithelial cells (BECs were challenged by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. The supernatant was collected for the detection of the proinflammatory proteins, and the cells were collected for reactive oxygen species (ROS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK evaluations. Severe inflammatory responses and remodeling were observed in the airways of the OVA-sensitized mice. Treatment with morin dramatically attenuated the extensive trafficking of inflammatory cells into the BALF and inhibited their infiltration around the respiratory tracts and vessels. Morin administration also significantly suppressed goblet cell hyperplasia and collagen deposition/fibrosis and dose-dependently inhibited the OVA-induced increases in IgE, TNF-α, interleukin- (IL- 4, IL-13, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and malondialdehyde. In human BECs challenged by TNF-α, the levels of proteins such as eotaxin-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, IL-8 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, were consistently significantly decreased by morin. Western blotting and the 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein assay revealed that the increases in intracellular ROS and MAPK phosphorylation were

  3. Quercetin attenuates atherosclerotic inflammation and adhesion molecule expression by modulating TLR-NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Shobha; Sudhakaran, P R; Helen, A

    2016-12-01

    Adhesion molecules expressed by activated endothelial cells play key role in regulating leukocyte trafficking to sites of inflammation. The present study attempted to explore whether the polyphenolic flavonoid quercetin influence leukocyte endothelial attraction and the involvement of TLR-NF-κB signaling pathway in the expression of adhesion molecules involved in the early development of atherosclerosis. Quercetin at 25μM concentration significantly reduced the HUVEC expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 evidently enhanced by oxLDL. In addition, quercetin significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of MCP-1 and alleviated the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit in oxLDL induced HUVECs. Western blot and PCR analyses revealed that quercetin significantly attenuated the expression of both protein and mRNA expression of TLR2 and TLR4. Quercetin supplementation significantly decreased the inflammatory mediators like COX, 5-LOX, MPO, NOS, CRP and the mRNA expression of the cytokine; IL-6 in hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) fed atherosclerotic rats. The results demonstrate that quercetin is effective to regulate the atherosclerotic inflammatory process by inhibiting oxLDL induced endothelial leukocyte adhesion by attenuating the TLR-NF-κB signaling pathway in endothelial cells and decrease the inflammatory process induced by HCD in rats. Therefore, quercetin acts as anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic agent, which may have implications for strategies attenuating endothelial dysfunction-related atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. GsAPK, an ABA-activated and calcium-independent SnRK2-type kinase from G. soja, mediates the regulation of plant tolerance to salinity and ABA stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Ji, Wei; Gao, Peng; Li, Yong; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi; Chen, Qin; Zhu, Yanming

    2012-01-01

    Plant Snf1 (sucrose non-fermenting-1) related protein kinase (SnRK), a subfamily of serine/threonine kinases, has been implicated as a crucial upstream regulator of ABA and osmotic signaling as in many other signaling cascades. In this paper, we have isolated a novel plant specific ABA activated calcium independent protein kinase (GsAPK) from a highly salt tolerant plant, Glycine soja (50109), which is a member of the SnRK2 family. Subcellular localization studies using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsAPK is localized in the plasma membrane. We found that autophosphorylation and Myelin Basis Protein phosphorylation activity of GsAPK is only activated by ABA and the kinase activity also was observed when calcium was replaced by EGTA, suggesting its independence of calcium in enzyme activity. We also found that cold, salinity, drought, and ABA stress alter GsAPK gene transcripts and heterogonous overexpression of GsAPK in Arabidopsis alters plant tolerance to high salinity and ABA stress. In summary, we demonstrated that GsAPK is a Glycine soja ABA activated calcium independent SnRK-type kinase presumably involved in ABA mediated stress signal transduction.

  5. GsAPK, an ABA-activated and calcium-independent SnRK2-type kinase from G. soja, mediates the regulation of plant tolerance to salinity and ABA stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yang

    Full Text Available Plant Snf1 (sucrose non-fermenting-1 related protein kinase (SnRK, a subfamily of serine/threonine kinases, has been implicated as a crucial upstream regulator of ABA and osmotic signaling as in many other signaling cascades. In this paper, we have isolated a novel plant specific ABA activated calcium independent protein kinase (GsAPK from a highly salt tolerant plant, Glycine soja (50109, which is a member of the SnRK2 family. Subcellular localization studies using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsAPK is localized in the plasma membrane. We found that autophosphorylation and Myelin Basis Protein phosphorylation activity of GsAPK is only activated by ABA and the kinase activity also was observed when calcium was replaced by EGTA, suggesting its independence of calcium in enzyme activity. We also found that cold, salinity, drought, and ABA stress alter GsAPK gene transcripts and heterogonous overexpression of GsAPK in Arabidopsis alters plant tolerance to high salinity and ABA stress. In summary, we demonstrated that GsAPK is a Glycine soja ABA activated calcium independent SnRK-type kinase presumably involved in ABA mediated stress signal transduction.

  6. NF-kB signalling is attenuated by the E7 protein from cutaneous human papillomaviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byg, Luise M; Stensson, Jessica; Vasiljevic, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    -¿B pathway leading to an attenuation of the activity. There is a possible link between development of non melanoma skin cancer and cutaneous Beta-papillomavirus but if these HPV types attenuate the NF-¿B pathway is unclear. Seven different E7 proteins, representing four out of the five different species....... In addition, E7 proteins from the cutaneous HPV types demonstrated interaction with IKKa but not with IKKß. The deregulation of the NF-¿B pathway by cutaneous HPVs might contribute to the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancers and its precursors....

  7. The grapevine guard cell-related VvMYB60 transcription factor is involved in the regulation of stomatal activity and is differentially expressed in response to ABA and osmotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti Lucio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under drought, plants accumulate the signaling hormone abscisic acid (ABA, which induces the rapid closure of stomatal pores to prevent water loss. This event is trigged by a series of signals produced inside guard cells which finally reduce their turgor. Many of these events are tightly regulated at the transcriptional level, including the control exerted by MYB proteins. In a previous study, while identifying the grapevine R2R3 MYB family, two closely related genes, VvMYB30 and VvMYB60 were found with high similarity to AtMYB60, an Arabidopsis guard cell-related drought responsive gene. Results Promoter-GUS transcriptional fusion assays showed that expression of VvMYB60 was restricted to stomatal guard cells and was attenuated in response to ABA. Unlike VvMYB30, VvMYB60 was able to complement the loss-of-function atmyb60-1 mutant, indicating that VvMYB60 is the only true ortholog of AtMYB60 in the grape genome. In addition, VvMYB60 was differentially regulated during development of grape organs and in response to ABA and drought-related stress conditions. Conclusions These results show that VvMYB60 modulates physiological responses in guard cells, leading to the possibility of engineering stomatal conductance in grapevine, reducing water loss and helping this species to tolerate drought under extreme climatic conditions.

  8. Application of ABA Principles to General Communication Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Billy T.; Oren, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This article examines applied behavior analysis (ABA) based communication instruction for students with autism. It offers an historical context for ABA in speech-language pathology and reviews the literature on the use of ABA as a treatment method for communication impairment in autism, comparing contemporary ABA with the developmental…

  9. Non-redundant functions of the dimeric ABA receptor BdPYL1 in the grass Brachypodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pri-Tal, Oded; Shaar-Moshe, Lidor; Wiseglass, Gil; Peleg, Zvi; Mosquna, Assaf

    2017-09-11

    Abiotic stresses have severe detrimental effects on agricultural productivity worldwide. Abscisic acid (ABA) levels rise in response to abiotic stresses, and play a role in coordinating physiological responses. ABA elicits its effects by binding a family of soluble receptors, increasing affinity of the receptors to type 2C phosphatases (PP2Cs) leading to phosphatase inhibition. In the current study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the ABA signaling pathway in the cereal model grass Brachypodium distachyon. The Brachypodium genome encodes a family of 10 functionally conserved ABA receptors. The 10th in the series, BdPYL10, encodes a defective receptor and is likely a pseudogene. Combinatorial protein interaction assay further validated computational analysis, which grouped Brachypodium ABA receptors into three subfamilies, similarly to Arabidopsis classification. Brachypodium subfamily III receptors inhibited PP2C activity in vitro and complemented Arabidopsis quadruple (pyr1/pyl1/pyl2/pyl4) mutant. BdPYL1 T-DNA mutant exhibited clear ABA hyposensitivity phenotypes during seedling establishment and in mature plants. Single receptor predominance is in agreement with high transcriptional abundance of only a small Brachypodium ABA receptors subset, harboring the higher marginal significance of BdPYL1. Our findings suggest that unlike the highly redundant ABA core signaling components of Arabidopsis, Brachypodium encompasses a more compact and specialized ABA receptor apparatus. This organization may contribute to plant adaptations to ecological niches. These results lay the groundwork for targeting the prominent ABA receptors for stress perception in grasses, and reveal functional differences and commonalities between monocots and eudicots. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Prolonged maternal separation attenuates BDNF-ERK signaling correlated with spine formation in the hippocampus during early brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Ken-Ichi; Suzuki, Shingo; Warita, Katsuhiko; Kaji, Tomohiro; Kusaka, Takashi; Miki, Takanori

    2017-04-01

    Maternal separation (MS) is known to affect hippocampal function such as learning and memory, yet the molecular mechanism remains unknown. We hypothesized that these impairments are attributed to abnormities of neural circuit formation by MS, and focused on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as key factor because BDNF signaling has an essential role in synapse formation during early brain development. Using rat offspring exposed to MS for 6 h/day during postnatal days (PD) 2-20, we estimated BDNF signaling in the hippocampus during brain development. Our results show that MS attenuated BDNF expression and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) around PD 7. Moreover, plasticity-related immediate early genes, which are transcriptionally regulated by BDNF-ERK signaling, were also reduced by MS around PD 7. Interestingly, detailed analysis revealed that MS particularly reduced expression of BDNF gene and immediate early genes in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) of hippocampus at PD 7. Considering that BDNF-ERK signaling is involved in spine formation, we next evaluated spine formation in the hippocampus during the weaning period. Our results show that MS particularly reduced mature spine density in proximal apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons at PD 21. These results suggest that MS could attenuate BDNF-ERK signaling during primary synaptogenesis with a region-specific manner, which is likely to lead to decreased spine formation and maturation observed in the hippocampal CA1 region. It is speculated that this incomplete spine formation during early brain development has an influence on learning capabilities throughout adulthood. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  11. Hypoxia attenuates inflammatory mediators production induced by Acanthamoeba via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in human corneal epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Hong [Department of Ophthalmology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107, Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan 250012 (China); The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Public Health, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107, Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Wu, Xinyi, E-mail: xywu8868@163.com [Department of Ophthalmology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107, Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia attenuates Acanthamoeba-induced the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits TLR4 expression in a time-dependent manner in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits Acanthamoeba-induced the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2 in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia decreases Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory response via TLR4 signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS-induced the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 is abated by hypoxia via TLR4 signaling. -- Abstract: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a vision-threatening corneal infection that is intimately associated with contact lens use which leads to hypoxic conditions on the corneal surface. However, the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced host inflammatory response of corneal epithelial cells has not been studied. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced production of inflammatory mediators interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) in human corneal epithelial cells and then evaluated its effects on the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling, including TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) (MyD88) expression as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-{kappa}B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). We then studied the effect of hypoxia on a TLR4-specific inflammatory response triggered by the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our data showed that hypoxia significantly decreased the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Furthermore, hypoxia attenuated Acanthamoeba-triggered TLR4 expression as well as the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2, indicating that hypoxia abated Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory responses by affecting TLR4 signaling. Hypoxia also inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88

  12. Removal and attenuation of sewage effluent combined tracer signals of phosphorus, caffeine and saccharin in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Samia; Withers, Paul J A; Paterson, Eric; McRoberts, Colin W; Stutter, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Contaminants in septic tank effluent (STE) are expected to be removed by the soil system before discharging to the environment. However, potential contaminants such as phosphorus (P), caffeine and artificial sweeteners do find their way to watercourses impacting aquatic eco systems. In this study, the attenuation of STE P, caffeine and saccharin were investigated in untreated soil and in soil with reduced microbial activity, in aqueous solutions and in the complex matrix of STE. Time series sorption and desorption experiments using batch equilibrium and a column experiment of STE P attenuation were conducted. The results revealed that the soil distribution coefficients (K d ) were: P 81.57 > caffeine 22.16 > saccharin 5.98 cm 3 /g, suggesting greater soil affinity to P adsorption. The data revealed that 80% of saccharin and 33% of caffeine attenuation was associated with microbial activities rather than adsorption processes. However, a complete removal of saccharin and caffeine did not occur during the equilibration period, suggesting their leaching potential. The dominant mechanism of P attenuation was adsorption (chemical and physical), yielding P retention of >73% and 35% for P in aqueous solution and in STE matrix, respectively, for batch equilibrium. The soil in the column acted as effluent P sink retaining 125 μg P/g soil of effluent P. The attenuation of P, caffeine and saccharin in the aqueous solution was greater than in STE, suggesting that the complex composition of STE reduced soil adsorption ability, and that other substances present in STE may be competing for soil binding sites. The data revealed that caffeine and P had similarities in the interaction with soils and thus caffeine may be considered as a STE tracer of anthropogenic source of P in receiving waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Signaling the unconditioned stimulus during the preexposure phase does not attenuate the unconditioned stimulus preexposure effect in preweanling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello, Stefania; Bobbio, Antonella; Orellana, Estefania; Arias, Carlos

    2012-12-01

    The unconditioned stimulus preexposure effect (US-PE) is defined as an attenuation of the conditioned response after preexposure to the US prior to conditioning. Evidence exists that this effect can be weakened or eliminated by the presence of a signal predicting the US during the preexposure phase. This evidence has been found consistently across a variety of procedures in adult rats. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether, in infant rats, signaling the US (LiCl) during preexposure with a salient cue (almond odor) attenuates the US-PE. During the preexposure phase, preweanling rats received three (Experiment 1) or one (Experiment 2) preexposures to LiCl, preceded by exposure to almond odor. Appropriate control groups were also included in these experiments. After preexposure, two conditioning trials were carried out in which subjects were given LiCl after saccharin consumption. During preexposure, three (Experiment 1a), although not one (Experiment 2a), contingent exposures to almond odor and LiCl resulted in a strong odor aversion. Extinction of the learned taste aversion was facilitated by prior experience with LiCl (Experiments 1b and 2b). This effect was observed regardless of whether or not LiCl was signaled by the almond odor. These results do not coincide with the associative hypotheses proposed to explain the US-PE, nor are they concurrent with alternative explanations based on the learned helplessness phenomenon. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Syndecan-1 Attenuates Lung Injury during Influenza Infection by Potentiating c-Met Signaling to Suppress Epithelial Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Rena; Ge, Lingyin; Schlesinger, Saundra Y; Birkland, Timothy P; Huang, Ying; Parimon, Tanyalak; Lee, Vivian; McKinney, Bonnie L; McGuire, John K; Parks, William C; Chen, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Syndecan-1 is a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan primarily expressed in the lung epithelium. Because the influenza virus is tropic to the airway epithelium, we investigated the role of syndecan-1 in influenza infection. To determine the mechanism by which syndecan-1 regulates the lung mucosal response to influenza infection. Wild-type (WT) and Sdc1(-/-) mice were infected with a H1N1 virus (PR8) as an experimental model of influenza infection. Human and murine airway epithelial cell cultures were also infected with PR8 to study the mechanism by which syndecan-1 regulates the inflammatory response. We found worsened outcomes and lung injury in Sdc1(-/-) mice compared with WT mice after influenza infection. Our data demonstrated that syndecan-1 suppresses bronchial epithelial apoptosis during influenza infection to limit widespread lung inflammation. Furthermore, we determined that syndecan-1 attenuated apoptosis by crosstalking with c-Met to potentiate its cytoprotective signals in airway epithelial cells during influenza infection. Our work shows that cell-associated syndecan-1 has an important role in regulating lung injury. Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism in which cell membrane-associated syndecan-1 regulates the innate immune response to influenza infection by facilitating cytoprotective signals through c-Met signaling to limit bronchial epithelial apoptosis, thereby attenuating lung injury and inflammation.

  15. Presenting a foreign antigen on live attenuated Edwardsiella tarda using twin-arginine translocation signal peptide as a multivalent vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yamin; Yang, Weizheng; Wang, Qiyao; Qu, Jiangbo; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2013-12-01

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system is a major pathway for transmembrane translocation of fully folded proteins. In this study, a multivalent vaccine to present foreign antigens on live attenuated vaccine Edwardsiella tarda WED using screened Tat signal peptide was constructed. Because the Tat system increases the yields of folded antigens in periplasmic space or extracellular milieu, it is expected to contribute to the production of conformational epitope-derived specific antibodies. E. tarda Tat signal peptides fused with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was constructed under the control of an in vivo inducible dps promoter. The resulting plasmids were electroporated into WED and the subcellular localizations of GFP were analyzed with Western blotting. Eight signal peptides with optimized GFP translocation efficiency were further fused to a protective antigen glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapA) from a fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. Signal peptides of DmsA, NapA, and SufI displayed high efficiency for GapA translocation. The relative percent survival (RPS) of turbot was measured with a co-infection of E. tarda and A. hydrophila, and the strain with DmsA signal peptide showed the maximal protection. This study demonstrated a new platform to construct multivalent vaccines using optimized Tat signal peptide in E. tarda. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Iron regulation of hepcidin despite attenuated Smad1,5,8 signaling in mice without transferrin receptor 2 or Hfe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Elena; Rozier, Molly; Meynard, Delphine; Odhiambo, Adam; Lin, Herbert Y; Feng, Qi; Migas, Mary C; Britton, Robert S; Babitt, Jodie L; Fleming, Robert E

    2011-11-01

    HFE and transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) are each necessary for the normal relationship between body iron status and liver hepcidin expression. In murine Hfe and Tfr2 knockout models of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), signal transduction to hepcidin via the bone morphogenetic protein 6 (Bmp6)/Smad1,5,8 pathway is attenuated. We examined the effect of dietary iron on regulation of hepcidin expression via the Bmp6/Smad1,5,8 pathway using mice with targeted disruption of Tfr2, Hfe, or both genes. Hepatic iron concentrations and messenger RNA expression of Bmp6 and hepcidin were compared with wild-type mice in each of the HH models on standard or iron-loading diets. Liver phospho-Smad (P-Smad)1,5,8 and Id1 messenger RNA levels were measured as markers of Bmp/Smad signaling. Whereas Bmp6 expression was increased, liver hepcidin and Id1 expression were decreased in each of the HH models compared with wild-type mice. Each of the HH models also showed attenuated P-Smad1,5,8 levels relative to liver iron status. Mice with combined Hfe/Tfr2 disruption were most affected. Dietary iron loading increased hepcidin and Id1 expression in each of the HH models. Compared with wild-type mice, HH mice demonstrated attenuated (Hfe knockout) or no increases in P-Smad1,5,8 levels in response to dietary iron loading. These observations show that Tfr2 and Hfe are each required for normal signaling of iron status to hepcidin via the Bmp6/Smad1,5,8 pathway. Mice with combined loss of Hfe and Tfr2 up-regulate hepcidin in response to dietary iron loading without increases in liver Bmp6 messenger RNA or steady-state P-Smad1,5,8 levels. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Celastrol-Induced Suppression of the MiR-21/ERK Signalling Pathway Attenuates Cardiac Fibrosis and Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Myocardial fibrosis results in myocardial remodelling and dysfunction. Celastrol, a traditional oriental medicine, has been suggested to have cardioprotective effects. However, its underlying mechanism is unknown. This study investigated the ability of celastrol to prevent cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction and explored the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Animal and cell models of cardiac fibrosis were used in this study. Myocardial fibrosis was induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC in mice. Cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis were evaluated based on histological and biochemical measurements. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography. The levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1, extracellular signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 signalling were measured using Western blotting, while the expression of miR-21was analyzed by real-time qRT-PCR in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies, cultured cardiac fibroblasts (CFs were treated with TGF-β1 and transfected with microRNA-21(miR21. Results: Celastrol treatment reduced the increased collagen deposition and down-regulated α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, brain natriuretic peptides (BNP, beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC, miR-21 and p-ERK/ERK. Cardiac dysfunction was significantly attenuated by celastrol treatment in the TAC mice model. Celastrol treatment reduced myocardial fibroblast viability and collagen content and down-regulated α-SMA in cultured CFs in vitro. Celastrol also inhibited the miR-21/ERK signalling pathway. Celastrol attenuated miR-21 up-regulation by TGF-β1 and decreased elevated p-ERK/ERK levels in CFs transfected with miR-21. Conclusion: MiR-21/ERK signalling could be a potential therapeutic pathway for the prevention of myocardial fibrosis. Celastrol ameliorates myocardial fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction, these probably related to miR-21/ERK signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Identification and characterization of the abscisic acid (ABA) receptor gene family and its expression in response to hormones in the rubber tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dong; Zhou, Ying; Li, Hui-Liang; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2017-03-23

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential phytohormone involved in diverse physiological processes. Although genome-wide analyses of the ABA receptor PYR/PYL/RCAR (PYL) protein/gene family have been performed in certain plant species, little is known about the ABA receptor protein/gene family in the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In this study, we identified 14 ABA receptor PYL proteins/genes (designated HbPYL1 through HbPYL14) in the most recent rubber tree genome. A phylogenetic tree was constructed, which demonstrated that HbPYLs can be divided into three subfamilies that correlate well with the corresponding Arabidopsis subfamilies. Eight HbPYLs are highly expressed in laticifers. Five of the eight genes are simultaneously regulated by ABA, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET). The identification and characterization of HbPYLs should enable us to further understand the role of ABA signal in the rubber tree.

  19. Technical Note: Correcting for signal attenuation from noisy proxy data in climate reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Ammann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Regression-based climate reconstructions scale one or more noisy proxy records against a (generally short instrumental data series. Based on that relationship, the indirect information is then used to estimate that particular measure of climate back in time. A well-calibrated proxy record(s, if stationary in its relationship to the target, should faithfully preserve the mean amplitude of the climatic variable. However, it is well established in the statistical literature that traditional regression parameter estimation can lead to substantial amplitude attenuation if the predictors carry significant amounts of noise. This issue is known as "Measurement Error" (Fuller, 1987; Carroll et al., 2006. Climate proxies derived from tree-rings, ice cores, lake sediments, etc., are inherently noisy and thus all regression-based reconstructions could suffer from this problem. Some recent applications attempt to ward off amplitude attenuation, but implementations are often complex (Lee et al., 2008 or require additional information, e.g. from climate models (Hegerl et al., 2006, 2007. Here we explain the cause of the problem and propose an easy, generally applicable, data-driven strategy to effectively correct for attenuation (Fuller, 1987; Carroll et al., 2006, even at annual resolution. The impact is illustrated in the context of a Northern Hemisphere mean temperature reconstruction. An inescapable trade-off for achieving an unbiased reconstruction is an increase in variance, but for many climate applications the change in mean is a core interest.

  20. Technical Note: Correcting for signal attenuation from noisy proxy data in climate reconstructions

    KAUST Repository

    Ammann, C. M.

    2010-04-20

    Regression-based climate reconstructions scale one or more noisy proxy records against a (generally) short instrumental data series. Based on that relationship, the indirect information is then used to estimate that particular measure of climate back in time. A well-calibrated proxy record(s), if stationary in its relationship to the target, should faithfully preserve the mean amplitude of the climatic variable. However, it is well established in the statistical literature that traditional regression parameter estimation can lead to substantial amplitude attenuation if the predictors carry significant amounts of noise. This issue is known as "Measurement Error" (Fuller, 1987; Carroll et al., 2006). Climate proxies derived from tree-rings, ice cores, lake sediments, etc., are inherently noisy and thus all regression-based reconstructions could suffer from this problem. Some recent applications attempt to ward off amplitude attenuation, but implementations are often complex (Lee et al., 2008) or require additional information, e.g. from climate models (Hegerl et al., 2006, 2007). Here we explain the cause of the problem and propose an easy, generally applicable, data-driven strategy to effectively correct for attenuation (Fuller, 1987; Carroll et al., 2006), even at annual resolution. The impact is illustrated in the context of a Northern Hemisphere mean temperature reconstruction. An inescapable trade-off for achieving an unbiased reconstruction is an increase in variance, but for many climate applications the change in mean is a core interest.

  1. Role of abscisic acid (ABA) in activating antioxidant tolerance responses to desiccation stress in intertidal seaweed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Eduardo; Correa, Juan A; Contreras-Porcia, Loretto

    2016-03-01

    The hormone ABA regulates the oxidative stress state under desiccation in seaweed species; an environmental condition generated during daily tidal changes. Desiccation is one of the most important factors that determine the distribution pattern of intertidal seaweeds. Among most tolerant seaweed is Pyropia orbicularis, which colonizes upper intertidal zones along the Chilean coast. P. orbicularis employs diverse mechanisms of desiccation tolerance (DT) (among others, e.g., antioxidant activation, photoinhibition, and osmo-compatible solute overproduction) such as those used by resurrection plants and bryophytes. In these organisms, the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in regulating responses to water deficit, including gene expression and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The present study determined the effect of ABA on the activation of antioxidant responses during desiccation in P. orbicularis and in the sensitive species Mazzaella laminarioides and Lessonia spicata. Changes in endogenous free and conjugated ABA, water content during the hydration-desiccation cycle, enzymatic antioxidant activities [ascorbate peroxidase (AP), catalase (CAT) and peroxiredoxine (PRX)], and levels of lipid peroxidation and cell viability were evaluated. The results showed that P. orbicularis had free ABA levels 4-7 times higher than sensitive species, which was overproduced during water deficit. Using two ABA inhibitors (sodium tungstate and ancymidol), ABA was found to regulate the activation of the antioxidant enzymes activities during desiccation. In individuals exposed to exogenous ABA the enzyme activity increased, concomitant with low lipid peroxidation and high cell viability. These results demonstrate the participation of ABA in the regulation of DT in seaweeds, and suggest that regulatory mechanisms with ABA signaling could be of great importance for the adaptation of these organisms to dehydration.

  2. Overexpression of RING domain E3 ligase ZmXerico1 confers drought tolerance through regulation of ABA homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugiere, Norbert; Zhang, Wenjing; Xu, John; Scolaro, Eric J; Lu, Cheng; Kahsay, Robel Y; Kise, Rie; Trecker, Libby; Williams, Robert W; Hakimi, Salim; Niu, Xiping; Lafitte, Renee; Habben, Jeffrey E

    2017-09-12

    Drought stress is one of the main environmental problems encountered by crop growers. Reduction in arable land area and reduced water availability make it paramount to identify and develop strategies to allow crops to be more resilient in water limiting environments. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in the plants' response to drought stress through its control of stomatal aperture and water transpiration; and transgenic modulation of ABA levels therefore represents an attractive avenue to improve the drought tolerance of crops. Several steps in the ABA signaling pathway are controlled by ubiquitination involving RING domain containing proteins. We characterized the maize RING protein family and identified two novel RING-H2 genes called ZmXerico1 and ZmXerico2. Expression of ZmXerico genes is induced by drought stress and we show that overexpression of ZmXerico1 and ZmXerico2 in Arabidopsis and maize confers ABA hypersensitivity and improved water use efficiency which can lead to enhanced maize yield performance in a controlled drought stress environment. Overexpression of ZmXerico1 and ZmXerico2 in maize results in increased ABA levels and decreased levels of ABA degradation products diphaseic acid and phaseic acid. We show that ZmXerico1 is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, where ABA 8'-hydroxylases have been shown to be localized, and that it functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. We demonstrate that ZmXerico1 plays a role in the control of ABA homeostasis through regulation of ABA 8'-hydroxylase protein stability, representing a novel control point in the regulation of the ABA pathway. {copyright, serif} 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  3. Metformin exerts glucose-lowering action in high-fat fed mice via attenuating endotoxemia and enhancing insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zi-Yu; Ren, Li-Wei; Zhan, Ping; Yang, Han-Yan; Chai, Dan-Dan; Yu, Zhi-Wen

    2016-08-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from gut gram-negative bacteria can be absorbed, leading to endotoxemia that triggers systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. In this study we examined whether metformin attenuated endotoxemia, thus improving insulin signaling in high-fat diet fed mice. Mice were fed a high-fat diet for 18 weeks to induce insulin resistance. One group of the mice was treated with oral metformin (100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) for 4 weeks. Another group was treated with LPS (50 μg·kg(-1)·d(-1), sc) for 5 days followed by the oral metformin for 10 d. Other two groups received a combination of antibiotics for 7 d or a combination of antibiotics for 7 d followed by the oral metformin for 4 weeks, respectively. Glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in liver and muscle were evaluated, the abundance of gut bacteria, gut permeability and serum LPS levels were measured. In high-fat fed mice, metformin restored the tight junction protein occludin-1 levels in gut, reversed the elevated gut permeability and serum LPS levels, and increased the abundance of beneficial bacteria Lactobacillus and Akkermansia muciniphila. Metformin also increased PKB Ser473 and AMPK T172 phosphorylation, decreased MDA contents and redox-sensitive PTEN protein levels, activated the anti-oxidative Nrf2 system, and increased IκBα in liver and muscle of the mice. Treatment with exogenous LPS abolished the beneficial effects of metformin on glucose metabolism, insulin signaling and oxidative stress in liver and muscle of the mice. Treatment with antibiotics alone produced similar effects as metformin did. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of antibiotics were addictive to those of metformin. Metformin administration attenuates endotoxemia and enhances insulin signaling in high-fat fed mice, which contributes to its anti-diabetic effects.

  4. Novel guggulsterone derivative GG-52 inhibits NF-kappaB signaling in intestinal epithelial cells and attenuates acute murine colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Mogg; Kang, Hyoun Woo; Cha, Mi Yeon; Yoo, Doyoung; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, In-Kyoung; Ku, Jeounghun; Kim, Sunil; Ma, Sang-Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae; Song, In Sung; Kim, Joo Sung

    2010-07-01

    We already showed that the plant sterol guggulsterone has been reported to inhibit nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and to attenuate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory effects of novel guggulsterone derivatives on IEC and preventive and therapeutic murine models of DSS-induced colitis. Novel guggulsterone derivates with high lipophilicity were designed and four derivates, including GG-46, GG-50B, GG-52, and GG-53, were synthesized. Two guggulsterone derivatives, GG-50B and GG-52, significantly inhibited the activated NF-kappaB signals and the upregulated expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in COLO 205 cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Pretreatment with GG-50B and GG-52 attenuated the increased IkappaB kinase (IKK) and IkappaBalpha phsophorylation induced by TNF-alpha. In preventive and therapeutic models of murine colitis, administration of GG-52 significantly reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis, as assessed by disease activity index, colon length, and histology. In contrast, GG-50B did not show a significant reduction in the colitis severity. Moreover, the efficacy on attenuating colitis by GG-52 was comparable to that by sulfasalazine or prednisolone. These results indicate that the novel guggulsterone derivative GG-52 blocks NF-kappaB activation in IEC and ameliorates DSS-induced acute murine colitis, which suggests that GG-52 is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  5. Endogenous α2A-Adrenoceptor-Operated Sympathoadrenergic Tones Attenuate Insulin Secretion via cAMP/TRPM2 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kiyonori; Dezaki, Katsuya; Yoshida, Masashi; Yamada, Hodaka; Miura, Rina; Rita, Rauza Sukma; Ookawara, Susumu; Tabei, Kaoru; Kawakami, Masanobu; Hara, Kazuo; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Yada, Toshihiko; Kakei, Masafumi

    2017-03-01

    In pancreatic β-cells, pharmacological concentrations of catecholamines, including adrenaline, have been used to inhibit insulin release and explore the multiple mechanisms involved. However, the significance of these signaling pathways for physiological adrenergic functions in β-cells is largely unknown. In the process of glucose-induced insulin secretion, opening of background current through nonselective cation channels (NSCCs) might facilitate membrane depolarization by closure of the ATP-sensitive K+ channels. Here, we examined whether physiological insulinostatic adrenaline action is mediated via the transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channel, a type of NSCC, in β-cells. Results showed that physiological concentrations of adrenaline strongly suppressed glucose-induced and incretin-potentiated cAMP production and insulin secretion and inhibited NSCCs current and membrane excitability via the α2A-adrenoceptor in wild-type mice; however, insulin secretion was not attenuated in TRPM2-knockout (KO) mice. Administration of yohimbine, an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, failed to affect glucose tolerance in TRPM2-KO mice, in contrast to an improved glucose tolerance in wild-type mice receiving the antagonist. The current study demonstrated that a physiological concentration of adrenaline attenuates insulin release via coupling of α2A-adrenoceptor to cAMP/TRPM2 signaling, thereby providing a potential therapeutic tool to treat patients with type 2 diabetes. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  6. Myricitrin Attenuates High Glucose-Induced Apoptosis through Activating Akt-Nrf2 Signaling in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia, as well as diabetes mellitus, has been shown to trigger cardiac cell apoptosis. We have previously demonstrated that myricitrin prevents endothelial cell apoptosis. However, whether myricitrin can attenuate H9c2 cell apoptosis remains unknown. In this study, we established an experiment model in H9c2 cells exposed to high glucose. We tested the hypothesis that myricitrin may inhibit high glucose (HG-induced cardiac cell apoptosis as determined by TUNEL staining. Furthermore, myricitrin promoted antioxidative enzyme production, suppressed high glucose-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS production and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP in H9c2 cells. This agent significantly inhibited apoptotic protein expression, activated Akt and facilitated the transcription of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2-mediated protein (heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1 expression as determined by Western blotting. Significantly, an Akt inhibitor (LY294002 or HO-1 inhibitor (ZnPP not only inhibited myricitrin-induced HO-1/NQO-1 upregulation but also alleviated its anti-apoptotic effects. In summary, these observations demonstrate that myricitrin activates Nrf2-mediated anti-oxidant signaling and attenuates H9c2 cell apoptosis induced by high glucose via activation of Akt signaling.

  7. Identification and mechanism of ABA receptor antagonism

    KAUST Repository

    Melcher, Karsten

    2010-08-22

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) functions through a family of fourteen PYR/PYL receptors, which were identified by resistance to pyrabactin, a synthetic inhibitor of seed germination. ABA activates these receptors to inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases, such as ABI1, yet it remains unclear whether these receptors can be antagonized. Here we demonstrate that pyrabactin is an agonist of PYR1 and PYL1 but is unexpectedly an antagonist of PYL2. Crystal structures of the PYL2-pyrabactin and PYL1-pyrabactin-ABI1 complexes reveal the mechanism responsible for receptor-selective activation and inhibition, which enables us to design mutations that convert PYL1 to a pyrabactin-inhibited receptor and PYL2 to a pyrabactin-activated receptor and to identify new pyrabactin-based ABA receptor agonists. Together, our results establish a new concept of ABA receptor antagonism, illustrate its underlying mechanisms and provide a rational framework for discovering novel ABA receptor ligands. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic Analysis of Physcomitrella patens Identifies ABSCISIC ACID NON-RESPONSIVE, a Regulator of ABA Responses Unique to Basal Land Plants and Required for Desiccation Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Sean R; Kamisugi, Yasuko; Trinh, Chi H; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jenkins, Jerry W; Grimwood, Jane; Muchero, Wellington; Tuskan, Gerald A; Rensing, Stefan A; Lang, Daniel; Reski, Ralf; Melkonian, Michael; Rothfels, Carl J; Li, Fay-Wei; Larsson, Anders; Wong, Gane K-S; Edwards, Thomas A; Cuming, Andrew C

    2016-06-01

    The anatomically simple plants that first colonized land must have acquired molecular and biochemical adaptations to drought stress. Abscisic acid (ABA) coordinates responses leading to desiccation tolerance in all land plants. We identified ABA nonresponsive mutants in the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens and genotyped a segregating population to map and identify the ABA NON-RESPONSIVE (ANR) gene encoding a modular protein kinase comprising an N-terminal PAS domain, a central EDR domain, and a C-terminal MAPKKK-like domain. anr mutants fail to accumulate dehydration tolerance-associated gene products in response to drought, ABA, or osmotic stress and do not acquire ABA-dependent desiccation tolerance. The crystal structure of the PAS domain, determined to 1.7-Å resolution, shows a conserved PAS-fold that dimerizes through a weak dimerization interface. Targeted mutagenesis of a conserved tryptophan residue within the PAS domain generates plants with ABA nonresponsive growth and strongly attenuated ABA-responsive gene expression, whereas deleting this domain retains a fully ABA-responsive phenotype. ANR orthologs are found in early-diverging land plant lineages and aquatic algae but are absent from more recently diverged vascular plants. We propose that ANR genes represent an ancestral adaptation that enabled drought stress survival of the first terrestrial colonizers but were lost during land plant evolution. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  9. Antioxidant administration attenuates mechanical ventilation-induced rat diaphragm muscle atrophy independent of protein kinase B (PKB–Akt) signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, J M; Kavazis, A N; Whidden, M A; DeRuisseau, K C; Falk, D J; Criswell, D S; Powers, S K

    2007-01-01

    Oxidative stress promotes controlled mechanical ventilation (MV)-induced diaphragmatic atrophy. Nonetheless, the signalling pathways responsible for oxidative stress-induced muscle atrophy remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress down-regulates insulin-like growth factor-1–phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase–protein kinase B serine threonine kinase (IGF-1–PI3K–Akt) signalling and activates the forkhead box O (FoxO) class of transcription factors in diaphragm fibres during MV-induced diaphragm inactivity. Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of five experimental groups: (1) control (Con), (2) 6 h of MV, (3) 6 h of MV with infusion of the antioxidant Trolox, (4) 18 h of MV, (5) 18 h of MV with Trolox. Following 6 h and 18 h of MV, diaphragmatic Akt activation decreased in parallel with increased nuclear localization and transcriptional activation of FoxO1 and decreased nuclear localization of FoxO3 and FoxO4, culminating in increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases, muscle atrophy factor (MAFbx) and muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF-1). Interestingly, following 18 h of MV, antioxidant administration was associated with attenuation of MV-induced atrophy in type I, type IIa and type IIb/IIx myofibres. Collectively, these data reveal that the antioxidant Trolox attenuates MV-induced diaphragmatic atrophy independent of alterations in Akt regulation of FoxO transcription factors and expression of MAFbx or MuRF-1. Further, these results also indicate that differential regulation of diaphragmatic IGF-1–PI3K–Akt signalling exists during the early and late stages of MV. PMID:17916612

  10. Sprouty 2: a novel attenuator of B-cell receptor and MAPK-Erk signaling in CLL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ashima; Rai, Karan; Shukla, Vipul; Chaturvedi, Nagendra K; Bociek, R Gregory; Pirruccello, Samuel J; Band, Hamid; Lu, Runqing; Joshi, Shantaram S

    2016-05-12

    Clinical heterogeneity is a major barrier to effective treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Emerging evidence suggests that constitutive activation of various signaling pathways like mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK-Erk) signaling plays a role in the heterogeneous clinical outcome of CLL patients. In this study, we have investigated the role of Sprouty (SPRY)2 as a negative regulator of receptor and nonreceptor tyrosine kinase signaling in the pathogenesis of CLL. We show that SPRY2 expression is significantly decreased in CLL cells, particularly from poor-prognosis patients compared with those from good-prognosis patients. Overexpression of SPRY2 in CLL cells from poor-prognosis patients increased their apoptosis. Conversely, downregulation of SPRY2 in CLL cells from good-prognosis patients resulted in increased proliferation. Furthermore, CLL cells with low SPRY2 expression grew more rapidly in a xenograft model of CLL. Strikingly, B-cell-specific transgenic overexpression of spry2 in mice led to a decrease in the frequency of B1 cells, the precursors of CLL cells in rodents. Mechanistically, we show that SPRY2 attenuates the B-cell receptor (BCR) and MAPK-Erk signaling by binding to and antagonizing the activities of RAF1, BRAF, and spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) in normal B cells and CLL cells. We also show that SPRY2 is targeted by microRNA-21, which in turn leads to increased activity of Syk and Erk in CLL cells. Taken together, these results establish SPRY2 as a critical negative regulator of BCR-mediated MAPK-Erk signaling in CLL, thereby providing one of the molecular mechanisms to explain the clinical heterogeneity of CLL. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  11. A G-protein β subunit, AGB1, negatively regulates the ABA response and drought tolerance by down-regulating AtMPK6-related pathway in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-bei Xu

    Full Text Available Heterotrimeric G-proteins are versatile regulators involved in diverse cellular processes in eukaryotes. In plants, the function of G-proteins is primarily associated with ABA signaling. However, the downstream effectors and the molecular mechanisms in the ABA pathway remain largely unknown. In this study, an AGB1 mutant (agb1-2 was found to show enhanced drought tolerance, indicating that AGB1 might negatively regulate drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. Data showed that AGB1 interacted with protein kinase AtMPK6 that was previously shown to phosphorylate AtVIP1, a transcription factor responding to ABA signaling. Our study found that transcript levels of three ABA responsive genes, AtMPK6, AtVIP1 and AtMYB44 (downstream gene of AtVIP1, were significantly up-regulated in agb1-2 lines after ABA or drought treatments. Other ABA-responsive and drought-inducible genes, such as RD29A (downstream gene of AtMYB44, were also up-regulated in agb1-2 lines. Furthermore, overexpression of AtVIP1 resulted in hypersensitivity to ABA at seed germination and seedling stages, and significantly enhanced drought tolerance in transgenic plants. These results suggest that AGB1 was involved in the ABA signaling pathway and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis through down-regulating the AtMPK6, AtVIP1 and AtMYB44 cascade.

  12. Oxidative Stress Promotes Peroxiredoxin Hyperoxidation and Attenuates Pro-survival Signaling in Aging Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, John A; Wood, Scott T; Nelson, Kimberly J; Rowe, Meredith A; Carlson, Cathy S; Chubinskaya, Susan; Poole, Leslie B; Furdui, Cristina M; Loeser, Richard F

    2016-03-25

    Oxidative stress-mediated post-translational modifications of redox-sensitive proteins are postulated as a key mechanism underlying age-related cellular dysfunction and disease progression. Peroxiredoxins (PRX) are critical intracellular antioxidants that also regulate redox signaling events. Age-related osteoarthritis is a common form of arthritis that has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aging and oxidative stress on chondrocyte intracellular signaling, with a specific focus on oxidation of cytosolic PRX2 and mitochondrial PRX3. Menadione was used as a model to induce cellular oxidative stress. Compared with chondrocytes isolated from young adult humans, chondrocytes from older adults exhibited higher levels of PRX1-3 hyperoxidation basally and under conditions of oxidative stress. Peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation was associated with inhibition of pro-survival Akt signaling and stimulation of pro-death p38 signaling. These changes were prevented in cultured human chondrocytes by adenoviral expression of catalase targeted to the mitochondria (MCAT) and in cartilage explants from MCAT transgenic mice. Peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation was observedin situin human cartilage sections from older adults and in osteoarthritic cartilage. MCAT transgenic mice exhibited less age-related osteoarthritis. These findings demonstrate that age-related oxidative stress can disrupt normal physiological signaling and contribute to osteoarthritis and suggest peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation as a potential mechanism. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. An Arabidopsis PWI and RRM motif-containing protein is critical for pre-mRNA splicing and ABA responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiangqiang; Qian, Bilian; Cao, Fengqiu; Wu, Wenwu; Yang, Lan; Guan, Qingmei; Gu, Xianbin; Wang, Pengcheng; Okusolubo, Temiloluwa A; Dunn, Stephanie L; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Zhu, Jianhua

    2015-09-25

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is important for growth, development and stress responses in plants. Recent research has identified ABA receptors and signalling components that regulate seed germination and stomatal closure. However, proteins that regulate ABA signalling remain poorly understood. Here we use a forward-genetic screen to identify rbm25-1 and rbm25-2, two Arabidopsis mutants with increased sensitivity to growth inhibition by ABA. Using RNA-seq, we found that RBM25 controls the splicing of many pre-mRNAs. The protein phosphatase 2C HAB1, a critical component in ABA signalling, shows a dramatic defect in pre-mRNA splicing in rbm25 mutants. Ectopic expression of a HAB1 complementary DNA derived from wild-type mRNAs partially suppresses the rbm25-2 mutant phenotype. We suggest that RNA splicing is of particular importance for plant response to ABA and that the splicing factor RBM25 has a critical role in this response.

  14. ABA-mediated responses to water deficit separate grapevine genotypes by their genetic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossdeutsch, Landry; Edwards, Everard; Cookson, Sarah J; Barrieu, François; Gambetta, Gregory A; Delrot, Serge; Ollat, Nathalie

    2016-04-18

    ABA-mediated processes are involved in plant responses to water deficit, especially the control of stomatal opening. However in grapevine it is not known if these processes participate in the phenotypic variation in drought adaptation existing between genotypes. To elucidate this question, the response to short-term water-deficit was analysed in roots and shoots of nine Vitis genotypes differing in their drought adaptation in the field. The transcript abundance of 12 genes involved in ABA biosynthesis, catabolism, and signalling were monitored, together with physiological and metabolic parameters related to ABA and its role in controlling plant transpiration. Although transpiration and ABA responses were well-conserved among the genotypes, multifactorial analyses separated Vitis vinifera varieties and V. berlandieri x V. rupestris hybrids (all considered drought tolerant) from the other genotypes studied. Generally, V. vinifera varieties, followed by V. berlandieri x V. rupestris hybrids, displayed more pronounced responses to water-deficit in comparison to the other genotypes. However, changes in transcript abundance in roots were more pronounced for Vitis hybrids than V. vinifera genotypes. Changes in the expression of the cornerstone ABA biosynthetic gene VviNCED1, and the ABA transcriptional regulator VviABF1, were associated with the response of V. vinifera genotypes, while changes in VviNCED2 abundance were associated with the response of other Vitis genotypes. In contrast, the ABA RCAR receptors were not identified as key components of the genotypic variability of water-deficit responses. Interestingly, the expression of VviSnRK2.6 (an AtOST1 ortholog) was constitutively lower in roots and leaves of V. vinifera genotypes and higher in roots of V. berlandieri x V. rupestris hybrids. This study highlights that Vitis genotypes exhibiting different levels of drought adaptation differ in key steps involved in ABA metabolism and signalling; both under well

  15. ABA control of plant macroelement membrane transport systems in response to water deficit and high salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakabe, Yuriko; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2014-04-01

    Plant growth and productivity are adversely affected by various abiotic stressors and plants develop a wide range of adaptive mechanisms to cope with these adverse conditions, including adjustment of growth and development brought about by changes in stomatal activity. Membrane ion transport systems are involved in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis during exposure to stress and ion transport activity is regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation networks that respond to stress conditions. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), which is produced rapidly in response to drought and salinity stress, plays a critical role in the regulation of stress responses and induces a series of signaling cascades. ABA signaling involves an ABA receptor complex, consisting of an ABA receptor family, phosphatases and kinases: these proteins play a central role in regulating a variety of diverse responses to drought stress, including the activities of membrane-localized factors, such as ion transporters. In this review, recent research on signal transduction networks that regulate the function ofmembrane transport systems in response to stress, especially water deficit and high salinity, is summarized and discussed. The signal transduction networks covered in this review have central roles in mitigating the effect of stress by maintaining plant homeostasis through the control of membrane transport systems. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Reduction of Nup107 attenuates the growth factor signaling in the senescent cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Young; Kang, Hyun Tae; Choi, Hae Ri [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Aging and Apoptosis Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Chul, E-mail: scpark@snu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Aging and Apoptosis Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Decreased expression of Nup107 in aged cells and organs. {yields} Depletion of Nup107 results in impaired nuclear translocation of p-ERK. {yields} Depletion of Nup107 affects downstream effectors of ERK signaling. {yields} Depletion of Nup107 inhibits cell proliferation of oligodendroglioma cells. -- Abstract: Hypo-responsiveness to growth factors is a fundamental feature of cellular senescence. In this study, we found markedly decreased level of Nup107, a key scaffold protein in nuclear pore complex assembly, in senescent human diploid fibroblasts as well as in organs of aged mice. Depletion of Nup107 by specific siRNA in young human diploid fibroblasts prevented the effective nuclear translocation of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) following epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation, and decreased the expression of c-Fos in consequence. The disturbances in ERK signaling in Nup107 depleted cells closely mirror the similar changes in senescent cells. Knockdown of Nup107 in anaplastic oligodendroglioma cells caused cell death, rather than growth retardation, indicating a greater sensitivity to Nup107 depletion in cancer cells than in normal cells. These findings support the notion that Nup107 may contribute significantly to the regulation of cell fate in aged and transformed cells by modulating nuclear trafficking of signal molecules.

  17. Multipronged attenuation of macrophage-colony stimulating factor signaling by Epstein-Barr virus BARF1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Ann Hye-Ryong; Chang, Rhoda Ahn; Chen, Xiaoyan; Longnecker, Richard; He, Xiaolin [NWU

    2014-10-02

    The ubiquitous EBV causes infectious mononucleosis and is associated with several types of cancers. The EBV genome encodes an early gene product, BARF1, which contributes to pathogenesis, potentially through growth-altering and immune-modulating activities, but the mechanisms for such activities are poorly understood. We have determined the crystal structure of BARF1 in complex with human macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), a hematopoietic cytokine with pleiotropic functions in development and immune response. BARF1 and M-CSF form a high-affinity, stable, ring-like complex in both solution and the crystal, with a BARF1 hexameric ring surrounded by three M-CSF dimers in triangular array. The binding of BARF1 to M-CSF dramatically reduces but does not completely abolish M-CSF binding and signaling through its cognate receptor FMS. A three-pronged down-regulation mechanism is proposed to explain the biological effect of BARF1 on M-CSF:FMS signaling. These prongs entail control of the circulating and effective local M-CSF concentration, perturbation of the receptor-binding surface of M-CSF, and imposition of an unfavorable global orientation of the M-CSF dimer. Each prong may reduce M-CSF:FMS signaling to a limited extent but in combination may alter M-CSF:FMS signaling dramatically. The downregulating mechanism of BARF1 underlines a viral modulation strategy, and provides a basis for understanding EBV pathogenesis.

  18. Curcumol suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast formation by attenuating the JNK signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mingxiang, E-mail: yu.mingxiang@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Xianying [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hainan Provincial Nong Ken Hospital, Hainan (China); Lv, Chaoyang [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Yi, Xilu [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Songjiang District Central Hospital, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Yao; Xue, Mengjuan; He, Shunmei [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Guoying [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang, Hongfu, E-mail: hfwang@shmu.edu.cn [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Curcumol suppresses osteoclasts differentiation in vitro. • Curcumol impairs JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway. • Curcumol may be used for treating osteoclast related diseases. - Abstract: Osteoclasts, derived from hemopoietic progenitors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, have a unique role in bone resorption, and are considered a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of such pathologic bone diseases as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis. In the present study, we demonstrate that curcumol, one of the major components of the essential oil of Rhizoma Curcumae, exhibits an inhibitory effect on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation with both bone marrow-derived macrophages and RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, RANKL-induced mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific genes, such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin receptor, and cathepsin K, is prominently reduced in the presence of curcumol. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism of action was investigated, and curcumol inhibited osteoclastogenesis by specifically impairing RANKL-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling, which was further identified in rescue studies by means of anisomycin, a JNK signaling-specific activator. Taken together, these findings suggest that curcumol suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation through the JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway, and may be useful as a therapeutic treatment for bone resorption-associated diseases.

  19. Tanshinol Attenuates the Deleterious Effects of Oxidative Stress on Osteoblastic Differentiation via Wnt/FoxO3a Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is now increasing evidence which suggests a pivotal role for oxidative stress in the development and progression of osteoporosis. We confirm herein the protective effects of natural antioxidant Tanshinol against oxidative stress in osteoblastic differentiation and the underlying mechanism. Our results show that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 leads to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, decrease in cell viability, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a caspase-3-dependent manner, and inhibition of osteoblastic differentiation. Tanshinol reverses these deleterious consequence triggered by oxidative stress. Moreover, under the condition of oxidative stress, Tanshinol suppresses the activation of FoxO3a transcription factor and expressions of its target genes Gadd45a and catalase (CAT and simultaneously counteracts the inhibition of Wnt signalling and expressions of target genes Axin2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and Osteoprotegerin (OPG. The findings are further consolidated using FoxO3a siRNA interference and overexpression of Tcf4. The results illustrate that Tanshinol attenuates oxidative stress via down-regulation of FoxO3a signaling, and rescues the decrease of osteoblastic differentiation through upregulation of Wnt signal under oxidative stress. The present findings suggest that the beneficial effects of Tanshinol may be adopted as a novel therapeutic approach in recently recognized conditions of niche targeting osteoporosis.

  20. Tanshinol Attenuates the Deleterious Effects of Oxidative Stress on Osteoblastic Differentiation via Wnt/FoxO3a Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yajun; Su, Yanjie; Wang, Dongtao; Chen, Yahui; Wu, Tie; Li, Gang; Sun, Xuegang

    2013-01-01

    There is now increasing evidence which suggests a pivotal role for oxidative stress in the development and progression of osteoporosis. We confirm herein the protective effects of natural antioxidant Tanshinol against oxidative stress in osteoblastic differentiation and the underlying mechanism. Our results show that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) leads to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), decrease in cell viability, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a caspase-3-dependent manner, and inhibition of osteoblastic differentiation. Tanshinol reverses these deleterious consequence triggered by oxidative stress. Moreover, under the condition of oxidative stress, Tanshinol suppresses the activation of FoxO3a transcription factor and expressions of its target genes Gadd45a and catalase (CAT) and simultaneously counteracts the inhibition of Wnt signalling and expressions of target genes Axin2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and Osteoprotegerin (OPG). The findings are further consolidated using FoxO3a siRNA interference and overexpression of Tcf4. The results illustrate that Tanshinol attenuates oxidative stress via down-regulation of FoxO3a signaling, and rescues the decrease of osteoblastic differentiation through upregulation of Wnt signal under oxidative stress. The present findings suggest that the beneficial effects of Tanshinol may be adopted as a novel therapeutic approach in recently recognized conditions of niche targeting osteoporosis. PMID:24489983

  1. Medico Legal Autopsies In Aba, Nigeria | Offiah | Abia State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %), accidents (16%), undetermined (12%) in that order. Only 2% of cases was suicide and were hanging. The above findings suggest that homicide is common in Aba. There is lack of proper documentation of coroner autopsies in Aba, ...

  2. miR172b controls the transition to autotrophic development inhibited by ABA in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmin Zou

    Full Text Available Seedling establishment is a critical phase in the life of plants when they are the most vulnerable to environment. Growth arrest at post-germinative stage under stress is the major adaptive strategy to help germinating seedlings to survive a spectrum of stressful conditions. ABA signaling is the key pathway to control stress-induced developmental arrest. However, mechanisms controlling the phase transition under abiotic stress are not fully understood. Here, we described miR172b as a new key regulator controlling transition of germinating seedlings from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth under osmotic stress in Arabidopsis. We showed that miR172b and its target SNZ were co-expressed during early seedling development. Expression of miR172b and SNZ was low after radicle emergence and sharply increased at the checkpoint to autotrophic development under normal conditions. Interestingly, activation of miR172b and SNZ was completely abolished by ABA and osmotic stress. miR172b overexpression and snz-1 exhibited increased sensitivity to ABA and osmotic stress during specific post-germinative stage, and resulted in higher expression of ABI3, ABI5 and downstream genes, such as Em6 and RAB18, than wild type under ABA treatment. Our results revealed that miR172b is a critical regulator specifically controlling cotyledon greening during post-germinative growth by directly targeting SNZ under ABA treatment and osmotic stress.

  3. Overexpression of oligouridylate binding protein 1b results in ABA hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cam Chau; Nakaminami, Kentaro; Matsui, Akihiro; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Kanno, Yuri; Seo, Mitsunori; Seki, Motoaki

    2017-02-01

    Oligouridylate binding protein 1b (UBP1b), a marker protein of plant stress granules (SGs), plays a role in heat stress tolerance in plants. A previous microarray analysis revealed that the expression of several ABA signaling-related genes is higher in UBP1b-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants (UBP1b-ox) subjected to both non-stressed and heat stress conditions. Root elongation and seed germination assays demonstrated that UBP1b-ox exhibited hypersensitivity to ABA. RT-qPCR analysis confirmed that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade genes, such as MPK3, MKK4, and MKK9 were upregulated in UBP1b-ox plants. ABA receptor genes, including PYL5 and PYL6, were also upregulated in UBP1b-ox plants. mRNA of WRKY33 - a downstream gene of MPK3 and an upstream gene of ethylene biosynthesis, exhibited high levels of accumulation, although the level of endogenous ABA was not significantly different between UBP1b-ox and control plants. In addition, RNA decay analysis revealed that WRKY33 was more stable in UBP1b-ox plants, indicating that the mRNA of WRKY33 was protected within UBP1b SGs. Collectively, these data demonstrate that UBP1b plays an important role in plant response to ABA.

  4. The Mg-Chelatase H Subunit of Arabidopsis Antagonizes a Group of WRKY Transcription Repressors to Relieve ABA-Responsive Genes of Inhibition[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yi; Yan, Lu; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Cao, Zheng; Mei, Chao; Xin, Qi; Wu, Fu-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Du, Shu-Yuan; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Zhao, Rui; Sun, Hai-Li; Liu, Rui; Yu, Yong-Tao; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2010-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a vital role in plant development and response to environmental challenges, but the complex networks of ABA signaling pathways are poorly understood. We previously reported that a chloroplast protein, the magnesium-protoporphyrin IX chelatase H subunit (CHLH/ABAR), functions as a receptor for ABA in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we report that ABAR spans the chloroplast envelope and that the cytosolic C terminus of ABAR interacts with a group of WRKY transcription factors (WRKY40, WRKY18, and WRKY60) that function as negative regulators of ABA signaling in seed germination and postgermination growth. WRKY40, a central negative regulator, inhibits expression of ABA-responsive genes, such as ABI5. In response to a high level of ABA signal that recruits WRKY40 from the nucleus to the cytosol and promotes ABAR–WRKY40 interaction, ABAR relieves the ABI5 gene of inhibition by repressing WRKY40 expression. These findings describe a unique ABA signaling pathway from the early signaling events to downstream gene expression. PMID:20543028

  5. Thyroid hormone potentiates insulin signaling and attenuates hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi; Sun, Zhongjie

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine (T3) has many metabolic functions. Unexpectedly, exogenous T3 lowered blood glucose in db/db mice, a model of type 2 diabetes. Here, we have explored this finding and its possible mechanisms further. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH db/db and lean mice were treated with T3, the phosphoinositide 3- kinase (PI3-kinase) inhibitor, LY294002, plus T3, or vehicles. Blood glucose, insulin sensitivity, levels and synthesis were measured. Effects of T3 on intracellular insulin signaling were analyzed in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes with Western blotting. Knock-down of the thyroid hormone receptor α1 (TRα1) in 3T3-L1 cells was achieved with an appropriate silencing RNA (siRNA). KEY RESULTS Single injections of T3 (7 ng·g−1 i.p.) rapidly and markedly attenuated hyperglycemia. Treatment with T3 (14 ng·g−1·day−1, 18 days) dose-dependently attenuated blood glucose and increased insulin sensitivity in db/db mice. Higher doses of T3 (28 ng·g−1·day−1) reversed insulin resistance in db/db mice. T3 also increased insulin levels in plasma and the neurogenic differentiation factor (an insulin synthesis transcription factor) and insulin storage in pancreatic islets in db/db mice. These anti-diabetic effects of T3 were abolished by the PI3-kinase inhibitor (LY294002). In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, T3 enhanced insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and activation of PI3-kinase, effects blocked by siRNA for TRα1. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS T3 potentiated insulin signaling, improved insulin sensitivity, and increased insulin synthesis, which may contribute to its anti-diabetic effects. These findings may provide new approaches to the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:20883475

  6. Valsartan attenuates cardiac and renal hypertrophy in rats with experimental cardiorenal syndrome possibly through down-regulating galectin-3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M-J; Gu, Y; Wang, H; Zhu, P-F; Liu, X-Y; Wu, J

    2016-01-01

    Aortocaval fistula (AV) induced chronic volume overload in rats with preexisting mild renal dysfunction (right kidney remove: UNX) could mimic the type 4 cardiorenal syndrome (CRS): chronic renocardiac syndrome. Galectin-3, a β-galactoside binding lectin, is an emerging biomarker in cardiovascular as well as renal diseases. We observed the impact of valsartan on cardiac and renal hypertrophy and galectin-3 changes in this model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (200-250 g) were divided into S (Sham, n = 7), M (UNX+AV, n = 7) and M+V (UNX+AV+valsartan, n = 7) groups. Eight weeks later, cardiac function was measured by echocardiography. Renal outcome was measured by glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, renal blood flow and 24 hours albuminuria. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were used to evaluate the expressions of galectin-3 in heart and renal. Cardiac hypertrophy and renal hypertrophy as well as cardiac enlargement were evidenced in this AV shunt induced chronic volume overload rat model with preexisting mild renal dysfunction. Cardiac and renal hypertrophy were significantly attenuated but cardiac enlargement was unaffected by valsartan independent of its blood pressure lowering effect. 24 hours urine albumin was significantly increased, which was significantly reduced by valsartan in this model. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR evidenced significantly up-regulated galectin-3 expression in heart and kidney and borderline increased myocardial collagen I expression, which tended to be lower post valsartan treatment. Up-regulated galectin-3 signaling might also be involved in the pathogenesis in this CRS model. The beneficial effects of valsartan in terms of attenuating cardiac and renal hypertrophy and reducing 24 hours albumin in this model might partly be mediated through down-regulating galectin-3 signal pathway.

  7. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling in mesenchymal stem cells of subchondral bone attenuates osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Gehua; Wen, Chunyi; Jia, Xiaofeng; Li, Yu; Crane, Janet L; Mears, Simon C; Askin, Frederic B; Frassica, Frank J; Chang, Weizhong; Yao, Jie; Carrino, John A; Cosgarea, Andrew; Artemov, Dmitri; Chen, Qianming; Zhao, Zhihe; Zhou, Xuedong; Riley, Lee; Sponseller, Paul; Wan, Mei; Lu, William Weijia; Cao, Xu

    2013-06-01

    Osteoarthritis is a highly prevalent and debilitating joint disorder. There is no effective medical therapy for the condition because of limited understanding of its pathogenesis. We show that transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is activated in subchondral bone in response to altered mechanical loading in an anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) mouse model of osteoarthritis. TGF-β1 concentrations are also high in subchondral bone from humans with osteoarthritis. High concentrations of TGF-β1 induced formation of nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) clusters, leading to formation of marrow osteoid islets accompanied by high levels of angiogenesis. We found that transgenic expression of active TGF-β1 in osteoblastic cells induced osteoarthritis, whereas inhibition of TGF-β activity in subchondral bone attenuated the degeneration of articular cartilage. In particular, knockout of the TGF-β type II receptor (TβRII) in nestin-positive MSCs led to less development of osteoarthritis relative to wild-type mice after ACLT. Thus, high concentrations of active TGF-β1 in subchondral bone seem to initiate the pathological changes of osteoarthritis, and inhibition of this process could be a potential therapeutic approach to treating this disease.

  8. Cepharanthine attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced mice mastitis by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershun, Zhou; Yunhe, Fu; Zhengkai, Wei; Yongguo, Cao; Naisheng, Zhang; Zhengtao, Yang

    2014-04-01

    Cepharanthine (CEP), a biscoclaurine alkaloid isolated from Stephania cepharantha Hayata, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of CEP on a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of CEP on LPS-induced mouse mastitis. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by inoculation of LPS through the canals of the mammary gland. CEP was administered intraperitoneally at 1 h before and 12 h after induction of LPS. The results show that CEP significantly attenuates the infiltration of neutrophils, suppresses myeloperoxidase activity, and reduces the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in LPS-induced mouse mastitis. Furthermore, CEP inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 subunit and the degradation of its inhibitor IκBα. All the results suggest that CEP exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-induced mouse mastitis. Accordingly, CEP might be a potential therapeutic agent for mastitis.

  9. Waveguide Mode Reflectometry for Obstacle Detection in the LHC Beam Pipe Including Signal Attenuation

    CERN Document Server

    Kroyer, Tom; Mahner, Edgar

    2003-01-01

    Unexpected obstacle formation in the LHC beam-pipe during assembly, cool down and operation may lead to major disturbances. Thus a fast, precise, sensitive and reliable means to detect and characterize such a fault is highly desirable, preferably without the need to break the vacuum. Waveguide mode time domain reflectometry using the synthetic pulse technique has been selected for this purpose. The system will use a modern vector network analyzer operating using essentially the fundamental TM mode on the LHC beam-screen. The objective is to measure over a full arc with access from either side both in reflection and transmission mode. If the proposed system is implemented a total of 32 couplers will be permanently installed, which may be used in normal operation for beam diagnostics and other applications. The attenuation of several short beam-screen sections has been measured both for TE and TM modes by means of a resonator method and these data are compared with theoretical results. Waveguide calibration on ...

  10. The Effects of Attenuating Returning Echolocation Signals at the Lower Jaw of a Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    echolocation signals are guided to the inner ear of odonto- relatively little loss of energy . The biochemical composition cete cetaceans via areas of fatty...SI hematic (tiagrafl of ithe poiuion% of dolphin. Iitrgcl ind hidro - stored onto diskettes incluided an ( I ) oscilloscope image of phone’ during Inak...pool, on the range of useful al. (1986), and others have provided evidence that odonto- energy in the emitted clicks. cete cetaceans emit echolocation

  11. Bupleurum polysaccharides attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation via modulating Toll-like receptor 4 signaling.

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    Jian Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bupleurum polysaccharides (BPs, isolated from Bupleurum smithii var. parvifolium, possesses immunomodulatory activity, particularly on inflammation. Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS triggers innate immune responses through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 on host cell membrane. The present study was performed to evaluate whether the therapeutic efficacy of BPs on suppression of LPS's pathogenecity could be associated with the modulating of TLR4 signaling pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: LPS stimulated expression and activation of factors in the TLR4 signaling system, including TLR4, CD14, IRAK4, TRAF6, NF-κB, and JNK, determined using immunocytochemical and/or Western blot assays. BPs significantly inhibited these effects of LPS. LPS increased pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-12p40, and IFN-β and NO production, evaluated using ELISA and Griess reaction assays, respectively. BPs antagonized these effects of LPS. Interestingly, BPs alone augmented secretion of some pro-inflammatory cytokines of non-LPS stimulated macrophages and enhanced phagocytic activity towards fluorescent E.coli bioparticles. In a rat model of acute lung injury (ALI with pulmonary hemorrhage and inflammation, BPs ameliorated lung injuries and suppressed TLR4 expression. SIGNIFICANCE: The therapeutic properties of BPs in alleviating inflammatory diseases could be attributed to its inhibitory effect on LPS-mediated TLR4 signaling.

  12. Honokiol activates the LKB1–AMPK signaling pathway and attenuates the lipid accumulation in hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Min Suk; Kim, Jung Hwan; Kim, Hye Jung; Chang, Ki Churl; Park, Sang Won, E-mail: parksw@gnu.ac.kr

    2015-04-15

    Honokiol is a bioactive neolignan compound isolated from the species of Magnolia. This study was designed to elucidate the cellular mechanism by which honokiol alleviates the development of non-alcoholic steatosis. HepG2 cells were treated with honokiol for 1 h, and then exposed to 1 mM free fatty acid (FFA) for 24 h to simulate non-alcoholic steatosis in vitro. C57BL/6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 28 days, and honokiol (10 mg/kg/day) was daily treated. Honokiol concentration-dependently attenuated intracellular fat overloading and triglyceride (TG) accumulation in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor. Honokiol significantly inhibited sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) maturation and the induction of lipogenic proteins, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells, but these effects were blocked by pretreatment of an AMPK inhibitor. Honokiol induced AMPK phosphorylation and subsequent acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation, which were inhibited by genetic deletion of liver kinase B1 (LKB1). Honokiol stimulated LKB1 phosphorylation, and genetic deletion of LKB1 blocked the effect of honokiol on SREBP-1c maturation and the induction of SCD-1 and FAS proteins in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells. Honokiol attenuated the increases in hepatic TG and lipogenic protein levels and fat accumulation in the mice fed with high-fat diet, while significantly induced LKB1 and AMPK phosphorylation. Taken together, our findings suggest that honokiol has an anti-lipogenic effect in hepatocytes, and this effect may be mediated by the LKB1–AMPK signaling pathway, which induces ACC phosphorylation and inhibits SREBP-1c maturation in hepatocytes. - Highlights: • Honokiol attenuates lipid accumulation induced by free fatty acid in hepatocyte. • Honokiol inhibits the increase in lipogenic enzyme levels induced by free fatty

  13. Exogenous Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Attenuates Binge Alcohol-Induced Deficient Bone Fracture Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauing, Kristen L.; Sundaramurthy, Sumana; Nauer, Rachel K.; Callaci, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with fracture non-union. Canonical Wnt pathway signaling activity regulates normal fracture healing. We previously demonstrated that binge alcohol exposure modulates β-catenin levels in the fracture callus of mice. Here, we sought to determine whether exogenous enhancement β-catenin signaling activity could restore normal fracture healing to binge-exposed mice. Methods: C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to episodic alcohol or saline for 6 total days of alcohol exposure over a 2-week period. Following alcohol exposure, mice were subjected to a stabilized mid-shaft tibia fracture. Beginning 4 days post-injury, mice received daily injections of either lithium chloride or saline subcutaneously. Protein levels of activated, inactivated, and total β-catenin and GSK-3β in fracture calluses were measured at post-injury day 9. Biomechanical strength testing and histology of callus tissue was assessed at post fracture day 14. Results: Binge alcohol was associated with decreased callus biomechanical strength, and reduced cartilaginous callus formation. Alcohol decreased levels of callus-associated activated β-catenin while concomitantly increasing the levels of inactive β-catenin at post-injury day 9. Alcohol also increased callus associated activated GSK-3β at post-injury day 9. Lithium chloride (an inhibitor of GSK-3β) treatment increased activated β-catenin protein levels, significantly decreased activated GSK-3β and restored cartilaginous callus formation and endochondral ossification. Conclusion: These data link alcohol-impaired fracture healing with deregulation of Canonical Wnt signaling activity in the fracture callus. Exogenous activation of the Wnt pathway using LiCl attenuated the damaging effects of binge alcohol exposure on the fracture healing process by modulating canonical Wnt signaling activity. PMID:24627571

  14. Wound trauma mediated inflammatory signaling attenuates a tissue regenerative response in MRL/MpJ mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elster Eric A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe trauma can induce pathophysiological responses that have marked inflammatory components. The development of systemic inflammation following severe thermal injury has been implicated in immune dysfunction, delayed wound healing, multi-system organ failure and increased mortality. Methods In this study, we examined the impact of thermal injury-induced systemic inflammation on the healing response of a secondary wound in the MRL/MpJ mouse model, which was anatomically remote from the primary site of trauma, a wound that typically undergoes scarless healing in this specific strain. Ear-hole wounds in MRL/MpJ mice have previously displayed accelerated healing and tissue regeneration in the absence of a secondary insult. Results Severe thermal injury in addition to distal ear-hole wounds induced marked local and systemic inflammatory responses in the lungs and significantly augmented the expression of inflammatory mediators in the ear tissue. By day 14, 61% of the ear-hole wounds from thermally injured mice demonstrated extensive inflammation with marked inflammatory cell infiltration, extensive ulceration, and various level of necrosis to the point where a large percentage (38% had to be euthanized early during the study due to extensive necrosis, inflammation and ear deformation. By day 35, ear-hole wounds in mice not subjected to thermal injury were completely closed, while the ear-hole wounds in thermally injured mice exhibited less inflammation and necrosis and only closed partially (62%. Thermal injury resulted in marked increases in serum levels of IL-6, TNFα, KC (CXCL1, and MIP-2α (CXCL2. Interestingly, attenuated early ear wound healing in the thermally injured mouse resulted in incomplete tissue regeneration in addition to a marked inflammatory response, as evidenced by the histological appearance of the wound and increased transcription of potent inflammatory mediators. Conclusion These findings suggest that the

  15. Leukocyte infiltration into spinal cord of EAE mice is attenuated by removal of endothelial leptin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Suidong; Hsuchou, Hung; Kastin, Abba J; Mishra, Pramod K; Wang, Yuping; Pan, Weihong

    2014-08-01

    Leptin, a pleiotropic adipokine, crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) from the periphery and facilitates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE induces dynamic changes of leptin receptors in enriched brain and spinal cord microvessels, leading to further questions about the potential roles of endothelial leptin signaling in EAE progression. In endothelial leptin receptor specific knockout (ELKO) mice, there were lower EAE behavioral scores in the early phase of the disorder, better preserved BSCB function shown by reduced uptake of sodium fluorescein and leukocyte infiltration into the spinal cord. Flow cytometry showed that the ELKO mutation decreased the number of CD3 and CD45 cells in the spinal cord, although immune cell profiles in peripheral organs were unchanged. Not only were CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes reduced, there were also lower numbers of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) granulocytes in the spinal cord of ELKO mice. In enriched microvessels from the spinal cord of the ELKO mice, the decreased expression of mRNAs for a few tight junction proteins was less pronounced in ELKO than WT mice, as was the elevation of mRNA for CCL5, CXCL9, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. Altogether, ELKO mice show reduced inflammation at the level of the BSCB, less leukocyte infiltration, and better preserved tight junction protein expression and BBB function than WT mice after EAE. Although leptin concentrations were high in ELKO mice and microvascular leptin receptors show an initial elevation before inhibition during the course of EAE, removal of leptin signaling helped to reduce disease burden. We conclude that endothelial leptin signaling exacerbates BBB dysfunction to worsen EAE. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Activation of the NGF/TrkA signaling pathway attenuates diabetic erectile dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ji, Wei; Li, Hai

    2017-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). The exact role of the NGF/TrkA signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of diabetic ED is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of the NGF/TrkA signaling pathway in Sprague-Dawley rats with diabetic ED. Animals were divided into 2 groups: the normal group and the DM ED model group. The model group included the blank subgroup, the negative control (NC) subgroup, the TrkA subgroup and the TrkA + NGF subgroup. Erectile function, intracavernous pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure were measured respectively. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the number of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expressing nerve fibers. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was applied to detect the mRNA expressions of NGF and TrkA in the cavernous tissue. Further, Western blotting was conducted to detect the expressions of NGF, TrkA and its downstream ERK pathway-related proteins. Higher erectile frequency, ICP values and diastolic function, more nNOS-positive nerve fibers, and decreased systolic function of the corpus cavernosum smooth muscle were found in the TrkA and TrkA+NGF groups when compared with the blank and the NC groups. Moreover, significantly higher mRNA expressions of NGF and TrkA, and upregulated protein expressions of NGF, TrkA, c-raf, ERK1/2 and CREB1 were found in the TrkA and the TrkA + NGF groups. In conclusion, downregulation in the NGF/TrkA signaling pathway may contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic ED.

  17. Antibody against the actin-binding protein depactin attenuates Ca2+ signaling in starfish eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jong T; Vasilev, Filip; Santella, Luigia

    2013-11-15

    Being present in starfish oocytes, the cofilin/ADF (actin-depolymerizing factor) family protein depactin severs actin filaments. Previously, we reported that exogenous cofilin microinjected into starfish eggs significantly augmented the Ca(2+) release in response to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) or fertilizing sperm, raising the possibility that intracellular Ca(2+) signaling could be modulated by the actin cytoskeleton. In this communication, we have targeted the endogenous depactin by use of the specific antibody that was raised against its actin-binding domain. The anti-depactin antibody microinjected into the starfish oocytes and eggs effectively altered the structure of the actin cytoskeleton, and significantly delayed the meiotic progression induced by 1-methyladenine. When microinjected into the mature eggs, the anti-depactin antibody markedly reduced the amplitude of the Ca(2+) response in a dose-dependent manner, corroborating the results of our previous study with cofilin. In addition, the eggs microinjected with the anti-depactin antibody displayed reduced rate of successful elevation of the fertilization envelope and an elevated tendency of polyspermic interaction. Taken together, our data suggest that the actin cytoskeleton is implicated not only in meiotic maturation and intracellular Ca(2+) signaling, but also in the fine regulation of gametes interaction and cortical granules exocytosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Salidroside attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mao-Chun; Shi, Hai-Ming; Gao, Xiu-Fang; Wang, Hao

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the cardioprotective effects of salidroside on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rabbits and the underlying action mechanisms in PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, a rabbit ischemia/reperfusion model was created by ligating the left anterior descending coronary arterial branch for 30 min and by releasing the ligature to allow reperfusion for 120 min. Salidroside or salidroside+PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) was administered via intracoronary injections at the onset of reperfusion. Apoptosis of cardiomyocytes was assessed by terminal dUTP nick-end labeling assay, and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins was observed by immunohistochemistry. The expressions of total Akt and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) were detected by western blot analysis. The results showed that intracoronary injection of salidroside at the onset of reperfusion markedly reduced the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, significantly increasing Bcl-2 and p-Akt proteins expressions and decreasing Bax and caspase-3 expressions in the hearts subjected to ischemia followed by 120-min reperfusion. However, the anti-apoptotic effect induced by salidroside was inhibited by LY294002, which blocked the activation of Akt. These results suggested that intracoronary administration of salidroside at the onset of reperfusion could significantly reduce the IRI-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, and this protective mechanism seemed to be mediated by the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.

  19. Long-term effects of abscisic acid (ABA) on the grape berry phenylpropanoid pathway: Gene expression and metabolite content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-González, Luis; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Ibáñez, Freddy; Pastenes, Claudio

    2016-08-01

    ABA has been proposed as the main signal triggering the onset of the ripening process in grapes, and modulating the secondary metabolism in grape berry skins. To determine the effect of ABA on secondary metabolism in berries, clusters of Carménère were sprayed with 0 μLL(-1) ABA; 50 μLL(-1) ABA and 100 μLL(-1) ABA during pre-véraison, and the gene expression of the transcription factors and enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were assessed from véraison to 70 days after véraison (DAV). Additionally, flavonols, tannins and anthocyanins were assessed from véraison until harvest (110 DAV). ABA accelerated sugar and anthocyanin accumulation at véraison. The grape transcript abundance of VvDFR, VvANS, VvUFGT and VvMybA1, all peaking around véraison mimicked the concentration of ABA throughout the season. The highest anthocyanin concentration occurred 35 DAV for all treatments, but higher pigment concentrations were observed in ABA-treated berries at véraison and from 60 to 70 DAV to harvest. VvPAL was also increased by treatment at the higher concentration of ABA from véraison to 40 DAV. Regarding flavanol synthesis, VvLAR2 and VvMyb4A decreased from véraison until 40 DAV and then increased again until 70 DAV. Compared to the control, both ABA treatments resulted in a less-than-proportional reduction of the expression of both genes compared to the control and, after 40 DAV, in a more-than-proportional increase compared to the control, suggesting a long-term effect of the pre-véraison ABA spray on the berries. A concomitant increase in flavanols was observed in berries after 40 DAV, and this occurred at a higher extent in berries treated with the highest ABA concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. AVE 3085, a novel endothelial nitric oxide synthase enhancer, attenuates cardiac remodeling in mice through the Smad signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yili; Chen, Cong; Feng, Cong; Tang, Anli; Ma, Yuedong; He, Xin; Li, Yanhui; He, Jiangui; Dong, Yugang

    2015-03-15

    AVE 3085 is a novel endothelial nitric oxide synthase enhancer. Although AVE 3085 treatment has been shown to be effective in spontaneously restoring endothelial function in hypertensive rats, little is known about the effects and mechanisms of AVE 3085 with respect to cardiac remodeling. The present study was designed to examine the effects of AVE 3085 on cardiac remodeling and the mechanisms underlying the effects of this compound. Mice were subjected to aortic banding to induce cardiac remodeling and were then administered AVE 3085 (10 mg kg day(-1), orally) for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the aortic banding-treated mice exhibited significant elevations in cardiac remodeling, characterized by an increase in left ventricular weight relative to body weight, an increase in the area of collagen deposition, an increase in the mean myocyte diameter, and increases in the gene expressions of the hypertrophic markers atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and β-MHC. These indexes were significantly decreased in the AVE 3085-treated mice. Furthermore, AVE 3085 treatment reduced the expression and activation of the Smad signaling pathway in the aortic banding-treated mice. Our data showed that AVE 3085 attenuated cardiac remodeling, and this effect was possibly mediated through the inhibition of Smad signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Latency-Associated Expression of Human Cytomegalovirus US28 Attenuates Cell Signaling Pathways To Maintain Latent Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Krishna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV latent infection from early myeloid lineage cells constitutes a threat to immunocompromised or immune-suppressed individuals. Consequently, understanding the control of latency and reactivation to allow targeting and killing of latently infected cells could have far-reaching clinical benefits. US28 is one of the few viral genes that is expressed during latency and encodes a cell surface G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR, which, during lytic infection, is a constitutive cell-signaling activator. Here we now show that in monocytes, which are recognized sites of HCMV latency in vivo, US28 attenuates multiple cell signaling pathways, including mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase and NF-κB, and that this is required to establish a latent infection; viruses deleted for US28 initiate a lytic infection in infected monocytes. We also show that these monocytes then become potent targets for the HCMV-specific host immune response and that latently infected cells treated with an inverse agonist of US28 also reactivate lytic infection and similarly become immune targets. Consequently, we suggest that the use of inhibitors of US28 could be a novel immunotherapeutic strategy to reactivate the latent viral reservoir, allowing it to be targeted by preexisting HCMV-specific T cells.

  2. Fatty acid-induced gut-brain signaling attenuates neural and behavioral effects of sad emotion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oudenhove, Lukas; McKie, Shane; Lassman, Daniel; Uddin, Bilal; Paine, Peter; Coen, Steven; Gregory, Lloyd; Tack, Jan; Aziz, Qasim

    2011-08-01

    Although a relationship between emotional state and feeding behavior is known to exist, the interactions between signaling initiated by stimuli in the gut and exteroceptively generated emotions remain incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the interaction between nutrient-induced gut-brain signaling and sad emotion induced by musical and visual cues at the behavioral and neural level in healthy nonobese subjects undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects received an intragastric infusion of fatty acid solution or saline during neutral or sad emotion induction and rated sensations of hunger, fullness, and mood. We found an interaction between fatty acid infusion and emotion induction both in the behavioral readouts (hunger, mood) and at the level of neural activity in multiple pre-hypothesized regions of interest. Specifically, the behavioral and neural responses to sad emotion induction were attenuated by fatty acid infusion. These findings increase our understanding of the interplay among emotions, hunger, food intake, and meal-induced sensations in health, which may have important implications for a wide range of disorders, including obesity, eating disorders, and depression.

  3. Inhibition of BRD4 attenuates tumor cell self-renewal and suppresses stem cell signaling in MYC driven medulloblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Ilango; Harris, Peter; Birks, Diane K; Griesinger, Andrea; Amani, Vladimir; Cristiano, Brian; Remke, Marc; Taylor, Michael D; Handler, Michael; Foreman, Nicholas K; Vibhakar, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is a pediatric brain tumor with a variable prognosis due to clinical and genomic heterogeneity. Among the 4 major genomic sub-groups, patients with MYC amplified tumors have a particularly poor prognosis despite therapy with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Targeting the MYC oncogene has traditionally been problematic. Here we report that MYC driven medulloblastoma can be targeted by inhibition of the bromodomain protein BRD4. We show that bromodomain inhibition with JQ1 restricts c-MYC driven transcriptional programs in medulloblastoma, suppresses medulloblastoma cell growth and induces a cell cycle arrest. Importantly JQ1 suppresses stem cell associated signaling in medulloblastoma cells and inhibits medulloblastoma tumor cell self-renewal. Additionally JQ1 also promotes senescence in medulloblastoma cells by activating cell cycle kinase inhibitors and inhibiting activity of E2F1. Furthermore BRD4 inhibition displayed an anti-proliferative, pro-senescence effect in a medulloblastoma model in vivo. In clinical samples we found that transcriptional programs suppressed by JQ1 are associated with adverse risk in medulloblastoma patients. Our work indicates that BRD4 inhibition attenuates stem cell signaling in MYC driven medulloblastoma and demonstrates the feasibility BET domain inhibition as a therapeutic approach in vivo. PMID:24796395

  4. Resveratrol inhibits LPS-induced mice mastitis through attenuating the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yanan; Xiao, Chong; Wei, Zhengkai; Wang, Jingjing; Yang, Zhengtao; Fu, Yunhe

    2017-06-01

    Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol extracted from mangy plants. It has been reported that resveratrol show multitudinous positive role in biology such as anti-oxidant, anti-nociception and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the present study devotes to test the effect of resveratrol on LPS-induced mastitis in mice. Resveratrol was administered intraperitoneally 1 h before LPS treatment. And the anti-inflammatory effect of resveratrol was measured by histopathological examination, MPO assay, real-time PCR and western blotting analysis. The results showed that resveratrol significantly reduced the LPS-induced mammary histopathological changes. Meanwhile, it sharply attenuated the activity of MPO. The result also indicated that the resveratrol can decrease the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. From the results of western blotting, resveratrol suppressed the expression of phosphorylation of p65 and IκB from NF-κB signal pathway and phosphorylation of p38 and ERK from MAPK signal pathway. These findings suggested that resveratrol may inhibit the inflammatory response in the mastitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibition of SDF-1α/CXCR4 Signalling in Subchondral Bone Attenuates Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Dong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that SDF-1α is a catabolic factor that can infiltrate cartilage, decrease proteoglycan content, and increase MMP-13 activity. Inhibiting the SDF-1α/CXCR4 signalling pathway can attenuate the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA. Recent studies have also shown that SDF-1α enhances chondrocyte proliferation and maturation. These results appear to be contradictory. In the current study, we used a destabilisation OA animal model to investigate the effects of SDF-1α/CXCR4 signalling in the tibial subchondral bone and the OA pathological process. Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA mice models were prepared by transecting the anterior cruciate ligament (ACLT, or a sham surgery was performed, in a total of 30 mice. Mice were treated with phosphate buffer saline (PBS or AMD3100 (an inhibitor of CXCR4 and sacrificed at 30 days post ACLT or sham surgery. Tibial subchondral bone status was quantified by micro-computed tomography (μCT. Knee-joint histology was analysed to examine the articular cartilage and joint degeneration. The levels of SDF-1α and collagen type I c-telopeptidefragments (CTX-I were quantified by ELISA. Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs were used to clarify the effects of SDF-1α on osteoclast formation and activity in vivo. μCT analysis revealed significant loss of trabecular bone from tibial subchondral bone post-ACLT, which was effectively prevented by AMD3100. AMD3100 could partially prevent bone loss and articular cartilage degeneration. Serum biomarkers revealed an increase in SDF-1α and bone resorption, which were also reduced by AMD3100. SDF-1α can promote osteoclast formation and the expression oftartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, cathepsin K (CK, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 in osteoclasts by activating the MAPK pathway, including ERK and p38, but not JNK. In conclusion, inhibition of SDF-1α/CXCR4signalling was able to prevent trabecular bone loss and attenuated cartilage

  6. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor H-89 attenuates the bioluminescence signal produced by Renilla Luciferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie J Herbst

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigations into the regulation and functional roles of kinases such as cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA increasingly rely on cellular assays. Currently, there are a number of bioluminescence-based assays, for example reporter gene assays, that allow the study of the regulation, activity, and functional effects of PKA in the cellular context. Additionally there are continuing efforts to engineer improved biosensors that are capable of detecting real-time PKA signaling dynamics in cells. These cell-based assays are often utilized to test the involvement of PKA-dependent processes by using H-89, a reversible competitive inhibitor of PKA.We present here data to show that H-89, in addition to being a competitive PKA inhibitor, attenuates the bioluminescence signal produced by Renilla luciferase (RLuc variants in a population of cells and also in single cells. Using 10 microM of luciferase substrate and 10 microM H-89, we observed that the signal from RLuc and RLuc8, an eight-point mutation variant of RLuc, in cells was reduced to 50% (+/-15% and 54% (+/-14% of controls exposed to the vehicle alone, respectively. In vitro, we showed that H-89 decreased the RLuc8 bioluminescence signal but did not compete with coelenterazine-h for the RLuc8 active site, and also did not affect the activity of Firefly luciferase. By contrast, another competitive inhibitor of PKA, KT5720, did not affect the activity of RLuc8.The identification and characterization of the adverse effect of H-89 on RLuc signal will help deconvolute data previously generated from RLuc-based assays looking at the functional effects of PKA signaling. In addition, for the current application and future development of bioluminscence assays, KT5720 is identified as a more suitable PKA inhibitor to be used in conjunction with RLuc-based assays. These principal findings also provide an important lesson to fully consider all of the potential effects of experimental conditions on a cell

  7. Lipoic acid attenuates inflammation via cAMP and protein kinase A signaling.

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    Sonemany Salinthone

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal regulation of the inflammatory response is an important component of diseases such as diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis (MS. Lipoic acid (LA has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and is being pursued as a therapy for these diseases. We first reported that LA stimulates cAMP production via activation of G-protein coupled receptors and adenylyl cyclases. LA also suppressed NK cell activation and cytotoxicity. In this study we present evidence supporting the hypothesis that the anti-inflammatory properties of LA are mediated by the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade. Additionally, we show that LA oral administration elevates cAMP levels in MS subjects.We determined the effects of LA on IL-6, IL-17 and IL-10 secretion using ELISAs. Treatment with 50 µg/ml and 100 µg/ml LA significantly reduced IL-6 levels by 19 and 34%, respectively, in T cell enriched PBMCs. IL-17 levels were also reduced by 35 and 50%, respectively. Though not significant, LA appeared to have a biphasic effect on IL-10 production. Thymidine incorporation studies showed LA inhibited T cell proliferation by 90%. T-cell activation was reduced by 50% as measured by IL-2 secretion. Western blot analysis showed that LA treatment increased phosphorylation of Lck, a downstream effector of protein kinase A. Pretreatment with a peptide inhibitor of PKA, PKI, blocked LA inhibition of IL-2 and IFN gamma production, indicating that PKA mediates these responses. Oral administration of 1200 mg LA to MS subjects resulted in increased cAMP levels in PBMCs four hours after ingestion. Average cAMP levels in 20 subjects were 43% higher than baseline.Oral administration of LA in vivo resulted in significant increases in cAMP concentration. The anti-inflammatory effects of LA are mediated in part by the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade. These novel findings enhance our understanding of the mechanisms of action of LA.

  8. VvWRKY13 enhances ABA biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera

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    JIe Hao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA plays critical roles in plant growth and development as well as in plants’ responses to abiotic stresses. We previously isolated VvWRKY13, a novel transcription factor, from Vitis vinifera (grapevine, and here we present evidence that VvWRKY13 may regulate ABA biosynthesis in plants. When VvWRKY13 was ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, the transgenic lines showed delayed seed germination, smaller stomatal aperture size, and several other phenotypic changes, indicating elevated ABA levels in these plants. Sequence analysis of several genes that are involved in grapevine ABA synthetic pathway identified WRKY-specific binding elements (W-box or W-like box in the promoter regions. Indeed, transient overexpression of VvWRKY13 in grapevine leaves significantly increased the transcript levels of ABA synthetic pathway genes. Taken together, we conclude that VvWRKY13 may promote ABA production by activating genes in the ABA synthetic pathway.

  9. Thiophenone Attenuates Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O103:H2 Virulence by Interfering with AI-2 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witsø, Ingun Lund; Valen Rukke, Håkon; Benneche, Tore; Aamdal Scheie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Interference with bacterial quorum sensing communication provides an anti-virulence strategy to control pathogenic bacteria. Here, using the Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O103:H2, we showed for the first time that thiophenone TF101 reduced expression of lsrB; the gene encoding the AI-2 receptor. Combined results of transcriptional and phenotypic analyses suggested that TF101 interfere with AI-2 signalling, possibly by competing with AI-2 for binding to LsrB. This is supported by in silico docking prediction of thiophenone TF101 in the LsrB pocket. Transcriptional analyses furthermore showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with expression of the virulence genes eae and fimH. In addition, TF101 reduced AI-2 induced E. coli adhesion to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. TF101, on the other hand, did not affect epinephrine or norepinephrine enhanced E. coli adhesion. Overall, our results showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with virulence expression in E. coli O103:H2, suggestedly by interfering with AI-2 mediated quorum sensing. We thus conclude that thiophenone TF101 might represent a promising future anti-virulence agent in the fight against pathogenic E. coli.

  10. Role of thioproline on seed germination: interaction ROS-ABA and effects on antioxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba-Espin, Gregorio; Nicolas, Eduardo; Almansa, Maria Soledad; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Albacete, Alfonso; Hernández, José Antonio; Díaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2012-10-01

    In this work we investigate the effect of the imbibition of pea seeds with different thioproline (TP) concentrations on the germination percentage and the early growth of the seedlings. The interaction between TP and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) treatments is also analysed in order to test if any synergy in germination and growth occurs. Although the imbibition of pea seeds in the presence of TP did not significantly improve the germination percentage, TP and/or H₂O₂ pre-treatments increased seedlings growth. This increase in seedling growth was reduced by abscisic acid (ABA) addition. Imbibition of pea seeds in the presence of ABA also reduced the endogenous H₂O₂ contents of pea seedlings in control and TP-treated seeds. The incubation of pea seeds with TP and/or H₂O₂ in presence or absence of ABA decreased the activity of H₂O₂-scavenging enzymes. The increase of the endogenous H₂O₂ contents observed in TP and/or H₂O₂ treatments in absence of ABA could be correlated with the decrease in these activities. Finally, the hormone profile of pea seedlings was investigated. The results show that the increase in seedling growth is correlated with a decrease in ABA in samples pre-treated with H₂O₂ and TP + H₂O₂. Nevertheless, no significant differences in endogenous ABA concentration were observed with the TP pre-treatment. This paper suggests a relationship between endogenous H₂O₂ contents and plant growth, so reinforcing the intricate crosstalk between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and plant hormones in seed germination signalling and early seedling development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Rosiglitazone attenuates the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease imbalance in emphysema induced by cigarette smoke: involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and NFκB signaling

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    Hou G

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gang Hou, Yan Yin, Dan Han, Qiu-yue Wang, Jian Kang Department of Respiratory Medicine, the First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Objective: We investigated how rosiglitazone attenuated cigarette smoke (CS-induced emphysema in a rat model. In particular, we focused on its possible effects on the imbalance between metalloprotease (MMP and anti-MMP activity, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphorylation, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NFκB signaling pathway over-activation.Methods: A total of 36 Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n=12 each: animals were exposed to CS for 12 weeks in the absence (the CS group or presence of 30 mg/kg rosiglitazone (the rosiglitazone-CS [RCS] group; a control group was treated with the rosiglitazone vehicle only, without any CS exposure. Histopathology of lung tissue in all groups was evaluated to grade severity of the disease. Expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, MMP2, and MMP9 in lung tissue were determined and compared using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Activation of MAPKs, NFκB, and the nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cell inhibitor, alpha (IκBα phosphorylation in lung tissue was examined by Western blotting.Results: Emphysema-related pathology, based on inter-alveolar wall distance and alveolar density, was less severe in the RCS group than in the CS group. Compared with the CS group, levels of PPARγ were higher in the RCS group, and levels of MMP2 and MMP9 proteins were lower in the RCS rats. Levels of activated MAPKs and NFκB were also lower, while the IκBαphosphorylation was increased in the lung tissue of RCS rats.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that oral administration of rosiglitazone attenuates the metalloprotease activity induced by CS, and the underlying mechanism might involve the activation of signaling pathways

  12. ABA induces H2O2 production in guard cells, but does not close the stomata on Vicia faba leaves developed at high air humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arve, Louise E; Carvalho, Dália RA; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Plants developed under constant high (> 85%) relative air humidity (RH) have larger stomata that are unable to close completely. One of the hypotheses for the less responsive stomata is that the plants have reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Both ABA and darkness are signals for stomatal closure and induce the production of the secondary messenger hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ability of Vicia faba plants developed in moderate or high RH to close the stomata in response to darkness, ABA and H2O2 was investigated. Moreover, the ability of the plants to produce H2O2 when treated with ABA or transferred to darkness was also assessed. Our results show that the ABA concentration in moderate RH is not increased during darkness even though the stomata are closing. This indicates that stomatal closure in V. faba during darkness is independent of ABA production. ABA induced both H2O2 production and stomatal closure in stomata formed at moderate RH. H2O2 production, as a result of treatment with ABA, was also observed in stomata formed at high RH, though the closing response was considerably smaller as compared with moderate RH. In either RH, leaf ABA concentration was not affected by darkness. Similarly to ABA treatment, darkness elicited both H2O2 production and stomatal closure following plant cultivation at moderate RH. Contrary to this, neither H2O2 production nor stomatal closure took place when stomata were formed at high RH. These results suggest that the reduced stomatal response in plants developed in continuous high RH is caused by one or more factors downstream of H2O2 in the signaling pathway toward stomatal closure. PMID:25763494

  13. ABA induces H2O2 production in guard cells, but does not close the stomata on Vicia faba leaves developed at high air humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arve, Louise E; Carvalho, Dália R A; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Plants developed under constant high (> 85%) relative air humidity (RH) have larger stomata that are unable to close completely. One of the hypotheses for the less responsive stomata is that the plants have reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Both ABA and darkness are signals for stomatal closure and induce the production of the secondary messenger hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ability of Vicia faba plants developed in moderate or high RH to close the stomata in response to darkness, ABA and H2O2 was investigated. Moreover, the ability of the plants to produce H2O2 when treated with ABA or transferred to darkness was also assessed. Our results show that the ABA concentration in moderate RH is not increased during darkness even though the stomata are closing. This indicates that stomatal closure in V. faba during darkness is independent of ABA production. ABA induced both H2O2 production and stomatal closure in stomata formed at moderate RH. H2O2 production, as a result of treatment with ABA, was also observed in stomata formed at high RH, though the closing response was considerably smaller as compared with moderate RH. In either RH, leaf ABA concentration was not affected by darkness. Similarly to ABA treatment, darkness elicited both H2O2 production and stomatal closure following plant cultivation at moderate RH. Contrary to this, neither H2O2 production nor stomatal closure took place when stomata were formed at high RH. These results suggest that the reduced stomatal response in plants developed in continuous high RH is caused by one or more factors downstream of H2O2 in the signaling pathway toward stomatal closure.

  14. Spatial Regulation of ABCG25, an ABA Exporter, Is an Important Component of the Mechanism Controlling Cellular ABA Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngmin; Xu, Zheng-Yi; Kim, Soo Youn; Lee, Jihyeong; Choi, Bongsoo; Lee, Juhun; Kim, Hyeran; Sim, Hee-Jung; Hwang, Inhwan

    2016-10-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays crucial roles in various physiological processes, including responses to abiotic stresses, in plants. Recently, multiple ABA transporters were identified. The loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutants of these transporters show altered ABA sensitivity and stomata regulation, highlighting the importance of ABA transporters in ABA-mediated processes. However, how the activity of these transporters is regulated remains elusive. Here, we show that spatial regulation of ATP BINDING CASETTE G25 (ABCG25), an ABA exporter, is an important mechanism controlling its activity. ABCG25, as a soluble green fluorescent protein (sGFP) fusion, was subject to posttranslational regulation via clathrin-dependent and adaptor protein complex-2-dependent endocytosis followed by trafficking to the vacuole. The levels of sGFP:ABCG25 at the plasma membrane (PM) were regulated by abiotic stresses and exogenously applied ABA; PM-localized sGFP:ABCG25 decreased under abiotic stress conditions via activation of endocytosis in an ABA-independent manner, but increased upon application of exogenous ABA via activation of recycling from early endosomes in an ABA-dependent manner. Based on these findings, we propose that the spatial regulation of ABCG25 is an important component of the mechanism by which plants fine-tune cellular ABA levels according to cellular and environmental conditions. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  15. SAZ, a new SUPERMAN-like protein, negatively regulates a subset of ABA-responsive genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chang-Jie; Aono, Mitsuko; Tamaoki, Masanori; Maeda, Satoru; Sugano, Shoji; Mori, Masaki; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2008-02-01

    Arabidopsis SUPERMAN (SUP) and members of its family are plant-unique C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger genes that have been implicated in plant growth and development. In this paper, we report that a new SUP-family gene, designated as S A- and A BA-downregulated z inc finger gene (SAZ), is involved in the negative regulation of ABA-mediated signaling. SAZ-GUS fusion proteins were predominantly localized in the nuclei when they were transiently expressed in onion epidermal cells. SAZ transcripts were expressed in the leaves and pistils of very young flower buds. In young seedlings, SAZ expression was downregulated in response to environmental stresses such as drought, salt, ozone and ultraviolet-B irradiation. This downregulation was also observed in response to the phytohormones salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). SA-responsive downregulation of SAZ was not observed in the npr1-1 mutant, indicating that this regulation is NPR1 dependent. RNAi-mediated knockdown of SAZ (SAZ-kd) resulted in elevated expression of the drought- and ABA-responsive genes rd29B and rab18 under unstressed conditions, and it enhanced the response of these genes to drought and ABA treatment. The expression of several other drought- and/or ABA-responsive genes was not affected by SAZ-kd. Based on these results, we propose that SAZ plays a role in repressing a subset of the ABA-mediated stress-responsive genes in unstressed conditions.

  16. Ordering phenomena in ABA triblock copolymer gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynders, K.; Mischenko, N.; Kleppinger, R.

    1997-01-01

    Temperature and concentration dependencies of the degree of order in ABA triblock copolymer gels are discussed. Two factors can influence the ordering phenomena: the conformation of the midblocks (links of the network) and the polydispersity of the endblock domains (nodes of the network). The lat......Temperature and concentration dependencies of the degree of order in ABA triblock copolymer gels are discussed. Two factors can influence the ordering phenomena: the conformation of the midblocks (links of the network) and the polydispersity of the endblock domains (nodes of the network...... crystalline lattice with close-packed spheres or with cubic (presumably BCC) equilibrium morphology. The appearance of the latter is never detected in the gels with a stretched conformation of the midblock....

  17. Rapid Phosphoproteomic Effects of Abscisic Acid (ABA) on Wild-Type and ABA Receptor-Deficient A. thaliana Mutants*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Benjamin B.; Stecker, Kelly E.; Sussman, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA)1 is a plant hormone that controls many aspects of plant growth, including seed germination, stomatal aperture size, and cellular drought response. ABA interacts with a unique family of 14 receptor proteins. This interaction leads to the activation of a family of protein kinases, SnRK2s, which in turn phosphorylate substrates involved in many cellular processes. The family of receptors appears functionally redundant. To observe a measurable phenotype, four of the fourteen receptors have to be mutated to create a multilocus loss-of-function quadruple receptor (QR) mutant, which is much less sensitive to ABA than wild-type (WT) plants. Given these phenotypes, we asked whether or not a difference in ABA response between the WT and QR backgrounds would manifest on a phosphorylation level as well. We tested WT and QR mutant ABA response using isotope-assisted quantitative phosphoproteomics to determine what ABA-induced phosphorylation changes occur in WT plants within 5 min of ABA treatment and how that phosphorylation pattern is altered in the QR mutant. We found multiple ABA-induced phosphorylation changes that occur within 5 min of treatment, including three SnRK2 autophosphorylation events and phosphorylation on SnRK2 substrates. The majority of robust ABA-dependent phosphorylation changes observed were partially diminished in the QR mutant, whereas many smaller ABA-dependent phosphorylation changes observed in the WT were not responsive to ABA in the mutant. A single phosphorylation event was increased in response to ABA treatment in both the WT and QR mutant. A portion of the discovery data was validated using selected reaction monitoring-based targeted measurements on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. These data suggest that different subsets of phosphorylation events depend upon different subsets of the ABA receptor family to occur. Altogether, these data expand our understanding of the model by which the family of ABA receptors directs

  18. Resistance Exercise Reduces Seizure Occurrence, Attenuates Memory Deficits and Restores BDNF Signaling in Rats with Chronic Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; Lopim, Glauber Menezes; Vannucci Campos, Diego; Fernandes, Jansen; Cabral, Francisco Romero; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2017-04-01

    Epilepsy is a disease characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. Cognitive impairment is an important comorbidity of chronic epilepsy. Human and animal model studies of epilepsy have shown that aerobic exercise induces beneficial structural and functional changes and reduces the number of seizures. However, little is yet understood about the effects of resistance exercise on epilepsy. We evaluated the effects of a resistance exercise program on the number of seizures, long-term memory and expression/activation of signaling proteins in rats with epilepsy. The number of seizures was quantified by video-monitoring and long-term memory was assessed by an inhibitory avoidance test. Using western blotting, multiplex and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we determined the effects of a 4-week resistance exercise program on IGF-1 and BDNF levels and ERK, CREB, mTOR activation in the hippocampus of rats with epilepsy. Rats with epilepsy submitted to resistance exercise showed a decrease in the number of seizures compared to non-exercised epileptic rats. Memory deficits were attenuated by resistance exercise. Rats with epilepsy showed an increase in IGF-1 levels which were restored to control levels by resistance exercise. BDNF levels and ERK and mTOR activation were decreased in rats with epilepsy and resistance exercise restored these to control levels. In conclusion, resistance exercise reduced seizure occurrence and mitigated memory deficits in rats with epilepsy. These resistance exercise-induced beneficial effects can be related to changes in IGF-1 and BDNF levels and its signaling protein activation. Our findings indicate that the resistance exercise might be included as complementary therapeutic strategy for epilepsy treatment.

  19. Anorexigenic lipopeptides ameliorate central insulin signaling and attenuate tau phosphorylation in hippocampi of mice with monosodium glutamate-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špolcová, Andrea; Mikulášková, Barbora; Holubová, Martina; Nagelová, Veronika; Pirnik, Zdenko; Zemenová, Jana; Haluzík, Martin; Železná, Blanka; Galas, Marie-Christine; Maletínská, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that patients who suffer from metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or obesity, have higher risks of cognitive dysfunction and of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Impaired insulin signaling in the brain could contribute to the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, which contain an abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau protein. This study aimed to determine whether potential tau hyperphosphorylation could be detected in an obesity-induced pre-diabetes state and whether anorexigenic agents could affect this state. We demonstrated that 6-month-old mice with monosodium glutamate (MSG) obesity, which represent a model of obesity-induced pre-diabetes, had increased tau phosphorylation at Ser396 and Thr231 in the hippocampus compared with the controls, as determined by western blots. Two weeks of subcutaneous treatment with a lipidized analog of prolactin-releasing peptide (palm-PrRP31) or with the T2DM drug liraglutide, which both had a central anorexigenic effect, resulted in increased phosphorylation of the insulin cascade kinases PDK1 (Ser241), Akt (Thr308), and GSK-3β (Ser9). Furthermore, these drugs attenuated phosphorylation at Ser396, Thr231, and Thr212 of tau and of the primary tau kinases in the hippocampi of 6-month-old MSG-obese mice. We identified tau hyperphosphorylation in the obesity-induced pre-diabetes state in MSG-obese mice and demonstrated the beneficial effects of palm-PrRP31 and liraglutide, both of known central anorexigenic effects, on hippocampal insulin signaling and on tau phosphorylation.

  20. Leptomeningeal high signal intensity (ivy sign) on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR images in moyamoya disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Hirokazu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 1608582 (Japan)]. E-mail: hirokazu_fujiwara@ybb.ne.jp; Momoshima, Suketaka [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 1608582 (Japan); Kuribayashi, Sachio [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 1608582 (Japan)

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: There are a few reports on leptomeningeal high signal intensity (LMHI: ivy sign) on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images in moyamoya disease, but the feature of this finding has not been completely understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize LMHI on FLAIR images in moyamoya disease and to assess usefulness of this finding in the diagnosis of moyamoya disease in conventional MR imaging. Material and methods: MR imaging of 28 patients with moyamoya disease was retrospectively reviewed. The grade of LMHI on FLAIR images was classified as 'absent,' 'minimal,' 'moderate' and 'marked.' Fifty-four hemispheres of 28 patients (2 patients had unilateral disease) were assessed for the frequency of visualization and distribution of LMHI. The correlations between LMHI on FLAIR images, moyamoya vessels on T1- and T2-weighted images and MR angiography findings were also analyzed. Results: Moderate and marked LMHI was seen in 31 out of 54 hemispheres (57%). LMHI was seen more prominently in the frontal and parietal lobes than in the temporal and occipital lobes. Although there was a tendency for LMHI on FLAIR images to be prominent in groups with moderate and marked moyamoya vessels on T1- and T2-weighted images, there was no significant correlation. More prominent LMHI was observed in the hemispheres in which cortical branches of the middle cerebral arteries were poorly visualized on MR angiography. Conclusion: Leptomeningeal high signal intensity (ivy sign) on FLAIR images is predominantly seen in the frontal and parietal lobes. Because this sign can be seen in patients with unremarkable moyamoya vessels, LMHI is a useful sign in conventional MR imaging for the diagnosis of moyamoya disease.

  1. Syneilesis palmata (Thunb.) Maxim. extract attenuates inflammatory responses via the regulation of TRIF-dependent signaling and inflammasome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji-Won; Shim, Do-Wan; Shim, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Myong-Ki; Shin, Yong-Kook; Kwak, Su-Bin; Koppula, Sushruta; Kim, Tack-Joong; Kang, Tae-Bong; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2015-05-26

    Syneilesis palmata (Thunb.) Maxim. (S. palmata, Asteraceae) is a traditional Korean therapeutic herb widely used to treat pain, arthritis, and other symptoms. This study provides the scientific basis for the anti-inflammatory effects of S. palmata extract (SP) in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages were used to study the regulatory effect of SP on the inflammatory mediators in vitro. Bone marrow-derived macrophages were used to study the effects of SP on inflammasome activation. Escherichia coli-induced sepsis mouse model and LPS-induced endotoxin shock model were employed to study the effect of SP on in vivo efficacy. SP inhibited the LPS-stimulated release of proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide and interleukin (IL)-6 in RAW 264.7 cells. SP treatment also attenuated IL-1β secretion via the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by monosodium urate, ATP, and nigericin. Further, SP ameliorated the severity of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated symptoms in LPS-induced endotoxin and E. coli-induced sepsis mouse models. Mechanistic studies revealed that inhibitory effects of SP were mediated through the regulation of TRIF-dependent signaling and inflammasome activation. This study was the first to reveal mechanistic-based evidence substantiating the traditional claims of SP in the treatment of inflammation-related disorders, such as pain and arthritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Activation of sonic hedgehog signaling attenuates oxidized low-density lipoprotein-stimulated brain microvascular endothelial cells dysfunction in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiu-Long; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    The study was performed to investigate the role of sonic hedgehog (SHH) in the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. The primary mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (MBMECs) were exposed to oxLDL. The results indicated that treatment of MBMECs with oxLDL decreased the cell viability, and oxidative stress was involved in oxLDL-induce MBMECs dysfunction with increasing intracellular ROS and MDA formation as well as decreasing NO release and eNOS mRNA expression. In addition, SHH signaling components, such as SHH, Smo and Gli1, mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased after incubation with increasing concentrations of oxLDL. Treatment with oxLDL alone or SHH loss-of-function significantly increased the permeability of MBMECs, and overexpression of SHH attenuated oxLDL-induced elevation of permeability in MBMECs. Furthermore, SHH gain-of-function could reverse oxLDL-induced apoptosis through inhibition caspase3 and caspase8 levels in MBMECs. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the suppression of SHH in MBMECs might contribute to the oxLDL-induced disruption of endothelial barrier. However, the overexpression of SHH could reverse oxLDL-induced endothelial cells dysfunction in vitro.

  3. PKCα Attenuates Jagged-1-mediated Notch Signaling in ErbB-2 positive Breast Cancer to Reverse Trastuzumab Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Kinnari; Wyatt, Debra; Gallagher, Brian; Shah, Deep; Baker, Andrew; Bloodworth, Jeffrey; Zlobin, Andrei; Pannuti, Antonio; Green, Andrew; Ellis, Ian O.; Filipovic, Aleksandra; Sagert, Jason; Rana, Ajay; Albain, Kathy S.; Miele, Lucio; Denning, Mitchell F.; Osipo, Clodia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality among women worldwide. The major problem with current treatments is tumor resistance, recurrence, and disease progression. ErbB-2 positive breast tumors are aggressive and frequently become resistant to trastuzumab or lapatinib. We showed previously that Notch-1 is required for trastuzumab resistance in ErbB-2 positive breast cancer. Experimental Design Here, we sought to elucidate mechanisms by which ErbB-2 attenuates Notch signaling and how this is reversed by trastuzumab or lapatinib. Results The current study elucidates a novel Notch inhibitory mechanism by which PKCα downstream of ErbB-2: 1. Restricts the availability of Jagged-1 at the cell surface to trans activate Notch; 2. Restricts the critical interaction between Jagged-1 and Mindbomb-1, an E3 ligase that is required for Jagged-1 ubiquitinylation and subsequent Notch activation; 3. Reverses trastuzumab resistance in vivo; and 4. Predicts better outcome in women with ErbB-2 positive breast cancer. Conclusions The clinical impact of these studies is PKCα is potentially a good prognostic marker for low Notch activity and increased trastuzumab sensitivity in ErbB-2 positive breast cancer. Moreover, women with ErbB-2 positive breast tumors expressing high Notch activation and low PKCα expression could be the best candidates for anti-Notch therapy. PMID:26350262

  4. Two cDNA clones (FsDhn1 and FsClo1) up-regulated by ABA are involved in drought responses in Fagus sylvatica L. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jesús Angel; Alonso-Ramírez, Ana; Nicolás, Carlos

    2008-11-28

    Two abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive clones (FsDhn1 and FsClo1) were isolated from a cDNA library of ABA-treated seeds of Fagus sylvatica L. FsDhn1 codes for type-II late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, also known as dehydrins. The corresponding transcripts were ABA-induced and expressed when seeds were artificially dried. FsClo1 codes for a caleosin, a calcium-binding protein. By expressing FsCLO1 as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli, we obtained biochemical evidence of its ability to bind calcium, a second messenger involved in ABA signaling. This cDNA clone is seed specific, shows a LEA expression pattern and is also induced by ABA and dehydration treatments. The relationship of both genes with seed responses to ABA is discussed.

  5. Up-regulation of NCED3 and ABA biosynthesis occur within minutes of a decrease in leaf turgor but AHK1 is not required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussmilch, Frances C; Brodribb, Timothy J; McAdam, Scott A M

    2017-05-17

    A major environmental signal influencing day-time stomatal aperture is the vapour pressure deficit between the leaf and atmosphere (VPD). In angiosperms, increased VPD triggers biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), prompting rapid stomatal closure. Altered cell turgor has been proposed as the trigger for ABA biosynthesis, but the timing and nature of the genetic signals linking these processes have remained uncertain. We investigated this in Arabidopsis by examining changes induced by a decrease in leaf turgor, simulating a natural increase in VPD. We found that the rate-limiting gene within the de novo ABA biosynthesis pathway, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 3 (NCED3), was induced and ABA levels increased within just 5 min of decreased leaf turgor. This rapid induction matches the time-frame for initiation of stomatal closure in response to a doubling in VPD. We further examined Arabidopsis histidine kinase1 (AHK1) as the most likely candidate for the turgor-sensing receptor involved, but found no significant difference between wild-type and an ahk1 null mutant in the induction of ABA-biosynthetic genes, ABA production, or stomatal behaviour. We show that decreased leaf turgor triggers de novo ABA biosynthesis within the time-frame of the stomatal response to VPD, but that AHK1 does not fulfil a critical role as a turgor-sensing receptor within this pathway. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Auxin and ABA act as central regulators of developmental networks associated with paradormancy in Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James V; Doğramacı, Münevver; Horvath, David P; Foley, Michael E; Chao, Wun S; Suttle, Jeffrey C; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Ali, Shahjahan; Mikel, Mark A

    2012-08-01

    Dormancy in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle, an herbaceous perennial weed, allows escape from current control methods and contributes to its invasive nature. In this study, ~65 % of root sections obtained from greenhouse propagated Canada thistle produced new vegetative shoots by 14 days post-sectioning. RNA samples obtained from sectioned roots incubated 0, 24, 48, and 72 h at 25°C under 16:8 h light-dark conditions were used to construct four MID-tagged cDNA libraries. Analysis of in silico data obtained using Roche 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing technologies identified molecular networks associated with paradormancy release in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle. Sequencing of two replicate plates produced ~2.5 million ESTs with an average read length of 362 bases. These ESTs assembled into 67358 unique sequences (21777 contigs and 45581 singlets) and annotation against the Arabidopsis database identified 15232 unigenes. Among the 15232 unigenes, we identified processes enriched with transcripts involved in plant hormone signaling networks. To follow-up on these results, we examined hormone profiles in roots, which identified changes in abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolites, auxins, and cytokinins post-sectioning. Transcriptome and hormone profiling data suggest that interaction between auxin- and ABA-signaling regulate paradormancy maintenance and release in underground adventitious buds of Canada thistle. Our proposed model shows that sectioning-induced changes in polar auxin transport alters ABA metabolism and signaling, which further impacts gibberellic acid signaling involving interactions between ABA and FUSCA3. Here we report that reduced auxin and ABA-signaling, in conjunction with increased cytokinin biosynthesis post-sectioning supports a model where interactions among hormones drives molecular networks leading to cell division, differentiation, and vegetative outgrowth.

  7. Auxin and ABA act as central regulators of developmental networks associated with paradormancy in Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense)

    KAUST Repository

    Anderson, James V.

    2012-05-13

    Abstract Dormancy in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle, an herbaceous perennial weed, allows escape from current control methods and contributes to its invasive nature. In this study, ∼65 % of root sections obtained from greenhouse propagated Canada thistle produced new vegetative shoots by 14 days post-sectioning. RNA samples obtained from sectioned roots incubated 0, 24, 48, and 72 h at 25°C under 16:8 h light-dark conditions were used to construct four MID-tagged cDNA libraries. Analysis of in silico data obtained using Roche 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing technologies identified molecular networks associated with paradormancy release in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle. Sequencing of two replicate plates produced ∼2.5 million ESTs with an average read length of 362 bases. These ESTs assembled into 67358 unique sequences (21777 contigs and 45581 singlets) and annotation against the Arabidopsis database identified 15232 unigenes. Among the 15232 unigenes, we identified processes enriched with transcripts involved in plant hormone signaling networks. To follow-up on these results, we examined hormone profiles in roots, which identified changes in abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolites, auxins, and cytokinins post-sectioning. Transcriptome and hormone profiling data suggest that interaction between auxin- and ABA-signaling regulate paradormancy maintenance and release in underground adventitious buds of Canada thistle. Our proposed model shows that sectioning-induced changes in polar auxin transport alters ABA metabolism and signaling, which further impacts gibberellic acid signaling involving interactions between ABA and FUSCA3. Here we report that reduced auxin and ABA-signaling, in conjunction with increased cytokinin biosynthesis post-sectioning supports a model where interactions among hormones drives molecular networks leading to cell division, differentiation, and vegetative outgrowth. ©Springer-Verlag (outside the USA) 2012.

  8. Overexpression of RING Domain E3 Ligase ZmXerico1 Confers Drought Tolerance through Regulation of ABA Homeostasis[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Xu, Qingzhang; Scolaro, Eric J.; Kahsay, Robel Y.; Kise, Rie; Hakimi, Salim; Niu, Xiping; Habben, Jeffrey E.

    2017-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the main environmental problems encountered by crop growers. Reduction in arable land area and reduced water availability make it paramount to identify and develop strategies to allow crops to be more resilient in water-limiting environments. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in the plants’ response to drought stress through its control of stomatal aperture and water transpiration, and transgenic modulation of ABA levels therefore represents an attractive avenue to improve the drought tolerance of crops. Several steps in the ABA-signaling pathway are controlled by ubiquitination involving really interesting new genes (RING) domain-containing proteins. We characterized the maize (Zea mays) RING protein family and identified two novel RING-H2 genes called ZmXerico1 and ZmXerico2. Expression of ZmXerico genes is induced by drought stress, and we show that overexpression of ZmXerico1 and ZmXerico2 in Arabidopsis and maize confers ABA hypersensitivity and improved water use efficiency, which can lead to enhanced maize yield performance in a controlled drought-stress environment. Overexpression of ZmXerico1 and ZmXerico2 in maize results in increased ABA levels and decreased levels of ABA degradation products diphaseic acid and phaseic acid. We show that ZmXerico1 is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, where ABA 8′-hydroxylases have been shown to be localized, and that it functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. We demonstrate that ZmXerico1 plays a role in the control of ABA homeostasis through regulation of ABA 8′-hydroxylase protein stability, representing a novel control point in the regulation of the ABA pathway. PMID:28899960

  9. Caracterización funcional de nuevos componentes moleculares implicados en la señalización del ácido abscísico (ABA) durante la germinación de semillas de Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Arbaizar, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    [ES]Tesis sobre "Caracterización funcional de nuevos componentes moleculares implicados en la señalización del ácido abscísico (ABA) durante la germinación de semillas de Arabidopsis thaliana" [EN]Thesis on "Functional characterization of new molecular components involved in signaling abscisic acid (ABA) during germination of Arabidopsis thaliana"

  10. Transcriptional regulation by an NAC (NAM-ATAF1,2-CUC2) transcription factor attenuates ABA signalling for efficient basal defence towards Blumeria graminis f. sp hordei in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Krogh; Hagedorn, Peter; De Torres-Zabala, Marta

    2008-01-01

    ATAF1 is a member of a largely uncharacterized plant-specific gene family encoding NAC transcription factors, and is induced in response to various abiotic and biotic stimuli in Arabidopsis thaliana. Previously, we showed that a mutant allele of ATAF1 compromises penetration resistance in Arabido......ATAF1 is a member of a largely uncharacterized plant-specific gene family encoding NAC transcription factors, and is induced in response to various abiotic and biotic stimuli in Arabidopsis thaliana. Previously, we showed that a mutant allele of ATAF1 compromises penetration resistance...

  11. Arabidopsis WRKY6 Transcription Factor Acts as a Positive Regulator of Abscisic Acid Signaling during Seed Germination and Early Seedling Development

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Huang; Cui-Zhu Feng; Qing Ye; Wei-Hua Wu; Yi-Fang Chen

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays important roles during seed germination and early seedling development. Here, we characterized the function of the Arabidopsis WRKY6 transcription factor in ABA signaling. The transcript of WRKY6 was repressed during seed germination and early seedling development, and induced by exogenous ABA. The wrky6-1 and wrky6-2 mutants were ABA insensitive, whereas WRKY6-overexpressing lines showed ABA-hypersensitive phenotypes during seed germination and earl...

  12. HIF-1α signaling activation by post-ischemia treatment with astragaloside IV attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Si

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the effect of astragaloside IV (Ast IV post-ischemia treatment on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury (IRI. We also examined whether hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α and its downstream gene-inducible nitric oxide (NO synthase (iNOS play roles in the cardioprotective effect of Ast IV. Cultured cardiomyocytes and perfused isolated rat hearts were exposed to Ast IV during reperfusion in the presence or absence of the HIF-1α inhibitor 2-methoxyestradiol (2-MeOE2. The post-ischemia treatment with Ast IV protected cardiomyocytes from the apoptosis and death induced by simulated IRI (SIRI. Additionally, in cardiomyocytes, 2-MeOE2 and HIF-1α siRNA treatment each not only abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of post-ischemia treatment with Ast IV but also reversed the upregulation of HIF-1α and iNOS expression. Furthermore, after treatment with Ast IV, post-ischemic cardiac functional recovery and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release in the coronary flow (CF were improved, and the myocardial infarct size was decreased. Moreover, the number of apoptotic cells was reduced, and the upregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 and downregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein Caspase3 were reversed. 2-MeOE2 reversed these effects of Ast IV on IR-injured hearts. These results suggest that post-ischemia treatment with Ast IV can attenuate IRI by upregulating HIF-1α expression, which transmits a survival signal to the myocardium.

  13. S-propargyl-cysteine attenuates inflammatory response in rheumatoid arthritis by modulating the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jun Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S, the third physiological gasotransmitter, is well recognized as an anti-inflammatory mediator in various inflammatory conditions. Herein, we explored the protective effects of S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC, also known as ZYZ-802, an endogenous H2S modulator, on RA and determined the underlying mechanisms. In the present study, SPRC concentration-dependently attenuated inflammatory mediator expression, reactive oxidase species generation, and the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9 in interleukin (IL-1β-induced human rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes MH7A. In addition, SPRC blocked IL-1β-mediated migration and invasion of MH7A cells. As expected, the protective effects of SPRC were partially abrogated by DL-propargylglycine (PAG, a H2S biosynthesis inhibitor. In vivo study also demonstrated that SPRC treatment markedly ameliorated the severity of RA in adjuvant-induced arthritis rats, and this effect was associated with the inhibition of inflammatory response. We further identified that SPRC remarkably induced heme oxygenase-1 expression associated with the degradation of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1 and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2; this effect was attributed to the sulfhydrylation of the cysteine residue of Keap1. Our data demonstrated for the first time that SPRC, an endogenous H2S modulator, exerted anti-inflammatory properties in RA by upregulating the Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE signaling pathway.

  14. PEG and ABA trigger methyl jasmonate accumulation to induce the MEP pathway and increase tanshinone production in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfeng; Ma, Pengda; Liang, Xiao; Wei, Zheng; Liang, Zongsuo; Liu, Yan; Liu, Fenghua

    2012-10-01

    Tanshinones, a group of active ingredients in Salvia miltiorrhiza, are derived from at least two biosynthetic pathways, which are the mevalonate (MVA) pathway in the cytosol and the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway in the plastids. Abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ) are two well-known plant hormones induced by water stress. In this study, effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG), ABA and MJ on tanshinone production in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots were investigated, and the role of MJ in PEG- and ABA-induced tanshinone production was further elucidated. The results showed that tanshinone production was significantly enhanced by treatments with PEG, ABA and MJ. The mRNA levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl co-enzyme A reductase (HMGR), 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) and 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS), as well as the enzyme activities of HMGR and DXS were stimulated by all three treatments. PEG and ABA triggered MJ accumulation. Effects of PEG and ABA on tanshinone production were completely abolished by the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor [tungstate (TUN)] and the MJ biosynthesis inhibitor [ibuprofen (IBU)], while effects of MJ were almost unaffected by TUN. In addition, MJ-induced tanshinone production was completely abolished by the MEP pathway inhibitor [fosmidomycin (FOS)], but was just partially arrested by the MVA pathway inhibitor [mevinolin (MEV)]. In conclusion, a signal transduction model was proposed that exogenous applications of PEG and ABA triggered endogenous MJ accumulation by activating ABA signaling pathway to stimulate tanshinone production, while exogenous MJ could directly induce tanshinone production mainly via the MEP pathway in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  15. An Arabidopsis Nucleoporin NUP85 modulates plant responses to ABA and salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingfang; Wang, Bangshing; Tang, Kai; Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Xie, Shaojun; Du, Hai; Yang, Yuting; Tao, Weiguo Andy; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2017-12-12

    Several nucleoporins in the nuclear pore complex (NPC) have been reported to be involved in abiotic stress responses in plants. However, the molecular mechanism of how NPC regulates abiotic stress responses, especially the expression of stress responsive genes remains poorly understood. From a forward genetics screen using an abiotic stress-responsive luciferase reporter (RD29A-LUC) in the sickle-1 (sic-1) mutant background, we identified a suppressor caused by a mutation in NUCLEOPORIN 85 (NUP85), which exhibited reduced expression of RD29A-LUC in response to ABA and salt stress. Consistently, the ABA and salinity induced expression of several stress responsive genes such as RD29A, COR15A and COR47 was significantly compromised in nup85 mutants and other nucleoporin mutants such as nup160 and hos1. Subsequently, Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis revealed that NUP85 is potentially associated with HOS1 and other nucleoporins within the nup107-160 complex, along with several mediator subunits. We further showed that there is a direct physical interaction between MED18 and NUP85. Similar to NUP85 mutations, MED18 mutation was also found to attenuate expression of stress responsive genes. Taken together, we not only revealed the involvement of NUP85 and other nucleoporins in regulating ABA and salt stress responses, but also uncovered a potential relation between NPC and mediator complex in modulating the gene expression in plants.

  16. Wheat ABA-insensitive mutants result in reduced grain dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Elizabeth C.; Nelson, Sven K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the isolation of wheat mutants in the hard red spring Scarlet resulting in reduced sensitivity to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination. ABA induces seed dormancy during embryo maturation and inhibits the germination of mature seeds. Wheat sensitivity to ABA gradually decreases with dry after-ripening. Scarlet grain normally fails to germinate when fully dormant, shows ABA sensitive germination when partially after-ripened, and becomes ABA insensitive when after-ripened for 8–12 months. Scarlet ABA-insensitive (ScABI) mutants were isolated based on the ability to germinate on 5 µM ABA after only 3 weeks of after-ripening, a condition under which Scarlet would fail to germinate. Six independent seed-specific mutants were recovered. ScABI 1, ScABI2, ScABI3 and ScABI4 are able to germinate more efficiently than Scarlet at up to 25 µM ABA. The two strongest ABA insensitive lines, ScABI3 and ScABI4, both proved to be partly dominant suggesting that they result from gain-of-function mutations. The ScABI1, ScABI2, ScABI3, ScABI4, and ScABI5 mutants after-ripen more rapidly than Scarlet. Thus, ABA insensi-tivity is associated with decreased grain dormancy in Scarlet wheat. This suggests that ABA sensitivity is an important factor controlling grain dormancy in wheat, a trait that impacts seedling emergence and pre-harvest sprouting resistance. PMID:25431501

  17. A 14-3-3 Family Protein from Wild Soybean (Glycine Soja) Regulates ABA Sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Sun, Mingzhe; Jia, Bowei; Chen, Chao; Qin, Zhiwei; Yang, Kejun; Shen, Yang; Meiping, Zhang; Mingyang, Cong; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the 14-3-3 family proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. By conducting genome-wide analysis, researchers have identified the soybean 14-3-3 family proteins; however, until now, there is still no direct genetic evidence showing the involvement of soybean 14-3-3s in ABA responses. Hence, in this study, based on the latest Glycine max genome on Phytozome v10.3, we initially analyzed the evolutionary relationship, genome organization, gene structure and duplication, and three-dimensional structure of soybean 14-3-3 family proteins systematically. Our results suggested that soybean 14-3-3 family was highly evolutionary conserved and possessed segmental duplication in evolution. Then, based on our previous functional characterization of a Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o in drought stress responses, we further investigated the expression characteristics of GsGF14o in detail, and demonstrated its positive roles in ABA sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in Glycine soja seedlings and GUS activity assays in PGsGF14O:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed that GsGF14o expression was moderately and rapidly induced by ABA treatment. As expected, GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis augmented the ABA inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth, promoted the ABA induced stomata closure, and up-regulated the expression levels of ABA induced genes. Moreover, through yeast two hybrid analyses, we further demonstrated that GsGF14o physically interacted with the AREB/ABF transcription factors in yeast cells. Taken together, results presented in this study strongly suggested that GsGF14o played an important role in regulation of ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

  18. AtbHLH68 transcription factor contributes to the regulation of ABA homeostasis and drought stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Hir, Rozenn; Castelain, Mathieu; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Moritz, Thomas; Dinant, Sylvie; Bellini, Catherine

    2017-07-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are involved in a wide range of developmental processes and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. They represent one of the biggest families of transcription factors but only few of them have been functionally characterized. Here we report the characterization of AtbHLH68 and show that, although the knock out mutant did not have an obvious development phenotype, it was slightly more sensitive to drought stress than the Col-0, and AtbHLH68 overexpressing lines displayed defects in lateral root (LR) formation and a significant increased tolerance to drought stress, likely related to an enhanced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) and/or increased ABA content. AtbHLH68 was expressed in the vascular system of Arabidopsis and its expression was modulated by exogenously applied ABA in an organ-specific manner. We showed that the expression of genes involved in ABA metabolism [AtAAO3 (AtALDEHYDE OXIDASE 3) and AtCYP707A3 (AtABSCISIC ACID 8'HYDROXYLASE 3)], in ABA-related response to drought-stress (AtMYC2, AtbHLH122 and AtRD29A) or during LRs development (AtMYC2 and AtABI3) was de-regulated in the overexpressing lines. We propose that AtbHLH68 has a function in the regulation of LR elongation, and in the response to drought stress, likely through an ABA-dependent pathway by regulating directly or indirectly components of ABA signaling and/or metabolism. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  19. Nitrate reductase (NR)-dependent NO production mediates ABA- and H2O2-induced antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoyun; Zhuo, Chunliu; Wang, Xianghui; Guo, Zhenfei

    2014-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO) are important signals in gene expression and physiological responses during plant adaptation to environmental stresses. The essential role of NR-derived NO production in ABA and H2O2 induced antioxidant enzymes were studied using transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing Stylosanthes guianensis 9-cis-epoxycartenoid dioxygenase gene (SgNCED1) for elevated ABA level, or over-expressing wheat oxalate oxidase gene (OxO) for elevated H2O2 level in comparison to the wild type. Compared to the wild type, higher levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and nitrate reductase (NR) activities and NO production were observed in all transgenic plants. For investigating the relationship of ABA, H2O2, and NR-produced NO in the induction of antioxidant enzyme activities, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, scavengers of H2O2 and NO, and an inhibitor of NR were used in the experiments. The results indicate that H2O2-induced activities of SOD, CAT, and APX depends on NR-derived NO in OxO transgenic plants, while ABA-induced activities depends on H2O2 and NR-derived NO in SgNCED1 transgenic plants. Compared to unaltered nitrate reductase 2 (NIA2), NIA1 transcript was induced in both types of transgenic plants. It is suggested NR-derived NO is essential for ABA- or H2O2-induced antioxidant enzyme activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. A 14-3-3 Family Protein from Wild Soybean (Glycine Soja Regulates ABA Sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Sun

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the 14-3-3 family proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. By conducting genome-wide analysis, researchers have identified the soybean 14-3-3 family proteins; however, until now, there is still no direct genetic evidence showing the involvement of soybean 14-3-3s in ABA responses. Hence, in this study, based on the latest Glycine max genome on Phytozome v10.3, we initially analyzed the evolutionary relationship, genome organization, gene structure and duplication, and three-dimensional structure of soybean 14-3-3 family proteins systematically. Our results suggested that soybean 14-3-3 family was highly evolutionary conserved and possessed segmental duplication in evolution. Then, based on our previous functional characterization of a Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o in drought stress responses, we further investigated the expression characteristics of GsGF14o in detail, and demonstrated its positive roles in ABA sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in Glycine soja seedlings and GUS activity assays in PGsGF14O:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed that GsGF14o expression was moderately and rapidly induced by ABA treatment. As expected, GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis augmented the ABA inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth, promoted the ABA induced stomata closure, and up-regulated the expression levels of ABA induced genes. Moreover, through yeast two hybrid analyses, we further demonstrated that GsGF14o physically interacted with the AREB/ABF transcription factors in yeast cells. Taken together, results presented in this study strongly suggested that GsGF14o played an important role in regulation of ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

  1. Chronic in vivo or acute in vitro resveratrol attenuates endothelium-dependent cyclooxygenase-mediated contractile signaling in hypertensive rat carotid artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denniss, Steven G.; Ford, Rebecca J.; Smith, Christopher S.; Jeffery, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Exaggerated cyclooxygenase (COX) and thromboxane-prostanoid (TP) receptor-mediated endothelium-dependent contraction can contribute to endothelial dysfunction. This study examined the effect of resveratrol (RSV) on endothelium-dependent contraction and cell signaling in the common carotid artery (CCA) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). Acetylcholine (Ach)-stimulated endothelium-dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-mediated relaxation in precontracted SHR CCA was impaired (maximum 73 ± 6% vs. 87 ± 5% in WKY) (P endothelium-dependent relaxation nor endothelium-dependent contraction and associated prostaglandin (PG) production evaluated in non-precontracted NOS-blocked CCA. In contrast, a chronic ∼7.5 mg·kg−1·day−1 RSV dose improved endothelium-dependent relaxation (94 ± 6%) and attenuated endothelium-dependent contraction (58 ± 4% vs. 73 ± 5% in No-RSV) and PG production (183 ± 43 vs. 519 ± 93 pg/ml) in SHR CCA, while U46619-stimulated TP receptor-mediated contraction was unaffected. In separate acute in vitro experiments, 20-μM RSV preincubation attenuated endothelium-dependent contraction (6 ± 4% vs. 62 ± 2% in No Drug) and PG production (121 ± 15 vs. 491 ± 93 pg/ml) and attenuated U46619-stimulated contraction (134 ± 5% vs. 171 ± 4%) in non-precontracted NOS-blocked SHR CCA. Compound C, a known AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, did not prevent the RSV attenuating effect on Ach- and U46619-stimulated contraction but did prevent the RSV attenuating effect on PG production (414 ± 58 pg/ml). These data demonstrate that RSV can attenuate endothelium-dependent contraction both by suppressing arterial wall PG production, which may be partially mediated by AMPK, and by TP receptor hyporesponsiveness, which does not appear to be mediated by AMPK. PMID:26917696

  2. Hydrogel networks based on ABA triblock copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartivel, Lucile; Behl, Marc; Schroeter, Michael; Lendlein, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Triblock copolymers from hydrophilic oligo(ethylene glycol) segment A and oligo(propylene glycol) segment B, providing an ABA structure (OEG-OPG-OEG triblock), are known to be biocompatible and are used as self-solidifying gels in drug depots. A complete removal of these depots would be helpful in cases of undesired side effects of a drug, but this remains a challenge as they liquefy below their transition temperature. Therefore we describe the synthesis of covalently cross-linked hydrogel networks. Triblock copolymer-based hydrogels were created by irradiating aqueous solutions of the corresponding macro-dimethacrylates with UV light. The degree of swelling, swelling kinetics, mechanical properties and morphology of the networks were investigated. Depending on precursor concentration, equilibrium degree of swelling of the films ranged between 500% and 880% and was reached in 1 hour. In addition, values for storage and loss moduli of the hydrogel networks were in the 100 Pa to 10 kPa range. Although OEG-OPG-OEG triblocks are known for their micellization, which could hamper polymer network formation, reactive OEG-OPG-OEG triblock oligomers could be successfully polymerized into hydrogel networks. The degree of swelling of these hydrogels depends on their molecular weight and on the oligomer concentration used for hydrogel preparation. In combination with the temperature sensitivity of the ABA triblock copolymers, it is assumed that such hydrogels might be beneficial for future medical applications - e.g., removable drug release systems.

  3. Relationship between abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    saeed

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... endogenous ABA appear to be better at osmoregulation and exhibit better growth and higher yields under water stress (Quarrie et al., 1999). This suggests that an appropriate level of ABA will be necessary for plants to grow successfully under stress conditions (Spollen et al.,. 2000). Although, it has been ...

  4. Assessment of burnout among health workers and bankers in Aba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-16

    Sep 16, 2013 ... Aim: To determine the prevalence of burnout among health workers and bankers in Aba South Local Government. Area in Abia State. Materials and Methods: A cross‑sectional, descriptive study was carried out in 2013 among health workers and bankers in Aba metropolis. By multistage sampling method, ...

  5. Assessment of burnout among health workers and bankers in Aba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the prevalence of burnout among health workers and bankers in Aba South Local Government Area in Abia State. Materials and Methods: A cross.sectional, descriptive study was carried out in 2013 among health workers and bankers in Aba metropolis. By multistage sampling method, proportionate ...

  6. Hyperglycemia attenuates receptor activator of NF-κB ligand-induced macrophage activation by suppressing insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Chitaru; Tanaka, Teruyoshi; Yamanouchi, Dai

    2017-06-15

    translocation and the insulin receptor and IRS-1 gene transcription. These data suggest that HG suppressed macrophage activation, through attenuation of glucose uptake via the suppression of the membrane translocation of Glut1 and insulin signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Modular Organization of the NusA- and NusG-Stimulated RNA Polymerase Pause Signal That Participates in the Bacillus subtilis trp Operon Attenuation Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Smarajit; Yakhnin, Alexander V; Babitzke, Paul

    2017-07-15

    The Bacillus subtilis trpEDCFBA operon is regulated by a transcription attenuation mechanism in which tryptophan-activated TRAP binds to the nascent transcript and blocks the formation of an antiterminator structure such that the formation of an overlapping intrinsic terminator causes termination in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR). In the absence of bound TRAP, the antiterminator forms and transcription continues into the trp genes. RNA polymerase pauses at positions U107 and U144 in the 5' UTR. The general transcription elongation factors NusA and NusG stimulate pausing at both positions. NusG-stimulated pausing at U144 requires sequence-specific contacts with a T tract in the nontemplate DNA (ntDNA) strand within the paused transcription bubble. Pausing at U144 participates in a trpE translation repression mechanism. Since U107 just precedes the critical overlap between the antiterminator and terminator structures, pausing at this position is thought to participate in attenuation. Here we carried out in vitro pausing and termination experiments to identify components of the U107 pause signal and to determine whether pausing affects the termination efficiency in the 5' UTR. We determined that the U107 and U144 pause signals are organized in a modular fashion containing distinct RNA hairpin, U-tract, and T-tract components. NusA-stimulated pausing was affected by hairpin strength and the U-tract sequence, whereas NusG-stimulated pausing was affected by hairpin strength and the T-tract sequence. We also determined that pausing at U107 results in increased TRAP-dependent termination in the 5' UTR, implying that NusA- and NusG-stimulated pausing participates in the trp operon attenuation mechanism by providing additional time for TRAP binding.IMPORTANCE The expression of several bacterial operons is controlled by regulated termination in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR). Transcription attenuation is defined as situations in which the binding of a regulatory

  8. Isolation of an ABA Transporter-Like 1 Gene from Arachis hypogaea That Affects ABA Import and Reduces ABA Sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Kui; Liu, Xing; Li, Xiaoyun; Hu, Bo; Li, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) transporters are essential for the transport of ABA from its sites of synthesis to its multiple sites of action within plants and are key players in plant stress responses. Despite their importance, there is limited information on ABA transporters in crop plants. In this study, we isolated and characterized an ABA transporter-like 1 (AhATL1) gene from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) whose cognate protein, AhATL1, is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter G subfamily and localizes to the plasma membrane. The expression of both the AhATL1 transcript and the corresponding protein were upregulated by water stress and treatment with exogenous ABA. Overexpression of AhATL1 in ecotype Columbia (Col) Arabidopsis (AhATL1-OX) plants reduced ABA sensitivity. When AhATL1-OX and Arabidopsis Col plants were subjected to dehydration stress, the expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 3 (AtNCED3) and responsive to desiccation 29 A (AtRD29A) accumulated rapidly in rosette leaves of both lines. In contrast, while expression of ATP-binding cassette G 40 (AtABCG40) was increased in Col rosette leaves, there was no change in expression of AtABCG40 in AhATL1-OX leaves. Similarly, water loss from detached leaves of AhATL1-OX plants was more rapid than from Col leaves. Therefore, we suggest that the function of AhATL1 is probably to modulate ABA sensitivity by specifically influencing ABA import into cells.

  9. Cotton GhERF38 gene is involved in plant response to salt/drought and ABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liufeng; Hu, Longxing; Fan, Jibiao; Amombo, Erick; Khaldun, A B M; Zheng, Yong; Chen, Liang

    2017-08-01

    ERF (ethylene-responsive factor) transcription factors play important roles in plant stress signaling transduction pathways. However, their specific roles during diverse abiotic stresses tolerance in Gossypium hirsutum are largely unknown. Here, a novel ERF transcription factor, designated GhERF38, homologous to AtERF38 in Arabidopsis, was isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L). GhERF38 expression was up-regulated by salt, drought and ABA treatments. Subcellular localization results indicated that GhERF38 was localized in the cell nucleus. Over-expression of GhERF38 in Arabidopsis reduced plant tolerance to salt and drought stress as indicated by a decline of seed germination, plant greenness frequency, primary roots length and the survival rate in transgenic plants compared to those of wild type plants under salt or drought treatment. Besides, stress tolerance related physiological parameters such as proline content, relative water content, soluble sugar and chlorophyll content were all significantly lower in transgenic plants than those of wild type plants under salt or drought treatment. Furthermore, over-expression of GhERF38 in Arabidopsis resulted in ABA sensitivity in transgenic plants during both seed germination and seedling growth. Interestingly, the stomatal aperture of guard cells in the transgenic plants was larger than that in transgenic plant after ABA treatment, suggesting that GhERF38-overexpressing plants were insensitive to ABA in terms of stomatal closure. Furthermore, expressions of the stress-related genes were altered in the GhERF38 transgenic plants under high salinity, drought or ABA treatment. Together, our results revealed that GhERF38 functions as a novel regulator that is involved in response to salt/drought stress and ABA signaling during plant development.

  10. High-level activation of cyclic AMP signaling attenuates bone morphogenetic protein 2-induced sympathoadrenal lineage development and promotes melanogenesis in neural crest cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ming; Andrisani, Ourania M

    2005-06-01

    The intensity of cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling is a differential instructive signal in neural crest (NC) cell specification. By an unknown mechanism, sympathoadrenal lineage specification is suppressed by high-level activation of cAMP signaling. In NC cultures, high-level activation of cAMP signaling mediates protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent Rap1-B-Raf-ERK1/2 activation, leading to cytoplasmic accumulation of phospho-Smad1, thus terminating bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)-induced sympathoadrenal cell development. Concurrently, cAMP signaling induces transcription of the melanocyte-determining transcription factor Mitf and melanogenesis. dnACREB and E1A inhibit Mitf expression and melanogenesis, supporting the notion that CREB activation is necessary for melanogenesis. However, constitutively active CREB(DIEDML) without PKA activation is insufficient for Mitf expression and melanogenesis, indicating PKA regulates additional aspects of Mitf transcription. Thus, high-level activation of cAMP signaling plays a dual role in NC cell differentiation: attenuation of BMP2-induced sympathoadrenal cell development and induction of melanogenesis. We conclude the intensity of activation of signal transduction cascades determines cell lineage segregation mechanisms.

  11. Viral Inhibition of the IFN-Induced JAK/STAT Signalling Pathway: Development of Live Attenuated Vaccines by Mutation of Viral-Encoded IFN-Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Stephen B

    2016-06-29

    The interferon (IFN) induced anti-viral response is amongst the earliest and most potent of the innate responses to fight viral infection. The induction of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activation of transcription (JAK/STAT) signalling pathway by IFNs leads to the upregulation of hundreds of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) for which, many have the ability to rapidly kill viruses within infected cells. During the long course of evolution, viruses have evolved an extraordinary range of strategies to counteract the host immune responses in particular by targeting the JAK/STAT signalling pathway. Understanding how the IFN system is inhibited has provided critical insights into viral virulence and pathogenesis. Moreover, identification of factors encoded by viruses that modulate the JAK/STAT pathway has opened up opportunities to create new anti-viral drugs and rationally attenuated new generation vaccines, particularly for RNA viruses, by reverse genetics.

  12. The ABA-deficiency suppressor locus HAS2 encodes the PPR protein LOI1/MEF11 involved in mitochondrial RNA editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechet, Julien; Roux, Camille; Plessis, Anne; Effroy, Delphine; Frey, Anne; Perreau, François; Biniek, Catherine; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Macherel, David; North, Helen M; Mireau, Hakim; Marion-Poll, Annie

    2015-04-01

    The hot ABA-deficiency suppressor2 (has2) mutation increases drought tolerance and the ABA sensitivity of stomata closure and seed germination. Here we report that the HAS2 locus encodes the mitochondrial editing factor11 (MEF11), also known as lovastatin insensitive1. has2/mef11 mutants exhibited phenotypes very similar to the ABA-hypersensitive mutant, hai1-1 pp2ca-1 hab1-1 abi1-2, which is impaired in four genes encoding type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2C) that act as upstream negative regulators of the ABA signaling cascade. Like pp2c, mef11 plants were more resistant to progressive water stress and seed germination was more sensitive to paclobutrazol (a gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor) as well as mannitol and NaCl, compared with the wild-type plants. Phenotypic alterations in mef11 were associated with the lack of editing of transcripts for the mitochondrial cytochrome c maturation FN2 (ccmFN2) gene, which encodes a cytochrome c-heme lyase subunit involved in cytochrome c biogenesis. Although the abundance of electron transfer chain complexes was not affected, their dysfunction could be deduced from increased respiration and altered production of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in mef11 seeds. As minor defects in mitochondrial respiration affect ABA signaling, this suggests an essential role for ABA in mitochondrial retrograde regulation. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A new discrete dynamic model of ABA-induced stomatal closure predicts key feedback loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Biswa R.; Jeon, Byeong Wook; Zañudo, Jorge G. T.; Zhu, Mengmeng; Osman, Karim; Assmann, Sarah M.

    2017-01-01

    Stomata, microscopic pores in leaf surfaces through which water loss and carbon dioxide uptake occur, are closed in response to drought by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). This process is vital for drought tolerance and has been the topic of extensive experimental investigation in the last decades. Although a core signaling chain has been elucidated consisting of ABA binding to receptors, which alleviates negative regulation by protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs) of the protein kinase OPEN STOMATA 1 (OST1) and ultimately results in activation of anion channels, osmotic water loss, and stomatal closure, over 70 additional components have been identified, yet their relationships with each other and the core components are poorly elucidated. We integrated and processed hundreds of disparate observations regarding ABA signal transduction responses underlying stomatal closure into a network of 84 nodes and 156 edges and, as a result, established those relationships, including identification of a 36-node, strongly connected (feedback-rich) component as well as its in- and out-components. The network’s domination by a feedback-rich component may reflect a general feature of rapid signaling events. We developed a discrete dynamic model of this network and elucidated the effects of ABA plus knockout or constitutive activity of 79 nodes on both the outcome of the system (closure) and the status of all internal nodes. The model, with more than 1024 system states, is far from fully determined by the available data, yet model results agree with existing experiments in 82 cases and disagree in only 17 cases, a validation rate of 75%. Our results reveal nodes that could be engineered to impact stomatal closure in a controlled fashion and also provide over 140 novel predictions for which experimental data are currently lacking. Noting the paucity of wet-bench data regarding combinatorial effects of ABA and internal node activation, we experimentally confirmed several

  14. The Role and Regulation of ABI5 (ABA-Insensitive 5) in Plant Development, Abiotic Stress Responses and Phytohormone Crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skubacz, Anna; Daszkowska-Golec, Agata; Szarejko, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    ABA Insensitive 5 (ABI5) is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that plays a key role in the regulation of seed germination and early seedling growth in the presence of ABA and abiotic stresses. ABI5 functions in the core ABA signaling, which is composed of PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors, PP2C phosphatases and SnRK2 kinases, through the regulation of the expression of genes that contain the ABSCISIC ACID RESPONSE ELEMENT (ABRE) motif within their promoter region. The regulated targets include stress adaptation genes, e.g., LEA proteins. However, the expression and activation of ABI5 is not only dependent on the core ABA signaling. Many transcription factors such as ABI3, ABI4, MYB7 and WRKYs play either a positive or a negative role in the regulation of ABI5 expression. Additionally, the stability and activity of ABI5 are also regulated by other proteins through post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation and S-nitrosylation. Moreover, ABI5 also acts as an ABA and other phytohormone signaling integrator. Components of auxin, cytokinin, gibberellic acid, jasmonate and brassinosteroid signaling and metabolism pathways were shown to take part in ABI5 regulation and/or to be regulated by ABI5. Monocot orthologs of AtABI5 have been identified. Although their roles in the molecular and physiological adaptations during abiotic stress have been elucidated, knowledge about their detailed action still remains elusive. Here, we describe the recent advances in understanding the action of ABI5 in early developmental processes and the adaptation of plants to unfavorable environmental conditions. We also focus on ABI5 relation to other phytohormones in the abiotic stress response of plants. PMID:28018412

  15. Heat shock protein-27 attenuates foam cell formation and atherogenesis by down-regulating scavenger receptor-A expression via NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizman, Joshua E; Chen, Yong-Xiang; Seibert, Tara; Hibbert, Benjamin; Cuerrier, Charles M; Salari, Samira; Zhao, Xiaoling; Hu, Tieqiang; Shi, Chunhua; Ma, Xiaoli; Simard, Trevor; Caravaggio, Justin; Rayner, Katey; Bowdish, Dawn; Moore, Kathryn; O'Brien, Edward R

    2013-12-01

    Previously, we showed an inverse correlation between HSP27 serum levels and experimental atherogenesis in ApoE(-/-) mice that over-express HSP27 and speculated that the apparent binding of HSP27 to scavenger receptor-A (SR-A) was of mechanistic importance in attenuating foam cell formation. However, the nature and importance of the interplay between HSP27 and SR-A in atheroprotection remained unclear. Treatment of THP-1 macrophages with recombinant HSP27 (rHSP27) inhibited acLDL binding (-34%; p<0.005) and uptake (-38%, p<0.05). rHSP27 reduced SR-A mRNA (-39%, p=0.02), total protein (-56%, p=0.01) and cell surface (-53%, p<0.001) expression. The reduction in SR-A expression by rHSP27 was associated with a 4-fold increase in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling (p<0.001 versus control), while an inhibitor of NF-κB signaling, BAY11-7082, attenuated the negative effects of rHSP27 on both SR-A expression and lipid uptake. To determine if SR-A is required for HSP27 mediated atheroprotection in vivo, ApoE(-/-) and ApoE(-/-) SR-A(-/-) mice fed with a high fat diet were treated for 3weeks with rHSP25. Compared to controls, rHSP25 therapy reduced aortic en face and aortic sinus atherosclerotic lesion size in ApoE(-/-) mice by 39% and 36% (p<0.05), respectively, but not in ApoE(-/-)SR-A(-/-) mice. In conclusion, rHSP27 diminishes SR-A expression, resulting in attenuated foam cell formation in vitro. Regulation of SR-A by HSP27 may involve the participation of NF-κB signaling. Lastly, SR-A is required for HSP27-mediated atheroprotection in vivo. © 2013.

  16. ABA receptor PYL9 promotes drought resistance and leaf senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Chan, Zhulong; Gao, Jinghui; Xing, Lu; Cao, Minjie; Yu, Chunmei; Hu, Yuanlei; You, Jun; Shi, Haitao; Zhu, Yingfang; Gong, Yuehua; Mu, Zixin; Wang, Haiqing; Deng, Xin; Wang, Pengcheng; Bressan, Ray A.; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting plant productivity. In this study, we screened drought-resistant transgenic plants from 65 promoter-pyrabactin resistance 1-like (PYL) abscisic acid (ABA) receptor gene combinations and discovered that pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic lines showed dramatically increased drought resistance and drought-induced leaf senescence in both Arabidopsis and rice. Previous studies suggested that ABA promotes senescence by causing ethylene production. However, we found that ABA promotes leaf senescence in an ethylene-independent manner by activating sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s), which subsequently phosphorylate ABA-responsive element-binding factors (ABFs) and Related to ABA-Insensitive 3/VP1 (RAV1) transcription factors. The phosphorylated ABFs and RAV1 up-regulate the expression of senescence-associated genes, partly by up-regulating the expression of Oresara 1. The pyl9 and ABA-insensitive 1-1 single mutants, pyl8-1pyl9 double mutant, and snrk2.2/3/6 triple mutant showed reduced ABA-induced leaf senescence relative to the WT, whereas pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants showed enhanced ABA-induced leaf senescence. We found that leaf senescence may benefit drought resistance by helping to generate an osmotic potential gradient, which is increased in pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants and causes water to preferentially flow to developing tissues. Our results uncover the molecular mechanism of ABA-induced leaf senescence and suggest an important role of PYL9 and leaf senescence in promoting resistance to extreme drought stress. PMID:26831097

  17. Metformin attenuates hepatic insulin resistance in type-2 diabetic rats through PI3K/Akt/GLUT-4 signalling independent to bicuculline-sensitive GABAAreceptor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabadu, Debapriya; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2017-12-01

    Metformin attenuates type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-induced hepatic dysfunction and altered PI3K/Akt/GLUT-4 signalling in experimental studies. However, its effect on bicuculline-sensitive gamma amino butyric acid (GABA)-A receptor (GABA A R)-mediated calcium-dependent PI3K/Akt/GLUT-4 signalling in liver challenged to T2DM has not been established. The effectiveness of metformin on bicuculline-sensitive GABA A R-mediated hepatic insulin signalling was carried out in presence or absence of bicuculline (2.0 mg/kg, i.p.) in experimental T2DM rats. The whole experimental design was divided into three independent sets of experiments. Each set comprised seven groups of six male rats each. T2DM was induced in the animals by administering streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.p.) and nicotinamide (110 mg/kg, i.p.) at a time lag of 15 min except control group rats in three experiments. Metformin and/or bicuculline or wortmannin were administered once daily for one week from seventh day of streptozotocin injection in all the experimental sets. Metformin attenuated T2DM-induced hyperglycaemia in glucose (40%) and insulin (50%) tolerance tests in rats. Metformin also attenuated T2DM-induced hyperglycaemia (40%), hyperinsulinaemia (30%), insulin resistance (50%) and β-cell dysfunction (300%) in the animals. Metformin did not attenuate T2DM-induced decrease in rat hepatic intracellular calcium. Further, metformin mitigated T2DM-induced decrease in hepatic phosphorylated Akt and GLUT-4 translocation in the animals. The anti-diabetic activity of metformin was abolished by wortmannin but not with bicuculline co-administration in T2DM animals. These results suggest that metformin ameliorated T2DM-induced hepatic insulin resistance through bicuculline-sensitive GABA A receptor-independent PI3K/Akt/GLUT-4 signalling pathway in animals.

  18. Perioxidases play important roles in abscisic acid (ABA)-simulating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    indoleacetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), total peroxidases (POX), catalase (CAT), total antioxidative activity (TAA) and PS II thermostability before and after 30 min dark exposition to ...

  19. Transforming growth factor-beta1 signaling blockade attenuates gastric cancer cell-induced peritoneal mesothelial cell fibrosis and alleviates peritoneal dissemination both in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhi-Feng; Zhao, Ting-Ting; Wang, Zhen-Ning; Miao, Feng; Xu, Ying-Ying; Mao, Xiao-Yun; Gao, Jian; Wu, Jian-Hua; Liu, Xing-Yu; You, Yi; Xu, Hao; Xu, Hui-Mian

    2014-04-01

    Peritoneal dissemination is the most frequent metastatic pattern of advanced gastric cancer and the main cause of death in gastric cancer patients. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF- ß1), one of the most potent fibrotic stimuli for human peritoneal mesothelial cells, has been shown to play an important role in this process. In this study, we investigated the effect of TGF- ß1 signaling blockade in gastric cancer cell (GCC)-induced human peritoneal mesothelial cell (HPMC) fibrosis. HPMCs were cocultured with the high TGF- ß1 expressing GCC line SGC-7901 and various TGF- ß1 signaling inhibitors or SGC-7901 transfected with TGF-ß1-specific siRNA. HPMC fibrosis was monitored on the basis of morphology. Expression of the epithelial cell marker, E-cadherin, and the mesenchymal marker, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), was evaluated by Western blotting and immunofluorescence confocal imaging. GCC adhesion to HPMC was also assayed. In nude mouse tumor model, the peritoneal fibrotic status was monitored by immunofluorescent confocal imaging and Masson's trichrome staining; formation of metastatic nodular and ascites fluid was also evaluated. Our study demonstrated that GCC expressing high levels of TGF-ß1 induced HMPC fibrosis, which is characterized by both upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of α-SMA. Furthermore, HPMC monolayers fibrosis was reversed by TGF- ß1 signaling blockade. In vivo, the TGF- ß1 receptor inhibitor SB-431542 partially attenuated early-stage gastric cancer peritoneal dissemination (GCPD). In conclusion, our study confirms the significance of TGFß1 signaling blockade in attenuating GCPD and may provide a therapeutic target for clinical therapy.

  20. Attenuation of TGF-β signaling suppresses premature senescence in a p21-dependent manner and promotes oncogenic Ras-mediated metastatic transformation in human mammary epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu; Yang, Junhua; Elkahloun, Abdel G.; Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Wang, Long; Cornell, John E.; Yeh, I-Tien; Agyin, Joseph; Tomlinson, Gail; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that drive triple-negative, basal-like breast cancer progression are elusive. Few molecular targets have been identified for the prevention or treatment of this disease. Here we developed a series of isogenic basal-like human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) with altered transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) sensitivity and different malignancy, resembling a full spectrum of basal-like breast carcinogenesis, and determined the molecular mechanisms that contribute to oncogene-induced transformation of basal-like HMECs when TGF-β signaling is attenuated. We found that expression of a dominant-negative type II receptor (DNRII) of TGF-β abrogated autocrine TGF-β signaling in telomerase-immortalized HMECs and suppressed H-Ras-V12–induced senescence-like growth arrest (SLGA). Furthermore, coexpression of DNRII and H-Ras-V12 rendered HMECs highly tumorigenic and metastatic in vivo in comparison with H-Ras-V12–transformed HMECs that spontaneously escaped H-Ras-V12–induced SLGA. Microarray analysis revealed that p21 was the major player mediating Ras-induced SLGA, and attenuated or loss of p21 expression contributed to the escape from SLGA when autocrine TGF-β signaling was blocked in HMECs. Furthermore, knockdown of p21 also suppressed H-Ras-V12–induced SLGA. Our results identify that autocrine TGF-β signaling is an integral part of the cellular anti-transformation network by suppressing the expression of a host of genes, including p21-regulated genes, that mediate oncogene-induced transformation in basal-like breast cancer. PMID:22357622

  1. The potent, indirect adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activator R419 attenuates mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, inhibits nociceptor excitability, and reduces pain hypersensitivity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo L. Mejia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There is a great need for new therapeutics for the treatment of pain. A possible avenue to development of such therapeutics is to interfere with signaling pathways engaged in peripheral nociceptors that cause these neurons to become hyperexcitable. There is strong evidence that mitogen-activated protein kinases and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathways are key modulators of nociceptor excitability in vitro and in vivo. Activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK can inhibit signaling in both of these pathways, and AMPK activators have been shown to inhibit nociceptor excitability and pain hypersensitivity in rodents. R419 is one of, if not the most potent AMPK activator described to date. We tested whether R419 activates AMPK in dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and if this leads to decreased pain hypersensitivity in mice. We find that R419 activates AMPK in DRG neurons resulting in decreased mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, decreased nascent protein synthesis, and enhanced P body formation. R419 attenuates nerve growth factor (NGF-induced changes in excitability in DRG neurons and blocks NGF-induced mechanical pain amplification in vivo. Moreover, locally applied R419 attenuates pain hypersensitivity in a model of postsurgical pain and blocks the development of hyperalgesic priming in response to both NGF and incision. We conclude that R419 is a promising lead candidate compound for the development of potent and specific AMPK activation to inhibit pain hypersensitivity as a result of injury.

  2. Negative feedback regulation of ABA biosynthesis in peanut (Arachis hypogaea): a transcription factor complex inhibits AhNCED1 expression during water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Li, Meijuan; Su, Liangchen; Ge, Kui; Li, Limei; Li, Xiaoyun; Liu, Xu; Li, Ling

    2016-11-28

    Abscisic acid (ABA), a key plant stress-signaling hormone, is produced in response to drought and counteracts the effects of this stress. The accumulation of ABA is controlled by the enzyme 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED). In Arabidopsis, NCED3 is regulated by a positive feedback mechanism by ABA. In this study in peanut (Arachis hypogaea), we demonstrate that ABA biosynthesis is also controlled by negative feedback regulation, mediated by the inhibitory effect on AhNCED1 transcription of a protein complex between transcription factors AhNAC2 and AhAREB1. AhNCED1 was significantly down-regulated after PEG treatment for 10 h, at which time ABA content reached a peak. A ChIP-qPCR assay confirmed AhAREB1 and AhNAC2 binding to the AhNCED1 promoter in response to ABA. Moreover, the interaction between AhAREB1 and AhNAC2, and a transient expression assay showed that the protein complex could negatively regulate the expression of AhNCED1. The results also demonstrated that AhAREB1 was the key factor in AhNCED1 feedback regulation, while AhNAC2 played a subsidiary role. ABA reduced the rate of AhAREB1 degradation and enhanced both the synthesis and degradation rate of the AhNAC2 protein. In summary, the AhAREB1/AhNAC2 protein complex functions as a negative feedback regulator of drought-induced ABA biosynthesis in peanut.

  3. Pentoxifylline Attenuates Proteinuria in Anti-Thy1 Glomerulonephritis via Downregulation of Nuclear Factor-κB and Smad2/3 Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Ming; Chiang, Wen-Chih; Yang, Yalin; Lai, Chun-Fu; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Lin, Shuei-Liong

    2015-01-01

    Anti-Thy1 glomerulonephritis is a rat nephritis model closely simulating human mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis. It affects primarily the mesangium, yet displays substantial proteinuria during the course. This study investigated the molecular signals underlying proteinuria in this disease and the modulation of which by the known antiproteinuric agent, pentoxifylline. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group and nephritic groups with or without treatment with IMD-0354 (an IκB kinase inhibitor), SB431542 (an activin receptor–like kinase inhibitor) or pentoxifylline. Kidney sections were prepared for histological examinations. Glomeruli were isolated for mRNA and protein analysis. Urine samples were collected for protein and nephrin quantitation. One day after nephritis induction, proteinuria developed together with ultrastructural changes of the podocyte and downregulation of podocyte mRNA and protein expression. These were associated with upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/activins mRNAs and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 and Smad2/3. IMD-0354 attenuated proteinuria on d 1, whereas SB431542 decreased proteinuria on d 3 and 5, in association with partial restoration of downregulated podocyte mRNA and protein expression. Pentoxifylline attenuated proteinuria and nephrinuria through the course, plus inhibition of p-NF-κB p65 (d 1) and p-Smad2/3 (d 5) and partial reversal of downregulated podocyte mRNA and protein. Our data show that the pathogenesis of proteinuria in anti-Thy1 glomerulonephritis involves TNF-α and TGF-β/activin pathways, and the evolution of this process can be attenuated by pentoxifylline via downregulation of NF-κB and Smad signals and restoration of the podocyte component of the glomerular filtration barrier. PMID:25879629

  4. Melatonin Attenuates Memory Impairment Induced by Klotho Gene Deficiency Via Interactive Signaling Between MT2 Receptor, ERK, and Nrf2-Related Antioxidant Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Chung, Yoon Hee; Le, Hoang-Lan Thi; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Dang, Duy-Khanh; Nam, Yunsung; Wie, Myung Bok; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Nabeshima, Yo-Ichi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Background: We demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in cognitive impairment in klotho mutant mice, a genetic model of aging. Since down-regulation of melatonin due to aging is well documented, we used this genetic model to determine whether the antioxidant property of melatonin affects memory impairment. Methods: First, we examined the effects of melatonin on hippocampal oxidative parameters and the glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio and memory dysfunction of klotho mutant mice. Second, we investigated whether a specific melatonin receptor is involved in the melatonin-mediated pharmacological response by application with melatonin receptor antagonists. Third, we examined phospho-extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation, Nrf2 DNA binding activity, and glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) mRNA expression. Finally, we examined effects of the ERK inhibitor SL327 in response to antioxidant efficacy and memory enhancement mediated by melatonin. Results: Treatment with melatonin resulted in significant attenuations of oxidative damage, a decrease in the GSH/GSSG ratio, and a significant amelioration of memory impairment in this aging model. These effects of melatonin were significantly counteracted by the selective MT2 receptor antagonist 4-P-PDOT. Importantly, 4-P-PDOT or SL327 also counteracted melatonin-mediated attenuation in response to the decreases in phospho-ERK expression, Nrf2 nuclear translocation, Nrf2 DNA-binding activity, and GCL mRNA expression in the hippocampi of klotho mutant mice. SL327 also counteracted the up-regulation of the GSH/GSSG ratio and the memory enhancement mediated by melatonin in klotho mutant mice. Conclusions: Melatonin attenuates oxidative stress and the associated memory impairment induced by klotho deficiency via signaling interaction between the MT2 receptor and ERK- and Nrf2-related antioxidant potential. PMID

  5. The Inhibition of RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis through the Suppression of p38 Signaling Pathway by Naringenin and Attenuation of Titanium-Particle-Induced Osteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wengang Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of naringenin on osteoclastogenesis and titanium particle-induced osteolysis. Osteolysis from wear-induced particles and aseptic loosening are the most frequent late complications of total joint arthroplasty leading to revision of the prosthesis. Osteolysis during aseptic loosening is most likely due to increased bone resorption by osteoclasts. Through in vitro studies, we demonstrated that naringenin, a naturally occurring flavanone in grapefruit and tomatoes, exerts potent inhibitory effects on the ligand of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and revealed that the mechanism of action of naringenin, which inhibited osteoclastogenesis by suppression of the p38 signaling pathway. Through in vivo studies, we proved that naringenin attenuated titanium particle-induced osteolysis in a mouse calvarial model. In general, we demonstrated that naringenin inhibited osteoclastogenesis via suppression of p38 signaling in vitro and attenuated titanium particle-induced osteolysis in vivo. This study also suggested that naringenin has significant potential for the treatment of osteolysis-related diseases caused by excessive osteoclast formation and activity.

  6. Early administration of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and/or prebiotic inulin attenuates pathogen-mediated intestinal inflammation and Smad 7 cell signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foye, Ondulla T.; Huang, I-Fei; Chiou, Christine C.; Walker, W. Allan; Shi, Hai Ning

    2014-01-01

    Immaturity of gut-associated immunity may contribute to pediatric mortality associated with enteric infections. A murine model to parallel infantile enteric disease was used to determine the effects of probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus (La), prebiotic, inulin, or both (synbiotic, syn) on pathogen-induced inflammatory responses, NF-κB, and Smad 7 signaling. Newborn mice were inoculated bi-weekly for 4 weeks with La, inulin, or syn and challenged with Citrobacter rodentium (Cr) at 5 weeks. Mouse intestinal epithelial cells (CMT93) were exposed to Cr to determine temporal alterations in NF-Kappa B and Smad 7 levels. Mice with pretreatment of La, inulin, and syn show reduced intestinal inflammation following Cr infection compared with controls, which is associated with significantly reduced bacterial colonization in La, inulin, and syn animals. Our results further show that host defense against Cr infection correlated with enhanced colonic IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β expression and inhibition of NF-κB in syn-treated mice, whereas mice pretreated with syn, La, or inulin had attenuation of Cr-induced Smad 7 expression. There was a temporal Smad 7 and NF-κB intracellular accumulation post-Cr infection and post-tumor necrosis factor stimulation in CMT93 cells. These results, therefore, suggest that probiotic, La, prebiotic inulin, or synbiotic may promote host-protective immunity and attenuate Cr-induced intestinal inflammation through mechanisms affecting NF-κB and Smad 7 signaling. PMID:22524476

  7. The Top 10 Reasons Children With Autism Deserve ABA

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    We who advocate for applied behavior analysis (ABA) for children with autism spectrum disorders often construct our arguments based on the scientific evidence. However, the audience that most needs to hear this argument, that is, the parents of children, especially very young children, diagnosed with autism, may not be convinced by the science alone. This essay attempts to make the case for the multiple benefits of ABA intervention through the use of humor and anecdotes couched in a “Top Ten ...

  8. ABA-Cloud: support for collaborative breath research

    OpenAIRE

    Elsayed, Ibrahim; Ludescher, Thomas; King, Julian; Ager, Clemens; Trosin, Michael; Senocak, Uygar; Brezany, Peter; Feilhauer, Thomas; Amann, Anton

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the advanced breath analysis (ABA) platform, an innovative scientific research platform for the entire breath research domain. Within the ABA project, we are investigating novel data management concepts and semantic web technologies to document breath analysis studies for the long run as well as to enable their full automatic reproducibility. We propose several concept taxonomies (a hierarchical order of terms from a glossary of terms), which can be seen as a first step ...

  9. Nervous wreck interacts with thickveins and the endocytic machinery to attenuate retrograde BMP signaling during synaptic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor-Giles, Kate M; Ho, Ling Ling; Ganetzky, Barry

    2008-05-22

    Regulation of synaptic growth is fundamental to the formation and plasticity of neural circuits. Here, we demonstrate that Nervous wreck (Nwk), a negative regulator of synaptic growth at Drosophila NMJs, interacts functionally and physically with components of the endocytic machinery, including dynamin and Dap160/intersectin, and negatively regulates retrograde BMP growth signaling through a direct interaction with the BMP receptor, thickveins. Synaptic overgrowth in nwk is sensitive to BMP signaling levels, and loss of Nwk facilitates BMP-induced overgrowth. Conversely, Nwk overexpression suppresses BMP-induced synaptic overgrowth. We observe analogous genetic interactions between dap160 and the BMP pathway, confirming that endocytosis regulates BMP signaling at NMJs. Finally, we demonstrate a correlation between synaptic growth and pMAD levels and show that Nwk regulates these levels. We propose that Nwk functions at the interface of endocytosis and BMP signaling to ensure proper synaptic growth by negatively regulating Tkv to set limits on this positive growth signal.

  10. Cardiac Ankyrin Repeat Protein Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy by Inhibition of ERK1/2 and TGF-β Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chunshi; Ma, Xiaowei; Zhang, Lei; Xie, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Youyi; Zhu, Dahai

    2012-01-01

    Aims It has been reported that cardiac ankyrin repeat protein is associated with heart development and diseases. This study is aimed to investigate the role of CARP in heart hypertrophy in vivo. Methods and Results We generated a cardiac-specific CARP-overexpressing transgenic mouse. Although such animals did not display any overt physiological abnormality, they developed less cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload than did wildtype mice, as indicated by heart weight/body weight ratios, echocardiographic and histological analyses, and expression of hypertrophic markers. These mice also exhibited less cardiac hypertrophy after infusion of isoproterenol. To gain a molecular insight into how CARP attenuated heart hypertrophy, we examined expression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and found that the concentrations of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and MEK were markedly reduced in the hearts of transgenic mice subjected to pressure overload. In addition, the expressions of TGF-β and phosphorylated Smad3 were significantly downregulated in the hearts of CARP Tg mice in response to pressure overload. Furthermore, addition of human TGF-β1 could reverse the inhibitory effect of CARP on the hypertrophic response induced by phenylephrine in cardiomyocytes. It was also evidenced that the inhibitory effect of CARP on cardiac hypertrophy was not attributed to apoptosis. Conclusion CARP attenuates cardiac hypertrophy, in which the ERK and TGF-β pathways may be involved. Our findings highlight the significance of CARP as an anti-hypertrophic factor in therapy of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:23227174

  11. Kaempferol Attenuates Myocardial Ischemic Injury via Inhibition of MAPK Signaling Pathway in Experimental Model of Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Suchal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaempferol (KMP, a dietary flavonoid, has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects. Hence, we investigated the effect of KMP in ischemia-reperfusion (IR model of myocardial injury in rats. We studied male albino Wistar rats that were divided into sham, IR-control, KMP-20 + IR, and KMP 20 per se groups. KMP (20 mg/kg; i.p. was administered daily to rats for the period of 15 days, and, on the 15th day, ischemia was produced by one-stage ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min. After completion of surgery, rats were sacrificed; heart was removed and processed for biochemical, morphological, and molecular studies. KMP pretreatment significantly ameliorated IR injury by maintaining cardiac function, normalizing oxidative stress, and preserving morphological alterations. Furthermore, there was a decrease in the level of inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6, and NFκB, inhibition of active JNK and p38 proteins, and activation of ERK1/ERK2, a prosurvival kinase. Additionally, it also attenuated apoptosis by reducing the expression of proapoptotic proteins (Bax and Caspase-3, TUNEL positive cells, and increased level of antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl-2. In conclusion, KMP protected against IR injury by attenuating inflammation and apoptosis through the modulation of MAPK pathway.

  12. Merlin/NF2 Suppresses Pancreatic Tumor Growth and Metastasis by Attenuating the FOXM1-Mediated Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Ming; Cui, Jiujie; Xia, Tian; Jia, Zhiliang; Xie, Dacheng; Wei, Daoyan; Huang, Suyun; Huang, Qian; Zheng, Shaojiang; Xie, Keping

    2015-11-15

    Merlin, the protein encoded by the NF2 gene, is a member of the band 4.1 family of cytoskeleton-associated proteins and functions as a tumor suppressor for many types of cancer. However, the roles and mechanism of Merlin expression in pancreatic cancer have remained unclear. In this study, we sought to determine the impact of Merlin expression on pancreatic cancer development and progression using human tissue specimens, cell lines, and animal models. Decreased expression of Merlin was pronounced in human pancreatic tumors and cancer cell lines. Functional analysis revealed that restored expression of Merlin inhibited pancreatic tumor growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Merlin suppressed the expression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling downstream genes and the nuclear expression of β-catenin protein, and overexpression of Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) attenuated the suppressive effect of Merlin on Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Mechanistically, Merlin decreased the stability of FOXM1 protein, which plays critical roles in nuclear translocation of β-catenin. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that Merlin critically regulated pancreatic cancer pathogenesis by suppressing FOXM1/β-catenin signaling, suggesting that targeting novel Merlin/FOXM1/β-catenin signaling is an effective therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Dormancy, ABA content and sensitivity of a barley mutant to ABA application during seed development and after ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagosa, I; Prada, D; Moralejo, M A; Sopena, A; Muñoz, P; Casas, A M; Swanston, J S; Molina-Cano, J L

    2001-07-01

    Assessment of dormancy inception, maintenance and release was studied for artificially dried immature seeds harvested throughout seed development in the barley cv. Triumph and its mutant line TL43. Each was grown in Spain and Scotland under low and high dormancy inducing conditions, respectively. Both TL43 and Triumph followed a similar pattern of release from dormancy across the seasons, although seeds of TL43 were able to germinate at an earlier seed development stage. Abscisic acid (ABA) content was also studied in immature grains throughout the seed development period. Total amount of ABA in seeds of Triumph and TL43 was higher in plants grown in Scotland than in Spain. However, no clear genotypic differences in ABA pattern in the course of grain development could be detected whilst significant genotypic differences were observed for germination percentage (GP). Endogenous ABA content alone throughout grain development did not explain genetic differences in GP within environments. Environmental and genetic differences in dormancy were also observed on mature seeds throughout the after-ripening period. The initial germination (GP(0)) played a key role in the sensitivity to ABA of post-harvest mature seeds. For the same after-ripening stage, TL43 was more insensitive to exogenous ABA than Triumph. However, ABA responses in seeds of the two genotypes with similar GP(0) at different after-ripening stages were comparable. Therefore, differences in exogenous ABA sensitivity of post-harvest mature grain of these two genotypes seemed to be determined by, or coincident with, the initial germination percentage.

  14. WRKY transcription factors: key components in abscisic acid signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Deena L; Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C; Lin, Jun; Ringler, Patricia; Boken, Ashley K; Langum, Tanner J; Smidt, Lucas; Boomsma, Darius D; Emme, Nicholas J; Chen, Xianfeng; Finer, John J; Shen, Qingxi J; Rushton, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators of many plant processes, including the responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, senescence, seed dormancy and seed germination. For over 15 years, limited evidence has been available suggesting that WRKY TFs may play roles in regulating plant responses to the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), notably some WRKY TFs are ABA-inducible repressors of seed germination. However, the roles of WRKY TFs in other aspects of ABA signalling, and the mechanisms involved, have remained unclear. Recent significant progress in ABA research has now placed specific WRKY TFs firmly in ABA-responsive signalling pathways, where they act at multiple levels. In Arabidopsis, WRKY TFs appear to act downstream of at least two ABA receptors: the cytoplasmic PYR/PYL/RCAR-protein phosphatase 2C-ABA complex and the chloroplast envelope-located ABAR-ABA complex. In vivo and in vitro promoter-binding studies show that the target genes for WRKY TFs that are involved in ABA signalling include well-known ABA-responsive genes such as ABF2, ABF4, ABI4, ABI5, MYB2, DREB1a, DREB2a and RAB18. Additional well-characterized stress-inducible genes such as RD29A and COR47 are also found in signalling pathways downstream of WRKY TFs. These new insights also reveal that some WRKY TFs are positive regulators of ABA-mediated stomatal closure and hence drought responses. Conversely, many WRKY TFs are negative regulators of seed germination, and controlling seed germination appears a common function of a subset of WRKY TFs in flowering plants. Taken together, these new data demonstrate that WRKY TFs are key nodes in ABA-responsive signalling networks. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Fatty acid–induced gut-brain signaling attenuates neural and behavioral effects of sad emotion in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Mckie, Shane; Lassman, Daniel; Uddin, Bilal; Paine, Peter; Coen, Steven; Gregory, Lloyd; Tack, Jan; Aziz, Qasim

    2011-01-01

    Although a relationship between emotional state and feeding behavior is known to exist, the interactions between signaling initiated by stimuli in the gut and exteroceptively generated emotions remain incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the interaction between nutrient-induced gut-brain signaling and sad emotion induced by musical and visual cues at the behavioral and neural level in healthy nonobese subjects undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects received an in...

  16. Detection of quorum sensing signal molecules and identification of an autoinducer synthase gene among biofilm forming clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Anbazhagan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Quorum sensing is a term that describes an environmental sensing system that allows bacteria to monitor their own population density which contributes significantly to the size and development of the biofilm. Many gram negative bacteria use N-acyl-homoserine lactones as quorum sensing signal molecules. In this study, we sought to find out if the biofilm formation among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. is under the control of autoinducing quorum sensing molecules. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Biofilm formation among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. was assessed and the production of signal molecules were detected with Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 biosensor system. Characterisation of autoinducers was carried out by mass spectrometric analysis. We have also reported the identification of an autoinducer synthase gene, abaΙ among the isolates that produce quorum sensing signal molecules and have reported that the mutation in the abaI gene influences their biofilm forming capabilities. Using a microtitre-plate assay it was shown that 60% of the 50 Acinetobacter spp. isolates significantly formed biofilms. Further detection with the biosensor strain showed that some of these isolates produced long chain signal molecules. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that five of these isolates produced N-decanoyl homoserine lactone and two isolates produced acyl-homoserine lactone with a chain length equal to C(12. The abaΙ gene was identified and a tetracycline mutant of the abaΙ gene was created and the inhibition in biofilm formation in the mutant was shown. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data are of great significance as the signal molecules aid in biofilm formation which in turn confer various properties of pathogenicity to the clinical isolates including drug resistance. The use of quorum sensing signal blockers to attenuate bacterial pathogenicity is therefore highly attractive, particularly with respect to the

  17. All-trans retinoic acid attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via downregulating EphA2-EphrinA1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Ah Young; Shin, Mi Hwa; Douglas, Ivor S; Song, Joo Han; Chung, Kyung Soo; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Kang, Young Ae; Chang, Joon; Kim, Young Sam; Park, Moo Suk

    2017-09-23

    The role of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in pulmonary fibrosis is relatively unknown, although this metabolite modulates cell differentiation, proliferation, and development. We aimed to evaluate the role of ATRA in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and whether the mechanism involves EphA2-EphrinA1 and PI3K-Akt signaling. We evaluated three groups of mice: a control group (intraperitoneal DMSO injection 3 times weekly after PBS instillation), bleomycin group (intraperitoneal DMSO injection 3 times weekly after bleomycin instillation), and bleomycin + ATRA group (intraperitoneal ATRA injection 3 times weekly after bleomycin instillation). The cell counts and protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), changes in histopathology, Ashcroft score, hydroxyproline assay, expression of several signal pathway proteins including EphA2-EphrinA1, and PI3K-Akt, and cytokine levels were compared among the groups. We found that bleomycin significantly increased the protein concentration in the BALF, Ashcroft score in lung tissue, and hydroxyproline contents in lung lysates. Furthermore, bleomycin upregulated EphA2, EphrinA1, PI3K 110γ, Akt, IL-6 and TNF-α. However, administration of ATRA attenuated the upregulation of EphA2-EphrinA1 and PI3K-Akt after bleomycin instillation, and decreased pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, ATRA suppressed IL-6 and TNF-α production induced by bleomycin-induced injury. Collectively, these data suggest that ATRA attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by regulating EphA2-EphrinA1 and PI3K-Akt signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Arabidopsis ABA-Activated Kinase MAPKKK18 is Regulated by Protein Phosphatase 2C ABI1 and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitula, Filip; Tajdel, Malgorzata; Cieśla, Agata; Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Anna; Kulik, Anna; Babula-Skowrońska, Danuta; Michalak, Michal; Dobrowolska, Grazyna; Sadowski, Jan; Ludwików, Agnieszka

    2015-12-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events play an important role in the transmission of the ABA signal. Although SnRK2 [sucrose non-fermenting1-related kinase2] protein kinases and group A protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C)-type phosphatases constitute the core ABA pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are also involved in plant response to ABA. However, little is known about the interplay between MAPKs and PP2Cs or SnRK2 in the regulation of ABA pathways. In this study, an effort was made to elucidate the role of MAP kinase kinase kinase18 (MKKK18) in relation to ABA signaling and response. The MKKK18 knockout lines showed more vigorous root growth, decreased abaxial stomatal index and increased stomatal aperture under normal growth conditions, compared with the control wild-type Columbia line. In addition to transcriptional regulation of the MKKK18 promoter by ABA, we demonstrated using in vitro and in vivo kinase assays that the kinase activity of MKKK18 was regulated by ABA. Analysis of the cellular localization of MKKK18 showed that the active kinase was targeted specifically to the nucleus. Notably, we identified abscisic acid insensitive 1 (ABI1) PP2C as a MKKK18-interacting protein, and demonstrated that ABI1 inhibited its activity. Using a cell-free degradation assay, we also established that MKKK18 was unstable and was degraded by the proteasome pathway. The rate of MKKK18 degradation was delayed in the ABI1 knockout line. Overall, we provide evidence that ABI1 regulates the activity and promotes proteasomal degradation of MKKK18. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  19. An RRM-containing mei2-like MCT1 plays a negative role in the seed germination and seedling growth of Arabidopsis thaliana in the presence of ABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lili; Jung, Hyun Ju; Kwak, Kyung Jin; Dinh, Sy Nguyen; Kim, Yeon-Ok; Kang, Hunseung

    2016-12-01

    Despite an increasing understanding of the essential role of the Mei2 gene encoding an RNA-binding protein (RBP) in premeiotic DNA synthesis and meiosis in yeasts and animals, the functional roles of the mei2-like genes in plant growth and development are largely unknown. Contrary to other mei2-like RBPs that contain three RNA-recognition motifs (RRMs), the mei2 C-terminal RRM only (MCT) is unique in that it harbors only the last C-terminal RRM. Although MCTs have been implicated to play important roles in plants, their functional roles in stress responses as well as plant growth and development are still unknown. Here, we investigated the expression and functional role of MCT1 (At1g37140) in plant response to abscisic acid (ABA). Confocal analysis of MCT1-GFP-expressing plants revealed that MCT1 is localized to the nucleus. The transcript level of MCT1 was markedly increased upon ABA treatment. Analysis of MCT1-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants and artificial miRNA-mediated mct1 knockdown mutants demonstrated that MCT1 inhibited seed germination and cotyledon greening of Arabidopsis plants under ABA. The transcript levels of ABA signaling-related genes, such as ABI3, ABI4, and ABI5, were markedly increased in the MCT1-overexpressing transgenic plant. Collectively, these results suggest that ABA-upregulated MCT1 plays a negative role in Arabidopsis seed germination and seedling growth under ABA by modulating the expression of ABA signaling-related genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Honokiol Attenuates Oligomeric Amyloid β1-42-Induced Alzheimer’s Disease in Mice Through Attenuating Mitochondrial Apoptosis and Inhibiting the Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing evidence indicates that amyloid β oligomer (AβO is toxic to neurons in Alzheimer’s disease (AD brain. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of honokiol on AβO-induced learning and memory dysfunction in mice. Methods: AD mice model was established by AβO intrahippocampal injection. The cognitive function was evaluated using Morris water maze (MWM. Nissl staining was used to examine the hippocampal neuron damage. Primary hippocampal neurons were exposed to AβO. The apoptosis in the hippocampal tissues and primary neurons was assessed using terminal dexynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-neuronal nuclei (NeuN and Hoechst staining, respectively. The mitochondrial membrane potential and radical oxygen species were detected using standard methods. Western blotting assay was used to check the expression levels of apoptotic and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB signaling-associated proteins and electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to detect NF-κB-DNA binding. Results: Honokiol increased the time spend in the target zone of the AD mice in the MWM. In addition, honokiol dose-dependently attenuated AβO-induced hippocampal neuronal apoptosis, reactive oxygen species production and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, AβO-induced NF-κB activation was inhibited by honokiol, as well as the upregulated amyloid precursor protein and β-secretase. Conclusion: Honokiol attenuates AβO-induced learning and memory dysfunction in mice and it may be a potential candidate in AD therapy.

  1. ABA-Mediated Stomatal Response in Regulating Water Use during the Development of Terminal Drought in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Saradadevi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available End-of-season drought or “terminal drought,” which occurs after flowering, is considered the most significant abiotic stress affecting crop yields. Wheat crop production in Mediterranean-type environments is often exposed to terminal drought due to decreasing rainfall and rapid increases in temperature and evapotranspiration during spring when wheat crops enter the reproductive stage. Under such conditions, every millimeter of extra soil water extracted by the roots benefits grain filling and yield and improves water use efficiency (WUE. When terminal drought develops, soil dries from the top, exposing the top part of the root system to dry soil while the bottom part is in contact with available soil water. Plant roots sense the drying soil and produce signals, which on transmission to shoots trigger stomatal closure to regulate crop water use through transpiration. However, transpiration is linked to crop growth and productivity and limiting transpiration may reduce potential yield. While an early and high degree of stomatal closure affects photosynthesis and hence biomass production, a late and low degree of stomatal closure exhausts available soil water rapidly which results in yield losses through a reduction in post-anthesis water use. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA is considered the major chemical signal involved in stomatal regulation. Wheat genotypes differ in their ability to produce ABA under drought and also in their stomatal sensitivity to ABA. In this viewpoint article we discuss the possibilities of exploiting genotypic differences in ABA response to soil drying in regulating the use of water under terminal drought. Root density distribution in the upper drying layers of the soil profile is identified as a candidate trait that can affect ABA accumulation and subsequent stomatal closure. We also examine whether leaf ABA can be designated as a surrogate characteristic for improved WUE in wheat to sustain grain yield under

  2. ABA-Mediated Stomatal Response in Regulating Water Use during the Development of Terminal Drought in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saradadevi, Renu; Palta, Jairo A.; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.

    2017-01-01

    End-of-season drought or “terminal drought,” which occurs after flowering, is considered the most significant abiotic stress affecting crop yields. Wheat crop production in Mediterranean-type environments is often exposed to terminal drought due to decreasing rainfall and rapid increases in temperature and evapotranspiration during spring when wheat crops enter the reproductive stage. Under such conditions, every millimeter of extra soil water extracted by the roots benefits grain filling and yield and improves water use efficiency (WUE). When terminal drought develops, soil dries from the top, exposing the top part of the root system to dry soil while the bottom part is in contact with available soil water. Plant roots sense the drying soil and produce signals, which on transmission to shoots trigger stomatal closure to regulate crop water use through transpiration. However, transpiration is linked to crop growth and productivity and limiting transpiration may reduce potential yield. While an early and high degree of stomatal closure affects photosynthesis and hence biomass production, a late and low degree of stomatal closure exhausts available soil water rapidly which results in yield losses through a reduction in post-anthesis water use. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is considered the major chemical signal involved in stomatal regulation. Wheat genotypes differ in their ability to produce ABA under drought and also in their stomatal sensitivity to ABA. In this viewpoint article we discuss the possibilities of exploiting genotypic differences in ABA response to soil drying in regulating the use of water under terminal drought. Root density distribution in the upper drying layers of the soil profile is identified as a candidate trait that can affect ABA accumulation and subsequent stomatal closure. We also examine whether leaf ABA can be designated as a surrogate characteristic for improved WUE in wheat to sustain grain yield under terminal drought

  3. Inhibition of the H3K9 methyltransferase G9A attenuates oncogenicity and activates the hypoxia signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene Caifeng Ho

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms play important roles in the regulation of tumorigenesis, and hypoxia-induced epigenetic changes may be critical for the adaptation of cancer cells to the hypoxic microenvironment of solid tumors. Previously, we showed that loss-of-function of the hypoxia-regulated H3K9 methyltransferase G9A attenuates tumor growth. However, the mechanisms by which blockade of G9A leads to a tumor suppressive effect remain poorly understood. We show that G9A is highly expressed in breast cancer and is associated with poor patient prognosis, where it may function as a potent oncogenic driver. In agreement with this, G9A inhibition by the small molecule inhibitor, BIX-01294, leads to increased cell death and impaired cell migration, cell cycle and anchorage-independent growth. Interestingly, whole transcriptome analysis revealed that genes involved in diverse cancer cell functions become hypoxia-responsive upon G9A inhibition. This was accompanied by the upregulation of the hypoxia inducible factors HIF1α and HIF2α during BIX-01294 treatment even in normoxia that may facilitate the tumor suppressive effects of BIX-01294. HIF inhibition was able to reverse some of the transcriptional changes induced by BIX-01294 in hypoxia, indicating that the HIFs may be important drivers of these derepressed target genes. Therefore, we show that G9A is a key mediator of oncogenic processes in breast cancer cells and G9A inhibition by BIX-01294 can successfully attenuate oncogenicity even in hypoxia.

  4. Acquisition and extinction of human avoidance behavior: Attenuating effect of safety signals and associations with anxiety vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony eSheynin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available While avoidance behavior is often an adaptive strategy, exaggerated avoidance can be detrimental and result in the development of psychopathologies, such as anxiety disorders. A large animal literature shows that the acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior in rodents depends on individual differences (e.g., sex, strain and might be modulated by the presence of environmental cues. However, there is a dearth of such reports in human literature, mainly due to the lack of adequate experimental paradigms. In the current study, we employed a computer-based task, where participants control a spaceship and attempt to gain points by shooting an enemy spaceship that appears on the screen. Warning signals predict on-screen aversive events; the participants can learn a protective response to escape or avoid these events. This task has been recently used to reveal facilitated acquisition of avoidance behavior in individuals with anxiety vulnerability, due to female sex or inhibited personality. Here, we extended the task to include an extinction phase, and tested the effect of signals that appeared during safe periods. Healthy young adults (n=122 were randomly assigned to a testing condition with or without such signals. Results showed that the addition of safety signals during the acquisition phase impaired acquisition (in females and facilitated extinction of the avoidance behavior. We also replicated our recent finding of an association between female sex and longer avoidance duration and further showed that females continued to demonstrate more avoidance behavior even on extinction trials when the aversive events no longer occurred. This study is the first to show sex differences on the acquisition and extinction of human avoidance behavior and to demonstrate the role of safety signals in such behavior, highlighting the potential relevance of safety signals for cognitive therapies that focus on extinction learning to treat anxiety symptoms.

  5. Attenuation of hedgehog acyltransferase-catalyzed sonic Hedgehog palmitoylation causes reduced signaling, proliferation and invasiveness of human carcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konitsiotis, Antonios D; Chang, Shu-Chun; Jovanović, Biljana

    2014-01-01

    autocrine and juxtacrine signaling, and inhibited PDAC cell growth and invasiveness in vitro. In addition, Hhat knockdown in a HEK293a cell line constitutively expressing Shh and A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells inhibited their ability to signal in a juxtacrine/paracrine fashion to the reporter......Overexpression of Hedgehog family proteins contributes to the aetiology of many cancers. To be highly active, Hedgehog proteins must be palmitoylated at their N-terminus by the MBOAT family multispanning membrane enzyme Hedgehog acyltransferase (Hhat). In a pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC...

  6. Impaired Spinal Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling Contributes to the Attenuating Effect of Depression on Mechanical Allodynia and Thermal Hyperalgesia in Rats with Neuropathic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although depression-induced altered pain perception has been described in several laboratory and clinical studies, its neurobiological mechanism in the central nervous system (CNS, particularly in the spinal dorsal horn, remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to clarify whether nociceptive sensitivity of neuropathic pain is altered in the olfactory bulbectomy (OB model of depression and whether glucocorticoid receptor (GR, which is involved in the etio-pathologic mechanisms of both major depression and neuropathic pain, contributes to these processes in the spinal dorsal horn of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL were attenuated in OB-SNL rats with decreased spinal GR expression and nuclear translocation, whereas non-olfactory bulbectomy (NOB-SNL rats showed increased spinal GR nuclear translocation. In addition, decreased GR nuclear translocation with normal mechanical nociception and hypoalgesia of thermal nociception were observed in OB-Sham rats. Intrathecal injection (i.t. of GR agonist dexamethasone (Dex; 4 μg/rat/day for 1 week eliminated the attenuating effect of depression on nociceptive hypersensitivity in OB-SNL rats and aggravated neuropathic pain in NOB-SNL rats, which was associated with the up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, TrkB and NR2B expression in the spinal dorsal horn. The present study shows that depression attenuates the mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia of neuropathic pain and suggests that altered spinal GR-BDNF-TrkB signaling may be one of the reasons for depression-induced hypoalgesia.

  7. Structural Insights into the Abscisic Acid Stereospecificity by the ABA Receptors PYR/PYL/RCAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqiang; Yu, Lin; Zhang, Qi; Xin, Qi; Wu, Wei; Gong, Zhizhong; Chen, Zhongzhou

    2013-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid ((+)-ABA) plays a key role in many processes. The biological and biochemical activities of unnatural (−)-ABA have been extensively investigated since 1960s. However, the recognition mechanism by which only a few members among PYR/PYL/RCAR (PYLs) family can bind (−)-ABA remains largely unknown. Here we systematically characterized the affinity of PYLs binding to the (−)-ABA and reported the crystal structures of apo-PYL5, PYL3-(−)-ABA and PYL9-(+)-ABA. PYL5 showed the strongest binding affinity with (−)-ABA among all the PYLs. PYL9 is a stringently exclusive (+)-ABA receptor with interchangeable disulfide bonds shared by a subclass of PYLs. PYL3 is a dual receptor to both ABA enantiomers. The binding orientation and pocket of (−)-ABA in PYLs are obviously different from those of (+)-ABA. Steric hindrance and hydrophobic interaction are the two key factors in determining the stereospecificity of PYLs binding to (−)-ABA, which is further confirmed by gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutagenesis. Our results provide novel insights of the bioactivity of ABA enantiomers onto PYLs, and shed light on designing the selective ABA receptors agonists. PMID:23844015

  8. GsSKP21, a Glycine soja S-phase kinase-associated protein, mediates the regulation of plant alkaline tolerance and ABA sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ailin; Yu, Yang; Duan, Xiangbo; Sun, Xiaoli; Duanmu, Huizi; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    Plant SKP1-like family proteins, components of the SCF complex E3 ligases, are involved in the regulation of plant development and stress responses. Little is known about the precise function of SKP genes in plant responses to environmental stresses. GsSKP21 was initially identified as a potential stress-responsive gene based on the transcriptome sequencing of Glycine soja. In this study, we found that GsSKP21 protein contains highly conserved SKP domains in its N terminus and an extra unidentified domain in its C terminus. The transcript abundance of GsSKP21, detected by quantitative real-time PCR, was induced under the treatment of alkali and salt stresses. Overexpression of GsSKP21 in Arabidopsis dramatically increased plant tolerance to alkali stress. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of GsSKP21 resulted in decreased ABA sensitivity during both the seed germination and early seedling growth stages. GsSKP21 mediated ABA signaling by altering the expression levels of the ABA signaling-related and ABA-induced genes. We also investigated the tissue expression specificity and subcellular localization of GsSKP21. These results suggest that GsSKP21 is important for plant tolerance to alkali stress and plays a critical regulatory role in the ABA-mediated stress response.

  9. Interdependency of EGF and GLP-2 Signaling in Attenuating Mucosal Atrophy in a Mouse Model of Parenteral Nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Yongjia; Demehri, Farok R; Xiao, Weidong

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Total parenteral nutrition (TPN), a crucial treatment for patients who cannot receive enteral nutrition, is associated with mucosal atrophy, barrier dysfunction, and infectious complications. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) improve intestinal e....../phosphoAKT (Ser473) signaling may help improve future therapies to prevent mucosal atrophy....

  10. Anorexigenic Lipopeptides Ameliorate Central Insulin Signaling and Attenuate Tau Phosphorylation in Hippocampi of Mice with Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Obesity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špolcová, Andrea; Mikulášková, Barbora; Holubová, Martina; Nagelová, Veronika; Pirník, Zdenko; Zemenová, Jana; Haluzík, M.; Železná, Blanka; Galas, M. C.; Maletínská, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2015), s. 823-835 ISSN 1387-2877 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP303/12/0576 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Alzheimer's disease * insulin signaling * liraglutide * monosodium glutamate-obese mice * obesity * pre-diabetes * prolactin-releasing peptide Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.920, year: 2015

  11. Defects and Materials Characterization by Analysis of Ultrasonic Signals. Study of a Technique to Measure Ultrasonic Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    cables, am- plifiers, etc., and is already present in analog signals. Total amount of noise is the sum of quantization, jitter and electric noise. 5.3...34Introducci6n a los M todos de Ensayos No Destructivos de Control de la Calidad de los Materiales". Editado por Instituto Nacional de T6cnica AeroespaciaL

  12. [6]-Gingerol isolated from ginger attenuates sodium arsenite induced oxidative stress and plays a corrective role in improving insulin signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debrup; Mukherjee, Avinaba; Sikdar, Sourav; Paul, Avijit; Ghosh, Samrat; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2012-04-05

    Arsenic toxicity induces type 2 diabetes via stress mediated pathway. In this study, we attempt to reveal how sodium arsenite (iAs) could induce stress mediated impaired insulin signaling in mice and if an isolated active fraction of ginger, [6]-gingerol could attenuate the iAs intoxicated hyperglycemic condition of mice and bring about improvement in their impaired insulin signaling. [6]-Gingerol treatment reduced elevated blood glucose level and oxidative stress by enhancing activity of super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and GSH. [6]-Gingerol also helped in increasing plasma insulin level, brought down after iAs exposure. iAs treatment to primary cell culture of β-cells and hepatocytes in vitro produced cyto-degenerative effect and accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pancreatic β-cells and hepatocytes of mice. [6]-Gingerol appeared to inhibit/intervene iAs induced cyto-degeneration of pancreatic β-cells and hepatocytes, helped in scavenging the free radicals. The over-expression of TNFα and IL6 in iAs intoxicated mice was down-regulated by [6]-gingerol treatment. iAs intoxication reduced expression levels of GLUT4, IRS-1, IRS-2, PI3K, AKT, PPARγ signaling molecules; [6]-gingerol mediated its action through enhancing the expressions of these signaling molecules, both at protein and mRNA levels. Thus, our results suggest that [6]-gingerol possesses an anti-hyperglycemic property and can improve impaired insulin signaling in arsenic intoxicated mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fumaric acid attenuates the eotaxin-1 expression in TNF-α-stimulated fibroblasts by suppressing p38 MAPK-dependent NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Jung, Eunsun; Park, Deokhoon; Lee, Jongsung

    2013-08-01

    Eotaxin-1 is a potent chemoattractant for eosinophils and a critical mediator during the development of eosinophilic inflammation. Fumaric acid is an intermediate product of the citric acid cycle, which is source of intracellular energy. Although fumaric acid ameliorates psoriasis and multiple sclerosis, its involvement in eotaxin-1-mediated effects has not been assessed. In this study, we investigated the effects of fumaric acid on eotaxin-1 expression in a mouse fibroblast cell line. We found that fumaric acid significantly inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α-induced eotaxin-1 expression. This fumaric acid effect was mediated through the inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling. We also found that fumaric acid operates downstream of MEKK3 during TNF-α-induced NF-κB signaling, which upregulated eotaxin-1 expression. In addition, fumaric acid attenuated expression of CC-chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3), an eotaxin-1 receptor, and adhesion molecules that play important roles in eosinophil binding to induce allergic inflammation. Taken together, these findings indicate that inhibiting TNF-α-induced eotaxin-1 expression by fumaric acid occurs primarily through suppression of NF-κB signaling, which is mediated by inhibiting p38 MAPK and suggest that fumaric acid may be used as a complementary treatment option for eotaxin-1-mediated diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Okanin, effective constituent of the flower tea Coreopsis tinctoria, attenuates LPS-induced microglial activation through inhibition of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yue; Li, Guoxun; Wang, Jian; Pan, Yingni; Jiao, Kun; Du, Juan; Chen, Ru; Wang, Bing; Li, Ning

    2017-04-01

    The EtOAc extract of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. significantly inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, as judged by the Griess reaction, and attenuated the LPS-induced elevation in iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA levels, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR, when incubated with BV-2 microglial cells. Immunohistochemical results showed that the EtOAc extract significantly decreased the number of Iba-1-positive cells in the hippocampal region of LPS-treated mouse brains. The major effective constituent of the EtOAc extract, okanin, was further investigated. Okanin significantly suppressed LPS-induced iNOS expression and also inhibited IL-6 and TNF-α production and mRNA expression in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Western blot analysis indicated that okanin suppressed LPS-induced activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκBα and decreasing the level of nuclear NF-κB p65 after LPS treatment. Immunofluorescence staining results showed that okanin inhibited the translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit from the cytosol to the nucleus. Moreover, okanin significantly inhibited LPS-induced TLR4 expression in BV-2 cells. In summary, okanin attenuates LPS-induced activation of microglia. This effect may be associated with its capacity to inhibit the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathways. These results suggest that okanin may have potential as a nutritional preventive strategy for neurodegenerative disorders.

  15. Alcohol Dehydrogenase Protects against Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction via Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Autophagy: Role of PTEN-Akt-mTOR Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Pang

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER plays an essential role in ensuring proper folding of the newly synthesized proteins. Aberrant ER homeostasis triggers ER stress and development of cardiovascular diseases. ADH is involved in catalyzing ethanol to acetaldehyde although its role in cardiovascular diseases other than ethanol metabolism still remains elusive. This study was designed to examine the impact of ADH on ER stress-induced cardiac anomalies and underlying mechanisms involved using cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH.ADH and wild-type FVB mice were subjected to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (1 mg/kg, i.p., for 48 hrs. Myocardial mechanical and intracellular Ca(2+ properties, ER stress, autophagy and associated cell signaling molecules were evaluated.ER stress compromised cardiac contractile function (evidenced as reduced fractional shortening, peak shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening, prolonged relengthening duration and impaired intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis, oxidative stress and upregulated autophagy (increased LC3B, Atg5, Atg7 and p62, along with dephosphorylation of PTEN, Akt and mTOR, all of which were attenuated by ADH. In vitro study revealed that ER stress-induced cardiomyocyte anomaly was abrogated by ADH overexpression or autophagy inhibition using 3-MA. Interestingly, the beneficial effect of ADH was obliterated by autophagy induction, inhibition of Akt and mTOR. ER stress also promoted phosphorylation of the stress signaling ERK and JNK, the effect of which was unaffected by ADH transgene.Taken together, these findings suggested that ADH protects against ER stress-induced cardiac anomalies possibly via attenuation of oxidative stress and PTEN/Akt/mTOR pathway-regulated autophagy.

  16. miR-144 attenuates the host response to influenza virus by targeting the TRAF6-IRF7 signaling axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie M Rosenberger

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Antiviral responses must rapidly defend against infection while minimizing inflammatory damage, but the mechanisms that regulate the magnitude of response within an infected cell are not well understood. miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that suppress protein levels by binding target sequences on their cognate mRNA. Here, we identify miR-144 as a negative regulator of the host antiviral response. Ectopic expression of miR-144 resulted in increased replication of three RNA viruses in primary mouse lung epithelial cells: influenza virus, EMCV, and VSV. We identified the transcriptional network regulated by miR-144 and demonstrate that miR-144 post-transcriptionally suppresses TRAF6 levels. In vivo ablation of miR-144 reduced influenza virus replication in the lung and disease severity. These data suggest that miR-144 reduces the antiviral response by attenuating the TRAF6-IRF7 pathway to alter the cellular antiviral transcriptional landscape.

  17. Pomegranate vinegar attenuates adiposity in obese rats through coordinated control of AMPK signaling in the liver and adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of pomegranate vinegar (PV) on adiposity was investigated in high-fat diet (HF)-induced obese rats. Methods The rats were divided into 5 groups and treated with HF with PV or acetic acid (0, 6.5 or 13% w/w) for 16 weeks. Statistical analyses were performed by the Statistical Analysis Systems package, version 9.2. Results Compared to control, PV supplementation increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), leading to changes in mRNA expressions: increases for hormone sensitive lipase and mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 and decreases for sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ (PPARγ) in adipose tissue; increases for PPARα and carnitinepalmitoyltransferase-1a (CPT-1a) and decrease for SREBP-1c in the liver. Concomitantly, PV reduced increases of body weight (p = 0.048), fat mass (p = 0.033), hepatic triglycerides (p = 0.005), and plasma triglycerides (p = 0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that PV attenuates adiposity through the coordinated control of AMPK, which leads to promotion of lipolysis in adipose tissue and stimulation of fatty acid oxidation in the liver. PMID:24180378

  18. Inhibition of type I insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling attenuates the development of breast cancer brain metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana, Sandra M; Lee, Heng-Huan; Lowery, Frank J; Khotskaya, Yekaterina B; Xia, Weiya; Zhang, Chenyu; Chang, Shih-Shin; Chou, Chao-Kai; Steeg, Patricia S; Yu, Dihua; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2013-01-01

    Brain metastasis is a common cause of mortality in cancer patients, yet potential therapeutic targets remain largely unknown. The type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) is known to play a role in the progression of breast cancer and is currently being investigated in the clinical setting for various types of cancer. The present study demonstrates that IGF-IR is constitutively autophosphorylated in brain-seeking breast cancer sublines. Knockdown of IGF-IR results in a decrease of phospho-AKT and phospho-p70s6k, as well as decreased migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231Br brain-seeking cells. In addition, transient ablation of IGFBP3, which is overexpressed in brain-seeking cells, blocks IGF-IR activation. Using an in vivo experimental brain metastasis model, we show that IGF-IR knockdown brain-seeking cells have reduced potential to establish brain metastases. Finally, we demonstrate that the malignancy of brain-seeking cells is attenuated by pharmacological inhibition with picropodophyllin, an IGF-IR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Together, our data suggest that the IGF-IR is an important mediator of brain metastasis and its ablation delays the onset of brain metastases in our model system.

  19. Dietary Blueberry and Bifidobacteria Attenuate Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats by Affecting SIRT1-Mediated Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tingting; Huang, Chao; Cheng, Mingliang

    2014-01-01

    NAFLD model rats were established and divided into NAFLD model (MG group), SIRT1 RNAi (SI group), blueberry juice (BJ group), blueberry juice + bifidobacteria (BJB group), blueberry juice + SIRT1 RNAi (BJSI group), and blueberry juice + bifidobacteria + SIRT1 RNAi groups (BJBSI group). A group with normal rats was a control group (CG). BJB group ameliorated NAFLD, which was better than BJ group (P Blueberry juice and bifidobacteria improve NAFLD by activating SIRTI-mediating signaling pathway. PMID:25544867

  20. Attenuated Wnt/β-catenin signalling mediates methotrexate chemotherapy-induced bone loss and marrow adiposity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Kristen R; King, Tristan J; Scherer, Michaela A; Zhou, Hong; Foster, Bruce K; Xian, Cory J

    2012-06-01

    Cancer chemotherapy often causes significant bone loss, marrow adiposity and haematopoietic defects, yet the underlying mechanisms and recovery potential remain unclear. Wnt/β-catenin signalling is integral to the regulation of osteogenesis, adipogenesis and haematopoiesis; using a rat model, the current study investigated roles of this signalling pathway in changes to bone marrow stromal and haematopoietic cell differentiation after chemotherapy with methotrexate (MTX), a commonly used antimetabolite. MTX treatment in rats (5 daily administrations at 0.75 mg/kg) has previously been found to decrease bone volume and increase marrow fat, which was associated with increased osteoclastogenesis in haematopoietic cells and with an osteogenesis to adipogenesis switch in bone marrow stromal cells of treated rats. In the current study, on day 6 after the first MTX dose we found that accompanying these changes as well as a suppressed haematopoietic cellularity but increased granulocyte/macrophage differentiation potential, there was an increase in mRNA expression of Wnt antagonists sFRP-1 and Dkk-1 in bone, a reduction in nuclear β-catenin protein in bone marrow stromal cells, and decreased mRNA levels of β-catenin target genes lef-1, cyclin D1 and survivin, suggesting reduced activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling in the bone during MTX-induced damage. Concurrent administration of BIO, a GSK-3β inhibitor that stabilises β-catenin, partially abrogated the MTX-induced transient changes in osteogenic/adipogenic commitment, granulocyte/macrophage lineage differentiation and osteoclast number. These findings demonstrate a potentially important role of Wnt/β-catenin signalling in MTX chemotherapy-induced cellular changes to the bone marrow microenvironment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Thaliporphine preserves cardiac function of endotoxemic rabbits by both directly and indirectly attenuating NFκB signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Lee

    Full Text Available Cardiac depression in sepsis is associated with the increased morbidity and mortality. Although myofilaments damage, autonomic dysfunction, and apoptosis play roles in sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction, the underlying mechanism is not clear. All of these possible factors are related to NFκB signaling, which plays the main role in sepsis signaling. Thaliporphine was determined to possess anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective activity by suppressing NFκB signaling in rodents. The purpose of this study is to further prove this protective effect in larger septic animals, and try to find the underlying mechanisms. The systolic and diastolic functions were evaluated in vivo by pressure-volume analysis at different preloads. Both preload-dependent and -independent hemodynamic parameters were performed. Inflammatory factors of whole blood and serum samples were analyzed. Several sepsis-related signaling pathways were also determined at protein level. Changes detected by conductance catheter showed Thaliporphine could recover impaired left ventricular systolic function after 4 hours LPS injection. It could also reverse the LPS induced steeper EDPVR and gentler ESPVR, thus improve Ees, Ea, and PRSW. Thaliporphine may exert this protective effect by decreasing TNFα and caspase3 dependent cell apoptosis, which was consistent with the decreased serum cTnI and LDH concentration. Thaliporphine could protect sepsis-associated myocardial dysfunction in both preload-dependent and -independent ways. It may exert these protective effects by both increase of "good"-PI3K/Akt/mTOR and decrease of "bad"-p38/NFκB pathways, which followed by diminishing TNFα and caspase3 dependent cell apoptosis.

  2. The bias and signal attenuation present in conventional pollen-based climate reconstructions as assessed by early climate data from Minnesota, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannine-Marie St Jacques

    Full Text Available The inference of past temperatures from a sedimentary pollen record depends upon the stationarity of the pollen-climate relationship. However, humans have altered vegetation independent of changes to climate, and consequently modern pollen deposition is a product of landscape disturbance and climate, which is different from the dominance of climate-derived processes in the past. This problem could cause serious signal distortion in pollen-based reconstructions. In the north-central United States, direct human impacts have strongly altered the modern vegetation and hence the pollen rain since Euro-American settlement in the mid-19th century. Using instrumental temperature data from the early 1800 s from Fort Snelling (Minnesota, we assessed the signal distortion and bias introduced by using the conventional method of inferring temperature from pollen assemblages in comparison to a calibration set from pre-settlement pollen assemblages and the earliest instrumental climate data. The early post-settlement calibration set provides more accurate reconstructions of the 19th century instrumental record, with less bias, than the modern set does. When both modern and pre-industrial calibration sets are used to reconstruct past temperatures since AD 1116 from pollen counts from a varve-dated record from Lake Mina, Minnesota, the conventional inference method produces significant low-frequency (centennial-scale signal attenuation and positive bias of 0.8-1.7 °C, resulting in an overestimation of Little Ice Age temperature and likely an underestimation of the extent and rate of anthropogenic warming in this region. However, high-frequency (annual-scale signal attenuation exists with both methods. Hence, we conclude that any past pollen spectra from before Euro-American settlement in this region should be interpreted using a pre-Euro-American settlement pollen set, paired to the earliest instrumental climate records. It remains to be explored how widespread

  3. Rapamycin attenuates BAFF-extended proliferation and survival via disruption of mTORC1/2 signaling in normal and neoplastic B-lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qingyu; Qin, Shanshan; Zhang, Hai; Liu, Beibei; Qin, Jiamin; Wang, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Ruijie; Liu, Chunxiao; Dong, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Shuangquan; Huang, Shile; Chen, Long

    2018-01-01

    B cell activating factor from the TNF family (BAFF) stimulates B-cell proliferation and survival, but excessive BAFF promotes the development of aggressive B cells leading to malignant and autoimmune diseases. Recently, we have reported that rapamycin, a macrocyclic lactone, attenuates human soluble BAFF (hsBAFF)-stimulated B-cell proliferation/survival by suppressing mTOR-mediated PP2A-Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Here, we show that the inhibitory effect of rapamycin on hsBAFF-promoted B cell proliferation/survival is also related to blocking hsBAFF-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt, S6K1, and 4E-BP1, as well as expression of survivin in normal and B-lymphoid (Raji and Daudi) cells. It appeared that both mTORC1 and mTORC2 were involved in the inhibitory activity of rapamycin, as silencing raptor or rictor enhanced rapamycin's suppression of hsBAFF-induced survivin expression and proliferation/viability in B cells. Also, PP242, an mTORC1/2 kinase inhibitor, repressed survivin expression, and cell proliferation/viability more potently than rapamycin (mTORC1 inhibitor) in B cells in response to hsBAFF. Of interest, ectopic expression of constitutively active Akt (myr-Akt) or constitutively active S6K1 (S6K1-ca), or downregulation of 4E-BP1 conferred resistance to rapamycin's attenuation of hsBAFF-induced survivin expression and B-cell proliferation/viability, whereas overexpression of dominant negative Akt (dn-Akt) or constitutively hypophosphorylated 4E-BP1 (4EBP1-5A), or downregulation of S6K1, or co-treatment with Akt inhibitor potentiated the inhibitory effects of rapamycin. The findings indicate that rapamycin attenuates excessive hsBAFF-induced cell proliferation/survival via blocking mTORC1/2 signaling in normal and neoplastic B-lymphoid cells. Our data underscore that rapamycin may be a potential agent for preventing excessive BAFF-evoked aggressive B-cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The pro-resolving lipid mediator maresin 1 (MaR1 attenuates inflammatory signaling pathways in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuran Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Inflammation and its resolution are central to vascular injury and repair. Maresins comprise a new family of bioactive lipid mediators synthesized from docosahexaenoic acid, an ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid. They have been found to exert anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving responses in macrophages, neutrophils and bronchial epithelial cells and impart beneficial actions in murine models of peritonitis and colitis. We investigated the impact of maresin-1 (MaR1 on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α induced inflammatory responses in human vascular endothelial (EC and smooth muscle cells (VSMC.Primary cultures of human saphenous vein EC and VSMC were employed. We tested the naturally occurring MaR1 as modulator of TNF-α effects, with examination of monocyte adhesion, oxidant stress, and intracellular inflammatory signaling pathways.MaR1 attenuated TNF-α induced monocyte adhesion and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in both EC and VSMC, associated with down-regulated expression (cell surface of the adhesion molecule E-selectin (in EC and NADPH-oxidases (NOX4, NOX1, NOX2. MaR1 attenuated TNF-α induced release of pro-inflammatory mediators by EC and VSMC. MaR1 caused an attenuation of TNF-α induced NF-κB activation in both cell types associated with inhibition of I-κ Kinase (IKK phosphorylation, IκB-α degradation and nuclear translocation of the NF- κB p65 subunit. MaR1 also caused a time-dependent increase in intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP in both naive and TNF-α stimulated VSMC and EC.MaR1 has broad anti-inflammatory actions on EC and VSMC, which may be partly mediated through up-regulation of cAMP and down-regulation of the transcription factor NF-κB. The results suggest that the pro-resolving lipid mediator MaR1 exerts homeostatic actions on vascular cells that counteract pro-inflammatory signals. These findings may have direct relevance for acute and chronic states of vascular inflammation.

  5. Involvement of ABA- and H2O2-dependent cytosolic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in maintaining redox homeostasis in soybean roots under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huahua; Yang, Lidan; Li, Yan; Hou, Junjie; Huang, Junjun; Liang, Weihong

    2016-10-01

    The roles of abscisic acid (ABA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in inducing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, EC 1.1.1.49) activity and the possible roles of G6PDH in regulating ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle were investigated in soybean (Glycine max L.) roots under drought stress. Drought caused a marked increase of the total and cytosolic G6PDH activities and triggered a rapid ABA and H2O2 accumulation in soybean roots. Exogenous ABA or H2O2 treatment elevated the total and cytosolic G6PDH activities, whereas suppressing ABA or H2O2 production inhibited the drought-induced increase in total and cytosolic G6PDH activities, suggesting that ABA and H2O2 are required for drought-induced increase of total G6PDH activity, namely cytosolic G6PDH activity. Furthermore, ABA induced H2O2 production by stimulating NADPH oxidase activity under drought stress. Moreover, drought significantly increased the contents of AsA and GSH and the activities of key enzymes in AsA-GSH cycle, while application of G6PDH inhibitor to seedlings significantly reduced the above effect induced by drought. Taken together, these results indicate that H2O2 acting as a downstream signaling molecule of ABA mediates drought-induced increase in cytosolic G6PDH activity, and that enhanced cytosolic G6PDH activity maintains cellular redox homeostasis by regulating AsA-GSH cycle in soybean roots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Activation of ABA Receptors Gene GhPYL9-11A Is Positively Correlated with Cotton Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chengzhen; Liu, Yan; Li, Yanyan; Meng, Zhigang; Yan, Rong; Zhu, Tao; Wang, Yuan; Kang, Shujing; Ali Abid, Muhammad; Malik, Waqas; Sun, Guoqing; Guo, Sandui; Zhang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    The sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) by its receptors, pyrabactin resistance-like proteins (PYLs), is considered a most important factor in activating the ABA signal pathway in response to abiotic stress. However, it is still unknown which PYL is the crucial ABA receptor mediating response to drought stress in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Here, we reported the identification and characterization of highly induced ABA receptor GhPYL9-11A in response to drought in cotton. It is observed that GhPYL9-11A was highly induced by ABA treatment. GhPYL9-11A binds to protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs) in an ABA-independent manner. Moreover, the GhPYL-11A-PP2C interactions are partially disrupted by mutations, proline (P84) and histidine (H111), in the gate-latch region. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing GhPYL9-11A plants were hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination and early seedling stage. Further, the increased in root growth and up regulation of drought stress-related genes in transgenic Arabidopsis as compared to wild type confirmed the potential role of GhPYL9-11A in abiotic stress tolerance. Consistently, the expression level of GhPYL9-11A is on average higher in drought-tolerant cotton cultivars than in drought-sensitive cottons under drought treatment. In conclusion, the manipulation of GhPYL9-11A expression could be a useful strategy for developing drought-tolerant cotton cultivars.

  7. Dimethylfumarate attenuates renal fibrosis via NF-E2-related factor 2-mediated inhibition of transforming growth factor-β/Smad signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Joo Oh

    Full Text Available TGF-β plays a key role in the development of renal fibrosis. Suppressing the TGF-β signaling pathway is a possible therapeutic approach for preventing this disease, and reports have suggested that Nrf2 protects against renal fibrosis by inhibiting TGF-β signaling. This study examines whether dimethylfumarate (DMF, which stimulates Nrf2, prevents renal fibrosis via the Nrf2-mediated suppression of TGF-β signaling. Results showed that DMF increased nuclear levels of Nrf2, and both DMF and adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Nrf2 (Ad-Nrf2 decreased PAI-1, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, fibronectin and type 1 collagen expression in TGF-β-treated rat mesangial cells (RMCs and renal fibroblast cells (NRK-49F. Additionally, DMF and Ad-Nrf2 repressed TGF-β-stimulated Smad3 activity by inhibiting Smad3 phosphorylation, which was restored by siRNA-mediated knockdown of Nrf2 expression. However, downregulation of the antioxidant response element (ARE-driven Nrf2 target genes such as NQO1, HO-1 and glutathione S-transferase (GST did not reverse the inhibitory effect of DMF on TGF-β-induced upregulation of profibrotic genes or extracellular matrix proteins, suggesting an ARE-independent anti-fibrotic activity of DMF. Finally, DMF suppressed unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO-induced renal fibrosis and α-SMA, fibronectin and type 1 collagen expression in the obstructed kidneys from UUO mice, along with increased and decreased expression of Nrf2 and phospho-Smad3, respectively. In summary, DMF attenuated renal fibrosis via the Nrf2-mediated inhibition of TGF-β/Smad3 signaling in an ARE-independent manner, suggesting that DMF could be used to treat renal fibrosis.

  8. Resveratrol engages AMPK to attenuate ERK and mTOR signaling in sensory neurons and inhibits incision-induced acute and chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillu Dipti V

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite advances in our understanding of basic mechanisms driving post-surgical pain, treating incision-induced pain remains a major clinical challenge. Moreover, surgery has been implicated as a major cause of chronic pain conditions. Hence, more efficacious treatments are needed to inhibit incision-induced pain and prevent the transition to chronic pain following surgery. We reasoned that activators of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK may represent a novel treatment avenue for the local treatment of incision-induced pain because AMPK activators inhibit ERK and mTOR signaling, two important pathways involved in the sensitization of peripheral nociceptors. Results To test this hypothesis we used a potent and efficacious activator of AMPK, resveratrol. Our results demonstrate that resveratrol profoundly inhibits ERK and mTOR signaling in sensory neurons in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion and that these effects are mediated by AMPK activation and independent of sirtuin activity. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is thought to play an important role in incision-induced pain and resveratrol potently inhibited IL-6-mediated signaling to ERK in sensory neurons and blocked IL-6-mediated allodynia in vivo through a local mechanism of action. Using a model of incision-induced allodynia in mice, we further demonstrate that local injection of resveratrol around the surgical wound strongly attenuates incision-induced allodynia. Intraplantar IL-6 injection and plantar incision induces persistent nociceptive sensitization to PGE2 injection into the affected paw after the resolution of allodynia to the initial stimulus. We further show that resveratrol treatment at the time of IL-6 injection or plantar incision completely blocks the development of persistent nociceptive sensitization consistent with the blockade of a transition to a chronic pain state by resveratrol treatment. Conclusions These results highlight the importance of signaling

  9. A hepatoprotective Lindera obtusiloba extract suppresses growth and attenuates insulin like growth factor-1 receptor signaling and NF-kappaB activity in human liver cancer cell lines

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    Stroh Thorsten

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In traditional Chinese and Korean medicine, an aqueous extract derived from wood and bark of the Japanese spice bush Lindera obtusiloba (L.obtusiloba is applied to treat inflammations and chronic liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma. We previously demonstrated anti-fibrotic effects of L.obtusiloba extract in hepatic stellate cells. Thus, we here consequently examine anti-neoplastic effects of L.obtusiloba extract on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cell lines and the signaling pathways involved. Methods Four human HCC cell lines representing diverse stages of differentiation were treated with L.obtusiloba extract, standardized according to its known suppressive effects on proliferation and TGF-β-expression. Beside measurement of proliferation, invasion and apoptosis, effects on signal transduction and NF-κB-activity were determined. Results L.obtusiloba extract inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in all HCC cell lines and provoked a reduced basal and IGF-1-induced activation of the IGF-1R signaling cascade and a reduced transcriptional NF-κB-activity, particularly in the poorly differentiated SK-Hep1 cells. Pointing to anti-angiogenic effects, L.obtusiloba extract attenuated the basal and IGF-1-induced expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Conclusions The traditional application of the extract is confirmed by our experimental data. Due to its potential to inhibit critical receptor tyrosine kinases involved in HCC progression via the IGF-1 signaling pathway and NF-κB, the standardized L.obtusiloba extract should be further analysed for its active compounds and explored as (complementary treatment option for HCC.

  10. The Effect of an Extinction Cue on ABA-Renewal: Does Valence Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibbets, Pauline; Maes, Joseph H. R.

    2011-01-01

    The present human fear conditioning study examined whether the valence of an extinction cue has a differential effect on attenuating renewal that is induced by removal of the extinction context. Additionally, the study aimed to assess whether such attenuating effect is based on a modulatory or safety-signal role of the cue. In acquisition,…

  11. Losartan Attenuates Myocardial Endothelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats via Inhibiting TGF-β/Smad Signaling.

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    Wu, Miao; Peng, Zhenyu; Zu, Changhao; Ma, Jing; Lu, Shijuan; Zhong, Jianghua; Zhang, Saidan

    2016-01-01

    Losartan plays an important role in the inhibition of myocardial fibrosis. But the underlying mechanism is not entirely clear. Emerging evidences have indicated that endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) plays a crucial role in cardiac fibrosis. Here the present study aims to first investigated the effect of Losartan on EndMT in cardiac fibrosis of spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). Male SHRs were randomly divided into three groups and fed for 12 weeks, namely the SHR group (Group S), the Losartan-treated group (Group L) and the Prazosin-treated group (Group P). Wistar-Kyoto rats served as controls (Group W). The histological changes were evaluated by Masson's trichrome. Co-expression of CD31 and fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1) were used as the markers of EndMT through immunofluorescence. The expressions of FSP1, CD31, TGF-β, Smad were detected by Western blot analysis. It was identified that elevated blood pressure induced a significant increase in myocardial fibrosis and EndMT in SHRs, which was reversed by Losartan and Prazosin treatment. Furthermore, the activity of TGF-β/Smad signaling was detected in the four groups. TGF-β/Smad signaling was activated in SHRs and suppressed by Losartan or Prazosin treatment. Losartan exhibited more efficiently than Prazosin in inhibiting TGF-β/Smad signaling activation, EndMT and myocardial fibrosis. These results showed that EndMT played an important role in promoting hypertensive cardiac fibrosis, and that losartan could suppress cardiac fibrosis through the inhibition of EndMT via classical TGF-β/Smad pathway.

  12. Dioscorea alata attenuates renal interstitial cellular fibrosis by regulating Smad- and epithelial-mesenchymal transition signaling pathways.

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    Shu-Fen Liu

    Full Text Available Renal interstitial fibrosis is characterized by increased extracellular matrix (ECM synthesis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in kidneys is driven by regulated expression of fibrogenic cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β. Yam, or Dioscorea alata (DA is an important herb in Chinese medicine widely used for the treatment of clinical diabetes mellitus. However, the fibrosis regulatory effect of DA is unclear. Thus, we examined TGF-β signaling mechanisms against EMT in rat fibroblast cells (NRK-49F. The characterization of DA water-extracts used various methods; after inducing cellular fibrosis in NRK-49F cells by treatment with β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB (10 mM, we used Western blotting to examine the protein expression in the TGF-β-related signal protein type I and type II TGF-β receptors, Smads2 and Smad3 (Smad2/3, pSmad2 and Smad3 (pSmad2/3, Smads4, Smads7, and EMT markers. These markers included E-cadherin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2. Bioactive TGF-β and fibronectin levels in the culture media were determined using ELISA. Expressions of fibronectin and Snail transcription factor, an EMT-regulatory transcription factor, were assessed by immunofluorescence staining. DA extract dose-dependently (50-200 µg/mL suppressed β-HB-induced expression of fibronectin in NRK-49F cells concomitantly with the inhibition of Smad2/3, pSmad2/3, and Smad4. By contrast, Smad7 expression was significantly increased. DA extract caused a decrease in α-SMA (α-smooth muscle actin and MMP-2 levels, and an increase in E-cadherin expression. We propose that DA extract might act as a novel fibrosis antagonist, which acts partly by down regulating the TGF-β/smad signaling pathway and modulating EMT expression.

  13. The top 10 reasons children with autism deserve ABA.

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    Walsh, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    We who advocate for applied behavior analysis (ABA) for children with autism spectrum disorders often construct our arguments based on the scientific evidence. However, the audience that most needs to hear this argument, that is, the parents of children, especially very young children, diagnosed with autism, may not be convinced by the science alone. This essay attempts to make the case for the multiple benefits of ABA intervention through the use of humor and anecdotes couched in a "Top Ten List," and illustrating most points with stories of an engaging child with autism (my son, Ben).

  14. Atorvastatin attenuates TNBS-induced rat colitis: the involvement of the TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Amir; Muhammadnejad, Ahad; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemai; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Shirkoohi, Reza; Chamanara, Mohsen; Mousavi, Seyyedeh-Elaheh; Rezayat, Seyed-Mahdi

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore whether atorvastatin improves intestinal inflammation through the inhibition of the TLR4/NFkB signaling pathway in TNBS-induced rat colitis. Acute colitis was induced by intra-rectal administration of 100 mg/kg TNBS dissolved in 0.25 ml of 50 % ethanol. Twenty four hours after colitis induction, saline, atorvastatin (20 and 40 mg/kg) and sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg) were given to the animals by oral route. This was repeated daily for 1 week. Body weight changes, macroscopic and microscopic lesions were assessed. MPO and TNF-α activities were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the expression level of TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB p65 proteins were measured by western blotting analysis. Atorvastatin and sulfasalazine reduced the body weight loss, macroscopic and microscopic lesions. Additionally, both drugs decreased the expression of MPO and TNF-α positive cells in the colon tissue. Furthermore, they inhibited the TNBS-induced expression of TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB p65 proteins. It is suggested that the anti-inflammatory effect of atorvastatin on TNBS-induced rat colitis may involve the inhibition of the TLR4/NFkB signaling pathway.

  15. Caffeine attenuates lipid accumulation via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Hai Yan; Kim, Do Yeon; Chung, Sung Hyun

    2013-04-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine the effect of caffeine on lipid accumulation in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Significant decreases in the accumulation of hepatic lipids, such as triglyceride (TG), and cholesterol were observed when HepG2 cells were treated with caffeine as indicated. Caffeine decreased the mRNA level of lipogenesis-associated genes (SREBP1c, SREBP2, FAS, SCD1, HMGR and LDLR). In contrast, mRNA level of CD36, which is responsible for lipid uptake and catabolism, was increased. Next, the effect of caffeine on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway was examined. Phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase were evidently increased when the cells were treated with caffeine as indicated for 24 h. These effects were all reversed in the presence of compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. In summary, these data indicate that caffeine effectively depleted TG and cholesterol levels by inhibition of lipogenesis and stimulation of lipolysis through modulating AMPK-SREBP signaling pathways.

  16. [Metoprolol attenuates pressure overload-induced myocardial hypertrophy through modulating Dryk1A-ASF-CaMKIIδ signaling pathways].

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    Yao, Jian; Sheng, Hong-zhuan; Lu, Xiao-chen; Gu, Qing-qing; Zhu, Jian-hua

    2013-12-01

    Previous study showed that the signaling pathway of dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylated and regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A)-alternative splicing factor (ASF)- alternative splicing of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) is related to myocardial hypertrophy. The aim of present study was to determine the effect and related mechamism of metoprolol on pressure overload induced myocardial hypertrophy. Pressure overload-induced hypertension was induced by coarctation of suprarenal abdominal aorta in rats. Rats were randomly divided into sham-operated control, hypertension and hypertension plus metoprolol (30 mg×kg(-1)×d(-1)) groups (n = 10 each). Blood pressure, the left ventricular weight to body weight ratio and cardiomyocytes area were measured, the protein expression of Dyrk1A and ASF were determined by Western blot and mRNA expression of alternative splicing of CaMKIIδ was detected by RT-PCR. Four weeks after coarctation, cardiac hypertrophy was evidenced in rats of hypertensive group, and the protein expression of Dyrk1A was significantly upregulated, while the expression of ASF was significantly downregulated, the mRNA expression of CaMKIIδ A and B were significantly upregulated and mRNA expression of CaMKIIδ C was significantly downregulated compared to those in sham-operated control rats (all P ASF, and alternative splicing of CaMKIIδ (all P ASF-CaMKIIδ signaling pathways.

  17. Silybin attenuates LPS-induced lung injury in mice by inhibiting NF-κB signaling and NLRP3 activation.

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    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Bing; Cao, Shuhua; Wang, Yongqiang; Wu, Di

    2017-05-01

    Silybin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which has been used in the treatment of liver diseases. In this study, we examined the protective effects and possible mechanisms of action of silybin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced lung injury and inflammation. Pre-treatment of mice with silybin significantly inhibited LPS-induced airway inflammatory cell recruitment, including macrophages, T cells and neutrophils. The production of cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in bronchoalveolar fluid and serum was also decreased following treatment with silybin. Elevated cytokine mRNA levels induced by LPS in lung tissue were all suppressed by silybin and lung histological alterations were also improved. In addition, experiments using cells indicated that silybin significantly decreased the mRNA levels and secretion of IL-1β and TNF-α in THP-1 cells. Moreover, the mechanisms responsible for these effects were attributed to the inhibitory effect of silybin on nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling and NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. The data form our study thus support the utility of silybin as a potential medicine for the treatment of acute lung injury‑associated inflammation and pathological changes. Silybin exerts protective effects against lung injury by regulating NF-κB signaling and the NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

  18. Fluorofenidone Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Renal Fibrosis in Obstructive Nephropathy via Blocking NOX2 (gp91phox Expression and Inhibiting ERK/MAPK Signaling Pathway

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    Jiao Qin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We evaluated the therapeutic effects of fluorofenidone (AKF-PD, a novel pyridone agent, targeting oxidative stress and fibrosis in obstructive nephropathy. Methods: AKF-PD was used to treat renal interstitial fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO obstructive nephropathy in rats. The expression of NOX2 (gp91phox, fibronectin and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK were detected by western blot. A level of Malondialdehyde (MDA, an oxidative stress marker, was measured by ELISA. In addition, ROS and the expressions of NOX2, collagen I (a1, fibronectin and p-ERK were measured in angiotensin (Ang II-stimulated rat proximal tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E in culture. Results: In NRK-52E cells, AKF-PD reduced AngII induced expressions of ROS, NOX2, fibronectin, collagen I (a1 and p-ERK. In UUO kidney cortex, AKF-PD attenuated the degree of renal interstitial fibrosis, which was associated with reduced the expressions of collagen I (a1 and fibronectin. Furthermore, AKF-PD downregulated the expressions of NOX2, MDA and p-ERK. Conclusion: AKF-PD treatment inhibits the progression of renal interstitial fibrosis by suppressing oxidative stress and ERK/MAPK signaling pathway.

  19. Accuracies and Contrasts of Models of the Diffusion-Weighted-Dependent Attenuation of the MRI Signal at Intermediate b-values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Renaud; Sibon, Igor; Hiba, Bassem

    2015-01-01

    The diffusion-weighted-dependent attenuation of the MRI signal E(b) is extremely sensitive to microstructural features. The aim of this study was to determine which mathematical model of the E(b) signal most accurately describes it in the brain. The models compared were the monoexponential model, the stretched exponential model, the truncated cumulant expansion (TCE) model, the biexponential model, and the triexponential model. Acquisition was performed with nine b-values up to 2500 s/mm2 in 12 healthy volunteers. The goodness-of-fit was studied with F-tests and with the Akaike information criterion. Tissue contrasts were differentiated with a multiple comparison corrected nonparametric analysis of variance. F-test showed that the TCE model was better than the biexponential model in gray and white matter. Corrected Akaike information criterion showed that the TCE model has the best accuracy and produced the most reliable contrasts in white matter among all models studied. In conclusion, the TCE model was found to be the best model to infer the microstructural properties of brain tissue. PMID:26106263

  20. The miR9863 family regulates distinct Mla alleles in barley to attenuate NLR receptor-triggered disease resistance and cell-death signaling.

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    Jie Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Mla alleles encode coiled-coil (CC, nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR receptors that trigger isolate-specific immune responses against the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh. How Mla or NB-LRR genes in grass species are regulated at post-transcriptional level is not clear. The microRNA family, miR9863, comprises four members that differentially regulate distinct Mla alleles in barley. We show that miR9863 members guide the cleavage of Mla1 transcripts in barley, and block or reduce the accumulation of MLA1 protein in the heterologous Nicotiana benthamiana expression system. Regulation specificity is determined by variation in a unique single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP in mature miR9863 family members and two SNPs in the Mla miR9863-binding site that separates these alleles into three groups. Further, we demonstrate that 22-nt miR9863s trigger the biogenesis of 21-nt phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs and together these sRNAs form a feed-forward regulation network for repressing the expression of group I Mla alleles. Overexpression of miR9863 members specifically attenuates MLA1, but not MLA10-triggered disease resistance and cell-death signaling. We propose a key role of the miR9863 family in dampening immune response signaling triggered by a group of MLA immune receptors in barley.

  1. The miR9863 family regulates distinct Mla alleles in barley to attenuate NLR receptor-triggered disease resistance and cell-death signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Cheng, Xiliu; Liu, Da; Xu, Weihui; Wise, Roger; Shen, Qian-Hua

    2014-12-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Mla alleles encode coiled-coil (CC), nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) receptors that trigger isolate-specific immune responses against the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). How Mla or NB-LRR genes in grass species are regulated at post-transcriptional level is not clear. The microRNA family, miR9863, comprises four members that differentially regulate distinct Mla alleles in barley. We show that miR9863 members guide the cleavage of Mla1 transcripts in barley, and block or reduce the accumulation of MLA1 protein in the heterologous Nicotiana benthamiana expression system. Regulation specificity is determined by variation in a unique single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP) in mature miR9863 family members and two SNPs in the Mla miR9863-binding site that separates these alleles into three groups. Further, we demonstrate that 22-nt miR9863s trigger the biogenesis of 21-nt phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs) and together these sRNAs form a feed-forward regulation network for repressing the expression of group I Mla alleles. Overexpression of miR9863 members specifically attenuates MLA1, but not MLA10-triggered disease resistance and cell-death signaling. We propose a key role of the miR9863 family in dampening immune response signaling triggered by a group of MLA immune receptors in barley.

  2. The miR9863 Family Regulates Distinct Mla Alleles in Barley to Attenuate NLR Receptor-Triggered Disease Resistance and Cell-Death Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Cheng, Xiliu; Liu, Da; Xu, Weihui; Wise, Roger; Shen, Qian-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Mla alleles encode coiled-coil (CC), nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) receptors that trigger isolate-specific immune responses against the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). How Mla or NB-LRR genes in grass species are regulated at post-transcriptional level is not clear. The microRNA family, miR9863, comprises four members that differentially regulate distinct Mla alleles in barley. We show that miR9863 members guide the cleavage of Mla1 transcripts in barley, and block or reduce the accumulation of MLA1 protein in the heterologous Nicotiana benthamiana expression system. Regulation specificity is determined by variation in a unique single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP) in mature miR9863 family members and two SNPs in the Mla miR9863-binding site that separates these alleles into three groups. Further, we demonstrate that 22-nt miR9863s trigger the biogenesis of 21-nt phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs) and together these sRNAs form a feed-forward regulation network for repressing the expression of group I Mla alleles. Overexpression of miR9863 members specifically attenuates MLA1, but not MLA10-triggered disease resistance and cell-death signaling. We propose a key role of the miR9863 family in dampening immune response signaling triggered by a group of MLA immune receptors in barley. PMID:25502438

  3. Baicalein attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing TLR4 mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in LPS-induced mastitis in mice.

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    He, Xuexiu; Wei, Zhengkai; Zhou, Ershun; Chen, Libin; Kou, Jinhua; Wang, Jingjing; Yang, Zhengtao

    2015-09-01

    Baicalein is a phenolic flavonoid presented in the dry roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. It has been reported that baicalein possesses a number of biological properties, such as antiviral, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and anticancer properties. However, the effect of baicalein on mastitis has not yet been reported. This research aims to detect the effect of baicalein on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in mice and to investigate the molecular mechanisms. Baicalein was administered intraperitoneally 1h before and 12h after LPS treatment. The results indicated that baicalein treatment markedly attenuated the damage of the mammary gland induced by LPS, suppressed the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-1β) in mice with LPS-induced mastitis. Besides, baicalein blocked the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and then suppressed the phosphorylation of nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65 and degradation inhibitor of NF-κBα (IκBα) and, and inhibited the phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway. These findings suggested that baicalein may have a potential prospect against mastitis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Cardiac Shock Wave Therapy Attenuates H9c2 Myoblast Apoptosis by Activating the AKT Signal Pathway

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    Weiwei Yu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that Cardiac Shock Wave Therapy (CSWT improves myocardial perfusion and cardiac function in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia and also ameliorates myocardial ischemia in patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD. Apoptosis plays a key role in ischemic myocardial pathogenesis. However, it remains unclear whether CSWT is beneficial for ischemia/hypoxia (I/H-induced myocardial cell apoptosis and by which mechanism CSWT could improve heart function. We put forward the hypothesis that CSWT might protect heart function during ischemia/hypoxia by decreasing apoptosis. Methods: We generated ischemia/hypoxia (I/H-induced apoptosis in the H9c2 myoblast cell line to examine the CSWT function and possible mechanisms. H9c2 cells were treated under hypoxic serum-starved conditions for 24 h and then treated with or without CSWT (500 shots, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12mJ/mm2. The apoptotic cell rate was determined by flow cytometry assay, cell viability was examined by the MTT assay, nuclear fragmentation was detected by Hoechst 33342 staining, and the mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis was assessed by the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 protein and Caspase3 activation. Results: First, apoptosis could be induced by ischemia/hypoxia in H9c2 cells. Second, CSWT attenuates the cell death and decreases the H9c2 cell apoptosis rate induced by ischemia and hypoxia. Third, CSWT suppresses the expression of apoptosis molecules that regulate the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in H9c2 cells. Fourth, CSWT increases the phosphorylation of AKT, which indicates the activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway. Conclusions: These results indicate that CSWT exerts a protective effect against I/H-induced cell death, potentially by preventing the activation of components of the mitochondrial-dependent intrinsic apoptotic pathway. We also demonstrate that the PI3K-Akt pathway may be involved in the CSWT effects on

  5. β-elemene attenuates macrophage activation and proinflammatory factor production via crosstalk with Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

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    Fang, Yangyi; Kang, Yanhua; Zou, Han; Cheng, Xiaxuan; Xie, Tian; Shi, Liyun; Zhang, Hang

    2018-01-01

    β-elemene, extracted from Rhizoma zedoariae, has been widely used as a traditional medicine for its antitumor activity against a broad range of cancers. However, the effect of β-elemene in inflammation disorders has yet to be determined. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and potential molecular mechanisms of β-elemene in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage cells RAW264.7. We found that the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, including interleukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), induced by LPS was significantly suppressed by β-elemene in a dose-dependent manner in RAW264.7 macrophage cell line. Also, β-elemene inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression by RAW264.7, which was related to the down-regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Importantly, this study demonstrates that β-catenin was significantly inhibited by β-elemene, which appeared to be largely responsible for the down-regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Accordingly, the deletion of β-catenin in primary macrophages reversed β-catenin-elicited inhibition of immune response. Furthermore, β-catenin expression and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway induced by LPS in RAW264.7 was also significantly inhibited by α-humulene, one isomeric sesquiterpene of β-elemene. α-humulene was also found to significantly inhibit LPS-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines. However, α-humulene showed more cytotoxic ability than β-elemene. Collectively, our data illustrated that β-elemene exerted a potent inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory meditator and cytokines production via the inactivation of β-catenin, and also demonstrated the protective functions of β-elemene in endotoxin-induced inflammation. β-elemene may serve as potential nontoxic modulatory agents for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases. Copyright

  6. Mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase attenuates 3-hydroxykynurenine-induced neuronal cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Bach, Jae-Hyung; Chae, Hee-Sun; Lee, Sang Hyung; Joo, Wan Seok; Choi, Se Hoon; Kim, Kyung Yong; Lee, Won Bok; Kim, Sung Su

    2004-02-01

    3-Hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), an endogenous tryptophan metabolite, is known to have toxic effects in brain. However, the molecular mechanism of the toxicity has not been well identified. In this study, we investigated the involvement of MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the 3-HK-induced neuronal cell damage. Our results showed that 3-HK induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and ERK phosphorylation occurred during cell death. Inhibition of ERK activation using PD98059 considerably increased cell death. Furthermore, cell death was preceded by mitochondrial malfunction including collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) and cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytosol. Interestingly, inhibition of ERK dramatically increased mitochondrial malfunction, and enhanced caspase activation, resulting in enhanced neuronal cell death. Thus, our results show that ERK plays a protective role by maintaining mitochondrial function and regulating caspase activity under conditions of cellular stress.

  7. Coral-Derived Compound WA-25 Inhibits Angiogenesis by Attenuating the VEGF/VEGFR2 Signaling Pathway

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    Shih-Wei Lin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: WA-25 (dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol, a synthetic derivative of marine compound WE-2 suppresses atherosclerosis in rats by reducing neointima formation. Because angiogenesis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the present study investigated the angiogenic function and mechanism of WA-25. Methods: The angiogenic effect of WA-25 was evaluated using a rat aortic ring assay and transgenic zebrafish models were established using transgenic Tg(fli-1:EGFPy1 and Tg(kdrl:mCherryci5-fli1a:negfpy7 zebrafish embryos. In addition, the effect of WA-25 on distinct angiogenic processes, including matrix metalloproteinase (MMP expression, endothelial cell proliferation and migration, as well as tube formation, was studied using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. The effect of WA-25 on the endothelial vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF signaling pathway was elucidated using qRT-PCR, immunoblot analysis, immunofluorescence and flow cytometric analyses. Results: The application of WA-25 perturbed the development of intersegmental vessels in transgenic zebrafish. Moreover, WA-25 potently suppressed microvessel sprouting in organotypic rat aortic rings. Among cultured endothelial cells, WA-25 significantly and dose-dependently inhibited MMP-2/MMP-9 expression, proliferation, migration and tube formation in HUVECs. Mechanistic studies revealed that WA-25 significantly reduced the VEGF release by reducing VEGF expression at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, WA-25 reduced surface VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2/Flk-1 expression by repressing the VEGFR2 mRNA level. Finally, an exogenous VEGF supply partially rescued the WA-25-induced angiogenesis blockage in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions: WA-25 is a potent angiogenesis inhibitor that acts through the down-regulation of VEGF and VEGFR2 in endothelial cells. General Significance: WA-25 may constitute a novel anti-angiogenic drug that acts by targeting endothelial

  8. Curcumin attenuates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by high glucose and insulin via the PPARγ/Akt/NO signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongchun; Peng, Xiaofeng; Du, Weimin; Wu, Yang; Huang, Bo; Xue, Lai; Wu, Qin; Qiu, Hongmei; Jiang, Qingsong

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the potential effect of curcumin on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and a possible mechanism involving the PPARγ/Akt/NO signaling pathway in diabetes. The cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by high glucose (25.5mmol/L) and insulin (0.1μmol/L) (HGI) and the antihypertrophic effect of curcumin were evaluated in primary culture by measuring the cell surface area, protein content and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) mRNA expression. The mRNA and protein expressions were assayed by reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting, whereas the NO concentration and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity were determined using nitrate reduction and ELISA methods, respectively. The cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by HGI was characterized by increasing ANF mRNA expression, total protein content, and cell surface area, with downregulated mRNA and protein expressions of both PPARγ and Akt, which paralleled the declining eNOS mRNA expression, eNOS content, and NO concentration. The effects of HGI were inhibited by curcumin (1, 3, 10μmol/L) in a concentration-dependent manner. GW9662 (10μmol/L), a selective PPARγ antagonist, could abolish the effects of curcumin. LY294002 (20μmol/L), an Akt blocker, and N(G)-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (100μmol/L), a NOS inhibitor, could also diminish the effects of curcumin. The results suggested that curcumin supplementation can improve HGI-induced cardiomyocytes hypertrophy in vitro through the activation of PPARγ/Akt/NO signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Targeting MTA1/HIF-1α signaling by pterostilbene in combination with histone deacetylase inhibitor attenuates prostate cancer progression.

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    Butt, Nasir A; Kumar, Avinash; Dhar, Swati; Rimando, Agnes M; Akhtar, Israh; Hancock, John C; Lage, Janice M; Pound, Charles R; Lewin, Jack R; Gomez, Christian R; Levenson, Anait S

    2017-10-10

    The metastasis-associated protein 1(MTA1)/histone deacetylase (HDAC) unit is a cancer progression-related epigenetic regulator, which is overexpressed in hormone-refractory and metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). In our previous studies, we found a significantly increased MTA1 expression in a prostate-specific Pten-null mouse model. We also demonstrated that stilbenes, namely resveratrol and pterostilbene (Pter), affect MTA1/HDAC signaling, including deacetylation of tumor suppressors p53 and PTEN. In this study, we examined whether inhibition of MTA1/HDAC using combination of Pter and a clinically approved HDAC inhibitor, SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, vorinostat), which also downregulates MTA1, could block prostate tumor progression in vivo. We generated and utilized a luciferase reporter in a prostate-specific Pten-null mouse model (Pb-Cre(+) ; Pten(f/f) ; Rosa26(Luc/+) ) to evaluate the anticancer efficacy of Pter/SAHA combinatorial approach. Our data showed that Pter sensitized tumor cells to SAHA treatment resulting in inhibiting tumor growth and additional decline of tumor progression. These effects were dependent on the reduction of MTA1-associated proangiogenic factors HIF-1α, VEGF, and IL-1β leading to decreased angiogenesis. In addition, treatment of PCa cell lines in vitro with combined Pter and low dose SAHA resulted in more potent inhibition of MTA1/HIF-1α than by high dose SAHA alone. Our study provides preclinical evidence that Pter/SAHA combination treatment inhibits MTA1/HIF-1α tumor-promoting signaling in PCa. The beneficial outcome of combinatorial strategy using a natural agent and an approved drug for higher efficacy and less toxicity supports further development of MTA1-targeted therapies in PCa. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Xenon-delayed postconditioning attenuates spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury through activation AKT and ERK signaling pathways in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyao; Yang, Yanwei; Jin, Mu; Hou, Siyu; Dong, Xiuhua; Lu, Jiakai; Cheng, Weiping

    2016-09-15

    Previous studies have shown that xenon-delayed postconditioning for up to 2h after reperfusion provides protection against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. This study was designed to determine the roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in this neuroprotection. The rats were randomly assigned to the following nine groups (n=16∗9): 1) I/R+N2 group, 2) I/R+Xe group, 3) I/R+PD98059+N2 group (ERK blocking agent), 4) I/R+wortmannin+N2 group (PI3K-Akt blocking agent), 5) I/R+PD98059+Xe group, 6) I/R+wortmannin+Xe group, 7) I/R+DMSO+Xe group (dimethyl sulfoxide, vehicle control), 8) I/R+DMSO+N2 group, and 9) sham group (no spinal cord ischemia and no xenon). Spinal cord ischemia was induced for 25min in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurological function was assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) open-field locomotor scale at 6, 12, 24 and 48h after reperfusion. Histological examination of the lumbar spinal cord was performed using Nissl staining and TUNEL staining at 4 (n=8) and 48 (n=8)h after reperfusion. Western blotting was performed to evaluate p-Akt and p-ERK expression in the spinal cord at 4 (n=8) and 48 (n=8) h after reperfusion. Compared with the sham group, all rats in the I/R groups had lower BBB scores, fewer normal motor neurons, more apoptotic neurons and lower p-Akt and p-ERK levels at each time point (Pxenon-delayed postconditioning improves neurological outcomes to spinal cord I/R injury in rats through the activation of the AKT and ERK signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved cold tolerance in Elymus nutans by exogenous application of melatonin may involve ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Juanjuan; Wu, Ye; Miao, Yanjun; Xu, Yamei; Zhao, Enhua; Wang, Jin; Sun, Huaien; Liu, Qian; Xue, Yongwei; Xu, Yuefei; Hu, Tianming

    2017-01-03

    Melatonin is an important secondary messenger that plays a central role in plant growth, as well as abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. However, the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms of melatonin-mediated cold tolerance, especially interactions between melatonin and other key molecules in the plant stress response, remain unknown. Here, the interrelation between melatonin and abscisic acid (ABA) was investigated in two genotypes of Elymus nutans Griseb., the cold-tolerant Damxung (DX) and the cold-sensitive Gannan (GN) under cold stress. Pre-treatment with exogenous melatonin or ABA alleviated oxidative injury via scavenging ROS, while enhancing both antioxidant enzyme activities and non-enzymatic antioxidant contents. Treatment of fluridone, an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor caused membrane lipid peroxidation and lowered melatonin-induced antioxidant defense responses. It is worth noting that cold stress significantly induced both endogenous melatonin and ABA levels in both genotypes. Application of melatonin increased ABA production, while fluridone significantly suppressed melatonin-induced ABA accumulation. ABA and fluridone pre-treatments failed to affect the endogenous melatonin concentration. Moreover, exogenous melatonin up-regulated the expression of cold-responsive genes in an ABA-independent manner. These results indicate that both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways may contribute to melatonin-induced cold tolerance in E. nutans.

  12. Cannabidiol protects against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury by attenuating inflammatory signaling and response, oxidative/nitrative stress, and cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Rajesh, Mohanraj; Horváth, Béla; Bátkai, Sándor; Park, Ogyi; Tanashian, Galin; Gao, Rachel Y; Patel, Vivek; Wink, David A.; Liaudet, Lucas; Haskó, György; Mechoulam, Raphael; Pacher, Pál

    2011-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a pivotal mechanism of liver damage following liver transplantation or hepatic surgery. We have investigated the effects of cannabidiol(CBD), the non-psychotropic constituent of marijuana, in a mouse model of hepatic I/R injury. I/R triggered time-dependent increases/changes in markers of liver injury (serum transaminases), hepatic oxidative/nitrative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, nitrotyrosine content/staining, gp91phox and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA), mitochondrial dysfunction (decreased complex I activity), inflammation (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase 2, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α/2, inter-cellular adhesion molecule 1 mRNA levels, tissue neutrophil infiltration, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-KB) activation), stress signaling (p38MAPK and JNK) and cell death (DNA fragmentation, PARP activity, and TUNEL). CBD significantly reduced the extent of liver inflammation, oxidative/nitrative stress and cell death, and also attenuated the bacterial endotoxin-triggered NF-KB activation and TNF-α production in isolated Kupffer cells, likewise the adhesion molecules expression in primary human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells stimulated with TNF-α, and attachment of human neutrophils to the activated endothelium. These protective effects were preserved in CB2 knockout mice and were not prevented by CB1/2 antagonists in vitro. Thus, CBD may represent a novel, protective strategy against I/R injury by attenuating key inflammatory pathways and oxidative/nitrative tissue injury, independent from classical CB1/2 receptors. PMID:21362471

  13. The ethanol extract of Osmanthus fragrans attenuates Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory effect through the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-mediated antioxidant signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Huang; Huangqin, Chen; Longquan, Shao

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, we explored the effect of the ethanol extract of Osmanthus fragrans (EOF) on the growth and collagenase activity of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). We also investigated the capacity of EOF to attenuate P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses and the possible signalling pathway. EOF was obtained by soaking the O. fragrans powder in the ethanol and concentrating the extracts under reduced pressure. Microplate dilution assays were used to determine the effect of EOF on P. gingivalis growth. Collagenase inhibition was detected using fluorometric and colorimetric assays. The effects of EOF on the production of the cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The oxidative stress biomarkers were assayed using commercial kits. The effects of EOF on the expression of cytoprotective enzymes and nucleoprotein nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) were tested by Western blot analysis. EOF significantly inhibited the growth of P. gingivalis, especially in the iron-limited culture medium. The inhibitory effect of EOF on P. gingivalis collagenase activity was time- and concentration-dependent. The P. gingivalis LPS-stimulated production of IL-6 and IL-8 was attenuated by EOF. LPS significantly induced the production of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and decreased the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) while pretreatment with EOF alleviated these effects. The presence of EOF markedly upregulated the expression levels of the cytoprotective enzymes and nucleoprotein Nrf2. This study suggests that the potent Nrf2 activation capacity of O. fragrans may be useful in the adjunctive treatment of periodontal disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 attenuates brain death-induced renal injury by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines and the SAPK and JAK-STAT signalings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yifu; Xiong, Yunyi; Zhang, Huanxi; Li, Jun; Wang, Dong; Chen, Wenfang; Yuan, Xiaopeng; Su, Qiao; Li, Wenwen; Huang, Huiting; Bi, Zirong; Liu, Longshan; Wang, Changxi

    2017-03-23

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of EGb761, a Ginkgo Biloba extract, against brain death-induced kidney injury. Sixty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups: sham, brain-death (BD), BD + EGb b48h (48 hours before BD), BD + EGb 2 h (2 hours after BD), BD + EGb 1 h, and BD + EGb 0.5 h. Six hours after BD, serum sample and kidney tissues were collected for analyses. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine significantly elevated in the BD group than in sham group. In all the EGb761-treated BD animals except for the BD + Gb 2 h group, the levels of BUN and serum creatinine significantly reduced (all P < 0.01). EGb761 attenuated tubular injury and lowered the histological score. In addition, the longer duration of drug treatment was, the better protective efficacy could be observed. EGb761 significantly reduced IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, IP-10 mRNA expression and macrophage infiltration in the kidney. EGb761 treatment at 48 hour before brain death significantly attenuate the levels of p-JNK-MAPK, p-p38-MAPK, and p-STAT3 proteins (all P < 0.05, compared to BD group). In summary, our data showed that EGb761 treatment protected donor kidney from BD-induced damages by blocking SAPK and JAK-STAT signalings. Early administration of EGb761 can provide better protective efficacy.

  15. Overexpression of activin-A and -B in malignant mesothelioma – Attenuated Smad3 signaling responses and ERK activation promote cell migration and invasive growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamminen, Jenni A.; Yin, Miao [Research Programs Unit, Translational Cancer Biology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki (Finland); Rönty, Mikko [Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Sutinen, Eva [Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Helsinki (Finland); Pasternack, Arja; Ritvos, Olli [Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Myllärniemi, Marjukka [Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Helsinki (Finland); Koli, Katri, E-mail: katri.koli@helsinki.fi [Research Programs Unit, Translational Cancer Biology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-03-01

    Activin-A and activin-B, members of the TGF-β superfamily, are regulators of reproductive functions, inflammation and wound healing. These dimeric molecules regulate various cellular activities such as proliferation, migration and suvival. Malignant mesothelioma is an asbestos exposure related tumor affecting mainly pleura and it usually has a dismal prognosis. Here, we demonstrate that both activin-A and -B are abundantly expressed in mesothelioma tumor tissue as well as in cultured primary and established mesothelioma cells. Migratory and invasive mesothelioma cells were also found to have attenuated activation of the Smad2/3 pathway in response to activins. Migration and invasive growth of the cells in three-dimentional matrix was prevented by inhibition of activin activity using a soluble activin receptor 2B (sActR2B-Fc). This was associated with decreased ERK activity. Furthermore, migration and invasive growth was significantly inhibited by blocking ERK phosphorylation. Mesothelioma tumors are locally invasive and our results clearly suggest that acivins have a tumor-promoting function in mesothelioma through increasing expression and switching from canonical Smad3 pathway to non-canonical ERK pathway signaling. Blocking activin activity offers a new therapeutic approach for inhibition of mesothelioma invasive growth. - Highlights: • Activin-A and activin-B are highly expressed in mesothelioma. • Mesothelioma cell migration and invasive growth can be blocked with sActR2B. • Activin induced Smad3 activity is attenuated in invasive mesothelioma cells. • Activins induce ERK activity in mesothelioma cells.

  16. Attenuation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway by Porphyromonas gingivalis gingipains RgpA, RgpB, and Kgp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Masaaki; Inoue, Tetsuyoshi; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji; Ohara, Naoya

    2015-02-20

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen of periodontal diseases, including periodontitis. We have investigated the effect of P. gingivalis infection on the PI3K/Akt (protein kinase B) signaling pathway in gingival epithelial cells. Here, we found that live P. gingivalis, but not heat-killed P. gingivalis, reduced Akt phosphorylation at both Thr-308 and Ser-473, which implies a decrease in Akt activity. Actually, PI3K, which is upstream of Akt, was also inactivated by P. gingivalis. Furthermore, glycogen synthase kinase 3α/β, mammalian target of rapamycin, and Bad, which are downstream proteins in the PI3K/Akt cascade, were also dephosphorylated, a phenomenon consistent with Akt inactivation by P. gingivalis. However, these events did not require direct interaction between bacteria and host cells and were independent of P. gingivalis invasion into the cells. The use of gingipain-specific inhibitors and a gingipain-deficient P. gingivalis mutant KDP136 revealed that the gingipains and their protease activities were essential for the inactivation of PI3K and Akt. The associations between the PI3K regulatory subunit p85α and membrane proteins were disrupted by wild-type P. gingivalis. Moreover, PDK1 translocation to the plasma membrane was reduced by wild-type P. gingivalis, but not KDP136, indicating little production of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate by PI3K. Therefore, it is likely that PI3K failed to transmit homeostatic extracellular stimuli to intracellular signaling pathways by gingipains. Taken together, our findings indicate that P. gingivalis attenuates the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway via the proteolytic effects of gingipains, resulting in the dysregulation of PI3K/Akt-dependent cellular functions and the destruction of epithelial barriers. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Attenuation of the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway by Porphyromonas gingivalis Gingipains RgpA, RgpB, and Kgp*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Masaaki; Inoue, Tetsuyoshi; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji; Ohara, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen of periodontal diseases, including periodontitis. We have investigated the effect of P. gingivalis infection on the PI3K/Akt (protein kinase B) signaling pathway in gingival epithelial cells. Here, we found that live P. gingivalis, but not heat-killed P. gingivalis, reduced Akt phosphorylation at both Thr-308 and Ser-473, which implies a decrease in Akt activity. Actually, PI3K, which is upstream of Akt, was also inactivated by P. gingivalis. Furthermore, glycogen synthase kinase 3α/β, mammalian target of rapamycin, and Bad, which are downstream proteins in the PI3K/Akt cascade, were also dephosphorylated, a phenomenon consistent with Akt inactivation by P. gingivalis. However, these events did not require direct interaction between bacteria and host cells and were independent of P. gingivalis invasion into the cells. The use of gingipain-specific inhibitors and a gingipain-deficient P. gingivalis mutant KDP136 revealed that the gingipains and their protease activities were essential for the inactivation of PI3K and Akt. The associations between the PI3K regulatory subunit p85α and membrane proteins were disrupted by wild-type P. gingivalis. Moreover, PDK1 translocation to the plasma membrane was reduced by wild-type P. gingivalis, but not KDP136, indicating little production of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate by PI3K. Therefore, it is likely that PI3K failed to transmit homeostatic extracellular stimuli to intracellular signaling pathways by gingipains. Taken together, our findings indicate that P. gingivalis attenuates the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway via the proteolytic effects of gingipains, resulting in the dysregulation of PI3K/Akt-dependent cellular functions and the destruction of epithelial barriers. PMID:25564612

  18. Black tea extract prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB signaling and attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Sung-Bum

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black tea has been shown to elicit anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic properties. In this study, we investigated the impact of black tea extract (BTE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced NF-κB signaling in bone marrow derived-macrophages (BMM and determined the therapeutic efficacy of this extract on colon inflammation. Methods The effect of BTE on LPS-induced NF-κB signaling and pro-inflammatory gene expression was evaluated by RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. The in vivo efficacy of BTE was assessed in mice with 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis. The severity of colitis was measured by weight loss, colon length and histologic scores. Results LPS-induced IL-12p40, IL-23p19, IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA expressions were inhibited by BTE. LPS-induced IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65 were blocked by BTE. BTE treatment blocked LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. BTE-fed, DSS-exposed mice showed the less weight loss, longer colon length and lower histologic score compared to control diet-fed, DSS-exposed mice. DSS-induced IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and phosphorylation of NF-κB/p65 were blocked by BTE. An increase of cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in DSS-exposed mice was blocked by BTE. Conclusions These results indicate that BTE attenuates colon inflammation through the blockage of NF-κB signaling and apoptosis in DSS-induced experimental colitis model.

  19. Niacin and Selenium Attenuate Sepsis-Induced Lung Injury by Up-Regulating Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Woon Yong; Suh, Gil Joon; Kim, Kyung Su; Jung, Yoon Sun; Kim, Sung Hee; Kim, Jae Seong; You, Kyoung Min

    2016-06-01

    To determine whether the combination therapy of niacin and selenium attenuates lung injury and improves survival during sepsis in rats and whether its benefits are associated with the activation of the glutathione redox cycle and up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2. Prospective laboratory study. University laboratory. Human lung microvascular endothelial cells and male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 291). In lipopolysaccharide-exposed cells, the dose-related effects of niacin and selenium were assessed, and the therapeutic effects of the combination therapy of niacin (0.9 mM) and selenium (1.5 μM) were evaluated. The role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 was determined using nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 knockdown cells. In endotoxemic and cecal ligation and puncture with antibiotics rats, the therapeutic effects of the posttreatments of clinically relevant doses of niacin (360 mg/kg) and selenium (60 μg/kg) were evaluated. Combination therapy reduced the hydrogen peroxide level via the synergistic activation of the glutathione redox cycle, which involves niacin-induced increases in glutathione reductase activity, and reduced the glutathione level and a selenium-induced increase in glutathione peroxidase activity. Combination therapy contributed to the up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, enhancement of glutathione synthesis, and down-regulation of nuclear factor κB signaling, but nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 knockdown inhibited the enhancement of glutathione synthesis and down-regulation of the nuclear factor κB pathway. The therapeutic effects of combination therapy on endotoxemic rats were consistent with those on lipopolysaccharide-exposed cells. In addition, the posttreatment of combination therapy attenuated lung injury and improved survival in endotoxemic and cecal ligation and puncture with antibiotics rats. However, individual therapies of niacin or selenium

  20. Bone resorption deficiency affects tooth root development in RANKL mutant mice due to attenuated IGF-1 signaling in radicular odontoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hong; Wang, Jue; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Guochun; Li, Yi-Ping; Ping, Ji; Chen, Wei

    2017-12-29

    The tooth root is essential for normal tooth physiological function. Studies on mice with mutations or targeted gene deletions revealed that osteoclasts (OCs) play an important role in tooth root development. However, knowledge on the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying how OCs mediate root formation is limited. During bone formation, growth factors (e.g. Insulin-like growth factor-1, IGF-1) liberated from bone matrix by osteoclastic bone resorption stimulate osteoblast differentiation. Thus, we hypothesize that OC-osteoblast coupling may also apply to OC-odontoblast coupling; therefore OCs may have a direct impact on odontoblast differentiation through the release of growth factor(s) from bone matrix, and consequently regulate tooth root formation. To test this hypothesis, we used a receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) knockout mouse model in which OC differentiation and function was entirely blocked. We found that molar root formation and tooth eruption were defective in RANKL-/- mice. Disrupted elongation and disorganization of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) was observed in RANKL-/- mice. Reduced expression of nuclear factor I C (NFIC), osterix, and dentin sialoprotein, markers essential for radicular (root) odontogenic cell differentiation indicated that odontoblast differentiation was disrupted in RANKL deficient mice likely contributing to the defect in root formation. Moreover, down-regulation of IGF/AKT/mTOR activity in odontoblast indicated that IGF signaling transduction in odontoblasts of the mutant mice was impaired. Treating odontoblast cells in vitro with conditioned medium from RANKL-/- OCs cultured on bone slices resulted in inhibition of odontoblast differentiation. Moreover, depletion of IGF-1 in bone resorption-conditioned medium (BRCM) from wild-type (WT) OC significantly compromised the ability of WT osteoclastic BRCM to induce odontoblast differentiation while addition of IGF-1 into RANKL-/- osteoclastic BRCM rescued

  1. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor signaling significantly attenuates growth of murine pancreatic carcinoma grafts in syngeneic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troyer Deryl

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human malignancies, with a very poor prognosis. To evaluate the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2 expression in the host's body on the growth of pancreatic carcinoma, we have investigated the growth of mouse pancreatic ductal carcinoma grafts in syngeneic wild type and AT2 receptor-deficient (AT2-KO mice. Methods The role of AT2 receptor-signaling in stromal cells on the growth of murine pancreatic carcinoma cells (PAN02 was studied using various in vitro and in vivo assays. In vivo cell proliferation, apoptosis, and vasculature in tumors were monitored by Ki-67 immunostaining, TUNEL assay, and von Willebrand factor immunostaining, respectively. In the co-culture study, cell proliferation was measured by MTT cell viability assay. All the data were analyzed using t-test and data were treated as significant when p Results Our results show that the growth of subcutaneously transplanted syngeneic xenografts of PAN02 cells, mouse pancreatic ductal carcinoma cells derived from the C57/BL6 strain, was significantly faster in AT2-KO mice compared to control wild type mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissue revealed significantly more Ki-67 positive cells in xenografts grown in AT2-KO mice than in wild type mice. The index of apoptosis is slightly higher in wild type mice than in AT2-KO mice as evaluated by TUNEL assay. Tumor vasculature number was significantly higher in AT2-KO mice than in wild type mice. In vitro co-culture studies revealed that the growth of PAN02 cells was significantly decreased when grown with AT2 receptor gene transfected wild type and AT2-KO mouse-derived fibroblasts. Faster tumor growth in AT2-KO mice may be associated with higher VEGF production in stromal cells. Conclusions These results suggest that Ang II regulates the growth of pancreatic carcinoma cells through modulating functions of host stromal cells; Moreover, Ang II AT2

  2. Mitogen-activated protein kinase and abscisic acid signal transduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimovaara-Dijkstra, S.; Testerink, C.; Wang, M.

    1998-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a classical plant hormone, responsible for regulation of abscission, diverse aspects of plant and seed development, stress responses and germination. It was found that ABA signal transduction in plants can involve the activity of type 2C-phosphatases (PP2C),

  3. Abscisic acid perception and signaling transduction in strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunli; Jia, Haifeng; Chai, Yemao; Shen, Yuanyue

    2011-01-01

    On basis of fruit differential respiration and ethylene effects, climacteric and non-climacteric fruits have been classically defined. Over the past decades, the molecular mechanisms of climacteric fruit ripening were abundantly described and found to focus on ethylene perception and signaling transduction. In contrast, until our most recent breakthroughs, much progress has been made toward understanding the signaling perception and transduction mechanisms for abscisic acid (ABA) in strawberry, a model for non-climacteric fruit ripening. Our reports not only have provided several lines of strong evidences for ABA-regulated ripening of strawberry fruit, but also have demonstrated that homology proteins of Arabidopsis ABA receptors, including PYR/PYL/RCAR and ABAR/CHLH, act as positive regulators of ripening in response to ABA. These receptors also trigger a set of ABA downstream signaling components, and determine significant changes in the expression levels of both sugar and pigment metabolism-related genes that are closely associated with ripening. Soluble sugars, especially sucrose, may act as a signal molecular to trigger ABA accumulation through an enzymatic action of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 (FaNCED1). This mini-review offers an overview of these processes and also outlines the possible, molecular mechanisms for ABA in the regulation of strawberry fruit ripening through the ABA receptors. PMID:22095148

  4. Spironolactone treatment attenuates vascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mice by decreasing oxidative stress and restoring NO/GC signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Alves Barbosa Da Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (DM2 increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Aldosterone, which has pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects in the cardiovascular system, is positively regulated in DM2. We assessed whether blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR with spironolactone decreases ROS-associated vascular dysfunction and improves vascular NO signaling in diabetes. Leptin receptor knockout [LepRdb/LepRdb (db/db] mice, a model of DM2, and their counterpart controls [LepRdb/LepR+, (db/+ mice] received spironolactone (50 mg/kg body weight/day or vehicle (ethanol 1% via oral per gavage for 6 weeks. Spironolactone treatment abolished the endothelial dysfunction and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS phosphorylation (Ser1177, determined by acetylcholine-induced relaxation and Western Blot analysis, respectively. MR antagonist therapy also abrogated augmented ROS-generation in aorta from diabetic mice, determined by lucigenin luminescence assay. Spironolactone treatment increased superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1 and catalase expression, improved sodium nitroprusside (SNP and BAY 41-2272-induced relaxation, as well as increased soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC subunit β protein expression in arteries from db/db mice. Our results demonstrate that spironolactone decreases diabetes-associated vascular oxidative stress and prevents vascular dysfunction through processes involving increased expression of antioxidant enzymes and sGC. These findings further elucidate redox-sensitive mechanisms whereby spironolactone protects against vascular injury in diabetes.

  5. Chlorogenic acid attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced mice mastitis by suppressing TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruifeng, Gao; Yunhe, Fu; Zhengkai, Wei; Ershun, Zhou; Yimeng, Li; Minjun, Yao; Xiaojing, Song; Zhengtao, Yang; Naisheng, Zhang

    2014-04-15

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA), one of the most abundant polyphenols in the diet, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of CGA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mice mastitis has not been investigated. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate whether CGA could ameliorate the inflammation response in LPS-induced mice mastitis and to clarify the possible mechanism. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. CGA was administered intraperitoneally with the dose of 12.5, 25, and 50mg/kg respectively 1h before and 12h after induction of LPS. In this study, the effect of CGA on LPS-induced mice mastitis was assessed through histopathological examination, ELISA assay, and western blot analysis. The results showed that CGA significantly reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 production compared with LPS group. Besides, western blot analysis showed that CGA could inhibit the expression of TLR4 and the phosphorylation of NF-κB and IκB induced by LPS. These results suggested that anti-inflammatory effects of CGA against LPS-induced mastitis may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway. Therefore, CGA may be a potent therapeutic reagent for the prevention of the immunopathology encountered during Escherichia coli elicited mastitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. ABA and Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Issues and Considerations for Effective Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses issues related to the use of applied behavior analysis (ABA) with students who have autism-related disabilities. These include: implementation forms, outcome expectations, exclusive versus selective use of ABA, time-related considerations, and personnel requirements for effective ABA implementation, evaluation, and…

  7. ABA and Instruction of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Introduction to the Special Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflin, L. Juane; Alberto, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    This introductory article to this special issue on the use of applied behavior analysis (ABA) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) notes the 40-year history of ABA strategy development, verification, and generalization. It briefly introduces the following articles, which are intended to illustrate the range of ABA applications and the depth of…

  8. Coping as a Predictor of Burnout and General Health in Therapists Working in ABA Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, G. M.; Barbakou, A.; Hastings, R. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the work-related well-being of applied behaviour analysis (ABA) therapists who work in school-based contexts and deliver ABA interventions to children with autism. Methods: A questionnaire on work-related stress (burnout), general distress, perceived supervisor support and coping was completed by 45 ABA therapists…

  9. ABA-deficiency results in reduced plant and fruit size in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nitsch, L.; Kohlen, W.; Oplaat, C.; Charnikhova, T.; Cristescu, S.; Michieli, P.; Wolters-Arts, M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Mariani, C.; Vriezen, W.H.; Rieu, I.

    2012-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) deficient mutants, such as notabilis and flacca, have helped elucidating the role of ABA during plant development and stress responses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). However, these mutants have only moderately decreased ABA levels. Here we report on plant and fruit

  10. ABA and Diverse Cultural and Linguistic Environments: A Welsh Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E. W.; Hoerger, M.; Hughes, J. C.; Williams, B. M.; Jones, B.; Moseley, Y.; Hughes, D. R.; Prys, D.

    2011-01-01

    Gwynedd Local Education Authority (LEA) in North West Wales, UK, is funding a small-scale autism-specific specialist education service using ABA methodology. The program is available through the medium of Welsh, English or bilingually, depending on the individual needs of the child (Jones and Hoerger in Eur J Behav Anal 10:249-253,…

  11. Microbiological and physico-chemical quality of Aba river polluted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological and physico-chemical quality of Aba river polluted with effluents from a bottling company. ... Further studies revealed that the values of some physico-chemical parameters of the river were higher than the WHO tolerant levels for typical surface water. Others fell within the WHO acceptable limits. Upstream ...

  12. Lipid Profile of Apparently Healthy Adults in Aba Metropolis, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the lipid profile pattern of apparently healthy adults in Aba metropolis and hence, identify the possible contributions of hyper lipidaemia in the ever increasing cardiovascular risk burden in our society. Subjects for this study were apparently healthy adult respondents who met the ...

  13. ABA, AAB and ABC Renewal in Taste Aversion Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Gamboa, Rodolfo; Juarez, Yectivani; Gonzalez-Martin, Gabriela; Carranza, Rodrigo; Sanchez-Carrasco, Livia; Nieto, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Context renewal is identified when the conditioned response (CR) elicited by an extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS) reappears as a result of changing the contextual cues during the test. Two experiments were designed for testing contextual renewal in a conditioned taste aversion preparation. Experiment 1 assessed ABA and AAB context renewal,…

  14. Teenage Pregnancy and Obstetrics Complications in Aba, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the incidence and complication pattern of teenage pregnancy was conducted in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria using six randomly selected hospitals and health institutions between March and September 1999. The analysis covered all teenage pregnancies reported to the selected health institutions. A total of 4868 ...

  15. Anaemia in Pregnancy in Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study of incidence of anaemia in pregnancy at Abia state University Teaching Hospital, Aba was conducted over a six-month period spanning from 31st January 2000 to 31st July 2000. The incidence of anaemia in pregnancy was 29%. The vast majority (97.6%) had mild anaemia. The result showed that most ...

  16. Microbiological Qualities of Hawked Retted Cassava Fufu in Aba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retted cassava fufu samples obtained from five local government areas in Aba Metropolis were analyzed. Their microbial counts, chemical and organoleptic properties were determined from the day of preparation and every day for the eight days of hawking. There were increases in the microbial counts from initial average ...

  17. Personality Traits Associated with Occupational "Burnout" in ABA Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Amy A.; Grist, Cathy Lann; Malesky, Lann A., Jr.; McCord, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Applied behaviour analysis (ABA) therapists typically work one-to-one with children with autism for extended periods of time, which often leads to high levels of job-related stress, lower levels of job satisfaction, increased frequency of occupational "burnout" and higher than average job turnover (Journal of Autism…

  18. Pattern of Mechanical Intestinal Obstruction in Aba | Adisa | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological pattern of intestinal obstruction in our centre which is in an urban area and compare the results with a rural centre about 60 kilometres from our centre. Aba is the commercial nerve centre of Abia State and also a gateway city in Eastern Nigeria. We are not ...

  19. Relationship between abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The net CO2 assimilation rate (PN) in flag leaves during water deficit displayed a strict correlation with the drought sensitivity of the genotypes and showed an early reduction in Marvdasht. Water stress resulted in a marked increase just in the ABA content of the drought-sensitive that led to reduced transport of sucrose into ...

  20. Dissociations among ABA, ABC, and AAB Recovery Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungor, Metin; Lachnit, Harald

    2008-01-01

    In a human predictive learning experiment, the strengths of ABA, ABC, and AAB recovery effects after discrimination reversal learning were compared. Initially, a discrimination between two stimuli (X+, Y-) was trained in Context A. During Phase 2, participants received discrimination reversal training (X-, Y+) either in Context A (Group AAB) or in…

  1. Grape hexokinases are involved in the expression regulation of sucrose synthase- and cell wall invertase-encoding genes by glucose and ABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Qin; Zheng, Li-Li; Lin, Hao; Yu, Fei; Sun, Li-Hui; Li, Li-Mei

    2017-05-01

    Hexokinase (HXK, EC 2.7.1.1) is a multifunctional protein that both is involved in catalyzing the first step of glycolysis and plays an important role in sugar signaling. However, the supporting genetic evidence on hexokinases (CsHXKs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) berries has been lacking. Here, to investigate the role of CsHXK isoforms as glucose (Glc) and abscisic acid (ABA) sensors, we cloned two hexokinase isozymes, CsHXK1 and CsHXK2 with highly conserved genomic structure of nine exons and eight introns. We also found adenosine phosphate binding, substrate recognition and connection sites in their putative proteins. During grape berry development, the expression profiles of two CsHXK isoforms, sucrose synthases (SuSys) and cell wall invertase (CWINV) genes increased concomitantly with high levels of endogenous Glc and ABA. Furthermore, we showed that in wild type grape berry calli (WT), glucose repressed the expression levels of sucrose synthase (SuSy) and cell wall invertase (CWINV) genes, while ABA increased their expression levels. ABA could not only effectively improve the expression levels of SuSy and CWINV, but also block the repression induced by glucose on the expression of both genes. However, after silencing CsHXK1 or CsHXK2 in grape calli, SuSy and CWINV expression were enhanced, and the expressions of the two genes are insensitive in response to Glc treatment. Interestingly, exogenous ABA alone could not or less increase SuSy and CWINV expression in silencing CsHXK1 or CsHXK2 grape calli compared to WT. Meantime, ABA could not block the repression induced by glucose on the expression of SuSy and CWINV in CsHXK1 or CsHXK2 mutants. Therefore, Glc signal transduction depends on the regulation of CsHXK1 or CsHXK2. ABA signal was also disturbed by CsHXK1 or CsHXK2 silencing. The present results provide new insights into the regulatory role of Glc and ABA on the enzymes related to sugar metabolism in grape berry.

  2. Overexpression of Cardiomyocyte Alpha1A-Adrenergic Receptors Attenuates Post-Infarct Remodeling by Inducing Angiogenesis Through Heterocellular Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Balaji, Poornima; Pachon, Ronald; Beniamen, Daniella M.; Vatner, Dorothy E.; Graham, Robert M.; Vatner, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We tested the hypothesis that simulation of cardiac α1A-adrenergic receptors (α1A-AR) protects against the development of heart failure through induction of angiogenesis. Approach and Results 4–6 weeks after permanent coronary artery occlusion (CAO), transgenic (TG) rats with cardiomyocyte-specific α1A-AR overexpression had less remodeling than their non-transgenic littermates (NTLs), with less fibrosis, hypertrophy and lung wt, and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and wall stress, all p<0.05. Coronary blood flow, measured with microspheres, increased in the infarct zone in TG compared to NTLs (1.4±0.2 vs. 0.5±0.08ml/min/g) (p<0.05), which is consistent with angiogenesis, as reflected by a 20% increase in capillary density in the zone adjacent to the infarct. The question arose, how does TG overexpression of a gene in cardiomyocytes induce angiogenesis? We identified a paracrine mechanism, whereby VEGF-A mRNA and protein were increased in isolated TG cardiomyocytes, and also by NTL cardiomyocytes treated with an α1A-agonist, resulting in angiogenesis. Conditioned medium from cultured TG cardiomyocytes enhanced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) tubule formation, which was blocked by an anti-VEGF-A antibody. Moreover, improved cardiac function, blood flow and increased capillary density after chronic CAO in TG rats were blocked by either a MEK or a VEGF-A inhibitor. Conclusions Cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of the α1A-AR resulted in enhanced MEK-dependent cardiomyocyte VEGF-A expression, which stimulates angiogenesis via a paracrine mechanism involving heterocellular cardiomyocyte/endothelial cell signalling, protecting against remodeling and heart failure following chronic CAO. PMID:26338300

  3. Resveratrol attenuates HMGB1 signaling and inflammation in house dust mite-induced atopic dermatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Pitchaimani, Vigneshwaran; Sreedhar, Remya; Afrin, Rejina; Harima, Meilei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Nomoto, Mayumi; Miyashita, Shizuka; Suzuki, Kenji; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2014-12-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol abundantly found in red grape skin and is effective against antiaging and anti-inflammation associated with immune responses. In this study, we have investigated the effect of resveratrol on skin lesion, high mobility group box (HMGB)1 and inflammation pathway in an atopic dermatitis (AD) mouse model. AD-like lesion was induced by the application of house dust mite extract to the dorsal skin of NC/Nga mouse. After AD induction, resveratrol (20 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered daily for 2 weeks. We evaluated dermatitis severity, histopathological changes, serum levels of T helper (Th) cytokines (interferon (IFN)γ, interleukin (IL)-4) and changes in protein expression by Western blotting for HMGB1, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), toll like receptor (TLR)4, nuclear factor (NF)κB, phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, cyclooxygenase (COX)2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, IL-1β, IL-2Rα and other inflammatory markers in the skin of AD mice. Treatment of resveratrol inhibited the development of the AD-like skin lesions. Histological analysis showed that resveratrol inhibited hypertrophy, intracellular edema, mast cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, resveratrol treatment down-regulated HMGB1, RAGE, p-NFκB, p-PI3K, p-ERK1/2, COX2, TNFα, IL-1β, IL-2Rα, IFNγ and IL-4. Considering all these findings together, the HMGB1 pathway might be a potential therapeutic target in skin inflammation, and resveratrol treatment could have beneficial effects on AD by modulating the HMGB1 protein expression.

  4. Clematichinenoside (AR Attenuates Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced H9c2 Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis via a Mitochondria-Mediated Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Ding

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria-mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis is involved in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R injury. Clematichinenoside (AR is a triterpenoid saponin isolated from the roots of Clematis chinensis with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory cardioprotection effects against MI/R injury, yet the anti-apoptotic effect and underlying mechanisms of AR in MI/R injury remain unclear. We hypothesize that AR may improve mitochondrial function to inhibit MI/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In this study, we replicated an in vitro H9c2 cardiomyocyte MI/R model by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R treatment. The viability of H9c2 cardiomyocytes was determined by MTT assay; apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry and TUNEL experiments; mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP opening was analyzed by a calcein-cobalt quenching method; and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm was detected by JC-1. Moreover, we used western blots to determine the mitochondrial cytochrome c translocation to cytosolic and the expression of caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax proteins. These results showed that the application of AR decreased the ratio of apoptosis and the extent of mPTP opening, but increased ΔΨm. AR also inhibited H/R-induced release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and decreased the expression of the caspase-3, Bax proteins. Conversely, it remarkably increased the expression of Bcl-2 protein. Taken together, these results revealed that AR protects H9c2 cardiomyocytes against H/R-induced apoptosis through mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway.

  5. Genistein attenuates monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats by activating PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeqi; Yu, Songping; Zhang, Wan; Peng, Yongchao; Pu, Mingyu; Kang, Ting; Zeng, Junyi; Yu, Yuefei; Li, Guorong

    2017-01-01

    Phytoestrogen genistein may be useful to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, its mechanism is still not clear. The aim of the present study was to confirm the therapeutic effects of phytoestrogen genistein on PAH in monocrotaline-induced rat model and to explore its mechanism. Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (n=8), PAH group (n=8), genistein treament group with three different doses (n=8 in each dose group) and group of PI3K inhibitor LY294002. The rat model of PAH was induced by monocrotaline (MCT). The situation of survival of rats was observed. Pathological studies of lung and heart tissues were performed. Western-blot detection of P-Akt and P-eNOS expression levels in lung tissue was carried out. Nitrate reductase analysis was used to measure nitric oxide (NO) in lung tissue. Genistein treatment resulted in significant improvement in the speed of tricuspid regurgitation, diameter of pulmonary artery, mean pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy index. Genistein treatment also resulted in significant improvement in the stenosis of pulmonary artery, proliferation of smooth muscle, right ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial hypertrophy. These therapeutic effects were more obvious with increasing dose of genistein. After genistein treatment, amelioration in survival rates of PAH rats was observed. PI3K inhibitor LY294002 could block these therapeutic effects. In rat lung tissue, P-Akt, P-eNOS and NO expressions were increased significantly in genistein treatment group when compared with PAH group (p0.05). We confirmed that genistein could relax pulmonary vascular resistance, reduce pulmonary artery pressure, improve right heart function and ameliorate survival rate in the rat model of PAH. Our study suggested that its mechanism was related with PI3K/Akt/eNOS signal pathway. Phytoestrogen genistein may become a new and effective drug for patients with PAH.

  6. Oleanolic acid supplement attenuates liquid fructose-induced adipose tissue insulin resistance through the insulin receptor substrate-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying [Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Wang, Jianwei, E-mail: wangjianwei1968@gmail.com [Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Gu, Tieguang [Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Sydney Institute of Health Sciences, Sydney, NSW 2000 Australia (Australia); Yamahara, Johji [Pharmafood Institute, Kyoto 602-8136 (Japan); Li, Yuhao, E-mail: yuhao@sitcm.edu.au [Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Sydney Institute of Health Sciences, Sydney, NSW 2000 Australia (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    fructose-fed rats. • OA attenuated fructose-induced increase in Adipo-IR index and NEFA concentrations. • OA modulated adipose IRS-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling. • OA ameliorates Adipo-IR via the IRS-1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in rats.

  7. Global profiling of phytohormone dynamics during combined drought and pathogen stress in Arabidopsis thaliana reveals ABA and JA as major regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aarti; Hisano, Hiroshi; Hojo, Yuko; Matsuura, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoko; Mori, Izumi C; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2017-06-21

    Global transcriptome studies demonstrated the existence of unique plant responses under combined stress which are otherwise not seen during individual stresses. In order to combat combined stress plants use signaling pathways and 'cross talk' mediated by hormones involved in stress and growth related processes. However, interactions among hormones' pathways in combined stressed plants are not yet known. Here we studied dynamics of different hormones under individual and combined drought and pathogen infection in Arabidopsis thaliana by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based profiling. Our results revealed abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) as key regulators under individual drought and pathogen stress respectively. Under combined drought and host pathogen stress (DH) we observed non-induced levels of ABA with an upsurge in SA and jasmonic acid (JA) concentrations, underscoring their role in basal tolerance against host pathogen. Under a non-host pathogen interaction with drought (DNH) stressed plants, ABA, SA and JA profiles were similar to those under DH or non-host pathogen alone. We propose that plants use SA/JA dependent signaling during DH stress which antagonize ABA biosynthesis and signaling pathways during early stage of stress. The study provides insights into hormone modulation at different time points during combined stress.

  8. Probucol Attenuates Cyclophosphamide-induced Oxidative Apoptosis, p53 and Bax Signal Expression in Rat Cardiac Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif A. Asiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide (CP is a widely used drug in cancer chemotherapy and immunosuppression, which could cause toxicity of the normal cells due to its toxic metabolites. Probucol, a cholesterol-lowering drug, acts as potential inhibitor of DNA damage and shows to protect against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy by enhancing the endogenous antioxidant system including glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase. This study examined the possible protective effects of probucol, a lipid-lowering compound with strong antioxidant properties, against CPinduced cardiotoxicity. This objective could be achieved through studying the gene expression-based on the possible protective effects of probucol against CP-induced cardiac failure in rats. Adult male Wistar albino rats were assigned into four treatment groups: Animals in the first (control and second (probucol groups were injected intraperitoneally with corn oil and probucol (61 mg/kg/day, respectively, for two weeks. Animals in the third (CP and fourth (probucol plus CP groups were injected with the same doses of corn oil and probucol (61 mg/kg/day, respectively, for one week before and one week after a single dose of CP (200 mg/kg, I.P.. The p53, Bax, Bcl2 and oxidative genes signal expression were measured by real time PCR. CP-induced cardiotoxicity was clearly observed by a significant increase in serum creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme (CK-MB (117%, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH (64%, free (69% and esterified cholesterol (42% and triglyceride (69% compared to control group. In cardiac tissues, CP significantly increases the mRNA expression levels of apoptotic genes, p53 with two-fold and Bax with 1.6-fold, and decreases the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2 with 0.5-fold. Moreover, CP caused downregulation of antioxidant genes, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase and increased the lipid peroxidation and decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP (40% and ATP/ADP (44% in cardiac

  9. Stomatal VPD response: there is more to the story than ABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilo, Ebe; Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Jalakas, Pirko; Parik, Helen; Tulva, Ingmar; Rasulov, Bakhtier; Kilk, Kalle; Kollist, Hannes

    2017-10-06

    Guard cells shrink and close stomatal pores when air humidity decreases, i.e. when the difference between the vapor pressures of leaf and atmosphere (VPD) increases. The role of abscisic acid (ABA) in VPD-induced stomatal closure has been studied using ABA-related mutants that respond to VPD in some studies and not in others. The importance of ABA biosynthesis in guard cells versus vasculature for the whole-plant stomatal regulation is also unclear. Here we show that Arabidopsis lines carrying mutations in different steps of ABA biosynthesis as well as pea wilty and tomato flacca ABA-deficient mutants had higher stomatal conductance compared to wildtype plants. To characterize the role of ABA production in different cells, we generated transgenic plants where ABA biosynthesis was rescued in guard cells or phloem companion cells of an ABA-deficient mutant. In both cases, the whole-plant stomatal conductance, stunted growth phenotype and leaf ABA level were restored to wildtype values, pointing to the redundancy of ABA sources and to the effectiveness of leaf ABA transport. All ABA-deficient lines closed their stomata rapidly and extensively in response to high VPD, whereas plants with mutated protein kinase OST1 showed stunted VPD-induced responses. Another strongly ABA-insensitive mutant defective in the six ABA PYR/RCAR receptors, responded to changes in VPD in both directions strongly and symmetrically, indicating that its VPD-induced closure could be passive hydraulic. We discuss that both the VPD-induced passive hydraulic stomatal closure and the stomatal VPD-regulation of ABA-deficient mutants may be conditional on the initial pretreatment stomatal conductance. {copyright, serif} 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced skeletal muscle ribosome biogenesis, yet attenuated mTORC1 and ribosome biogenesis-related signalling, following short-term concurrent versus single-mode resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Bishop, David J; Bartlett, Jonathan D; Hanson, Erik D; Anderson, Mitchell J; Garnham, Andrew P; Stepto, Nigel K

    2018-01-12

    Combining endurance training with resistance training (RT) may attenuate skeletal muscle hypertrophic adaptation versus RT alone; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We investigated changes in markers of ribosome biogenesis, a process linked with skeletal muscle hypertrophy, following concurrent training versus RT alone. Twenty-three males underwent eight weeks of RT, either performed alone (RT group, n = 8), or combined with either high-intensity interval training (HIT+RT group, n = 8), or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT+RT group, n = 7). Muscle samples (vastus lateralis) were obtained before training, and immediately before, 1 h and 3 h after the final training session. Training-induced changes in basal expression of the 45S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) precursor (45S pre-rRNA), and 5.8S and 28S mature rRNAs, were greater with concurrent training versus RT. However, during the final training session, RT further increased both mTORC1 (p70S6K1 and rps6 phosphorylation) and 45S pre-rRNA transcription-related signalling (TIF-1A and UBF phosphorylation) versus concurrent training. These data suggest that when performed in a training-accustomed state, RT induces further increases mTORC1 and ribosome biogenesis-related signalling in human skeletal muscle versus concurrent training; however, changes in ribosome biogenesis markers were more favourable following a period of short-term concurrent training versus RT performed alone.

  11. miR200c attenuates P-gp-mediated MDR and metastasis by targeting JNK2/c-Jun signaling pathway in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Hua; Cai, Guo-Xiang; Pan, Shu-Fang; Deng, Wan-Li; Wang, Yu-Wei; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Cai, San-Jun; Zhu, Hui-Rong; Li, Qi

    2014-12-01

    MicroRNA-200c (miR200c) recently emerged as an important regulator of tumorigenicity and cancer metastasis; however, its role in regulating multidrug resistance (MDR) remains unknown. In the current study, we found that the expression levels of miR200c in recurrent and metastatic colorectal cancers were significantly lower, whereas the JNK2 expression was higher compared with primary tumors. We showed that in MDR colorectal cancer cells, miR200c targeted the 3' untranslated region of the JNK2 gene. Overexpression of miR200c attenuated the levels of p-JNK, p-c-Jun, P-gp, and MMP-2/-9, the downstream factors of the JNK signaling pathway, resulting in increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs, which was accompanied by heightened apoptosis and decreased cell invasion and migration. Moreover, in an orthotopic MDR colorectal cancer mouse model, we demonstrated that overexpression of miR200c effectively inhibited the tumor growth and metastasis. At last, in the tumor samples from patients with locally advanced colorectal cancer with routine postsurgical chemotherapy, we observed an inverse correlation between the levels of mRNA expression of miR200c and JNK2, ABCB1, and MMP-9, thus predicting patient therapeutic outcomes. In summary, we found that miR200c negatively regulated the expression of JNK2 gene and increased the sensitivity of MDR colorectal cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs, via inhibiting the JNK2/p-JNK/p-c-Jun/ABCB1 signaling. Restoration of miR200c expression in MDR colorectal cancer may serve as a promising therapeutic approach in MDR-induced metastasis. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Rebamipide attenuates Helicobacter pylori CagA-induced self-renewal capacity via modulation of β-catenin signaling axis in gastric cancer-initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong Woo; Noh, Yu Na; Hwang, Won Chan; Choi, Kang-Yell; Min, Do Sik

    2016-08-01

    Rebamipide, a mucosal-protective agent, is used clinically for treatment of gastritis and peptic ulcers induced by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) which is associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Although rebamipide is known to inhibit the growth of gastric cancer cells, the action mechanisms of rebamipide in gastric carcinogenesis remains elusive. Here, we show that rebamipide suppresses H. pylori CagA-induced β-catenin and its target cancer-initiating cells (C-IC) marker gene expression via upregulation of miRNA-320a and -4496. Rebamipide attenuated in vitro self-renewal capacity of H. pylori CagA-infected gastric C-IC via modulation of miRNA-320a/-4496-β-catenin signaling axis. Moreover, rebamipide enhanced sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs in CagA-expressed gastric C-IC. Furthermore, rebamipide suppressed tumor-initiating capacity of gastric C-IC, probably via suppression of CagA-induced C-IC properties. These data provide novel insights for the efficacy of rebamipide as a chemoprotective drug against H. pylori CagA-induced carcinogenic potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hu-Lu-Ba-Wan Attenuates Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Rats through PKC-α/NADPH Oxidase Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hu-Lu-Ba-Wan (HLBW is a Chinese herbal prescription used to treat kidney deficiency. The aim of this study was to explore the effect and mechanism of HLBW on diabetic nephropathy (DN in type 2 diabetic rats. The rat model of DN was established by being fed a high-fat diet and intravenous injection of streptozotocin. Then, HLBW decoction was administered for 16 weeks. Blood glucose level, lipid profile, renal function, 24-hour total urinary protein, and albumin content were examined. Renal morphology and superoxide anion levels were evaluated. The activity of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH and protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-α related genes expression in renal tissue were also determined. Our data demonstrated that HLBW significantly improved hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and proteinuria in diabetic rats compared with those of control group. HLBW also alleviated glomerular expansion and fibrosis, extracellular matrix accumulation and effacement of the foot processes. Additionally, HLBW reduced superoxide anion level, NADPH oxidase activity, the protein and mRNA expressions of p47phox, and the protein expression of phosphorylated PKC-α in renal tissue. These results suggest that HLBW is effective in the treatment of DN in rats. The underlying mechanism may be related to the attenuation of renal oxidative stress via PKC-α/NADPH oxidase signaling pathway.

  14. Aqueous extract of Allium sativum L bulbs offer nephroprotection by attenuating vascular endothelial growth factor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 expression in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiju, T M; Rajkumar, R; Rajesh, N G; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the nephroprotective effect of garlic and elucidate the mechanism by which it prevents the progression of diabetic nephropathy in diabetic rats, diabetes was induced by a single ip injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg body weight). Garlic extract (500 mg/kg body weight) and aminoguanidine (1 g/L) were supplemented in the treatment groups. Histopathological examination using H&E, PAS staining and the immunohistochemical analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 (ERK-1) expression were performed on kidney sections at the end of 12 weeks. Significant change in both, the urine and serum biochemistry confirmed kidney damage in diabetic animals which was further confirmed by the histological changes such as mesangial expansion, glomerular basement membrane thickening, glycosuria and proteinuria. However, the diabetic animals treated with garlic extract showed a significant change in urine and serum biochemical parameters such as albumin, urea nitrogen and creatinine compared to that of diabetic rats. Further, the garlic supplemented diabetic rats showed a significant decrease in the expression of VEGF and ERK-1 compared to diabetic rats, attenuating mesangial expansion and glomerulosclerosis. Thus, garlic extract rendered nephroprotection in diabetic rats.

  15. Attenuation of LPS-induced inflammation by ICT, a derivate of icariin, via inhibition of the CD14/TLR4 signaling pathway in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinfeng; Zhou, Junmin; Chen, Xianghong; Fortenbery, Nicole; Eksioglu, Erika A; Wei, Sheng; Dong, Jingcheng

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of ICT in LPS stimulated human innate immune cells. 3, 5, 7-Trihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-(3-hydroxy-3- methylbutyl)-flavone (ICT) is a novel derivative of icariin, the major active ingredient of Herba Epimedii, an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine. We previously demonstrated its anti-inflammatory potential in a murine macrophage cell line as well as in mouse models. We measured TNF-α production by ELISA, TLR4/CD14 expression by flow cytometry, and NF-κB and MAPK activation by western blot all in LPS-stimulated PBMC, human monocytes, or THP-1 cells after treatment with ICT. ICT inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α production in THP-1 cells, PBMCs and human monocytes in a dose-dependent manner. ICT treatment resulted in down-regulation of the expression of CD14/TLR4 and attenuated NF-κB and MAPK activation induced by LPS. We illustrate the anti-inflammatory property of ICT in human immune cells, especially in monocytes. These effects were mediated, at least partially, via inhibition of the CD14/TLR4 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Amino Acids Attenuate Insulin Action on Gluconeogenesis and Promote Fatty Acid Biosynthesis via mTORC1 Signaling Pathway in trout Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Dai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Carnivores exhibit poor utilization of dietary carbohydrates and glucose intolerant phenotypes, yet it remains unclear what are the causal factors and underlying mechanisms. We aimed to evaluate excessive amino acids (AAs-induced effects on insulin signaling, fatty acid biosynthesis and glucose metabolism in rainbow trout and determine the potential involvement of mTORC1 and p38 MAPK pathway. Methods: We stimulated trout primary hepatocytes with different AA levels and employed acute administration of rapamycin to inhibit mTORC1 activation. Results: Increased AA levels enhanced the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1, S6, and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1 on Ser302 but suppressed Akt and p38 phosphorylation; up-regulated the expression of genes related to gluconeogenesis and fatty acid biosynthesis. mTORC1 inhibition not only inhibited the phosphorylation of mTORC1 downstream targets, but also blunted IRS-1 Ser302 phosphorylation and restored excessive AAs-suppressed Akt phosphorylation. Rapamycin also inhibited fatty acid biosynthetic and gluconeogenic gene expression. Conclusion: High levels of AAs up-regulate hepatic fatty acid biosynthetic gene expression through an mTORC1-dependent manner, while attenuate insulin-mediated repression of gluconeogenesis through elevating IRS-1 Ser302 phosphorylation, which in turn impairs Akt activation and thereby weakening insulin action. We propose that p38 MAPK probably also involves in these AAs-induced metabolic changes.

  17. Curcumin attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yunhe; Gao, Ruifeng; Cao, Yongguo; Guo, Mengyao; Wei, Zhengkai; Zhou, Ershun; Li, Yimeng; Yao, Minjun; Yang, Zhengtao; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-05-01

    Curcumin, the main constituent of the spice turmeric, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of curcumin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mice mastitis has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether curcumin could ameliorate the inflammation response in LPS-induced mice mastitis and to clarify the possible mechanism. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of the mammary gland. Curcumin was applied 1h before and 12h after LPS treatment. The results showed that curcumin attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells, the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Western blotting results showed that curcumin inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB p65 and the expression of TLR4. These results indicated that curcumin has protective effect on mice mastitis and the anti-inflammatory mechanism of curcumin on LPS-induced mastitis in mice may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways. Curcumin may be a potential therapeutic agent against mastitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Attenuation of Oxidative Stress-Induced Osteoblast Apoptosis by Curcumin is Associated with Preservation of Mitochondrial Functions and Increased Akt-GSK3β Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Panpan; Mao, Yixin; Sun, Xiaoyu; Li, Xumin; Muhammad, Ibrahim; Gu, Weiyan; Zhang, Dafeng; Zhou, Yu; Ma, Jianfeng; Ni, Zhenyu; Huang, Shengbin

    2017-01-01

    Osteoblast apoptosis induced by oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development and progression of osteoporosis. Curcumin, a natural antioxidant isolated from Curcuma longa, has highly protective effects against osteoporosis. However, the effects of curcumin on oxidative stress-induced osteoblast apoptosis remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the effect of curcumin on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced osteoblast apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms. An osteoblastic cell line (Saos-2) was exposed to various concentrations of H2O2 with or without curcumin treatment. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assays. The apoptosis rate was analyzed by flow cytometry and TUNEL assays. Mitochondrial ROS and membrane potential were determined using a fluorescence microscope. Mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activity was measured using a spectrophotometer. Protein levels were detected by western blotting. Curcumin was cytoprotective because it greatly improved the viability of Saos-2 cells exposed to H2O2 and attenuated H2O2-induced apoptosis. Curcumin treatment also preserved the mitochondrial redox potential, decreased the mitochondrial oxidative status, and improved the mitochondrial membrane potential and functions. Furthermore, curcumin treatment markedly increased levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β). Curcumin administration ameliorates oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in osteoblasts by preserving mitochondrial functions and activation of Akt-GSK3β signaling. These data provide experimental evidence supporting the clinical use of curcumin for prevention or treatment of osteoporosis. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. The aba mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is impaired in epoxy-carotenoid biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, C.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The three mutant alleles of the ABA locus of Arabidopsis thaliana result in plants that are deficient in the plant growth regulator abscisic acid (ABA). The authors have used {sup 18}O{sub 2} to label ABA in water-stressed leaves of mutant and wild-type Arabidopsis. Analysis by selected ion monitoring and tandem mass spectrometry of ({sup 18}O)ABA and its catabolites, phaseic acid and ABA-glucose ester ({beta}-D-glucopyranosyl abscisate), indicates that the aba genotypes are impaired in ABA biosynthesis and have a small ABA precursor pool of compounds that contain oxygens on the rings, presumably oxygenated carotenoids (xanthophylls). Quantitation of the carotenoids form mutant and wild-type leaves establishes that the aba alleles cause a deficiency of the epoxy-carotenoids violaxanthin and neoxanthin and an accumulation of their biosynthetic precursor, zeaxanthin. These results provide evidence that ABA is synthesized by oxidative cleavage of epoxy-carotenoids (the indirect pathway). Furthermore the carotenoid mutant they describe undergoes normal greening. Thus the aba alleles provide an opportunity to study the physiological roles of epoxy-carotenoids in photosynthesis in a higher plants.

  20. ABA flow modelling in Ricinus communis exposed to salt stress and variable nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuke, Andreas D

    2016-10-01

    In a series of experiments with Ricinus communis, abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations in tissues and transport saps, its de novo biosynthesis, long-distance transport, and metabolism (degradation) were affected by nutritional conditions, nitrogen (N) source, and nutrient limitation, or salt stress. In the present study these data were statistically re-evaluated, and new correlations presented that underpin the importance of this universal phytohormone. The biggest differences in ABA concentration were observed in xylem sap. N source had the strongest effect; however, nutrient limitation (particularly phosphorus limitation) and salt also had significant effects. ABA was found in greater concentration in phloem sap compared with xylem sap; however, the effect of treatment on ABA concentration in phloem was lower. In the leaves, ABA concentration was most variable compared with the other tissues. This variation was only affected by the N source. In roots, ABA was significantly decreased by nutrient limitation. Of the compartments in which ABA was quantified, xylem sap ABA concentration was most significantly correlated with leaf stomatal conductance and leaf growth. Additionally, ABA concentration in xylem was significantly correlated to that in phloem, indicating a 6-fold concentration increase from xylem to phloem. The ABA flow model showed that biosynthesis of ABA in roots affected the xylem flow of ABA. Moreover, ABA concentration in xylem affected the degradation of the phytohormone in shoots and also its export from shoots via phloem. The role of phloem transport is discussed since it stimulates ABA metabolism in roots. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Role of plant growth regulators as chemical signals in plant-microbe interactions: a double edged sword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Carla; Bais, Harsh

    2015-10-01

    Growth regulators act not only as chemicals that modulate plant growth but they also act as signal molecules under various biotic and abiotic stresses. Of all growth regulators, abscisic acid (ABA) is long known for its role in modulating plants response against both biotic and abiotic stress. Although the genetic information for ABA biosynthesis in plants is well documented, the knowledge about ABA biosynthesis in other organisms is still in its infancy. It is known that various microbes including bacteria produce and secrete ABA, but the overall functional significance of why ABA is synthesized by microbes is not known. Here we discuss the functional involvement of ABA biosynthesis by a pathogenic fungus. Furthermore, we propose that ABA biosynthesis in plant pathogenic fungi could be targeted for novel fungicidal discovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ABA-Cloud: support for collaborative breath research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Ibrahim; Ludescher, Thomas; King, Julian; Ager, Clemens; Trosin, Michael; Senocak, Uygar; Brezany, Peter; Feilhauer, Thomas; Amann, Anton

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces the advanced breath analysis (ABA) platform, an innovative scientific research platform for the entire breath research domain. Within the ABA project, we are investigating novel data management concepts and semantic web technologies to document breath analysis studies for the long run as well as to enable their full automatic reproducibility. We propose several concept taxonomies (a hierarchical order of terms from a glossary of terms), which can be seen as a first step toward the definition of conceptualized terms commonly used by the international community of breath researchers. They build the basis for the development of an ontology (a concept from computer science used for communication between machines and/or humans and representation and reuse of knowledge) dedicated to breath research.

  3. Rheology and Relaxation Timescales of ABA Triblock Polymer Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Andrew; Lodge, Timothy

    When dissolved in a midblock selective solvent, ABA polymers form gels composed of aggregated end block micelles bridged by the midblocks. While much effort has been devoted to the study of the structure of these systems, the dynamics of these systems has received less attention. We examine the underlying mechanism of shear relaxation of ABA triblock polymer gels, especially as a function of chain length, composition, and concentration. Recent work using time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering of polystyrene (PS)-block-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PEP) in squalane has elucidated many aspects of the dynamics of diblock chain exchange. By using rheology to study bulk relaxation phenomena of the triblock equivalent, PS-PEP-PS, we apply the knowledge gained from the chain exchange studies to bridge the gap between the molecular and macroscopic relaxation phenomena in PS-PEP-PS triblock gels.

  4. In vitro reconstitution of an abscisic acid signalling pathway

    KAUST Repository

    Fujii, Hiroaki

    2009-11-18

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates the expression of many genes in plants; it has critical functions in stress resistance and in growth and development. Several proteins have been reported to function as ABA receptors, and many more are known to be involved in ABA signalling. However, the identities of ABA receptors remain controversial and the mechanism of signalling from perception to downstream gene expression is unclear. Here we show that by combining the recently identified ABA receptor PYR1 with the type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C) ABI1, the serine/threonine protein kinase SnRK2.6/OST1 and the transcription factor ABF2/AREB1, we can reconstitute ABA-triggered phosphorylation of the transcription factor in vitro. Introduction of these four components into plant protoplasts results in ABA-responsive gene expression. Protoplast and test-tube reconstitution assays were used to test the function of various members of the receptor, protein phosphatase and kinase families. Our results suggest that the default state of the SnRK2 kinases is an autophosphorylated, active state and that the SnRK2 kinases are kept inactive by the PP2Cs through physical interaction and dephosphorylation. We found that in the presence of ABA, the PYR/PYL (pyrabactin resistance 1/PYR1-like) receptor proteins can disrupt the interaction between the SnRK2s and PP2Cs, thus preventing the PP2C-mediated dephosphorylation of the SnRK2s and resulting in the activation of the SnRK2 kinases. Our results reveal new insights into ABA signalling mechanisms and define a minimal set of core components of a complete major ABA signalling pathway. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  5. Congreso www.derechotics.com 2010 Ana Aba, Mesa 3

    OpenAIRE

    Cotino Hueso, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    Garantías de la privacidad en las redes sociales, por Ana Aba Catoira, Profesora titular de Derecho constitucional, U. de A Coruña.Mesa 3: Privacidad y la propiedad intelectual frente a la libertad de expresión e información en la redCongreso www.derechotics.com Valencia, 14-15 octubre 2010 Libertades informativas en internet: ejercicio, amenazas y garantías, Lorenzo Cotino (org.)

  6. All that glitters is not gold: Increased Signal in the Subarachnoid Space on Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Imaging after gadolinium injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Avila Duarte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A 61-year-old woman arrived at the emergency department of the Hospital Nossa Senhora das Graças, Canoas, southern Brazil, with suspected ischemic stroke. After clinical and laboratory examination, the clinical diagnosis of ischemic stroke was made, without fulfilling criteria for thrombolysis. The patient had no history of renal failure. Three days later, she performed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examination that confirmed the suspected diagnosis. This examination was performed without sedation or supplemental oxygen. Brain MRI was performed after gadolinium injection, using fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR imaging, T1-weighted image, diffusion-weighted imaging, and T2-weighted image sequences that revealed signs of subacute watershed stroke in the left cerebral hemisphere (Figures 1, 2 and 3. There was a hyperintense cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in the subarachnoid space (SAS on FLAIR imaging, a finding that has been reported in many  pathologic conditions1 such as superior sagittal thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage², meningitis,  meningeal carcinomatosis,  next to tumors, status epilepticus and stroke.3-7 It has also been reported in otherwise healthy patients undergoing anesthesia with supplemental oxygen.8 The exact mechanism by which CSF diffuses into the SAS in patients with or without renal insufficiency is not completely explained. Some authores have suggested that in patients with renal failure, the gadolinium may shift across an osmotic gradient at the circumventricular organs in the setting of proctracted elevation of plasma concentrations.9 We believe that the cause of this imaging phenomenon of hyperintense signal of the CSF in the SAS which has already been noted in patients with compromised cerebral perfusion, including cases of acute ischemic stroke, was due to the recent stroke.10-11 Keywords: Flair hyperintensity, MRI, stroke, Gadolinium

  7. 2-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid attenuates mast cell-mediated allergic reaction in mice via modulation of the FcεRI signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Yong; Je, In-Gyu; Kim, Min Jong; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Choi, Young-Ae; Baek, Moon-Chang; Lee, Byungheon; Choi, Jin Kyeong; Park, Hae Ran; Shin, Tae-Yong; Lee, Soyoung; Yoon, Seung-Bin; Lee, Sang-Rae; Khang, Dongwoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells are important effector cells in immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated allergic reactions such as asthma, atopic dermatitis and rhinitis. Vanillic acid, a natural product, has shown anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we investigated the anti-allergic inflammatory effects of ortho-vanillic acid (2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid, o-VA) that was a derivative of vanillic acid isolated from Amomum xanthioides. In mouse anaphylaxis models, oral administration of o-VA (2, 10, 50 mg/kg) dose-dependently attenuated ovalbumin-induced active systemic anaphylaxis and IgE-mediated cutaneous allergic reactions such as hypothermia, histamine release, IgE production and vasodilation; administration of o-VA also suppressed the mast cell degranulator compound 48/80-induced anaphylaxis. In cultured mast cell line RBL-2H3 and isolated rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro, pretreatment with o-VA (1-100 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited DNP-HSA-induced degranulation of mast cells by decreasing the intracellular free calcium level, and suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-4. Pretreatment of RBL-2H3 cells with o-VA suppressed DNP-HSA-induced phosphorylation of Lyn, Syk, Akt, and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB. In conclusion, o-VA suppresses the mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory response by blocking the signaling pathways downstream of high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) on the surface of mast cells.

  8. Paraoxonase 2 is down-regulated by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorumsensing signal N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone and attenuates oxidative stress induced by pyocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horke, Sven; Witte, Ines; Altenhöfer, Sebastian; Wilgenbus, Petra; Goldeck, Marion; Förstermann, Ulrich; Xiao, Junhui; Kramer, Gerald L; Haines, Donovan C; Chowdhary, Puneet K; Haley, Robert W; Teiber, John F

    2010-01-27

    Two virulence factors produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are pyocyanin and N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3OC12). Pyocyanin damages host cells by generating ROS (reactive oxygen species). 3OC12 is a quorum-sensing signalling molecule which regulates bacterial gene expression and modulates host immune responses. PON2 (paraoxonase-2) is an esterase that inactivates 3OC12 and potentially attenuates Ps. aeruginosa virulence. Because increased intracellular Ca2+ initiates the degradation of PON2 mRNA and protein and 3OC12 causes increases in cytosolic Ca2+, we hypothesized that 3OC12 would also down-regulate PON2. 3OC12 and the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 caused a rapid cytosolic Ca2+ influx and down-regulated PON2 mRNA, protein and hydrolytic activity in A549 and EA.hy 926 cells. The decrease in PON2 hydrolytic activity was much more extensive and rapid than decreases in protein, suggesting a rapid post-translational mechanism which blocks PON2's hydrolytic activity. The Ca2+ chelator BAPTA/AM [1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester)] diminished the ability of 3OC12 to decrease PON2, demonstrating that the effects are mediated by Ca2+. PON2 also has antioxidative properties and we show that it protects cells from pyocyanin-induced oxidative stress. Knockdown of PON2 by transfecting cells with siRNA (small interfering RNA) rendered them more sensitive to, whereas overexpression of PON2 protected cells from, pyocyanin-induced ROS formation. Additionally, 3OC12 potentiated pyocyanin-induced ROS formation, presumably by inactivating PON2. These findings support a key role for PON2 in the defence against Ps. aeruginosa virulence, but also reveal a mechanism by which the bacterium may subvert the protection afforded by PON2.

  9. Semaphorin4D-PlexinB1 Signaling Attenuates Photoreceptor Outer Segment Phagocytosis by Reducing Rac1 Activity of RPE Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulloj, Ayelen; Maminishkis, Arvydas; Mizui, Masayuki; Finnemann, Silvia C

    2017-06-17

    Semaphorins form a family of secreted and membrane-bound molecules that were identified originally as axonal guidance factors during neuronal development. Given their wide distribution in many including mature tissues, semaphorin 4D (sema4D) and its main functional receptor plexin B1 (plxnB1) are expected to fulfill additional functions that remain to be uncovered. A main characteristic of the plexin receptor family is its ability to reorganize the cytoskeleton. PlxnB1 specifically may directly interact with Rho family GTPases to regulate F-actin driven pathways in cells in culture. Diurnal clearance phagocytosis by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of photoreceptor outer segment fragments (POS) is critical for photoreceptor function and longevity. In this process, rearrangement of RPE cytoskeletal F-actin via activation of the Rho family GTPase Rac1 is essential for POS internalization. Here, we show a novel role in POS phagocytosis by RPE cells in culture and in vivo for plexin B1 and its ligand sema4D. Exogenous sema4D abolishes POS internalization (but not binding) by differentiated RPE cells in culture by decreasing the GTP load of Rac1. In the rat eye, sema4D localizes to retinal photoreceptors, while PlxnB1 is expressed by neighboring RPE cells. At the peak of diurnal retinal phagocytosis after light onset, plxnB1 phosphorylation and sema4D levels are reduced in wild-type rat retina in situ but not in mutant RCS rat retina in which the RPE lacks phagocytic activity. Finally, increased POS phagosome content after light onset is observed in the RPE in situ of mice with either plxnB1 or sema4D gene deletion. Altogether, our results demonstrate a novel physiological function for sema4D/plxnB1 signaling in RPE phagocytosis serving as attenuating brake prior to light onset whose release enables the diurnal phagocytic burst.

  10. Alpinetin attenuates inflammatory responses by interfering toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haijin; Mo, Xiaodong; Yu, Jinlong; Huang, Zonghai

    2013-09-01

    Alpinetin, a novel plant flavonoid derived from Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of alpinetin on mastitis has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of alpinetin against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis and to clarify the possible mechanism. In the present study, primary mouse mammary epithelial cells and an LPS-induced mouse mastitis model were used to investigate the effect of alpinetin on mastitis and the possible mechanism. In vivo, we observed that alpinetin significantly attenuated the infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes, and the activation of myeloperoxidase; down-regulated the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6; inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α, NF-κB p65 and the expression of TLR4, caused by LPS. In vitro, we also observed that alpinetin inhibited the expression of TLR4 and the production of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated primary mouse mammary epithelial cells. However, alpinetin could not inhibit the production of IL-1β and IL-6 in TNF-α-stimulated primary mouse mammary epithelial cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of alpinetin against LPS-induced mastitis may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways. Alpinetin may be a promising potential therapeutic reagent for mastitis treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Alpha8 Integrin (Itga8 Signalling Attenuates Chronic Renal Interstitial Fibrosis by Reducing Fibroblast Activation, Not by Interfering with Regulation of Cell Turnover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Marek

    Full Text Available The α8 integrin (Itga8 chain contributes to the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in renal glomerular cells. In unilateral ureteral obstruction Itga8 is de novo expressed in the tubulointerstitium and a deficiency of Itga8 results in more severe renal fibrosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction. We hypothesized that the increased tubulointerstitial damage after unilateral ureteral obstruction observed in mice deficient for Itga8 is associated with altered tubulointerstitial cell turnover and apoptotic mechanisms resulting from the lack of Itga8 in cells of the tubulointerstitium. Induction of unilateral ureteral obstruction was achieved by ligation of the right ureter in mice lacking Itga8. Unilateral ureteral obstruction increased proliferation and apoptosis rates of tubuloepithelial and interstitial cells, however, no differences were observed in the tubulointerstitium of mice lacking Itga8 and wild type controls regarding fibroblast or proliferating cell numbers as well as markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction. In contrast, unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice lacking Itga8 led to more pronounced tubulointerstitial cell activation i.e. to the appearance of more phospho-SMAD2/3-positive cells and more α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells in the tubulointerstitium. Furthermore, a more severe macrophage and T-cell infiltration was observed in these animals compared to controls. Thus, Itga8 seems to attenuate tubulointerstitial fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction not via regulation of cell turnover, but via regulation of TGF-β signalling, fibroblast activation and/or immune cell infiltration.

  12. Galangin ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by attenuating oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death in mice through inhibition of ERK and NF-kappaB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ching; Tsai, Ming-Shiun; Hsieh, Pei-Chi; Shih, Jheng-Hong; Wang, Tsu-Shing; Wang, Yi-Chun; Lin, Ting-Hui; Wang, Sue-Hong

    2017-08-15

    Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in the treatment of various cancers. However, cisplatin can induce nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity, limiting its dosage and usage. Galangin, a natural flavonol, has been found to exhibit anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. Here, we investigated the effects of galangin on cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) and its molecular mechanisms in mice. Galangin administration reduced the cisplatin-induced oxidative stress by decreasing renal MDA and 3-NT formations. Galangin administration also increased renal anti-oxidative enzyme activities (SOD, GPx, and CAT) and GSH levels depleted by cisplatin. Furthermore, galangin administration inactivated stress-induced Nrf2 protein and its downstream products, HO-1 and GCLC. In terms of the inflammatory response, galangin administration reduced IκBα phosphorylation, NF-κB phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and then inhibited cisplatin-induced secretions of pro-inflammatory TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. In addition, cisplatin-induced ERK and p38 phosphorylations were inhibited by galangin administration. In terms of cell death, galangin administration reduced levels of p53, pro-apoptotic Bax and activated caspase-3 to inhibit the cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Ga