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Sample records for attenuates aba signalling

  1. Elevated CO2-Induced Responses in Stomata Require ABA and ABA Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Caspar; Peng, Kai; Movahedi, Mahsa; Dunn, Jessica A; Walker, Heather J; Liang, Yun-Kuan; McLachlan, Deirdre H; Casson, Stuart; Isner, Jean Charles; Wilson, Ian; Neill, Steven J; Hedrich, Rainer; Gray, Julie E; Hetherington, Alistair M

    2015-10-19

    An integral part of global environment change is an increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 ([CO2]) [1]. Increased [CO2] reduces leaf stomatal apertures and density of stomata that plays out as reductions in evapotranspiration [2-4]. Surprisingly, given the importance of transpiration to the control of terrestrial water fluxes [5] and plant nutrient acquisition [6], we know comparatively little about the molecular components involved in the intracellular signaling pathways by which [CO2] controls stomatal development and function [7]. Here, we report that elevated [CO2]-induced closure and reductions in stomatal density require the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby adding a new common element to these signaling pathways. We also show that the PYR/RCAR family of ABA receptors [8, 9] and ABA itself are required in both responses. Using genetic approaches, we show that ABA in guard cells or their precursors is sufficient to mediate the [CO2]-induced stomatal density response. Taken together, our results suggest that stomatal responses to increased [CO2] operate through the intermediacy of ABA. In the case of [CO2]-induced reductions in stomatal aperture, this occurs by accessing the guard cell ABA signaling pathway. In both [CO2]-mediated responses, our data are consistent with a mechanism in which ABA increases the sensitivity of the system to [CO2] but could also be explained by requirement for a CO2-induced increase in ABA biosynthesis specifically in the guard cell lineage. Furthermore, the dependency of stomatal [CO2] signaling on ABA suggests that the ABA pathway is, in evolutionary terms, likely to be ancestral. PMID:26455301

  2. Roles of a sustained activation of NCED3 and the synergistic regulation of ABA biosynthesis and catabolism in ABA signal production in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN HuiBo; JIA WenSuo; FAN YiJian; GAO ZhiHui; WEI KaiFa; LI GuiFen; LIU Jing; CHEN Lin; LI BingBing; HU JianFang

    2007-01-01

    ABA, acting as a stress signal, plays crucial roles in plant resistance to water stress. Because ABA signal production is based on ABA biosynthesis, the regulation of NCED, a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthesis pathway, is normally thought of as the sole factor controlling ABA signal production. Here we demonstrate that ABA catabolism in combination with a synergistic regulation of ABA biosynthesis plays a crucial role in governing ABA signal production. Water stress induced a significant accumulation of ABA, which exhibited different patterns in detached and attached leaves. ABA catabolism followed a temporal trend of exponential decay for both basic and stress ABA, and there was little difference in the catabolic half-lives of basic ABA and stress ABA. Thus, the absolute rate of ABA catabolism, i.e. the amount of ABA catabolized per unit time, increases with increased ABA accumulation. From the dynamic processes of ABA biosynthesis and catabolism, it can be inferred that stress ABA accumulation may be governed by a synergistic regulation of all the steps in the ABA biosynthesis pathway. Moreover, to maintain an elevated level of stress ABA sustained activation of NCED3 should be required. This inference was supported by further findings that the genes encoding major enzymes in the ABA biosynthesis pathway, e.g. NCED3, AAO3 and ABA3 were all activated by water stress, and with ABA accumulation progressing, the expressions of NCED3, AAO3 and ABA3 remained activated. Data on ABA catabolism and gene expression jointly indicate that ABA signal production is controlled by a sustained activation of NCED3 and the synergistic regulation of ABA biosynthesis and catabolism.

  3. Arabidopsis PYL8 Plays an Important Role for ABA Signaling and Drought Stress Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Chae Woo; Baek, Woonhee; Han, Sang-Wook; Lee, Sung Chul

    2013-01-01

    Plants are frequently exposed to numerous environmental stresses such as dehydration and high salinity, and have developed elaborate mechanisms to counteract the deleterious effects of stress. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a critical role as an integrator of plant responses to water-limited condition to activate ABA signal transduction pathway. Although perception of ABA has been suggested to be important, the function of each ABA receptor remains elusive in dehydration condition...

  4. Type One Protein Phosphatase 1 and Its Regulatory Protein Inhibitor 2 Negatively Regulate ABA Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Xie, Shaojun; Batelli, Giorgia; Wang, Bangshing; Duan, Cheng-Guo; Wang, Xingang; Xing, Lu; Lei, Mingguang; Yan, Jun; Zhu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant growth, development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The core ABA signaling pathway consists of three major components: ABA receptor (PYR1/PYLs), type 2C Protein Phosphatase (PP2C) and SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2). Nevertheless, the complexity of ABA signaling remains to be explored. To uncover new components of ABA signal transduction pathways, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen for SnRK2-interacting proteins. We found that Type One Protein Phosphatase 1 (TOPP1) and its regulatory protein, At Inhibitor-2 (AtI-2), physically interact with SnRK2s and also with PYLs. TOPP1 inhibited the kinase activity of SnRK2.6, and this inhibition could be enhanced by AtI-2. Transactivation assays showed that TOPP1 and AtI-2 negatively regulated the SnRK2.2/3/6-mediated activation of the ABA responsive reporter gene RD29B, supporting a negative role of TOPP1 and AtI-2 in ABA signaling. Consistent with these findings, topp1 and ati-2 mutant plants displayed hypersensitivities to ABA and salt treatments, and transcriptome analysis of TOPP1 and AtI-2 knockout plants revealed an increased expression of multiple ABA-responsive genes in the mutants. Taken together, our results uncover TOPP1 and AtI-2 as negative regulators of ABA signaling. PMID:26943172

  5. Arabidopsis PYL8 Plays an Important Role for ABA Signaling and Drought Stress Responses

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    Chae Woo Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are frequently exposed to numerous environmental stresses such as dehydration and high salinity, and have developed elaborate mechanisms to counteract the deleterious effects of stress. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA plays a critical role as an integrator of plant responses to water-limited condition to activate ABA signal transduction pathway. Although perception of ABA has been suggested to be important, the function of each ABA receptor remains elusive in dehydration condition. Here, we show that ABA receptor, pyrabactin resistance-like protein 8 (PYL8, functions in dehydration conditions. Transgenic plants overexpressing PYL8 exhibited hypersensitive phenotype to ABA in seed germination, seedling growth and establishment. We found that hypersensitivity to ABA of transgenic plants results in high degrees of stomatal closure in response to ABA leading to low transpiration rates and ultimately more vulnerable to drought than the wild-type plants. In addition, high expression of ABA maker genes also contributes to altered drought tolerance phenotype. Overall, this work emphasizes the importance of ABA signaling by ABA receptor in stomata during defense response to drought stress.

  6. Arabidopsis PYL8 Plays an Important Role for ABA Signaling and Drought Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae Woo; Baek, Woonhee; Han, Sang-Wook; Lee, Sung Chul

    2013-12-01

    Plants are frequently exposed to numerous environmental stresses such as dehydration and high salinity, and have developed elaborate mechanisms to counteract the deleterious effects of stress. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a critical role as an integrator of plant responses to water-limited condition to activate ABA signal transduction pathway. Although perception of ABA has been suggested to be important, the function of each ABA receptor remains elusive in dehydration condition. Here, we show that ABA receptor, pyrabactin resistance-like protein 8 (PYL8), functions in dehydration conditions. Transgenic plants overexpressing PYL8 exhibited hypersensitive phenotype to ABA in seed germination, seedling growth and establishment. We found that hypersensitivity to ABA of transgenic plants results in high degrees of stomatal closure in response to ABA leading to low transpiration rates and ultimately more vulnerable to drought than the wild-type plants. In addition, high expression of ABA maker genes also contributes to altered drought tolerance phenotype. Overall, this work emphasizes the importance of ABA signaling by ABA receptor in stomata during defense response to drought stress. PMID:25288979

  7. ABA Regulates Subcellular Redistribution of OsABI-LIKE2, a Negative Regulator in ABA Signaling, to Control Root Architecture and Drought Resistance in Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengxiang; Shen, Hongyun; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xuelu

    2015-12-01

    The phytohormone ABA is a key stress signal in plants. Although the identification of ABA receptors led to significant progress in understanding the Arabidopsis ABA signaling pathway, there are still many unsolved mysteries regarding ABA signaling in monocots, such as rice. Here, we report that a rice ortholog of AtABI1 and AtABI2, named OsABI-LIKE2 (OsABIL2), plays a negative role in rice ABA signaling. Overexpression of OsABIL2 not only led to ABA insensitivity, but also significantly altered plant developmental phenotypes, including stomatal density and root architecture, which probably caused the hypersensitivity to drought stress. OsABIL2 interacts with OsPYL1, SAPK8 and SAPK10 both in vitro and in vivo, and the phosphatase activity of OsABIL2 was repressed by ABA-bound OsPYL1. However, unlike many other solely nuclear-localized clade A type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), OsABIL2 is localized in both the nucleus and cytosol. Furthermore, OsABIL2 interacts with and co-localized with OsPYL1 mainly in the cytosol, and ABA treatment regulates the nucleus-cytosol distribution of OsABIL2, suggesting a different mechanism for the activation of ABA signaling. Taken together, this study provides significant insights into rice ABA signaling and indicates the important role of OsABIL2 in regulating root development. PMID:26491145

  8. Comprehensive Analysis of ABA Effects on Ethylene Biosynthesis and Signaling during Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Wangshu; Li, Dongdong; Bu, Jianwen; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Khan, Zia Ullah; Luo, Zisheng; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2016-01-01

    ABA has been widely acknowledged to regulate ethylene biosynthesis and signaling during fruit ripening, but the molecular mechanism underlying the interaction between these two hormones are largely unexplored. In the present study, exogenous ABA treatment obviously promoted fruit ripening as well as ethylene emission, whereas NDGA (Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis) application showed the opposite biological effects. Combined RNA-seq with time-course RT-PCR analysis, our study not only helped to illustrate how ABA regulated itself at the transcription level, but also revealed that ABA can facilitate ethylene production and response probably by regulating some crucial genes such as LeACS4, LeACO1, GR and LeETR6. In addition, investigation on the fruits treated with 1-MCP immediately after ABA exposure revealed that ethylene might be essential for the induction of ABA biosynthesis and signaling at the onset of fruit ripening. Furthermore, some specific transcription factors (TFs) known as regulators of ethylene synthesis and sensibility (e.g. MADS-RIN, TAGL1, CNR and NOR) were also observed to be ABA responsive, which implied that ABA influenced ethylene action possibly through the regulation of these TFs expression. Our comprehensive physiological and molecular-level analysis shed light on the mechanism of cross-talk between ABA and ethylene during the process of tomato fruit ripening. PMID:27100326

  9. Comprehensive Analysis of ABA Effects on Ethylene Biosynthesis and Signaling during Tomato Fruit Ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Mou, Wangshu; Li, Dongdong; Bu, Jianwen; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Khan, Zia Ullah; Luo, Zisheng; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2016-01-01

    ABA has been widely acknowledged to regulate ethylene biosynthesis and signaling during fruit ripening, but the molecular mechanism underlying the interaction between these two hormones are largely unexplored. In the present study, exogenous ABA treatment obviously promoted fruit ripening as well as ethylene emission, whereas NDGA (Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis) application showed the opposite biological effects. Combined RNA-seq with time-course RT-PCR analysis,...

  10. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M.H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric (Van Andel); (Scripps); (NWU); (Purdue); (UCR); (Chinese Aca. Sci.); (NU Singapore)

    2014-10-02

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  11. ABA receptors: The START of a new paradigm in phytohormone signalling

    KAUST Repository

    Klingler, John

    2010-06-03

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in plant development and in plant adaptation to both biotic and abiotic stressors. In recent years, knowledge of ABA metabolism and signal transduction has advanced rapidly to provide detailed glimpses of the hormone\\'s activities at the molecular level. Despite this progress, many gaps in understanding have remained, particularly at the early stages of ABA perception by the plant cell. The search for an ABA receptor protein has produced multiple candidates, including GCR2, GTG1, and GTG2, and CHLH. In addition to these candidates, in 2009 several research groups converged on a novel family of Arabidopsis proteins that bind ABA, and thereby interact directly with a class of protein phosphatases that are well known as critical players in ABA signal transduction. The PYR/PYL/RCAR receptor family is homologous to the Bet v 1-fold and START domain proteins. It consists of 14 members, nearly all of which appear capable of participating in an ABA receptor-signal complex that responds to the hormone by activating the transcription of ABA-responsive genes. Evidence is provided here that PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors can also drive the phosphorylation of the slow anion channel SLAC1 to provide a fast and timely response to the ABA signal. Crystallographic studies have vividly shown the mechanics of ABA binding to PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors, presenting a model that bears some resemblance to the binding of gibberellins to GID1 receptors. Since this ABA receptor family is highly conserved in crop species, its discovery is likely to usher a new wave of progress in the elucidation and manipulation of plant stress responses in agricultural settings. © 2010 The Author(s).

  12. Local root abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation depends on the spatial distribution of soil moisture in potato: implications for ABA signalling under heterogeneous soil drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puértolas, Jaime; Conesa, María R; Ballester, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C

    2015-04-01

    Patterns of root abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation ([ABA]root), root water potential (Ψroot), and root water uptake (RWU), and their impact on xylem sap ABA concentration ([X-ABA]) were measured under vertical partial root-zone drying (VPRD, upper compartment dry, lower compartment wet) and horizontal partial root-zone drying (HPRD, two lateral compartments: one dry, the other wet) of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). When water was withheld from the dry compartment for 0-10 d, RWU and Ψroot were similarly lower in the dry compartment when soil volumetric water content dropped below 0.22cm(3) cm(-3) for both spatial distributions of soil moisture. However, [ABA]root increased in response to decreasing Ψroot in the dry compartment only for HPRD, resulting in much higher ABA accumulation than in VPRD. The position of the sampled roots (~4cm closer to the surface in the dry compartment of VPRD than in HPRD) might account for this difference, since older (upper) roots may accumulate less ABA in response to decreased Ψroot than younger (deeper) roots. This would explain differences in root ABA accumulation patterns under vertical and horizontal soil moisture gradients reported in the literature. In our experiment, these differences in root ABA accumulation did not influence [X-ABA], since the RWU fraction (and thus ABA export to shoots) from the dry compartment dramatically decreased simultaneously with any increase in [ABA]root. Thus, HPRD might better trigger a long-distance ABA signal than VPRD under conditions allowing simultaneous high [ABA]root and relatively high RWU fraction.

  13. Roles of ABA Signal Transduction during Higher Plant Seed Development and Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Hongbo; Liang Zongsuo; Shao Mingan

    2003-01-01

    ABA is one of the 5 phytohormones in higher plants, which is also the most important hormone that regulates higher plants in response to environmental stress, by ABA signal transduction. Understanding ABA signal transduction at the molecular level is crucial to biology and ecology, and rational breeding complied with corresponding eco-environmental changes.Great advancements have taken place over the past 10 years by application of the 4rabidopsis experimental system. Many components involved in ABA signal transduction have been isolated and identified and a clear overall picture of gene expression and control for this transduction has become an Accepted fact. On the basis of the work in our laboratory, in conjunction with the data available at the moment, the authors have attempted to integrate ABA signal transduction pathways into a common one and give some insights into the relationship between ABA signal transduction and other hormone signal transduction pathways, with an emphasis upon the ABA signal transduction during higher plant seed development. A future challenge in this field is that different experimental systems are applied and various receptors and genes need to be characterized through the utilization of microarray chips.

  14. Lipid profiling demonstrates that suppressing Arabidopsis phospholipase Dδ retards ABA-promoted leaf senescence by attenuating lipid degradation.

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    Yanxia Jia

    Full Text Available Senescence is the last phase of the plant life cycle and has an important role in plant development. Degradation of membrane lipids is an essential process during leaf senescence. Several studies have reported fundamental changes in membrane lipids and phospholipase D (PLD activity as leaves senesce. Suppression of phospholipase Dα1 (PLDα1 retards abscisic acid (ABA-promoted senescence. However, given the absence of studies that have profiled changes in the compositions of membrane lipid molecules during leaf senescence, there is no direct evidence that PLD affects lipid composition during the process. Here, we show that application of n-butanol, an inhibitor of PLD, and N-Acylethanolamine (NAE 12∶0, a specific inhibitor of PLDα1, retarded ABA-promoted senescence to different extents. Furthermore, phospholipase Dδ (PLDδ was induced in leaves treated with ABA, and suppression of PLDδ retarded ABA-promoted senescence in Arabidopsis. Lipid profiling revealed that detachment-induced senescence had different effects on plastidic and extraplastidic lipids. The accelerated degradation of plastidic lipids during ABA-induced senescence in wild-type plants was attenuated in PLDδ-knockout (PLDδ-KO plants. Dramatic increases in phosphatidic acid (PA and decreases in phosphatidylcholine (PC during ABA-induced senescence were also suppressed in PLDδ-KO plants. Our results suggest that PLDδ-mediated hydrolysis of PC to PA plays a positive role in ABA-promoted senescence. The attenuation of PA formation resulting from suppression of PLDδ blocks the degradation of membrane lipids, which retards ABA-promoted senescence.

  15. Functional characterization and reconstitution of ABA signaling components using transient gene expression in rice protoplasts

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    Namhyo eKim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The core component of ABA-dependent gene expression signaling have been identified in Arabidopsis and rice. This signaling pathway consists of four major components; group A OsbZIPs, SAPKs, subclass A OsPP2Cs and OsPYL/RCARs in rice. These might be able to make thousands of combinations through interaction networks resulting in diverse signaling responses. We tried to characterize those gene functions using transient gene expression for rice protoplasts (TGERP because it is instantaneous and convenient system. Firstly, in order to monitor the ABA signaling output, we developed reporter system named pRab16A-fLUC which consists of Rab16A promoter of rice and luciferase gene. It responses more rapidly and sensitively to ABA than pABRC3-fLUC that consists of ABRC3 of HVA1 promoter in TGERP. We screened the reporter responses for over-expression of each signaling components from group A OsbZIPs to OsPYL/RCARs with or without ABA in TGERP. OsbZIP46 induced reporter most strongly among OsbZIPs tested in the presence of ABA. SAPKs could activate the OsbZIP46 even in the ABA independence. Subclass A OsPP2C6 and -8 almost completely inhibited the OsbZIP46 activity in the different degree through the SAPK9. Lastly, OsPYL/RCAR2 and -5 rescued the OsbZIP46 activity in the presence of SAPK9 and OsPP2C6 dependent on ABA concentration and expression level. By using TGERP, we could characterize successfully the effects of ABA dependent gene expression signaling components in rice. In conclusion, TGERP represents very useful technology to study systemic functional genomics in rice or other monocots.

  16. Type 2C Phosphatase 1 of Artemisia annua L. Is a Negative Regulator of ABA Signaling

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    Fangyuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA plays an important role in plant development and environmental stress response. Additionally, ABA also regulates secondary metabolism such as artemisinin in the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. Although an earlier study showed that ABA receptor, AaPYL9, plays a positive role in ABA-induced artemisinin content improvement, many components in the ABA signaling pathway remain to be elucidated in Artemisia annua L. To get insight of the function of AaPYL9, we isolated and characterized an AaPYL9-interacting partner, AaPP2C1. The coding sequence of AaPP2C1 encodes a deduced protein of 464 amino acids, with all the features of plant type clade A PP2C. Transcriptional analysis showed that the expression level of AaPP2C1 is increased after ABA, salt, and drought treatments. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays (BiFC showed that AaPYL9 interacted with AaPP2C1. The P89S, H116A substitution in AaPYL9 as well as G199D substitution or deletion of the third phosphorylation site-like motif in AaPP2C1 abolished this interaction. Furthermore, constitutive expression of AaPP2C1 conferred ABA insensitivity compared with the wild type. In summary, our data reveals that AaPP2C1 is an AaPYL9-interacting partner and involved in the negative modulation of the ABA signaling pathway in A. annua L.

  17. Arabidopsis CPR5 independently regulates seed germination and postgermination arrest of development through LOX pathway and ABA signaling.

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    Guilan Gao

    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA and the lipoxygenases (LOXs pathway play important roles in seed germination and seedling growth and development. Here, we reported on the functional characterization of Arabidopsis CPR5 in the ABA signaling and LOX pathways. The cpr5 mutant was hypersensitive to ABA in the seed germination, cotyledon greening and root growth, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing CPR5 were insensitive. Genetic analysis demonstrated that CPR5 gene may be located downstream of the ABI1 in the ABA signaling pathway. However, the cpr5 mutant showed an ABA independent drought-resistant phenotype. It was also found that the cpr5 mutant was hypersensitive to NDGA and NDGA treatment aggravated the ABA-induced delay in the seed germination and cotyledon greening. Taken together, these results suggest that the CPR5 plays a regulatory role in the regulation of seed germination and early seedling growth through ABA and LOX pathways independently.

  18. Differences in phosphatidic acid signalling and metabolism between ABA and GA treatments of barley aleurone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasuso, Ana Laura; Di Palma, Maria A; Aveldaño, Marta; Pasquaré, Susana J; Racagni, Graciela; Giusto, Norma M; Machado, Estela E

    2013-04-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is the common lipid product in abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) response. In this work we investigated the lipid metabolism in response to both hormones. We could detect an in vivo phospholipase D activity (PLD, EC 3.1.4.4). This PLD produced [(32)P]PA (phosphatidic acid) rapidly (minutes) in the presence of ABA, confirming PA involvement in signal transduction, and transiently, indicating rapid PA removal after generation. The presence of PA removal by phosphatidate phosphatase 1 and 2 isoforms (E.C. 3.1.3.4) was verified in isolated aleurone membranes in vitro, the former but not the latter being specifically responsive to the presence of GA or ABA. The in vitro DGPP phosphatase activity was not modified by short time incubation with GA or ABA while the in vitro PA kinase - that allows the production of 18:2-DGPP from 18:2-PA - is stimulated by ABA. The long term effects (24 h) of ABA or GA on lipid and fatty acid composition of aleurone layer cells were then investigated. An increase in PC and, to a lesser extent, in PE levels is the consequence of both hormone treatments. ABA, in aleurone layer cells, specifically activates a PLD whose product, PA, could be the substrate of PAP1 and/or PAK activities. Neither PLD nor PAK activation can be monitored by GA treatment. The increase in PAP1 activity monitored after ABA or GA treatment might participate in the increase in PC level observed after 24 h hormone incubation.

  19. Emerging roles of protein kinase CK2 in abscisic acid (ABA signaling

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    Belmiro eVilela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA regulates many aspects of plant growth and development as well as responses to multiple stresses. Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation or ubiquitination have pivotal roles in the regulation of ABA signaling. In addition to the positive regulator sucrose non-fermenting-1 related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2, the relevance of the role of other protein kinases, such as CK2, has been recently highlighted. We have recently established that CK2 phosphorylates the maize ortholog of open stomata 1 OST1, ZmOST1, suggesting a role of CK2 phosphorylation in the control of ZmOST1 protein degradation (Vilela et al., 2015. CK2 is a pleiotropic enzyme involved in multiple developmental and stress-responsive pathways. This review summarizes recent advances that taken together suggest a prominent role of protein kinase CK2 in ABA signaling and related processes.

  20. Arabidopsis CPR5 Independently Regulates Seed Germination and Postgermination Arrest of Development through LOX Pathway and ABA Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Guilan Gao; Shengchun Zhang; Chengfeng Wang; Xiang Yang; Yaqin Wang; Xiaojun Su; Jinju Du; Chengwei Yang

    2011-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the lipoxygenases (LOXs) pathway play important roles in seed germination and seedling growth and development. Here, we reported on the functional characterization of Arabidopsis CPR5 in the ABA signaling and LOX pathways. The cpr5 mutant was hypersensitive to ABA in the seed germination, cotyledon greening and root growth, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing CPR5 were insensitive. Genetic analysis demonstrated that CPR5 gene may be located downst...

  1. The NF-YC–RGL2 module integrates GA and ABA signalling to regulate seed germination in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Hu, Pengwei; Huang, Mingkun; Tang, Yang; Li, Yuge; Li, Ling; Hou, Xingliang

    2016-01-01

    The antagonistic crosstalk between gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) plays a pivotal role in the modulation of seed germination. However, the molecular mechanism of such phytohormone interaction remains largely elusive. Here we show that three Arabidopsis NUCLEAR FACTOR-Y C (NF-YC) homologues NF-YC3, NF-YC4 and NF-YC9 redundantly modulate GA- and ABA-mediated seed germination. These NF-YCs interact with the DELLA protein RGL2, a key repressor of GA signalling. The NF-YC–RGL2 module targets ABI5, a gene encoding a core component of ABA signalling, via specific CCAAT elements and collectively regulates a set of GA- and ABA-responsive genes, thus controlling germination. These results suggest that the NF-YC–RGL2–ABI5 module integrates GA and ABA signalling pathways during seed germination. PMID:27624486

  2. Re-examining the role of ABA as the primary long-distance signal produced by water-stressed roots

    OpenAIRE

    Goodger, Jason QD; Schachtman, Daniel P

    2010-01-01

    The role of ABA as the primary long-distance signal produced by water-stressed roots and transported to stomata continues to be challenged. We have recently reported that expression of ABA biosynthetic genes in roots only increases in the later stage of water stress. Our results support the hypothesis that in early water stress, increased levels of ABA in xylem sap are due to leaf biosynthesis and translocation to roots and from there to xylem. If so, other xylem-borne chemicals may be the pr...

  3. H2O2 inhibits ABA-signaling protein phosphatase HAB1.

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    Madhuri Sridharamurthy

    Full Text Available Due to its ability to be rapidly generated and propagated over long distances, H2O2 is an important second messenger for biotic and abiotic stress signaling in plants. In response to low water potential and high salt concentrations sensed in the roots of plants, the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA activates NADPH oxidase to generate H2O2, which is propagated in guard cells in leaves to induce stomatal closure and prevent water loss from transpiration. Using a reconstituted system, we demonstrate that H2O2 reversibly prevents the protein phosphatase HAB1, a key component of the core ABA-signaling pathway, from inhibiting its main target in guard cells, SnRK2.6/OST1 kinase. We have identified HAB1 C186 and C274 as H2O2-sensitive thiols and demonstrate that their oxidation inhibits both HAB1 catalytic activity and its ability to physically associate with SnRK2.6 by formation of intermolecular dimers.

  4. Chlorine signal attenuation in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; ur-Rehman, Khateeb; Al-Amoudi, O S B

    2015-11-01

    The intensity of prompt gamma-ray was measured at various depths from chlorine-contaminated silica fume (SF) concrete slab concrete specimens using portable neutron generator-based prompt gamma-ray setup. The intensity of 6.11MeV chloride gamma-rays was measured from the chloride contaminated slab at distance of 15.25, 20.25, 25.25, 30.25 and 35.25cm from neutron target in a SF cement concrete slab specimens. Due to attenuation of thermal neutron flux and emitted gamma-ray intensity in SF cement concrete at various depths, the measured intensity of chlorine gamma-rays decreases non-linearly with increasing depth in concrete. A good agreement was noted between the experimental results and the results of Monte Carlo simulation. This study has provided useful experimental data for evaluating the chloride contamination in the SF concrete utilizing gamma-ray attenuation method.

  5. Release of GTP Exchange Factor Mediated Down-Regulation of Abscisic Acid Signal Transduction through ABA-Induced Rapid Degradation of RopGEFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waadt, Rainer; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is critical to plant development and stress responses. Abiotic stress triggers an ABA signal transduction cascade, which is comprised of the core components PYL/RCAR ABA receptors, PP2C-type protein phosphatases, and protein kinases. Small GTPases of the ROP/RAC family act as negative regulators of ABA signal transduction. However, the mechanisms by which ABA controls the behavior of ROP/RACs have remained unclear. Here, we show that an Arabidopsis guanine nucleotide exchange factor protein RopGEF1 is rapidly sequestered to intracellular particles in response to ABA. GFP-RopGEF1 is sequestered via the endosome-prevacuolar compartment pathway and is degraded. RopGEF1 directly interacts with several clade A PP2C protein phosphatases, including ABI1. Interestingly, RopGEF1 undergoes constitutive degradation in pp2c quadruple abi1/abi2/hab1/pp2ca mutant plants, revealing that active PP2C protein phosphatases protect and stabilize RopGEF1 from ABA-mediated degradation. Interestingly, ABA-mediated degradation of RopGEF1 also plays an important role in ABA-mediated inhibition of lateral root growth. The presented findings point to a PP2C-RopGEF-ROP/RAC control loop model that is proposed to aid in shutting off ABA signal transduction, to counteract leaky ABA signal transduction caused by “monomeric” PYL/RCAR ABA receptors in the absence of stress, and facilitate signaling in response to ABA. PMID:27192441

  6. The Arabidopsis transcription factor ABIG1 relays ABA signaled growth inhibition and drought induced senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Longhurst, Adam D; Talavera-Rauh, Franklin; Hokin, Samuel A; Barton, M Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Drought inhibits plant growth and can also induce premature senescence. Here we identify a transcription factor, ABA INSENSITIVE GROWTH 1 (ABIG1) required for abscisic acid (ABA) mediated growth inhibition, but not for stomatal closure. ABIG1 mRNA levels are increased both in response to drought and in response to ABA treatment. When treated with ABA, abig1 mutants remain greener and produce more leaves than comparable wild-type plants. When challenged with drought, abig1 mutants have fewer yellow, senesced leaves than wild-type. Induction of ABIG1 transcription mimics ABA treatment and regulates a set of genes implicated in stress responses. We propose a model in which drought acts through ABA to increase ABIG1 transcription which in turn restricts new shoot growth and promotes leaf senescence. The results have implications for plant breeding: the existence of a mutant that is both ABA resistant and drought resistant points to new strategies for isolating drought resistant genetic varieties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13768.001 PMID:27697148

  7. Negative regulation of ABA signaling by WRKY33 is critical for Arabidopsis immunity towards Botrytis cinerea 2100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shouan; Kracher, Barbara; Ziegler, Jörg; Birkenbihl, Rainer P; Somssich, Imre E

    2015-06-15

    The Arabidopsis mutant wrky33 is highly susceptible to Botrytis cinerea. We identified >1680 Botrytis-induced WRKY33 binding sites associated with 1576 Arabidopsis genes. Transcriptional profiling defined 318 functional direct target genes at 14 hr post inoculation. Comparative analyses revealed that WRKY33 possesses dual functionality acting either as a repressor or as an activator in a promoter-context dependent manner. We confirmed known WRKY33 targets involved in hormone signaling and phytoalexin biosynthesis, but also uncovered a novel negative role of abscisic acid (ABA) in resistance towards B. cinerea 2100. The ABA biosynthesis genes NCED3 and NCED5 were identified as direct targets required for WRKY33-mediated resistance. Loss-of-WRKY33 function resulted in elevated ABA levels and genetic studies confirmed that WRKY33 acts upstream of NCED3/NCED5 to negatively regulate ABA biosynthesis. This study provides the first detailed view of the genome-wide contribution of a specific plant transcription factor in modulating the transcriptional network associated with plant immunity.

  8. Environmental control of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana: the role of GA and ABA signaling pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Piskurewicz, Urszula Maria

    2010-01-01

    Seed germination is a drastic developmental transition taking the plant from a highly protected, desiccated and quiescent form of life (dry seed) into a more fragile, vegetative seedling. Seed germination is tightly controlled by the environment, which determines the relative levels of two phytohormones: GA (gibberellins) and ABA (abscisic acid). Consequently, GA and ABA are key regulators of Arabidopsis seed germination. GA stimulates germination and its synthesis upon seed imbibition is nec...

  9. Structural basis for basal activity and autoactivation of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling SnRK2 kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Ley-Moy; Soon, Fen-Fen; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric (Van Andel); (Scripps); (Purdue); (NU Singapore)

    2014-10-02

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone that controls plant growth, development, and responses to abiotic stresses. Central for ABA signaling is the ABA-mediated autoactivation of three monomeric Snf1-related kinases (SnRK2.2, -2.3, and -2.6). In the absence of ABA, SnRK2s are kept in an inactive state by forming physical complexes with type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). Upon relief of this inhibition, SnRK2 kinases can autoactivate through unknown mechanisms. Here, we report the crystal structures of full-length Arabidopsis thaliana SnRK2.3 and SnRK2.6 at 1.9- and 2.3-{angstrom} resolution, respectively. The structures, in combination with biochemical studies, reveal a two-step mechanism of intramolecular kinase activation that resembles the intermolecular activation of cyclin-dependent kinases. First, release of inhibition by PP2C allows the SnRK2s to become partially active because of an intramolecular stabilization of the catalytic domain by a conserved helix in the kinase regulatory domain. This stabilization enables SnRK2s to gain full activity by activation loop autophosphorylation. Autophosphorylation is more efficient in SnRK2.6, which has higher stability than SnRK2.3 and has well-structured activation loop phosphate acceptor sites that are positioned next to the catalytic site. Together, these data provide a structural framework that links ABA-mediated release of PP2C inhibition to activation of SnRK2 kinases.

  10. Root water potential integrates discrete soil physical properties to influence ABA signalling during partial rootzone drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Ian C; Egea, Gregorio; Watts, Chris W; Whalley, W Richard

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the influence of different growing substrates (two mineral, two organic) on root xylem ABA concentration ([ABA](root)) and the contribution of the drying root system to total sap flow during partial rootzone drying (PRD), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) shoots were grafted onto the root systems of two plants grown in separate pots. Sap flow through each hypocotyl was measured below the graft union when one pot ('wet') was watered and other ('dry') was not. Each substrate gave unique relationships between dry pot matric potential (Psi(soil)), volumetric water content ((v)) or penetrometer resistance (Q) and either the fraction of photoperiod sap flow from roots in drying soil or [ABA](root). However, decreased relative sap flow, and increased [ABA](root), from roots in drying soil varied with root water potential (Psi(root)) more similarly across a range of substrates. The gradient between Psi(soil) and Psi(root) was greater in substrates with high sand or peat proportions, which may have contributed to a more sensitive response of [ABA](root) to Psi(soil) in these substrates. Whole plant transpiration was most closely correlated with the mean Psi(soil) of both pots, and then with detached leaf xylem ABA concentration. Although Psi(root) best predicted decreased relative sap flow, and increased [ABA](root), from roots in drying soil across a range of substrates, the inaccessibility of this variable in field studies requires a better understanding of how measurable soil variables (Psi(soil), (v), Q) affect Psi(root). PMID:20591896

  11. Protein tyrosine phosphatases involved in signaling of the ABA-induced H2O2generation in guard cells of Vicia faba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wuliang; JlA Wensuo; LIU Xin; ZHANG Shuqiu

    2004-01-01

    Although protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) play an important role in signal transduction in animal cells, little is known about the function of PTPases in higher plants. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are the critical components of ABA signaling pathway in guard cells. PTPase is an important regulator of MAPK, which is believed to mediate ABA-induced H2O2 generation in guard cells of Viciafaba L. Here, we investigate the possible role of PTPases in stomatal movement process. Phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a specific inhibitor of PTPases, could prevent ABA or H2O2-induced stomatal closure of Vicia faba L; furthermore, it could promote opening of the stomata closed by ABA or H2O2. The activity of PTPases can be effectively inhibited by PAO and H2O2. DTT had no effect on the PAO-induced inhibition of PTPases activity, but it could relieve the inhibition of H2O2 on PTPases activity. PAO could also inhibit the ABA-induced H2O2 generation in guard cells of Vicia faba L. These results suggested that PTPases is a critical signaling component in ABA-induced stomatal closure, and serve as targets for H2O2 lying on the signaling pathways downstream of ABA induced H2O2 generation.

  12. New fava bean guard cell signaling mutant impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Sumio; Shimomura, Naoki; Nakashima, Atsushi; Etoh, Takeomi

    2003-09-01

    We isolated a mutant from Vicia faba L. cv. House Ryousai. It wilts easily under strong light and high temperature conditions, suggesting that its stomatal movement may be disturbed. We determined responses of mutant guard cells to some environmental stimuli. Mutant guard cells demonstrated an impaired ability to respond to ABA in 0.1 mM CaCl(2) and stomata did not close in the presence of up to 1 mM ABA, whereas wild-type stomata closed when exposed to 10 micro M ABA. Elevating external Ca(2+) caused a similar degree of stomatal closure in the wild type and the mutant. A high concentration of CO(2) (700 micro l liter(-1)) induced stomatal closure in the wild type, but not in the mutant. On the basis of these results, we propose the working hypothesis that the mutation occurs in the region downstream of CO(2) and ABA sensing and in the region upstream of Ca(2+) elevation. The mutant is named fia (fava bean impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure). PMID:14519772

  13. Feedback Regulation of ABA Signaling and Biosynthesis by a bZIP Transcription Factor Targets Drought-Resistance-Related Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Wei; Tang, Ning; Yang, Jun; Peng, Lei; Ma, Siqi; Xu, Yan; Li, Guoliang; Xiong, Lizhong

    2016-08-01

    The OsbZIP23 transcription factor has been characterized for its essential role in drought resistance in rice (Oryza sativa), but the mechanism is unknown. In this study, we first investigated the transcriptional activation of OsbZIP23. A homolog of SnRK2 protein kinase (SAPK2) was found to interact with and phosphorylate OsbZIP23 for its transcriptional activation. SAPK2 also interacted with OsPP2C49, an ABI1 homolog, which deactivated the SAPK2 to inhibit the transcriptional activation activity of OsbZIP23. Next, we performed genome-wide identification of OsbZIP23 targets by immunoprecipitation sequencing and RNA sequencing analyses in the OsbZIP23-overexpression, osbzip23 mutant, and wild-type rice under normal and drought stress conditions. OsbZIP23 directly regulates a large number of reported genes that function in stress response, hormone signaling, and developmental processes. Among these targets, we found that OsbZIP23 could positively regulate OsPP2C49, and overexpression of OsPP2C49 in rice resulted in significantly decreased sensitivity of the abscisic acid (ABA) response and rapid dehydration. Moreover, OsNCED4 (9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase4), a key gene in ABA biosynthesis, was also positively regulated by OsbZIP23. Together, our results suggest that OsbZIP23 acts as a central regulator in ABA signaling and biosynthesis, and drought resistance in rice. PMID:27325665

  14. Measurement and modelling of ABA signalling in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) during partial root-zone drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fulai; Song, Ri; Zhang, Xiaoyan;

    2008-01-01

    declined exponentially with declining soil water potential (Psi(soil-dry)); however, after shifting of irrigation, the previously dried roots immediately recovered the full capacity of water uptake. During the first PRD drying cycle, FI plants had the highest stomatal conductance (g(s)), and followed......The objective of this study was to develop a simple mechanistic model to predict the magnitude of ABA signalling ([X-ABA]) of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) exposed to partial root-zone drying (PRD). Potatoes were grown in pots in a glasshouse with the roots split equally between two soil columns....... At tuber initiation stage, plants were subjected to three irrigation treatments: (1) both soil columns were fully irrigated (FI) daily to a volumetric soil water content (theta) of 18.0%; (2) PRD, in which one soil column was irrigated daily to 18.0% while the other was allowed to dry, and the irrigation...

  15. Rice OsiSAP7 negatively regulates ABA stress signalling and imparts sensitivity to water-deficit stress in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gunjan; Giri, Jitender; Tyagi, Akhilesh K

    2015-08-01

    Stress associated protein (SAP) genes in plants regulate abiotic stress responses. SAP gene family consists of 18 members in rice. Although their abiotic stress responsiveness is well established, the mechanism of their action is poorly understood. OsiSAP7 was chosen to investigate the mechanism of its action based on the dual nature of its sub-cellular localization preferentially in the nucleus or sub-nuclear speckles upon transient expression in onion epidermal cells. Its expression was down-regulated in rice seedlings under abiotic stresses. OsiSAP7 was localized evenly in the nucleus under unstressed conditions and in sub-nuclear speckles on MG132 treatment. OsiSAP7 exhibits E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro. Abiotic stress responses of OsiSAP7 were assessed by its overexpression in Arabidopsis under the control of a stress inducible promoter rd29A. Stress response assessment was done at seed germination and advanced stages of development. Transgenics were ABA insensitive at seed germination stage and sensitive to water-deficit stress at advanced stage as compared to wild type (WT). They were also impaired in ABA and stress-responsive gene expression. Our study suggests that OsiSAP7 acts as a negative regulator of ABA and water-deficit stress signalling by acting as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. PMID:26089154

  16. ABA Signaling in Guard Cells Entails a Dynamic Protein-Protein Interaction Relay from the PYL-RCAR Family Receptors to Ion Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Chul Lee; Chae Woo Lim; Wenzhi Lan; Kai He; Sheng Luan

    2013-01-01

    Plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) serves as an integrator of environmental stresses such as drought to trigger stomatal closure by regulating specific ion channels in guard cells.We previously reported that SLACl,an outward anion channel required for stomatal closure,was regulated via reversible protein phosphorylation events involving ABA signaling components,including protein phosphatase 2C members and a SnRK2-type kinase (OST1).In this study,we reconstituted the ABA signaling pathway as a protein-protein interaction relay from the PYL/RCAR-type receptors,to the PP2C-SnRK2 phosphatase-kinase pairs,to the ion channel SLACl.The ABA receptors interacted with and inhibited PP2C phosphatase activity against the SnRK2-type kinase,releasing active SnRK2 kinase to phosphorylate,and activate the SLACl channel,leading to reduced guard cell turgor and stomatal closure.Both yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays were used to verify the interactions among the components in the pathway.These biochemical assays demonstrated activity modifications of phosphatases and kinases by their interaction partners.The SLACl channel activity was used as an endpoint readout for the strength of the signaling pathway,depending on the presence of different combinations of signaling components.Further study using transgenic plants overexpressing one of the ABA receptors demonstrated that changing the relative level of interacting partners would change ABA sensitivity.

  17. Pyrvinium attenuates Hedgehog signaling downstream of smoothened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Fei, Dennis Liang; Flaveny, Colin A; Dahmane, Nadia; Baubet, Valérie; Wang, Zhiqiang; Bai, Feng; Pei, Xin-Hai; Rodriguez-Blanco, Jezabel; Hang, Brian; Orton, Darren; Han, Lu; Wang, Baolin; Capobianco, Anthony J; Lee, Ethan; Robbins, David J

    2014-09-01

    The Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway represents an important class of emerging developmental signaling pathways that play critical roles in the genesis of a large number of human cancers. The pharmaceutical industry is currently focused on developing small molecules targeting Smoothened (Smo), a key signaling effector of the HH pathway that regulates the levels and activity of the Gli family of transcription factors. Although one of these compounds, vismodegib, is now FDA-approved for patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma, acquired mutations in Smo can result in rapid relapse. Furthermore, many cancers also exhibit a Smo-independent activation of Gli proteins, an observation that may underlie the limited efficacy of Smo inhibitors in clinical trials against other types of cancer. Thus, there remains a critical need for HH inhibitors with different mechanisms of action, particularly those that act downstream of Smo. Recently, we identified the FDA-approved anti-pinworm compound pyrvinium as a novel, potent (IC50, 10 nmol/L) casein kinase-1α (CK1α) agonist. We show here that pyrvinium is a potent inhibitor of HH signaling, which acts by reducing the stability of the Gli family of transcription factors. Consistent with CK1α agonists acting on these most distal components of the HH signaling pathway, pyrvinium is able to inhibit the activity of a clinically relevant, vismodegib -resistant Smo mutant, as well as the Gli activity resulting from loss of the negative regulator suppressor of fused. We go on to demonstrate the utility of this small molecule in vivo, against the HH-dependent cancer medulloblastoma, attenuating its growth and reducing the expression of HH biomarkers. PMID:24994715

  18. Type B Heterotrimeric G Protein γ-Subunit Regulates Auxin and ABA Signaling in Tomato[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Gayathery; Trusov, Yuri; Hayashi, Satomi; Batley, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins composed of α, β, and γ subunits are central signal transducers mediating the cellular response to multiple stimuli in most eukaryotes. Gγ subunits provide proper cellular localization and functional specificity to the heterotrimer complex. Plant Gγ subunits, divided into three structurally distinct types, are more diverse than their animal counterparts. Type B Gγ subunits, lacking a carboxyl-terminal isoprenylation motif, are found only in flowering plants. We present the functional characterization of type B Gγ subunit (SlGGB1) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We show that SlGGB1 is the most abundant Gγ subunit in tomato and strongly interacts with the Gβ subunit. Importantly, the green fluorescent protein-SlGGB1 fusion protein as well as the carboxyl-terminal yellow fluorescent protein-SlGGB1/amino-terminal yellow fluorescent protein-Gβ heterodimer were localized in the plasma membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm. RNA interference-mediated silencing of SlGGB1 resulted in smaller seeds, higher number of lateral roots, and pointy fruits. The silenced lines were hypersensitive to exogenous auxin, while levels of endogenous auxins were lower or similar to those of the wild type. SlGGB1-silenced plants also showed strong hyposensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination but not in other related assays. Transcriptome analysis of the transgenic seeds revealed abnormal expression of genes involved in ABA sensing, signaling, and response. We conclude that the type B Gγ subunit SlGGB1 mediates auxin and ABA signaling in tomato. PMID:26668332

  19. Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura 78 (AtATL78) mediates ABA-dependent ROS signaling in response to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Ji Yeon; Kim, Soo Jin; Oh, Tae Rin; Cho, Seok Keun; Yang, Seong Wook; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-01-01

    Plants have developed a variety of complicated responses to cope with drought, one of the most challenging environmental stresses. As a quick response, plants rapidly inhibit stomatal opening under the control of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway, in order to preserve water. Here, we report that Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATL), a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, mediates the ABA-dependent stomatal closure. In contrast to wild-type plants, the stomatal closure was fully impaired in atatl78 mutant plants even in the presence of exogenous ABA and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Besides, under high concentrations of Ca(2+), a down-stream signaling molecule of ABA signaling pathway, atatl78 mutant plants successfully closed the pores. Furthermore, AtATL78 protein indirectly associated with catalases and the deficiency of AtATL78 led the reduction of catalase activity and H2O2, implying the function of AtATL78 in the modulation of ROS activity. Based on these results, we suggest that AtATL78 possibly plays a role in promoting ROS-mediated ABA signaling pathway during drought stress. PMID:26612255

  20. The ARF2-ANT-COR15A gene cascade regulates ABA-signaling-mediated resistance of large seeds to drought in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lai-Sheng; Wang, Zhi-Bo; Yao, Shun-Qiao; Liu, Aizhong

    2015-11-01

    Seedlings of large-seeded plants are considered to be able to withstand abiotic stresses efficiently. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the involved signaling crosstalk between the large-seeded trait and abiotic tolerance are, however, largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate the molecular link that integrates plant abscisic acid (ABA) responses to drought stress into the regulation of seed mass. Both loss-of-function mutants of the Auxin Response Factor 2 (ARF2 encoding a transcription factor) and lines overexpressing AINTEGUMENTA (ANT; a transcription factor) under the 35S promoter exhibited large seed and drought-tolerant phenotypes as a result of abnormal ABA-auxin crosstalk signaling pathways in Arabidopsis. The target gene COLD-REGULATED15A (COR15a) was identified as participating in the regulation of seed development with ABA signaling through a negative regulation mechanism that is mediated by ANT. The molecular and genetic evidence presented indicate that ARF2, ANT and COR15A form an ABA-mediated signaling pathway to link modulation of seed mass with drought tolerance. These observations indicate that the ARF2 transcription factor serves as a molecular link that integrates plant ABA responses to drought stress into the regulation of seed mass. PMID:26395398

  1. Pepper protein phosphatase type 2C, CaADIP1 and its interacting partner CaRLP1 antagonistically regulate ABA signalling and drought response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae Woo; Lee, Sung Chul

    2016-07-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key phytohormone that regulates plant growth and developmental processes, including seed germination and stomatal closing. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of a novel type 2C protein phosphatase, CaADIP1 (Capsicum annuum ABA and Drought-Induced Protein phosphatase 1). The expression of CaADIP1 was induced in pepper leaves by ABA, drought and NaCl treatments. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing CaADIP1 (CaADIP1-OX) exhibited an ABA-hyposensitive and drought-susceptible phenotype. We used a yeast two-hybrid screening assay to identify CaRLP1 (Capsicum annuum RCAR-Like Protein 1), which interacts with CaADIP1 in the cytoplasm and nucleus. In contrast to CaADIP1-OX plants, CaRLP1-OX plants displayed an ABA-hypersensitive and drought-tolerant phenotype, which was characterized by low levels of transpirational water loss and increased expression of stress-responsive genes relative to those of wild-type plants. In CaADIP1-OX/CaRLP1-OX double transgenic plants, ectopic expression of the CaRLP1 gene led to strong suppression of CaADIP1-induced ABA hyposensitivity during the germinative and post-germinative stages, indicating that CaADIP1 and CaRLP1 act in the same signalling pathway and CaADIP1 functions downstream of CaRLP1. Our results indicate that CaADIP1 and its interacting partner CaRLP1 antagonistically regulate the ABA-dependent defense signalling response to drought stress. PMID:26825039

  2. Protein tyrosine phosphatase is possibly involved in cellular signal transduction and the regulation of ABA accumulation in response to water deficit in Maize L. coleoptile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Water deficit-induced ABA accumulation is an ideal model or "stimulus-response" system to investigate cellular stress signaling in plant cells, using such a model the cellular stress signaling triggered by water deficit was investigated in Maize L. coleoptile. Water deficit-induced ABA accumulation was sensitively blocked by NaVO3, a potent inhibitor both to plasma membrane H+-ATPase (PM-H+- ATPase) and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase). However, while PM- H+-ATPase activity was unaffected under water deficit and PM- H+-ATPase activator did not induce an ABA accumulation instead of water deficit, water deficit induced an increase in the protein phosphatase activity, and furthermore, ABA accumulation was inhibited by PAO, a specific inhibitor of PTPase. These results indicate that protein phosphtases may be involved in the cellular signaling in response to water deficit. Further studies identified at least four species of protein phosphtase as assayed by using pNPP as substrate, among which one component was especially sensitive to NaVO3. The NaVO3-sensitive enzyme was purified and finally showed a protein band about 66 kD on SDS/PAGE. The purified enzyme showed a great activity to some specific PTPase substrates at pH 6.0. In addition to NaVO3, the enzyme was also sensitive to some other PTPase inhibitors such as Zn2+ and MO33+, but not to Ca2+ and Mg2+, indicating that it might be a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Interestingly, the purified enzyme could be deactivated by some reducing agent DTT, which was previously proved to be an inhibitor of water deficit-induced ABA accumulation. This result further proved that PTPase might be involved in the cellular signaling of ABA accumulation in response to water deficit.

  3. Alkaline-stress response in Glycine soja leaf identifies specific transcription factors and ABA-mediated signaling factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ying; Li, Yong; Lv, De-Kang; Bai, Xi; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Wang, Ao-Xue; Zhu, Yan-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Transcriptome of Glycine soja leaf tissue during a detailed time course formed a foundation for examining transcriptional processes during NaHCO(3) stress treatment. Of a total of 2,310 detected differentially expressed genes, 1,664 genes were upregulated and 1,704 genes were downregulated at various time points. The number of stress-regulated genes increased dramatically after a 6-h stress treatment. GO category gene enrichment analysis revealed that most of the differentially expressed genes were involved in cell structure, protein synthesis, energy, and secondary metabolism. Another enrichment test revealed that the response of G. soja to NaHCO(3) highlights specific transcription factors, such as the C2C2-CO-like, MYB-related, WRKY, GARP-G2-like, and ZIM families. Co-expressed genes were clustered into ten classes (P < 0.001). Intriguingly, one cluster of 188 genes displayed a unique expression pattern that increases at an early stage (0.5 and 3 h), followed by a decrease from 6 to 12 h. This group was enriched in regulation of transcription components, including AP2-EREBP, bHLH, MYB/MYB-related, C2C2-CO-like, C2C2-DOF, C2C2, C3H, and GARP-G2-like transcription factors. Analysis of the 1-kb upstream regions of transcripts displaying similar changes in abundance identified 19 conserved motifs, potential binding sites for transcription factors. The appearance of ABA-responsive elements in the upstream of co-expression genes reveals that ABA-mediated signaling participates in the signal transduction in alkaline response.

  4. Radar Signal Attenuation due to Finite Radome Thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Képeši, Viktor; Labun, Ján

    2015-01-01

    Radar antennas deployed in real use usually include a protective dome, which shields them from potentially harmful weather conditions. The protective dome is typically constructed from a plastic material, which can affect the radar signal. The presented paper deals with signal attenuation caused by radar’s dome. It provides results of a computer simulation concerning this attenuation based on different thickness of the material used for radome construction. The presented results give insight ...

  5. Pyrvinium attenuates Hedgehog signaling downstream of Smoothened

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bin; Fei, Dennis Liang; Flaveny, Colin A.; Dahmane, Nadia; Baubet, Valérie; Wang, Zhiqiang; Bai, Feng; Pei, Xin-Hai; Rodriguez-Blanco, Jezabel; Hang, Brian; Orton, Darren; Han, Lu; Wang, Baolin; Capobianco, Anthony J.; Lee, Ethan

    2014-01-01

    The Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway represents an important class of emerging developmental signaling pathways that play critical roles in the genesis of a large number of human cancers. The pharmaceutical industry is currently focused on developing small molecules targeting Smoothened (Smo), a key signaling effector of the HH pathway that regulates the levels and activity of the Gli family of transcription factors. Although one of these compounds vismodegib is now FDA-approved for advanced b...

  6. Identification and functional expression of the pepper RING type E3 ligase, CaDTR1, involved in drought stress tolerance via ABA-mediated signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hyunhee; Lim, Chae Woo; Lee, Sung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Drought negatively affects plant growth and development, thereby leading to loss of crop productivity. Several plant E3 ubiquitin ligases act as positive or negative regulators of abscisic acid (ABA) and thus play important roles in the drought stress response. Here, we show that the C3HC4-type RING finger E3 ligase, CaDTR1, regulates the drought stress response via ABA-mediated signalling. CaDTR1 contains an amino-terminal RING finger motif and two carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic regions; the RING finger motif functions during attachment of ubiquitins to the target proteins, and the carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic regions function during subcellular localisation. The expression of CaDTR1 was induced by ABA, drought, and NaCl treatments. CaDTR1 localised in the nucleus and displayed in vitro E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. CaDTR1-silenced pepper plants exhibited a drought-sensitive phenotype characterised by high levels of transpirational water loss. On the other hand, CaDTR1-overexpressing (OX) Arabidopsis plants exhibited an ABA-hypersensitive phenotype during the germinative and post-germinative growth stages. Moreover, in contrast to CaDTR1-silenced pepper plants, CaDTR1-OX plants exhibited a drought-tolerant phenotype characterised by low levels of transpirational water loss via increased stomatal closure and high leaf temperatures. Our data indicate that CaDTR1 functions as a positive regulator of the drought stress response via ABA-mediated signalling. PMID:27439598

  7. Molecular and genetic analyses of the PP2C-ABA receptor interaction in the abscisic acid signaling pathway.

    OpenAIRE

    Antoni Alandes, Regina

    2013-01-01

    La fitohormona ácido abscísico (ABA) juega un papel crucial en el control de la respuesta a estrés y en la regulación del crecimiento y desarrollo de la planta. La unión del ABA a los receptores intracelulares PYR/PYL/RCAR conlleva la inhibición de las PP2Cs del clado A tales como ABI1 o HAB1, causando la activación de la ruta de señalización del ABA. Para obtener más información en la señalización del ABA nos hemos centrado en la caracterización de miembros de estas dos famil...

  8. ABA Receptors: Past, Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jianjun [Harvard University; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Weston, David [ORNL; Chen, Jay [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is the key plant stress hormone. Consistent with the earlier studies in support of the presence of both membrane- and cytoplasm-localized ABA receptors, recent studies have identified multiple ABA receptors located in various subcellular locations. These include a chloroplast envelope-localized receptor (the H subunit of Chloroplast Mg2+-chelatase/ABA Receptor), two plasma membrane-localized receptors (G-protein Coupled Receptor 2 and GPCR-type G proteins), and one cytosol/nucleus-localized Pyrabactin Resistant (PYR)/PYR-Like (PYL)/Regulatory Component of ABA Receptor 1 (RCAR). Although the downstream molecular events for most of the identified ABA receptors are currently unknown, one of them, PYR/PYL/RACR was found to directly bind and regulate the activity of a long-known central regulator of ABA signaling, the A-group protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C). Together with the Sucrose Non-fermentation Kinase Subfamily 2 (SnRK2s) protein kinases, a central signaling complex (ABA-PYR-PP2Cs-SnRK2s) that is responsible for ABA signal perception and transduction is supported by abundant genetic, physiological, biochemical and structural evidence. The identification of multiple ABA receptors has advanced our understanding of ABA signal perception and transduction while adding an extra layer of complexity.

  9. Electrical signaling, stomatal conductance, ABA and Ethylene content in avocado trees in response to root hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar M Gil; Gurovich, Luis; Schaffer, Bruce; García, Nicolás; Iturriaga, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) trees are among the most sensitive of fruit tree species to root hypoxia as a result of flooded or poorly drained soil. Similar to drought stress, an early physiological response to root hypoxia in avocado is a reduction of stomatal conductance. It has been previously determined in avocado trees that an extracellular electrical signal between the base of stem and leaves is produced and related to reductions in stomatal conductance in response to drought stress...

  10. Stomatal malfunctioning under low VPD conditions: induced by alterations in stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy or in the ABA signaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliniaeifard, Sasan; Malcolm Matamoros, Priscila; van Meeteren, Uulke

    2014-12-01

    Exposing plants to low VPD reduces leaf capacity to maintain adequate water status thereafter. To find the impact of VPD on functioning of stomata, stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy, fava bean plants were grown at low (L, 0.23 kPa) or moderate (M, 1.17 kPa) VPDs and some plants that developed their leaves at moderate VPD were then transferred for 4 days to low VPD (M→L). Part of the M→L-plants were sprayed with ABA (abscisic acid) during exposure to L. L-plants showed bigger stomata, larger pore area, thinner leaves and less spongy cells compared with M-plants. Stomatal morphology (except aperture) and leaf anatomy of the M→L-plants were almost similar to the M-plants, while their transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were identical to that of L-plants. The stomatal response to ABA was lost in L-plants, but also after 1-day exposure of M-plants to low VPD. The level of foliar ABA sharply decreased within 1-day exposure to L, while the level of ABA-GE (ABA-glucose ester) was not affected. Spraying ABA during the exposure to L prevented loss of stomatal closing response thereafter. The effect of low VPD was largely depending on exposure time: the stomatal responsiveness to ABA was lost after 1-day exposure to low VPD, while the responsiveness to desiccation was gradually lost during 4-day exposure to low VPD. Leaf anatomical and stomatal morphological alterations due to low VPD were not the main cause of loss of stomatal closure response to closing stimuli.

  11. Transcription factor WRKY46 modulates the development of Arabidopsis lateral roots in osmotic/salt stress conditions via regulation of ABA signaling and auxin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhong Jie; Yan, Jing Ying; Li, Chun Xiao; Li, Gui Xin; Wu, Yun Rong; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2015-10-01

    The development of lateral roots (LR) is known to be severely inhibited by salt or osmotic stress. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying LR development in osmotic/salt stress conditions are poorly understood. Here we show that the gene encoding the WRKY transcription factor WRKY46 (WRKY46) is expressed throughout lateral root primordia (LRP) during early LR development and that expression is subsequently restricted to the stele of the mature LR. In osmotic/salt stress conditions, lack of WRKY46 (in loss-of-function wrky46 mutants) significantly reduces, while overexpression of WRKY46 enhances, LR development. We also show that exogenous auxin largely restores LR development in wrky46 mutants, and that the auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) inhibits LR development in both wild-type (WT; Col-0) and in a line overexpressing WRKY46 (OV46). Subsequent analysis of abscisic acid (ABA)-related mutants indicated that WRKY46 expression is down-regulated by ABA signaling, and up-regulated by an ABA-independent signal induced by osmotic/salt stress. Next, we show that expression of the DR5:GUS auxin response reporter is reduced in roots of wrky46 mutants, and that both wrky46 mutants and OV46 display altered root levels of free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and IAA conjugates. Subsequent RT-qPCR and ChIP-qPCR experiments indicated that WRKY46 directly regulates the expression of ABI4 and of genes regulating auxin conjugation. Finally, analysis of wrky46 abi4 double mutant plants confirms that ABI4 acts downstream of WRKY46. In summary, our results demonstrate that WRKY46 contributes to the feedforward inhibition of osmotic/salt stress-dependent LR inhibition via regulation of ABA signaling and auxin homeostasis.

  12. Signal Attenuation Curve for Different Surface Detector Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Vicha, J; Nosek, D; Ebr, J

    2014-01-01

    Modern cosmic ray experiments consisting of large array of particle detectors measure the signals of electromagnetic or muon components or their combination. The correction for an amount of atmosphere passed is applied to the surface detector signal before its conversion to the shower energy. Either Monte Carlo based approach assuming certain composition of primaries or indirect estimation using real data and assuming isotropy of arrival directions can be used. Toy surface arrays of different sensitivities to electromagnetic and muon components are assumed in MC simulations to study effects imposed on attenuation curves for varying composition or possible high energy anisotropy. The possible sensitivity of the attenuation curve to the mass composition is also tested for different array types focusing on a future apparatus that can separate muon and electromagnetic component signals.

  13. GhCAX3 gene, a novel Ca(2+/H(+ exchanger from cotton, confers regulation of cold response and ABA induced signal transduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Xu

    Full Text Available As a second messenger, Ca(2+ plays a major role in cold induced transduction via stimulus-specific increases in [Ca(2+]cyt, which is called calcium signature. During this process, CAXs (Ca(2+/H(+ exchangers play critical role. For the first time, a putative Ca(2+/H(+ exchanger GhCAX3 gene from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. 'YZ-1' was isolated and characterized. It was highly expressed in all tissues of cotton except roots and fibers. This gene may act as a regulator in cotton's response to abiotic stresses as it could be up-regulated by Ca(2+, NaCl, ABA and cold stress. Similar to other CAXs, it was proved that GhCAX3 also had Ca(2+ transport activity and the N-terminal regulatory region (NRR through yeast complementation assay. Over-expression of GhCAX3 in tobacco showed less sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and seedling stages, and the phenotypic difference between wild type (WT and transgenic plants was more significant when the NRR was truncated. Furthermore, GhCAX3 conferred cold tolerance in yeast as well as in tobacco seedlings based on physiological and molecular studies. However, transgenic plant seeds showed more sensitivity to cold stress compared to WT during seed germination, especially when expressed in N-terminal truncated version. Finally, the extent of sensitivity in transgenic lines was more severe than that in WT line under sodium tungstate treatment (an ABA repressor, indicating that ABA could alleviate cold sensitivity of GhCAX3 seeds, especially in short of its NRR. Meanwhile, we also found that overexpression of GhCAX3 could enhance some cold and ABA responsive marker genes. Taken together, these results suggested that GhCAX3 plays important roles in the cross-talk of ABA and cold signal transduction, and compared to full-length of GhCAX3, the absence of NRR could enhance the tolerance or sensitivity to cold stress, depending on seedling's developmental stages.

  14. ABA与植物耐盐信号转导途径的研究进展%Advances of the ABA and the Salt Stress Tolerance Mechanisms in Plant Signal Transduction Pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕影东; 刘清醒; 郭长虹; 郭东林

    2013-01-01

    盐胁迫是常见的非生物胁迫因素之一并严重地影响着植物的生长发育.简述了植物在应对盐胁迫时,在胁迫信号的感知、信号的转导和传递、胁迫诱导基因的表达等方面所形成的一系列适应性的分子机制,回顾了近年来对脱落酸信号转导和其受体的研究.分析表明脱落酸受体PYR/PYL/RCAR (pyrabatin resistance/like-pyrabatin resistance/regularly component of ABA receptors)的发现使得ABA的信号转导通路更为清楚,使ABA与植物耐盐胁迫的关系更加明确,认为ABA在植物耐盐信号转导途径中发挥了重要的作用,与经济作物的耐盐性密切相关.%High salinity is the most common abiotic stress factor in environment which impacts on the plant growth. This paper reviewed a series of molecular mechanisms of plant response to salt stress. The mechanism included signal perception, signal transduction, transmission and stress-induced gene expression and the studies on ABA signal transduction and ABA receptors in recent years. The analysis showed that the discovery of the ABA PYR/PYL/RCAR (pyrabatin resistance/ like-pyrabatin resistance/regularly component of ABA receptors) made the ABA signal transduction pathway more clearly, the relationship between ABA and salt stress was defined. ABA had play an important role in salt tolerance of plant signal transduction pathways, and closely related to the salt tolerance of economic crops.

  15. Liming can decrease legume crop yield and leaf gas exchange by enhancing root to shoot ABA signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Shane A; Elphinstone, E David; Dodd, Ian C

    2015-04-01

    To meet future requirements for food production, sustainable intensive agricultural systems need to optimize nutrient availability to maximize yield, traditionally achieved by maintaining soil pH within an optimal range (6-6.5) by applying lime (calcium carbonate). However, a field trial that applied recommended liming rates to a sandy loam soil (increasing soil pH from 5.5 to 6.2) decreased pod yield of field bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Fuego) by ~30%. Subsequent pot trials, with liming that raised soil pH to 6.3-6.7, reduced stomatal conductance (g(s)) by 63, 26, and 59% in V. faba, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and pea (Pisum sativum), respectively. Furthermore, liming reduced shoot dry biomass by 16-24% in these species. Ionomic analysis of root xylem sap and leaf tissue revealed a decrease in phosphorus concentration that was correlated with decreased g(s): both reductions were partially reversed by adding superphosphate fertilizer. Further analysis of pea suggests that leaf gas exchange was reduced by a systemic increase (roots, xylem sap, and leaves) in the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) in response to lime-induced suboptimal plant phosphorus concentrations. Supplying synthetic ABA via the transpiration stream to detached pea leaves, at the same xylem sap concentrations induced by liming, decreased transpiration. Furthermore, the g(s) of the ABA-deficient mutant pea wilty was unresponsive to liming, apparently confirming that ABA mediates some responses to low phosphorus availability caused by liming. This research provides a detailed mechanistic understanding of the physiological processes by which lime application can limit crop yields, and questions the suitability of current liming recommendations. PMID:25740925

  16. Physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to partial root-zone drying: ABA signalling, leaf gas exchange, and water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fulai; Shahnazari, Ali; Andersen, Mathias N; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Jensen, Christian R

    2006-01-01

    The physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Folva) to partial root-zone drying (PRD) were investigated in potted plants in a greenhouse (GH) and in plants grown in the field under an automatic rain-out-shelter. In the GH, irrigation was applied daily to the whole root system (FI), or to one-half of the root system while the other half was dried, for 9 d. In the field, the plants were drip irrigated either to the whole root system near field capacity (FI) or using 70% water of FI to one side of the roots, and shifted to the other side every 5-10 d (PRD). PRD plants had a similar midday leaf water potential to that of FI, whereas in the GH their root water potential (Psi(r)) was significantly lowered after 5 d. Stomatal conductance (g(s)) was more sensitive to PRD than photosynthesis (A) particularly in the field, leading to greater intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE) (i.e. A/g(s)) in PRD than in FI plants on several days. In PRD, the xylem sap abscisic acid concentration ([ABA](xylem)) increased exponentially with decreasing Psi(r); and the relative [ABA](xylem) (PRD/FI) increased exponentially as the fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW) in the drying side decreased. In the field, the leaf area index was slightly less in PRD than in FI treatment, while tuber biomass was similar for the two treatments. Compared with FI, PRD treatment saved 30% water and increased crop water use efficiency (WUE) by 59%. Restrictions on leaf area expansion and g(s) by PRD-induced ABA signals might have contributed to reduced water use and increased WUE.

  17. Functional Interaction of the SNARE Protein NtSyp121 in Ca2+ Channel Gating,Ca2+ Transients and ABA Signalling of Stomatal Guard Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergei Sokolovski; Adrian Hills; Robert A.Gay; Michael R.Blatt

    2008-01-01

    There is now growing evidence that membrane vesicle trafficking proteins,especially of the superfamily of SNAREs,are critical for cellular signalling in plants.Work from this laboratory first demonstrated that a soluble,inhibitory (dominant-negative) fragment of the SNARE NtSyp121 blocked K+ and Cl- channel responses to the stress-related hormone abscisic acid (ABA),but left open a question about functional impacts on signal intermediates,especially on Ca2+-mediated signalling events.Here,we report one mode of action for the SNARE mediated directly through alterations in Caz+ channel gating and its consequent effects on cytosolic-free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) elevation.We find that expressing the same inhibitory fragment of NtSyp121 blocks ABA-evoked stomatal closure,but only partially suppresses stomatal closure in the presence of the NO donor,SNAP,which promotes [Ca2+]i elevation independently of the plasma membrane Ca2+ channels.Consistent with these observations,Ca2+ channel gating at the plasma membrane is altered by the SNARE fragment in a manner effective in reducing the potential for triggering a rise in [Ca2+]i,and we show directly that its expression in vivo leads to a pronounced suppression of evoked [Ca2+]i transients.These observations offer primary evidence for the functional coupling of the SNARE with Ca2+ channels at the plant cell plasma membrane and,because [Ca2+]i plays a key role in the control of K+ and Cl- channel currents in guard cells,they underscore an important mechanism for SNARE integration with ion channel regulation during stomatal closure.

  18. The receptor kinase IMPAIRED OOMYCETE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 attenuates abscisic acid responses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hok, Sophie; Allasia, Valérie; Andrio, Emilie; Naessens, Elodie; Ribes, Elsa; Panabières, Franck; Attard, Agnès; Ris, Nicolas; Clément, Mathilde; Barlet, Xavier; Marco, Yves; Grill, Erwin; Eichmann, Ruth; Weis, Corina; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Ammon, Alexandra; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Voll, Lars M; Keller, Harald

    2014-11-01

    In plants, membrane-bound receptor kinases are essential for developmental processes, immune responses to pathogens and the establishment of symbiosis. We previously identified the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) receptor kinase IMPAIRED OOMYCETE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (IOS1) as required for successful infection with the downy mildew pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. We report here that IOS1 is also required for full susceptibility of Arabidopsis to unrelated (hemi)biotrophic filamentous oomycete and fungal pathogens. Impaired susceptibility in the absence of IOS1 appeared to be independent of plant defense mechanism. Instead, we found that ios1-1 plants were hypersensitive to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA), displaying enhanced ABA-mediated inhibition of seed germination, root elongation, and stomatal opening. These findings suggest that IOS1 negatively regulates ABA signaling in Arabidopsis. The expression of ABA-sensitive COLD REGULATED and RESISTANCE TO DESICCATION genes was diminished in Arabidopsis during infection. This effect on ABA signaling was alleviated in the ios1-1 mutant background. Accordingly, ABA-insensitive and ABA-hypersensitive mutants were more susceptible and resistant to oomycete infection, respectively, showing that the intensity of ABA signaling affects the outcome of downy mildew disease. Taken together, our findings suggest that filamentous (hemi)biotrophs attenuate ABA signaling in Arabidopsis during the infection process and that IOS1 participates in this pathogen-mediated reprogramming of the host. PMID:25274985

  19. Mechanism of attenuation of leptin signaling under chronic ligand stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamberg-Lemper Simone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that acts via its hypothalamic receptor (LEPRb to regulate energy balance. A downstream effect essential for the weight-regulatory action of leptin is the phosphorylation and activation of the latent transcription factor STAT3 by LEPRb-associated Janus kinases (JAKs. Obesity is typically associated with chronically elevated leptin levels and a decreased ability of LEPRb to activate intracellular signal transduction pathways (leptin resistance. Here we have studied the roles of the intracellular tyrosine residues in the negative feedback regulation of LEPRb-signaling under chronic leptin stimulation. Results Mutational analysis showed that the presence of either Tyr985 and Tyr1077 in the intracellular domain of LEPRb was sufficient for the attenuation of STAT3 phosphorylation, whereas mutation of both tyrosines rendered LEPRb resistant to feedback regulation. Overexpression and RNA interference-mediated downregulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 revealed that both Tyr985 and Tyr1077 were capable of supporting the negative modulatory effect of SOCS3 in reporter gene assays. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of SOCS1 was enhanced by the presence of Tyr985 but not Tyr1077. Finally, the reduction of the STAT-phosphorylating activity of the LEPRb complex after 2 h of leptin stimulation was not accompanied by the dephosphorylation or degradation of LEPRb or the receptor-associated JAK molecule, but depended on Tyr985 and/or Tyr1077. Conclusions Both Tyr985 and Tyr1077 contribute to the negative regulation of LEPRb signaling. The inhibitory effects of SOCS1 and SOCS3 differ in the dependence on the tyrosine residues in the intracellular domain of LEPRb.

  20. Involvement of CmWRKY10 in Drought Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the ABA-Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abuzar Jaffar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the important abiotic factors that adversely affects plant growth and production. The WRKY transcription factor plays a pivotal role in plant growth and development, as well as in the elevation of many abiotic stresses. Among three major groups of the WRKY family, the group IIe WRKY has been the least studied in floral crops. Here, we report functional aspects of group IIe WRKY member, i.e., CmWRKY10 in chrysanthemum involved in drought tolerance. The transactivation assay showed that CmWRKY10 had transcriptional activity in yeast cells and subcellular localization demonstrated that it was localized in nucleus. Our previous study showed that CmWRKY10 could be induced by drought in chrysanthemum. Moreover, the overexpression of CmWRKY10 in transgenic chrysanthemum plants improved tolerance to drought stress compared to wild-type (WT. High expression of DREB1A, DREB2A, CuZnSOD, NCED3A, and NCED3B transcripts in overexpressed plants provided strong evidence that drought tolerance mechanism was associated with abscisic acid (ABA pathway. In addition, lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and higher enzymatic activity of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in CmWRKY10 overexpressed lines than that of WT demonstrates its role in drought tolerance. Together, these findings reveal that CmWRKY10 works as a positive regulator in drought stress by regulating stress-related genes.

  1. Involvement of CmWRKY10 in Drought Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the ABA-Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Muhammad Abuzar; Song, Aiping; Faheem, Muhammad; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Liu, Chen; Fan, Qingqing; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of the important abiotic factors that adversely affects plant growth and production. The WRKY transcription factor plays a pivotal role in plant growth and development, as well as in the elevation of many abiotic stresses. Among three major groups of the WRKY family, the group IIe WRKY has been the least studied in floral crops. Here, we report functional aspects of group IIe WRKY member, i.e., CmWRKY10 in chrysanthemum involved in drought tolerance. The transactivation assay showed that CmWRKY10 had transcriptional activity in yeast cells and subcellular localization demonstrated that it was localized in nucleus. Our previous study showed that CmWRKY10 could be induced by drought in chrysanthemum. Moreover, the overexpression of CmWRKY10 in transgenic chrysanthemum plants improved tolerance to drought stress compared to wild-type (WT). High expression of DREB1A, DREB2A, CuZnSOD, NCED3A, and NCED3B transcripts in overexpressed plants provided strong evidence that drought tolerance mechanism was associated with abscisic acid (ABA) pathway. In addition, lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher enzymatic activity of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in CmWRKY10 overexpressed lines than that of WT demonstrates its role in drought tolerance. Together, these findings reveal that CmWRKY10 works as a positive regulator in drought stress by regulating stress-related genes. PMID:27187353

  2. Aversive Counterconditioning Attenuates Reward Signaling in the Ventral Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaag, Anne Marije; Schluter, Renée S; Karel, Peter; Homberg, Judith; van den Brink, Wim; Reneman, Liesbeth; van Wingen, Guido A

    2016-01-01

    Appetitive conditioning refers to the process of learning cue-reward associations and is mediated by the mesocorticolimbic system. Appetitive conditioned responses are difficult to extinguish, especially for highly salient reward such as food and drugs. We investigate whether aversive counterconditioning can alter reward reinstatement in the ventral striatum in healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the initial conditioning phase, two different stimuli were reinforced with a monetary reward. In the subsequent counterconditioning phase, one of these stimuli was paired with an aversive shock to the wrist. In the following extinction phase, none of the stimuli were reinforced. In the final reinstatement phase, reward was reinstated by informing the participants that the monetary gain could be doubled. Our fMRI data revealed that reward signaling in the ventral striatum and ventral tegmental area following reinstatement was smaller for the stimulus that was counterconditioned with an electrical shock, compared to the non-counterconditioned stimulus. A functional connectivity analysis showed that aversive counterconditioning strengthened striatal connectivity with the hippocampus and insula. These results suggest that reward signaling in the ventral striatum can be attenuated through aversive counterconditioning, possibly by concurrent retrieval of the aversive association through enhanced connectivity with hippocampus and insula. PMID:27594829

  3. Aversive Counterconditioning Attenuates Reward Signaling in the Ventral Striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaag, Anne Marije; Schluter, Renée S.; Karel, Peter; Homberg, Judith; van den Brink, Wim; Reneman, Liesbeth; van Wingen, Guido A.

    2016-01-01

    Appetitive conditioning refers to the process of learning cue-reward associations and is mediated by the mesocorticolimbic system. Appetitive conditioned responses are difficult to extinguish, especially for highly salient reward such as food and drugs. We investigate whether aversive counterconditioning can alter reward reinstatement in the ventral striatum in healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the initial conditioning phase, two different stimuli were reinforced with a monetary reward. In the subsequent counterconditioning phase, one of these stimuli was paired with an aversive shock to the wrist. In the following extinction phase, none of the stimuli were reinforced. In the final reinstatement phase, reward was reinstated by informing the participants that the monetary gain could be doubled. Our fMRI data revealed that reward signaling in the ventral striatum and ventral tegmental area following reinstatement was smaller for the stimulus that was counterconditioned with an electrical shock, compared to the non-counterconditioned stimulus. A functional connectivity analysis showed that aversive counterconditioning strengthened striatal connectivity with the hippocampus and insula. These results suggest that reward signaling in the ventral striatum can be attenuated through aversive counterconditioning, possibly by concurrent retrieval of the aversive association through enhanced connectivity with hippocampus and insula. PMID:27594829

  4. An ABA-mimicking ligand that reduces water loss and promotes drought resistance in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Minjie; Liu, Xue; Yan ZHANG; Xue, Xiaoqian; Zhou, X. Edward; Melcher, Karsten; Gao, Pan; Wang, Fuxing; Zeng, Liang; Zhao, Yang; Deng, Pan; Zhong, Dafang; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xu, H. Eric; Xu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is the most important hormone for plants to resist drought and other abiotic stresses. ABA binds directly to the PYR/PYL family of ABA receptors, resulting in inhibition of type 2C phosphatases (PP2C) and activation of downstream ABA signaling. It is envisioned that intervention of ABA signaling by small molecules could help plants to overcome abiotic stresses such as drought, cold and soil salinity. However, chemical instability and rapid catabolism by plant enzymes limit...

  5. Activation of PERK signaling attenuates Abeta-mediated ER stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Yeon Lee

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by the deposition of aggregated beta-amyloid (Abeta, which triggers a cellular stress response called the unfolded protein response (UPR. The UPR signaling pathway is a cellular defense system for dealing with the accumulation of misfolded proteins but switches to apoptosis when endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is prolonged. ER stress is involved in neurodegenerative diseases including AD, but the molecular mechanisms of ER stress-mediated Abeta neurotoxicity still remain unknown. Here, we show that treatment of Abeta triggers the UPR in the SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells. Abeta mediated UPR pathway accompanies the activation of protective pathways such as Grp78/Bip and PERK-eIF2alpha pathway, as well as the apoptotic pathways of the UPR such as CHOP and caspase-4. Knockdown of PERK enhances Abeta neurotoxicity through reducing the activation of eIF2alpha and Grp8/Bip in neurons. Salubrinal, an activator of the eIF2alpha pathway, significantly increased the Grp78/Bip ER chaperone resulted in attenuating caspase-4 dependent apoptosis in Abeta treated neurons. These results indicate that PERK-eIF2alpha pathway is a potential target for therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative diseases including AD.

  6. Signal Transduction from Water Stress Perception to ABA Accumulation%从水分胁迫的识别到ABA积累的细胞信号转导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾文锁; 邢宇; 卢从明; 张建华

    2002-01-01

    由于植物在生长和发育过程中不可避免地要遭受各种环境胁迫的影响,植物只有通过对环境胁迫的快速感知和主动反应才得以生存和发展.植物这种对环境胁迫的快速感知和主动反应体现在环境胁迫下植物可以通过一系列基因的表达调控来实现各种抗逆的生理生化反应.虽然得以鉴定的水分胁迫应答基因越来越多,但其中只有极少的基因在抗逆中的基本功能已得到初步认识.从细胞对水分胁迫原初信号的感知到基因表达调控包括了一系列复杂的细胞逆境信息传递过程.脱落酸(abscisic acid, ABA)作为重要的细胞逆境信号物质介导了一系列基因表达,因此从细胞对水分胁迫原初信号的感知到编码ABA生物合成关键酶基因的表达是一条最为关键的细胞逆境信息传递途径.逆境应答基因功能的鉴定以及对整个细胞信号传递过程中详尽的分子机制的了解无疑是今后最有趣的也是最为重要的研究课题.%To cope with unpredictably environmental perturbations and sometimes stresses, plants have evolved with some mechanisms so that these developing stresses can be sensitively perceived and the physiology can be rapidly regulated. Such perception and regulation can be a kind of feed-forward mechanism and may involve many biochemical and physiological processes and/or the expression of many genes. Although many dehydration-responsive genes have been identified, much fewer of their functions have been known. Such stress-induced responses should include the initial perception of the dehydration signal, then the complicated signal transduction and cellular transmission until to the final gene activation or expression. As an important plant stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) mediates many such responses. We believe that starting from the initial perception of dehydration to the gene expression leading to the stress-induced ABA biosynthesis is the most important

  7. Influence of attenuation on acoustic emission signals in carbon fiber reinforced polymer panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamene, Kassahun; Hudson, Larry; Sundaresan, Mannur

    2015-05-01

    Influence of attenuation on acoustic emission (AE) signals in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) crossply and quasi-isotropic panels is examined in this paper. Attenuation coefficients of the fundamental antisymmetric (A0) and symmetric (S0) wave modes were determined experimentally along different directions for the two types of CFRP panels. In the frequency range from 100 kHz to 500 kHz, the A0 mode undergoes significantly greater changes due to material related attenuation compared to the S0 mode. Moderate to strong changes in the attenuation levels were noted with propagation directions. Such mode and frequency dependent attenuation introduces major changes in the characteristics of AE signals depending on the position of the AE sensor relative to the source. Results from finite element simulations of a microscopic damage event in the composite laminates are used to illustrate attenuation related changes in modal and frequency components of AE signals.

  8. Tourism First for Aba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A tourism market regulatory body has been established in the Aba Zangzu Qiangzu Autonomous Prefecture,which is located in the northwest of Sichuan Province and along the southeastern fringe of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

  9. Research progress of plant PP2C-type protein phosphatase in ABA signal transduction and adversity stress regulation mechanism%植物 PP2C 蛋白磷酸酶 ABA 信号转导及逆境胁迫调控机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继红; 陶能国

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphatase is the most important and pivotal enzymes in reversible protein phosphorylation regula-ting mechanisms.While the PP2C phosphatase is a kind of serine/threonine residues of protein phosphatase,is the largest protein phosphatase family in higher plants,there are 76 family members,widely exists in living organisms. So far,four kinds of PP2C protein phosphatases have been found in plants.Protein kinase and protein phosphatase catalyzed reversible protein phosphorylation,play an important role in plant signal transduction and physiological me-tabolism,protein phosphorylation exist in almost the signal transduction pathway.Numerous academic studies have shown that plant PP2Cs are involved in multiple signal transduction pathways including PP 2C involved in ABA sig-naling pathway,the response to drought,low temperature,salt stress,participated in the plant wound and seed dor-mancy or germination signal pathway,and exist the different regulation mechanism and the enzyme catalytic activity were dependent on the concentrations of Mg2+ or Mn2+ .In plant PP2Cs protein C-terminal,there are a highly con-served catalytic domains,as well as in their N-terminal,their function are different.The review would provide a brief overview of classification,structure of PP 2Cs ,the interaction between ABA receptor and PP2Cs protein,the recent progresses about their roles in ABA and other stress signal transduction pathway in higher plant.%蛋白磷酸酶(protein phosphatase,PP)是蛋白质可逆磷酸化调节机制中的关键酶,而 PP2C 磷酸酶是一类丝氨酸/苏氨酸残基蛋白磷酸酶,是高等植物中最大的蛋白磷酸酶家族,包含76个家族成员,广泛存在于生物体中。迄今为止,在植物体内已经发现了4种 PP2C 蛋白磷酸酶。蛋白激酶和蛋白磷酸酶协同催化蛋白质可逆磷酸化,在植物体内信号转导和生理代谢中起着重要的调节作用,蛋白质的磷酸化几乎存在于所有的信号转导途

  10. ABA Inducible Rice Protein Phosphatase 2C Confers ABA Insensitivity and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Amarjeet; Jha, Saroj K.; Bagri, Jayram; Pandey, Girdhar K.

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis PP2C belonging to group A have been extensively worked out and known to negatively regulate ABA signaling. However, rice (Oryza sativa) orthologs of Arabidopsis group A PP2C are scarcely characterized functionally. We have identified a group A PP2C from rice (OsPP108), which is highly inducible under ABA, salt and drought stresses and localized predominantly in the nucleus. Genetic analysis revealed that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsPP108 are highly insensitive to ABA and t...

  11. Measuring soil sydric content by the attenuation of a microwave signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measuring soil water content by means of microwave signal attenuation. The attenuation of microwave signal was used to measure the moisture of various soils. Samples of three soils with different textures and organic matter contents were used. The attenuation of the transmitted electromagnetic signal was measured for each sample with different values of soil moisture. Linear regression models were used to fit the experimental values obtained, and the 95% prediction interval was estimated for the attenuation. From the comparison between the moisture values obtained with this method and those of the gravimetric method, the advantages of the first one are seen, both in speed and in the possibility to estimate the in situ moisture, even if this method has a greater relative error. This method would be useful to operate an automatic control irrigation system, preventing hydric stress when the values of soil moisture reach near field capacity. (author)

  12. Optical coherence tomography for blood glucose monitoring through signal attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Lucas R.; Yoshimura, Tania M.; Ribeiro, Martha S.; de Freitas, Anderson Z.

    2016-03-01

    Development of non-invasive techniques for glucose monitoring is crucial to improve glucose control and treatment adherence in patients with diabetes. Hereafter, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) may offer a good alternative for portable glucometers, since it uses light to probe samples. Changes in the object of interest can alter the intensity of light returning from the sample and, through it, one can estimate the sample's attenuation coefficient (μt) of light. In this work, we aimed to explore the behavior of μt of mouse's blood under increasing glucose concentrations. Different samples were prepared in four glucose concentrations using a mixture of heparinized blood, phosphate buffer saline and glucose. Blood glucose concentrations were measured with a blood glucometer, for reference. We have also prepared other samples diluting the blood in isotonic saline solution to check the effect of a higher multiple-scattering component on the ability of the technique to differentiate glucose levels based on μt. The OCT system used was a commercial Spectral Radar OCT with 930 nm central wavelength and spectral bandwidth (FWHM) of 100 nm. The system proved to be sensitive for all blood glucose concentrations tested, with good correlations with the obtained attenuation coefficients. A linear tendency was observed, with an increase in attenuation with higher values of glucose. Statistical difference was observed between all groups (p<0.001). This work opens the possibility towards a non-invasive diagnostic modality using OCT for glycemic control, which eliminates the use of analytes and/or test strips, as in the case with commercially available glucometers.

  13. 植物激素ABA在水分胁迫下的功能及信号途径%Function and Signaling of Plant Hormone ABA under Water Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李保珠; 安国勇; 韩栓

    2012-01-01

    植物根系感知外界水分胁迫刺激,诱导ABA生物合成.ABA既可诱导气孔关闭或抑制气孔开放,以降低植物的蒸腾失水,又可影响植物根系发育,以抵御水分胁迫.本文就植物激素ABA及其下游信号H2O2、NO以及Ca2+等在植物生长调节方面的研究进展进行概述,以构建水分胁迫下植物生长自我调控的可能模式.%Plant roots perceive water stress and induce the synthesis of abscisic acid (ABA). ABA not only could induce stomatal closure or inhibit stomatal opening to reduce transpiration, but also regulate the development of roots and increase drought tolerance. This paper focused on the functions of plant hormone ABA and its downstream signal intermediates (H2O2, NO and Ca2+) for establishing the basic model of its regulation of plant growth under water stress.

  14. Computer signal processing for ultrasonic attenuation and velocity measurements for material property characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vary, A.

    1979-01-01

    This report deals with instrumentation and computer programming concepts that have been developed for ultrasonic materials characterization. Methods that facilitate velocity and attenuation measurements are described. The apparatus described is based on a broadband, buffered contact probe using a pulse-echo approach for simultaneously measuring velocity and attenuation. Instrumentation, specimen condition, and signal acquisition and acceptance criteria are discussed. Typical results with some representative materials are presented.

  15. ABA and cytokinins: challenge and opportunity for plant stress research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verslues, Paul E

    2016-08-01

    Accumulation of the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) induces many cellular mechanisms associated with drought resistance. Recent years have seen a rapid advance in our knowledge of how increased ABA levels are perceived by ABA receptors, particularly the PYL/RCAR receptors, but there has been relatively less new information about how ABA accumulation is controlled and matched to stress severity. ABA synthesis and catabolism, conjugation and deconjugation to glucose, and ABA transport all are involved in controlling ABA levels. This highly buffered system of ABA metabolism represents both a challenge and opportunity in developing a mechanistic understanding of how plants detect and respond to drought. Recent data have also shown that direct manipulation of cytokinin levels in transgenic plants has dramatic effect on drought phenotypes and prompted new interest in the role of cytokinins and cytokinin signaling in drought. Both ABA and cytokinins will continue to be major foci of drought research but likely with different trajectories both in terms of basic research and in translational research aimed at increasing plant performance during drought. PMID:26910054

  16. Function of ABA in Stomatal Defense against Biotic and Drought Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Woo Lim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA regulates many key processes involved in plant development and adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Under stress conditions, plants synthesize ABA in various organs and initiate defense mechanisms, such as the regulation of stomatal aperture and expression of defense-related genes conferring resistance to environmental stresses. The regulation of stomatal opening and closure is important to pathogen defense and control of transpirational water loss. Recent studies using a combination of approaches, including genetics, physiology, and molecular biology, have contributed considerably to our understanding of ABA signal transduction. A number of proteins associated with ABA signaling and responses—especially ABA receptors—have been identified. ABA signal transduction initiates signal perception by ABA receptors and transfer via downstream proteins, including protein kinases and phosphatases. In the present review, we focus on the function of ABA in stomatal defense against biotic and abiotic stresses, through analysis of each ABA signal component and the relationships of these components in the complex network of interactions. In particular, two ABA signal pathway models in response to biotic and abiotic stress were proposed, from stress signaling to stomatal closure, involving the pyrabactin resistance (PYR/PYR-like (PYL or regulatory component of ABA receptor (RCAR family proteins, 2C-type protein phosphatases, and SnRK2-type protein kinases.

  17. Function of ABA in Stomatal Defense against Biotic and Drought Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae Woo; Baek, Woonhee; Jung, Jangho; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many key processes involved in plant development and adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Under stress conditions, plants synthesize ABA in various organs and initiate defense mechanisms, such as the regulation of stomatal aperture and expression of defense-related genes conferring resistance to environmental stresses. The regulation of stomatal opening and closure is important to pathogen defense and control of transpirational water loss. Recent studies using a combination of approaches, including genetics, physiology, and molecular biology, have contributed considerably to our understanding of ABA signal transduction. A number of proteins associated with ABA signaling and responses--especially ABA receptors--have been identified. ABA signal transduction initiates signal perception by ABA receptors and transfer via downstream proteins, including protein kinases and phosphatases. In the present review, we focus on the function of ABA in stomatal defense against biotic and abiotic stresses, through analysis of each ABA signal component and the relationships of these components in the complex network of interactions. In particular, two ABA signal pathway models in response to biotic and abiotic stress were proposed, from stress signaling to stomatal closure, involving the pyrabactin resistance (PYR)/PYR-like (PYL) or regulatory component of ABA receptor (RCAR) family proteins, 2C-type protein phosphatases, and SnRK2-type protein kinases. PMID:26154766

  18. Primary cilia attenuate hedgehog signalling in neoplastic chondrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, L.; Ali, S A; Al-Jazrawe, M; R. Kandel; Wunder, J S; Alman, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Primary cilia can act as either a negative or positive regulator of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. Many cartilage tumors are characterized by abnormal activation of the Hh pathway. Here, we report that the presence of primary cilia occurs at a low frequency (12.4%) in neoplastic chondrocytes from malignant human chondrosarcomas, compared with chondrocytes from normal articular cartilage (67.7%). To determine the function of primary cilia in cartilaginous neoplasia, we studied benign car...

  19. Cardiac Effects of Attenuating Gsα - Dependent Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus R Streit

    Full Text Available Inhibition of β-adrenergic signalling plays a key role in treatment of heart failure. Gsα is essential for β-adrenergic signal transduction. In order to reduce side-effects of beta-adrenergic inhibition diminishing β-adrenergic signalling in the heart at the level of Gsα is a promising option.We analyzed the influence of Gsα on regulation of myocardial function and development of cardiac hypertrophy, using a transgenic mouse model (C57BL6/J mice overexpressing a dominant negative Gsα-mutant under control of the α-MHC-promotor. Cardiac phenotype was characterized in vivo and in vitro and under acute and chronic β-adrenergic stimulation. At rest, Gsα-DN-mice showed bradycardia (602 ± 13 vs. 660 ± 17 bpm, p<0.05 and decreased dp/dtmax (5037 ± 546- vs. 6835 ± 505 mmHg/s, p = 0.02. No significant differences were found regarding ejection fraction, heart weight and cardiomyocyte size. β-blockade by propranolol revealed no baseline differences of hemodynamic parameters between wildtype and Gsα-DN-mice. Acute adrenergic stimulation resulted in decreased β-adrenergic responsiveness in Gsα-DN-mice. Under chronic adrenergic stimulation, wildtype mice developed myocardial hypertrophy associated with increase of LV/BW-ratio by 23% (4.4 ± 0.2 vs. 3.5 ± 0.1 mg/g, p<0.01 and cardiac myocyte size by 24% (14927 ± 442 px vs. 12013 ± 583 px, p<0.001. In contrast, both parameters were unchanged in Gsα-DN-mice after chronic isoproterenol stimulation.Overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of Gsα leads to decreased β-adrenergic responsiveness and is protective against isoproterenol-induced hypertrophy. Thus, Gsα-DN-mice provide novel insights into β-adrenergic signal transduction and its modulation in myocardial overload and failure.

  20. ABA inducible rice protein phosphatase 2C confers ABA insensitivity and abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amarjeet; Jha, Saroj K; Bagri, Jayram; Pandey, Girdhar K

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis PP2C belonging to group A have been extensively worked out and known to negatively regulate ABA signaling. However, rice (Oryza sativa) orthologs of Arabidopsis group A PP2C are scarcely characterized functionally. We have identified a group A PP2C from rice (OsPP108), which is highly inducible under ABA, salt and drought stresses and localized predominantly in the nucleus. Genetic analysis revealed that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsPP108 are highly insensitive to ABA and tolerant to high salt and mannitol stresses during seed germination, root growth and overall seedling growth. At adult stage, OsPP108 overexpression leads to high tolerance to salt, mannitol and drought stresses with far better physiological parameters such as water loss, fresh weight, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic potential (Fv/Fm) in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression profile of various stress marker genes in OsPP108 overexpressing plants revealed interplay of ABA dependent and independent pathway for abiotic stress tolerance. Overall, this study has identified a potential rice group A PP2C, which regulates ABA signaling negatively and abiotic stress signaling positively. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing this gene might provide an answer to the problem of low crop yield and productivity during adverse environmental conditions. PMID:25886365

  1. ABA inducible rice protein phosphatase 2C confers ABA insensitivity and abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjeet Singh

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis PP2C belonging to group A have been extensively worked out and known to negatively regulate ABA signaling. However, rice (Oryza sativa orthologs of Arabidopsis group A PP2C are scarcely characterized functionally. We have identified a group A PP2C from rice (OsPP108, which is highly inducible under ABA, salt and drought stresses and localized predominantly in the nucleus. Genetic analysis revealed that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsPP108 are highly insensitive to ABA and tolerant to high salt and mannitol stresses during seed germination, root growth and overall seedling growth. At adult stage, OsPP108 overexpression leads to high tolerance to salt, mannitol and drought stresses with far better physiological parameters such as water loss, fresh weight, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic potential (Fv/Fm in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression profile of various stress marker genes in OsPP108 overexpressing plants revealed interplay of ABA dependent and independent pathway for abiotic stress tolerance. Overall, this study has identified a potential rice group A PP2C, which regulates ABA signaling negatively and abiotic stress signaling positively. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing this gene might provide an answer to the problem of low crop yield and productivity during adverse environmental conditions.

  2. Roles for farnesol and ABA in Arabidopsis flower development

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, A. Heather; Shrestha, Nisha; Bhandari, Jayaram; Crowell, Dring N

    2011-01-01

    The Arabidopsis FOLK (At5g58560) gene encodes farnesol kinase, which phosphorylates farnesol to farnesyl phosphate. Loss-of-function mutations in the FOLK gene are associated with enhanced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA), suggesting that FOLK negatively regulates ABA signaling. Moreover, folk flowers develop supernumerary carpels under water stress, providing evidence for a molecular link between farnesol metabolism, abiotic stress signaling and flower development. Here, we show that farne...

  3. Simultaneous seismic random noise attenuation and signal preservation by optimal spatiotemporal TFPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongbo; Li, Yue; Ma, Haitao; Xu, Liping

    2016-05-01

    The time-frequency peak filtering (TFPF) algorithm has been successfully applied to seismic random noise attenuation. However, the time-frequency peak filtering with fixed-type spatiotemporal filtering trajectories fails to preserve reflected signals in seismic events which have complex geometric structure. An optimal spatiotemporal TFPF (OST-TFPF) is proposed here combining the Shapiro-Francia (S-F) statistic to reduce random noise and preserve seismic signals simultaneously. In the novel algorithm, the S-F statistic is first calculated for seismic data to detect seismic events based on the fact that the non-Gaussian seismic signals lead to smaller values of the S-F statistic comparing to seismic random noise which is general Gaussian. Then, optimal spatiotemporal filtering trajectory can be constructed based on the S-F statistic to coincide with the shape of each event. Finally, the optimal spatiotemporal TFPF de-noises seismic data along the optimal trajectories. Since the resampled signals along the trajectories matching the geometric structures of seismic events become more linear compared to signals in time, the OST-TFPF gives better signal estimation while attenuating random noise. Synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that the optimal spatiotemporal TFPF is effective in the denoising and signal-preserving of the seismic data with low signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, the OST-TFPF also obtains good performance in preservation of seismic event with complex geometric structure.

  4. A role for ABA in the plants response to chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Americo Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a biopolymer of glucosamine residue that can be produced by deacetylation of chitin present in seafood wastes such as shrimp or crab shell. Chitosan and its derivatives are nontoxic and biodegradable, and have been used in applications like cosmetics, medicine or agriculture. When used to enhance plant defenses, chitosan induces host defense responses in both monocotyledons and dicotyledons. These responses include lignification, chitinase and glucanase activation, phytoalexin biosynthesis, among others (El Hadrami et al., 2010. Reduction of plant leaves transpiration due to stomatal closure without affecting the photosynthetic rate or production yields has also been described in plants treated with chitosan. This effect was observed in different plants like bean (Phaseolus vulgaris(Khokon et al., 2010, pepper (Capsicum sp(Bittelli et al., 2001 or barley (Hordeum vulgare (Koers et al., 2011 among others. Abscisic acid (ABA plays a crucial role in the regulation of stomata aperture (Kim et al., 2010 but the role of this phytohormone in the chitosan induced stomatal closure is not clearly understood. Chitosan treatment of bean leaves triggers a 3 times increase in ABA content indicating an involvement of ABA in chitosan induced stomatal closure (Iriti et al., 2009. However, in Arabidopsis, aba2-2 mutants and wild type plants treated with an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor presented chitosan induced stomatal closure similar to wild type untreated plants suggesting that endogenous ABA is not required for this effect (Issak et al., 2013. The involvement of ABA in this process is also suggested by the observation that chitosan and ABA have convergent signaling components, like calcium and reactive oxygen species (Srivastava et al., 2009. The aim of this work is to better understand the role of ABA in chitosan induced stomatal closure, leading to a reduction of transpiration and concomitantly to higher water-use efficiency, using molecular and

  5. Comparative genomics of the Mycobacterium signaling architecture and implications for a novel live attenuated Tuberculosis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peifu; Xie, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), remains a major threat to global public health. A new TB vaccine affording superior immune protection to M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is imperative. The advantage of a live attenuated vaccine is that it can mimic the bona fide pathogen, elicit immune responses similar to natural infection, and potentially provide more protection than other vaccines. BCG, the only vaccine and a live attenuated vaccine that is the result of cumulative mutations by serial passage of M. bovis, has provided clues for the construction of novel improved vaccines. A strategy is put forward for identifying a new live attenuated TB vaccine generated by cumulative mutation based on M.tb. Given the important role of the M.tb signaling network consisting of a two-component system, eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr protein kinase system and sigma factor system based on comparisons among M.tb H37Rv, M. bovis, and BCG, we have put a premium on this signaling circuit as the starting point for the generation of an attenuated TB vaccine.

  6. Inducible nitric-oxide synthase attenuates vasopressin-dependent Ca2+ signaling in rat hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, S.; Gaspers, L. D.; Boucherie, S.; Memin, E.; Stellato, K. A.; Guillon, G; Combettes, L; Thomas, A P

    2002-01-01

    Increases in both Ca2+ and nitric oxide levels are vital for a variety of cellular processes; however, the interaction between these two crucial messengers is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase in hepatocytes, in response to inflammatory mediators, dramatically attenuates Ca2+ signaling by the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-forming hormone, vasopressin. The inhibitory effects of induction were reversed by nitric oxide inhibitors and mim...

  7. Myocardial ischemic post-conditioning attenuates ischemia reperfusion injury via PTEN/Akt signal pathway

    OpenAIRE

    LI, CHUN-MEI; Shen, Shu-Wen; Tao WANG; Zhang, Xing-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether myocardial ischemic post-conditioning attenuates ischemia reperfusion injury via PTEN/Akt signal pathway. Design: Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham, Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) and Ischemic post-conditioning (IPost) group. After the experiment finished, myocardial infarction area was examined. Serum creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity were detected at baseline and the end of reperfusion. Th...

  8. Attenuation of signaling pathways stimulated by pathologically activated FGF-receptor 2 mutants prevents craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswarakumar, V P; Ozcan, F; Lew, E D; Bae, J H; Tomé, F; Booth, C J; Adams, D J; Lax, I; Schlessinger, J

    2006-12-01

    Craniosynostosis, the fusion of one or more of the sutures of the skull vault before the brain completes its growth, is a common (1 in 2,500 births) craniofacial abnormality, approximately 20% of which occurrences are caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGF receptors (FGFRs). We describe a genetic and pharmacological approach for the treatment of a murine model system of Crouzon-like craniosynostosis induced by a dominant mutation in Fgfr2c. Using genetically modified mice, we demonstrate that premature fusion of sutures mediated by Crouzon-like activated Fgfr2c mutant is prevented by attenuation of signaling pathways by selective uncoupling between the docking protein Frs2alpha and activated Fgfr2c, resulting in normal skull development. We also demonstrate that attenuation of Fgfr signaling in a calvaria organ culture with an Fgfr inhibitor prevents premature fusion of sutures without adversely affecting calvaria development. These experiments show that attenuation of FGFR signaling by pharmacological intervention could be applied for the treatment of craniosynostosis or other severe bone disorders caused by mutations in FGFRs that currently have no treatment. PMID:17132737

  9. cGMP-dependent ABA-induced stomatal closure in the ABA-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant abi1-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovskaya, Lyudmila V; Bakakina, Yulia S; Kolesneva, Ekaterina V; Sodel, Dmitry L; McAinsh, Martin R; Hetherington, Alistair M; Volotovski, Igor D

    2011-07-01

    • The drought hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is widely known to produce reductions in stomatal aperture in guard cells. The second messenger cyclic guanosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cGMP) is thought to form part of the signalling pathway by which ABA induces stomatal closure. • We have examined the signalling events during cGMP-dependent ABA-induced stomatal closure in wild-type Arabidopsis plants and plants of the ABA-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant abi1-1. • We show that cGMP acts downstream of hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2) ) and nitric oxide (NO) in the signalling pathway by which ABA induces stomatal closure. H(2) O(2) - and NO-induced increases in the cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+) ](cyt) ) were cGMP-dependent, positioning cGMP upstream of [Ca(2+) ](cyt) , and involved the action of the type 2C protein phosphatase ABI1. Increases in cGMP were mediated through the stimulation of guanylyl cyclase by H(2) O(2) and NO. We identify nucleoside diphosphate kinase as a new cGMP target protein in Arabidopsis. • This study positions cGMP downstream of ABA-induced changes in H(2) O(2) and NO, and upstream of increases in [Ca(2+) ](cyt) in the signalling pathway leading to stomatal closure.

  10. New ABA-hypersensitive Arabidopsis mutants are affected in loci mediating responses to water deficit and Dickeya dadantii infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Plessis

    Full Text Available On water deficit, abscisic acid (ABA induces stomata closure to reduce water loss by transpiration. To identify Arabidopsis thaliana mutants which transpire less on drought, infrared thermal imaging of leaf temperature has been used to screen for suppressors of an ABA-deficient mutant (aba3-1 cold-leaf phenotype. Three novel mutants, called hot ABA-deficiency suppressor (has, have been identified with hot-leaf phenotypes in the absence of the aba3 mutation. The defective genes imparted no apparent modification to ABA production on water deficit, were inherited recessively and enhanced ABA responses indicating that the proteins encoded are negative regulators of ABA signalling. All three mutants showed ABA-hypersensitive stomata closure and inhibition of root elongation with little modification of growth and development in non-stressed conditions. The has2 mutant also exhibited increased germination inhibition by ABA, while ABA-inducible gene expression was not modified on dehydration, indicating the mutated gene affects early ABA-signalling responses that do not modify transcript levels. In contrast, weak ABA-hypersensitivity relative to mutant developmental phenotypes suggests that HAS3 regulates drought responses by both ABA-dependent and independent pathways. has1 mutant phenotypes were only apparent on stress or ABA treatments, and included reduced water loss on rapid dehydration. The HAS1 locus thus has the required characteristics for a targeted approach to improving resistance to water deficit. In contrast to has2, has1 exhibited only minor changes in susceptibility to Dickeya dadantii despite similar ABA-hypersensitivity, indicating that crosstalk between ABA responses to this pathogen and drought stress can occur through more than one point in the signalling pathway.

  11. An ABA-mimicking ligand that reduces water loss and promotes drought resistance in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minjie Cao; Xue Liu; Yan Zhang; Xiaoqian Xue; X Edward Zhou; Karsten Melcher; Pan Gao

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is the most important hormone for plants to resist drought and other abiotic stresses.ABA binds directly to the PYR/PYL family of ABA receptors,resulting in inhibition of type 2C phosphatases (PP2C) and activation of downstream ABA signaling.It is envisioned that intervention of ABA signaling by small molecules could help plants to overcome abiotic stresses such as drought,cold and soil salinity.However,chemical instability and rapid catabolism by plant enzymes limit the practical application ofABA itseif.Here we report the identification of a small molecule ABA mimic (AM1) that acts as a potent activator of multiple members of the family of ABA receptors.In Arabidopsis,AM1 activates a gene network that is highly similar to that induced by ABA.Treatments with AM1 inhibit seed germination,prevent leaf water loss,and promote drought resistance.We solved the crystal structure of AM1 in complex with the PYL2 ABA receptor and the HAB1 PP2C,which revealed that AM1 mediates a gate-latchlock interacting network,a structural feature that is conserved in the ABA-bound receptor/PP2C complex.Together,these results demonstrate that a single small molecule ABA mimic can activate multiple ABA receptors and protect plants from water loss and drought stress.Moreover,the AM1 complex crystal structure provides a structural basis for designing the next generation of ABA-mimicking small molecules.

  12. Combined inhibition of TGFβ and PDGF signaling attenuates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadrich, Monika; Nicolay, Nils H.; Flechsig, Paul; Bickelhaupt, Sebastian; Hoeltgen, Line; Roeder, Falk; Hauser, Kai; Tietz, Alexandra; Jenne, Jürgen; Lopez, Ramon; Roehrich, Manuel; Wirkner, Ute; Lahn, Michael; Huber, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Radiotherapy (RT) is a mainstay for the treatment of lung cancer, but the effective dose is often limited by the development of radiation-induced pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) play crucial roles in the development of these diseases, but the effects of dual growth factor inhibition on pulmonary fibrosis development remain unclear. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were treated with 20 Gy to the thorax to induce pulmonary fibrosis. PDGF receptor inhibitors SU9518 and SU14816 (imatinib) and TGFβ receptor inhibitor galunisertib were applied individually or in combinations after RT. Lung density and septal fibrosis were measured by high-resolution CT and MRI. Lung histology and gene expression analyses were performed and Osteopontin levels were studied. Results: Treatment with SU9518, SU14816 or galunisertib individually attenuated radiation-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and decreased radiological and histological signs of lung damage. Combining PDGF and TGFβ inhibitors showed to be feasible and safe in a mouse model, and dual inhibition significantly attenuated radiation-induced lung damage and extended mouse survival compared to blockage of either pathway alone. Gene expression analysis of irradiated lung tissue showed upregulation of PDGF and TGFβ-dependent signaling components by thoracic irradiation, and upregulation patterns show crosstalk between downstream mediators of the PDGF and TGFβ pathways. Conclusion: Combined small-molecule inhibition of PDGF and TGFβ signaling is a safe and effective treatment for radiation-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice and may offer a novel approach for treatment of fibrotic lung diseases in humans. Translational statement: RT is an effective treatment modality for cancer with limitations due to acute and chronic toxicities, where TGFβ and PDGF play a key role. Here, we show that a combined

  13. Arsenic Attenuates GLI Signaling, Increasing or Decreasing its Transcriptional Program in a Context-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Giambelli, Camilla; Tang, Bo; Winterbottom, Emily; Long, Jun; Jin, Ke; Wang, Zhiqiang; Fei, Dennis Liang; Nguyen, Dao M; Athar, Mohammad; Wang, Baolin; Subbarayan, Pochi R; Wang, Lily; Rai, Priyamvada; Ardalan, Bach; Capobianco, Anthony J; Robbins, David J

    2016-02-01

    The metalloid arsenic is a worldwide environmental toxicant, exposure to which is associated with many adverse outcomes. Arsenic is also an effective therapeutic agent in certain disease settings. Arsenic was recently shown to regulate the activity of the Hedgehog (HH) signal transduction pathway, and this regulation of HH signaling was proposed to be responsible for a subset of arsenic's biologic effects. Surprisingly, these separate reports proposed contradictory activities for arsenic, as either an agonist or antagonist of HH signaling. Here we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that arsenic acts as a modulator of the activity of the HH effector protein glioma-associated oncogene family zinc finger (GLI), activating or inhibiting GLI activity in a context-dependent manner. This arsenic-induced modulation of HH signaling is observed in cultured cells, patients with colorectal cancer who have received arsenic-based therapy, and a mouse colorectal cancer xenograft model. Our results show that arsenic activates GLI signaling when the intrinsic GLI activity is low but inhibits signaling in the presence of high-level GLI activity. Furthermore, we show that this modulation occurs downstream of primary cilia, evidenced by experiments in suppressor of fused homolog (SUFU) deficient cells. Combining our findings with previous reports, we present an inclusive model in which arsenic plays dual roles in GLI signaling modulation: when GLIs are primarily in their repressor form, arsenic antagonizes their repression capacity, leading to low-level GLI activation, but when GLIs are primarily in their activator form, arsenic attenuates their activity.

  14. Analyzing Signal Attenuation in PFG Anomalous Diffusion via a Modified Gaussian Phase Distribution Approximation Based on Fractal Derivative Model

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Guoxing

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed field gradient (PFG) has been increasingly employed to study anomalous diffusions in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). However, the analysis of PFG anomalous diffusion is complicated. In this paper, a fractal derivative model based modified Gaussian phase distribution method is proposed to describe PFG anomalous diffusion. By using the phase distribution obtained from the effective phase shift diffusion method based on fractal derivatives, and employing some of the traditional Gaussian phase distribution approximation techniques, a general signal attenuation expression for free fractional diffusion is derived. This expression describes a stretched exponential function based attenuation, which is distinct from both the exponential attenuation for normal diffusion obtained from conventional Gaussian phase distribution approximation, and the Mittag-Leffler function based attenuation for anomalous diffusion obtained from fractional derivative. The obtained signal attenu...

  15. Analysis of experimentally validated trans-ionospheric attenuation estimates of VLF signals

    OpenAIRE

    İnan, Umran Savaş; Graf, K. L.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Spasojevic, M.; Cohen,M.B; Marshall, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH: SPACE PHYSICS, VOL. 118, 1–13, doi:10.1002/jgra.50228, 2013 Analysis of experimentally validated trans-ionospheric attenuation estimates of VLF signals K. L. Graf,1 N. G. Lehtinen,1 M. Spasojevic,1 M. B. Cohen,1 R. A. Marshall,1 and U. S. Inan1,2 Received 7 February 2013; revised 6 March 2013; accepted 12 March 2013. [1] Accurate models of trans-ionospheric propagation are needed to assess the role of Earth-originating very low frequency (...

  16. Identification and characterization of an ABA-activated MAP kinase cascade in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Danquah, Agyemang

    2015-04-01

    Summary Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major phytohormone involved in important stress-related and developmental plant processes. Recent phosphoproteomic analyses revealed a large set of ABA-triggered phosphoproteins as putative mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) targets, although the evidence for MAPKs involved in ABA signalling is still scarce. Here, we identified and reconstituted in vivo a complete ABA-activated MAPK cascade, composed of the MAP3Ks MAP3K17/18, the MAP2K MKK3 and the four C group MAPKs MPK1/2/7/14. In planta, we show that ABA activation of MPK7 is blocked in mkk3-1 and map3k17mapk3k18 plants. Coherently, both mutants exhibit hypersensitivity to ABA and altered expression of a set of ABA-dependent genes. A genetic analysis further reveals that this MAPK cascade is activated by the PYR/PYL/RCAR-SnRK2-PP2C ABA core signalling module through protein synthesis of the MAP3Ks, unveiling an atypical mechanism for MAPK activation in eukaryotes. Our work provides evidence for a role of an ABA-induced MAPK pathway in plant stress signalling. Significance Statement We report in this article the identification of a complete MAPK module, composed of MAP3K17/18, MKK3 and MPK1/2/7/14, which is activated by ABA through the ABA core signalling complex. We showed that the activation of this module requires the MAP3K protein synthesis which occurs after hours of stress treatment, suggesting that the pathway is involved in a delayed wave of cellular responses to ABA and drought. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. ABA crosstalk with ethylene and nitric oxide in seed dormancy and germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwann eArc

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dormancy is an adaptive trait that enables seed germination to coincide with favorable environmental conditions. It has been clearly demonstrated that dormancy is induced by abscisic acid (ABA during seed development on the mother plant. After seed dispersal, germination is preceded by a decline in ABA in imbibed seeds, which results from ABA catabolism through 8’-hydroxylation. The hormonal balance between ABA and gibberellins (GAs has been shown to act as an integrator of environmental cues to maintain dormancy or activate germination. The interplay of ABA with other endogenous signals is however less documented. In numerous species, ethylene counteracts ABA signaling pathways and induces germination. In Brassicaceae seeds, ethylene prevents the inhibitory effects of ABA on endosperm cap weakening, thereby facilitating endosperm rupture and radicle emergence. Moreover, enhanced seed dormancy in Arabidopsis ethylene-insensitive mutants results from greater ABA sensitivity. Conversely, ABA limits ethylene action by down-regulating its biosynthesis. Nitric oxide (NO has been proposed as a common actor in the ABA and ethylene crosstalk in seed. Indeed, convergent evidence indicates that NO is produced rapidly after seed imbibition and promotes germination by inducing the expression of the ABA 8’-hydroxylase gene, CYP707A2, and stimulating ethylene production. The role of NO and other nitrogen-containing compounds, such as nitrate, in seed dormancy breakage and germination stimulation has been reported in several species. This review will describe our current knowledge of ABA crosstalk with ethylene and NO, both volatile compounds that have been shown to counteract ABA action in seeds and to improve dormancy release and germination.

  18. Common and unique elements of the ABA-regulated transcriptome of Arabidopsis guard cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zhixin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the presence of drought and other desiccating stresses, plants synthesize and redistribute the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA. ABA promotes plant water conservation by acting on specialized cells in the leaf epidermis, guard cells, which border and regulate the apertures of stomatal pores through which transpirational water loss occurs. Following ABA exposure, solute uptake into guard cells is rapidly inhibited and solute loss is promoted, resulting in inhibition of stomatal opening and promotion of stomatal closure, with consequent plant water conservation. There is a wealth of information on the guard cell signaling mechanisms underlying these rapid ABA responses. To investigate ABA regulation of gene expression in guard cells in a systematic genome-wide manner, we analyzed data from global transcriptomes of guard cells generated with Affymetrix ATH1 microarrays, and compared these results to ABA regulation of gene expression in leaves and other tissues. Results The 1173 ABA-regulated genes of guard cells identified by our study share significant overlap with ABA-regulated genes of other tissues, and are associated with well-defined ABA-related promoter motifs such as ABREs and DREs. However, we also computationally identified a unique cis-acting motif, GTCGG, associated with ABA-induction of gene expression specifically in guard cells. In addition, approximately 300 genes showing ABA-regulation unique to this cell type were newly uncovered by our study. Within the ABA-regulated gene set of guard cells, we found that many of the genes known to encode ion transporters associated with stomatal opening are down-regulated by ABA, providing one mechanism for long-term maintenance of stomatal closure during drought. We also found examples of both negative and positive feedback in the transcriptional regulation by ABA of known ABA-signaling genes, particularly with regard to the PYR/PYL/RCAR class of soluble ABA receptors and

  19. Inducible nitric-oxide synthase attenuates vasopressin-dependent Ca2+ signaling in rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sandip; Gaspers, Lawrence D; Boucherie, Sylviane; Memin, Elisabeth; Stellato, Kerri Anne; Guillon, Gilles; Combettes, Laurent; Thomas, Andrew P

    2002-09-13

    Increases in both Ca(2+) and nitric oxide levels are vital for a variety of cellular processes; however, the interaction between these two crucial messengers is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase in hepatocytes, in response to inflammatory mediators, dramatically attenuates Ca(2+) signaling by the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-forming hormone, vasopressin. The inhibitory effects of induction were reversed by nitric oxide inhibitors and mimicked by prolonged cyclic GMP elevation. Induction was without effect on Ca(2+) signals in response to AlF(4)(-) or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, indicating that phospholipase C activation and release of Ca(2+) from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive Ca(2+) stores were not targets for nitric oxide inhibition. Vasopressin receptor levels, however, were dramatically reduced in induced cultures. Our data provide a possible mechanism for hepatocyte dysfunction during chronic inflammation. PMID:12097323

  20. Dietary intervention in acne: Attenuation of increased mTORC1 signaling promoted by Western diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  1. Environmental Enrichment Attenuated Sevoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity through the PPAR-γ Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sevoflurane is the most widely used inhaled anesthetic. Environmental enrichment (EE can reverse sevoflurane-induced learning and memory impairment in young mice. However, the mechanism by which EE elicits this effect is unclear. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR regulatory pathway plays a critical role in the regulation of inflammation in central nervous system diseases. In this study, we investigated whether EE attenuates sevoflurane-induced learning and memory disability via the PPAR signaling pathway. Six-day-old mice were treated with 3% sevoflurane for 2 hours daily from postnatal day 6 (P6 to P8. Then, the mice were treated with EE. The effects of sevoflurane on learning and memory function, PPAR-γ expression in the brain, and the numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells and 5-bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells in the hippocampus were determined. Sevoflurane induced neuronal apoptosis and neurogenesis inhibition, which may impair learning and memory in young mice. Furthermore, sevoflurane downregulated PPAR-γ expression. Both EE and the PPAR-γ agonist, rosiglitazone, attenuated sevoflurane-induced neuronal apoptosis, neurogenesis inhibition, and learning and memory impairment. Our findings suggest that EE ameliorated sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and learning and memory impairment through the PPAR-γ signaling pathway. PPAR-γ may be a potential therapeutic target for preventing or treating sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity.

  2. Disruption of NF-κB signaling by fluoxetine attenuates MGMT expression in glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song T

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tao Song,1 Hui Li,2 Zhiliang Tian,3 Chaojiu Xu,4 Jingfang Liu,1 Yong Guo1 1Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 2Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Medical School of Jishou University, 3Department of Neurosurgery, 4Department of Oncology, The Hospital of Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture, Jishou, People’s Republic of China Background: Resistance to temozolomide (TMZ in glioma is modulated by the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT. This study aimed to examine the effects of fluoxetine (FLT on MGMT expression in glioma cells and to investigate its underlying mechanisms.Materials and methods: Expression of MGMT, GluR1, or IκB kinase β (IKKβ was attenuated using short hairpin RNA-mediated gene knockdown. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol -2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay was used to evaluate the growth inhibition induced by FLT or TMZ. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL was conducted to detect apoptotic cells. Western blotting was conducted to analyze the protein expression of MGMT, IKKβ, and NF-κB/p65 following FLT treatment. The murine subcutaneous xenograft model was used to evaluate the combinational effect of TMZ and FLT.Results: FLT markedly reduced MGMT expression in glioma cells, which was independent of GluR1 receptor function. Further, FLT disrupted NF-κB/p65 signaling in glioma cells and consequently attenuated NF-κB/p65 activity in regulating MGMT expression. Importantly, FLT sensitized MGMT-expressing glioma cells to TMZ, as FLT enhanced TMZ’s ability to impair the in vitro tumorigenic potential and to induce apoptosis in glioma cells. Knockdown of MGMT or IKKβ expression abolished the synergistic effect of FLT with TMZ in glioma cells, which suggested that FLT might sensitize glioma cells to TMZ through down-regulation of MGMT expression. Consistently, TMZ combined with FLT markedly attenuated NF

  3. LMO2 attenuates tumor growth by targeting the Wnt signaling pathway in breast and colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Huang, Di; Wang, Zhaoyang; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Zhao; Wang, Dan; Li, Zongjin; Zhu, Tianhui; Yang, Shuang; Sun, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The proto-oncogene LIM-domain only 2 (lmo2) was traditionally considered to be a pivotal transcriptional regulator in hematopoiesis and leukemia. Recently, the cytosolic localization of LMO2 was revealed in multiple epithelial tissues and a variety of solid tumors. However, the function of LMO2 in these epithelia and solid tumors remains largely unclear. The Wnt signaling pathway is a crucial determinant of development, and abnormalities in several key segments of this pathway contribute to oncogenesis. The current study demonstrated that LMO2 participates in the regulation of canonical Wnt signaling in the cytoplasm by binding to Dishevelled-1/2 (DVL-1/2) proteins. These interactions occurred at the PDZ domain of Dishevelled, and LMO2 subsequently attenuated the activation of the key factor β-catenin in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Meanwhile, significantly decreased expression of LMO2 was detected in breast and colorectal cancers, and the downregulation of LMO2 in these cells increased cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis. Taken together, the data in this study revealed a novel crosstalk between LMO2 and the Wnt signaling pathway during tumorigenesis and suggested that LMO2 might be a tumor suppressor in certain solid tumors, in contrast to its traditional oncogenic role in the hematopoietic system. PMID:27779255

  4. Vibrio cholerae porin OmpU induces LPS tolerance by attenuating TLR-mediated signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharwade, Sanica C; Mukhopadhaya, Arunika

    2015-12-01

    Porins can act as pathogen-associated molecular patterns, can be recognized by the host immune system and modulate immune responses. Vibrio choleraeporin OmpU aids in bacterial survival in the human gut by increasing resistance against bile acids and anti-microbial peptides. V. choleraeOmpU is pro-inflammatory in nature. However, interestingly, it can also down-regulate LPS-mediated pro-inflammatory responses. In this study, we have explored how OmpU-pretreatment affects LPS-mediated responses. Our study indicates that OmpU-pretreatment followed by LPS-activation does not induce M2-polarization of macrophages/monocytes. Further, OmpU attenuates LPS-mediated TLR2/TLR6 signaling by decreasing the association of TLRs along with recruitment of MyD88 and IRAKs to the receptor complex. This results in decreased translocation of NFκB in the nucleus. Additionally, OmpU-pretreatment up-regulates expression of IRAK-M, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells upon LPS-stimulation. Suppressor cytokine IL-10 is partially involved in OmpU-induced down-regulation of LPS-mediated TNFα production in human PBMCs. Furthermore, OmpU-pretreatment also affects macrophage function, by enhancing phagocytosis in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells, and down-regulates LPS-induced cell surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules. Altogether, OmpU causes suppression of LPS-mediated responses by attenuating the LPS-mediated TLR signaling pathway.

  5. Gypenoside Attenuates β Amyloid-Induced Inflammation in N9 Microglial Cells via SOCS1 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing β amyloid- (Aβ- induced microglial activation is believed to be effective in treating Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Microglia can be activated into classic activated state (M1 state or alternative activated state (M2 state, and the former is harmful; in contrast, the latter is beneficial. Gypenoside (GP is the major bioactive constituent of Gynostemma pentaphyllum, a traditional Chinese herb medicine. In this study, we hypothesized that GP attenuates Aβ-induced microglial activation by ameliorating microglial M1/M2 states, and the process may be mediated by suppressor of cell signaling protein 1 (SOCS1. In this study, we found that Aβ exposure increased the levels of microglial M1 markers, including iNOS expression, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin 1β (IL-1β, and IL-6 releases, and coadministration of GP reversed the increase of M1 markers and enhanced the levels of M2 markers, including arginase-1 (Arg-1 expression, IL-10, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF releases in the Aβ-treated microglial cells. SOCS1-siRNA, however, significantly abolished the GP-induced effects on the levels of microglial M1 and M2 markers. These findings indicated that GP attenuates Aβ-induced microglial activation by ameliorating M1/M2 states, and the process may be mediated by SOCS1.

  6. Attenuation of artifacts in EEG signals measured inside an MRI scanner using constrained independent component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integration of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) resonance will allow analysis of the brain activities at superior temporal and spatial resolution. However simultaneous acquisition of EEG and fMRI is hindered by the enhancement of artifacts in EEG, the most prominent of which are ballistocardiogram (BCG) and electro-oculogram (EOG) artifacts. The situation gets even worse if the evoked potentials are measured inside MRI for their minute responses in comparison to the spontaneous brain responses. In this study, we propose a new method of attenuating these artifacts from the spontaneous and evoked EEG data acquired inside an MRI scanner using constrained independent component analysis with a priori information about the artifacts as constraints. With the proposed techniques of reference function generation for the BCG and EOG artifacts as constraints, our new approach performs significantly better than the averaged artifact subtraction (AAS) method. The proposed method could be an alternative to the conventional ICA method for artifact attenuation, with some advantages. As a performance measure we have achieved much improved normalized power spectrum ratios (INPS) for continuous EEG and correlation coefficient (cc) values with outside MRI visual evoked potentials for visual evoked EEG, as compared to those obtained with the AAS method. The results show that our new approach is more effective than the conventional methods, almost fully automatic, and no extra ECG signal measurements are involved

  7. Sleep deprivation is associated with attenuated parametric valuation and control signals in the midbrain during value-based decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Mareike M; Büchel, Christian; Peters, Jan

    2012-05-16

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has detrimental effects on cognition, but the affected psychological processes and underlying neural mechanisms are still essentially unclear. Here we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging and computational modeling to examine how SD alters neural representation of specific choice variables (subjective value and decision conflict) during reward-related decision making. Twenty-two human subjects underwent two functional neuroimaging sessions in counterbalanced order, once during rested wakefulness and once after 24 h of SD. Behaviorally, SD attenuated conflict-dependent slowing of response times, which was reflected in an attenuated conflict-induced decrease in drift rates in the drift diffusion model. Furthermore, SD increased overall choice stochasticity during risky choice. Model-based functional neuroimaging revealed attenuated parametric subjective value signals in the midbrain, parietal cortex, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex after SD. Conflict-related midbrain signals showed a similar downregulation. Findings are discussed with respect to changes in dopaminergic signaling associated with the sleep-deprived state.

  8. CLAUSA Is a MYB Transcription Factor That Promotes Leaf Differentiation by Attenuating Cytokinin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Maya; Israeli, Alon; Levy, Matan; Ben Gera, Hadas; Jiménez-Gómez, José M; Kouril, Stepan; Tarkowski, Petr; Ori, Naomi

    2016-07-01

    Leaf morphogenesis and differentiation are highly flexible processes, resulting in a large diversity of leaf forms. The development of compound leaves involves an extended morphogenesis stage compared with that of simple leaves, and the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant clausa (clau) exposes a potential for extended morphogenesis in tomato leaves. Here, we report that the CLAU gene encodes a MYB transcription factor that has evolved a unique role in compound-leaf species to promote an exit from the morphogenetic phase of tomato leaf development. We show that CLAU attenuates cytokinin signaling, and that clau plants have increased cytokinin sensitivity. The results suggest that flexible leaf patterning involves a coordinated interplay between transcription factors and hormones. PMID:27385816

  9. Direct signal-to-noise comparison of radiographic attenuation- and differential phase-contrast X-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For radiographic applications of X-ray differential phase-contrast imaging, like e.g. mammography, we present the Relative Contrast Gain (RCG) as a novel measure of the relative information content of attenuation- and differential phase-contrast (dpc) radiographs recorded with a grating-based Talbot interferometer. It is a fast and simple method to quantify the gain in soft-tissue contrast of the differential phase-contrast signal compared to the standard attenuation based radiograph. The RCG can also be used as a figure of merit to assess the quality of different experimental setups in terms of providing good feature visibility in soft-tissue samples in the presence of noise. A comparison of a differential signal to a non-differential signal is achieved by analysis of the calculated gradient of the attenuation signal. The Relative Contrast Gain analysis is applied on experimental absorption and phase-contrast projections obtained for human breast samples. The results show a good gain in feature contrast in the dpc signal compared to the attenuation signal as expected from theory.

  10. Integration of stress produced reactive oxygen species in the stomatal regulation of micropropagated Vitis vinifera L. plantlets impaired in ABA signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, B Jorge; Carvalho, Luísa C; Amâncio, Sara

    2008-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been repeatedly implicated as cellular second messengers important in the modulation of almost every ontogenic phase of plant development, from seedling to cell death. In all of these processes, ROS production and detoxification are highly regulated and its levels are kept under tight control, in order to achieve the desired effect at the cellular or plant level. Micropropagated Vitis vinifera L. transferred to ex vitro growth under increased irradiance gave an additional insight into ROS signaling by integrating stress produced hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) into normal signaling pathways with distinctive effects critical for the survival, growth and development of these plants. Here we discuss in further detail the relevance of these results and propose a model that may explain this phenomenon.

  11. The site of water stress governs the pattern of ABA synthesis and transport in peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Cao, Jiajia; Ge, Kui; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is one of the most important phytohormones involved in stress responses in plants. However, knowledge of the effect on ABA distribution and transport of water stress at different sites on the plant is limited. In this study, water stress imposed on peanut leaves or roots by treatment with PEG 6000 is termed “leaf stress” or “root stress”, respectively. Immunoenzyme localization technolony was first used to detect ABA distribution in peanut. Under root stress, ABA biosynthesis and distribution level were all more pronounced in root than in leaf. However, ABA transport and the ability to induce stomatal closure were still better in leaf than in root during root stress; However, ABA biosynthesis initially increased in leaf, then rapidly accumulated in the vascular cambium of leaves and induced stomatal closure under leaf stress; ABA produced in root tissues was also transported to leaf tissues to maintain stomatal closure. The vascular system was involved in the coordination and integration of this complex regulatory mechanism for ABA signal accumulation. Water stress subject to root or leaf results in different of ABA biosynthesis and transport ability that trigger stoma close in peanut. PMID:27694957

  12. Physiological impacts of ABA-JA interactions under water-limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ollas, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-08-01

    Plant responses to drought stress depend on highly regulated signal transduction pathways with multiple interactions. This complex crosstalk can lead to a physiological outcome of drought avoidance or tolerance/resistance. ABA is the principal mediator of these responses due to the regulation of stomatal closure that determines plant growth and survival, but also other strategies of drought resistance such as osmotic adjustment. However, other hormones such as JA seem responsible for regulating a subset of plant responses to drought by regulating ABA biosynthesis and accumulation and ABA-dependent signalling, but also by ABA independent pathways. Here, we review recent reports of ABA-JA hormonal and molecular interactions within a physiological framework of drought tolerance. Understanding the physiological significance of this complex regulation offers opportunities to find strategies of drought tolerance that avoid unwanted side effects that limit growth and yield, and may allow biotechnological crop improvement.

  13. Physiological impacts of ABA-JA interactions under water-limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ollas, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-08-01

    Plant responses to drought stress depend on highly regulated signal transduction pathways with multiple interactions. This complex crosstalk can lead to a physiological outcome of drought avoidance or tolerance/resistance. ABA is the principal mediator of these responses due to the regulation of stomatal closure that determines plant growth and survival, but also other strategies of drought resistance such as osmotic adjustment. However, other hormones such as JA seem responsible for regulating a subset of plant responses to drought by regulating ABA biosynthesis and accumulation and ABA-dependent signalling, but also by ABA independent pathways. Here, we review recent reports of ABA-JA hormonal and molecular interactions within a physiological framework of drought tolerance. Understanding the physiological significance of this complex regulation offers opportunities to find strategies of drought tolerance that avoid unwanted side effects that limit growth and yield, and may allow biotechnological crop improvement. PMID:27299601

  14. Genome-Wide Analysis of the bZIP Gene Family Identifies Two ABI5-Like bZIP Transcription Factors, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, as Positive Modulators of ABA Signalling in Chinese Cabbage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Bai

    Full Text Available bZIP (basic leucine zipper transcription factors coordinate plant growth and development and control responses to environmental stimuli. The genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa encodes 136 putative bZIP transcription factors. The bZIP transcription factors in Brassica rapa (BrbZIP are classified into 10 subfamilies. Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that subfamily A consists of 23 BrbZIPs. Two BrbZIPs within subfamily A, Bra005287 and Bra017251, display high similarity to ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5. Expression of subfamily A BrbZIPs, like BrABI5a (Bra005287/BrbZIP14 and BrABI5b (Bra017251/BrbZIP13, are significantly induced by the plant hormone ABA. Subcellular localization assay reveal that both BrABI5a and BrABI5b have a nuclear localization. BrABI5a and BrABI5b could directly stimulate ABA Responsive Element-driven HIS (a HIS3 reporter gene, which confers His prototrophy or LUC (LUCIFERASE expression in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplast. Deletion of the bZIP motif abolished BrABI5a and BrABI5b transcriptional activity. The ABA insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 is completely suppressed in transgenic lines expressing BrABI5a or BrABI5b. Overall, these results suggest that ABI5 orthologs, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, have key roles in ABA signalling in Chinese cabbage.

  15. Genome-Wide Analysis of the bZIP Gene Family Identifies Two ABI5-Like bZIP Transcription Factors, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, as Positive Modulators of ABA Signalling in Chinese Cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaochen; Sun, Congcong; Li, Yanlin; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Qinhu; Pei, Guoliang; Zhang, Yanfeng; Guo, Aiguang; Zhao, Huixian; Lu, Haibin; Mu, Xiaoqian; Hu, Jingjiang; Zhou, Xiaona; Xie, Chang Gen

    2016-01-01

    bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factors coordinate plant growth and development and control responses to environmental stimuli. The genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) encodes 136 putative bZIP transcription factors. The bZIP transcription factors in Brassica rapa (BrbZIP) are classified into 10 subfamilies. Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that subfamily A consists of 23 BrbZIPs. Two BrbZIPs within subfamily A, Bra005287 and Bra017251, display high similarity to ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5). Expression of subfamily A BrbZIPs, like BrABI5a (Bra005287/BrbZIP14) and BrABI5b (Bra017251/BrbZIP13), are significantly induced by the plant hormone ABA. Subcellular localization assay reveal that both BrABI5a and BrABI5b have a nuclear localization. BrABI5a and BrABI5b could directly stimulate ABA Responsive Element-driven HIS (a HIS3 reporter gene, which confers His prototrophy) or LUC (LUCIFERASE) expression in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplast. Deletion of the bZIP motif abolished BrABI5a and BrABI5b transcriptional activity. The ABA insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 is completely suppressed in transgenic lines expressing BrABI5a or BrABI5b. Overall, these results suggest that ABI5 orthologs, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, have key roles in ABA signalling in Chinese cabbage. PMID:27414644

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis of the bZIP Gene Family Identifies Two ABI5-Like bZIP Transcription Factors, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, as Positive Modulators of ABA Signalling in Chinese Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yili; Zhu, Wenbo; Hu, Xiaochen; Sun, Congcong; Li, Yanlin; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Qinhu; Pei, Guoliang; Zhang, Yanfeng; Guo, Aiguang; Zhao, Huixian; Lu, Haibin; Mu, Xiaoqian; Hu, Jingjiang; Zhou, Xiaona; Xie, Chang Gen

    2016-01-01

    bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factors coordinate plant growth and development and control responses to environmental stimuli. The genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) encodes 136 putative bZIP transcription factors. The bZIP transcription factors in Brassica rapa (BrbZIP) are classified into 10 subfamilies. Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that subfamily A consists of 23 BrbZIPs. Two BrbZIPs within subfamily A, Bra005287 and Bra017251, display high similarity to ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5). Expression of subfamily A BrbZIPs, like BrABI5a (Bra005287/BrbZIP14) and BrABI5b (Bra017251/BrbZIP13), are significantly induced by the plant hormone ABA. Subcellular localization assay reveal that both BrABI5a and BrABI5b have a nuclear localization. BrABI5a and BrABI5b could directly stimulate ABA Responsive Element-driven HIS (a HIS3 reporter gene, which confers His prototrophy) or LUC (LUCIFERASE) expression in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplast. Deletion of the bZIP motif abolished BrABI5a and BrABI5b transcriptional activity. The ABA insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 is completely suppressed in transgenic lines expressing BrABI5a or BrABI5b. Overall, these results suggest that ABI5 orthologs, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, have key roles in ABA signalling in Chinese cabbage. PMID:27414644

  17. Analyzing signal attenuation in PFG anomalous diffusion via a non-Gaussian phase distribution approximation approach by fractional derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Guoxing

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous diffusion exists widely in polymer and biological systems. Pulsed field gradient (PFG) techniques have been increasingly used to study anomalous diffusion in NMR and MRI. However, the interpretation of PFG anomalous diffusion is complicated. Moreover, there is not an exact signal attenuation expression based on fractional derivatives for PFG anomalous diffusion, which includes the finite gradient pulse width effect. In this paper, a new method, a Mainardi-Luchko-Pagnini (MLP) phase distribution approximation, is proposed to describe PFG fractional diffusion. MLP phase distribution is a non-Gaussian phase distribution. From the fractional diffusion equation based on fractional derivatives in both real space and phase space, the obtained probability distribution function is a MLP distribution. The MLP distribution leads to a Mittag-Leffler function based PFG signal attenuation rather than the exponential or stretched exponential attenuation that is obtained from a Gaussian phase distribution (GPD) und...

  18. Inhibiting TNF-α signaling does not attenuate induction of endotoxin tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loosbroock C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Loosbroock, Kenneth W Hunter Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV, USA Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α is a central mediator of inflammatory responses elicited by Toll-like receptor agonists, such as the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS. TNF-α is responsible for altering vascular permeability and activating infiltrating inflammatory cells, such as monocytes and neutrophils. Interestingly, TNF-α has also demonstrated the ability to induce tolerance to subsequent challenges with TNF-α or LPS in monocyte and macrophage cell populations. Tolerance is characterized by the inability to mount a typical inflammatory response during subsequent challenges following the initial exposure to an inflammatory mediator such as LPS. The ability of TNF-α to induce a tolerant-like state with regard to LPS is most likely a regulatory mechanism to prevent excessive inflammation. We hypothesized that the induction of tolerance or the degree of tolerance is dependent upon the production of TNF-α during the primary response to LPS. To investigate TNF-α-dependent tolerance, human monocytic THP-1 cells were treated with TNF-α-neutralizing antibodies or antagonistic TNF-α receptor antibodies before primary LPS stimulation and then monitored for the production of TNF-α during the primary and challenge stimulation. During the primary stimulation, anti-TNF-α treatment effectively attenuated the production of TNF-α and interleukin-1β; however, this reduced production did not impact the induction of endotoxin tolerance. These results demonstrate that interfering with TNF-α signaling attenuates production of inflammatory cytokines without affecting the induction of tolerance. Keywords: endotoxin tolerance, lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha, THP-1 cells

  19. AMPK inhibition blocks ROS-NFκB signaling and attenuates endotoxemia-induced liver injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is an important enzyme in regulation of cellular energy homeostasis. We have previously shown that AMPK activation by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR results in suppression of immune responses, indicating the pivotal role of AMPK in immune regulation. However, the cellular mechanism underpinning AMPK inhibition on immune response remains largely to be elucidated. The study aimed to investigate the effects of AMPK inhibition on reactive oxygen species (ROS-nuclear factor κB (NFκB signaling and endotoxemia-induced liver injury. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: RAW 264.7 cells were pretreated with AMPK activator or inhibitor, followed by LPS challenge. In addition, LPS was injected intraperitoneally into mice to induce systemic inflammation. The parameters of liver injury and immune responses were determined, and survival of mice was monitored respectively. LPS challenge in RAW 264.7 cells resulted in AMPK activation which was then inhibited by compound C treatment. Both AMPK activation by AICAR or inhibition by compound C diminished LPS-induced ROS generation, inhibited phosphorylation of IKK, IκB, and NFκB p65, and consequently, decreased TNF production of RAW 264.7 cells. AICAR or compound C treatment decreased ALT, AST, and TNF levels in serum, reduced CD68 expression and MPO activity in liver tissue of mice with endotoxemia. Moreover, AICAR or compound C treatment improved survival of endotoxemic mice. CONCLUSIONS: AICAR or compound C treatment attenuates LPS-induced ROS-NFκB signaling, immune responses and liver injury. Strategies to activate or inhibit AMPK signaling may provide alternatives to the current clinical approaches to inhibit immune responses of endotoxemia.

  20. Potentiation of ghrelin signaling attenuates cancer anorexia-cachexia and prolongs survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitsuka, N; Asakawa, A; Uezono, Y; Minami, K; Yamaguchi, T; Niijima, A; Yada, T; Maejima, Y; Sedbazar, U; Sakai, T; Hattori, T; Kase, Y; Inui, A

    2011-07-26

    Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome is characterized by decreased food intake, weight loss, muscle tissue wasting and psychological distress, and this syndrome is a major source of increased morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. This study aimed to clarify the gut-brain peptides involved in the pathogenesis of the syndrome and determine effective treatment for cancer anorexia-cachexia. We show that both ghrelin insufficiency and resistance were observed in tumor-bearing rats. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) decreased the plasma level of acyl ghrelin, and its receptor antagonist, α-helical CRF, increased food intake of these rats. The serotonin 2c receptor (5-HT2cR) antagonist SB242084 decreased hypothalamic CRF level and improved anorexia, gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility and body weight loss. The ghrelin receptor antagonist (D-Lys3)-GHRP-6 worsened anorexia and hastened death in tumor-bearing rats. Ghrelin attenuated anorexia-cachexia in the short term, but failed to prolong survival, as did SB242084 administration. In addition, the herbal medicine rikkunshito improved anorexia, GI dysmotility, muscle wasting, and anxiety-related behavior and prolonged survival in animals and patients with cancer. The appetite-stimulating effect of rikkunshito was blocked by (D-Lys3)-GHRP-6. Active components of rikkunshito, hesperidin and atractylodin, potentiated ghrelin secretion and receptor signaling, respectively, and atractylodin prolonged survival in tumor-bearing rats. Our study demonstrates that the integrated mechanism underlying cancer anorexia-cachexia involves lowered ghrelin signaling due to excessive hypothalamic interactions of 5-HT with CRF through the 5-HT2cR. Potentiation of ghrelin receptor signaling may be an attractive treatment for anorexia, muscle wasting and prolong survival in patients with cancer anorexia-cachexia.

  1. Excessive lever pressing following post-training signal attenuation in rats: a possible animal model of obsessive compulsive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, D; Avisar, A

    2001-08-27

    This study aimed at developing a rat model of obsessive compulsive disorder based on the hypothesis that a deficient response feedback mechanism underlies obsessions and compulsions. Rats were trained to lever press for food, whose delivery was signaled by the presentation of a compound stimulus (light+tone). Subsequently, the classical contingency between the stimulus and food was extinguished (signal attenuation). Experiment 1 showed that this manipulation resulted in increased lever pressing during a subsequent extinction test, which was highly correlated with an increase in the number of trials on which the rat did not attempt to collect the food reward. This behavioral pattern was not evident in an extinction test not preceded by signal attenuation (Experiment 2), suggesting that the latter is a crucial factor in the development of this behavioral pattern. Excessive lever pressing was attenuated by the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (10 mg/kg; Experiment 3), but not by the anxiolytic drug, diazepam (2 mg/kg; Experiment 4). Based on these results we propose that post-training signal attenuation may provide a rat model of obsessive compulsive disorder. PMID:11377731

  2. Towards the Identification of New Genes Involved in ABA-Dependent Abiotic Stresses Using Arabidopsis Suppressor Mutants of abh1 Hypersensitivity to ABA during Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Szarejko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid plays a pivotal role in the abiotic stress response in plants. Although great progress has been achieved explaining the complexity of the stress and ABA signaling cascade, there are still many questions to answer. Mutants are a valuable tool in the identification of new genes or new alleles of already known genes and in elucidating their role in signaling pathways. We applied a suppressor mutation approach in order to find new components of ABA and abiotic stress signaling in Arabidopsis. Using the abh1 (ABA hypersensitive 1 insertional mutant as a parental line for EMS mutagenesis, we selected several mutants with suppressed hypersensitivity to ABA during seed germination. Here, we present the response to ABA and a wide range of abiotic stresses during the seed germination and young seedling development of two suppressor mutants—soa2 (suppressor of abh1 hypersensitivity to ABA 2 and soa3 (suppressor of abh1 hypersensitivity to ABA 3. Generally, both mutants displayed a suppression of the hypersensitivity of abh1 to ABA, NaCl and mannitol during germination. Both mutants showed a higher level of tolerance than Columbia-0 (Col-0—the parental line of abh1 in high concentrations of glucose. Additionally, soa2 exhibited better root growth than Col-0 in the presence of high ABA concentrations. soa2 and soa3 were drought tolerant and both had about 50% fewer stomata per mm2 than the wild-type but the same number as their parental line—abh1. Taking into account that suppressor mutants had the same genetic background as their parental line—abh1, it was necessary to backcross abh1 with Landsberg erecta four times for the map-based cloning approach. Mapping populations, derived from the cross of abh1 in the Landsberg erecta background with each suppressor mutant, were created. Map based cloning in order to identify the suppressor genes is in progress.

  3. Drought-Induced Changes in Xylem Sap pH,ABA and Stomatal Conductance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xiu-lin; LIU Zi-hui; Razzaq; LI Guang-min

    2004-01-01

    Upstream signals potentially regulating evaporation and stomatal conductance were investigated using 6-8-leaf-old maize(Zea may L.)seedlings which were grown in a greenhouse.Pressure chamber was used to measure leaf water potential and to collect xylem sap.The pH of xylem sap in stems was higher than that in root,and the abscisic acid(ABA)concentration in stems was the highest in well-watered seedlings.The ABA concentration and pH of xylem sap in roots,stems and leaves increased,and the ABA concentration in leaves reached the maximum during drought stress.The treatment of roots with exogenous ABA solution(100 μmol L-1)increased xylem sap ABA concentration in all organs measured,and induced stomatal closure,but did not change ABA distribution among organs of maize seedlings.The combined effects of external pH buffer on pH,ABA of xylem sap and stomatal behavior indicated that pH,as a root-source signal to leaves under drought stress,regulated stomatal closure through accumulating ABA in leaves or guard cells.

  4. Xylem sap collection and extraction methodologies to determine in vivo concentrations of ABA and its bound forms by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netting Andrew G

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate quantification of xylem sap ABA concentrations is important to underpin models of root-to-shoot ABA signalling to predict the physiological effects of soil drying. Growing tomato plants in a whole plant pressure chamber allowed sequential xylem sap collection from a detached leaf, the petiole stub of an otherwise intact plant and finally the de-topped root system of the same plant, to determine the impact of xylem sap sampling methodology on xylem ABA concentration. Since xylem sap can contain bound forms of ABA, a novel gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS procedure was developed to chemically separate free ABA from two in planta bound ABA forms known as Adducts I and II and ABA-glucose-ester (ABA-GE. Results Xylem sap ABA concentrations were highly dependent on the sampling methodology used: the highest concentrations were detected in sap collected by applying an overpressure to detached leaves following the measurement of leaf water potential. Irrespective of xylem sap source, the wild-type cultivars Ailsa Craig and Rheinlands Ruhm had higher free ABA concentrations than a range of ABA-deficient mutants (notabilis, flacca and sitiens. However, in the mutants, concentrations of bound forms of ABA were similar to wild-type plants, and similar to free ABA concentrations. Conclusions Although xylem concentrations of these bound ABA forms and ABA-GE suggest they have a limited physiological impact on ABA homeostasis in tomato, the methods developed here will allow a more complete understanding of ABA biochemistry and root-to-shoot signalling in species known to have higher concentrations of these compounds.

  5. Measuring the frequency-dependent attenuation in lossy material using large time-bandwidth product ultrasound signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Grant A.

    1999-06-01

    Broadband signals are commonly used in ultrasonic spectroscopy to measure the frequency dependent attenuation characteristics of lossy solid media. Compared to narrowband signals, broadband signals are preferred since they do not require tedious frequency scanning and extensive data reduction efforts. Typically these broadband signals take the form of a pulse. Although the spectral range of a pulse is wide, the spectral resolution is limited by the duration of the signal. By employing signals with large time- bandwidth-products, the overall accuracy and resolution of ultrasonic spectroscopy can be improved. Expressions for the interaction of longitudinal waves, with large time- bandwidth-product, and isotropic materials are developed. The approach is effective for evaluating material with signals optimized for a frequency resolution and range of interest, but can also be used when thin materials (polyurethane commonly used in ultrasonic transducer fabrication.

  6. Dichotomous roles for externalized cardiolipin in extracellular signaling: Promotion of phagocytosis and attenuation of innate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Krishnakumar; Maeda, Akihiro; Lee, Janet S.; Mohammadyani, Dariush; Dar, Haider Hussain; Jiang, Jian Fei; St. Croix, Claudette M.; Watkins, Simon; Tyurin, Vladimir A.; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Klöditz, Katharina; Polimova, Anastassia; Kapralova, Valentyna I.; Xiong, Zeyu; Ray, Prabir; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Mallampalli, Rama K.; Bayir, Hülya; Fadeel, Bengt; Kagan, Valerian E.

    2016-01-01

    Among the distinct molecular signatures present in the mitochondrion is the tetra-acylated anionic phospholipid cardiolipin, a lipid also present in primordial, single-cell bacterial ancestors of mitochondria and multiple bacterial species today. Cardiolipin is normally localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane; however, when cardiolipin becomes externalized to the surface of dysregulated mitochondria, it promotes inflammasome activation and stimulates the elimination of damaged or nonfunctional mitochondria by mitophagy. Given the immunogenicity of mitochondrial and bacterial membranes that are released during sterile and pathogen-induced trauma, we hypothesized that cardiolipins might function as “eat me” signals for professional phagocytes. In experiments with macrophage cell lines and primary macrophages, we found that membranes with mitochondrial or bacterial cardiolipins on their surface were engulfed through phagocytosis, which depended on the scavenger receptor CD36. Distinct from this process, the copresentation of cardiolipin with the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist lipopolysaccharide dampened TLR4-stimulated production of cytokines. These data suggest that externalized, extracellular cardiolipins play a dual role in host-host and host-pathogen interactions by promoting phagocytosis and attenuating inflammatory immune responses. PMID:26396268

  7. An ABA down-regulated bHLH transcription repressor gene, bHLH129 regulates root elongation and ABA response when overexpressed in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hainan; Guo, Hongyan; Dai, Xuemei; Cheng, Yuxin; Zheng, Kaijie; Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Shucai

    2015-01-01

    Plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in modulating plant responses to environmental stresses. Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are one of the largest transcription factor families that regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development, as well as of plant metabolism in Arabidopsis. Several bHLH transcription factors have been shown to be involved in the regulation of ABA signaling. We report here the characterization of bHLH129, a bHLH transcription factor in Arabidopsis. We found that the expression level of bHLH129 was reduced in response to exogenously applied ABA, and elevated in the ABA biosynthesis mutant aba1-5. Florescence observation of transgenic plants expressing bHLH129-GFP showed that bHLH129 was localized in the nucleus, and transient expression of bHLH129 in protoplasts inhibited reporter gene expression. When expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of the 35S promoter, bHLH129 promoted root elongation, and the transgenic plants were less sensitivity to ABA in root elongation assays. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that ABA response of several genes involved in ABA signaling, including ABI1, SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3 and SnRK2.6 were altered in the transgenic plants overexpressing bHLH129. Taken together, our study suggests that bHLH129 is a transcription repressor that negatively regulates ABA response in Arabidopsis. PMID:26625868

  8. Cell biological mechanism for triggering of ABA accumula-tion under water stress in Vicia faba leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Water stress-induced ABA accumulation is a cellular signaling process from water stress perception to activation of genes encoding key enzymes of ABA biosynthesis, of which the water stress-signal perception by cells or triggering mechanism of the ABA accumulation is the center in the whole process of ABA related-stress signaling in plants. The cell biological mechanism for triggering of ABA accumulation under water stress was studied in leaves of Vicia faba. Mannitol at 890 mmol· kg-1 osmotic concentration induced an increase of more than 5 times in ABA concentra-tion in detached leaf tissues, but the same concentration of mannitol only induced an increase of less than 40 % in ABA concentration in protoplasts. Like in detached leaf tissues, ABA concentra-tion in isolated cells increased more than 10 times under the treatment of mannitol at 890 mmol·kg-1 concentration, suggesting that the interaction between plasmalemma and cell wall was essential to triggering of the water stress-induced ABA accumulation. Neither Ca2+-che- lating agent EGTA nor Ca2+ channel activator A23187 nor the two cytoskeleton inhibitors, colchicine and cyto-chalasin B, had any effect on water stress-induced ABA accumulation. Interestingly water stress-induced ABA accumulation was effectively inhibited by a non-plasmalemma-perme- able sulfhy-dryl-modifier PCMBS (p-chloromercuriphenyl-sulfonic acid), suggesting that plasmalemma pro-tein(s) may be involved in the triggering of water stress-induced ABA accumulation, and the protein may contain sulfhydryl group at its function domain.

  9. EP3 receptor deficiency attenuates pulmonary hypertension through suppression of Rho/TGF-β1 signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ankang; Zuo, Caojian; He, Yuhu; Chen, Guilin; Piao, Lingjuan; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Bing; Shen, Yujun; Tang, Juan; Kong, Deping; Alberti, Sara; Chen, Di; Zuo, Shenkai; Zhang, Qianqian; Yan, Shuai; Fei, Xiaochun; Yuan, Fei; Zhou, Bin; Duan, Shengzhong; Yu, Yu; Lazarus, Michael; Su, Yunchao; Breyer, Richard M.; Funk, Colin D.; Yu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is commonly associated with chronic hypoxemia in disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Prostacyclin analogs are widely used in the management of PAH patients; however, clinical efficacy and long-term tolerability of some prostacyclin analogs may be compromised by concomitant activation of the E-prostanoid 3 (EP3) receptor. Here, we found that EP3 expression is upregulated in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and human distal pulmonary arteries (PAs) in response to hypoxia. Either pharmacological inhibition of EP3 or Ep3 deletion attenuated both hypoxia and monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension and restrained extracellular matrix accumulation in PAs in rodent models. In a murine PAH model, Ep3 deletion in SMCs, but not endothelial cells, retarded PA medial thickness. Knockdown of EP3α and EP3β, but not EP3γ, isoforms diminished hypoxia-induced TGF-β1 activation. Expression of either EP3α or EP3β in EP3-deficient PASMCs restored TGF-β1 activation in response to hypoxia. EP3α/β activation in PASMCs increased RhoA-dependent membrane type 1 extracellular matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) translocation to the cell surface, subsequently activating pro–MMP-2 and promoting TGF-β1 signaling. Activation or disruption of EP3 did not influence PASMC proliferation. Together, our results indicate that EP3 activation facilitates hypoxia-induced vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension in mice and suggest EP3 inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy for pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25664856

  10. Suppression of microRNA-155 attenuates neuropathic pain by regulating SOCS1 signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yi; Yang, Jun; Xiang, Kai; Tan, Qindong; Guo, Qulian

    2015-03-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain is an unfavourable pathological pain characterised by allodynia and hyperalgesia which has brought considerable trouble to people's physical and mental health, but effective therapeutics are still lacking. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been widely studied in the development of neuropathic pain and neuronal inflammation. Among various miRNAs, miR-155 has been widely studied. It is intensively involved in regulating inflammation-associated diseases. However, the role of miR-155 in regulating neuropathic pain development is poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether miR-155 is associated with neuropathic pain and delineate the underlying mechanism. Using a neuropathic pain model of chronic constriction injury (CCI), miR-155 expression levels were markedly increased in the spinal cord. Inhibition of miR-155 significantly attenuated mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia and proinflammatory cytokine expression. We also demonstrated that miR-155 directly bound with the 3'-untranslated region of the suppressor of cytokine signalling 1 (SOCS1). The expression of SOCS1 significantly decreased in the CCI rat model, but this effect could be reversed by miR-155 inhibition. Furthermore, knockdown of SOCS1 abrogated the inhibitory effects of miR-155 inhibition on neuropathic development and neuronal inflammation. Finally, we demonstrated that inhibition of miR-155 resulted in the suppression of nuclear factor-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by mediating SOCS1. Our data demonstrate the critical role of miR-155 in regulating neuropathic pain through SOCS1, and suggest that miR-155 may be an important and potential target in preventing neuropathic pain development. PMID:25488154

  11. Isorhamnetin attenuates liver fibrosis by inhibiting TGF-β/Smad signaling and relieving oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Hye; Kim, Sang Chan; Kim, Kyu Min; Jang, Chang Ho; Cho, Sam Seok; Kim, Seung Jung; Ku, Sae Kwang; Cho, Il Je; Ki, Sung Hwan

    2016-07-15

    Hepatic fibrosis is considered integral to the progression of chronic liver diseases, leading to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the dominant event in hepatic fibrogenesis. We investigated the ability of isorhamnetin, the 3'-O-methylated metabolite of quercetin, to protect against hepatic fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. Isorhamnetin inhibited transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and collagen in primary murine HSCs and LX-2 cells. The TGF-β1- or Smad-induced luciferase reporter activity of Smad binding elements was significantly decreased by isorhamnetin with a concomitant decrease in Smad2/3 phosphorylation. Isorhamnetin increased the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in HSCs and increased antioxidant response element reporter gene activity. Furthermore, isorhamnetin blocked TGF-β1-induced reactive oxygen species production. The specific role of Nrf2 in isorhamnetin-mediated suppression of PAI-1 and phosphorylated Smad3 was verified using a siRNA against Nrf2. To examine the anti-fibrotic effect of isorhamnetin in vivo, liver fibrosis was induced by CCl4 in mice. Isorhamnetin significantly prevented CCl4-induced increases in serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels, and caused histopathological changes characterized by decreases in hepatic degeneration, inflammatory cell infiltration, and collagen accumulation. Moreover, isorhamnetin markedly decreased the expression of phosphorylated Smad3, TGF-β1, α-SMA, and PAI-1. Isorhamnetin attenuated the CCl4-induced increase in the number of 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine-positive cells, and prevented glutathione depletion. We propose that isorhamnetin inhibits the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway and relieves oxidative stress, thus inhibiting HSC activation and preventing liver fibrosis. PMID:27151496

  12. Bioactives of Artemisia dracunculus L. Mitigate the Role of Ceramides in Attenuating Insulin Signaling in Rat Skeletal Muscle Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Diana N Obanda; Hernandez, Amy; RIBNICKY, DAVID; Yu, Yongmei; Zhang, Xian H.; Wang, Zhong Q.; Cefalu, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic lipids in peripheral tissues have been implicated in attenuating insulin action in vivo. The botanical extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. (PMI 5011) improves insulin action, yet the precise mechanism is not known. We sought to determine whether the mechanism by which PMI 5011 improves insulin signaling is through regulation of lipid metabolism. After differentiation, cells were separately preincubated with free fatty acids (FFAs) and ceramide C2, and the effects on glycogen content, ...

  13. Morin Attenuates Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Inflammation by Modulating Oxidative Stress-Responsive MAPK Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuan; Ge, Ai; Zhu, Wen; Liu, Ya-Nan; Ji, Ning-Fei; Zha, Wang-Jian; Zhang, Jia-Xiang; Zeng, Xiao-Ning; Huang, Mao

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common inflammatory diseases characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and remodeling. Morin, an active ingredient obtained from Moraceae plants, has been demonstrated to have promising anti-inflammatory activities in a range of disorders. However, its impacts on pulmonary diseases, particularly on asthma, have not been clarified. This study was designed to investigate whether morin alleviates airway inflammation in chronic asthma with an emphasis on oxidative stress modulation. In vivo, ovalbumin- (OVA-) sensitized mice were administered with morin or dexamethasone before challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were obtained to perform cell counts, histological analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro, human bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) were challenged by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). The supernatant was collected for the detection of the proinflammatory proteins, and the cells were collected for reactive oxygen species (ROS)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) evaluations. Severe inflammatory responses and remodeling were observed in the airways of the OVA-sensitized mice. Treatment with morin dramatically attenuated the extensive trafficking of inflammatory cells into the BALF and inhibited their infiltration around the respiratory tracts and vessels. Morin administration also significantly suppressed goblet cell hyperplasia and collagen deposition/fibrosis and dose-dependently inhibited the OVA-induced increases in IgE, TNF-α, interleukin- (IL-) 4, IL-13, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and malondialdehyde. In human BECs challenged by TNF-α, the levels of proteins such as eotaxin-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, IL-8 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, were consistently significantly decreased by morin. Western blotting and the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein assay revealed that the increases in intracellular ROS and MAPK phosphorylation were abolished by morin

  14. Morin Attenuates Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Inflammation by Modulating Oxidative Stress-Responsive MAPK Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most common inflammatory diseases characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and remodeling. Morin, an active ingredient obtained from Moraceae plants, has been demonstrated to have promising anti-inflammatory activities in a range of disorders. However, its impacts on pulmonary diseases, particularly on asthma, have not been clarified. This study was designed to investigate whether morin alleviates airway inflammation in chronic asthma with an emphasis on oxidative stress modulation. In vivo, ovalbumin- (OVA- sensitized mice were administered with morin or dexamethasone before challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and lung tissues were obtained to perform cell counts, histological analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro, human bronchial epithelial cells (BECs were challenged by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. The supernatant was collected for the detection of the proinflammatory proteins, and the cells were collected for reactive oxygen species (ROS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK evaluations. Severe inflammatory responses and remodeling were observed in the airways of the OVA-sensitized mice. Treatment with morin dramatically attenuated the extensive trafficking of inflammatory cells into the BALF and inhibited their infiltration around the respiratory tracts and vessels. Morin administration also significantly suppressed goblet cell hyperplasia and collagen deposition/fibrosis and dose-dependently inhibited the OVA-induced increases in IgE, TNF-α, interleukin- (IL- 4, IL-13, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and malondialdehyde. In human BECs challenged by TNF-α, the levels of proteins such as eotaxin-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, IL-8 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, were consistently significantly decreased by morin. Western blotting and the 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein assay revealed that the increases in intracellular ROS and MAPK phosphorylation were

  15. The Dynamics of Embolism Refilling in Abscisic Acid (ABA-Deficient Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Secchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are in danger of embolism formation in xylem vessels when the balance between water transport capacity and transpirational demand is compromised. To maintain this delicate balance, plants must regulate the rate of transpiration and, if necessary, restore water transport in embolized vessels. Abscisic acid (ABA is the dominant long-distance signal responsible for plant response to stress, and it is possible that it plays a role in the embolism/refilling cycle. To test this idea, a temporal analysis of embolism and refilling dynamics, transpiration rate and starch content was performed on ABA-deficient mutant tomato plants. ABA-deficient mutants were more vulnerable to embolism formation than wild-type plants, and application of exogenous ABA had no effect on vulnerability. However, mutant plants treated with exogenous ABA had lower stomatal conductance and reduced starch content in the xylem parenchyma cells. The lower starch content could have an indirect effect on the plant’s refilling activity. The results confirm that plants with high starch content (moderately stressed mutant plants were more likely to recover from loss of water transport capacity than plants with low starch content (mutant plants with application of exogenous ABA or plants experiencing severe water stress. This study demonstrates that ABA most likely does not play any direct role in embolism refilling, but through the modulation of carbohydrate content, it could influence the plant’s capacity for refilling.

  16. Hypoxia attenuates inflammatory mediators production induced by Acanthamoeba via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in human corneal epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Hong [Department of Ophthalmology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107, Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan 250012 (China); The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Public Health, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107, Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Wu, Xinyi, E-mail: xywu8868@163.com [Department of Ophthalmology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107, Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia attenuates Acanthamoeba-induced the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits TLR4 expression in a time-dependent manner in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits Acanthamoeba-induced the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2 in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia decreases Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory response via TLR4 signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS-induced the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 is abated by hypoxia via TLR4 signaling. -- Abstract: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a vision-threatening corneal infection that is intimately associated with contact lens use which leads to hypoxic conditions on the corneal surface. However, the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced host inflammatory response of corneal epithelial cells has not been studied. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced production of inflammatory mediators interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) in human corneal epithelial cells and then evaluated its effects on the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling, including TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) (MyD88) expression as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-{kappa}B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). We then studied the effect of hypoxia on a TLR4-specific inflammatory response triggered by the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our data showed that hypoxia significantly decreased the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Furthermore, hypoxia attenuated Acanthamoeba-triggered TLR4 expression as well as the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2, indicating that hypoxia abated Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory responses by affecting TLR4 signaling. Hypoxia also inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88

  17. Attenuation of bone morphogenetic protein signaling during amphibian limb development results in the generation of stage-specific defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tamsin E M; Day, Robert C; Beck, Caroline W

    2013-11-01

    The vertebrate limb is one of the most intensively studied organs in the field of developmental biology. Limb development in tetrapod vertebrates is highly conserved and dependent on the interaction of several important molecular pathways. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling cascade is one of these pathways and has been shown to be crucial for several aspects of limb development. Here, we have used a Xenopus laevis transgenic line, in which expression of the inhibitor Noggin is under the control of the heat-shock promoter hsp70 to examine the effects of attenuation of BMP signaling at different stages of limb development. Remarkably different phenotypes were produced at different stages, illustrating the varied roles of BMP in development of the limb. Very early limb buds appeared to be refractory to the effects of BMP attenuation, developing normally in most cases. Ectopic limbs were produced by overexpression of Noggin corresponding to a brief window of limb development at about stage 49/50, as recently described by Christen et al. (2012). Attenuation of BMP signaling in stage 51 or 52 tadpoles lead to a reduction in the number of digits formed, resulting in hypodactyly or ectrodactyly, as well as occasional defects in the more proximal tibia-fibula. Finally, inhibition at stage 54 (paddle stage) led to the formation of dramatically shortened digits resulting from loss of distal phalanges. Transcriptome analysis has revealed the possibility that more Noggin-sensitive members of the BMP family could be involved in limb development than previously suspected. Our analysis demonstrates the usefulness of heat-shock-driven gene expression as an effective method for inhibiting a developmental pathway at different times during limb development. PMID:23981117

  18. Presenting a foreign antigen on live attenuated Edwardsiella tarda using twin-arginine translocation signal peptide as a multivalent vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yamin; Yang, Weizheng; Wang, Qiyao; Qu, Jiangbo; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2013-12-01

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system is a major pathway for transmembrane translocation of fully folded proteins. In this study, a multivalent vaccine to present foreign antigens on live attenuated vaccine Edwardsiella tarda WED using screened Tat signal peptide was constructed. Because the Tat system increases the yields of folded antigens in periplasmic space or extracellular milieu, it is expected to contribute to the production of conformational epitope-derived specific antibodies. E. tarda Tat signal peptides fused with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was constructed under the control of an in vivo inducible dps promoter. The resulting plasmids were electroporated into WED and the subcellular localizations of GFP were analyzed with Western blotting. Eight signal peptides with optimized GFP translocation efficiency were further fused to a protective antigen glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapA) from a fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. Signal peptides of DmsA, NapA, and SufI displayed high efficiency for GapA translocation. The relative percent survival (RPS) of turbot was measured with a co-infection of E. tarda and A. hydrophila, and the strain with DmsA signal peptide showed the maximal protection. This study demonstrated a new platform to construct multivalent vaccines using optimized Tat signal peptide in E. tarda. PMID:23994481

  19. Celastrol-Induced Suppression of the MiR-21/ERK Signalling Pathway Attenuates Cardiac Fibrosis and Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Myocardial fibrosis results in myocardial remodelling and dysfunction. Celastrol, a traditional oriental medicine, has been suggested to have cardioprotective effects. However, its underlying mechanism is unknown. This study investigated the ability of celastrol to prevent cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction and explored the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Animal and cell models of cardiac fibrosis were used in this study. Myocardial fibrosis was induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC in mice. Cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis were evaluated based on histological and biochemical measurements. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography. The levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1, extracellular signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 signalling were measured using Western blotting, while the expression of miR-21was analyzed by real-time qRT-PCR in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies, cultured cardiac fibroblasts (CFs were treated with TGF-β1 and transfected with microRNA-21(miR21. Results: Celastrol treatment reduced the increased collagen deposition and down-regulated α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, brain natriuretic peptides (BNP, beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC, miR-21 and p-ERK/ERK. Cardiac dysfunction was significantly attenuated by celastrol treatment in the TAC mice model. Celastrol treatment reduced myocardial fibroblast viability and collagen content and down-regulated α-SMA in cultured CFs in vitro. Celastrol also inhibited the miR-21/ERK signalling pathway. Celastrol attenuated miR-21 up-regulation by TGF-β1 and decreased elevated p-ERK/ERK levels in CFs transfected with miR-21. Conclusion: MiR-21/ERK signalling could be a potential therapeutic pathway for the prevention of myocardial fibrosis. Celastrol ameliorates myocardial fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction, these probably related to miR-21/ERK signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo.

  20. TLR9 signalling in microglia attenuates seizure-induced aberrant neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Taito; Murao, Naoya; Katano, Yuki; Juliandi, Berry; Kohyama, Jun; Akira, Shizuo; Kawai, Taro; Nakashima, Kinichi

    2015-01-01

    Pathological conditions such as epilepsy cause misregulation of adult neural stem/progenitor populations in the adult hippocampus in mice, and the resulting abnormal neurogenesis leads to impairment in learning and memory. However, how animals cope with abnormal neurogenesis remains unknown. Here we show that microglia in the mouse hippocampus attenuate convulsive seizure-mediated aberrant neurogenesis through the activation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), an innate immune sensor known to recognize microbial DNA and trigger inflammatory responses. We found that microglia sense self-DNA from degenerating neurons following seizure, and secrete tumour necrosis factor-α, resulting in attenuation of aberrant neurogenesis. Furthermore, TLR9 deficiency exacerbated seizure-induced cognitive decline and recurrent seizure severity. Our findings thus suggest the existence of bidirectional communication between the innate immune and nervous systems for the maintenance of adult brain integrity.

  1. Sparse signal reconstruction from polychromatic X-ray CT measurements via mass attenuation discretization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a method for reconstructing sparse images from polychromatic x-ray computed tomography (ct) measurements via mass attenuation coefficient discretization. The material of the inspected object and the incident spectrum are assumed to be unknown. We rewrite the Lambert-Beer’s law in terms of integral expressions of mass attenuation and discretize the resulting integrals. We then present a penalized constrained least-squares optimization approach for reconstructing the underlying object from log-domain measurements, where an active set approach is employed to estimate incident energy density parameters and the nonnegativity and sparsity of the image density map are imposed using negative-energy and smooth ℓ1-norm penalty terms. We propose a two-step scheme for refining the mass attenuation discretization grid by using higher sampling rate over the range with higher photon energy, and eliminating the discretization points that have little effect on accuracy of the forward projection model. This refinement allows us to successfully handle the characteristic lines (Dirac impulses) in the incident energy density spectrum. We compare the proposed method with the standard filtered backprojection, which ignores the polychromatic nature of the measurements and sparsity of the image density map. Numerical simulations using both realistic simulated and real x-ray ct data are presented

  2. Sparse signal reconstruction from polychromatic X-ray CT measurements via mass attenuation discretization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Renliang; Dogandžić, Aleksandar [Iowa State University, Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, 1915 Scholl Road, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    We propose a method for reconstructing sparse images from polychromatic x-ray computed tomography (ct) measurements via mass attenuation coefficient discretization. The material of the inspected object and the incident spectrum are assumed to be unknown. We rewrite the Lambert-Beer’s law in terms of integral expressions of mass attenuation and discretize the resulting integrals. We then present a penalized constrained least-squares optimization approach for reconstructing the underlying object from log-domain measurements, where an active set approach is employed to estimate incident energy density parameters and the nonnegativity and sparsity of the image density map are imposed using negative-energy and smooth ℓ{sub 1}-norm penalty terms. We propose a two-step scheme for refining the mass attenuation discretization grid by using higher sampling rate over the range with higher photon energy, and eliminating the discretization points that have little effect on accuracy of the forward projection model. This refinement allows us to successfully handle the characteristic lines (Dirac impulses) in the incident energy density spectrum. We compare the proposed method with the standard filtered backprojection, which ignores the polychromatic nature of the measurements and sparsity of the image density map. Numerical simulations using both realistic simulated and real x-ray ct data are presented.

  3. Technical Note: Correcting for signal attenuation from noisy proxy data in climate reconstructions

    KAUST Repository

    Ammann, C. M.

    2010-04-20

    Regression-based climate reconstructions scale one or more noisy proxy records against a (generally) short instrumental data series. Based on that relationship, the indirect information is then used to estimate that particular measure of climate back in time. A well-calibrated proxy record(s), if stationary in its relationship to the target, should faithfully preserve the mean amplitude of the climatic variable. However, it is well established in the statistical literature that traditional regression parameter estimation can lead to substantial amplitude attenuation if the predictors carry significant amounts of noise. This issue is known as "Measurement Error" (Fuller, 1987; Carroll et al., 2006). Climate proxies derived from tree-rings, ice cores, lake sediments, etc., are inherently noisy and thus all regression-based reconstructions could suffer from this problem. Some recent applications attempt to ward off amplitude attenuation, but implementations are often complex (Lee et al., 2008) or require additional information, e.g. from climate models (Hegerl et al., 2006, 2007). Here we explain the cause of the problem and propose an easy, generally applicable, data-driven strategy to effectively correct for attenuation (Fuller, 1987; Carroll et al., 2006), even at annual resolution. The impact is illustrated in the context of a Northern Hemisphere mean temperature reconstruction. An inescapable trade-off for achieving an unbiased reconstruction is an increase in variance, but for many climate applications the change in mean is a core interest.

  4. Technical Note: Correcting for signal attenuation from noisy proxy data in climate reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Ammann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Regression-based climate reconstructions scale one or more noisy proxy records against a (generally short instrumental data series. Based on that relationship, the indirect information is then used to estimate that particular measure of climate back in time. A well-calibrated proxy record(s, if stationary in its relationship to the target, should faithfully preserve the mean amplitude of the climatic variable. However, it is well established in the statistical literature that traditional regression parameter estimation can lead to substantial amplitude attenuation if the predictors carry significant amounts of noise. This issue is known as "Measurement Error" (Fuller, 1987; Carroll et al., 2006. Climate proxies derived from tree-rings, ice cores, lake sediments, etc., are inherently noisy and thus all regression-based reconstructions could suffer from this problem. Some recent applications attempt to ward off amplitude attenuation, but implementations are often complex (Lee et al., 2008 or require additional information, e.g. from climate models (Hegerl et al., 2006, 2007. Here we explain the cause of the problem and propose an easy, generally applicable, data-driven strategy to effectively correct for attenuation (Fuller, 1987; Carroll et al., 2006, even at annual resolution. The impact is illustrated in the context of a Northern Hemisphere mean temperature reconstruction. An inescapable trade-off for achieving an unbiased reconstruction is an increase in variance, but for many climate applications the change in mean is a core interest.

  5. Technical Note: Correcting for signal attenuation from noise: sharpening the focus on past climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Ammann

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Regression-based climate reconstructions scale one or more noisy proxy records against a (generally short instrumental data series. Based on that relationship, the indirect information is then used to estimate that particular measure of climate back in time. A well-calibrated proxy record(s, if stationary in its relationship to the target, should faithfully preserve the mean amplitude of the climatic variable. However, it is well established in the statistical literature that traditional regression parameter estimation can lead to substantial amplitude attenuation if the predictors carry significant amounts of noise. This issue is known as "Measurement Error" (Fuller, 1987; Carroll et al., 2006. Climate proxies derived from tree-rings, ice cores, lake sediments, etc., are inherently noisy and thus all regression-based reconstructions could suffer from this problem. Some recent applications attempt to ward off amplitude attenuation, but implementations are often complex (Lee et al., 2008 or require additional information, e.g. from climate models (Hegerl et al., 2006, 2007. Here we explain the cause of the problem and propose an easy, generally applicable, data-driven strategy to effectively correct for attenuation (Fuller, 1987; Carroll et al., 2006, even at annual resolution. The impact is illustrated in the context of a Northern Hemisphere mean temperature reconstruction. An inescapable trade-off for achieving an unbiased reconstruction is an increase in variance, but for many climate applications the change in mean is a core interest.

  6. Hydrosulfide attenuates acute myocardial ischemic injury through the glycogen synthase kinase-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ning; Liu, Chao; Li, Guofeng; Xie, Lijun; Zhang, Qinzeng; Li, Liping; Hao, Na; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-05-01

    The endogenous signaling gasotransmitter, hydrosulfide (H2S), has been shown to exert cardioprotective effects against acute myocardial infarction (AMI) due to ischemic injury. However, the mechanisms responsible for these effects are not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated whether sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS), an H2S donor, attenuates acute myocardial ischemic injury through glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)/β-catenin signaling. For this purpose, we utilized an in vivo rat model of AMI by occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery. NaHS (0.39, 0.78 or 1.56 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), the GSK-3β inhibitor, SB216763 (0.6 mg/kg, intravenously), or 1% dimethylsulfoxide (2 ml/kg, intravenously) were administered to the rats. The results demonstrated that the administration of medium- and high-dose NaHS and SB216763 significantly improved rat cardiac function, as evidenced by an increase in the mean arterial pressure, left ventricular developed pressure, contraction and relaxation rates, as well as a decrease in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. In addition, the administration of NaHS and SB216763 attenuated myocardial injury as reflected by a decrease in apoptotic cell death and in the serum lactate dehydrogenase concentrations, and prevented myocardial structural changes. The administration of NaHS and SB216763 increased the concentrations of phosphorylated (p-)GSK-3β, the p-GSK-3β/t-GSK-3β ratio and downstream protein β-catenin. Moreover, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of apoptotic signaling pathway proteins further established the cardioprotective potential of NaHS, as reflected by the upregulation of Bcl-2 expression, the downregulation of Bax expression, and a decrease in the number of TUNEL-positive stained cells. These findings suggest that hydrosulfide exerts cardioprotective effects against AMI-induced apoptosis through the GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  7. Curcumin Attenuated Bupivacaine-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells Via Activation of the Akt Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, You-Ling; Li, Heng-Chang; Zhao, Wei; Peng, Hui-Hua; Huang, Fang; Jiang, Wei-Hang; Xu, Shi-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    Bupivacaine is widely used for regional anesthesia, spinal anesthesia, and pain management. However, bupivacaine could cause neuronal injury. Curcumin, a low molecular weight polyphenol, has a variety of bioactivities and may exert neuroprotective effects against damage induced by some stimuli. In the present study, we tested whether curcumin could attenuate bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Cell injury was evaluated by examining cell viability, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. We also investigated the levels of activation of the Akt signaling pathway and the effect of Akt inhibition by triciribine on cell injury following bupivacaine and curcumin treatment. Our findings showed that the bupivacaine treatment could induce neurotoxicity. Pretreatment of the SH-SY5Y cells with curcumin significantly attenuated bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity. Interestingly, the curcumin treatment increased the levels of Akt phosphorylation. More significantly, the pharmacological inhibition of Akt abolished the cytoprotective effect of curcumin against bupivacaine-induced cell injury. Our data suggest that pretreating SH-SY5Y cells with curcumin provides a protective effect on bupivacaine-induced neuronal injury via activation of the Akt signaling pathway. PMID:27233246

  8. The grapevine guard cell-related VvMYB60 transcription factor is involved in the regulation of stomatal activity and is differentially expressed in response to ABA and osmotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti Lucio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under drought, plants accumulate the signaling hormone abscisic acid (ABA, which induces the rapid closure of stomatal pores to prevent water loss. This event is trigged by a series of signals produced inside guard cells which finally reduce their turgor. Many of these events are tightly regulated at the transcriptional level, including the control exerted by MYB proteins. In a previous study, while identifying the grapevine R2R3 MYB family, two closely related genes, VvMYB30 and VvMYB60 were found with high similarity to AtMYB60, an Arabidopsis guard cell-related drought responsive gene. Results Promoter-GUS transcriptional fusion assays showed that expression of VvMYB60 was restricted to stomatal guard cells and was attenuated in response to ABA. Unlike VvMYB30, VvMYB60 was able to complement the loss-of-function atmyb60-1 mutant, indicating that VvMYB60 is the only true ortholog of AtMYB60 in the grape genome. In addition, VvMYB60 was differentially regulated during development of grape organs and in response to ABA and drought-related stress conditions. Conclusions These results show that VvMYB60 modulates physiological responses in guard cells, leading to the possibility of engineering stomatal conductance in grapevine, reducing water loss and helping this species to tolerate drought under extreme climatic conditions.

  9. GsAPK, an ABA-activated and calcium-independent SnRK2-type kinase from G. soja, mediates the regulation of plant tolerance to salinity and ABA stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yang

    Full Text Available Plant Snf1 (sucrose non-fermenting-1 related protein kinase (SnRK, a subfamily of serine/threonine kinases, has been implicated as a crucial upstream regulator of ABA and osmotic signaling as in many other signaling cascades. In this paper, we have isolated a novel plant specific ABA activated calcium independent protein kinase (GsAPK from a highly salt tolerant plant, Glycine soja (50109, which is a member of the SnRK2 family. Subcellular localization studies using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsAPK is localized in the plasma membrane. We found that autophosphorylation and Myelin Basis Protein phosphorylation activity of GsAPK is only activated by ABA and the kinase activity also was observed when calcium was replaced by EGTA, suggesting its independence of calcium in enzyme activity. We also found that cold, salinity, drought, and ABA stress alter GsAPK gene transcripts and heterogonous overexpression of GsAPK in Arabidopsis alters plant tolerance to high salinity and ABA stress. In summary, we demonstrated that GsAPK is a Glycine soja ABA activated calcium independent SnRK-type kinase presumably involved in ABA mediated stress signal transduction.

  10. GsAPK, an ABA-activated and calcium-independent SnRK2-type kinase from G. soja, mediates the regulation of plant tolerance to salinity and ABA stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Ji, Wei; Gao, Peng; Li, Yong; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi; Chen, Qin; Zhu, Yanming

    2012-01-01

    Plant Snf1 (sucrose non-fermenting-1) related protein kinase (SnRK), a subfamily of serine/threonine kinases, has been implicated as a crucial upstream regulator of ABA and osmotic signaling as in many other signaling cascades. In this paper, we have isolated a novel plant specific ABA activated calcium independent protein kinase (GsAPK) from a highly salt tolerant plant, Glycine soja (50109), which is a member of the SnRK2 family. Subcellular localization studies using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsAPK is localized in the plasma membrane. We found that autophosphorylation and Myelin Basis Protein phosphorylation activity of GsAPK is only activated by ABA and the kinase activity also was observed when calcium was replaced by EGTA, suggesting its independence of calcium in enzyme activity. We also found that cold, salinity, drought, and ABA stress alter GsAPK gene transcripts and heterogonous overexpression of GsAPK in Arabidopsis alters plant tolerance to high salinity and ABA stress. In summary, we demonstrated that GsAPK is a Glycine soja ABA activated calcium independent SnRK-type kinase presumably involved in ABA mediated stress signal transduction.

  11. Application of ABA Principles to General Communication Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Billy T.; Oren, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This article examines applied behavior analysis (ABA) based communication instruction for students with autism. It offers an historical context for ABA in speech-language pathology and reviews the literature on the use of ABA as a treatment method for communication impairment in autism, comparing contemporary ABA with the developmental…

  12. Xylem sap collection and extraction methodologies to determine in vivo concentrations of ABA and its bound forms by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)

    OpenAIRE

    Netting Andrew G; Theobald Julian C; Dodd Ian C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Accurate quantification of xylem sap ABA concentrations is important to underpin models of root-to-shoot ABA signalling to predict the physiological effects of soil drying. Growing tomato plants in a whole plant pressure chamber allowed sequential xylem sap collection from a detached leaf, the petiole stub of an otherwise intact plant and finally the de-topped root system of the same plant, to determine the impact of xylem sap sampling methodology on xylem ABA concentratio...

  13. NF-kB signalling is attenuated by the E7 protein from cutaneous human papillomaviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byg, Luise M; Stensson, Jessica; Vasiljevic, Natasa;

    2012-01-01

    The high-risk Alpha-types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are the causative agent of cervical cancer, which is the second major cause of death among women worldwide. Recent investigations have shown that E7 from the Alpha-papillomavirus HPV-16 interacts with IKKa and IKKß of the IKK complex in the NF......-¿B pathway leading to an attenuation of the activity. There is a possible link between development of non melanoma skin cancer and cutaneous Beta-papillomavirus but if these HPV types attenuate the NF-¿B pathway is unclear. Seven different E7 proteins, representing four out of the five different species...... of the Beta genus (HPV-20, -37, -38, -92, -93 and -96) and one from the Gamma genus (HPV-4), were investigated for potential modulation of the NF-¿B pathway in U2OS cells. Our results demonstrate that E7 from all the cutaneous HPV types were capable of inhibiting the NF-¿B activity as well as E7 from HPV-16...

  14. Inhibition of TLR4 Signalling-Induced Inflammation Attenuates Secondary Injury after Diffuse Axonal Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonglin; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Junjie; Ma, Xudong; Huang, Tingqin; Pang, Honggang

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that secondary injury after diffuse axonal injury (DAI) damages more axons than the initial insult, but the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon are not fully understood. Recent studies show that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a critical role in promoting adaptive immune responses and have been shown to be associated with brain damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the TLR4 signalling pathway in secondary axonal injury in the cortices of DAI rats. TLR4 was mainly localized in microglial cells and neurons, and the levels of TLR4 downstream signalling molecules, including TLR4, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, toll/IR-1-(TIR-) domain-containing adaptor protein inducing interferon-beta, interferon regulatory factor 3, interferon β, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65, and phospho-NF-κB p65, significantly increased and peaked at 1 d after DAI. Inhibition of TLR4 by TAK-242 attenuated apoptosis, neuronal and axonal injury, and glial responses. The neuroprotective effects of TLR4 inhibition were associated with decreases in the levels of TLR4 downstream signalling molecules and inflammatory factors, including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumour necrosis factor-α. These results suggest that the TLR4 signalling pathway plays an important role in secondary injury and may be an important therapeutic target following DAI.

  15. Attenuation characteristics of spin pumping signal due to travelling spin waves

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Sankha Subhra; Deorani, Praveen; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2012-01-01

    The authors have investigated the contribution of the surface spin waves to spin pumping. A Pt/NiFe bilayer has been used for measuring spin waves and spin pumping signals simultaneously. The theoretical framework of spin pumping resulting from ferromagnetic resonance has been extended to incorporate spin pumping due to spin waves. Equations for the effective area of spin pumping due to spin waves have been derived. The amplitude of the spin pumping signal resulting from travelling waves is s...

  16. 外源ABA对木薯叶片内源激素及淀粉合成相关基因的影响%Change of endogenous hormones and expression levels of genes for ABA synthesis,signaling and starch synthesis in leaves of cassava under exogenous ABA treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑娟; 方开星; 陈新; 马平安; 周新成; 卢诚; 王文泉

    2015-01-01

    在盆栽条件下,用外源脱落酸(Abscisic acid,ABA)处理块根形成期的木薯品种,测定处理及对照在不同时刻叶片中ABA等激素变化、ABA合成与失活以及淀粉合成途径关键基因的表达变化.结果表明:1)正常条件下木薯叶片内源ABA水平及ABA合成途径基因均存在明显的夜间低而白天较高的昼夜节律,ABA信号转导相关基因也表现出下午的高峰表达,它们与淀粉合成途径基因的夜间表达一般具有相反的趋势.2)ABA处理后,木薯叶片内源ABA含量迅速下降,与观察到的ABA合成途径基因表这下降与后期ABA失活基因激活表达相一致,同时发现细胞分裂素中的玉米素核苷(Zeatin riboside,ZR)和生长素(Indole acetic acid,IAA)水平发生改变,预示木薯具有迅速恢复ABA平衡态的机制,并且与其他类激素存在协同作用.3)与此同时,外源ABA处理明显抑制淀粉合成上游基因表达,特别是夜晚高峰期的表达,而对下游基因的抑制相对较小.说明这些基因及枢关酶类不同程度受到ABA的调控;ABA明显倾向于调控淀粉合成上游相关基因;外源ABA处理改变了叶片临时淀粉合成速率.

  17. Curcumol suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast formation by attenuating the JNK signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mingxiang, E-mail: yu.mingxiang@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Xianying [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hainan Provincial Nong Ken Hospital, Hainan (China); Lv, Chaoyang [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Yi, Xilu [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Songjiang District Central Hospital, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Yao; Xue, Mengjuan; He, Shunmei [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Guoying [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang, Hongfu, E-mail: hfwang@shmu.edu.cn [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Curcumol suppresses osteoclasts differentiation in vitro. • Curcumol impairs JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway. • Curcumol may be used for treating osteoclast related diseases. - Abstract: Osteoclasts, derived from hemopoietic progenitors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, have a unique role in bone resorption, and are considered a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of such pathologic bone diseases as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis. In the present study, we demonstrate that curcumol, one of the major components of the essential oil of Rhizoma Curcumae, exhibits an inhibitory effect on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation with both bone marrow-derived macrophages and RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, RANKL-induced mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific genes, such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin receptor, and cathepsin K, is prominently reduced in the presence of curcumol. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism of action was investigated, and curcumol inhibited osteoclastogenesis by specifically impairing RANKL-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling, which was further identified in rescue studies by means of anisomycin, a JNK signaling-specific activator. Taken together, these findings suggest that curcumol suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation through the JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway, and may be useful as a therapeutic treatment for bone resorption-associated diseases.

  18. Multipronged attenuation of macrophage-colony stimulating factor signaling by Epstein-Barr virus BARF1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Ann Hye-Ryong; Chang, Rhoda Ahn; Chen, Xiaoyan; Longnecker, Richard; He, Xiaolin [NWU

    2014-10-02

    The ubiquitous EBV causes infectious mononucleosis and is associated with several types of cancers. The EBV genome encodes an early gene product, BARF1, which contributes to pathogenesis, potentially through growth-altering and immune-modulating activities, but the mechanisms for such activities are poorly understood. We have determined the crystal structure of BARF1 in complex with human macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), a hematopoietic cytokine with pleiotropic functions in development and immune response. BARF1 and M-CSF form a high-affinity, stable, ring-like complex in both solution and the crystal, with a BARF1 hexameric ring surrounded by three M-CSF dimers in triangular array. The binding of BARF1 to M-CSF dramatically reduces but does not completely abolish M-CSF binding and signaling through its cognate receptor FMS. A three-pronged down-regulation mechanism is proposed to explain the biological effect of BARF1 on M-CSF:FMS signaling. These prongs entail control of the circulating and effective local M-CSF concentration, perturbation of the receptor-binding surface of M-CSF, and imposition of an unfavorable global orientation of the M-CSF dimer. Each prong may reduce M-CSF:FMS signaling to a limited extent but in combination may alter M-CSF:FMS signaling dramatically. The downregulating mechanism of BARF1 underlines a viral modulation strategy, and provides a basis for understanding EBV pathogenesis.

  19. Tanshinol Attenuates the Deleterious Effects of Oxidative Stress on Osteoblastic Differentiation via Wnt/FoxO3a Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is now increasing evidence which suggests a pivotal role for oxidative stress in the development and progression of osteoporosis. We confirm herein the protective effects of natural antioxidant Tanshinol against oxidative stress in osteoblastic differentiation and the underlying mechanism. Our results show that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 leads to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, decrease in cell viability, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a caspase-3-dependent manner, and inhibition of osteoblastic differentiation. Tanshinol reverses these deleterious consequence triggered by oxidative stress. Moreover, under the condition of oxidative stress, Tanshinol suppresses the activation of FoxO3a transcription factor and expressions of its target genes Gadd45a and catalase (CAT and simultaneously counteracts the inhibition of Wnt signalling and expressions of target genes Axin2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and Osteoprotegerin (OPG. The findings are further consolidated using FoxO3a siRNA interference and overexpression of Tcf4. The results illustrate that Tanshinol attenuates oxidative stress via down-regulation of FoxO3a signaling, and rescues the decrease of osteoblastic differentiation through upregulation of Wnt signal under oxidative stress. The present findings suggest that the beneficial effects of Tanshinol may be adopted as a novel therapeutic approach in recently recognized conditions of niche targeting osteoporosis.

  20. A human herpesvirus miRNA attenuates interferon signaling and contributes to maintenance of viral latency by targeting IKKε

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deguang Liang; Yuan Gao; Xianzhi Lin; Zhiheng He; Qinglan Zhao; Qiang Deng; Ke Lan

    2011-01-01

    Type I interferon(IFN)signaling is the principal response mediating antiviral innate immunity. IFN transcription is dependent upon the activation of transcription factors IRF3/IRF7 and NF-KB. Many viral proteins have been shown as being capable of interfering with IFN signaling to facilitate evasion from the host innate immune response.Here, we report that a viral miRNA, miR-K12-11, encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus(KSHV)is critical for the modulation of IFN signaling and acts through targeting 1-kappa-B kinase epsilon(IKKε). Ectopic expression of miR-K12-11 resulted in decreased IKKε expression, while inhibition of miR-K12-11 was found to restore IKKE expression in KSHV-infected cells. Importantly, expression of milk-K12-I1 attenuated IFN signaling by decreasing IKKε-mediated IRF3/IRF7 phosphorylation and by inhibiting the activation of IKKE-dependent IFN stimulating genes(ISGs), allowing miR-K12-11 suppression of antiviral immunity. Our data suggest that IKKE targeting by miR-K12-11 is an important strategy utilized by KSHV to modulate IFN signaling during the KSHV lifecycle, especially in latency. We also demonstrated that IKKE was able to enhance KSHV reactivation synergistically with the treatment of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate. Moreover, inhibition of miR-K12-11enhanced KSHV reactivation induced by vesicular stomatitis virus infection. Taken together, our findings also suggest that miR-K12-11 can contribute to maintenance of KSHV latency by targeting IKKE.

  1. Inhibition of p300 histone acetyltransferase activity in palate mesenchyme cells attenuates Wnt signaling via aberrant E-cadherin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Dennis R; Smith, Scott C; Smolenkova, Irina A; Pisano, M Michele; Greene, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    p300 is a multifunctional transcriptional coactivator that interacts with numerous transcription factors and exhibits protein/histone acetyltransferase activity. Loss of p300 function in humans and in mice leads to craniofacial defects. In this study, we demonstrated that inhibition of p300 histone acetyltransferase activity with the compound, C646, altered the expression of several genes, including Cdh1 (E-cadherin) in mouse maxillary mesenchyme cells, which are the cells that give rise to the secondary palate. The increased expression of plasma membrane-bound E-cadherin was associated with reduced cytosolic β-catenin, that led to attenuated signaling through the canonical Wnt pathway. Furthermore, C646 reduced both cell proliferation and the migratory ability of these cells. These results suggest that p300 histone acetyltransferase activity is critical for Wnt-dependent palate mesenchymal cell proliferation and migration, both processes that play a significant role in morphogenesis of the palate.

  2. Chemical inhibition of potato ABA-8'-hydroxylase activity alters in vitro and in vivo ABA metabolism and endogenous ABA levels but does not affect potato microtuber dormancy duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, Jeffrey C; Abrams, Suzanne R; De Stefano-Beltrán, Luis; Huckle, Linda L

    2012-09-01

    The effects of azole-type P450 inhibitors and two metabolism-resistant abscisic acid (ABA) analogues on in vitro ABA-8'-hydroxylase activity, in planta ABA metabolism, endogenous ABA content, and tuber meristem dormancy duration were examined in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank). When functionally expressed in yeast, three potato CYP707A genes were demonstrated to encode enzymatically active ABA-8'-hydroxylases with micromolar affinities for (+)-ABA. The in vitro activity of the three enzymes was inhibited by the P450 azole-type inhibitors ancymidol, paclobutrazol, diniconazole, and tetcyclasis, and by the 8'-acetylene- and 8'-methylene-ABA analogues, with diniconazole and tetcyclasis being the most potent inhibitors. The in planta metabolism of [(3)H](±)-ABA to phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid in tuber meristems was inhibited by diniconazole, tetcyclasis, and to a lesser extent by 8'-acetylene- and 8'-methylene-ABA. Continuous exposure of in vitro generated microtubers to diniconazole resulted in a 2-fold increase in endogenous ABA content and a decline in dihydrophaseic acid content after 9 weeks of development. Similar treatment with 8'-acetylene-ABA had no effects on the endogenous contents of ABA or phaseic acid but reduced the content of dihydrophaseic acid. Tuber meristem dormancy progression was determined ex vitro in control, diniconazole-, and 8'-acetylene-ABA-treated microtubers following harvest. Continuous exposure to diniconazole during microtuber development had no effects on subsequent sprouting at any time point. Continuous exposure to 8'-acetylene-ABA significantly increased the rate of microtuber sprouting. The results indicate that, although a decrease in ABA content is a hallmark of tuber dormancy progression, the decline in ABA levels is not a prerequisite for dormancy exit and the onset of tuber sprouting. PMID:22664582

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells attenuate inflammatory processes in the heart and lung via inhibition of TNF signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martire, Alessandra; Bedada, Fikru B; Uchida, Shizuka; Pöling, Jochen; Krüger, Marcus; Warnecke, Henning; Richter, Manfred; Kubin, Thomas; Herold, Susanne; Braun, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been used to treat different clinical conditions although the mechanisms by which pathogenetic processes are affected are still poorly understood. We have previously analyzed the homing of bone marrow-derived MSC to diseased tissues characterized by a high degree of mononuclear cell infiltration and postulated that MSC might modulate inflammatory responses. Here, we demonstrate that MSC mitigate adverse tissue remodeling, improve organ function, and extend lifespan in a mouse model of inflammatory dilative cardiomyopathy (DCM). Furthermore, MSC attenuate Lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury indicating a general role in the suppression of inflammatory processes. We found that MSC released sTNF-RI, which suppressed activation of the NFκBp65 pathway in cardiomyocytes during DCM in vivo. Substitution of MSC by recombinant soluble TNF-R partially recapitulated the beneficial effects of MSC while knockdown of TNF-R prevented MSC-mediated suppression of the NFκBp65 pathway and improvement of tissue pathology. We conclude that sTNF-RI is a major part of the paracrine machinery by which MSC effect local inflammatory reactions. PMID:27435289

  4. TIIA attenuates LPS-induced mouse endometritis by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaopei; Fu, Kaiqiang; Li, Weishi; Wang, Yu; Wang, Jifang; Li, Huatao; Tian, Wenru; Cao, Rongfeng

    2015-11-01

    Endometritis is one of the main diseases that harms the dairy cow industry. Tanshinone IIA (TIIA), a fat-soluble alkaloid isolated from Salviae miltiorrhizae, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of TIIA on a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endometritis remain to be elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of TIIA on LPS-induced mouse endometritis. TIIA was intraperitoneally injected 1 h before and 12 h after perfusion of LPS into the uterus. A histological examination was then performed, and the concentrations of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and nitric oxide (NO) in the uterine tissue were determined. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in a homogenate of the uterus were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The extent of phosphorylation of IκBα and p65 was detected by Western blotting. TIIA markedly reduced the infiltration of neutrophils, suppressed MPO activity and the concentration of NO, and attenuated the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β. Furthermore, TIIA inhibited the phosphorylation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit and the degradation of its inhibitor IκBα. All the results suggest that TIIA has strong anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-induced mouse endometritis. PMID:26426600

  5. Honokiol activates the LKB1–AMPK signaling pathway and attenuates the lipid accumulation in hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Min Suk; Kim, Jung Hwan; Kim, Hye Jung; Chang, Ki Churl; Park, Sang Won, E-mail: parksw@gnu.ac.kr

    2015-04-15

    Honokiol is a bioactive neolignan compound isolated from the species of Magnolia. This study was designed to elucidate the cellular mechanism by which honokiol alleviates the development of non-alcoholic steatosis. HepG2 cells were treated with honokiol for 1 h, and then exposed to 1 mM free fatty acid (FFA) for 24 h to simulate non-alcoholic steatosis in vitro. C57BL/6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 28 days, and honokiol (10 mg/kg/day) was daily treated. Honokiol concentration-dependently attenuated intracellular fat overloading and triglyceride (TG) accumulation in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor. Honokiol significantly inhibited sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) maturation and the induction of lipogenic proteins, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells, but these effects were blocked by pretreatment of an AMPK inhibitor. Honokiol induced AMPK phosphorylation and subsequent acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation, which were inhibited by genetic deletion of liver kinase B1 (LKB1). Honokiol stimulated LKB1 phosphorylation, and genetic deletion of LKB1 blocked the effect of honokiol on SREBP-1c maturation and the induction of SCD-1 and FAS proteins in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells. Honokiol attenuated the increases in hepatic TG and lipogenic protein levels and fat accumulation in the mice fed with high-fat diet, while significantly induced LKB1 and AMPK phosphorylation. Taken together, our findings suggest that honokiol has an anti-lipogenic effect in hepatocytes, and this effect may be mediated by the LKB1–AMPK signaling pathway, which induces ACC phosphorylation and inhibits SREBP-1c maturation in hepatocytes. - Highlights: • Honokiol attenuates lipid accumulation induced by free fatty acid in hepatocyte. • Honokiol inhibits the increase in lipogenic enzyme levels induced by free fatty

  6. Leukocyte infiltration into spinal cord of EAE mice is attenuated by removal of endothelial leptin signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang, Suidong; Hsuchou, Hung; Kastin, Abba J; Pramod K. Mishra; Wang, Yuping; Pan, Weihong

    2014-01-01

    Leptin, a pleiotropic adipokine, crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood–spinal cord barrier (BSCB) from the periphery and facilitates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE induces dynamic changes of leptin receptors in enriched brain and spinal cord microvessels, leading to further questions about the potential roles of endothelial leptin signaling in EAE progression. In endothelial leptin receptor specific knockout (ELKO) mice, there were lower EAE behavioral scores i...

  7. Bupleurum Polysaccharides Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation via Modulating Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jian; Zhang, Yun-Yi; Guo, Li; LI Hong; Chen, Dao-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Background Bupleurum polysaccharides (BPs), isolated from Bupleurum smithii var. parvifolium, possesses immunomodulatory activity, particularly on inflammation. Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers innate immune responses through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on host cell membrane. The present study was performed to evaluate whether the therapeutic efficacy of BPs on suppression of LPS’s pathogenecity could be associated with the modulating of TLR4 signaling pathway. Methodolog...

  8. Insulin Attenuates Beta-Amyloid-Associated Insulin/Akt/EAAT Signaling Perturbations in Human Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaojuan; Yang, Liling; Du, Heng; Sun, Qinjian; Wang, Xiang; Cong, Lin; Liu, Xiaohui; Yin, Ling; Li, Shan; Du, Yifeng

    2016-08-01

    The excitatory amino acid transporters 1 and 2 (EAAT1 and EAAT2), mostly located on astrocytes, are the main mediators for glutamate clearance in humans. Malfunctions of these transporters may lead to excessive glutamate accumulation and subsequent excitotoxicity to neurons, which has been implicated in many kinds of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Yet, the specific mechanism of the glutamate system dysregulation remains vague. To explore whether the insulin/protein kinase B (Akt)/EAAT signaling in human astrocytes could be disturbed by beta-amyloid protein (Aβ) and be protected by insulin, we incubated HA-1800 cells with varying concentrations of Aβ1-42 oligomers and insulin. Then the alterations of several key substrates in this signal transduction pathway were determined. Our results showed that expressions of insulin receptor, phospho-insulin receptor, phospho-protein kinase B, phospho-mammalian target of rapamycin, and EAAT1 and EAAT2 were decreased by the Aβ1-42 oligomers in a dose-dependent manner (p  0.05), and the mRNA levels of EAAT1 and EAAT2 were also unchanged (p > 0.05). Taken together, this study indicates that Aβ1-42 oligomers could cause disturbances in insulin/Akt/EAAT signaling in astrocytes, which might be responsible for AD onset and progression. Additionally, insulin can exert protective functions to the brain by modulating protein modifications or expressions. PMID:26358886

  9. Salvianolic Acid B Attenuates Rat Hepatic Fibrosis via Downregulating Angiotensin II Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The renin-angiotensin system (RAS plays an important role in hepatic fibrosis. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B, one of the water-soluble components from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, has been used to treat hepatic fibrosis, but it is still not clear whether the effect of Sal B is related to angiotensin II (Ang II signaling pathway. In the present study, we studied Sal B effect on rat liver fibrosis and Ang-II related signaling mediators in dimethylnitrosamine-(DMN- induced rat fibrotic model in vivo and Ang-II stimulated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs in vitro, with perindopril or losartan as control drug, respectively. The results showed that Sal B and perindopril inhibited rat hepatic fibrosis and reduced expression of Ang II receptor type 1 (AT1R and ERK activation in fibrotic liver. Sal B and losartan also inhibited Ang II-stimulated HSC activation including cell proliferation and expression of type I collagen I (Col-I and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA production in vitro, reduced the gene expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β, and downregulated AT1R expression and ERK and c-Jun phosphorylation. In conclusion, our results indicate that Sal B may exert an antihepatic fibrosis effect via downregulating Ang II signaling in HSC activation.

  10. Bupleurum polysaccharides attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation via modulating Toll-like receptor 4 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bupleurum polysaccharides (BPs, isolated from Bupleurum smithii var. parvifolium, possesses immunomodulatory activity, particularly on inflammation. Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS triggers innate immune responses through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 on host cell membrane. The present study was performed to evaluate whether the therapeutic efficacy of BPs on suppression of LPS's pathogenecity could be associated with the modulating of TLR4 signaling pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: LPS stimulated expression and activation of factors in the TLR4 signaling system, including TLR4, CD14, IRAK4, TRAF6, NF-κB, and JNK, determined using immunocytochemical and/or Western blot assays. BPs significantly inhibited these effects of LPS. LPS increased pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-12p40, and IFN-β and NO production, evaluated using ELISA and Griess reaction assays, respectively. BPs antagonized these effects of LPS. Interestingly, BPs alone augmented secretion of some pro-inflammatory cytokines of non-LPS stimulated macrophages and enhanced phagocytic activity towards fluorescent E.coli bioparticles. In a rat model of acute lung injury (ALI with pulmonary hemorrhage and inflammation, BPs ameliorated lung injuries and suppressed TLR4 expression. SIGNIFICANCE: The therapeutic properties of BPs in alleviating inflammatory diseases could be attributed to its inhibitory effect on LPS-mediated TLR4 signaling.

  11. Sucrose and ABA regulate starch biosynthesis in maize through a novel transcription factor, ZmEREB156

    OpenAIRE

    Huanhuan Huang; Sidi Xie; Qianlin Xiao; Bin Wei; Lanjie Zheng; Yongbin Wang; Yao Cao; Xiangge Zhang; Tiandan Long; Yangping Li; Yufeng Hu; Guowu Yu; Hanmei Liu; Yinghong Liu; Zhi Huang

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose is not only the carbon source for starch synthesis, but also a signal molecule. Alone or in coordination with ABA, it can regulate the expression of genes involved in starch synthesis. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect, maize endosperms were collected from Zea mays L. B73 inbred line 10 d after pollination and treated with sucrose, ABA, or sucrose plus ABA at 28 °C in the dark for 24 h. RNA-sequence analysis of the maize endosperm transcriptome revealed 47...

  12. Wound trauma mediated inflammatory signaling attenuates a tissue regenerative response in MRL/MpJ mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elster Eric A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe trauma can induce pathophysiological responses that have marked inflammatory components. The development of systemic inflammation following severe thermal injury has been implicated in immune dysfunction, delayed wound healing, multi-system organ failure and increased mortality. Methods In this study, we examined the impact of thermal injury-induced systemic inflammation on the healing response of a secondary wound in the MRL/MpJ mouse model, which was anatomically remote from the primary site of trauma, a wound that typically undergoes scarless healing in this specific strain. Ear-hole wounds in MRL/MpJ mice have previously displayed accelerated healing and tissue regeneration in the absence of a secondary insult. Results Severe thermal injury in addition to distal ear-hole wounds induced marked local and systemic inflammatory responses in the lungs and significantly augmented the expression of inflammatory mediators in the ear tissue. By day 14, 61% of the ear-hole wounds from thermally injured mice demonstrated extensive inflammation with marked inflammatory cell infiltration, extensive ulceration, and various level of necrosis to the point where a large percentage (38% had to be euthanized early during the study due to extensive necrosis, inflammation and ear deformation. By day 35, ear-hole wounds in mice not subjected to thermal injury were completely closed, while the ear-hole wounds in thermally injured mice exhibited less inflammation and necrosis and only closed partially (62%. Thermal injury resulted in marked increases in serum levels of IL-6, TNFα, KC (CXCL1, and MIP-2α (CXCL2. Interestingly, attenuated early ear wound healing in the thermally injured mouse resulted in incomplete tissue regeneration in addition to a marked inflammatory response, as evidenced by the histological appearance of the wound and increased transcription of potent inflammatory mediators. Conclusion These findings suggest that the

  13. Identification and mechanism of ABA receptor antagonism

    KAUST Repository

    Melcher, Karsten

    2010-08-22

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) functions through a family of fourteen PYR/PYL receptors, which were identified by resistance to pyrabactin, a synthetic inhibitor of seed germination. ABA activates these receptors to inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases, such as ABI1, yet it remains unclear whether these receptors can be antagonized. Here we demonstrate that pyrabactin is an agonist of PYR1 and PYL1 but is unexpectedly an antagonist of PYL2. Crystal structures of the PYL2-pyrabactin and PYL1-pyrabactin-ABI1 complexes reveal the mechanism responsible for receptor-selective activation and inhibition, which enables us to design mutations that convert PYL1 to a pyrabactin-inhibited receptor and PYL2 to a pyrabactin-activated receptor and to identify new pyrabactin-based ABA receptor agonists. Together, our results establish a new concept of ABA receptor antagonism, illustrate its underlying mechanisms and provide a rational framework for discovering novel ABA receptor ligands. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Leukocyte infiltration into spinal cord of EAE mice is attenuated by removal of endothelial leptin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Suidong; Hsuchou, Hung; Kastin, Abba J; Mishra, Pramod K; Wang, Yuping; Pan, Weihong

    2014-08-01

    Leptin, a pleiotropic adipokine, crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) from the periphery and facilitates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE induces dynamic changes of leptin receptors in enriched brain and spinal cord microvessels, leading to further questions about the potential roles of endothelial leptin signaling in EAE progression. In endothelial leptin receptor specific knockout (ELKO) mice, there were lower EAE behavioral scores in the early phase of the disorder, better preserved BSCB function shown by reduced uptake of sodium fluorescein and leukocyte infiltration into the spinal cord. Flow cytometry showed that the ELKO mutation decreased the number of CD3 and CD45 cells in the spinal cord, although immune cell profiles in peripheral organs were unchanged. Not only were CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes reduced, there were also lower numbers of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) granulocytes in the spinal cord of ELKO mice. In enriched microvessels from the spinal cord of the ELKO mice, the decreased expression of mRNAs for a few tight junction proteins was less pronounced in ELKO than WT mice, as was the elevation of mRNA for CCL5, CXCL9, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. Altogether, ELKO mice show reduced inflammation at the level of the BSCB, less leukocyte infiltration, and better preserved tight junction protein expression and BBB function than WT mice after EAE. Although leptin concentrations were high in ELKO mice and microvascular leptin receptors show an initial elevation before inhibition during the course of EAE, removal of leptin signaling helped to reduce disease burden. We conclude that endothelial leptin signaling exacerbates BBB dysfunction to worsen EAE. PMID:24576482

  15. Sitagliptin attenuates cardiomyopathy by modulating the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in experimental diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rasheed, Nouf M; Al-Rasheed, Nawal M; Hasan, Iman H; Al-Amin, Maha A; Al-Ajmi, Hanaa N; Mahmoud, Ayman M

    2016-01-01

    Sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, has been reported to promote cardioprotection in diabetic hearts by limiting hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. However, little is known about the involvement of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway modulation in the cardioprotective effects of sitagliptin. The current study aimed to investigate the protective effects of sitagliptin against diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), focusing on the modulation of the JAK/STAT pathway. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection, and rats received sitagliptin orally and daily for 90 days. Diabetic rats exhibited hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and a significant increase in heart-to-body weight (HW/BW) ratio. Serum troponin I and creatine kinase MB, cardiac interleukin-6 (IL-6), lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide levels showed significant increase in diabetic rats. In contrast, both enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant defenses were significantly declined in the heart of diabetic rats. Histopathological study revealed degenerations, increased collagen deposition in the heart of diabetic rats. Sitagliptin alleviated hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, HW/BW ratio, histological architecture, oxidative stress, and inflammation, and rejuvenated the antioxidant defenses. In addition, cardiac levels of pJAK2 and pSTAT3 were increased in diabetic rats, an effect which was remarkably decreased after sitagliptin treatment. In conclusion, these results confer an evidence that sitagliptin has great therapeutic potential on DCM through down-regulation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway.

  16. Salvianolic Acid B Attenuates Experimental Pulmonary Fibrosis through Inhibition of the TGF-β Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingmei; Chu, Haiyan; Ma, Yanyun; Wu, Ting; Qian, Feng; Ren, Xian; Tu, Wenzhen; Zhou, Xiaodong; Jin, Li; Wu, Wenyu; Wang, Jiucun

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal disorder. In our previous study, we found that the Yiqihuoxue formula (YQHX), a prescription of Traditional Chinese Medicine, had a curative effect on scleroderma, a typical fibrotic disease. The aim of this study was to determine the key ingredient mediating the therapeutic effects of YQHX and to examine its effect on pulmonary fibrosis, including its mechanism. Luciferase reporter assays showed that the most important anti-fibrotic component of the YQHX was Salviae miltiorrhiza (SM). Experiments performed using a bleomycin-instilled mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis showed that Salvianolic acid B (SAB), the major ingredient of SM, had strong anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects through its inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration, alveolar structure disruption, and collagen deposition. Furthermore, SAB suppressed TGF-β-induced myofibroblastic differentiation of MRC-5 fibroblasts and TGF-β-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of A549 cells by inhibiting both Smad-dependent signaling and the Smad-independent MAPK pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that SM is the key anti-fibrotic component of the YQHX and that SAB, the major ingredient of SM, alleviates experimental pulmonary fibrosis both in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting the TGF-β signaling pathway. Together, these results suggest that SAB potently inhibits pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:27278104

  17. SINAT5 promotes ubiquitin-related degradation of NAC1 to attenuate auxin signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Guo, Hui-Shan; Dallman, Geza; Fang, Shengyun; Weissman, Allan M; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2002-09-12

    The plant hormone indole-3 acetic acid (IAA or auxin) controls many aspects of plant development, including the production of lateral roots. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis has a central role in this process. The genes AXR1 and TIR1 aid the assembly of an active SCF (Skp1/Cullin/F-box) complex that probably promotes degradation of the AUX/IAA transcriptional repressors in response to auxin. The transcription activator NAC1, a member of the NAM/CUC family of transcription factors, functions downstream of TIR1 to transduce the auxin signal for lateral root development. Here we show that SINAT5, an Arabidopsis homologue of the RING-finger Drosophila protein SINA, has ubiquitin protein ligase activity and can ubiquitinate NAC1. This activity is abolished by mutations in the RING motif of SINAT5. Overexpressing SINAT5 produces fewer lateral roots, whereas overexpression of a dominant-negative Cys49 --> Ser mutant of SINAT5 develops more lateral roots. These lateral root phenotypes correlate with the expression of NAC1 observed in vivo. Low expression of NAC1 in roots can be increased by treatment with a proteasome inhibitor, which indicates that SINAT5 targets NAC1 for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis to downregulate auxin signals in plant cells.

  18. Salvianolic Acid B Attenuates Experimental Pulmonary Fibrosis through Inhibition of the TGF-β Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingmei; Chu, Haiyan; Ma, Yanyun; Wu, Ting; Qian, Feng; Ren, Xian; Tu, Wenzhen; Zhou, Xiaodong; Jin, Li; Wu, Wenyu; Wang, Jiucun

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal disorder. In our previous study, we found that the Yiqihuoxue formula (YQHX), a prescription of Traditional Chinese Medicine, had a curative effect on scleroderma, a typical fibrotic disease. The aim of this study was to determine the key ingredient mediating the therapeutic effects of YQHX and to examine its effect on pulmonary fibrosis, including its mechanism. Luciferase reporter assays showed that the most important anti-fibrotic component of the YQHX was Salviae miltiorrhiza (SM). Experiments performed using a bleomycin-instilled mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis showed that Salvianolic acid B (SAB), the major ingredient of SM, had strong anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects through its inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration, alveolar structure disruption, and collagen deposition. Furthermore, SAB suppressed TGF-β-induced myofibroblastic differentiation of MRC-5 fibroblasts and TGF-β-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of A549 cells by inhibiting both Smad-dependent signaling and the Smad-independent MAPK pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that SM is the key anti-fibrotic component of the YQHX and that SAB, the major ingredient of SM, alleviates experimental pulmonary fibrosis both in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting the TGF-β signaling pathway. Together, these results suggest that SAB potently inhibits pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:27278104

  19. Genetic Analysis of Physcomitrella patens Identifies ABSCISIC ACID NON-RESPONSIVE, a Regulator of ABA Responses Unique to Basal Land Plants and Required for Desiccation Tolerance[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisugi, Yasuko; Trinh, Chi H.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Muchero, Wellington; Melkonian, Michael; Rothfels, Carl J.; Li, Fay-Wei; Larsson, Anders; Edwards, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    The anatomically simple plants that first colonized land must have acquired molecular and biochemical adaptations to drought stress. Abscisic acid (ABA) coordinates responses leading to desiccation tolerance in all land plants. We identified ABA nonresponsive mutants in the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens and genotyped a segregating population to map and identify the ABA NON-RESPONSIVE (ANR) gene encoding a modular protein kinase comprising an N-terminal PAS domain, a central EDR domain, and a C-terminal MAPKKK-like domain. anr mutants fail to accumulate dehydration tolerance-associated gene products in response to drought, ABA, or osmotic stress and do not acquire ABA-dependent desiccation tolerance. The crystal structure of the PAS domain, determined to 1.7-Å resolution, shows a conserved PAS-fold that dimerizes through a weak dimerization interface. Targeted mutagenesis of a conserved tryptophan residue within the PAS domain generates plants with ABA nonresponsive growth and strongly attenuated ABA-responsive gene expression, whereas deleting this domain retains a fully ABA-responsive phenotype. ANR orthologs are found in early-diverging land plant lineages and aquatic algae but are absent from more recently diverged vascular plants. We propose that ANR genes represent an ancestral adaptation that enabled drought stress survival of the first terrestrial colonizers but were lost during land plant evolution. PMID:27194706

  20. 水分胁迫积累的ABA诱导抗氧化防护系统的信号级联%Signal Cascads of Antioxidative Defenses Induced by Water Stress-accumulated ABA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡秀丽; 刘瑞侠; 毛训甲

    2007-01-01

    水分胁迫是限制植物生长发育的主要胁迫因子之一.植物通过感受刺激,产生和传递信号、启动多种防御机制对水分胁迫做出响应和适应.脱落酸(ABA)作为一种重要的植物体内胁迫激素,参与了许多这样的反应.研究表明,ABA增强植物水分胁迫的忍耐力与ABA诱导的抗氧化剂防护系统有关;且细胞溶质Ca2+([Ca2+],)、活性氧(ROS)等许多第二信使参与了ABA诱导的信号转导过程.本文就这些信号分子在水分胁迫积累的内源ABA诱导的抗氧化剂防护系统中的作用作一综述.

  1. Inhibition of SDF-1α/CXCR4 Signalling in Subchondral Bone Attenuates Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis

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    Yonghui Dong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that SDF-1α is a catabolic factor that can infiltrate cartilage, decrease proteoglycan content, and increase MMP-13 activity. Inhibiting the SDF-1α/CXCR4 signalling pathway can attenuate the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA. Recent studies have also shown that SDF-1α enhances chondrocyte proliferation and maturation. These results appear to be contradictory. In the current study, we used a destabilisation OA animal model to investigate the effects of SDF-1α/CXCR4 signalling in the tibial subchondral bone and the OA pathological process. Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA mice models were prepared by transecting the anterior cruciate ligament (ACLT, or a sham surgery was performed, in a total of 30 mice. Mice were treated with phosphate buffer saline (PBS or AMD3100 (an inhibitor of CXCR4 and sacrificed at 30 days post ACLT or sham surgery. Tibial subchondral bone status was quantified by micro-computed tomography (μCT. Knee-joint histology was analysed to examine the articular cartilage and joint degeneration. The levels of SDF-1α and collagen type I c-telopeptidefragments (CTX-I were quantified by ELISA. Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs were used to clarify the effects of SDF-1α on osteoclast formation and activity in vivo. μCT analysis revealed significant loss of trabecular bone from tibial subchondral bone post-ACLT, which was effectively prevented by AMD3100. AMD3100 could partially prevent bone loss and articular cartilage degeneration. Serum biomarkers revealed an increase in SDF-1α and bone resorption, which were also reduced by AMD3100. SDF-1α can promote osteoclast formation and the expression oftartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, cathepsin K (CK, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 in osteoclasts by activating the MAPK pathway, including ERK and p38, but not JNK. In conclusion, inhibition of SDF-1α/CXCR4signalling was able to prevent trabecular bone loss and attenuated cartilage

  2. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor H-89 attenuates the bioluminescence signal produced by Renilla Luciferase.

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    Katie J Herbst

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Investigations into the regulation and functional roles of kinases such as cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA increasingly rely on cellular assays. Currently, there are a number of bioluminescence-based assays, for example reporter gene assays, that allow the study of the regulation, activity, and functional effects of PKA in the cellular context. Additionally there are continuing efforts to engineer improved biosensors that are capable of detecting real-time PKA signaling dynamics in cells. These cell-based assays are often utilized to test the involvement of PKA-dependent processes by using H-89, a reversible competitive inhibitor of PKA. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present here data to show that H-89, in addition to being a competitive PKA inhibitor, attenuates the bioluminescence signal produced by Renilla luciferase (RLuc variants in a population of cells and also in single cells. Using 10 microM of luciferase substrate and 10 microM H-89, we observed that the signal from RLuc and RLuc8, an eight-point mutation variant of RLuc, in cells was reduced to 50% (+/-15% and 54% (+/-14% of controls exposed to the vehicle alone, respectively. In vitro, we showed that H-89 decreased the RLuc8 bioluminescence signal but did not compete with coelenterazine-h for the RLuc8 active site, and also did not affect the activity of Firefly luciferase. By contrast, another competitive inhibitor of PKA, KT5720, did not affect the activity of RLuc8. SIGNIFICANCE: The identification and characterization of the adverse effect of H-89 on RLuc signal will help deconvolute data previously generated from RLuc-based assays looking at the functional effects of PKA signaling. In addition, for the current application and future development of bioluminscence assays, KT5720 is identified as a more suitable PKA inhibitor to be used in conjunction with RLuc-based assays. These principal findings also provide an important lesson to fully consider all of the potential

  3. Disruption of Calcium Signaling in Fibroblasts and Attenuation of Bleomycin-Induced Fibrosis by Nifedipine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Subhendu; Ayaub, Ehab A; Murphy, James; Lu, Chao; Kolb, Martin; Ask, Kjetil; Janssen, Luke J

    2015-10-01

    Fibrotic lung disease afflicts millions of people; the central problem is progressive lung destruction and remodeling. We have shown that external growth factors regulate fibroblast function not only through canonical signaling pathways but also through propagation of periodic oscillations in Ca(2+). In this study, we characterized the pharmacological sensitivity of the Ca(2+)oscillations and determined whether a blocker of those oscillations can prevent the progression of fibrosis in vivo. We found Ca(2+) oscillations evoked by exogenously applied transforming growth factor β in normal human fibroblasts were substantially reduced by 1 μM nifedipine or 1 μM verapamil (both L-type blockers), by 2.7 μM mibefradil (a mixed L-/T-type blocker), by 40 μM NiCl2 (selective at this concentration against T-type current), by 30 mM KCl (which partially depolarizes the membrane and thereby fully inactivates T-type current but leaves L-type current intact), or by 1 mM NiCl2 (blocks both L- and T-type currents). In our in vivo study in mice, nifedipine prevented bleomycin-induced fibrotic changes (increased lung stiffness, overexpression of smooth muscle actin, increased extracellular matrix deposition, and increased soluble collagen and hydroxyproline content). Nifedipine had little or no effect on lung inflammation, suggesting its protective effect on lung fibrosis was not due to an antiinflammatory effect but rather was due to altering the profibrotic response to bleomycin. Collectively, these data show that nifedipine disrupts Ca(2+) oscillations in fibroblasts and prevents the impairment of lung function in the bleomycin model of pulmonary fibrosis. Our results provide compelling proof-of-principle that interfering with Ca(2+) signaling may be beneficial against pulmonary fibrosis.

  4. A Key ABA Catabolic Gene, OsABA8ox3, Is Involved in Drought Stress Resistance in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Shanlan Cai; Guobin Jiang; Nenghui Ye; Zhizhan Chu; Xuezhong Xu; Jianhua Zhang; Guohui Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Expressions of ABA biosynthesis genes and catabolism genes are generally co-regulated in plant development and responses to environmental stress. Up-regulation of OsNCED3 gene, a key gene in ABA biosynthesis, has been suggested as a way to enhance plant drought resistance but little is known for the role of ABA catabolic genes during drought stress. In this study, we found that OsABA8ox3 was the most highly expressed gene of the OsABA8ox family in rice leaves. Expression of OsABA8ox3 was prom...

  5. A G-protein β subunit, AGB1, negatively regulates the ABA response and drought tolerance by down-regulating AtMPK6-related pathway in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-bei Xu

    Full Text Available Heterotrimeric G-proteins are versatile regulators involved in diverse cellular processes in eukaryotes. In plants, the function of G-proteins is primarily associated with ABA signaling. However, the downstream effectors and the molecular mechanisms in the ABA pathway remain largely unknown. In this study, an AGB1 mutant (agb1-2 was found to show enhanced drought tolerance, indicating that AGB1 might negatively regulate drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. Data showed that AGB1 interacted with protein kinase AtMPK6 that was previously shown to phosphorylate AtVIP1, a transcription factor responding to ABA signaling. Our study found that transcript levels of three ABA responsive genes, AtMPK6, AtVIP1 and AtMYB44 (downstream gene of AtVIP1, were significantly up-regulated in agb1-2 lines after ABA or drought treatments. Other ABA-responsive and drought-inducible genes, such as RD29A (downstream gene of AtMYB44, were also up-regulated in agb1-2 lines. Furthermore, overexpression of AtVIP1 resulted in hypersensitivity to ABA at seed germination and seedling stages, and significantly enhanced drought tolerance in transgenic plants. These results suggest that AGB1 was involved in the ABA signaling pathway and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis through down-regulating the AtMPK6, AtVIP1 and AtMYB44 cascade.

  6. FIA functions as an early signal component of abscisic acid signal cascade in Vicia faba guard cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yusuke; Uraji, Misugi; Watanabe-Sugimoto, Megumi; Okuma, Eiji; Munemasa, Shintaro; Shimoishi, Yasuaki; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Mori, Izumi C; Iwai, Sumio; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2012-02-01

    An abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive Vicia faba mutant, fia (fava bean impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure) had previously been isolated. In this study, it was investigated how FIA functions in ABA signalling in guard cells of Vicia faba. Unlike ABA, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), H(2)O(2), and nitric oxide (NO) induced stomatal closure in the fia mutant. ABA did not induce production of either reactive oxygen species or NO in the mutant. Moreover, ABA did not suppress inward-rectifying K(+) (K(in)) currents or activate ABA-activated protein kinase (AAPK) in mutant guard cells. These results suggest that FIA functions as an early signal component upstream of AAPK activation in ABA signalling but does not function in MeJA signalling in guard cells of Vicia faba. PMID:22131163

  7. Mutations in the Arabidopsis Lst8 and Raptor genes encoding partners of the TOR complex, or inhibition of TOR activity decrease abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Alena; Citerne, Sylvie; Jéhanno, Isabelle; Bersimbaev, Rakhmetkazhi I; Veit, Bruce; Meyer, Christian; Leprince, Anne-Sophie

    2015-11-27

    The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase regulates essential processes in plant growth and development by modulation of metabolism and translation in response to environmental signals. In this study, we show that abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism is also regulated by the TOR kinase. Indeed ABA hormone level strongly decreases in Lst8-1 and Raptor3g mutant lines as well as in wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis plants treated with AZD-8055, a TOR inhibitor. However the growth and germination of these lines are more sensitive to exogenous ABA. The diminished ABA hormone accumulation is correlated with lower transcript levels of ZEP, NCED3 and AAO3 biosynthetic enzymes, and higher transcript amount of the CYP707A2 gene encoding a key-enzyme in abscisic acid catabolism. These results suggest that the TOR signaling pathway is implicated in the regulation of ABA accumulation in Arabidopsis.

  8. Rosiglitazone attenuates the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease imbalance in emphysema induced by cigarette smoke: involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and NFκB signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou G

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gang Hou, Yan Yin, Dan Han, Qiu-yue Wang, Jian Kang Department of Respiratory Medicine, the First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Objective: We investigated how rosiglitazone attenuated cigarette smoke (CS-induced emphysema in a rat model. In particular, we focused on its possible effects on the imbalance between metalloprotease (MMP and anti-MMP activity, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphorylation, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NFκB signaling pathway over-activation.Methods: A total of 36 Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n=12 each: animals were exposed to CS for 12 weeks in the absence (the CS group or presence of 30 mg/kg rosiglitazone (the rosiglitazone-CS [RCS] group; a control group was treated with the rosiglitazone vehicle only, without any CS exposure. Histopathology of lung tissue in all groups was evaluated to grade severity of the disease. Expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, MMP2, and MMP9 in lung tissue were determined and compared using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Activation of MAPKs, NFκB, and the nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cell inhibitor, alpha (IκBα phosphorylation in lung tissue was examined by Western blotting.Results: Emphysema-related pathology, based on inter-alveolar wall distance and alveolar density, was less severe in the RCS group than in the CS group. Compared with the CS group, levels of PPARγ were higher in the RCS group, and levels of MMP2 and MMP9 proteins were lower in the RCS rats. Levels of activated MAPKs and NFκB were also lower, while the IκBαphosphorylation was increased in the lung tissue of RCS rats.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that oral administration of rosiglitazone attenuates the metalloprotease activity induced by CS, and the underlying mechanism might involve the activation of signaling pathways

  9. Grafting cucumber onto luffa improves drought tolerance by increasing ABA biosynthesis and sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanshan; Li, Hao; Lv, Xiangzhang; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Kai; Asami, Tadao; Yu, Jingquan; Zhou, Yanhong

    2016-01-01

    Balancing stomata-dependent CO2 assimilation and transpiration is a key challenge for increasing crop productivity and water use efficiency under drought stress for sustainable crop production worldwide. Here, we show that cucumber and luffa plants with luffa as rootstock have intrinsically increased water use efficiency, decreased transpiration rate and less affected CO2 assimilation capacity following drought stress over those with cucumber as rootstock. Drought accelerated abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in roots, xylem sap and leaves, and induced the transcript of ABA signaling genes, leading to a decreased stomatal aperture and transpiration in the plants grafted onto luffa roots as compared to plants grafted onto cucumber roots. Furthermore, stomatal movement in the plants grafted onto luffa roots had an increased sensitivity to ABA. Inhibition of ABA biosynthesis in luffa roots decreased the drought tolerance in cucumber and luffa plants. Our study demonstrates that the roots of luffa have developed an enhanced ability to sense the changes in root-zone moisture and could eventually deliver modest level of ABA from roots to shoots that enhances water use efficiency under drought stress. Such a mechanism could be greatly exploited to benefit the agricultural production especially in arid and semi-arid areas. PMID:26832070

  10. Isolation and characterization of an osmotic stress and ABA induced histone deacetylase in Arachis hygogaea

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    Su eLiangchen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Histone acetylation, which together with histone methylation regulates gene activity in response to stress, is an important epigenetic modification. There is an increasing research focus on histone acetylation in crops, but there is no information to date in peanut (Arachis hypogaea. We showed that osmotic stress and ABA affect the acetylation of histone H3 loci in peanut seedlings by immunoblotting experiments. Using RNA-seq data for peanut, we found a RPD3/HDA1-like superfamily histone deacetylase (HDAC, termed AhHDA1, whose gene is up-regulated by PEG-induced water limitation and ABA signaling. We isolated and characterized AhHDA1 from A. hypogaea, showing that AhHDA1 is very similar to an Arabidopsis HDAC (AtHDA6 and, in recombinant form, possesses HDAC activity. To understand whether and how osmotic stress and ABA mediate the peanut stress response by epigenetics, the expression of AhHDA1 and stress-responsive genes following treatment with PEG, ABA and the specific HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA were analysed. AhHDA1 transcript levels were enhanced by all three treatments, as was expression of peanut transcription factor genes, indicating that AhHDA1 might be involved in the epigenetic regulation of stress resistance genes that comprise the responses to osmotic stress and ABA.

  11. Abscisic acid and blue light signaling pathways in chloroplast movements in Arabidopsis mesophyll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiec, Weronika; Banaś, Agnieszka Katarzyna; Janowiak, Franciszek; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and phototropins act antagonistically to control stomatal movements. Here, we investigated the role of ABA in phototropin-directed chloroplast movements in mesophyll cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. We analyzed the expression of phototropins at mRNA and protein level under the influence of ABA. PHOT1 mRNA level was decreased by ABA in the dark while it was insensitive to ABA in light. PHOT2 mRNA level was independent of the hormone treatment. The levels of phototropin proteins were down-regulated by ABA, both in darkness and light. No impact of exogenous ABA on amplitudes and kinetics of chloroplast movements was detected. Chloroplast responses in wild type Arabidopsis and three mutants, abi4, abi2 (abscisic acid insensitive4, 2) and aba1 (abscisic acid1), were measured to account for endogenous ABA signaling. The chloroplast responses were slightly reduced in abi2 and aba1 mutants in strong light. To further investigate the effect, abi2 and aba1 mutants were supplemented with exogenous ABA. In the aba1 mutant, the reaction was rescued but in abi2 it was unaffected. Our results show that ABA is not directly involved in phototropin-controlled chloroplast responses in mature leaves of Arabidopsis. However, the disturbance of ABA biosynthesis and signaling in mutants affects some elements of the chloroplast movement mechanism. In line with its role as a stress hormone, ABA appears to enhance plant sensitivity to light and promote the chloroplast avoidance response.

  12. PI-103 and Quercetin Attenuate PI3K-AKT Signaling Pathway in T- Cell Lymphoma Exposed to Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Akhilendra Kumar; Vinayak, Manjula

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase—protein kinase B (PI3K-AKT) pathway has been considered as major drug target site due to its frequent activation in cancer. AKT regulates the activity of various targets to promote tumorigenesis and metastasis. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been linked to oxidative stress and regulation of signaling pathways for metabolic adaptation of tumor microenvironment. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in this context is used as ROS source for oxidative stress preconditioning. Antioxidants are commonly considered to be beneficial to reduce detrimental effects of ROS and are recommended as dietary supplements. Quercetin, a ubiquitous bioactive flavonoid is a dietary component which has attracted much of interest due to its potential health-promoting effects. Present study is aimed to analyze PI3K-AKT signaling pathway in H2O2 exposed Dalton’s lymphoma ascite (DLA) cells. Further, regulation of PI3K-AKT pathway by quercetin as well as PI-103, an inhibitor of PI3K was analyzed. Exposure of H2O2 (1mM H2O2 for 30min) to DLA cells caused ROS accumulation and resulted in increased phosphorylation of PI3K and downstream proteins PDK1 and AKT (Ser-473 and Thr-308), cell survival factors BAD and ERK1/2, as well as TNFR1. However, level of tumor suppressor PTEN was declined. Both PI-103 & quercetin suppressed the enhanced level of ROS and significantly down-regulated phosphorylation of AKT, PDK1, BAD and level of TNFR1 as well as increased the level of PTEN in H2O2 induced lymphoma cells. The overall result suggests that quercetin and PI3K inhibitor PI-103 attenuate PI3K-AKT pathway in a similar mechanism. PMID:27494022

  13. NEU3 inhibitory effect of naringin suppresses cancer cell growth by attenuation of EGFR signaling through GM3 ganglioside accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Ayana; Kajiya, Natsuki; Oishi, Kazuki; Kamada, Yuko; Ikeda, Asami; Chigwechokha, Petros Kingstone; Kibe, Toshiro; Kishida, Michiko; Kishida, Shosei; Komatsu, Masaharu; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Naringin, which is one of the flavonoids contained in citrus fruits, is well known to possess various healthy functions to humans. It has been reported that naringin suppresses cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo, although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Recently, the roles of glycoconjugates, such as gangliosides, in cancer cells have been focused because of their regulatory effects of malignant phenotypes. Here, to clarify the roles of naringin in the negative-regulation of cancer cell growth, the alteration of glycoconjugates induced by naringin exposure and its significance on cell signaling were investigated. Human cancer cells, HeLa and A549, were exposed to various concentrations of naringin. Naringin treatment induced the suppression of cell growth toward HeLa and A549 cells accompanied with an increase of apoptotic cells. In naringin-exposed cells, GM3 ganglioside was drastically increased compared to the GM3 content prior to the treatment. Furthermore, naringin inhibited NEU3 sialidase, a GM3 degrading glycosidase. Similarly, NEU3 inhibition activities were also detected by other flavanone, such as hesperidin and neohesperidin dihydrocalcone, but their aglycones showed less inhibitions. Naringin-treated cancer cells showed suppressed EGFR and ERK phosphorylation levels. These results suggest a novel mechanism of naringin in the suppression of cancer cell growth through the alteration of glycolipids. NEU3 inhibitory effect of naringin induced GM3 accumulation in HeLa and A549 cells, leading the attenuation of EGFR/ERK signaling accompanied with a decrease in cell growth. PMID:27105818

  14. Asiaticoside attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury via down-regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiaming; Yu, Lijun; Zhang, Xingxing; Wu, Qianchao; Wang, Di; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xia, Cheng; Feng, Haihua

    2015-05-01

    Asiaticoside (AS), a triterpene glycoside isolated from Centella asiatica, has been shown to possess potent anti-inflammatory activity. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of AS on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) model in mice are scanty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of AS on LPS-induced mouse ALI via down-regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway. We investigated the efficacy of AS on cytokine levels induced by LPS in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and RAW 264.7 cells. The production of cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The lung wet-to-dry weight ratios were measured in LPS-challenged mice, and lung histopathologic changes observed via paraffin section were assessed. To further study the mechanism of AS protective effects on ALI, the activation of NF-κB p65 subunit and the degradation of IκBα were tested by western blot assay. We found that AS treatment at 15, 30 or 45mg/kg dose-dependently attenuated LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation by reducing inflammatory infiltration, histopathological changes, descended cytokine production, and pulmonary edema initiated by LPS. Furthermore, our results suggested that AS suppressed inflammatory responses in LPS-induced ALI through inhibition of the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 subunit and the degradation of its inhibitor IκBα, and might be a new preventive agent of ALI in the clinical setting.

  15. Activation of sonic hedgehog signaling attenuates oxidized low-density lipoprotein-stimulated brain microvascular endothelial cells dysfunction in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiu-Long; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    The study was performed to investigate the role of sonic hedgehog (SHH) in the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. The primary mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (MBMECs) were exposed to oxLDL. The results indicated that treatment of MBMECs with oxLDL decreased the cell viability, and oxidative stress was involved in oxLDL-induce MBMECs dysfunction with increasing intracellular ROS and MDA formation as well as decreasing NO release and eNOS mRNA expression. In addition, SHH signaling components, such as SHH, Smo and Gli1, mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased after incubation with increasing concentrations of oxLDL. Treatment with oxLDL alone or SHH loss-of-function significantly increased the permeability of MBMECs, and overexpression of SHH attenuated oxLDL-induced elevation of permeability in MBMECs. Furthermore, SHH gain-of-function could reverse oxLDL-induced apoptosis through inhibition caspase3 and caspase8 levels in MBMECs. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the suppression of SHH in MBMECs might contribute to the oxLDL-induced disruption of endothelial barrier. However, the overexpression of SHH could reverse oxLDL-induced endothelial cells dysfunction in vitro. PMID:26722472

  16. Activation of dimeric ABA receptors elicits guard cell closure, ABA-regulated gene expression, and drought tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Masanori; Peterson, Francis C.; Defries, Andrew; Park, Sang-Youl; Endo, Akira; Nambara, Eiji; Volkman, Brian F.; Cutler, Sean R.

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential molecule in plant abiotic stress responses. It binds to soluble pyrabactin resistance1/PYR1-like/regulatory component of ABA receptor receptors and stabilizes them in a conformation that inhibits clade A type II C protein phosphatases; this leads to downstream SnRK2 kinase activation and numerous cellular outputs. We previously described the synthetic naphthalene sulfonamide ABA agonist pyrabactin, which activates seed ABA responses but fails to trigger sub...

  17. Chelator profiling in Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) Beauv. Reveals a Ni reaction, which is distinct from the ABA and cytokinin associated response to Cd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Allison R; Coates, Kahlan E; Galer, Amy L; Hutchinson, Thomas C; Emery, R J Neil

    2013-03-01

    Plant hormones, including abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinins (CKs), fluctuate as a result of excess metal exposure. Changes in hormonal concentration regulate plant growth and may also signal activation of metal chelators. The grass Deschampsia cespitosa was dosed with either Ni or Cd or pulsed with exogenous ABA. The roots were analyzed for ABA and CKs and for multiple potential metal chelators including: amino acids, nicotianamine (NA), and phytochelatins (PCs). They were quantified after 3 h and after 7 days, using LC-ESI MS/MS. The Ni treatment caused no measurable change in ABA or CK concentration; however, an increase in NA was documented. The Cd treatment resulted in a short-term ABA increase followed by a reduction in CKs and an increase in PC concentration. An exogenous ABA pulse in non-metal challenged plants induced changes in CKs and PCs that followed those of Cd treatment. Ni and Cd stress resulted in distinctly different detoxification responses. Since the reaction of CKs and putative metal chelators to Cd stress can be mimicked by an exogenous ABA pulse, it is suggested that ABA acts as a stress signal, resulting in reduced growth by way of decreased CK concentration and reduced metal toxicity through increased PC production.

  18. Long-term effects of abscisic acid (ABA) on the grape berry phenylpropanoid pathway: Gene expression and metabolite content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-González, Luis; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Ibáñez, Freddy; Pastenes, Claudio

    2016-08-01

    ABA has been proposed as the main signal triggering the onset of the ripening process in grapes, and modulating the secondary metabolism in grape berry skins. To determine the effect of ABA on secondary metabolism in berries, clusters of Carménère were sprayed with 0 μLL(-1) ABA; 50 μLL(-1) ABA and 100 μLL(-1) ABA during pre-véraison, and the gene expression of the transcription factors and enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were assessed from véraison to 70 days after véraison (DAV). Additionally, flavonols, tannins and anthocyanins were assessed from véraison until harvest (110 DAV). ABA accelerated sugar and anthocyanin accumulation at véraison. The grape transcript abundance of VvDFR, VvANS, VvUFGT and VvMybA1, all peaking around véraison mimicked the concentration of ABA throughout the season. The highest anthocyanin concentration occurred 35 DAV for all treatments, but higher pigment concentrations were observed in ABA-treated berries at véraison and from 60 to 70 DAV to harvest. VvPAL was also increased by treatment at the higher concentration of ABA from véraison to 40 DAV. Regarding flavanol synthesis, VvLAR2 and VvMyb4A decreased from véraison until 40 DAV and then increased again until 70 DAV. Compared to the control, both ABA treatments resulted in a less-than-proportional reduction of the expression of both genes compared to the control and, after 40 DAV, in a more-than-proportional increase compared to the control, suggesting a long-term effect of the pre-véraison ABA spray on the berries. A concomitant increase in flavanols was observed in berries after 40 DAV, and this occurred at a higher extent in berries treated with the highest ABA concentration. PMID:27116369

  19. FIA functions as an early signal component of abscisic acid signal cascade in Vicia faba guard cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, Yusuke; Uraji, Misugi; Watanabe-Sugimoto, Megumi; Okuma, Eiji; Munemasa, Shintaro; Shimoishi, Yasuaki; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Mori, Izumi C.; Iwai, Sumio; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    An abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive Vicia faba mutant, fia (fava bean impaired in ABA-induced stomatal closure) had previously been isolated. In this study, it was investigated how FIA functions in ABA signalling in guard cells of Vicia faba. Unlike ABA, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), H2O2, and nitric oxide (NO) induced stomatal closure in the fia mutant. ABA did not induce production of either reactive oxygen species or NO in the mutant. Moreover, ABA did not suppress inward-rectifying K+ (Kin) cur...

  20. The glial cell modulator ibudilast attenuates neuroinflammation and enhances retinal ganglion cell viability in glaucoma through protein kinase A signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva Vargas, Jorge L; Belforte, Nicolas; Di Polo, Adriana

    2016-09-01

    Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease and the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Vision deficits in glaucoma result from the selective loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC). Glial cell-mediated neuroinflammation has been proposed to contribute to disease pathophysiology, but whether this response is harmful or beneficial for RGC survival is not well understood. To test this, we characterized the role of ibudilast, a clinically approved cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor with preferential affinity for PDE type 4 (PDE4). Here, we demonstrate that intraocular administration of ibudilast dampened macroglia and microglia reactivity in the retina and optic nerve hence decreasing production of proinflammatory cytokines in a rat model of ocular hypertension. Importantly, ibudilast promoted robust RGC soma survival, prevented axonal degeneration, and improved anterograde axonal transport in glaucomatous eyes without altering intraocular pressure. Intriguingly, ocular hypertension triggered upregulation of PDE4 subtype A in Müller glia, and ibudilast stimulated cAMP accumulation in these cells. Co-administration of ibudilast with Rp-cAMPS, a cell-permeable and non-hydrolysable cAMP analog that inhibits protein kinase A (PKA), completely blocked ibudilast-induced neuroprotection. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ibudilast, a safe and well-tolerated glial cell modulator, attenuates gliosis, decreases levels of proinflammatory mediators, and enhances neuronal viability in glaucoma through activation of the cAMP/PKA pathway. This study provides insight into PDE4 signaling as a potential target to counter the harmful effects associated with chronic gliosis and neuroinflammation in glaucoma. PMID:27163643

  1. HIF-1α signaling activation by post-ischemia treatment with astragaloside IV attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Si

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the effect of astragaloside IV (Ast IV post-ischemia treatment on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury (IRI. We also examined whether hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α and its downstream gene-inducible nitric oxide (NO synthase (iNOS play roles in the cardioprotective effect of Ast IV. Cultured cardiomyocytes and perfused isolated rat hearts were exposed to Ast IV during reperfusion in the presence or absence of the HIF-1α inhibitor 2-methoxyestradiol (2-MeOE2. The post-ischemia treatment with Ast IV protected cardiomyocytes from the apoptosis and death induced by simulated IRI (SIRI. Additionally, in cardiomyocytes, 2-MeOE2 and HIF-1α siRNA treatment each not only abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of post-ischemia treatment with Ast IV but also reversed the upregulation of HIF-1α and iNOS expression. Furthermore, after treatment with Ast IV, post-ischemic cardiac functional recovery and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release in the coronary flow (CF were improved, and the myocardial infarct size was decreased. Moreover, the number of apoptotic cells was reduced, and the upregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 and downregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein Caspase3 were reversed. 2-MeOE2 reversed these effects of Ast IV on IR-injured hearts. These results suggest that post-ischemia treatment with Ast IV can attenuate IRI by upregulating HIF-1α expression, which transmits a survival signal to the myocardium.

  2. Ordering phenomena in ABA triblock copolymer gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynders, K.; Mischenko, N.; Kleppinger, R.;

    1997-01-01

    Temperature and concentration dependencies of the degree of order in ABA triblock copolymer gels are discussed. Two factors can influence the ordering phenomena: the conformation of the midblocks (links of the network) and the polydispersity of the endblock domains (nodes of the network). The lat......Temperature and concentration dependencies of the degree of order in ABA triblock copolymer gels are discussed. Two factors can influence the ordering phenomena: the conformation of the midblocks (links of the network) and the polydispersity of the endblock domains (nodes of the network...... crystalline lattice with close-packed spheres or with cubic (presumably BCC) equilibrium morphology. The appearance of the latter is never detected in the gels with a stretched conformation of the midblock....

  3. A Portable Application Supporting ABA Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Artoni, Silvia; Buzzi, Maria Claudia; Buzzi, Marina; Fenili, Claudia; Mencarini, Simona; Senette, Caterina; Leporini, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose - Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is a scientific method for modelling human behavior, successfully applied in the context of autism. Recording and sharing measurable data (on the subjects' performance) between caregivers guarantees consistency of learning programs and allows monitoring the learning enhancement of the subject. Data are usually recorded on paper and partially ?copied in an electronic format later, which requires considerable effort and is subject to error. In ...

  4. A TIR domain protein from E. faecalis attenuates MyD88-mediated signaling and NF-κB activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zou

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor signaling, mediated by functional Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR domains, plays a critical role in activating the innate immune response responsible for controlling and clearing infection. Bacterial protein mimics of components of this signaling pathway have been identified and function through inhibition of interactions between Toll-like receptors (TLRs and their adaptor proteins, mediated by TIR domains. A previously uncharacterized gene, which we have named tcpF (for TIR domain-containing protein in E. faecalis was identified in the genome of Enterococcus faecalis V583, and predicted to encode a protein resembling mammalian and bacterial TIR proteins. We overexpressed and purified TcpF from E. coli and found that the recombinant protein could bind to phosphatidylinositol phosphates in vitro, suggesting a mechanism by which TcpF may be anchored to the plasma membrane in close proximity to TIR domains of TLRs and adaptor proteins. Purified TcpF was also found to interact specifically with the TIR adaptor protein MyD88, and this interaction was dependent on the BB loop domain in the Box 2 region of TcpF. Despite no evidence of TcpF being a secreted protein, recombinant TcpF was effectively able to enter RAW264.7 cells in vitro although the mechanism by which this occurs remains to be determined. Overexpression of TcpF in mammalian cells suppressed the NF-κB activation induced by bacterial lipoteichoic acid. A mutant lacking the tcpF gene was attenuated for survival in macrophages, with increased ability to activate NF-κB compared to the wild type strain. Complementation in trans restored growth, and inhibition of NF-κB, to that of wild type levels. No appreciable difference in bacterial persistence, dissemination or pathogenesis was observed between the wild type and mutant in a mouse peritonitis model however, which suggested either a subtle role for TcpF or functional overlap with other redundant factor(s in this

  5. Sucrose and ABA regulate starch biosynthesis in maize through a novel transcription factor, ZmEREB156.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huanhuan; Xie, Sidi; Xiao, Qianlin; Wei, Bin; Zheng, Lanjie; Wang, Yongbin; Cao, Yao; Zhang, Xiangge; Long, Tiandan; Li, Yangping; Hu, Yufeng; Yu, Guowu; Liu, Hanmei; Liu, Yinghong; Huang, Zhi; Zhang, Junjie; Huang, Yubi

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose is not only the carbon source for starch synthesis, but also a signal molecule. Alone or in coordination with ABA, it can regulate the expression of genes involved in starch synthesis. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect, maize endosperms were collected from Zea mays L. B73 inbred line 10 d after pollination and treated with sucrose, ABA, or sucrose plus ABA at 28 °C in the dark for 24 h. RNA-sequence analysis of the maize endosperm transcriptome revealed 47 candidate transcription factors among the differentially expressed genes. We therefore speculate that starch synthetic gene expression is regulated by transcription factors induced by the combination of sucrose and ABA. ZmEREB156, a candidate transcription factor, is induced by sucrose plus ABA and is involved in starch biosynthesis. The ZmEREB156-GFP-fused protein was localized in the nuclei of onion epidermal cells, and ZmEREB156 protein possessed strong transcriptional activation activity. Promoter activity of the starch-related genes Zmsh2 and ZmSSIIIa increased after overexpression of ZmEREB156 in maize endosperm. ZmEREB156 could bind to the ZmSSIIIa promoter but not the Zmsh2 promoter in a yeast one-hybrid system. Thus, ZmEREB156 positively modulates starch biosynthetic gene ZmSSIIIa via the synergistic effect of sucrose and ABA.

  6. Protein phosphorylation is involved in the water stress induced ABA accumulation in the roots of Malus hupehensis Rehd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Water stress-induced ABA accumulation plays a key role in the root to shoot communication and/or the cell to cell signaling under the soil stresses. The signaling of the water stress itself that leads to the accumulation, however, is less known. In this study, we subjected the roots of Malus hupehensis seedlings to water stress treatment and investigated the ABA accumulation in relation to protein phosphorylation. Our results showed that ABA accumulation could be substantially triggered in 40 min and reached 4 folds in 100 min after treatment with 30% PEG 6000 (polyethylene glycol). The water stress treatment also led to a substantial enhancement of total kinase activity, assessed with histone-Ⅲ as substrate, in 15 min and a maximum enhancement in 30 min before it declined to initial level. The Ca2+-dependent kinase activity showed a similar, if not more sensitive, trend. When the roots were fed with labeled 32pATP, water stress enhanced the labeling of proteins, which showed a maximum labeling at 40 min. Two inhibitors of protein kinases, Quercetin and H7, effectively diminished or completely blocked the ABA accumulation under the stress treatment. It is therefore suggest that protein phosphorylation is involved in the signaling of the water stress-induced ABA accumulation.

  7. Myeloid-Specific Blockade of Notch Signaling by RBP-J Knockout Attenuates Spinal Cord Injury Accompanied by Compromised Inflammation Response in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bei-Yu; Zheng, Min-Hua; Chen, Yan; Du, Yan-Ling; Sun, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Xing; Duan, Li; Gao, Fang; Liang, Liang; Qin, Hong-Yan; Luo, Zhuo-Jing; Han, Hua

    2015-12-01

    The outcome of spinal cord injury (SCI) is determined by both neural cell-intrinsic survival pathways and tissue microenvironment-derived signals. Macrophages dominating the inflammatory responses in SCI possess both destructive and reparative potentials, according to their activation status. Notch signaling is involved in both cell survival and macrophage-mediated inflammation, but a comprehensive role of Notch signaling in SCI has been elusive. In this study, we compared the effects of general Notch blockade by a pharmaceutical γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) and myeloid-specific Notch signal disruption by recombination signal binding protein Jκ (RBP-J) knockout on SCI. The administration of Notch signal inhibitor GSI resulted in worsened hind limb locomotion and exacerbated inflammation. However, mice lacking RBP-J, the critical transcription factor mediating signals from all four mammalian Notch receptors, in myeloid lineage displayed promoted functional recovery, attenuated glial scar formation, improved neuronal survival and axon regrowth, and mitigated inflammatory response after SCI. These benefits were accompanied by enhanced AKT activation in the lesion area after SCI. These findings demonstrate that abrogating Notch signal in myeloid cells ameliorates inflammation response post-SCI and promotes functional recovery, but general pharmaceutical Notch interception has opposite effects. Therefore, clinical intervention of Notch signaling in SCI needs to pinpoint myeloid lineage to avoid the counteractive effects of global inhibition.

  8. A key ABA catabolic gene, OsABA8ox3, is involved in drought stress resistance in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanlan Cai

    Full Text Available Expressions of ABA biosynthesis genes and catabolism genes are generally co-regulated in plant development and responses to environmental stress. Up-regulation of OsNCED3 gene, a key gene in ABA biosynthesis, has been suggested as a way to enhance plant drought resistance but little is known for the role of ABA catabolic genes during drought stress. In this study, we found that OsABA8ox3 was the most highly expressed gene of the OsABA8ox family in rice leaves. Expression of OsABA8ox3 was promptly induced by rehydration after PEG-mimic dehydration, a tendency opposite to the changes of ABA level. We therefore constructed rice OsABA8ox3 silencing (RNA interference, RNAi and overexpression plants. There were no obvious phenotype differences between the transgenic seedlings and wild type under normal condition. However, OsABA8ox3 RNAi lines showed significant improvement in drought stress tolerance while the overexpression seedlings were hypersensitive to drought stress when compared with wild type in terms of plant survival rates after 10 days of unwatering. Enzyme activity analysis indicated that OsABA8ox3 RNAi plants had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities and less malondialdehyde (MDA content than those of wild type when the plants were exposed to dehydration treatment, indicating a better anti-oxidative stress capability and less membrane damage. DNA microarray and real-time PCR analysis under dehydration treatment revealed that expressions of a group of stress/drought-related genes, i.e. LEA genes, were enhanced with higher transcript levels in OsABA8ox3 RNAi transgenic seedlings. We therefore conclude that that OsABA8ox3 gene plays an important role in controlling ABA level and drought stress resistance in rice.

  9. A key ABA catabolic gene, OsABA8ox3, is involved in drought stress resistance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shanlan; Jiang, Guobin; Ye, Nenghui; Chu, Zhizhan; Xu, Xuezhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhu, Guohui

    2015-01-01

    Expressions of ABA biosynthesis genes and catabolism genes are generally co-regulated in plant development and responses to environmental stress. Up-regulation of OsNCED3 gene, a key gene in ABA biosynthesis, has been suggested as a way to enhance plant drought resistance but little is known for the role of ABA catabolic genes during drought stress. In this study, we found that OsABA8ox3 was the most highly expressed gene of the OsABA8ox family in rice leaves. Expression of OsABA8ox3 was promptly induced by rehydration after PEG-mimic dehydration, a tendency opposite to the changes of ABA level. We therefore constructed rice OsABA8ox3 silencing (RNA interference, RNAi) and overexpression plants. There were no obvious phenotype differences between the transgenic seedlings and wild type under normal condition. However, OsABA8ox3 RNAi lines showed significant improvement in drought stress tolerance while the overexpression seedlings were hypersensitive to drought stress when compared with wild type in terms of plant survival rates after 10 days of unwatering. Enzyme activity analysis indicated that OsABA8ox3 RNAi plants had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and less malondialdehyde (MDA) content than those of wild type when the plants were exposed to dehydration treatment, indicating a better anti-oxidative stress capability and less membrane damage. DNA microarray and real-time PCR analysis under dehydration treatment revealed that expressions of a group of stress/drought-related genes, i.e. LEA genes, were enhanced with higher transcript levels in OsABA8ox3 RNAi transgenic seedlings. We therefore conclude that that OsABA8ox3 gene plays an important role in controlling ABA level and drought stress resistance in rice. PMID:25647508

  10. Auxin and ABA act as central regulators of developmental networks associated with paradormancy in Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense)

    KAUST Repository

    Anderson, James V.

    2012-05-13

    Abstract Dormancy in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle, an herbaceous perennial weed, allows escape from current control methods and contributes to its invasive nature. In this study, ∼65 % of root sections obtained from greenhouse propagated Canada thistle produced new vegetative shoots by 14 days post-sectioning. RNA samples obtained from sectioned roots incubated 0, 24, 48, and 72 h at 25°C under 16:8 h light-dark conditions were used to construct four MID-tagged cDNA libraries. Analysis of in silico data obtained using Roche 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing technologies identified molecular networks associated with paradormancy release in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle. Sequencing of two replicate plates produced ∼2.5 million ESTs with an average read length of 362 bases. These ESTs assembled into 67358 unique sequences (21777 contigs and 45581 singlets) and annotation against the Arabidopsis database identified 15232 unigenes. Among the 15232 unigenes, we identified processes enriched with transcripts involved in plant hormone signaling networks. To follow-up on these results, we examined hormone profiles in roots, which identified changes in abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolites, auxins, and cytokinins post-sectioning. Transcriptome and hormone profiling data suggest that interaction between auxin- and ABA-signaling regulate paradormancy maintenance and release in underground adventitious buds of Canada thistle. Our proposed model shows that sectioning-induced changes in polar auxin transport alters ABA metabolism and signaling, which further impacts gibberellic acid signaling involving interactions between ABA and FUSCA3. Here we report that reduced auxin and ABA-signaling, in conjunction with increased cytokinin biosynthesis post-sectioning supports a model where interactions among hormones drives molecular networks leading to cell division, differentiation, and vegetative outgrowth. ©Springer-Verlag (outside the USA) 2012.

  11. The Arabidopsis a zinc finger domain protein ARS1 is essential for seed germination and ROS homeostasis in response to ABA and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwon eBaek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA induces accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which can disrupt seed dormancy and plant development. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant called ars1 (aba and ros sensitive 1 that showed hypersensitivity to ABA during seed germination and to methyl viologen (MV at the seedling stage. ARS1 encodes a nuclear protein with one zinc finger domain, two nuclear localization signal (NLS domains, and one nuclear export signal (NES. The ars1 mutants showed reduced expression of a gene for superoxide dismutase (CSD3 and enhanced accumulation of ROS after ABA treatment. Transient expression of ARS1 in Arabidopsis protoplasts strongly suppressed ABA-mediated ROS production. Interestingly, nuclear-localized ARS1 translocated to the cytoplasm in response to treatment with ABA, H2O2, or MV. Taken together, these results suggest that ARS1 modulates seed germination and ROS homeostasis in response to ABA and oxidative stress in plants.

  12. Stomatal guard cells co-opted an ancient ABA-dependent desiccation survival system to regulate stomatal closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Christof; Dreyer, Ingo; López-Sanjurjo, Enrique J; von Meyer, Katharina; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Lang, Daniel; Zhao, Yang; Kreuzer, Ines; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Ronne, Hans; Reski, Ralf; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Geiger, Dietmar; Hedrich, Rainer

    2015-03-30

    During the transition from water to land, plants had to cope with the loss of water through transpiration, the inevitable result of photosynthetic CO2 fixation on land [1, 2]. Control of transpiration became possible through the development of a new cell type: guard cells, which form stomata. In vascular plants, stomatal regulation is mediated by the stress hormone ABA, which triggers the opening of the SnR kinase OST1-activated anion channel SLAC1 [3, 4]. To understand the evolution of this regulatory circuit, we cloned both ABA-signaling elements, SLAC1 and OST1, from a charophyte alga, a liverwort, and a moss, and functionally analyzed the channel-kinase interactions. We were able to show that the emergence of stomata in the last common ancestor of mosses and vascular plants coincided with the origin of SLAC1-type channels capable of using the ancient ABA drought signaling kinase OST1 for regulation of stomatal closure. PMID:25802151

  13. Rain Rate-Radar Reflectivity Relationship for Drop Size Distribution and Rain Attenuation Calculation of Ku Band Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govardhani.Immadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the increased demand for long distance Tele communication day by day, satellite communication system was developed. Satellite communications utilize L, C, Ku and Ka bands of frequency to fulfil all the requirements. Utilization of higher frequencies causes severe attenuation due to rain. Rain attenuation is noticeable for frequencies above 10ghz. Amount of attenuation depends on whether the operating wave length is comparable with rain drop diameter or not. In this paper the main focus is on drop size distribution using empirical methods, especially Marshall and Palmer distributions. Empirical methods deal with power law relation between the rain rate(mm/h and radar reflectivity(dBz. Finally it is discussed about the rain rate variation, radar reflectivity, drop size distribution, that is made for two rain events at K L University, Vijayawada on 4th September 2013 and on 18 th August 2013.

  14. La fortaleza del abañil

    OpenAIRE

    SÁNCHEZ TOLEDO, MARTA

    2011-01-01

    Trabajo científico técnico.La presente investigación analiza diversos aspectos laborales de los trabajadores de la albañilería desde su propio punto de vista, siguiendo un enfoque cualitativo. Describiéndose la albañilería como el arte de construir edificios utilizando materiales que ofrece la naturaleza o materiales industrializados. La investigación se centra en el municipio de Villarrobledo. Sánchez Toledo, M. (2011). La fortaleza del abañil. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/11601. Arc...

  15. ABA mediates PEG-mediated premature differentiation of root apical meristem in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Hongtao; Li, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Root apical meristem (RAM) is central for indeterminate growth of plant roots and in sensing environmental stimuli, such as water status. Recently, we reported that PEG8000-simulated mild and moderate osmotic stress induces premature differentiation of RAM, which is a conserved adaptive mechanism in higher plants to cope with water stress. Microarray data analysis revealed that the ABA signaling pathway may be involved in water stress-induced RAM premature differentiation. Here we showed that...

  16. Increased ceramide content and NFkB signaling may contribute to the attenuation of anabolic signaling after resistance exercise in aged males

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most fundamental adaptive physiological events is the response of skeletal muscle to high-intensity resistance exercise, resulting in increased protein synthesis and ultimately larger muscle mass. However, muscle growth in response to contraction is attenuated in older humans. Impaired co...

  17. A 14-3-3 Family Protein from Wild Soybean (Glycine Soja Regulates ABA Sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Sun

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the 14-3-3 family proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. By conducting genome-wide analysis, researchers have identified the soybean 14-3-3 family proteins; however, until now, there is still no direct genetic evidence showing the involvement of soybean 14-3-3s in ABA responses. Hence, in this study, based on the latest Glycine max genome on Phytozome v10.3, we initially analyzed the evolutionary relationship, genome organization, gene structure and duplication, and three-dimensional structure of soybean 14-3-3 family proteins systematically. Our results suggested that soybean 14-3-3 family was highly evolutionary conserved and possessed segmental duplication in evolution. Then, based on our previous functional characterization of a Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o in drought stress responses, we further investigated the expression characteristics of GsGF14o in detail, and demonstrated its positive roles in ABA sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in Glycine soja seedlings and GUS activity assays in PGsGF14O:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed that GsGF14o expression was moderately and rapidly induced by ABA treatment. As expected, GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis augmented the ABA inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth, promoted the ABA induced stomata closure, and up-regulated the expression levels of ABA induced genes. Moreover, through yeast two hybrid analyses, we further demonstrated that GsGF14o physically interacted with the AREB/ABF transcription factors in yeast cells. Taken together, results presented in this study strongly suggested that GsGF14o played an important role in regulation of ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

  18. A 14-3-3 Family Protein from Wild Soybean (Glycine Soja) Regulates ABA Sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Sun, Mingzhe; Jia, Bowei; Chen, Chao; Qin, Zhiwei; Yang, Kejun; Shen, Yang; Meiping, Zhang; Mingyang, Cong; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the 14-3-3 family proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. By conducting genome-wide analysis, researchers have identified the soybean 14-3-3 family proteins; however, until now, there is still no direct genetic evidence showing the involvement of soybean 14-3-3s in ABA responses. Hence, in this study, based on the latest Glycine max genome on Phytozome v10.3, we initially analyzed the evolutionary relationship, genome organization, gene structure and duplication, and three-dimensional structure of soybean 14-3-3 family proteins systematically. Our results suggested that soybean 14-3-3 family was highly evolutionary conserved and possessed segmental duplication in evolution. Then, based on our previous functional characterization of a Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o in drought stress responses, we further investigated the expression characteristics of GsGF14o in detail, and demonstrated its positive roles in ABA sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in Glycine soja seedlings and GUS activity assays in PGsGF14O:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed that GsGF14o expression was moderately and rapidly induced by ABA treatment. As expected, GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis augmented the ABA inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth, promoted the ABA induced stomata closure, and up-regulated the expression levels of ABA induced genes. Moreover, through yeast two hybrid analyses, we further demonstrated that GsGF14o physically interacted with the AREB/ABF transcription factors in yeast cells. Taken together, results presented in this study strongly suggested that GsGF14o played an important role in regulation of ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

  19. Effects of signal attenuation in natural media on interpretation of acoustic emissions in the context early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faillettaz, Jerome; Or, Dani

    2015-04-01

    Gravity driven instabilities in natural media such as rockfalls, landslides, snow avalanches or glacier break-offs represent a significant class of natural hazards. Reliable prediction of imminence of such events combined with timely evacuation remain a challenge because material failure is a non linear process involving inherent heterogeneities affecting the outcome. Nevertheless, such materials break gradually with the weakest parts breaking first, producing precursory "micro-cracks" and associated elastic waves traveling in the material. The monitoring of such acoustic/micro-seismic activity offers valuable information on the progression of damage and imminence of global failure. The main challenge is that acoustic waves are strongly attenuated during their travel through natural media thereby introducing ambiguity in the interpretation of the magnitude (severity) or leading to loss of detection for faraway events. For example, a micro-crack event would be measured as a large event if occurring close to the sensor, and as a small event if far from the sensor ( or may not be detected at all). A more complete picture of acoustic emissions or micro- seismic activity requires deployment of a dense network of sensors that enables localization of sources and thus the determination of initial energy released with each event. However, such networks are prohibitively costly difficult to analyze in real time over scales of interest. Is it possible to find a way to analyze directly in real time the measured micro-seismic activity to infer the slope mechanical status? Following a qualitative description of the observation problem and the processes leading to attenuation, a quantitative analysis is performed using a numerical model based on the classical Fiber Bundle Model. Introducing a basic attenuation law in such simple models enables to directly compare un-attenuated and attenuated acoustic activity (and also avalanche size-frequency distribution) at any location

  20. l-Ascorbyl-2-phosphate attenuates NF-κB signaling in SZ95 sebocytes without affecting IL-6 and IL-8 secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeno, Hiroshi; Apel, Mara; Zouboulis, Christos; Luger, Thomas A; Böhm, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Acne is the most common inflammatory skin disease. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is at the beginning of the cytokine signaling cascade and may be involved in the pathogenesis of this disorder. It activates redox-sensitive transcription factors, which induce IL-6 and IL-8 expression. Interestingly, l-ascorbyl-2-phosphate (APS) was shown to have beneficial effects in patients with acne vulgaris. The mechanism of action of this agent remains unknown. Here, we investigated if APS attenuates IL-1β- or TNF-...

  1. Chronic in vivo or acute in vitro resveratrol attenuates endothelium-dependent cyclooxygenase-mediated contractile signaling in hypertensive rat carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denniss, Steven G; Ford, Rebecca J; Smith, Christopher S; Jeffery, Andrew J; Rush, James W E

    2016-05-15

    Exaggerated cyclooxygenase (COX) and thromboxane-prostanoid (TP) receptor-mediated endothelium-dependent contraction can contribute to endothelial dysfunction. This study examined the effect of resveratrol (RSV) on endothelium-dependent contraction and cell signaling in the common carotid artery (CCA) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). Acetylcholine (Ach)-stimulated endothelium-dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-mediated relaxation in precontracted SHR CCA was impaired (maximum 73 ± 6% vs. 87 ± 5% in WKY) (P water) with a ∼0.075 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) RSV dose affected neither endothelium-dependent relaxation nor endothelium-dependent contraction and associated prostaglandin (PG) production evaluated in non-precontracted NOS-blocked CCA. In contrast, a chronic ∼7.5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) RSV dose improved endothelium-dependent relaxation (94 ± 6%) and attenuated endothelium-dependent contraction (58 ± 4% vs. 73 ± 5% in No-RSV) and PG production (183 ± 43 vs. 519 ± 93 pg/ml) in SHR CCA, while U46619-stimulated TP receptor-mediated contraction was unaffected. In separate acute in vitro experiments, 20-μM RSV preincubation attenuated endothelium-dependent contraction (6 ± 4% vs. 62 ± 2% in No Drug) and PG production (121 ± 15 vs. 491 ± 93 pg/ml) and attenuated U46619-stimulated contraction (134 ± 5% vs. 171 ± 4%) in non-precontracted NOS-blocked SHR CCA. Compound C, a known AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, did not prevent the RSV attenuating effect on Ach- and U46619-stimulated contraction but did prevent the RSV attenuating effect on PG production (414 ± 58 pg/ml). These data demonstrate that RSV can attenuate endothelium-dependent contraction both by suppressing arterial wall PG production, which may be partially mediated by AMPK, and by TP receptor hyporesponsiveness, which does not appear to be mediated by AMPK. PMID:26917696

  2. SlSOM inhibits seed germination by regulating the expression of ABA/GA metabolic genes and SlABI5 in Solanum lycopersicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-chun; GAO Yong-feng; ZHANG Ning; LI Hui-rong; YANG Shu-zhang; LIU Yong-sheng

    2015-01-01

    SOM encodes a nucleus-localized CCCH-type zinc finger protein and negatively regulates seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. We have previously demonstrated that ectopic expression of SlABI3, an important transcription factor in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway, resulted in alteration of SlSOM expression patterns in both leaf and seed of tomato. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the function of tomato SlSOM in regarding to seed germination and seedling development. Here, we constructed SlSOM over-expression vector pBI121-SOM driven by CaMV 35S promoter, and the recombinant plasmid was incorporated into wild-type tomato by the method of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The result showed that over-expression of SlSOM conferred enhanced responses to exogenous ABA application during seed germination and seedling development. In addition, ectopic expression of SlSOM resulted in the alteration of expression level of ABA/GA (gibberel ins) metabolic genes, such as SlABA1, SlCYP707A1, SlGA3ox2, and SlGA2ox4, in both leaf and seed. The ABA anabolic gene SlABA1 and the GA catabolic gene SlGA2ox4 were up-regulated while the ABA catabolic gene SlCYP707A1 and the GA anabolic gene SlGA3ox2 were down-regulated. Compared to wild type, the expression level of SlABI5 was increased by about 40–50%in transgenic seeds while adding exogenous ABA treatment. These results support the notion that SlSOM inhibits seed germination by regulating ABA/GA metabolic genes and SlABI5 expression in Solanum lycopersicum.

  3. The Inhibition of RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis through the Suppression of p38 Signaling Pathway by Naringenin and Attenuation of Titanium-Particle-Induced Osteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wengang Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of naringenin on osteoclastogenesis and titanium particle-induced osteolysis. Osteolysis from wear-induced particles and aseptic loosening are the most frequent late complications of total joint arthroplasty leading to revision of the prosthesis. Osteolysis during aseptic loosening is most likely due to increased bone resorption by osteoclasts. Through in vitro studies, we demonstrated that naringenin, a naturally occurring flavanone in grapefruit and tomatoes, exerts potent inhibitory effects on the ligand of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and revealed that the mechanism of action of naringenin, which inhibited osteoclastogenesis by suppression of the p38 signaling pathway. Through in vivo studies, we proved that naringenin attenuated titanium particle-induced osteolysis in a mouse calvarial model. In general, we demonstrated that naringenin inhibited osteoclastogenesis via suppression of p38 signaling in vitro and attenuated titanium particle-induced osteolysis in vivo. This study also suggested that naringenin has significant potential for the treatment of osteolysis-related diseases caused by excessive osteoclast formation and activity.

  4. A Nampt inhibitor FK866 mimics vitamin B3 deficiency by causing senescence of human fibroblastic Hs68 cells via attenuation of NAD(+)-SIRT1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tuzz-Ying; Yeh, Shu-Lan; Hu, Miao-Lin; Chen, Mei-Yau; Yang, Nae-Cherng

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin B3 (niacin) deficiency can cause pellagra with symptoms of dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia. However, it is unclear whether the vitamin B3 deficiency causes human aging. FK866 (a Nampt inhibitor) can reduce intracellular NAD(+) level and induce senescence of human Hs68 cells. However, the mechanisms underlying FK866-induced senescence of Hs68 cells are unclear. In this study, we used FK866 to mimic the effects of vitamin B3 deficiency to reduce the NAD(+) level and investigated the mechanisms of FK866-induced senescence of Hs68 cells. We hypothesized that FK866 induced the senescence of Hs68 cells via an attenuation of NAD(+)-silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) signaling. We found that FK866 induced cell senescence and diminished cellular NAD(+) levels and SIRT1 activity (detected by acetylation of p53), and these effects were dramatically antagonized by co-treatment with nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, or NAD(+). In contrast, the protein expression of SIRT1, AMP-activated protein kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) was not affected by FK866. In addition, the role of GSH in the FK866-induced cells senescence may be limited, as N-acetylcysteine did not antagonize FK866-induced cell senescence. These results suggest that FK866 induces cell senescence via attenuation of NAD(+)-SIRT1 signaling. The effects of vitamin B3 deficiency on human aging warrant further investigation. PMID:26330291

  5. Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 2 of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtVDAC2 Is Involved in ABA-Mediated Early Seedling Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufeng Li

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC is the major transport protein in the outer membrane of mitochondria and plays crucial roles in energy metabolism, apoptosis, and metabolites transport. In plants, the expression of VDACs can be affected by different stresses, including drought, salinity and pathogen defense. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of AtVDAC2 in A. thaliana and found ABA suppressed the accumulation of AtVDAC2 transcripts. Further, phenotype analysis of this VDAC deregulated-expression transgenic Arabidopsis plants indicated that AtVDAC2 anti-sense line showed an ABA-insensitivity phenotype during the early seedling development under ABA treatment. The results suggested that AtVDAC2 might be involved in ABA signaling in A. thaliana.

  6. L-Ascorbyl-2-phosphate attenuates NF-κB signaling in SZ95 sebocytes without affecting IL-6 and IL-8 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Hiroshi; Apel, Mara; Zouboulis, Christos; Luger, Thomas A; Böhm, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Acne is the most common inflammatory skin disease. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is at the beginning of the cytokine signaling cascade and may be involved in the pathogenesis of this disorder. It activates redox-sensitive transcription factors, which induce IL-6 and IL-8 expression. Interestingly, L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate (APS) was shown to have beneficial effects in patients with acne vulgaris. The mechanism of action of this agent remains unknown. Here, we investigated if APS attenuates IL-1β- or TNF-α-mediated IL-6 and IL-8 expression in SZ95 sebocytes, whereas TNF-α was used as control. We also explored NF-κB activation which is known to orchestrate IL-1β- and TNF-α-mediated cytokine expression in many cell types. Both IL-1β and TNF-α increased IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression in SZ95 sebocytes. However, only IL-1β induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. IL-1β but not TNF-α activated NF-κB canonical signaling as demonstrated by Iκ-Bα phosphorylation and degradation as well as by nuclear accumulation of NF-κB/p65. Concomitant treatment of SZ95 sebocytes with APS attenuated the effect of IL-1β and TNF-α on IL-6 and IL-8 gene expression as well as on IL-1β-mediated NF-κB signaling. In contrast, APS failed to reduce IL-1β-mediated IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, presumably by maintained IL-1β-mediated p38 activation, which is known to control IL-8 secretion. Our findings shed light into the impact of IL-1β on the inflammatory cytokine response and its molecular mechanisms in human sebocytes. Our data further suggest that the beneficial effect of APS in acne patients involves attenuation of NF-κB signaling but not reduction of IL-6 or IL-8 secretion. PMID:25894228

  7. Short-term starvation attenuates liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) by Sirt1-autophagy signaling in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianjie; Zhou, Junjin; Dai, Xinzheng; Zhou, Haoming; Pan, Xiongxiong; Wang, Xuehao; Zhang, Feng; Rao, Jianhua; Lu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction or starvation (fasting) has some beneficial effects in terms of prolonging life and increasing resistance to stress. It has also been shown that calorie restriction has a protective role during ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in several organs, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. In this study we investigated the effects and molecular mechanisms of short-term starvation (STS) on liver IRI in a mouse liver IRI model. We found that STS significantly attenuated liver IRI in this model, as evidenced by inhibition of serum aminotransferase levels, and decreased pathological damage and hepatocellular apoptosis, especially after 2- or 3-day starvation. Furthermore, we found that 2- or 3-day starvation induced expression of hepatocellular autophagy in vivo and in vitro. Further experiments provided support for the notion that STS-induced autophagy played a key role during starvation-regulated protection against liver IRI via autophagy inhibition with 3-methyladenine. Interestingly, the longevity gene Sirt1 was also significantly up-regulated in liver after STS. Importantly, inhibition of Sirt1 by sirtinol abolished STS-induced autophagy and further abrogated STS-mediated protection against liver IRI. In conclusion, our results indicate that STS attenuates liver IRI via the Sirt1-autophagy pathway. Our findings provide a rationale for a novel therapeutic strategy for managing liver IRI. PMID:27648127

  8. Kaempferol Attenuates Myocardial Ischemic Injury via Inhibition of MAPK Signaling Pathway in Experimental Model of Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Suchal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaempferol (KMP, a dietary flavonoid, has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects. Hence, we investigated the effect of KMP in ischemia-reperfusion (IR model of myocardial injury in rats. We studied male albino Wistar rats that were divided into sham, IR-control, KMP-20 + IR, and KMP 20 per se groups. KMP (20 mg/kg; i.p. was administered daily to rats for the period of 15 days, and, on the 15th day, ischemia was produced by one-stage ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min. After completion of surgery, rats were sacrificed; heart was removed and processed for biochemical, morphological, and molecular studies. KMP pretreatment significantly ameliorated IR injury by maintaining cardiac function, normalizing oxidative stress, and preserving morphological alterations. Furthermore, there was a decrease in the level of inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6, and NFκB, inhibition of active JNK and p38 proteins, and activation of ERK1/ERK2, a prosurvival kinase. Additionally, it also attenuated apoptosis by reducing the expression of proapoptotic proteins (Bax and Caspase-3, TUNEL positive cells, and increased level of antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl-2. In conclusion, KMP protected against IR injury by attenuating inflammation and apoptosis through the modulation of MAPK pathway.

  9. Attenuation of Weather Radar Signals Due to Wetting of the Radome by Rainwater or Incomplete Filling of the Beam Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merceret, Francis J.; Ward, Jennifer G.

    2000-01-01

    A search of scientific literature, both printed and electronic, was undertaken to provide quantitative estimates of attenuation effects of rainfall on weather radar radomes. The emphasis was on C-band (5 cm) and S-Band (10 cm) wavelengths. An empirical model was developed to estimate two-way wet radome losses as a function of frequency and rainfall rate for both standard and hydrophobic radomes. The model fits most of the published data within +/- 1 dB at both target wavelengths for rain rates from less than ten to more than 200 mm/hr. Rainfall attenuation effects remain under 1 dB at both frequencies regardless of radome type for rainfall rates up to 10 mm/hr. S-Band losses with a hydrophobic radome such as that on the WSR-88D remain under 1 dB up to 100 mm/hr. C-Band losses on standard radomes such as that on the Patrick AFB (Air Force Base) WSR-74C can reach as much as 5 dB at 50 mm/hr. In addition, calculations were performed to determine the reduction in effective reflectivity, Z, when a radar target is smaller than the sampling volume of the radar. Results are presented for both the Patrick Air Force Base WSR-74C and the WSR-88D as a function of target size and range.

  10. ABA receptor PYL9 promotes drought resistance and leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Chan, Zhulong; Gao, Jinghui; Xing, Lu; Cao, Minjie; Yu, Chunmei; Hu, Yuanlei; You, Jun; Shi, Haitao; Zhu, Yingfang; Gong, Yuehua; Mu, Zixin; Wang, Haiqing; Deng, Xin; Wang, Pengcheng; Bressan, Ray A; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-02-16

    Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting plant productivity. In this study, we screened drought-resistant transgenic plants from 65 promoter-pyrabactin resistance 1-like (PYL) abscisic acid (ABA) receptor gene combinations and discovered that pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic lines showed dramatically increased drought resistance and drought-induced leaf senescence in both Arabidopsis and rice. Previous studies suggested that ABA promotes senescence by causing ethylene production. However, we found that ABA promotes leaf senescence in an ethylene-independent manner by activating sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s), which subsequently phosphorylate ABA-responsive element-binding factors (ABFs) and Related to ABA-Insensitive 3/VP1 (RAV1) transcription factors. The phosphorylated ABFs and RAV1 up-regulate the expression of senescence-associated genes, partly by up-regulating the expression of Oresara 1. The pyl9 and ABA-insensitive 1-1 single mutants, pyl8-1pyl9 double mutant, and snrk2.2/3/6 triple mutant showed reduced ABA-induced leaf senescence relative to the WT, whereas pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants showed enhanced ABA-induced leaf senescence. We found that leaf senescence may benefit drought resistance by helping to generate an osmotic potential gradient, which is increased in pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants and causes water to preferentially flow to developing tissues. Our results uncover the molecular mechanism of ABA-induced leaf senescence and suggest an important role of PYL9 and leaf senescence in promoting resistance to extreme drought stress.

  11. ABA receptor PYL9 promotes drought resistance and leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Chan, Zhulong; Gao, Jinghui; Xing, Lu; Cao, Minjie; Yu, Chunmei; Hu, Yuanlei; You, Jun; Shi, Haitao; Zhu, Yingfang; Gong, Yuehua; Mu, Zixin; Wang, Haiqing; Deng, Xin; Wang, Pengcheng; Bressan, Ray A; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-02-16

    Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting plant productivity. In this study, we screened drought-resistant transgenic plants from 65 promoter-pyrabactin resistance 1-like (PYL) abscisic acid (ABA) receptor gene combinations and discovered that pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic lines showed dramatically increased drought resistance and drought-induced leaf senescence in both Arabidopsis and rice. Previous studies suggested that ABA promotes senescence by causing ethylene production. However, we found that ABA promotes leaf senescence in an ethylene-independent manner by activating sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s), which subsequently phosphorylate ABA-responsive element-binding factors (ABFs) and Related to ABA-Insensitive 3/VP1 (RAV1) transcription factors. The phosphorylated ABFs and RAV1 up-regulate the expression of senescence-associated genes, partly by up-regulating the expression of Oresara 1. The pyl9 and ABA-insensitive 1-1 single mutants, pyl8-1pyl9 double mutant, and snrk2.2/3/6 triple mutant showed reduced ABA-induced leaf senescence relative to the WT, whereas pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants showed enhanced ABA-induced leaf senescence. We found that leaf senescence may benefit drought resistance by helping to generate an osmotic potential gradient, which is increased in pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants and causes water to preferentially flow to developing tissues. Our results uncover the molecular mechanism of ABA-induced leaf senescence and suggest an important role of PYL9 and leaf senescence in promoting resistance to extreme drought stress. PMID:26831097

  12. Dab2 attenuates brain injur y in APP/PS1 mice via targeting transforming growth factor-beta/SMAD signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Song; Yue Gu; Jing Jie; Xiaoxue Bai; Ying Yang; Chaoying Liu; Qun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) type II receptor (TβRII) levels are extremely low in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. This receptor inhibits TGF-β1/SMAD signaling and thereby aggravates amyolid-beta deposition and neuronal injury. Dab2, a speciifc adapter protein, protects TβRII from degradation and ensures the effective conduction of TGF-β1/SMAD signaling. In this study, we used an adenoviral vector to overexpress the Dab2 gene in the mouse hippocampus and investigated the regulatory effect of Dab2 protein on TGF-β1/SMAD signaling in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, and the potential neuroprotective effect. The results showed that the TβRII level was lower in APP/PS1 mouse hippocampus than in normal mouse hippocampus. After Dab2 expression, hippocampal TβRII and p-SMAD2/3 levels were signiif-cantly increased, while amyloid-beta deposition, microglia activation, tumor necrosis factor-βand interleulin-6 levels and neuronal loss were signiifcantly attenuated in APP/PS1 mouse brain tissue. These results suggest that Dab2 can exhibit neuroprotective effects in Alzheimer’s disease by regulating TGF-β1/SMAD signaling.

  13. Panaxatriol Saponins Attenuated Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation Injury in PC12 Cells via Activation of PI3K/Akt and Nrf2 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Panaxatriol saponins (PTS, the main components extracted from Panax notoginseng, have been shown to be efficacious in the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases in China. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, a transcription factor regulating antioxidant and cytoprotective responses to oxidative stress, has received particular attention as a molecular target for pharmacological intervention of ischemic diseases. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of PTS on the activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway and the potential role in its protective effect. We found that PTS induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 expression in PC12 cells via activating Nrf2 signaling pathway. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt kinase was involved in the upstream of this PTS activated pathway. Moreover, combination of the main components in PTS significantly enhanced the expression of Nrf2 mediated phase II enzymes. Importantly, the protective effect of PTS against oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion (OGD-Rep induced cell death was significantly attenuated by PI3K inhibitor and antioxidant response element (ARE decoy oligonucleotides, suggesting that both PI3K/Akt and Nrf2 signaling pathway are essential during this protective process. Taken together, our results suggest that PTS may activate endogenous cytoprotective mechanism against OGD-Rep induced oxidative injury via the activation of PI3K/Akt and Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  14. Merlin/NF2 Suppresses Pancreatic Tumor Growth and Metastasis by Attenuating the FOXM1-Mediated Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Ming; Cui, Jiujie; Xia, Tian; Jia, Zhiliang; Xie, Dacheng; Wei, Daoyan; Huang, Suyun; Huang, Qian; Zheng, Shaojiang; Xie, Keping

    2015-11-15

    Merlin, the protein encoded by the NF2 gene, is a member of the band 4.1 family of cytoskeleton-associated proteins and functions as a tumor suppressor for many types of cancer. However, the roles and mechanism of Merlin expression in pancreatic cancer have remained unclear. In this study, we sought to determine the impact of Merlin expression on pancreatic cancer development and progression using human tissue specimens, cell lines, and animal models. Decreased expression of Merlin was pronounced in human pancreatic tumors and cancer cell lines. Functional analysis revealed that restored expression of Merlin inhibited pancreatic tumor growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Merlin suppressed the expression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling downstream genes and the nuclear expression of β-catenin protein, and overexpression of Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) attenuated the suppressive effect of Merlin on Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Mechanistically, Merlin decreased the stability of FOXM1 protein, which plays critical roles in nuclear translocation of β-catenin. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that Merlin critically regulated pancreatic cancer pathogenesis by suppressing FOXM1/β-catenin signaling, suggesting that targeting novel Merlin/FOXM1/β-catenin signaling is an effective therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer.

  15. Amino Acid-Dependent Attenuation of Toll-like Receptor Signaling by Peptide-Gold Nanoparticle Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Fung, Shan-Yu; Xu, Shuyun; Sutherland, Darren P; Kollmann, Tobias R; Liu, Mingyao; Turvey, Stuart E

    2015-07-28

    Manipulation of immune responsiveness using nanodevices provides a potential approach to treat human diseases. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling plays a central role in the pathophysiology of many acute and chronic human inflammatory diseases, and pharmacological regulation of TLR responses is anticipated to be beneficial in many of these inflammatory conditions. Here we describe the discovery of a unique class of peptide-gold nanoparticle hybrids that exhibit a broad inhibitory activity on TLR signaling, inhibiting signaling through TLRs 2, 3, 4, and 5. As exemplified using TLR4, the nanoparticles were found to inhibit both arms of TLR4 signaling cascade triggered by the prototypical ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Through structure-activity relationship studies, we identified the key chemical components of the hybrids that contribute to their immunomodulatory activity. Specifically, the hydrophobicity and aromatic ring structure of the amino acids on the peptides were essential for modulating TLR4 responses. This work enhances our fundamental understanding of the role of nanoparticle surface chemistry in regulating innate immune signaling, and identifies specific nanoparticle hybrids that may represent a unique class of anti-inflammatory therapeutics for human inflammatory diseases.

  16. Acquisition and extinction of human avoidance behavior: Attenuating effect of safety signals and associations with anxiety vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony eSheynin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available While avoidance behavior is often an adaptive strategy, exaggerated avoidance can be detrimental and result in the development of psychopathologies, such as anxiety disorders. A large animal literature shows that the acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior in rodents depends on individual differences (e.g., sex, strain and might be modulated by the presence of environmental cues. However, there is a dearth of such reports in human literature, mainly due to the lack of adequate experimental paradigms. In the current study, we employed a computer-based task, where participants control a spaceship and attempt to gain points by shooting an enemy spaceship that appears on the screen. Warning signals predict on-screen aversive events; the participants can learn a protective response to escape or avoid these events. This task has been recently used to reveal facilitated acquisition of avoidance behavior in individuals with anxiety vulnerability, due to female sex or inhibited personality. Here, we extended the task to include an extinction phase, and tested the effect of signals that appeared during safe periods. Healthy young adults (n=122 were randomly assigned to a testing condition with or without such signals. Results showed that the addition of safety signals during the acquisition phase impaired acquisition (in females and facilitated extinction of the avoidance behavior. We also replicated our recent finding of an association between female sex and longer avoidance duration and further showed that females continued to demonstrate more avoidance behavior even on extinction trials when the aversive events no longer occurred. This study is the first to show sex differences on the acquisition and extinction of human avoidance behavior and to demonstrate the role of safety signals in such behavior, highlighting the potential relevance of safety signals for cognitive therapies that focus on extinction learning to treat anxiety symptoms.

  17. The Top 10 Reasons Children With Autism Deserve ABA

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    We who advocate for applied behavior analysis (ABA) for children with autism spectrum disorders often construct our arguments based on the scientific evidence. However, the audience that most needs to hear this argument, that is, the parents of children, especially very young children, diagnosed with autism, may not be convinced by the science alone. This essay attempts to make the case for the multiple benefits of ABA intervention through the use of humor and anecdotes couched in a “Top Ten ...

  18. ABA receptor PYL9 promotes drought resistance and leaf senescence

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yang; Chan, Zhulong; Gao, Jinghui; Xing, Lu; Cao, Minjie; Yu, Chunmei; Hu, Yuanlei; You, Jun; Shi, Haitao; Zhu, Yingfang; Gong, Yuehua; Mu, Zixin; Wang, Haiqing; Deng, Xin; Wang, Pengcheng

    2016-01-01

    We identified transgenic plants that are extremely resistant to drought from a large-scale screening of transgenic plants overexpressing the pyrabactin resistance 1-like (PYL) family of abscisic acid (ABA) receptors. We explored how these plants resist drought by examining both short-term responses, such as stomatal closure, and long-term responses, such as senescence. The physiological roles of ABA-induced senescence under stress conditions and the underlying molecular mechanism are unclear....

  19. β-Arrestin 1’s Interaction with TC45 Attenuates Stat signaling by dephosphorylating Stat to inhibit antimicrobial peptide expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie-Jie; Yang, Hui-Ting; Niu, Guo-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Wu; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Impaired phosphatase activity leads to the persistent activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat). In mammals, Stat family members are often phosphorylated or dephosphorylated by the same enzymes. To date, only one Stat similar to mammalian Stat5a/b has been found in crustaceans and there have been few studies in Stat signal regulation in crustaceans. Here, we report that β-arrestin1 interacts with TC45 (45-kDa form of T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase) in the nucleus to attenuate Stat signaling by promoting dephosphorylation of Stat. Initially, we showed that Stat translocates into the nucleus to induce antimicrobial peptide (AMP) expression after bacterial infection. βArr1 enters the nucleus of hemocytes and recruits TC45 to form the βarr1-TC45-Stat complex, which dephosphorylates Stat efficiently. The interaction of TC45 with Stat decreased and Stat phosphorylation increased in βarr1-silenced shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) after challenge with Vibrio anguillarum. βArr1 directly interacts with Stat in nucleus and accelerates Stat dephosphorylation by recruiting TC45 after V. anguillarum challenge. Further study showed that βarr1 and TC45 also affect AMP expression, which is regulated by Stat. Therefore, βarr1 and TC45 are involved in the anti-V. anguillarum immune response by regulating Stat activity negatively to decrease AMP expression in shrimp. PMID:27782165

  20. HSP25 overexpression attenuates oxidative stress-induced apoptosis: role of ERK1/2 signaling and manganase superoxide dismutase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: HSP25 has been shown to induce resistance to radiation and oxidative stress. However, its exact mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, high concentration of H 2 O 2 was found to induce DNA fragmentation in L929 mouse fibroblast cells, and HSP25 overexpression attenuated this phenomenon. To elucidate the mechanisms of H 2 O 2 mediated cell death, ERK1/2, p38-MAPK and JNK1/2 phosphorylation by H2O2were examined. ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 were activated by H2O2and ERK1/2 activation was inhibited in HSP25 overexpressed cells, while JNK1/2 was indifferent. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation by treatment with PD98059 or dominant-negative ERK2 transfection blocked H2O2-induced cell death, while HSP25 overexpressed cells was not affected at all. Moreover, inhibition of JNK1/2 by dominant-negative JNK1 or JNK2, or MKK4 or MKK7 transfection did not affect H2O2-mediated cell death in control cells. Dominant negative Ras or Raf transfection inhibited H2O2-mediated ERK1/2 activation and cell death in control cells. On the contrary, HSP25 overexpressed cells did not show any differences. Upstream pathways of H2O2-mediated ERK1/2 activation and cell death were both tyrosine kinase (PDGF and receptor and Src) and PKC and, while these kinases did not respond by H2O2treatment in HSP25 overexpressed cells. Since HSP25 overexpression increased manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene expression and enzyme activity, involvement of MnSOD in HSP25 mediated attenuation of H2O2-mediated ERK1/2 activation and cell death was examined. Blockage of MnSOD with antisense oligonucleotides prevented DNA fragmentation and returned the ERK1/2 activation to the control level. Indeed, when MnSOD was overexpressed in L929 cells, similar phenomenon to HSP25 overexpressed cells to reduce DNA fragmentation and ERK1/2 activation was observed. From the above results, we suggested for the first time that reduced oxidative damage by HSP25 was due to MnSOD-mediated downregulation of ERK1/2

  1. TLR2 Activation Limits Rhinovirus-Stimulated CXCL-10 by Attenuating IRAK-1-Dependent IL-33 Receptor Signaling in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Shyamala; Pham, Duc; Jing, Yaxun; Farazuddin, Mohammad; Hudy, Magdalena H; Unger, Benjamin; Comstock, Adam T; Proud, David; Lauring, Adam S; Sajjan, Uma S

    2016-09-15

    Airway epithelial cells are the major target for rhinovirus (RV) infection and express proinflammatory chemokines and antiviral cytokines that play a role in innate immunity. Previously, we demonstrated that RV interaction with TLR2 causes ILR-associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1) depletion in both airway epithelial cells and macrophages. Further, IRAK-1 degradation caused by TLR2 activation was shown to inhibit ssRNA-induced IFN expression in dendritic cells. Therefore, in this study, we examined the role of TLR2 and IRAK-1 in RV-induced IFN-β, IFN-λ1, and CXCL-10, which require signaling by viral RNA. In airway epithelial cells, blocking TLR2 enhanced RV-induced expression of IFNs and CXCL-10. By contrast, IRAK-1 inhibition abrogated RV-induced expression of CXCL-10, but not IFNs in these cells. Neutralization of IL-33 or its receptor, ST2, which requires IRAK-1 for signaling, inhibited RV-stimulated CXCL-10 expression. In addition, RV induced expression of both ST2 and IL-33 in airway epithelial cells. In macrophages, however, RV-stimulated CXCL-10 expression was primarily dependent on TLR2/IL-1R. Interestingly, in a mouse model of RV infection, blocking ST2 not only attenuated RV-induced CXCL-10, but also lung inflammation. Finally, influenza- and respiratory syncytial virus-induced CXCL-10 was also found to be partially dependent on IL-33/ST2/IRAK-1 signaling in airway epithelial cells. Together, our results indicate that RV stimulates CXCL-10 expression via the IL-33/ST2 signaling axis, and that TLR2 signaling limits RV-induced CXCL-10 via IRAK-1 depletion at least in airway epithelial cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate the role of respiratory virus-induced IL-33 in the induction of CXCL-10 in airway epithelial cells. PMID:27503209

  2. Alcohol Dehydrogenase Protects against Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction via Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Autophagy: Role of PTEN-Akt-mTOR Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Pang

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER plays an essential role in ensuring proper folding of the newly synthesized proteins. Aberrant ER homeostasis triggers ER stress and development of cardiovascular diseases. ADH is involved in catalyzing ethanol to acetaldehyde although its role in cardiovascular diseases other than ethanol metabolism still remains elusive. This study was designed to examine the impact of ADH on ER stress-induced cardiac anomalies and underlying mechanisms involved using cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH.ADH and wild-type FVB mice were subjected to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (1 mg/kg, i.p., for 48 hrs. Myocardial mechanical and intracellular Ca(2+ properties, ER stress, autophagy and associated cell signaling molecules were evaluated.ER stress compromised cardiac contractile function (evidenced as reduced fractional shortening, peak shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening, prolonged relengthening duration and impaired intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis, oxidative stress and upregulated autophagy (increased LC3B, Atg5, Atg7 and p62, along with dephosphorylation of PTEN, Akt and mTOR, all of which were attenuated by ADH. In vitro study revealed that ER stress-induced cardiomyocyte anomaly was abrogated by ADH overexpression or autophagy inhibition using 3-MA. Interestingly, the beneficial effect of ADH was obliterated by autophagy induction, inhibition of Akt and mTOR. ER stress also promoted phosphorylation of the stress signaling ERK and JNK, the effect of which was unaffected by ADH transgene.Taken together, these findings suggested that ADH protects against ER stress-induced cardiac anomalies possibly via attenuation of oxidative stress and PTEN/Akt/mTOR pathway-regulated autophagy.

  3. Alpinetin attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling pathways in DSS-induced acute colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuexiu; Wei, Zhengkai; Wang, Jingjing; Kou, Jinhua; Liu, Weijian; Fu, Yunhe; Yang, Zhengtao

    2016-06-20

    Alpinetin, a composition of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, has been reported to have a number of biological properties, such as antibacterial, antitumor and other important therapeutic activities. However, the effect of alpinetin on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of alpinetin on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. In vivo, DSS-induced mice colitis model was established by giving mice drinking water containing 5% (w/v) DSS for 7 days. Alpinetin (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) were administered once a day by intraperitoneal injection 3 days before DSS treatment. In vitro, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-differentiated monocytic THP-1 macrophages were treated with alpinetin and stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results showed that alpinetin significantly attenuated diarrhea, colonic shortening, histological injury, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-1β) production in mice. In vitro, alpinetin markedly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1β production, as well as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediated nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that alpinetin had protective effects on DSS-induced colitis and may be a promising therapeutic reagent for colitis treatment.

  4. Berberine hydrochloride attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced endometritis in mice by suppressing activation of NF-κB signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kaiqiang; Lv, Xiaopei; Li, Weishi; Wang, Yu; Li, Huatao; Tian, Wenru; Cao, Rongfeng

    2015-01-01

    Endometritis is a common disease in animal production and influences breeding all over the world. Berberine is one of the main alkaloids isolated from Rhizoma coptidis. Previous reports showed that berberine has anti-inflammatory potential. However, there have been a limited number of published reports on the anti-inflammatory effect of berberine hydrochloride on LPS-induced endometritis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of berberine hydrochloride on LPS-induced mouse endometritis. Berberine hydrochloride was administered intraperitoneally at 1h before and 12h after LPS induction. Then, a biopsy was performed, and uterine myeloperoxidase (MPO) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were determined. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels in the uterus homogenate were measured by ELISA. The extent of IκB-α and P65 phosphorylation was detected by Western blot. The results showed that berberine hydrochloride significantly attenuated neutrophil infiltration, suppressed myeloperoxidase activity and decreased NO, TNF-αand IL-1βproduction. Furthermore, berberine hydrochloride inhibited the phosphorylation of the NF-κB p65 subunit and the degradation of its inhibitor, IκBα. These findings suggest that berberine hydrochloride exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-induced mouse endometritis and might be a potential therapeutic agent for endometritis. PMID:25479718

  5. A role for PacMYBA in ABA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-colored sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinjie; Zhao, Kai; Liu, Linlin; Zhang, Kaichun; Yuan, Huazhao; Liao, Xiong; Wang, Qi; Guo, Xinwei; Li, Fang; Li, Tianhong

    2014-05-01

    The MYB transcription factors and plant hormone ABA have been suggested to play a role in fruit anthocyanin biosynthesis, but supporting genetic evidence has been lacking in sweet cherry. The present study describes the first functional characterization of an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, PacMYBA, from red-colored sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng (Prunus avium L.). Transient promoter assays demonstrated that PacMYBA physically interacted with several anthocyanin-related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors to activate the promoters of PacDFR, PacANS and PacUFGT, which are thought to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, the immature seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PacMYBA exhibited ectopic pigmentation. Silencing of PacMYBA, using a Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-induced gene silencing technique, resulted in sweet cherry fruit that lacked red pigment. ABA treatment significantly induced anthocyanin accumulation, while treatment with the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) blocked anthocyanin production. PacMYBA expression peaked after 2 h of pre-incubation in ABA and was 15.2-fold higher than that of sweet cherries treated with NDGA. The colorless phenotype was also observed in the fruits silenced in PacNCED1, which encodes a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthesis pathway. The endogenous ABA content as well as the transcript levels of six structural genes and PacMYBA in PacNCED1-RNAi (RNA interference) fruit were significantly lower than in the TRV vector control fruit. These results suggest that PacMYBA plays an important role in ABA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis and ABA is a signal molecule that promotes red-colored sweet cherry fruit accumulating anthocyanin. PMID:24443499

  6. Spironolactone treatment attenuates vascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mice by decreasing oxidative stress and restoring NO/GC signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Marcondes A. B.; Bruder-Nascimento, Thiago; Cau, Stefany B. A.; Lopes, Rheure A. M.; Mestriner, Fabiola L. A. C.; Fais, Rafael S.; Touyz, Rhian M.; Tostes, Rita C.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (DM2) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Aldosterone, which has pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects in the cardiovascular system, is positively regulated in DM2. We assessed whether blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) with spironolactone decreases reactive oxygen species (ROS)-associated vascular dysfunction and improves vascular nitric oxide (NO) signaling in diabetes. Leptin receptor knockout [LepRdb/LepRdb (db/db)] mice, a model of DM2, and their ...

  7. Spironolactone treatment attenuates vascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mice by decreasing oxidative stress and restoring NO/GC signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Marcondes Alves Barbosa Da Silva; Thiago eBruder-Nascimento; Stêfany Bruno Assis Cau; Rheure AM Lopes; Fabiola LAC Mestriner; Fais, Rafael S.; Touyz, Rhian M.; Tostes, Rita C.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (DM2) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Aldosterone, which has pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects in the cardiovascular system, is positively regulated in DM2. We assessed whether blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) with spironolactone decreases ROS-associated vascular dysfunction and improves vascular NO signaling in diabetes. Leptin receptor knockout [LepRdb/LepRdb (db/db)] mice, a model of DM2, and their counterpart controls [LepRdb/LepR+, (db/+...

  8. Isolation of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mutant in ABA 8′-hydroxylase gene: effect of reduced ABA catabolism on germination inhibition under field condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Seki, Masako; Fujita, Masaya; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Oda, Shunsuke; Kojima, Hisayo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kawakami, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seeds on the mother plant under moist condition, is a serious problem in cereals. To investigate the effect of reduced abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism on germination in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), we cloned the wheat ABA 8′-hydroxyase gene which was highly expressed during seed development (TaABA8′OH1) and screened for mutations that lead to reduced ABA catabolism. In a screen for natural variation, one insertion mutation in exon 5 of TaABA8′OH1 on the D genome (TaABA8′OH1-D) was identified in Japanese cultivars including ‘Tamaizumi’. However, a single mutation in TaABA8′OH1-D had no clear effect on germination inhibition in double haploid lines. In a screen for a mutation, one deletion mutant lacking the entire TaABA8′OH1 on the A genome (TaABA8′OH1-A), TM1833, was identified from gamma-ray irradiation lines of ‘Tamaizumi’. TM1833 (a double mutant in TaABA8′OH1-A and TaABA8′OH1-D) showed lower TaABA8′OH1 expression, higher ABA content in embryos during seed development under field condition and lower germination than those in ‘Tamaizumi’ (a single mutant in TaABA8′OH1-D). These results indicate that reduced ABA catabolism through mutations in TaABA8′OH1 may be effective in germination inhibition in field-grown wheat. PMID:23641187

  9. Isolation of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mutant in ABA 8'-hydroxylase gene: effect of reduced ABA catabolism on germination inhibition under field condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Seki, Masako; Fujita, Masaya; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Oda, Shunsuke; Kojima, Hisayo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kawakami, Naoto

    2013-03-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seeds on the mother plant under moist condition, is a serious problem in cereals. To investigate the effect of reduced abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism on germination in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), we cloned the wheat ABA 8'-hydroxyase gene which was highly expressed during seed development (TaABA8'OH1) and screened for mutations that lead to reduced ABA catabolism. In a screen for natural variation, one insertion mutation in exon 5 of TaABA8'OH1 on the D genome (TaABA8'OH1-D) was identified in Japanese cultivars including 'Tamaizumi'. However, a single mutation in TaABA8'OH1-D had no clear effect on germination inhibition in double haploid lines. In a screen for a mutation, one deletion mutant lacking the entire TaABA8'OH1 on the A genome (TaABA8'OH1-A), TM1833, was identified from gamma-ray irradiation lines of 'Tamaizumi'. TM1833 (a double mutant in TaABA8'OH1-A and TaABA8'OH1-D) showed lower TaABA8'OH1 expression, higher ABA content in embryos during seed development under field condition and lower germination than those in 'Tamaizumi' (a single mutant in TaABA8'OH1-D). These results indicate that reduced ABA catabolism through mutations in TaABA8'OH1 may be effective in germination inhibition in field-grown wheat.

  10. A hepatoprotective Lindera obtusiloba extract suppresses growth and attenuates insulin like growth factor-1 receptor signaling and NF-kappaB activity in human liver cancer cell lines

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    Stroh Thorsten

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In traditional Chinese and Korean medicine, an aqueous extract derived from wood and bark of the Japanese spice bush Lindera obtusiloba (L.obtusiloba is applied to treat inflammations and chronic liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma. We previously demonstrated anti-fibrotic effects of L.obtusiloba extract in hepatic stellate cells. Thus, we here consequently examine anti-neoplastic effects of L.obtusiloba extract on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cell lines and the signaling pathways involved. Methods Four human HCC cell lines representing diverse stages of differentiation were treated with L.obtusiloba extract, standardized according to its known suppressive effects on proliferation and TGF-β-expression. Beside measurement of proliferation, invasion and apoptosis, effects on signal transduction and NF-κB-activity were determined. Results L.obtusiloba extract inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in all HCC cell lines and provoked a reduced basal and IGF-1-induced activation of the IGF-1R signaling cascade and a reduced transcriptional NF-κB-activity, particularly in the poorly differentiated SK-Hep1 cells. Pointing to anti-angiogenic effects, L.obtusiloba extract attenuated the basal and IGF-1-induced expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Conclusions The traditional application of the extract is confirmed by our experimental data. Due to its potential to inhibit critical receptor tyrosine kinases involved in HCC progression via the IGF-1 signaling pathway and NF-κB, the standardized L.obtusiloba extract should be further analysed for its active compounds and explored as (complementary treatment option for HCC.

  11. Resveratrol engages AMPK to attenuate ERK and mTOR signaling in sensory neurons and inhibits incision-induced acute and chronic pain

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    Tillu Dipti V

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite advances in our understanding of basic mechanisms driving post-surgical pain, treating incision-induced pain remains a major clinical challenge. Moreover, surgery has been implicated as a major cause of chronic pain conditions. Hence, more efficacious treatments are needed to inhibit incision-induced pain and prevent the transition to chronic pain following surgery. We reasoned that activators of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK may represent a novel treatment avenue for the local treatment of incision-induced pain because AMPK activators inhibit ERK and mTOR signaling, two important pathways involved in the sensitization of peripheral nociceptors. Results To test this hypothesis we used a potent and efficacious activator of AMPK, resveratrol. Our results demonstrate that resveratrol profoundly inhibits ERK and mTOR signaling in sensory neurons in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion and that these effects are mediated by AMPK activation and independent of sirtuin activity. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is thought to play an important role in incision-induced pain and resveratrol potently inhibited IL-6-mediated signaling to ERK in sensory neurons and blocked IL-6-mediated allodynia in vivo through a local mechanism of action. Using a model of incision-induced allodynia in mice, we further demonstrate that local injection of resveratrol around the surgical wound strongly attenuates incision-induced allodynia. Intraplantar IL-6 injection and plantar incision induces persistent nociceptive sensitization to PGE2 injection into the affected paw after the resolution of allodynia to the initial stimulus. We further show that resveratrol treatment at the time of IL-6 injection or plantar incision completely blocks the development of persistent nociceptive sensitization consistent with the blockade of a transition to a chronic pain state by resveratrol treatment. Conclusions These results highlight the importance of signaling

  12. Dimethylfumarate attenuates renal fibrosis via NF-E2-related factor 2-mediated inhibition of transforming growth factor-β/Smad signaling.

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    Chang Joo Oh

    Full Text Available TGF-β plays a key role in the development of renal fibrosis. Suppressing the TGF-β signaling pathway is a possible therapeutic approach for preventing this disease, and reports have suggested that Nrf2 protects against renal fibrosis by inhibiting TGF-β signaling. This study examines whether dimethylfumarate (DMF, which stimulates Nrf2, prevents renal fibrosis via the Nrf2-mediated suppression of TGF-β signaling. Results showed that DMF increased nuclear levels of Nrf2, and both DMF and adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Nrf2 (Ad-Nrf2 decreased PAI-1, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, fibronectin and type 1 collagen expression in TGF-β-treated rat mesangial cells (RMCs and renal fibroblast cells (NRK-49F. Additionally, DMF and Ad-Nrf2 repressed TGF-β-stimulated Smad3 activity by inhibiting Smad3 phosphorylation, which was restored by siRNA-mediated knockdown of Nrf2 expression. However, downregulation of the antioxidant response element (ARE-driven Nrf2 target genes such as NQO1, HO-1 and glutathione S-transferase (GST did not reverse the inhibitory effect of DMF on TGF-β-induced upregulation of profibrotic genes or extracellular matrix proteins, suggesting an ARE-independent anti-fibrotic activity of DMF. Finally, DMF suppressed unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO-induced renal fibrosis and α-SMA, fibronectin and type 1 collagen expression in the obstructed kidneys from UUO mice, along with increased and decreased expression of Nrf2 and phospho-Smad3, respectively. In summary, DMF attenuated renal fibrosis via the Nrf2-mediated inhibition of TGF-β/Smad3 signaling in an ARE-independent manner, suggesting that DMF could be used to treat renal fibrosis.

  13. 光敏色素B介导光信号影响水稻的脱落酸途径%Light signals mediated by phytochrome B affect abscisic acid pathway in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾建伟; 张方; 赵杰; 周晋军; 钱凤芹; 闫丽华; 臧新; 谢先芝

    2012-01-01

    Several evidences revealed the interaction between phytochrome-mediated light signals and plant hormones abscisic acid (ABA) pathway in Arabidopsis. However, interaction between ABA signaling and phytochrome-mediated light signaling in mediating rice growth and development remain unclear. In the present study, we analyzed effects of P/nB-mediated light signals on ABA metabolism and ABA responses using rice wild type (WT) and the phyB mutant. It was observed that transcript levels of ABA biosynthetic genes (including OsNCEDl, 0sNCED2, OsNCED3 and 0sNCED4) were higher in the phyB mutant than those in WT, whereas transcript level of ABA deactivating gene OsABA8OXl was lower in the phyB mutant than that in WT, which probably contributed to the relatively high ABA content in the phyB mutant. ABA treatment inhibited germination of rice seeds grown either in the dark or under light. However, inhibitory effects of ABA treatment on seed germination were more obvious in phyB mutants relative to that in WT when seeds were grown under light conditions, suggesting that PhyB-mediated light signals attenuated the inhibitory effects triggered by ABA. Meantime, we compared the expression patterns of genes related to seed germination in WT and the phyB mutant grown in the medium with or without ABA. It was deduced that these genes is unlikely to contribute for the promotive effects of phyB-mediated light signals on seed germination. In addition, ABA treatment inhibited growth of both above-ground part and seminal root in rice seedlings. PhyB-mediated light signals did not affect the ABA-induced inhibition of above-ground part growth, but negatively regulate the inhibition of root growth. Taken together, our results suggest that PhyB-mediated light signals negatively regulate ABA accumulation and ABA responses in rice. This work reveals the influence of PhyB-mediated light signals on ABA pathway, which lays the foundation for dissecting the molecular mechanism of coordinated

  14. Cardiac Shock Wave Therapy Attenuates H9c2 Myoblast Apoptosis by Activating the AKT Signal Pathway

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    Weiwei Yu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that Cardiac Shock Wave Therapy (CSWT improves myocardial perfusion and cardiac function in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia and also ameliorates myocardial ischemia in patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD. Apoptosis plays a key role in ischemic myocardial pathogenesis. However, it remains unclear whether CSWT is beneficial for ischemia/hypoxia (I/H-induced myocardial cell apoptosis and by which mechanism CSWT could improve heart function. We put forward the hypothesis that CSWT might protect heart function during ischemia/hypoxia by decreasing apoptosis. Methods: We generated ischemia/hypoxia (I/H-induced apoptosis in the H9c2 myoblast cell line to examine the CSWT function and possible mechanisms. H9c2 cells were treated under hypoxic serum-starved conditions for 24 h and then treated with or without CSWT (500 shots, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12mJ/mm2. The apoptotic cell rate was determined by flow cytometry assay, cell viability was examined by the MTT assay, nuclear fragmentation was detected by Hoechst 33342 staining, and the mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis was assessed by the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 protein and Caspase3 activation. Results: First, apoptosis could be induced by ischemia/hypoxia in H9c2 cells. Second, CSWT attenuates the cell death and decreases the H9c2 cell apoptosis rate induced by ischemia and hypoxia. Third, CSWT suppresses the expression of apoptosis molecules that regulate the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in H9c2 cells. Fourth, CSWT increases the phosphorylation of AKT, which indicates the activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway. Conclusions: These results indicate that CSWT exerts a protective effect against I/H-induced cell death, potentially by preventing the activation of components of the mitochondrial-dependent intrinsic apoptotic pathway. We also demonstrate that the PI3K-Akt pathway may be involved in the CSWT effects on

  15. Baicalein attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing TLR4 mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in LPS-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuexiu; Wei, Zhengkai; Zhou, Ershun; Chen, Libin; Kou, Jinhua; Wang, Jingjing; Yang, Zhengtao

    2015-09-01

    Baicalein is a phenolic flavonoid presented in the dry roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. It has been reported that baicalein possesses a number of biological properties, such as antiviral, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and anticancer properties. However, the effect of baicalein on mastitis has not yet been reported. This research aims to detect the effect of baicalein on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in mice and to investigate the molecular mechanisms. Baicalein was administered intraperitoneally 1h before and 12h after LPS treatment. The results indicated that baicalein treatment markedly attenuated the damage of the mammary gland induced by LPS, suppressed the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-1β) in mice with LPS-induced mastitis. Besides, baicalein blocked the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and then suppressed the phosphorylation of nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65 and degradation inhibitor of NF-κBα (IκBα) and, and inhibited the phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway. These findings suggested that baicalein may have a potential prospect against mastitis.

  16. Temporal pole signal abnormality on MR imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis: a fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequency and regional involvement of temporal pole signal abnormality (TPA) in patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) using fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging, and to correlate this feature with history. Method: Coronal FLAIR images of the temporal pole were assessed in 120 patients with HS and in 30 normal subjects, to evaluate gray-white matter demarcation. Results: Ninety (75%) of 120 patients had associated TPA. The HS side made difference regarding the presence of TPA, with a left side prevalence (p=0.04, χ2 test). The anteromedial zone of temporal pole was affected in 27 (30%) out of 90 patients. In 63 (70%) patients the lateral zone were also affected. Patients with TPA were younger at seizure onset (p=0.018), but without association with duration of epilepsy. Conclusion: Our FLAIR study show temporal pole signal abnormality in 3/4 of patients with HS, mainly seen on the anteromedial region, with a larger prevalence when the left hippocampus was involved. (author)

  17. The miR9863 family regulates distinct Mla alleles in barley to attenuate NLR receptor-triggered disease resistance and cell-death signaling.

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    Jie Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Mla alleles encode coiled-coil (CC, nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR receptors that trigger isolate-specific immune responses against the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh. How Mla or NB-LRR genes in grass species are regulated at post-transcriptional level is not clear. The microRNA family, miR9863, comprises four members that differentially regulate distinct Mla alleles in barley. We show that miR9863 members guide the cleavage of Mla1 transcripts in barley, and block or reduce the accumulation of MLA1 protein in the heterologous Nicotiana benthamiana expression system. Regulation specificity is determined by variation in a unique single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP in mature miR9863 family members and two SNPs in the Mla miR9863-binding site that separates these alleles into three groups. Further, we demonstrate that 22-nt miR9863s trigger the biogenesis of 21-nt phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs and together these sRNAs form a feed-forward regulation network for repressing the expression of group I Mla alleles. Overexpression of miR9863 members specifically attenuates MLA1, but not MLA10-triggered disease resistance and cell-death signaling. We propose a key role of the miR9863 family in dampening immune response signaling triggered by a group of MLA immune receptors in barley.

  18. Coral-Derived Compound WA-25 Inhibits Angiogenesis by Attenuating the VEGF/VEGFR2 Signaling Pathway

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    Shih-Wei Lin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: WA-25 (dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol, a synthetic derivative of marine compound WE-2 suppresses atherosclerosis in rats by reducing neointima formation. Because angiogenesis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the present study investigated the angiogenic function and mechanism of WA-25. Methods: The angiogenic effect of WA-25 was evaluated using a rat aortic ring assay and transgenic zebrafish models were established using transgenic Tg(fli-1:EGFPy1 and Tg(kdrl:mCherryci5-fli1a:negfpy7 zebrafish embryos. In addition, the effect of WA-25 on distinct angiogenic processes, including matrix metalloproteinase (MMP expression, endothelial cell proliferation and migration, as well as tube formation, was studied using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. The effect of WA-25 on the endothelial vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF signaling pathway was elucidated using qRT-PCR, immunoblot analysis, immunofluorescence and flow cytometric analyses. Results: The application of WA-25 perturbed the development of intersegmental vessels in transgenic zebrafish. Moreover, WA-25 potently suppressed microvessel sprouting in organotypic rat aortic rings. Among cultured endothelial cells, WA-25 significantly and dose-dependently inhibited MMP-2/MMP-9 expression, proliferation, migration and tube formation in HUVECs. Mechanistic studies revealed that WA-25 significantly reduced the VEGF release by reducing VEGF expression at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, WA-25 reduced surface VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2/Flk-1 expression by repressing the VEGFR2 mRNA level. Finally, an exogenous VEGF supply partially rescued the WA-25-induced angiogenesis blockage in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions: WA-25 is a potent angiogenesis inhibitor that acts through the down-regulation of VEGF and VEGFR2 in endothelial cells. General Significance: WA-25 may constitute a novel anti-angiogenic drug that acts by targeting endothelial

  19. Protocatechuic Acid Attenuates Osteoclastogenesis by Downregulating JNK/c-Fos/NFATc1 Signaling and Prevents Inflammatory Bone Loss in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Hyang; Kim, Ju-Young; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Baek, Jong Min; Ahn, Sung-Jun; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Myeung Su; Oh, Jaemin

    2016-04-01

    Protocatechuic acid (PCA) plays a critical role in nutritional metabolism; it is a major metabolite of anthocyanins, which are flavonoids with a range of health benefits. PCA has a variety of biological activities including anti-oxidant, antiinflammatory, anti-apoptosis, and anti-microbial activities. However, the pharmacological effect of PCA, especially on osteoclastogenesis, remains unknown. We examined the effect of PCA on receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. PCA dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) and suppressed the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. At the molecular level, PCA suppressed RANKL-induced phosphorylation of JNK among MAPKs only, without significantly affecting the early signaling pathway. PCA also suppressed RANKL-stimulated expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) at the mRNA and protein levels, without altering c-Fos mRNA expression. Additionally, PCA down-regulated the expression of downstream osteoclastogenesis-related genes including β3-integrin, DC-STAMP, OC-STAMP, Atp6v0d2, CTR, and CtsK. Mice treated with PCA efficiently recovered from lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss in vivo. Thus, PCA inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and function by suppressing JNK signaling, c-Fos stability, and expression of osteoclastic marker genes. These results suggest that PCA could be useful in treatment of inflammatory bone disorders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26792397

  20. Curcumin attenuates β-catenin signaling in prostate cancer cells through activation of protein kinase D1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasudha Sundram

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer affecting 1 in 6 males in the US. Understanding the molecular basis of prostate cancer progression can serve as a tool for early diagnosis and development of novel treatment strategies for this disease. Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1 is a multifunctional kinase that is highly expressed in normal prostate. The decreased expression of PKD1 has been associated with the progression of prostate cancer. Therefore, synthetic or natural products that regulate this signaling pathway can serve as novel therapeutic modalities for prostate cancer prevention and treatment. Curcumin, the active ingredient of turmeric, has shown anti-cancer properties via modulation of a number of different molecular pathways. Herein, we have demonstrated that curcumin activates PKD1, resulting in changes in β-catenin signaling by inhibiting nuclear β-catenin transcription activity and enhancing the levels of membrane β-catenin in prostate cancer cells. Modulation of these cellular events by curcumin correlated with decreased cell proliferation, colony formation and cell motility and enhanced cell-cell aggregation in prostate cancer cells. In addition, we have also revealed that inhibition of cell motility by curcumin is mediated by decreasing the levels of active cofilin, a downstream target of PKD1. The potent anti-cancer effects of curcumin in vitro were also reflected in a prostate cancer xenograft mouse model. The in vivo inhibition of tumor growth also correlated with enhanced membrane localization of β-catenin. Overall, our findings herein have revealed a novel molecular mechanism of curcumin action via the activation of PKD1 in prostate cancer cells.

  1. ARA-aldehyde and ABA-trans-diol in apple fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, C.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1989-04-01

    We have isolated ABA-aldehyde and ABA-t-diol from postharvest apple fruits, cv. Granny Smith and confirmed their structure by GC-MS. These putative ABA biosynthetic precursors incorporate {sup 18}O to a similar degree as ABA during 48 hours under {sup 18}O{sub 2} atmospheres. The presence of significant amounts of ABA-aldehyde can explain the unique {sup 18}O labeling pattern of ABA in this tissue, where a majority of ABA molecules containing {sup 18}O is labeled in the 1{prime}-hydroxyl group and not in the side chain carboxyl group, the primary site of incorporation for stressed leaves. Exchange of the carbonyl oxygen of ABA-aldehyde with water would decrease {sup 18}O enrichment in the side chain. Results of {sup 18}O{sub 2} experiments and feeding studies using hexadeutero-ABA-aldehyde will be presented and the biosynthetic relationship of these compounds discussed.

  2. The Effect of an Extinction Cue on ABA-Renewal: Does Valence Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibbets, Pauline; Maes, Joseph H. R.

    2011-01-01

    The present human fear conditioning study examined whether the valence of an extinction cue has a differential effect on attenuating renewal that is induced by removal of the extinction context. Additionally, the study aimed to assess whether such attenuating effect is based on a modulatory or safety-signal role of the cue. In acquisition,…

  3. Overexpression of activin-A and -B in malignant mesothelioma – Attenuated Smad3 signaling responses and ERK activation promote cell migration and invasive growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activin-A and activin-B, members of the TGF-β superfamily, are regulators of reproductive functions, inflammation and wound healing. These dimeric molecules regulate various cellular activities such as proliferation, migration and suvival. Malignant mesothelioma is an asbestos exposure related tumor affecting mainly pleura and it usually has a dismal prognosis. Here, we demonstrate that both activin-A and -B are abundantly expressed in mesothelioma tumor tissue as well as in cultured primary and established mesothelioma cells. Migratory and invasive mesothelioma cells were also found to have attenuated activation of the Smad2/3 pathway in response to activins. Migration and invasive growth of the cells in three-dimentional matrix was prevented by inhibition of activin activity using a soluble activin receptor 2B (sActR2B-Fc). This was associated with decreased ERK activity. Furthermore, migration and invasive growth was significantly inhibited by blocking ERK phosphorylation. Mesothelioma tumors are locally invasive and our results clearly suggest that acivins have a tumor-promoting function in mesothelioma through increasing expression and switching from canonical Smad3 pathway to non-canonical ERK pathway signaling. Blocking activin activity offers a new therapeutic approach for inhibition of mesothelioma invasive growth. - Highlights: • Activin-A and activin-B are highly expressed in mesothelioma. • Mesothelioma cell migration and invasive growth can be blocked with sActR2B. • Activin induced Smad3 activity is attenuated in invasive mesothelioma cells. • Activins induce ERK activity in mesothelioma cells

  4. Hyperoside attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced L02 cell damage via MAPK-dependent Keap{sub 1}-Nrf{sub 2}-ARE signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Hai-Yan; Liu, Yao; Chen, Jian-Hong; Sun, Feng-Jun; Shi, Hui-Qing [Department of Pharmacy, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Xia, Pei-Yuan, E-mail: py_xia@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmacy, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} Hyperoside attenuated H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced L02 cell damage. {yields} Hyperoside up-regulated HO-1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. {yields} Hyperoside activated both Nrf{sub 2} nuclear translocation and gene expression. {yields} Hyperoside may inhibit Keap{sub 1} mRNA translation or protein degradation. {yields} Phosphorylation of ERK and p38 is involved in hyperoside-mediated Nrf{sub 2} activation. -- Abstract: The flavonoid hyperoside has been reported to elicit cytoprotection against oxidative stress partly by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. Here, hepatic L02 cells exposed to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (100 {mu}M) were used to demonstrate that hyperoside protected cells by significantly inhibiting overproduction of intracellular ROS, depletion of the mitochondrial membrane potential and leakage of lactate dehydrogenase. Hyperoside further enhanced the cellular antioxidant defense system through increasing the activity of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and by up-regulating HO-1 expression. Meanwhile, real time PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence studies revealed that hyperoside stimulated nuclear translocation of the Nrf{sub 2} transcription factor in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect was significantly suppressed by pharmacological inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) p38 and ERK. Collectively, our data provide the first description of the mechanism underlying hyperoside's ability to attenuate H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cell damage, namely this compound interacts with the MAPK-dependent Keap{sub 1}-Nrf{sub 2}-ARE signaling pathway to up-regulate HO-1 expression and enhance intracellular antioxidant activity.

  5. Dioscin alleviates alcoholic liver fibrosis by attenuating hepatic stellate cell activation via the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Xu, Youwei; Han, Xu; Yin, Lianhong; Xu, Lina; Qi, Yan; Zhao, Yanyan; Liu, Kexin; Peng, Jinyong

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed to investigate the activities and underlying mechanisms of dioscin against alcoholic liver fibrosis (ALF). In vivo liver fibrosis in mice was induced by an alcoholic liquid diet, and in vitro studies were performed on activated HSC-T6 and LX2 cells treated with lipopolysaccharide. Our results showed that dioscin significantly attenuated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation, improved collagen accumulation, and attenuated inflammation through down-regulating the levels of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α by decreasing Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 expression both in vivo and in vitro. TLR4 overexpression was also decreased by dioscin, leading to the markedly down-regulated levels of MyD88, NF-κB, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and type I collagen (COL1A1) in cultured HSCs. Suppression of cellular MyD88 by ST2825 or abrogation of NF-κB by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate eliminated the inhibitory effects of dioscin on the levels of TGF-β1, α-SMA and COL1A1. In a word, dioscin exhibited potent effects against ALF via altering TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway, which provided novel insights into the mechanisms of this compound as an antifibrogenic candidate for the treatment of ALF in the future. PMID:26655640

  6. Tetrahydroberberrubine attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by down-regulating MAPK, AKT, and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiu; Yu, Sulan; Chen, Ling; Liu, Han; Zhang, Jian; Ge, Haixia; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Boyang; Kou, Junping

    2016-08-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening syndrome that is characterized by overwhelming lung inflammation and increased microvascular permeability, which causes a high mortality worldwide. Here, we studied the protective effect of tetrahydroberberrubine (THBru), a berberine derivative, on a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury that was established in our previous studies. The results showed that a single oral administration of THBru significantly decreased the lung wet to dry weight (W/D) ratio at doses of 2, 10 and 50mg/kg administered 1h prior to LPS challenge (30mg/kg, intravenous injection). Histopathological changes, such as pulmonary edema, infiltration of inflammatory cells and coagulation, were also attenuated by THBru. In addition, THBru markedly decreased the total cell counts, total protein and nitrate/nitrite content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), significantly decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitrate/nitrite content in the plasma, and reduced the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the lung tissues. Additionally, THBru (10μM) significantly decreased the content of TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-induced THP-1 cells in vitro. Moreover, THBru significantly suppressed the activation of the MAPKs JNK and p38, AKT, and the NF-κB subunit p65 in LPS-induced THP-1 cells. These findings confirm that THBru attenuates LPS-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting the release of inflammatory cytokines and suppressing the activation of MAPKs, AKT, and NF-κB signaling pathways, which implicates it as a potential therapeutic agent for ALI or sepsis. PMID:27470389

  7. Overexpression of activin-A and -B in malignant mesothelioma – Attenuated Smad3 signaling responses and ERK activation promote cell migration and invasive growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamminen, Jenni A.; Yin, Miao [Research Programs Unit, Translational Cancer Biology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki (Finland); Rönty, Mikko [Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Sutinen, Eva [Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Helsinki (Finland); Pasternack, Arja; Ritvos, Olli [Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Myllärniemi, Marjukka [Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Helsinki (Finland); Koli, Katri, E-mail: katri.koli@helsinki.fi [Research Programs Unit, Translational Cancer Biology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-03-01

    Activin-A and activin-B, members of the TGF-β superfamily, are regulators of reproductive functions, inflammation and wound healing. These dimeric molecules regulate various cellular activities such as proliferation, migration and suvival. Malignant mesothelioma is an asbestos exposure related tumor affecting mainly pleura and it usually has a dismal prognosis. Here, we demonstrate that both activin-A and -B are abundantly expressed in mesothelioma tumor tissue as well as in cultured primary and established mesothelioma cells. Migratory and invasive mesothelioma cells were also found to have attenuated activation of the Smad2/3 pathway in response to activins. Migration and invasive growth of the cells in three-dimentional matrix was prevented by inhibition of activin activity using a soluble activin receptor 2B (sActR2B-Fc). This was associated with decreased ERK activity. Furthermore, migration and invasive growth was significantly inhibited by blocking ERK phosphorylation. Mesothelioma tumors are locally invasive and our results clearly suggest that acivins have a tumor-promoting function in mesothelioma through increasing expression and switching from canonical Smad3 pathway to non-canonical ERK pathway signaling. Blocking activin activity offers a new therapeutic approach for inhibition of mesothelioma invasive growth. - Highlights: • Activin-A and activin-B are highly expressed in mesothelioma. • Mesothelioma cell migration and invasive growth can be blocked with sActR2B. • Activin induced Smad3 activity is attenuated in invasive mesothelioma cells. • Activins induce ERK activity in mesothelioma cells.

  8. Black tea extract prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB signaling and attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Sung-Bum

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black tea has been shown to elicit anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic properties. In this study, we investigated the impact of black tea extract (BTE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced NF-κB signaling in bone marrow derived-macrophages (BMM and determined the therapeutic efficacy of this extract on colon inflammation. Methods The effect of BTE on LPS-induced NF-κB signaling and pro-inflammatory gene expression was evaluated by RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. The in vivo efficacy of BTE was assessed in mice with 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis. The severity of colitis was measured by weight loss, colon length and histologic scores. Results LPS-induced IL-12p40, IL-23p19, IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA expressions were inhibited by BTE. LPS-induced IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65 were blocked by BTE. BTE treatment blocked LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. BTE-fed, DSS-exposed mice showed the less weight loss, longer colon length and lower histologic score compared to control diet-fed, DSS-exposed mice. DSS-induced IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and phosphorylation of NF-κB/p65 were blocked by BTE. An increase of cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in DSS-exposed mice was blocked by BTE. Conclusions These results indicate that BTE attenuates colon inflammation through the blockage of NF-κB signaling and apoptosis in DSS-induced experimental colitis model.

  9. Arabidopsis ABA Receptor RCAR1/PYL9 Interacts with an R2R3-Type MYB Transcription Factor, AtMYB44

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekuan Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA signaling plays important roles in plant growth, development and adaptation to various stresses. RCAR1/PYL9 has been known as a cytoplasm and nuclear ABA receptor in Arabidopsis. To obtain further insight into the regulatory mechanism of RCAR1/PYL9, a yeast two-hybrid approach was performed to screen for RCAR1/PYL9-interacting proteins and an R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, AtMYB44, was identified. The interaction between RCAR1/PYL9 and AtMYB44 was further confirmed by glutathione S-transferase (GST pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC assays. Gene expression analysis showed that AtMYB44 negatively regulated the expression of ABA-responsive gene RAB18, in contrast to the opposite role reported for RCAR1/PYL9. Competitive GST pull-down assay and analysis of phosphatase activity demonstrated that AtMYB44 and ABI1 competed for binding to RCAR1/PYL9 and thereby reduced the inhibitory effect of RCAR1/PYL9 on ABI1 phosphatase activity in the presence of ABA in vitro. Furthermore, transient activation assay in protoplasts revealed AtMYB44 probably also decreased RCAR1/PYL9-mediated inhibition of ABI1 activity in vivo. Taken together, our work provides a reasonable molecular mechanism of AtMYB44 in ABA signaling.

  10. GsSKP21, a Glycine soja S-phase kinase-associated protein, mediates the regulation of plant alkaline tolerance and ABA sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ailin; Yu, Yang; Duan, Xiangbo; Sun, Xiaoli; Duanmu, Huizi; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    Plant SKP1-like family proteins, components of the SCF complex E3 ligases, are involved in the regulation of plant development and stress responses. Little is known about the precise function of SKP genes in plant responses to environmental stresses. GsSKP21 was initially identified as a potential stress-responsive gene based on the transcriptome sequencing of Glycine soja. In this study, we found that GsSKP21 protein contains highly conserved SKP domains in its N terminus and an extra unidentified domain in its C terminus. The transcript abundance of GsSKP21, detected by quantitative real-time PCR, was induced under the treatment of alkali and salt stresses. Overexpression of GsSKP21 in Arabidopsis dramatically increased plant tolerance to alkali stress. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of GsSKP21 resulted in decreased ABA sensitivity during both the seed germination and early seedling growth stages. GsSKP21 mediated ABA signaling by altering the expression levels of the ABA signaling-related and ABA-induced genes. We also investigated the tissue expression specificity and subcellular localization of GsSKP21. These results suggest that GsSKP21 is important for plant tolerance to alkali stress and plays a critical regulatory role in the ABA-mediated stress response.

  11. Xenon-delayed postconditioning attenuates spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury through activation AKT and ERK signaling pathways in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyao; Yang, Yanwei; Jin, Mu; Hou, Siyu; Dong, Xiuhua; Lu, Jiakai; Cheng, Weiping

    2016-09-15

    Previous studies have shown that xenon-delayed postconditioning for up to 2h after reperfusion provides protection against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. This study was designed to determine the roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in this neuroprotection. The rats were randomly assigned to the following nine groups (n=16∗9): 1) I/R+N2 group, 2) I/R+Xe group, 3) I/R+PD98059+N2 group (ERK blocking agent), 4) I/R+wortmannin+N2 group (PI3K-Akt blocking agent), 5) I/R+PD98059+Xe group, 6) I/R+wortmannin+Xe group, 7) I/R+DMSO+Xe group (dimethyl sulfoxide, vehicle control), 8) I/R+DMSO+N2 group, and 9) sham group (no spinal cord ischemia and no xenon). Spinal cord ischemia was induced for 25min in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurological function was assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) open-field locomotor scale at 6, 12, 24 and 48h after reperfusion. Histological examination of the lumbar spinal cord was performed using Nissl staining and TUNEL staining at 4 (n=8) and 48 (n=8)h after reperfusion. Western blotting was performed to evaluate p-Akt and p-ERK expression in the spinal cord at 4 (n=8) and 48 (n=8) h after reperfusion. Compared with the sham group, all rats in the I/R groups had lower BBB scores, fewer normal motor neurons, more apoptotic neurons and lower p-Akt and p-ERK levels at each time point (P<0.05). Compared with the I/R group, rats in the I/R+Xe group had higher neurological scores, more normal motor neurons, fewer apoptotic neurons and significantly higher levels of p-Akt and p-ERK at each time point (P<0.05). Compared with the I/R+Xe group, the I/R+PD98059+Xe and I/R+wortmannin+Xe groups showed worse neurological outcomes and less p-Akt and p-ERK at each time point (P<0.05). These results suggest that xenon-delayed postconditioning improves neurological outcomes to spinal cord I/R injury in rats through the activation of the AKT and ERK signaling

  12. Spironolactone treatment attenuates vascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mice by decreasing oxidative stress and restoring NO/GC signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcondes A B; Bruder-Nascimento, Thiago; Cau, Stefany B A; Lopes, Rheure A M; Mestriner, Fabiola L A C; Fais, Rafael S; Touyz, Rhian M; Tostes, Rita C

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (DM2) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Aldosterone, which has pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects in the cardiovascular system, is positively regulated in DM2. We assessed whether blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) with spironolactone decreases reactive oxygen species (ROS)-associated vascular dysfunction and improves vascular nitric oxide (NO) signaling in diabetes. Leptin receptor knockout [LepR(db)/LepR(db) (db/db)] mice, a model of DM2, and their counterpart controls [LepR(db)/LepR(+), (db/+) mice] received spironolactone (50 mg/kg body weight/day) or vehicle (ethanol 1%) via oral per gavage for 6 weeks. Spironolactone treatment abolished endothelial dysfunction and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation (Ser(1177)) in arteries from db/db mice, determined by acetylcholine-induced relaxation and Western Blot analysis, respectively. MR antagonist therapy also abrogated augmented ROS-generation in aorta from diabetic mice, determined by lucigenin luminescence assay. Spironolactone treatment increased superoxide dismutase-1 and catalase expression, improved sodium nitroprusside and BAY 41-2272-induced relaxation, and increased soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) β subunit expression in arteries from db/db mice. Our results demonstrate that spironolactone decreases diabetes-associated vascular oxidative stress and prevents vascular dysfunction through processes involving increased expression of antioxidant enzymes and sGC. These findings further elucidate redox-sensitive mechanisms whereby spironolactone protects against vascular injury in diabetes. PMID:26500555

  13. Spironolactone treatment attenuates vascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mice by decreasing oxidative stress and restoring NO/GC signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Alves Barbosa Da Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (DM2 increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Aldosterone, which has pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects in the cardiovascular system, is positively regulated in DM2. We assessed whether blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR with spironolactone decreases ROS-associated vascular dysfunction and improves vascular NO signaling in diabetes. Leptin receptor knockout [LepRdb/LepRdb (db/db] mice, a model of DM2, and their counterpart controls [LepRdb/LepR+, (db/+ mice] received spironolactone (50 mg/kg body weight/day or vehicle (ethanol 1% via oral per gavage for 6 weeks. Spironolactone treatment abolished the endothelial dysfunction and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS phosphorylation (Ser1177, determined by acetylcholine-induced relaxation and Western Blot analysis, respectively. MR antagonist therapy also abrogated augmented ROS-generation in aorta from diabetic mice, determined by lucigenin luminescence assay. Spironolactone treatment increased superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1 and catalase expression, improved sodium nitroprusside (SNP and BAY 41-2272-induced relaxation, as well as increased soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC subunit β protein expression in arteries from db/db mice. Our results demonstrate that spironolactone decreases diabetes-associated vascular oxidative stress and prevents vascular dysfunction through processes involving increased expression of antioxidant enzymes and sGC. These findings further elucidate redox-sensitive mechanisms whereby spironolactone protects against vascular injury in diabetes.

  14. TCDD promotes lung tumors via attenuation of apoptosis through activation of the Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Jane Chen

    Full Text Available 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD is a multiple-site, multiple-species carcinogen that induces cancer in multiple organs. The molecular mechanisms underlying TCDD-induced lung tumorigenesis remain unclear. In the present study, a two-stage lung tumorigenesis model was established by administrating a single low dose of 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK combined with TCDD to female A/J mice. The results indicated that TCDD combined with low-dose NNK has a significant tumor-promoting effect compared with TCDD or low-dose NNK alone. Resistance to apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer and is thought to be one of the tumor-promoting mechanisms regulated by TCDD. We performed an additional series of experiments in the normal human bronchial epithelial cell line Beas2B cells, in which TCDD was combined with the apoptosis inducer staurosporine. Our in vitro results confirmed that TCDD could rescue cells from apoptosis induced by staurosporine. The inhibition of apoptosis is likely mediated by the activation of the Akt and ERK1/2 pathways, as determined by the effectiveness of pathway-specific inhibitors in abrogating the anti-apoptotic activity of TCDD. In conclusion, we demonstrated that TCDD promoted NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis and revealed that TCDD inhibits staurosporine-induced apoptosis, at least in part, through the Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

  15. Chlorogenic acid attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced mice mastitis by suppressing TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruifeng, Gao; Yunhe, Fu; Zhengkai, Wei; Ershun, Zhou; Yimeng, Li; Minjun, Yao; Xiaojing, Song; Zhengtao, Yang; Naisheng, Zhang

    2014-04-15

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA), one of the most abundant polyphenols in the diet, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of CGA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mice mastitis has not been investigated. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate whether CGA could ameliorate the inflammation response in LPS-induced mice mastitis and to clarify the possible mechanism. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. CGA was administered intraperitoneally with the dose of 12.5, 25, and 50mg/kg respectively 1h before and 12h after induction of LPS. In this study, the effect of CGA on LPS-induced mice mastitis was assessed through histopathological examination, ELISA assay, and western blot analysis. The results showed that CGA significantly reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 production compared with LPS group. Besides, western blot analysis showed that CGA could inhibit the expression of TLR4 and the phosphorylation of NF-κB and IκB induced by LPS. These results suggested that anti-inflammatory effects of CGA against LPS-induced mastitis may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway. Therefore, CGA may be a potent therapeutic reagent for the prevention of the immunopathology encountered during Escherichia coli elicited mastitis.

  16. Ginkgo biloba Extract Improves Insulin Signaling and Attenuates Inflammation in Retroperitoneal Adipose Tissue Depot of Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Bruna Kelly Sousa; Banin, Renata Mancini; Dornellas, Ana Paula Segantine; de Andrade, Iracema Senna; Zemdegs, Juliane Costa Silva; Caperuto, Luciana Chagas; Oyama, Lila Missae; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Telles, Monica Marques

    2015-01-01

    Due to the high incidence and severity of obesity and its related disorders, it is highly desirable to develop new strategies to treat or even to prevent its development. We have previously described that Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) improved insulin resistance and reduced body weight gain of obese rats. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effect of GbE on both inflammatory cascade and insulin signaling in retroperitoneal fat depot of diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed with high fat diet for 2 months and thereafter treated for 14 days with 500 mg/kg of GbE. Rats were then euthanized and samples from retroperitoneal fat depot were used for western blotting, RT-PCR, and ELISA experiments. The GbE treatment promoted a significant reduction on both food/energy intake and body weight gain in comparison to the nontreated obese rats. In addition, a significant increase of both Adipo R1 and IL-10 gene expressions and IR and Akt phosphorylation was also observed, while NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and TNF-α levels were significantly reduced. Our data suggest that GbE might have potential as a therapy to treat obesity-related metabolic diseases, with special interest to treat obese subjects resistant to adhere to a nutritional education program. PMID:25960614

  17. Oleanolic acid supplement attenuates liquid fructose-induced adipose tissue insulin resistance through the insulin receptor substrate-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    fructose-fed rats. • OA attenuated fructose-induced increase in Adipo-IR index and NEFA concentrations. • OA modulated adipose IRS-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling. • OA ameliorates Adipo-IR via the IRS-1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in rats

  18. Oleanolic acid supplement attenuates liquid fructose-induced adipose tissue insulin resistance through the insulin receptor substrate-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying [Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Wang, Jianwei, E-mail: wangjianwei1968@gmail.com [Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Gu, Tieguang [Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Sydney Institute of Health Sciences, Sydney, NSW 2000 Australia (Australia); Yamahara, Johji [Pharmafood Institute, Kyoto 602-8136 (Japan); Li, Yuhao, E-mail: yuhao@sitcm.edu.au [Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Sydney Institute of Health Sciences, Sydney, NSW 2000 Australia (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    fructose-fed rats. • OA attenuated fructose-induced increase in Adipo-IR index and NEFA concentrations. • OA modulated adipose IRS-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling. • OA ameliorates Adipo-IR via the IRS-1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in rats.

  19. Attenuation of multi-targeted proliferation-linked signaling by 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM): from bench to clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sanjeev; Kong, Dejuan; Wang, Zhiwei; Bao, Bin; Hillman, Gilda G; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence provide credible support in favor of the potential role of bioactive products derived from ingesting cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, brussel sprouts, cauliflower and cabbage. Among many compounds, 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) is generated in the acidic environment of the stomach following dimerization of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) monomers present in these classes of vegetables. Both I3C and DIM have been investigated for their use in preventing, inhibiting, and reversing the progression of cancer - as a chemopreventive agent. In this review, we summarize an updated, wide-ranging pleiotropic anti-tumor and biological effects elicited by DIM against tumor cells. It is unfeasible to point one single target as basis of cellular target of action of DIM. We emphasize key cellular and molecular events that are effectively modulated in the direction of inducing apoptosis and suppressing cell proliferation. Collectively, DIM orchestrates signaling through Ah receptor, NF-κB/Wnt/Akt/mTOR pathways impinging on cell cycle arrest, modulation of key cytochrome P450 enzymes, altering angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis and epigenetic behavior of cancer cells. The ability of DIM to selectively induce tumor cells to undergo apoptosis has been observed in preclinical models, and thus it has been speculated in improving the therapeutic efficacy of other anticancer agents that have diverse molecular targets. Consequently, DIM has moved through preclinical development into Phase I clinical trials, thereby suggesting that DIM could be a promising and novel agent either alone or as an adjunct to conventional therapeutics such as chemo-radio and targeted therapies. An important development has been the availability of DIM formulation with superior bioavailability for humans. Therefore, DIM appears to be a promising chemopreventive agent or chemo-radio-sensitizer for the prevention of tumor recurrence and/or for the treatment of human malignancies.

  20. Clematichinenoside (AR Attenuates Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced H9c2 Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis via a Mitochondria-Mediated Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Ding

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria-mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis is involved in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R injury. Clematichinenoside (AR is a triterpenoid saponin isolated from the roots of Clematis chinensis with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory cardioprotection effects against MI/R injury, yet the anti-apoptotic effect and underlying mechanisms of AR in MI/R injury remain unclear. We hypothesize that AR may improve mitochondrial function to inhibit MI/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In this study, we replicated an in vitro H9c2 cardiomyocyte MI/R model by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R treatment. The viability of H9c2 cardiomyocytes was determined by MTT assay; apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry and TUNEL experiments; mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP opening was analyzed by a calcein-cobalt quenching method; and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm was detected by JC-1. Moreover, we used western blots to determine the mitochondrial cytochrome c translocation to cytosolic and the expression of caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax proteins. These results showed that the application of AR decreased the ratio of apoptosis and the extent of mPTP opening, but increased ΔΨm. AR also inhibited H/R-induced release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and decreased the expression of the caspase-3, Bax proteins. Conversely, it remarkably increased the expression of Bcl-2 protein. Taken together, these results revealed that AR protects H9c2 cardiomyocytes against H/R-induced apoptosis through mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway.

  1. Clematichinenoside (AR) Attenuates Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced H9c2 Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis via a Mitochondria-Mediated Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Haiyan; Han, Rong; Chen, Xueshan; Fang, Weirong; Liu, Meng; Wang, Xuemei; Wei, Qin; Kodithuwakku, Nandani Darshika; Li, Yunman

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria-mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis is involved in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Clematichinenoside (AR) is a triterpenoid saponin isolated from the roots of Clematis chinensis with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory cardioprotection effects against MI/R injury, yet the anti-apoptotic effect and underlying mechanisms of AR in MI/R injury remain unclear. We hypothesize that AR may improve mitochondrial function to inhibit MI/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In this study, we replicated an in vitro H9c2 cardiomyocyte MI/R model by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) treatment. The viability of H9c2 cardiomyocytes was determined by MTT assay; apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry and TUNEL experiments; mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening was analyzed by a calcein-cobalt quenching method; and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was detected by JC-1. Moreover, we used western blots to determine the mitochondrial cytochrome c translocation to cytosolic and the expression of caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax proteins. These results showed that the application of AR decreased the ratio of apoptosis and the extent of mPTP opening, but increased ΔΨm. AR also inhibited H/R-induced release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and decreased the expression of the caspase-3, Bax proteins. Conversely, it remarkably increased the expression of Bcl-2 protein. Taken together, these results revealed that AR protects H9c2 cardiomyocytes against H/R-induced apoptosis through mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway. PMID:27248986

  2. Attenuation of IgE receptor signalling in mast cells as molecular basis for the antiallergic action of glucocorticoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancono, A.

    2003-04-01

    Glucocorticoids suppress the expression of Fc{epsilon}RI alpha chain gene by inhibiting its promoter activity. This effect requires de novo protein synthesis and regulatory elements at the Fc{epsilon}RI {alpha}-chain promoter that bind the transcription factors GATA-1, Elf-1, Pu.1 and YY1. The downregulation of the Fc{epsilon}RI {alpha}-chain gene expression correlates with a reduced surface expression of the Fc{epsilon}RI. Furthermore, glucocorticoid treatment promotes inactivation of the lck/yes-related novel (Lyn) Src-like tyrosine kinase, responsible of phosphorylation and activation of the Fc{epsilon}RI, via enhanced phosphorylation of the regulatory tyrosine residue of Lyn. The reduction of surface expressed IgE receptor and the inactivation of Lyn would suppress the signal transduction events originating from the Fc{epsilon}RI and ending up with the activation of the downstream targets ERK1/2. In addition, it has been shown here that glucocorticoids inhibit IgE receptor signalling by enhancing the expression of the MAPK phosphatase MKP-1, which in turn inhibits the activation of ERK1/2. The glucocorticoid-mediated enhancement in MKP-1 expression occurs at the MKP-1 promoter level. This regulation requires the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) dimerisation function and the presence of discrete elements on the promoter proximal sequence, suggesting that it is a direct action of the GR. A crucial role of MKP-1 in glucocorticoid-mediated repression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation was demonstrated in bone marrow derived mast cells from MKP-1-deficient mice. ERK1/2 in these cells are activated by IgE receptor cross-linking or by Stem Cell Factor through the c-kit receptor, and they were no longer inhibited by glucocorticoids, while this was the case in cells from wild-type mice. However, ERK1/2 activity in other cell types such as thymocytes and splenocytes of MKP-1 deficient mice, could still be inhibited by glucocorticoids. These results dmeonstrate that repression of ERK1

  3. The top 10 reasons children with autism deserve ABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    We who advocate for applied behavior analysis (ABA) for children with autism spectrum disorders often construct our arguments based on the scientific evidence. However, the audience that most needs to hear this argument, that is, the parents of children, especially very young children, diagnosed with autism, may not be convinced by the science alone. This essay attempts to make the case for the multiple benefits of ABA intervention through the use of humor and anecdotes couched in a "Top Ten List," and illustrating most points with stories of an engaging child with autism (my son, Ben). PMID:22532906

  4. Involvement of ABA- and H2O2-dependent cytosolic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in maintaining redox homeostasis in soybean roots under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huahua; Yang, Lidan; Li, Yan; Hou, Junjie; Huang, Junjun; Liang, Weihong

    2016-10-01

    The roles of abscisic acid (ABA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in inducing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, EC 1.1.1.49) activity and the possible roles of G6PDH in regulating ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle were investigated in soybean (Glycine max L.) roots under drought stress. Drought caused a marked increase of the total and cytosolic G6PDH activities and triggered a rapid ABA and H2O2 accumulation in soybean roots. Exogenous ABA or H2O2 treatment elevated the total and cytosolic G6PDH activities, whereas suppressing ABA or H2O2 production inhibited the drought-induced increase in total and cytosolic G6PDH activities, suggesting that ABA and H2O2 are required for drought-induced increase of total G6PDH activity, namely cytosolic G6PDH activity. Furthermore, ABA induced H2O2 production by stimulating NADPH oxidase activity under drought stress. Moreover, drought significantly increased the contents of AsA and GSH and the activities of key enzymes in AsA-GSH cycle, while application of G6PDH inhibitor to seedlings significantly reduced the above effect induced by drought. Taken together, these results indicate that H2O2 acting as a downstream signaling molecule of ABA mediates drought-induced increase in cytosolic G6PDH activity, and that enhanced cytosolic G6PDH activity maintains cellular redox homeostasis by regulating AsA-GSH cycle in soybean roots. PMID:27285781

  5. N-acetylcysteine attenuates hexavalent chromium-induced hypersensitivity through inhibition of cell death, ROS-related signaling and cytokine expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Lee

    Full Text Available Chromium hypersensitivity (chromium-induced allergic contact dermatitis is an important issue in occupational skin disease. Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI can activate the Akt, Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, and Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways and induce cell death, via the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Recently, cell death stimuli have been proposed to regulate the release of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1 (IL-1. However, the exact effects of ROS on the signaling molecules and cytotoxicity involved in Cr(VI-induced hypersensitivity have not yet been fully demonstrated. N-acetylcysteine (NAC could increase glutathione levels in the skin and act as an antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the effects of NAC on attenuating the Cr(VI-triggered ROS signaling in both normal keratinocyte cells (HaCaT cells and a guinea pig (GP model. The results showed the induction of apoptosis, autophagy and ROS were observed after different concentrations of Cr(VI treatment. HaCaT cells pretreated with NAC exhibited a decrease in apoptosis and autophagy, which could affect cell viability. In addition, Cr (VI activated the Akt, NF-κB and MAPK pathways thereby increasing IL-1α and TNF-α production. However, all of these stimulation phenomena could be inhibited by NAC in both of in vitro and in vivo studies. These novel findings indicate that NAC may prevent the development of chromium hypersensitivity by inhibiting of ROS-induced cell death and cytokine expression.

  6. Retinoic acid receptor agonist Am80 inhibits CXCL2 production from microglial BV-2 cells via attenuation of NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Moeka; Kurauchi, Yuki; Hisatsune, Akinori; Seki, Takahiro; Shudo, Koichi; Katsuki, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    Accumulating lines of evidence suggest that retinoic acid receptor agonists such as Am80 exerts anti-inflammatory actions in the central nervous system, although detailed mechanisms of the action remain largely unknown. Our previous findings suggest that Am80 provides therapeutic effect on intracerebral hemorrhage in mice via suppression of expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2). Here we investigated the mechanisms of inhibitory action of Am80 on expression of CXCL2 and other pro-inflammatory factors in microglial BV-2 cells. Pretreatment with Am80 markedly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of CXCL2 mRNA and release of CXCL2 protein. Am80 had no effect on LPS-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. On the other hand, Am80 prevented LPS-induced nuclear translocation of p65 subunit of NF-κB complex. In addition, total expression levels of p65 and IκBα proteins, as well as of mRNAs encoding p65 and IκBα, were lowered by Am80. Dependence of CXCL2 expression on NF-κB was confirmed by the effect of an NF-κB inhibitor caffeic acid phenethyl ester that abolished LPS-induced CXCL2 expression. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester also abolished LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor α, which may be relevant to the inhibitory effect of Am80 on expression of these pro-inflammatory factors. We additionally found that Am80 attenuated LPS-induced up-regulation of CD14, a co-receptor for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). These results suggest that inhibitory effect on TLR4 signaling mediated by NF-κB pathway underlies the anti-inflammatory action of retinoic acid receptor agonists in microglia. PMID:27351827

  7. Alpinetin attenuates inflammatory responses by interfering toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haijin; Mo, Xiaodong; Yu, Jinlong; Huang, Zonghai

    2013-09-01

    Alpinetin, a novel plant flavonoid derived from Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of alpinetin on mastitis has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of alpinetin against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis and to clarify the possible mechanism. In the present study, primary mouse mammary epithelial cells and an LPS-induced mouse mastitis model were used to investigate the effect of alpinetin on mastitis and the possible mechanism. In vivo, we observed that alpinetin significantly attenuated the infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes, and the activation of myeloperoxidase; down-regulated the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6; inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α, NF-κB p65 and the expression of TLR4, caused by LPS. In vitro, we also observed that alpinetin inhibited the expression of TLR4 and the production of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated primary mouse mammary epithelial cells. However, alpinetin could not inhibit the production of IL-1β and IL-6 in TNF-α-stimulated primary mouse mammary epithelial cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of alpinetin against LPS-induced mastitis may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways. Alpinetin may be a promising potential therapeutic reagent for mastitis treatment.

  8. Curcumin attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yunhe; Gao, Ruifeng; Cao, Yongguo; Guo, Mengyao; Wei, Zhengkai; Zhou, Ershun; Li, Yimeng; Yao, Minjun; Yang, Zhengtao; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-05-01

    Curcumin, the main constituent of the spice turmeric, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of curcumin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mice mastitis has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether curcumin could ameliorate the inflammation response in LPS-induced mice mastitis and to clarify the possible mechanism. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of the mammary gland. Curcumin was applied 1h before and 12h after LPS treatment. The results showed that curcumin attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells, the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Western blotting results showed that curcumin inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB p65 and the expression of TLR4. These results indicated that curcumin has protective effect on mice mastitis and the anti-inflammatory mechanism of curcumin on LPS-induced mastitis in mice may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways. Curcumin may be a potential therapeutic agent against mastitis.

  9. A newly synthesized macakurzin C-derivative attenuates acute and chronic skin inflammation: The Nrf2/heme oxygenase signaling as a potential target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Shin, Iljin; Kim, Kyeong-A; Noh, Dabi; Baek, Seung-Hoon; Chang, Sun-Young; Kim, Hyoungsu; Bae, Ok-Nam

    2016-09-15

    Impaired immune responses in skin play a pivotal role in the development and progression of chemical-associated inflammatory skin disorders. In this study, we synthesized new flavonoid derivatives from macakurzin C, and identified in vitro and in vivo efficacy of a potent anti-inflammatory flavonoid, Compound 14 (CPD 14), with its underlying mechanisms. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages and IFN-γ/TNF-α-stimulated human keratinocytes, CPD 14 significantly inhibited the release of inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandins, and cytokines (IC50 for NO inhibition in macrophages: 4.61μM). Attenuated NF-κB signaling and activated Nrf2/HO-1 pathway were responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of CPD 14. The in vivo relevance was examined in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA)-induced acute skin inflammation and oxazolone-induced atopic dermatitis models. Topically applied CPD 14 significantly protected both irritation- and sensitization-associated skin inflammation by suppressing the expression of inflammatory mediators. In summary, we demonstrated that a newly synthesized flavonoid, CPD 14, has potent inhibitory effects on skin inflammation, suggesting it is a potential therapeutic candidate to treat skin disorders associated with excessive inflammation. PMID:27450019

  10. Amino Acids Attenuate Insulin Action on Gluconeogenesis and Promote Fatty Acid Biosynthesis via mTORC1 Signaling Pathway in trout Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Dai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Carnivores exhibit poor utilization of dietary carbohydrates and glucose intolerant phenotypes, yet it remains unclear what are the causal factors and underlying mechanisms. We aimed to evaluate excessive amino acids (AAs-induced effects on insulin signaling, fatty acid biosynthesis and glucose metabolism in rainbow trout and determine the potential involvement of mTORC1 and p38 MAPK pathway. Methods: We stimulated trout primary hepatocytes with different AA levels and employed acute administration of rapamycin to inhibit mTORC1 activation. Results: Increased AA levels enhanced the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1, S6, and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1 on Ser302 but suppressed Akt and p38 phosphorylation; up-regulated the expression of genes related to gluconeogenesis and fatty acid biosynthesis. mTORC1 inhibition not only inhibited the phosphorylation of mTORC1 downstream targets, but also blunted IRS-1 Ser302 phosphorylation and restored excessive AAs-suppressed Akt phosphorylation. Rapamycin also inhibited fatty acid biosynthetic and gluconeogenic gene expression. Conclusion: High levels of AAs up-regulate hepatic fatty acid biosynthetic gene expression through an mTORC1-dependent manner, while attenuate insulin-mediated repression of gluconeogenesis through elevating IRS-1 Ser302 phosphorylation, which in turn impairs Akt activation and thereby weakening insulin action. We propose that p38 MAPK probably also involves in these AAs-induced metabolic changes.

  11. Kinsenoside screening with a microfluidic chip attenuates gouty arthritis through inactivating NF-κB signaling in macrophages and protecting endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiao; Bing, Wang; Di, Yin; Hua, Li; Shi-he, Li; Yu-hua, Zheng; Xiu-guo, Han; Yu-gang, Wang; Qi-ming, Fan; Shih-mo, Yang; Ting-ting, Tang

    2016-01-01

    Gouty arthritis is a rheumatic disease that is characterized by the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) in synovial joints cause by the increased serum hyperuricemia. This study used a three-dimensional (3D) flowing microfluidic chip to screen the effective candidate against MSU-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) damage, and found kinsenoside (Kin) to be the leading active component of Anoectochilus roxburghi, one of the Chinese medicinal plant widely used in the treatment of gouty arthritis clinically. Cell viability and apoptosis of HUVECs were evaluated, indicating that direct Kin stimulation and conditioned medium (CM) from Kin-treated macrophages both negatively modulated with MSU crystals. Additionally, Kin was capable of attenuating MSU-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (NF-κB/MAPK) signaling, targeting IκB kinase-α (IKKα) and IKKβ kinases of macrophages and influencing the expressions of NF-κB downstream cytokines and subsequent HUVEC bioactivity. Inflammasome NLR pyrin domain-containing 3 (NALP3) and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) were also inhibited after Kin treatment. Also, Kin downregulated CD14-mediated MSU crystals uptake in macrophages. In vivo study with MSU-injected ankle joints further revealed the significant suppression of inflammatory infiltration and endothelia impairment coupled with alleviation of ankle swelling and nociceptive response via Kin treatments. Taken together, these data implicated that Kin was the most effective candidate from Anoectochilus roxburghi to treat gouty arthritis clinically. PMID:27584788

  12. Hu-Lu-Ba-Wan Attenuates Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Rats through PKC-α/NADPH Oxidase Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hu-Lu-Ba-Wan (HLBW is a Chinese herbal prescription used to treat kidney deficiency. The aim of this study was to explore the effect and mechanism of HLBW on diabetic nephropathy (DN in type 2 diabetic rats. The rat model of DN was established by being fed a high-fat diet and intravenous injection of streptozotocin. Then, HLBW decoction was administered for 16 weeks. Blood glucose level, lipid profile, renal function, 24-hour total urinary protein, and albumin content were examined. Renal morphology and superoxide anion levels were evaluated. The activity of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH and protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-α related genes expression in renal tissue were also determined. Our data demonstrated that HLBW significantly improved hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and proteinuria in diabetic rats compared with those of control group. HLBW also alleviated glomerular expansion and fibrosis, extracellular matrix accumulation and effacement of the foot processes. Additionally, HLBW reduced superoxide anion level, NADPH oxidase activity, the protein and mRNA expressions of p47phox, and the protein expression of phosphorylated PKC-α in renal tissue. These results suggest that HLBW is effective in the treatment of DN in rats. The underlying mechanism may be related to the attenuation of renal oxidative stress via PKC-α/NADPH oxidase signaling pathway.

  13. Inspection of the Grapevine BURP Superfamily Highlights an Expansion of RD22 Genes with Distinctive Expression Features in Berry Development and ABA-Mediated Stress Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Espinoza, Carmen; Vega, Andrea; Cavallini, Erika; Santo, Silvia Dal; Cañón, Paola; de la Guardia, Amparo Rodríguez-Hoces; Serrano, Jennifer; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    The RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 22 (RD22) gene is a molecular link between abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and abiotic stress responses. Its expression has been used as a reliable ABA early response marker. In Arabidopsis, the single copy RD22 gene possesses a BURP domain also located at the C-terminus of USP embryonic proteins and the beta subunit of polygalacturonases. In grapevine, a RD22 gene has been identified but putative paralogs are also found in the grape genome, possibly forming a lar...

  14. ABA, ROS and NO are Key Players During Switchgrass Seed Germination

    OpenAIRE

    Sarath, Gautam; Hou, Guichuan; Baird, Lisa M.; Robert B Mitchell

    2007-01-01

    Seed dormancy and germination are complex physiological processes usually under hormonal control. Germination of seeds from many plants including switchgrass, are inhibited by ABA and promoted by NO or ROS. However, ABA apparently requires both ROS and NO as intermediates in its action, with ROS produced by membrane-bound NADPH-oxidases responsive to ABA. In switchgrass seeds, externally supplied hydrogen peroxide (ROS), but not NO will overcome ABA-imposed inhibition of germination. Stimulat...

  15. ABA and Diverse Cultural and Linguistic Environments: A Welsh Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E. W.; Hoerger, M.; Hughes, J. C.; Williams, B. M.; Jones, B.; Moseley, Y.; Hughes, D. R.; Prys, D.

    2011-01-01

    Gwynedd Local Education Authority (LEA) in North West Wales, UK, is funding a small-scale autism-specific specialist education service using ABA methodology. The program is available through the medium of Welsh, English or bilingually, depending on the individual needs of the child (Jones and Hoerger in Eur J Behav Anal 10:249-253, "2009").…

  16. Personality Traits Associated with Occupational "Burnout" in ABA Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Amy A.; Grist, Cathy Lann; Malesky, Lann A., Jr.; McCord, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Applied behaviour analysis (ABA) therapists typically work one-to-one with children with autism for extended periods of time, which often leads to high levels of job-related stress, lower levels of job satisfaction, increased frequency of occupational "burnout" and higher than average job turnover (Journal of Autism…

  17. ABA Brink: Pioneer of engineering geology in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Haarhoff

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthony Berrange Antill Brink – beter bekend as ABA Brink aan die lesers van sy boeke, of net Tony vir sy groot aantal kennisse en vriende – was met sy geboorte in 1927 die derde en laaste kind van Rex Brink en Georgina Antill

  18. Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System: Indigenous Australian Adaptation Model (ABAS: IAAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Santie

    2015-01-01

    The study objectives were to develop, trial and evaluate a cross-cultural adaptation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition Teacher Form (ABAS-II TF) ages 5-21 for use with Indigenous Australian students ages 5-14. This study introduced a multiphase mixed-method design with semi-structured and informal interviews, school…

  19. ABA and Instruction of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Introduction to the Special Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflin, L. Juane; Alberto, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    This introductory article to this special issue on the use of applied behavior analysis (ABA) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) notes the 40-year history of ABA strategy development, verification, and generalization. It briefly introduces the following articles, which are intended to illustrate the range of ABA applications and the depth of…

  20. ABA and Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Issues and Considerations for Effective Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses issues related to the use of applied behavior analysis (ABA) with students who have autism-related disabilities. These include: implementation forms, outcome expectations, exclusive versus selective use of ABA, time-related considerations, and personnel requirements for effective ABA implementation, evaluation, and…

  1. Coping as a Predictor of Burnout and General Health in Therapists Working in ABA Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, G. M.; Barbakou, A.; Hastings, R. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the work-related well-being of applied behaviour analysis (ABA) therapists who work in school-based contexts and deliver ABA interventions to children with autism. Methods: A questionnaire on work-related stress (burnout), general distress, perceived supervisor support and coping was completed by 45 ABA therapists…

  2. Changes of RWC, Wilting Degree and ABA in Different Ramie Varieties under Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Changes of RWC, wilting degree and ABA in different ramie varieties under drought stress were studied. The results showed: (1) wilting degree and ABA increased but RWC decreased with the increase of drought sress,and (2) drought resistant varieties had higher RWC and ABA but lower wilting degree than drought sensitive varieties.

  3. New cross talk between ROS, ABA and auxin controlling seed maturation and germination unraveled in APX6 deficient Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changming; Twito, Shir; Miller, Gad

    2014-01-01

    Successful execution of germination program greatly depends on the seeds' oxidative homeostasis. We recently identified new roles for the H2O2-reducing enzyme ascorbate peroxidase 6 (APX6) in germination control and seeds' stress tolerance. APX6 replaces APX1 as the dominant APX in dry seeds, and its loss-of-function results in reduced germination due to over accumulation of ROS and oxidative damage. Metabolic analyses in dry apx6 seeds, revealed altered homeostasis of primary metabolites including accumulation of TCA cycle metabolites, ABA and auxin, supporting a novel role for APX6 in regulating cellular metabolism. Increased sensitivity of apx6 mutants to ABA or IAA in germination assays indicated impaired perception of these signals. Relative suppression of ABI3 and ABI5 expression, and induction of ABI4, suggested the activation of a signaling route inhibiting germination in apx6 seeds that is independent of ABI3. Here we provide additional evidence linking ABI4 with ABA- and auxin-controlled inhibition of germination and suggest a hypothetical model for the role of APX6 in the regulation of the crosstalk between these hormones and ROS.

  4. Mitogen-activated protein kinase and abscisic acid signal transduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimovaara-Dijkstra, S.; Testerink, C.; Wang, M.

    1998-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a classical plant hormone, responsible for regulation of abscission, diverse aspects of plant and seed development, stress responses and germination. It was found that ABA signal transduction in plants can involve the activity of type 2C-phosphatases (PP2C), c

  5. Calcineurin-B-Like Protein CBL9 Interacts with Target Kinase CIPK3 in the Regulation of ABA Response in Seed Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Girdhar K.Pandey; John J.Grant; Yong Hwa Cheong; Beom-Gi Kim; Le Gong Li; Sheng Luan

    2008-01-01

    Calcium plays a vital role as a second messenger in many signaling pathways in plants.The calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs) represent a family of plant calcium-binding proteins that function in calcium signaling by interacting with their interacting protein kinases (CIPKs).In our previous study,we have reported a role for one of the CBLs (CBL9) and one of the CIPKs (CIPK3) in ABA signaling.Here,we have shown that CBL9 and CIPK3 physically and functionally interact with each other in regulating the ABA responses.The CBL9 and CIPK3 proteins interacted with each other in the yeast twohybrid system and when expressed in plant cells.The double mutant cbl9cipk3 showed the similar hypersensitive response to ABA as observed in single mutants (cbl9 or cipk3).The constitutively active form of CIPK3 genetically complemented the cbl9 mutant,indicating that CIPK3 function downstream of CBL9.Based on these findings,we conclude that CBL9 and CIPK3 act together in the same pathway for regulating ABA responses.

  6. Supercritical Fluid Extract of Spent Coffee Grounds Attenuates Melanogenesis through Downregulation of the PKA, PI3K/Akt, and MAPK Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Chun Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mode of action of spent coffee grounds supercritical fluid CO2 extract (SFE in melanogenesis has never been reported. In the study, the spent coffee grounds were extracted by the supercritical fluid CO2 extraction method; the chemical constituents of the SFE were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The effects of the SFE and its major fatty acid components on melanogenesis were evaluated by mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and determination of intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content. The expression level of melanogenesis-related proteins was analyzed by western blotting assay. The results revealed that the SFE of spent coffee grounds (1–10 mg/mL and its major fatty acids such as linoleic acid and oleic acid (6.25–50 μM effectively suppressed melanogenesis in the B16F10 murine melanoma cells. Furthermore, the SFE decreased the expression of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1, and tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2. The SFE also decreased the protein expression levels of p-JNK, p-p38, p-ERK, and p-CREB. Our results revealed that the SFE of spent coffee grounds attenuated melanogenesis in B16F10 cells by downregulation of protein kinase A (PKA, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling pathways, which may be due to linoleic acid and oleic acid.

  7. Supercritical Fluid Extract of Spent Coffee Grounds Attenuates Melanogenesis through Downregulation of the PKA, PI3K/Akt, and MAPK Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Wei, Chien-Mei; Siao, Jen-Hung; Tsai, Tsang-Chi; Ko, Wang-Ping; Chang, Kuei-Jen; Hii, Choon-Hoon; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2016-01-01

    The mode of action of spent coffee grounds supercritical fluid CO2 extract (SFE) in melanogenesis has never been reported. In the study, the spent coffee grounds were extracted by the supercritical fluid CO2 extraction method; the chemical constituents of the SFE were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of the SFE and its major fatty acid components on melanogenesis were evaluated by mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and determination of intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content. The expression level of melanogenesis-related proteins was analyzed by western blotting assay. The results revealed that the SFE of spent coffee grounds (1-10 mg/mL) and its major fatty acids such as linoleic acid and oleic acid (6.25-50 μM) effectively suppressed melanogenesis in the B16F10 murine melanoma cells. Furthermore, the SFE decreased the expression of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), and tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2). The SFE also decreased the protein expression levels of p-JNK, p-p38, p-ERK, and p-CREB. Our results revealed that the SFE of spent coffee grounds attenuated melanogenesis in B16F10 cells by downregulation of protein kinase A (PKA), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways, which may be due to linoleic acid and oleic acid. PMID:27375763

  8. Alpha8 Integrin (Itga8 Signalling Attenuates Chronic Renal Interstitial Fibrosis by Reducing Fibroblast Activation, Not by Interfering with Regulation of Cell Turnover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Marek

    Full Text Available The α8 integrin (Itga8 chain contributes to the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in renal glomerular cells. In unilateral ureteral obstruction Itga8 is de novo expressed in the tubulointerstitium and a deficiency of Itga8 results in more severe renal fibrosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction. We hypothesized that the increased tubulointerstitial damage after unilateral ureteral obstruction observed in mice deficient for Itga8 is associated with altered tubulointerstitial cell turnover and apoptotic mechanisms resulting from the lack of Itga8 in cells of the tubulointerstitium. Induction of unilateral ureteral obstruction was achieved by ligation of the right ureter in mice lacking Itga8. Unilateral ureteral obstruction increased proliferation and apoptosis rates of tubuloepithelial and interstitial cells, however, no differences were observed in the tubulointerstitium of mice lacking Itga8 and wild type controls regarding fibroblast or proliferating cell numbers as well as markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction. In contrast, unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice lacking Itga8 led to more pronounced tubulointerstitial cell activation i.e. to the appearance of more phospho-SMAD2/3-positive cells and more α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells in the tubulointerstitium. Furthermore, a more severe macrophage and T-cell infiltration was observed in these animals compared to controls. Thus, Itga8 seems to attenuate tubulointerstitial fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction not via regulation of cell turnover, but via regulation of TGF-β signalling, fibroblast activation and/or immune cell infiltration.

  9. Supercritical Fluid Extract of Spent Coffee Grounds Attenuates Melanogenesis through Downregulation of the PKA, PI3K/Akt, and MAPK Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Wei, Chien-Mei; Siao, Jen-Hung; Tsai, Tsang-Chi; Ko, Wang-Ping; Chang, Kuei-Jen; Hii, Choon-Hoon; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2016-01-01

    The mode of action of spent coffee grounds supercritical fluid CO2 extract (SFE) in melanogenesis has never been reported. In the study, the spent coffee grounds were extracted by the supercritical fluid CO2 extraction method; the chemical constituents of the SFE were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of the SFE and its major fatty acid components on melanogenesis were evaluated by mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and determination of intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content. The expression level of melanogenesis-related proteins was analyzed by western blotting assay. The results revealed that the SFE of spent coffee grounds (1–10 mg/mL) and its major fatty acids such as linoleic acid and oleic acid (6.25–50 μM) effectively suppressed melanogenesis in the B16F10 murine melanoma cells. Furthermore, the SFE decreased the expression of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), and tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2). The SFE also decreased the protein expression levels of p-JNK, p-p38, p-ERK, and p-CREB. Our results revealed that the SFE of spent coffee grounds attenuated melanogenesis in B16F10 cells by downregulation of protein kinase A (PKA), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways, which may be due to linoleic acid and oleic acid. PMID:27375763

  10. IFN-gamma-receptor signaling ameliorates transplant vasculopathy through attenuation of CD8+ T-cell-mediated injury of vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinger, Beatrice; Engeler, Daniel; Krebs, Philippe; Miller, Simone; Firner, Sonja; Hoffmann, Matthias; Palmer, Douglas C; Restifo, Nicholas P; Tian, Yinghua; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Ludewig, Burkhard

    2010-03-01

    Occlusive transplant vasculopathy (TV) is the major cause for chronic graft rejection. Since endothelial cells (EC) are the first graft cells encountered by activated host lymphocytes, it is important to delineate the molecular mechanisms that coordinate the interaction of EC with activated T cells. Here, the interaction of CD8(+) T cells with Ag-presenting EC in vivo was examined using a transgenic heart transplantation model with beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) expression exclusively in EC (Tie2-LacZ hearts). We found that priming with beta-gal peptide-loaded DC failed to generate a strong systemic IFN-gamma response, but elicited pronounced TV in both IFN-gamma receptor (IFNGR)-competent, and ifngr(-/-) Tie2-LacZ hearts. In contrast, stimulation of EC-specific CD8(+) T cells with beta-gal-recombinant mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV-LacZ) in recipients of ifngr(+/+) Tie2-LacZ hearts did not precipitate significant TV. However, MCMV-LacZ infection of recipients of ifngr(-/-) Tie2-LacZ hearts led to massive activation of beta-gal-specific CD8 T cells, and led to development of fulminant TV. Further analyses revealed that the strong systemic IFN-gamma "storm" associated with MCMV infection induced upregulation of programmed death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) on EC, and subsequent attenuation of programmed death-1 (PD-1)-expressing EC-specific CD8(+) T cells. Thus, IFNGR signaling in ECs activates a potent peripheral negative feedback circuit that protects vascularized grafts from occlusive TV. PMID:20049875

  11. Lithium attenuates cannabinoid-induced dependence in the animal model: involvement of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and GSK-3β signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Rahimi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is one of the most banned drugs in the world. Cannabinoid-induced dependence or withdrawal signs are indicated by the result of complex molecular mechanisms including upstream protein kinases (PKs, such as an extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2 and downstream glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β, which lead to neuronal plasticity. In this study, we examined the protective effect of lithium (Li as a potent ERK1/2 and GSK-3β modulator to prevent the development of dependence on cannabinoids. For this purpose, rats were treated twice daily with increasing doses of WIN 55,212-2 (WIN, 2-8 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p., for five consecutive days. AM251 (AM, 2 mg/kg, a cannabinoid antagonist, was injected i.p to induce manifestations of abstinence in rat dependency on WIN, and the subsequent withdrawal signs were recorded. To evaluate the preventive effect of Li, the rats were pre-treated with Li (10 mg/kg, i.p. twice daily, 30 minutes before every injection of WIN. SL327, as an ERK1/2 inhibitor, was also injected (SL, 50 mg/kg, i.p. 30 minutes before the last doses of WIN in separate groups. The p-ERK1/2, total ERK1/2, p-GSK-3β and total GSK-3β expressions were determined with Western blot method after 60 minutes, prior to the Li, WIN or AM injections. Li and SL pre-treatment attenuated the global withdrawal signs in regarding their modulation effect on the up-regulation of p-ERK1/2 cascade enhanced by AM injection. Furthermore, the p-GSK-3β expression was up-regulated with SL and Li pre-treatment against AM injection, without alteration on the total contents of ERK1/2 and GSK-3β level. Therefore, p-ERK1/2 and p-GSK-3β pathways are involved in the cannabinoid-induced dependence. However, no crosstalk was indicated between these two pathways. In conclusion, Li neuroprotectionwith regard to cannabinoid abstinence may occur through the regulation of the p-ERK1/2 cascade inconsequent of p-GSK-3β signaling pathways in rats.

  12. The aba mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is impaired in epoxy-carotenoid biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, C.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The three mutant alleles of the ABA locus of Arabidopsis thaliana result in plants that are deficient in the plant growth regulator abscisic acid (ABA). The authors have used {sup 18}O{sub 2} to label ABA in water-stressed leaves of mutant and wild-type Arabidopsis. Analysis by selected ion monitoring and tandem mass spectrometry of ({sup 18}O)ABA and its catabolites, phaseic acid and ABA-glucose ester ({beta}-D-glucopyranosyl abscisate), indicates that the aba genotypes are impaired in ABA biosynthesis and have a small ABA precursor pool of compounds that contain oxygens on the rings, presumably oxygenated carotenoids (xanthophylls). Quantitation of the carotenoids form mutant and wild-type leaves establishes that the aba alleles cause a deficiency of the epoxy-carotenoids violaxanthin and neoxanthin and an accumulation of their biosynthetic precursor, zeaxanthin. These results provide evidence that ABA is synthesized by oxidative cleavage of epoxy-carotenoids (the indirect pathway). Furthermore the carotenoid mutant they describe undergoes normal greening. Thus the aba alleles provide an opportunity to study the physiological roles of epoxy-carotenoids in photosynthesis in a higher plants.

  13. Abscisic Acid Signal off the STARTing Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Archana Joshi-Saha; Christiane Valon; Jeffrey Leung

    2011-01-01

    The year 2009 marked a real turnaround in our understanding of the mode ot abscisJc acid(ABA)action. Nearly 25 years had elapsed since the first biochemical detection of ABA-binding proteins in the plasmalemma of Vicia guard cells was reported. This recent-and laudable-achievement is owed largely to the discovery of the soluble ABA receptors whose major interacting proteins happen to be some of the most well-established components of earliest steps in ABA signaling. These soluble receptors, with the double name of PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE (PYR)or REGULATORY COM-PONENT OF ABA RECEPTOR (RCAR), are a family of Arabidopsis proteins of about 150-200 amino acids that share a con-served START domain. The ABA signal transduction circuitry under non-stress conditions is muted by the ciade A protein phosphatases 2C (PP2C)(notably HAB1, ABI1, and ABI2). During the initial steps of ABA signaling, the binding of the hor-mone to the receptor induces a conformational change in the latter that allows it to sequester the PP2Cs. This excludes them from the negative regulation of the downstream ABA-activated kinases (OST1/SnRK2.6/SRK2E, SnRK2.2, and SnRK2.3), thus unleashing the pathway by freeing them to phosphorylate downstream targets that now include several b-ZIP transcription factors, ion channels (SLAC1, KAT1), and a NADPH oxidase (AtrbohF). The discovery of this family of soluble receptors and the rich insight already gained from structural studies of their complexes with different isoforms of ABA, PP2C, and the synthetic agonist pyrabactin lay the foundation towards rational design of chemical switches that can bolster drought hardiness in plants.

  14. MicroRNA-24 Attenuates Neointimal Hyperplasia in the Diabetic Rat Carotid Artery Injury Model by Inhibiting Wnt4 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    2016-05-01

    RNA and protein levels was opposite after a balloon injury. However, over-expression of miR-24 after gene delivery increased the mRNA and protein levels of p21. We conclude that over-expression of miR-24 could attenuate VSMC proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injuries in diabetic rats. This result is possibly related to the regulation of the expression of Cyclin D1 and p21 through the Wnt4/Dvl-1/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  15. Diversity and Evolution of AbaR Genomic Resistance Islands in Acinetobacter baumannii Strains of European Clone I▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizova, Lenka; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Nemec, Alexandr

    2011-01-01

    To assess the diversity of AbaR genomic resistance islands in Acinetobacter baumannii European clone I (MLST clonal complex 1), we investigated 26 multidrug-resistant strains of this major clone isolated from hospitals in 21 cities of 10 European countries between 1984 and 2005. Each strain harbored an AbaR structure integrated at the same position in the chromosomal ATPase gene. AbaR3, including four subtypes based on variations in class 1 integron cassettes, and AbaR10 were found in 15 and 2 strains, respectively, whereas a new, unique AbaR variant was discovered in each of the other 9 strains. These new variants, designated AbaR11 to AbaR19 (19.8 kb to 57.5 kb), seem to be truncated derivatives of AbaR3, likely resulting from the deletions of its internal parts mediated by either IS26 elements (AbaR12 to AbaR19) or homologous recombination (AbaR11). AbaR3 was detected in all 10 strains isolated in 1984 to 1991, while AbaR11 to AbaR19 were carried only by strains isolated since 1997. Our results and those from previous publications suggest that AbaR3 is the original form of AbaR in European clone I, which may have provided strains of the lineage with a selective advantage facilitating their spread in European hospitals in the 1980s or before. PMID:21537009

  16. 磷脂酶D在ABA调控气孔运动中的作用%Roles of phospholipase D in ABA-regulated stomatal movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊斌; 丁博; 李欣; 吴天文; 陈小强; 谢晓东

    2016-01-01

    Guard cells form stomatal pores in the leaf epidermis, which enable plants to balance CO2 uptake for photosynthesis and water loss via transpiration. Abscisic acid (ABA) has been extensively studied because of the clear role of ABA in stomatal closing to limit water loss through transpiration. Phospholipase D (PLD) and its lipid product phosphatidic acid (PA) have been implicated in mediating ABA-regulated stomatal signal trans-duction. In this review, we focus on our current understanding of a connection between PLD and PA with G protein, protein phosphatase 2C and reactive oxygen species in regulating the ABA response in guard cells. Also, the role of PLDδ in ABA-regulated stomatal movement is summarized.%气孔由植物叶片表面一对保卫细胞包围而成,控制植物光合作用所需CO2的摄取和蒸腾作用水分的散失。脱落酸(abscisic acid, ABA)通过诱导气孔关闭减少植物水分散失。研究表明,磷脂酶D (phospholipase D, PLD)及其产物磷脂酸(phosphatidic acid, PA)参与ABA调节的气孔运动信号转导过程。本文主要综述在保卫细胞ABA信号途径中, PLDα1/PA与G蛋白、蛋白磷酸酶2C、活性氧等信号组分的相互作用,以及PLDδ在气孔运动中的作用。

  17. Rheology and Relaxation Timescales of ABA Triblock Polymer Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Andrew; Lodge, Timothy

    When dissolved in a midblock selective solvent, ABA polymers form gels composed of aggregated end block micelles bridged by the midblocks. While much effort has been devoted to the study of the structure of these systems, the dynamics of these systems has received less attention. We examine the underlying mechanism of shear relaxation of ABA triblock polymer gels, especially as a function of chain length, composition, and concentration. Recent work using time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering of polystyrene (PS)-block-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PEP) in squalane has elucidated many aspects of the dynamics of diblock chain exchange. By using rheology to study bulk relaxation phenomena of the triblock equivalent, PS-PEP-PS, we apply the knowledge gained from the chain exchange studies to bridge the gap between the molecular and macroscopic relaxation phenomena in PS-PEP-PS triblock gels.

  18. ABA-Cloud: support for collaborative breath research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Ibrahim; Ludescher, Thomas; King, Julian; Ager, Clemens; Trosin, Michael; Senocak, Uygar; Brezany, Peter; Feilhauer, Thomas; Amann, Anton

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces the advanced breath analysis (ABA) platform, an innovative scientific research platform for the entire breath research domain. Within the ABA project, we are investigating novel data management concepts and semantic web technologies to document breath analysis studies for the long run as well as to enable their full automatic reproducibility. We propose several concept taxonomies (a hierarchical order of terms from a glossary of terms), which can be seen as a first step toward the definition of conceptualized terms commonly used by the international community of breath researchers. They build the basis for the development of an ontology (a concept from computer science used for communication between machines and/or humans and representation and reuse of knowledge) dedicated to breath research.

  19. Heme oxygenase-1 in cholecystokinin-octapeptipe attenuated injury of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells induced by lipopolysaccharide and its signal transduction mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Li Huang; Yi-Ling Ling; Yi-Qun Ling; Jun-Lin Zhou; Yah Liu; Qiu-Hong Wang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-8) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMCs) injury and the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and to explore the regulation mechanism of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and activator protein-L (AP-1) signal transduction pathway in inducing HO-1 expression further.METHODS: Cultured PASMCs were randomly divided into 4 or 6 groups: normal culture group, LPS (10 mg/L), CCK-8(10-6 mol/L) plus LPS (10 mg/L) group, CCK-8 (10-6 mol/L)group, zinc protoporphyrin 9 (ZnPPIX) (10-6 mol/L) plus LPS (10 mg/L) group, CCK-8 (10-6 mol/L) plus ZnPPIX and LPS (10 mg/L) group. Seven hours after LPS administration,ulterstructrual changes and content of malondialdehyde (MDA) of PASMCs in each group were investigated by electron microscopy and biochemical assay respectively.HO-1 mRNA and protein of PASMCs in the former4 groups were examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemistry staining.Changes of c-fos expression and activation of JNK of PASMCs in the former 4 groups were detected with immunocytochemistry staining and Western blot 30 min after LPS administration.RESULTS: The injuries of PASMCs and the increases of MDA content induced by LPS were alleviated and significantly reduced by CCK-8 (P<0.05). The specific HO-1 inhibitorZnPPIX could worsen LPS-induced injuries and weaken the protective effect of CCK-8. The expressions of c-fos,p-JNK protein and HO-1 mRNA and protein were all slightly increased in LPS group, and significantly enhanced by CCK-8 further (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: HO-1 may be a key factor in CCK-8attenuated injuries of PASMCs induced by LPS, and HO-1expression may be related to the activation of JNK and activator protein (AP-1).

  20. Characterization of three Arabidopsis AP2/EREBP family transcription factors involved in ABA sensitivity,freeze and salt tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI WenQian; LEI Juan; Xu Yu; WEI Gang; ZHU YuXian

    2007-01-01

    AP2/EREBP transcription factors (TFs) play very important roles in plant development,hormonal regulation and stress response. Upon genome-wide cDNA cloning,phylogenetic and expression pattern analyses of this plant specific TF family,we found that three of the members including At1g71450,At1g50680 and At5g13910,were likely involved in responses to ABA,cold and salt. Complementary DNAs containing putative full-length ORFs of these three TFs were obtained and fused individually to the GAL4 DNA-binding domains. All the 3 genes functioned effectively as trans-activators using yeast one-hybrid assays. RT-PCR experiments showed that the At1g71450 gene was induced by ABA and low temperature; the At1g50680 gene was responsive to quite a few stress conditions,but especially to freezing temperature; and the At5g13910 gene was induced by high salt treatment,drought and ethylene. By searching the ABRC T-DNA insertion mutant stocks,we obtained knockout lines for these TFs. Homozygous ko1 (At1g71450) plants showed a hypersensitive response to ABA during seed germination and also in stomata movement. Homozygous ko2 (At1g50680) plants showed a significant reduction in plant freezing tolerance compared to the wild type after chilling treatment. Homozygous ko3 (At5g13910) were less tolerant to high salinity than wild type plants. Our data suggest that At1g71450 is a negative regulator in ABA signaling,while At1g50680 and At5g13910 are positive regulators in cold and salt stress responses,respectively.

  1. Role of plant growth regulators as chemical signals in plant-microbe interactions: a double edged sword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Carla; Bais, Harsh

    2015-10-01

    Growth regulators act not only as chemicals that modulate plant growth but they also act as signal molecules under various biotic and abiotic stresses. Of all growth regulators, abscisic acid (ABA) is long known for its role in modulating plants response against both biotic and abiotic stress. Although the genetic information for ABA biosynthesis in plants is well documented, the knowledge about ABA biosynthesis in other organisms is still in its infancy. It is known that various microbes including bacteria produce and secrete ABA, but the overall functional significance of why ABA is synthesized by microbes is not known. Here we discuss the functional involvement of ABA biosynthesis by a pathogenic fungus. Furthermore, we propose that ABA biosynthesis in plant pathogenic fungi could be targeted for novel fungicidal discovery.

  2. New ABA-Hypersensitive Arabidopsis Mutants Are Affected in Loci Mediating Responses to Water Deficit and Dickeya dadantii Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Plessis; Raphaël Cournol; Delphine Effroy; Viridiana Silva Pérez; Lucy Botran; Yvan Kraepiel; Anne Frey; Bruno Sotta; Gabriel Cornic; Jeffrey Leung; Jérôme Giraudat; Annie Marion-Poll; North, Helen M.

    2011-01-01

    On water deficit, abscisic acid (ABA) induces stomata closure to reduce water loss by transpiration. To identify Arabidopsis thaliana mutants which transpire less on drought, infrared thermal imaging of leaf temperature has been used to screen for suppressors of an ABA-deficient mutant (aba3-1) cold-leaf phenotype. Three novel mutants, called hot ABA-deficiency suppressor (has), have been identified with hot-leaf phenotypes in the absence of the aba3 mutation. The defective genes imparted no ...

  3. In vitro reconstitution of an abscisic acid signalling pathway

    KAUST Repository

    Fujii, Hiroaki

    2009-11-18

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates the expression of many genes in plants; it has critical functions in stress resistance and in growth and development. Several proteins have been reported to function as ABA receptors, and many more are known to be involved in ABA signalling. However, the identities of ABA receptors remain controversial and the mechanism of signalling from perception to downstream gene expression is unclear. Here we show that by combining the recently identified ABA receptor PYR1 with the type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C) ABI1, the serine/threonine protein kinase SnRK2.6/OST1 and the transcription factor ABF2/AREB1, we can reconstitute ABA-triggered phosphorylation of the transcription factor in vitro. Introduction of these four components into plant protoplasts results in ABA-responsive gene expression. Protoplast and test-tube reconstitution assays were used to test the function of various members of the receptor, protein phosphatase and kinase families. Our results suggest that the default state of the SnRK2 kinases is an autophosphorylated, active state and that the SnRK2 kinases are kept inactive by the PP2Cs through physical interaction and dephosphorylation. We found that in the presence of ABA, the PYR/PYL (pyrabactin resistance 1/PYR1-like) receptor proteins can disrupt the interaction between the SnRK2s and PP2Cs, thus preventing the PP2C-mediated dephosphorylation of the SnRK2s and resulting in the activation of the SnRK2 kinases. Our results reveal new insights into ABA signalling mechanisms and define a minimal set of core components of a complete major ABA signalling pathway. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  4. SlNCED1 and SlCYP707A2: key genes involved in ABA metabolism during tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Kai; Kai, Wenbin; Zhao, Bo; Sun, Yufei; Yuan, Bing; Dai, Shengjie; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Wang, Ya; Pei, Yuelin; Wang, Hongqing; Guo, Yangdong; Leng, Ping

    2014-10-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in fruit development and ripening. Here, three NCED genes encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED, a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthetic pathway) and three CYP707A genes encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylase (a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA) were identified in tomato fruit by tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Quantitative real-time PCR showed that VIGS-treated tomato fruits had significant reductions in target gene transcripts. In SlNCED1-RNAi-treated fruits, ripening slowed down, and the entire fruit turned to orange instead of red as in the control. In comparison, the downregulation of SlCYP707A2 expression in SlCYP707A2-silenced fruit could promote ripening; for example, colouring was quicker than in the control. Silencing SlNCED2/3 or SlCYP707A1/3 made no significant difference to fruit ripening comparing RNAi-treated fruits with control fruits. ABA accumulation and SlNCED1transcript levels in the SlNCED1-RNAi-treated fruit were downregulated to 21% and 19% of those in control fruit, respectively, but upregulated in SlCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruit. Silencing SlNCED1 or SlCYP707A2 by VIGS significantly altered the transcripts of a set of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including ABA-signalling genes (PYL1, PP2C1, and SnRK2.2), lycopene-synthesis genes (SlBcyc, SlPSY1 and SlPDS), and cell wall-degrading genes (SlPG1, SlEXP, and SlXET) during ripening. These data indicate that SlNCED1 and SlCYP707A2 are key genes in the regulation of ABA synthesis and catabolism, and are involved in fruit ripening as positive and negative regulators, respectively.

  5. SlNCED1 and SlCYP707A2: key genes involved in ABA metabolism during tomato fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Kai; Kai, Wenbin; Zhao, Bo; Sun, Yufei; Yuan, Bing; Dai, Shengjie; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Wang, Ya; Pei, Yuelin; Wang, Hongqing; Guo, Yangdong; Leng, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in fruit development and ripening. Here, three NCED genes encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED, a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthetic pathway) and three CYP707A genes encoding ABA 8′-hydroxylase (a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA) were identified in tomato fruit by tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Quantitative real-time PCR showed that VIGS-treated tomato fruits had significant reductions in target gene transcripts. In SlNCED1-RNAi-treated fruits, ripening slowed down, and the entire fruit turned to orange instead of red as in the control. In comparison, the downregulation of SlCYP707A2 expression in SlCYP707A2-silenced fruit could promote ripening; for example, colouring was quicker than in the control. Silencing SlNCED2/3 or SlCYP707A1/3 made no significant difference to fruit ripening comparing RNAi-treated fruits with control fruits. ABA accumulation and SlNCED1transcript levels in the SlNCED1-RNAi-treated fruit were downregulated to 21% and 19% of those in control fruit, respectively, but upregulated in SlCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruit. Silencing SlNCED1 or SlCYP707A2 by VIGS significantly altered the transcripts of a set of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including ABA-signalling genes (PYL1, PP2C1, and SnRK2.2), lycopene-synthesis genes (SlBcyc, SlPSY1 and SlPDS), and cell wall-degrading genes (SlPG1, SlEXP, and SlXET) during ripening. These data indicate that SlNCED1 and SlCYP707A2 are key genes in the regulation of ABA synthesis and catabolism, and are involved in fruit ripening as positive and negative regulators, respectively. PMID:25039074

  6. Modelling of root ABA synthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration and potato production under water saving irrigation regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Abrahamsen, Per; Gjettermann, Birgitte;

    2010-01-01

    . Experimental data was compared to simulated results from the new enhanced Daisy model which include modelling 2D soil water flow, abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and its effect on stomatal conductance and hence on transpiration and assimilation, and finally crop yield. The results demonstrated that the enhanced......Application of water saving irrigation strategies in agriculture has become increasingly important. Both modelling and experimental work are needed to gain more insights into the biological and physical mechanisms in the soil-plant system, which regulates water flow in the system and plays...... a central role in reducing crop transpiration. This paper presented a mechanistic model (Daisy) developed based on data obtained in the SAFIR project on measured leaf gas exchange and soil water dynamics in irrigated potato crops grown in a semi-field environment subjected to different irrigation regimes...

  7. Modulation of Root Signals in Relation to Stomatal Sensitivity to Root-sourced Abscisic Acid in Drought-affected Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Stomatal sensitivity to root signals induced by soil drying may vary between environments and plant species. This is likely central role in root to shoot signaling. pH and hydraulic signals may interact with ABA signals and thus, jointly regulate stomatal responses to changed soil water status. pH itself can be modified by several factors, among which the chemical compositions In the xylem stream and the live cells surrounding the vessels play crucial roles. In addition to the xylem pH,more attention should be paid to the direct modulation of leaf apoplastic pH, because many chemical compositions might strongly modify the leaf apoplastlc pH while having no significant effect on the xylem pH. The direct modulation of the ABA signal intensity may be more important for the regulation of stomatal responses to soil drying than the ABA signal per se.The ABA signal is also regulated by the ABA catabolism and the supply of precursors to the roots If a sustained root to shoot communication of soil drying operates at the whole plant level. More importantly, ABA catabolism could play crucial roles In the determination of the fate of the ABA signal and thereby control the stomatal behavior of the root-sourced ABA signal.

  8. The Arabidopsis LYST INTERACTING PROTEIN 5 Acts in Regulating Abscisic Acid Signaling and Drought Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zongliang; Huo, Yongjin; Wei, Yangyang; Chen, Qiansi; Xu, Ziwei; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) are unique endosomes containing vesicles in the lumens and play essential roles in many eukaryotic cellular processes. The Arabidopsis LYST INTERACTING PROTEIN 5 (LIP5), a positive regulator of MVB biogenesis, has critical roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses. However, whether the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling is involved in LIP5-mediated stress response is largely unknown. Here, we report that LIP5 functions in regulating ABA signaling and drought response in Arabidopsis. Analyses of a LIP5 promoter-β-glucuronidase (GUS) construct revealed substantial GUS activity in whole seedlings. The expression of LIP5 was induced by ABA and drought, and overexpression of LIP5 led to ABA hypersensitivity, enhanced stomatal closure, reduced water loss, and, therefore, increased drought tolerance. On the contrary, LIP5 knockdown mutants showed ABA-insensitive phenotypes and reduced drought tolerance; suggesting that LIP5 acts in regulating ABA response. Further analysis using a fluorescent dye revealed that ABA and water stress induced cell endocytosis or vesicle trafficking in a largely LIP5-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression of several drought- or ABA-inducible marker genes was significantly down-regulated in the lip5 mutant seedlings. Collectively, our data suggest that LIP5 positively regulates drought tolerance through ABA-mediated cell signaling. PMID:27313589

  9. Involvement of plant endogenous ABA in Bacillus megaterium PGPR activity in tomato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Porcel, Rosa; Zamarreño, Ángel M.; García-Mina, José M.; AROCA, RICARDO

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are naturally occurring soil bacteria which benefit plants by improving plant productivity and immunity. The mechanisms involved in these processes include the regulation of plant hormone levels such as ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA). The aim of the present study was to determine whether the activity of Bacillus megaterium PGPR is affected by the endogenous ABA content of the host plant. The ABA-deficient tomato mutants flacca ...

  10. Overexpression of the Artemisia orthologue of ABA receptor, AaPYL9, enhances ABA sensitivity and improves artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyuan Zhang

    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA plays an important role in plant development and environmental stress response. In this study, we cloned an ABA receptor orthologue, AaPYL9, from Artemisia annua L. AaPYL9 is expressed highly in leaf and flower. AaPYL9 protein can be localized in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Yeast two-hybrid assay shows AaPYL9 can specifically interact with AtABI1 but not with AtABI2, AtHAB1 or AtHAB2. ABA can enhance the interaction between AaPYL9 and AtABI1 while AaPYL9-89 Pro→Ser and AaPYL9-116 His→Ala point mutations abolishes the interaction. BiFC assay shows that AaPYL9 interacts with AtABI1 in nucleus in planta. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants over-expressing AaPYL9 are more sensitive to ABA in the seed germination and primary root growth than wild type. Consistent with this, ABA report genes have higher expression in AaPYL9 overexpressing plants compared to wild type after ABA treatment. Moreover, overexpression of AaPYL9 in A. annua increases not only drought tolerance, but also artemisinin content after ABA treatment, with significant enhancement of the expression of key genes in artemisinin biosynthesis. This study provides a way to develop A. annua with high-yielding artemisinin and high drought resistance.

  11. Physiological responses of pisum sativum plant to exogenous aba application under drought conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of using foliar ABA application with different concentrations (50,100 and 150 meu g/L-1) in order to decrease the adverse effect of water-deficit stress. The main parameters of interest were; growth parameters; endogenous phytohormones, proline; pigments contents; number and shape of stomata; minerals concentrations; isozymes; and SDS -PAGE protein profile in Pisum sativum plant at 36 days under drought and ABA treatments. The results showed that ABA reduces the reduction in both fresh and dry weights shoot and root of Pisum induced by drought stress. Proline content was increased in response to drought and ABA treatments. Water-stress caused significant reduction in Chl. a, b, whereas application of ABA significantly increased in total chlorohpyll. Water stress significantly decreased IAA, GA concentrations and increased ABA level in leaves than these of the control. ABA treatment partially overcame the decrease in IAA and GA contents. Water stress and ABA increased the activity of (POD) and (ACP) enzymes in Pisum plants. Proteins profile of Pisum sativum in shoot revealed qualitative and quantitative changes, also appearance or disappearance of some bands. After 54 days the yield harvested and total carbohydrates and SDS -PAGE protein profile in seed were investigated. The data showed that total carbohydrates contents were significantly decreased in plant under drought and ABA partially alleviate the adverse effect of water-deficit stress. (author)

  12. Melatonin promotes seed germination under high salinity by regulating antioxidant systems, ABA and GA₄ interaction in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Jun; Zhang, Na; Yang, Rong-Chao; Wang, Li; Sun, Qian-Qian; Li, Dian-Bo; Cao, Yun-Yun; Weeda, Sarah; Zhao, Bing; Ren, Shuxin; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2014-10-01

    Although previous studies have found that melatonin can promote seed germination, the mechanisms involved in perceiving and signaling melatonin remain poorly understood. In this study, it was found that melatonin was synthesized during cucumber seed germination with a peak in melatonin levels occurring 14 hr into germination. This is indicative of a correlation between melatonin synthesis and seed germination. Meanwhile, seeds pretreated with exogenous melatonin (1 μM) showed enhanced germination rates under 150 mM NaCl stress compared to water-pretreated seeds under salinity stress. There are two apparent mechanisms by which melatonin alleviated salinity-induced inhibition of seed germination. Exogenous melatonin decreased oxidative damage induced by NaCl stress by enhancing gene expression of antioxidants. Under NaCl stress, compared to untreated control, the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) were significantly increased by approximately 1.3-5.0-fold, with a concomitant 1.4-2.0-fold increase of CsCu-ZnSOD, CsFe-ZnSOD, CsCAT, and CsPOD in melatonin-pretreated seeds. Melatonin also alleviated salinity stress by affecting abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin acid (GA) biosynthesis and catabolism during seed germination. Compared to NaCl treatment, melatonin significantly up-regulated ABA catabolism genes (e.g., CsCYP707A1 and CsCYP707A2, 3.5 and 105-fold higher than NaCl treatment at 16 hr, respectively) and down-regulated ABA biosynthesis genes (e.g., CsNECD2, 0.29-fold of CK2 at 16 hr), resulting in a rapid decrease of ABA content during the early stage of germination. At the same time, melatonin positively up-regulated GA biosynthesis genes (e.g., GA20ox and GA3ox, 2.3 and 3.9-fold higher than NaCl treatment at 0 and 12 hr, respectively), contributing to a significant increase of GA (especially GA4) content. In this study, we provide new evidence suggesting that melatonin alleviates the

  13. Abscisic acid signaling: thermal stability shift assays as tool to analyze hormone perception and signal transduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Fen Soon

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA is a plant hormone that plays important roles in growth and development. ABA is also the central regulator to protect plants against abiotic stresses, such as drought, high salinity, and adverse temperatures, and ABA signaling is therefore a promising biotechnological target for the generation of crops with increased stress resistance. Recently, a core signal transduction pathway has been established, in which ABA receptors, type 2C protein phosphatases, and AMPK-related protein kinases control the regulation of transcription factors, ion channels, and enzymes. Here we use a simple protein thermal stability shift assay to independently validate key aspects of this pathway and to demonstrate the usefulness of this technique to detect and characterize very weak (Kd ≥ 50 µM interactions between receptors and physiological and synthetic agonists, to determine and analyze protein-protein interactions, and to screen small molecule inhibitors.

  14. Optical conductivity of ABA-stacked trilayer graphene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Guo-Bao; Zhang Peng

    2013-01-01

    The optical conductivity of a trilayer graphene is studied using the Kubo-Greenwood formula.We calculate the real part of the diagonal optical conductivity of an ABA-stacked trilayer graphene with different Fermi energies.The optical conductivity arises from interband matrix elements of the electric current operator involving the transitions from the occupied states to the unoccupied ones.We study the dependence of the real part of the diagonal optical conductivity on the photon energy,and the role of the transitions.

  15. ABA modulates root growth through regulating auxin in Arabidopsis thaliana%脱落酸通过影响生长素合成及分布抑制拟南芥主根伸长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁冰剑; 张森磊; 曹萌萌; 王志娟; 李霞

    2014-01-01

    脱落酸(ABA)在介导植物生长发育及逆境响应中发挥重要功能,但ABA抑制根伸长的机制尚不清楚。本文以拟南芥为材料,通过研究 ABA 对拟南芥根伸长的影响以及 ABA 受体突变体根发育表型的鉴定,探讨ABA抑制植物主根的机制。研究发现:ABA能够抑制主根生长及伸长,并且经典受体PYR1/PRL介导了ABA抑制根伸长的过程;ABA能够改变细胞周期蛋白CycB1;1:GUS表达模式,并影响根中生长素分布和响应。结果表明, ABA可能通过影响生长素在根部的分布和剂量,进而影响根尖分生区细胞分裂,从而抑制根伸长。%As sessile organism, plants exhibit an amazing developmental plasticity in adapting to changing growth conditions in response to environmental stimuli. As an important organ of plants, roots variously make active changes in the face of different stimuli. It is well known that ABA (abscisic acid) is an important molecule that inhibits root growth. ABA receptor PYR1/PYL mediates ABA signaling transduction by binding with PP2C proteins and activating kinases SnRK2s. However, little is known about how ABA regulates root growth and plastic development. In order to understand the mechanism underlying root growth inhibition by ABA, the effects of ABA on the size and activity of root meristem, meristematic cell cycle, and auxin amount and distribution patterns were analyzed with Arabidopsis thaliana as materials. The results showed that ABA inhibited the growth of primary roots and reduced the size of meristems of primary roots. The inhibition effect of ABA on pyr1/pyl1/pyl2 root growth reduced, which showed that ABA receptor PYR1/PYL was involved in the inhibition of root growth. Further analysis showed that ABA treatment blocked G2/M-phase transition during cell division with the accumulation of cyclin protein CYCB1;1::GUS expression. In addition, we noted that the amounts and distribution patterns of auxin in the roots

  16. ABA biosynthesis defective mutants reduce some free amino acids accumulation under drought stress in tomato leaves in comparison with Arabidopsis plants tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ali Al.Asbahi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability of plants to tolerate drought conditions is crucial for plant survival and crop production worldwide. The present data confirm previous findings reported existence of a strong relation between abscisic acid (ABA content and amino acid accumulation as response water stress which is one of the most important defense mechanism activated during water stress in many plant species. Therefore, free amino acids were measured to determine any changes in the metabolite pool in relation to ABA content. The ABA defective mutants of Arabidopsis plants were subjected to leaf dehydration for Arabidopsis on Whatman 3 mm filter paper at room temperature while, tomato mutant plants were subjected to drought stresses for tomato plants by withholding water. To understand the signal transduction mechanisms underlying osmotic stress-regulating gene induction and activation of osmoprotectant free amino acid synthesizing genes, we carried out a genetic screen to isolate Arabidopsis mutants defective in ABA biosynthesis under drought stress conditions. The present results revealed an accumulation of specific free amino acid in water stressed tissues in which majority of free amino acids are increased especially those playing an osmoprotectant role such as proline and glycine. Drought stress related Amino acids contents are significantly reduced in the mutants under water stress condition while they are increased significantly in the wild types plants. The exhibited higher accumulation of other amino acids under stressed condition in the mutant plants suggest that, their expressions are regulated in an ABA independent pathways. In addition, free amino acids content changes during water stress condition suggest their contribution in drought toleration as common compatible osmolytes.

  17. FERONIA interacts with ABI2-type phosphatases to facilitate signaling cross-talk between abscisic acid and RALF peptide in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Yu, Feng; Liu, Ying; Du, Changqing; Li, Xiushan; Zhu, Sirui; Wang, Xianchun; Lan, Wenzhi; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Liu, Xuanming; Li, Dongping; Chen, Liangbi; Luan, Sheng

    2016-09-13

    Receptor-like kinase FERONIA (FER) plays a crucial role in plant response to small molecule hormones [e.g., auxin and abscisic acid (ABA)] and peptide signals [e.g., rapid alkalinization factor (RALF)]. It remains unknown how FER integrates these different signaling events in the control of cell growth and stress responses. Under stress conditions, increased levels of ABA will inhibit cell elongation in the roots. In our previous work, we have shown that FER, through activation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GEF1)/4/10-Rho of Plant 11 (ROP11) pathway, enhances the activity of the phosphatase ABA Insensitive 2 (ABI2), a negative regulator of ABA signaling, thereby inhibiting ABA response. In this study, we found that both RALF and ABA activated FER by increasing the phosphorylation level of FER. The FER loss-of-function mutant displayed strong hypersensitivity to both ABA and abiotic stresses such as salt and cold conditions, indicating that FER plays a key role in ABA and stress responses. We further showed that ABI2 directly interacted with and dephosphorylated FER, leading to inhibition of FER activity. Several other ABI2-like phosphatases also function in this pathway, and ABA-dependent FER activation required PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE (PYR)/PYR1-LIKE (PYL)/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORS (RCAR)-A-type protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2CA) modules. Furthermore, suppression of RALF1 gene expression, similar to disruption of the FER gene, rendered plants hypersensitive to ABA. These results formulated a mechanism for ABA activation of FER and for cross-talk between ABA and peptide hormone RALF in the control of plant growth and responses to stress signals. PMID:27566404

  18. Ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography using energy-scaled amplitude ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Shin, Junseob; Huang, Lianjie

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound attenuation of breast tumors is related to their types and pathological states, and can be used to detect and characterize breast cancer. Particularly, ultrasound scattering attenuation can infer the margin properties of breast tumors. Ultrasound attenuation tomography quantitatively reconstructs the attenuation properties of the breast. Our synthetic-aperture breast ultrasound tomography system with two parallel transducer arrays records both ultrasound reflection and transmission signals. We develop an ultrasound attenuation tomography method using ultrasound energy-scaled amplitude decays of ultrasound transmission signals and conduct ultrasound attenuation tomography using a known sound-speed model. We apply our ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography method to a breast phantom dataset, and compare the ultrasound attenuation tomography results with conventional beamforming ultrasound images obtained using reflection signals. We show that ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography complements beamforming images in identifying breast lesions.

  19. Role of abscisic acid (aba) in modulating the responses of two apple rootstocks to drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drought stress is considered as the main limiting factor for apple (Malus domestica L.) production in some semi-arid areas of China. In this study, we investigated the modulation role of abscisic acid (ABA) and fluridone (ABA synthesis inhibitor) on water relations and antioxidant enzyme system in 2-year-old seedlings of two apple rootstocks i.e. Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) Roem. (MS) and Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd. (MH). Drought stress induced ion leakage, accumulation of malondiadehyde (MDA) and decreases in leaf water potential and relative water content (RWC) in both rootstocks, which were significantly alleviated by exogenous ABA application. Drought stress also induced markedly increases in endogenous ABA content and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR), to a greater magnitude in MS as compared to MH rootstock. Concentration of 100 mol/L and 50 mol/L ABA had the most positive effects on drought-stressed rootstocks of MS and MH, respectively. Spraying optimum exogenous ABA contributed to enhancement in most of the above antioxidant enzymes activities but reduction in content of MDA and maintained the appropriate leaf water potential and RWC in both rootstocks. Pretreatment with fluridone aggravated ion leakage and the accumulation of MDA in two apple rootstocks under drought stress, which was overcome by exogenous ABA application to some extent. In conclusion, the endogenous ABA was probably involved in the regulation of two apple rootstocks in responses to drought stress. (author)

  20. None of the As in ABA Stand for Autism: Dispelling the Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillenburger, Karola; Keenan, Mickey

    2009-01-01

    Interventions that are based on scientific principles of applied behaviour analysis (ABA) are recognised as effective treatments for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by many governments and professionals (Office of the Surgeon General, 2000; Ontario IBI Initiative, 2002). However, many still view ABA as one of many treatments for…

  1. Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center: An ABA Program for Children and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handleman, Jan S.; Harris, Sandra L.

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is an effective, and often superior, method to teach children with Autism Spectrum Disorders ASD), than other methods. The Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center of Rutgers University (DDDC) has been using ABA for more than thirty years to teach toddlers, young children,…

  2. Brief Report: Comparative ABA and DIR Trials in Twin Brothers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Jane C.; Seal, Brenda C.

    2007-01-01

    Trial interventions in DIR and ABA with twin brothers with autism were offered to help the parents choose one of the programs for their sons. Pre- and post-test scores on the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales (CSBS) revealed a slight gain in the composite score of the ABA child and a slight loss in the score of the DIR child. Contrasted…

  3. From the Classroom to the Family Room: Using ABA for Best Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to supporting individuals with disabilities including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) can be an invaluable tool in understanding and changing behavior. More than a technique or method, ABA is a disciplined approach rooted in science to teach specific skills and then reinforce them so individuals can…

  4. RAS1, a quantitative trait locus for salt tolerance and ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Zhonghai

    2010-03-08

    Soil salinity limits agricultural production and is a major obstacle for feeding the growing world population. We used natural genetic variation in salt tolerance among different Arabidopsis accessions to map a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for salt tolerance and abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity during seed germination and early seedling growth. A recombinant inbred population derived from Landsberg erecta (Ler; salt and ABA sensitive) x Shakdara (Sha; salt and ABA resistant) was used for QTL mapping. High-resolution mapping and cloning of this QTL, Response to ABA and Salt 1 (RAS1), revealed that it is an ABA- and salt stress-inducible gene and encodes a previously undescribed plant-specific protein. A premature stop codon results in a truncated RAS1 protein in Sha. Reducing the expression of RAS1 by transfer-DNA insertion in Col or RNA interference in Ler leads to decreased salt and ABA sensitivity, whereas overexpression of the Ler allele but not the Sha allele causes increased salt and ABA sensitivity. Our results suggest that RAS1 functions as a negative regulator of salt tolerance during seed germination and early seedling growth by enhancing ABA sensitivity and that its loss of function contributes to the increased salt tolerance of Sha.

  5. Well-defined ABA- and BAB-type block copolymers of PDMAEMA and PCL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruce, Carl; Javakhishvili, Irakli; Fogelstrom, Linda;

    2014-01-01

    Triblock copolymers of ABA- and BAB-type consisting of poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA, A) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL, B) have successfully been prepared. PDMAEMA-b-PCL-b-PDMAEMA (ABA) and PCL-b-PDMAEMA-b-PCL (BAB) were synthesised by a combination of ring-opening poly...

  6. A Silvicultura Madeireira na Secretaria de Desenvolvimento Regional de Joaçaba – SDR de Joaçaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Fischer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the potentialities for forestry in the area covered by the Secretary of Regional Development of Joaçaba – SRD of Joaçaba, in state of Santa Catarina. To develop this study, exploratory and descriptive research with qualitative and quantitative approach, and procedures of bibliographical and documentary research were used. The study comprises 13 counties of the region object of this work. Data were extracted from the databases of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics – IBGE and supplemented with data of other public organisms and private representative organisms of the forestry sector. The studies consisted of analysis of historical production of charcoal, firewood and timber in logs for pulp and paper and for various purposes. Also there were explored documents on studies of soil characteristics to identify the soil characteristics of the region. The results indicate that in seven counties potentialities are characterized as unattractive for development of forestry for wood and biomass production, in two counties are possibilities for moderate expansion, in three counties is possible a significant increase in production, and in one county with large production it was impossible to define trends.

  7. Baicalin Attenuates Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension to Improve Hypoxic Cor Pulmonale by Reducing the Activity of the p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway and MMP-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuangquan; Wang, Yiran; Liu, Panpan; Chen, Ali; Chen, Mayun; Yao, Dan; Xu, Xiaomei; Wang, Liangxing; Huang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Baicalin has a protective effect on hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats, but the mechanism of this effect remains unclear. Thus, investigating the potential mechanism of this effect was the aim of the present study. Model rats that display hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale under control conditions were successfully generated. We measured a series of indicators to observe the levels of pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary arteriole remodeling, and right ventricular remodeling. We assessed the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the pulmonary arteriole walls and pulmonary tissue homogenates using immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses, respectively. The matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 protein and mRNA levels in the pulmonary arteriole walls were measured using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Our results demonstrated that baicalin not only reduced p38 MAPK activation in both the pulmonary arteriole walls and tissue homogenates but also downregulated the protein and mRNA expression levels of MMP-9 in the pulmonary arteriole walls. This downregulation was accompanied by the attenuation of pulmonary hypertension, arteriole remodeling, and right ventricular remodeling. These results suggest that baicalin may attenuate pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale, which are induced by chronic hypoxia, by downregulating the p38 MAPK/MMP-9 pathway. PMID:27688788

  8. Ectopic Expression of CsCTR1, a Cucumber CTR-Like Gene, Attenuates Constitutive Ethylene Signaling in an Arabidopsis ctr1-1 Mutant and Expression Pattern Analysis of CsCTR1 in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Bie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The gaseous plant hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment. Constitutive triple response 1 (CTR1 is a central regulator involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To obtain a better understanding of this particular pathway in cucumber, the cDNA-encoding CTR1 (designated CsCTR1 was isolated from cucumber. A sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsCTR1 has a high degree of homology with other plant CTR1 proteins. The ectopic expression of CsCTR1 in the Arabidopsis ctr1-1 mutant attenuates constitutive ethylene signaling of this mutant, suggesting that CsCTR1 indeed performs its function as negative regulator of the ethylene signaling pathway. CsCTR1 is constitutively expressed in all of the examined cucumber organs, including roots, stems, leaves, shoot apices, mature male and female flowers, as well as young fruits. CsCTR1 expression gradually declined during male flower development and increased during female flower development. Additionally, our results indicate that CsCTR1 can be induced in the roots, leaves and shoot apices by external ethylene. In conclusion, this study provides a basis for further studies on the role of CTR1 in the biological processes of cucumber and on the molecular mechanism of the cucumber ethylene signaling pathway.

  9. High Glucose Suppresses Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway and Attenuates Corneal Epithelial Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ke-Ping; Li, Yanfeng; Ljubimov, Alexander V; Yu, Fu-Shin X.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Patients with diabetes are at an increased risk for developing corneal complications and delayed wound healing. This study investigated the effects of high glucose on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and on epithelial wound healing in the cornea. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Effects of high glucose on wound healing and on EGFR signaling were investigated in cultured porcine corneas, human corneal epithelial cells, and human corneas using Western blotting and immunofl...

  10. Intrinsic superconductivity in ABA-stacked trilayer graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwen Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the phonon-mediated superconductivity in light doped ABA-stacked trilayer graphene system by means of two theoretical models. We find superconducting transition temperature TC can be greatly enlarged by tuning the Fermi energy away from neutral point. Utilizing realistic parameters, we find Tc is approximately 1 K even under weak doping condition EF = 0.1 eV. Specifically, we give out the analytical expression for superconductivity gap △ and superconducting transition temperature Tc for negative-U Hubbard model. Further, we consider the thermal fluctuation and calculate the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless critical temperature TBKT. Besides, we consider a two-band BCS model in comparision with the negative-U Hubbard model. The results for both models are qualitatively consistent. Our study provides a promising possibility for realizing intrinsic superconductivity in multilayer graphene systems.

  11. Effects of modulation of calcium levels and calcium fluxes on ABA- induced gene expression in barley aleurone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, R.M. van der; Visser, K.; Wang, M.

    1996-01-01

    We present data to elucidate the involvement of calcium ions in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced gene expression. Modulation of external calcium concentrations was able to affect ABA-induced specific RAB gene expression. At a constant ABA level with increasing extracellular calcium level, an increasing R

  12. K-channels inhibited by hydrogen peroxide mediate abscisic acid signaling in Vicia guard cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A number of studies show that environmental stress conditions increase abscisic acid (ABA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels in plant cells. Despite this central role of ABA in altering stomatal aperture by regulating guard cell ion transport, little is known concerning the relationship between ABA and H2O2 in signal transduction leading to stomatal movement. Epidermal strip bioassay illustrated that ABA-inhibited stomatal opening and ABA-induced stomatal closure were abolished partly by externally added catalase (CAT) or diphenylene iodonium (DPI), which are a H2O2 scavenger and a NADPH oxidase inhibitor respectively. In contrast, internally added CAT or DPI nearly completely or partly reversed ABA-induced closure in half-stoma. Consistent with these results, whole-cell patch-clamp analysis showed that intracellular application of CAT or DPI partly abolished ABA-inhibited inward K+ current across the plasma membrane of guard cells. H2O2 mimicked ABA to inhibit inward K+ current, an effect which was reversed by the addition of ascorbic acid (Vc) in patch clamping micropipettes. These results suggested that H2O2 mediated ABA-induced stomatal movement by targeting inward K+ channels at plasma membrane.

  13. Attenuation of malignant phenotypes of breast cancer cells through eIF2α-mediated downregulation of Rac1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamura, Kazunori; Minami, Kazumasa; Tanjung, Nancy; Wan, Qiaoqiao; Koizumi, Masahiko; Matsuura, Nariaki; Na, Sungsoo; Yokota, Hiroki

    2014-06-01

    Blocking dephosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) is reported to alter proliferation and differentiation of various cells. Using salubrinal and guanabenz as an inhibitory agent of dephosphorylation of eIF2α, we addressed a question whether an elevated level of phosphorylated eIF2α attenuates malignant phenotypes of triple negative breast cancer cells (TNBCs) that lack estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2. We determined effects of salubrinal and guanabenz on in vitro phenotype of 4T1 mammary tumor cells and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells and evaluated their effects on in vivo tumor growth using BALB/c mice injected with 4T1 cells. The results revealed that these agents block the proliferation and survival of 4T1 and MDA-MB-231 cells, as well as their invasion and motility. Silencing eIF2α revealed that eIF2α is involved in the reduction in invasion and motility. Furthermore, salubrinal-driven inactivation of Rac1 was suppressed in the cells treated with eIF2α siRNA, and treatment with Rac1 siRNA reduced cell invasion and motility. In vivo assay revealed that subcutaneous administration of salubrinal reduced the volume and weight of tumors induced by 4T1 cells. Collectively, the results indicate that these agents can attenuate malignant phenotype and tumor growth of breast cancer cells through the eIF2α-mediated Rac1 pathway. Since salubrinal and guanabenz are known to inhibit bone resorption, this study provides a potential use of eIF2α-mediated Rac1 regulation in suppressing the growth and metastasis of breast cancer. PMID:24691491

  14. Mutant ubiquitin attenuates interleukin-1β- and tumor necrosis factor-α-induced pro-inflammatory signaling in human astrocytic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungsun Choi

    Full Text Available A frameshift mutation of ubiquitin called ubiquitin(+1 (UBB(+1 was found in the aging and Alzheimer's disease brains and thought to be associated with neuronal dysfuction and degeneration. Even though ubiquitylation has been known to regulate vital cellular functions mainly through proteasome-dependent degradation of polyubiquitinated substrates, proteolysis-independent roles of ubiquitylation have emerged as key mechanisms in various signaling cascades. In this study, we have investigated the effect of UBB(+1 on proinflammatory signaling such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α in human astrocytes. Treatment with TNF-α and IL-1β induced expression of CCL2 and CXCL8 by human astrocytic cells; while ectopic expression of UBB(+1 significantly abrogated the proinflammatory cytokine-induced expression of chemokines. Ectopic expression of UBB(+1 suppressed TNF-α- and IL-1β-induced activation of NF-κB and JNK signaling pathway. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that polyubiquitylation of TRAFs and subsequent phosphorylation of TAK1 were significantly inhibited by stable expression of UBB(+1. Collectively, these results suggest that UBB(+1 may affect proinflammatory signaling in the central nervous system via inhibitory mechanisms of ubiquitin-dependent signaling in human astrocytes.

  15. Targeting the PDGF-B/PDGFR-β Interface with Destruxin A5 to Selectively Block PDGF-BB/PDGFR-ββ Signaling and Attenuate Liver Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingqi Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available PDGF-BB/PDGFR-ββ signaling plays very crucial roles in the process of many diseases such as liver fibrosis. However, drug candidates with selective affinities for PDGF-B/PDGFR-β remain deficient. Here, we identified a natural cyclopeptide termed destruxin A5 that effectively inhibits PDGF-BB-induced PDGFR-β signaling. Interestingly and importantly, the inhibitory mechanism is distinct from the mechanism of tyrosine kinase inhibitors because destruxin A5 does not have the ability to bind to the ATP-binding pocket of PDGFR-β. Using Biacore T200 technology, thermal shift technology, microscale thermophoresis technology and computational analysis, we confirmed that destruxin A5 selectively targets the PDGF-B/PDGFR-β interaction interface to block this signaling. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of destruxin A5 on PDGF-BB/PDGFR-ββ signaling was verified using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models, in which the extent of liver fibrosis was effectively alleviated by destruxin A5. In summary, destruxin A5 may represent an efficacious and more selective inhibitor of PDGF-BB/PDGFR-ββ signaling.

  16. Responses of ABA and CTK to soil drought in leafless and leafy apple tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 潘海春; 李德全

    2003-01-01

    The authors tested the contents of ABA (abscisic acid) , ZR (zeatin riboside), DHZR (dihydrozeatin riboside) and iPA (isopentenyl adenosine) in leafless and leafy apple trees ( Red Fufi/Malus micromalus Makino) during soil drought stress. ABA concentration in drought stressed leafless trees increased significantly compared to the controls. ABA both in roots and xylem rose steadily in the earlier drought stage, reaching a maximum of 1.46 ± 0.35 nmol g-1 FW and 117 nmol l-1 after the 8th day. Similar change patterns of ABA concentration was observed in the leafy trees during soil drought stress; ABA concentrations in roots and xylem sap increased and reached the maximum in the first three days; after 8th day , it decreased slightly, whereas leaf ABA concentration increased steadily in drought stressed plants throughout the duration of the experiment.Between drought stressed and control trees, no significant differences were observed in concentration of ZR and DHZR in both leafless and leafy trees ; whereas iPA concentration of the drought stressed leafless and leafy plants decreased markedly in the later stage of drought. These results showed that endogenous ABA originated mainly from the roots in the earlier drought stage, and mainly from the leaves in the later drought stage. Total CTK showed no reduction in the earlier drought stage and decreased in the later drought stage.

  17. Responses of ABA and CTK to soil drought in leafless and leafy apple tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 潘海春; 李德全

    2003-01-01

    The authors tested the contents of ABA (abscisic acid), ZR (zeatin riboside), DHZR (dihydrozeatin riboside) and iPA (isopentenyl adenosine) in leafless and leafy apple trees (Red Fuji/Malus micromalus Makino) during soil drought stress. ABA concentration in drought stressed leafless trees increased significantly compared to the controls. ABA both in roots and xylem rose steadily in the earlier drought stage, reaching a maximum of 1.46±0.35 nmol g\\+-1FW and 117 nmol l\\+-1 after the 8th day. Similar change patterns of ABA concentration was observed in the leafy trees during soil drought stress; ABA concentrations in roots and xylem sap increased and reached the maximum in the first three days; after 8th day , it decreased slightly, whereas leaf ABA concentration increased steadily in drought stressed plants throughout the duration of the experiment. Between drought stressed and control trees, no significant differences were observed in concentration of ZR and DHZR in both leafless and leafy trees; whereas iPA concentration of the drought stressed leafless and leafy plants decreased markedly in the later stage of drought. These results showed that endogenous ABA originated mainly from the roots in the earlier drought stage, and mainly from the leaves in the later drought stage. Total CTK showed no reduction in the earlier drought stage and decreased in the later drought stage.

  18. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist eritoran tetrasodium attenuates liver ischemia and reperfusion injury through inhibition of high-mobility group box protein B1 (HMGB1) signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Kerry-Ann; Huang, Hai; Tohme, Samer; Loughran, Patricia; Ferrero, Kimberly; Billiar, Timothy; Tsung, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is ubiquitously expressed on parenchymal and immune cells of the liver and is the most studied TLR responsible for the activation of proinflammatory signaling cascades in liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Since pharmacological inhibition of TLR4 during the sterile inflammatory response of I/R has not been studied, we sought to determine whether eritoran, a TLR4 antagonist trialed in sepsis, could block hepatic TLR4-mediated inflammation and end organ damage. When C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with eritoran and subjected to warm liver I/R, there was significantly less hepatocellular injury compared to control counterparts. Additionally, we found that eritoran is protective in liver I/R through inhibition of high-mobility group box protein B1 (HMGB1)-mediated inflammatory signaling. When eritoran was administered in conjunction with recombinant HMGB1 during liver I/R, there was significantly less injury, suggesting that eritoran blocks the HMGB1-TLR4 interaction. Not only does eritoran attenuate TLR4-dependent HMGB1 release in vivo, but this TLR4 antagonist also dampened HMGB1's release from hypoxic hepatocytes in vitro and thereby weakened HMGB1's activation of innate immune cells. HMGB1 signaling through TLR4 makes an important contribution to the inflammatory response seen after liver I/R. This study demonstrates that novel blockade of HMGB1 by the TLR4 antagonist eritoran leads to the amelioration of liver injury. PMID:25375408

  19. Regulation of reactive oxygen species-mediated abscisic acid signaling in guard cells and drought tolerance by glutathione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro eMunemasa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA induces stomatal closure in response to drought stress, leading to reduction of transpirational water loss. A thiol tripeptide glutathione (GSH is an important regulator of cellular redox homeostasis in plants. Although it has been shown that cellular redox state of guard cells controls ABA-mediated stomatal closure, roles of GSH in guard cell ABA signaling were largely unknown. Recently we demonstrated that GSH functions as a negative regulator of ABA signaling in guard cells. In this study we performed more detailed analyses to reveal how GSH regulates guard cell ABA signaling using the GSH-deficient Arabidopsis mutant cad2-1. The cad2-1 mutant exhibited reduced water loss from rosette leaves. Whole-cell current recording using patch clamp technique revealed that the cad2-1 mutation did not affect ABA regulation of S-type anion channels. We found enhanced activation of Ca2+ permeable channels by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in cad2-1 guard cells. The cad2-1 mutant showed enhanced H2O2-induced stomatal closure and significant increase of ROS accumulation in whole leaves in response to ABA. Our findings provide a new understanding of guard cell ABA signaling and a new strategy to improve plant drought tolerance.

  20. Distinct abscisic acid signaling pathways for modulation of guard cell versus mesophyll cell potassium channels revealed by expression studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, F.; Paul, S. S.; Wang, X. Q.; Assmann, S. M.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Regulation of guard cell ion transport by abscisic acid (ABA) and in particular ABA inhibition of a guard cell inward K(+) current (I(Kin)) is well documented. However, little is known concerning ABA effects on ion transport in other plant cell types. Here we applied patch clamp techniques to mesophyll cell protoplasts of fava bean (Vicia faba cv Long Pod) plants and demonstrated ABA inhibition of an outward K(+) current (I(Kout)). When mesophyll cell protoplast mRNA (mesophyll mRNA) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, I(Kout) was generated that displayed similar properties to I(Kout) observed from direct analysis of mesophyll cell protoplasts. I(Kout) expressed by mesophyll mRNA-injected oocytes was inhibited by ABA, indicating that the ABA signal transduction pathway observed in mesophyll cells was preserved in the frog oocytes. Co-injection of oocytes with guard cell protoplast mRNA and cRNA for KAT1, an inward K(+) channel expressed in guard cells, resulted in I(Kin) that was similarly inhibited by ABA. However, oocytes co-injected with mesophyll mRNA and KAT1 cRNA produced I(Kin) that was not inhibited by ABA. These results demonstrate that the mesophyll-encoded signaling mechanism could not substitute for the guard cell pathway. These findings indicate that mesophyll cells and guard cells use distinct and different receptor types and/or signal transduction pathways in ABA regulation of K(+) channels.

  1. Berberine potently attenuates intestinal polyps growth in ApcMin mice and familial adenomatous polyposis patients through inhibition of Wnt signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junfang; Cao, Hailong; Zhang, Bing; CAO, HANWEI; Xu, Xiuqin; Ruan, Hang; Yi, Tingting; Tan, Li; Qu, Rui; Song, Gang; Wang, Bangmao; Hu, Tianhui

    2013-01-01

    As a traditional anti-inflammatory Chinese herbal medicine, Alkaloid berberine has been recently reported to exhibit anti-tumour effects against a wide spectrum of cancer. However, the mechanism was largely unknown. Gene chip array reveals that with berberine treatment, c-Myc, the target gene of Wnt pathway, was down-regulated 5.3-folds, indicating that berberine might inhibit Wnt signalling. TOPflash analysis revealed that Wnt activity was significantly reduced after berberine treatment, and...

  2. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Chaudhary, Sandeep C. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Ballestas, Mary E. [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children' s of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States); Kopelovich, Levy [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Blvd., Suite 2114, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 μM) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100 mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. -- Highlights: ► Vorinostat reduces SCC growth in a xenograft murine model. ► Vorinostat dampens proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. ► Diminution in mTOR, Akt and ERK signaling underlies inhibition in proliferation. ► Vorinostat by inhibiting HDACs inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  3. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 μM) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100 mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. -- Highlights: ► Vorinostat reduces SCC growth in a xenograft murine model. ► Vorinostat dampens proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. ► Diminution in mTOR, Akt and ERK signaling underlies inhibition in proliferation. ► Vorinostat by inhibiting HDACs inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  4. Amino acids attenuate insulin action on gluconeogenesis and promote fatty acid biosynthesis via mTORC1 signaling pathway in trout hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Wei Wei; Panserat, Stephane; Plagnes- Juan, Elisabeth; Seiliez, Iban; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Carnivores exhibit poor utilization of dietary carbohydrates and glucose intolerant phenotypes, yet it remains unclear what are the causal factors and underlying mechanisms. We aimed to evaluate excessive amino acids (AAs)-induced effects on insulin signaling, fatty acid biosynthesis and glucose metabolism in rainbow trout and determine the potential involvement of mTORC1 and p38 MAPK pathway. Methods: We stimulated trout primary hepatocytes with different AA levels and emplo...

  5. Blockade of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 Attenuates Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Activity in Brain Endothelial Cells and the Subsequent Apoptosis in Neurons after Ischemic Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, So Y; Cho, Kyoung J; Kim, So Y; Kam, Eun H; Lee, Jong E; Koo, Bon-Nyeo

    2016-01-01

    Conditions of increased oxidative stress including cerebral ischemia can lead to blood-brain barrier dysfunction via matrix metalloproteinase (MMP). It is known that MMP-9 in particular is released from brain endothelial cells is involved in the neuronal cell death that occurs after cerebral ischemia. In the intracellular signaling network, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is the main activator of the oxidative stress that is part of the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia. ASK1 also promotes apoptotic cell death and brain infarction after ischemia and is associated with vascular permeability and the formation of brain edema. However, the relationship between ASK1 and MMP-9 after cerebral ischemia remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether blocking ASK1 would affect MMP-9 activity in the ischemic brain and cultured brain endothelial cells. Our results showed that ASK1 inhibition efficiently reduced MMP-9 activity in vivo and in vitro. In endothelial cell cultures, ASK1 inhibition upregulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/nuclear factor erythroid 2 [NF-E2]-related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1 signals and downregulated cyclooxygenase-2 signals after hypoxia/reperfusion. Additionally, in neuronal cell cultures, cell death occurred when neurons were incubated with endothelial cell-conditioned medium (EC-CM) obtained from the hypoxia/reperfusion group. However, after incubation with EC-CM and following treatment with the ASK1 inhibitor NQDI-1, neuronal cell death was efficiently decreased. We conclude that suppressing ASK1 decreases MMP-9 activity in brain endothelial cells, and leads to decreased neuronal cell death after ischemic injury. PMID:27642277

  6. Ginsenoside Rd attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via Akt/GSK-3β signaling and inhibition of the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests Ginsenoside Rd (GSRd, a biologically active extract from the medical plant Panax Ginseng, exerts antioxidant effect, decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS formation. Current study determined the effect of GSRd on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R injury (a pathological condition where ROS production is significantly increased and investigated the underlying mechanisms. The current study utilized an in vivo rat model of MI/R injury and an in vitro neonatal rat cardiomyocyte (NRC model of simulated ischemia/reperfusion (SI/R injury. Infarct size was measured by Evans blue/TTC double staining. NRC injury was determined by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH leakage assay. ROS accumulation and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP was determined by 5, 5', 6, 6'-tetrachloro-1, 1', 3, 3'-tetrathylbenzimidazol carbocyanine iodide (JC-1. Cytosolic translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome c and expression of caspase-9, caspase-3, Bcl-2 family proteins, and phosphorylated Akt and GSK-3β were determined by western blot. Pretreatment with GSRd (50 mg/kg significantly augmented rat cardiac function, as evidenced by increased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and ±dP/dt. GSRd reduced myocardial infarct size, apoptotic cell death, and blood creatine kinase/lactate dehydrogenase levels after MI/R. In NRCs, GSRd (10 µM inhibited SI/R-induced ROS generation (P<0.01, decreased cellular apoptosis, stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, and attenuated cytosolic translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome c. GSRd inhibited activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, increased the phosphorylated Akt and GSK-3β, and increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Together, these data demonstrate GSRd mediated cardioprotective effect against MI/R-induced apoptosis via a mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway.

  7. Ginsenoside Rd Attenuates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury via Akt/GSK-3β Signaling and Inhibition of the Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptotic Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Lau, Waynebond; Wang, Yajing; Xing, Yuan; Zhang, Xing; Ma, Xinliang; Gao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests Ginsenoside Rd (GSRd), a biologically active extract from the medical plant Panax Ginseng, exerts antioxidant effect, decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Current study determined the effect of GSRd on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury (a pathological condition where ROS production is significantly increased) and investigated the underlying mechanisms. The current study utilized an in vivo rat model of MI/R injury and an in vitro neonatal rat cardiomyocyte (NRC) model of simulated ischemia/reperfusion (SI/R) injury. Infarct size was measured by Evans blue/TTC double staining. NRC injury was determined by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay. ROS accumulation and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was determined by 5, 5′, 6, 6′-tetrachloro-1, 1′, 3, 3′-tetrathylbenzimidazol carbocyanine iodide (JC-1). Cytosolic translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome c and expression of caspase-9, caspase-3, Bcl-2 family proteins, and phosphorylated Akt and GSK-3β were determined by western blot. Pretreatment with GSRd (50 mg/kg) significantly augmented rat cardiac function, as evidenced by increased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and ±dP/dt. GSRd reduced myocardial infarct size, apoptotic cell death, and blood creatine kinase/lactate dehydrogenase levels after MI/R. In NRCs, GSRd (10 µM) inhibited SI/R-induced ROS generation (P<0.01), decreased cellular apoptosis, stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and attenuated cytosolic translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome c. GSRd inhibited activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, increased the phosphorylated Akt and GSK-3β, and increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Together, these data demonstrate GSRd mediated cardioprotective effect against MI/R–induced apoptosis via a mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway. PMID:23976968

  8. Zinc deficiency exacerbates while zinc supplement attenuates cardiac hypertrophy in high-fat diet-induced obese mice through modulating p38 MAPK-dependent signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shudong; Luo, Manyu; Zhang, Zhiguo; Gu, Junlian; Chen, Jing; Payne, Kristen McClung; Tan, Yi; Wang, Yuehui; Yin, Xia; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Gilbert C; Wintergerst, Kupper; Liu, Quan; Zheng, Yang; Cai, Lu

    2016-09-01

    Childhood obesity often leads to cardiovascular diseases, such as obesity-related cardiac hypertrophy (ORCH), in adulthood, due to chronic cardiac inflammation. Zinc is structurally and functionally essential for many transcription factors; however, its role in ORCH and underlying mechanism(s) remain unclear and were explored here in mice with obesity induced with high-fat diet (HFD). Four week old mice were fed on either HFD (60%kcal fat) or normal diet (ND, 10% kcal fat) for 3 or 6 months, respectively. Either diet contained one of three different zinc quantities: deficiency (ZD, 10mg zinc per 4057kcal), normal (ZN, 30mg zinc per 4057kcal) or supplement (ZS, 90mg zinc per 4057kcal). HFD induced a time-dependent obesity and ORCH, which was accompanied by increased cardiac inflammation and p38 MAPK activation. These effects were worsened by ZD in HFD/ZD mice and attenuated by ZS in HFD/ZS group, respectively. Also, administration of a p38 MAPK specific inhibitor in HFD mice for 3 months did not affect HFD-induced obesity, but completely abolished HFD-induced, and zinc deficiency-worsened, ORCH and cardiac inflammation. In vitro exposure of adult cardiomyocytes to palmitate induced cell hypertrophy accompanied by increased p38 MAPK activation, which was heightened by zinc depletion with its chelator TPEN. Inhibition of p38 MAPK with its specific siRNA also prevented the effects of palmitate on cardiomyocytes. These findings demonstrate that ZS alleviates but ZD heightens cardiac hypertrophy in HFD-induced obese mice through suppressing p38 MAPK-dependent cardiac inflammatory and hypertrophic pathways. PMID:27346292

  9. Baicalein attenuates the quorum sensing-controlled virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and relieves the inflammatory response in P. aeruginosa-infected macrophages by downregulating the MAPK and NFκB signal-transduction pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo J

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jing Luo,* Jin-liang Kong,* Bi-ying Dong, Hong Huang, Ke Wang, Li-hong Wu, Chang-chun Hou, Yue Liang, Bing Li, Yi-qiang Chen Department of Respiratory Disease, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Burgeoning antibiotic resistance and unfavorable outcomes of inflammatory injury after Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection have necessitated the development of novel agents that not only target quorum sensing (QS but also combat inflammatory injury with the least risk of resistance. This study aimed to assess the anti-QS and anti-inflammatory activities of baicalein, a traditional herbal medicine that is widely used in the People’s Republic of China, against P. aeruginosa infection. We found that subminimum inhibitory concentrations of baicalein efficiently interfered with the QS-signaling pathway of P. aeruginosa via downregulation of the transcription of QS-regulated genes and the translation of QS-signaling molecules. This interference resulted in the global attenuation of QS-controlled virulence factors, such as motility and biofilm formation, and the secretion into the culture supernatant of extracellular virulence factors, including pyocyanin, LasA protease, LasB elastase, and rhamnolipids. Moreover, we examined the anti-inflammatory activity of baicalein and its mode of action via a P. aeruginosa-infected macrophage model to address its therapeutic effect. Baicalein reduced the P. aeruginosa-induced secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα. In addition, baicalein suppressed P. aeruginosa-induced activation of the MAPK and NFκB signal-transduction pathways in cocultured macrophages; this may be the mechanism by which baicalein inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, our study demonstrates that baicalein represents a potential treatment for P. aeruginosa infection because it

  10. PID Gain Tuning for Disturbance Attenuation FRIT Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shiro

    This review paper shows a PID gains tuning method from one-shot experimental data generated by test signal added at input signal in an off-line manner, so that the output signal could follow the prescribed reference model output. We call the method a “disturbance attenuation FRIT method” because the test signal added at input signal is a benchmark signal evaluating disturbance attenuation property. The experimental result for helicopter attitude control model is demonstrated to show the effectiveness of the disturbance attenuation FRIT method.

  11. Deletion of Atbf1/Zfhx3 In Mouse Prostate Causes Neoplastic Lesions, Likely by Attenuation of Membrane and Secretory Proteins and Multiple Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Sun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The ATBF1/ZFHX3 gene at 16q22 is the second most frequently mutated gene in human prostate cancer and has reduced expression or mislocalization in several types of human tumors. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that ATBF1 has a tumor suppressor function in prostate cancer has not been tested. In this study, we examined the role of ATBF1 in prostatic carcinogenesis by specifically deleting Atbf1 in mouse prostatic epithelial cells. We also examined the effect of Atbf1 deletion on gene expression and signaling pathways in mouse prostates. Histopathologic analyses showed that Atbf1 deficiency caused hyperplasia and mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN primarily in the dorsal prostate but also in other lobes. Hemizygous deletion of Atbf1 also increased the development of hyperplasia and mPIN, indicating a haploinsufficiency of Atbf1. The mPIN lesions expressed luminal cell markers and harbored molecular changes similar to those in human PIN and prostate cancer, including weaker expression of basal cell marker cytokeratin 5 (Ck5, cell adhesion protein E-cadherin, and the smooth muscle layer marker Sma; elevated expression of the oncoproteins phospho-Erk1/2, phospho-Akt and Muc1; and aberrant protein glycosylation. Gene expression profiling revealed a large number of genes that were dysregulated by Atbf1 deletion, particularly those that encode for secretory and cell membrane proteins. The four signaling networks that were most affected by Atbf1 deletion included those centered on Erk1/2 and IGF1, Akt and FSH, NF-κB and progesterone and β-estradiol. These findings provide in vivo evidence that ATBF1 is a tumor suppressor in the prostate, suggest that loss of Atbf1 contributes to tumorigenesis by dysregulating membrane and secretory proteins and multiple signaling pathways, and provide a new animal model for prostate cancer.

  12. Knock out of S1P3 receptor signaling attenuates inflammation and fibrosis in bleomycin-induced lung injury mice model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Murakami

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P is a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite involved in many critical cellular processes, including proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis, through interaction with a family of five G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-5. Some reports have implicated S1P as an important inflammatory mediator of the pathogenesis of airway inflammation, but the role of S1P3 in the pathogenesis of lung diseases is not completely understood. We used S1P3-deficient (knockout (KO mice to clarify the role of S1P3 receptor signaling in the pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis using a bleomycin-induced model of lung injury. On the seventh day after bleomycin administration, S1P3 KO mice exhibited significantly less body weight loss and pulmonary inflammation than wild-type (WT mice. On the 28th day, there was less pulmonary fibrosis in S1P3 KO mice than in WT mice. S1P3 KO mice demonstrated a 56% reduction in total cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF collected on the seventh day compared with WT mice; however, the differential white blood cell profiles were similar. BALF analysis on the seventh day showed that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF levels were significantly decreased in S1P3 KO mice compared with WT mice, although no differences were observed in monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 or transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 levels. Finally, S1P levels in BALF collected on the 7th day after treatment were not significantly different between WT and S1P3 KO mice. Our results indicate that S1P3 receptor signaling plays an important role in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and that this signaling occurs via CTGF expression. This suggests that this pathway might be a therapeutic target for pulmonary fibrosis.

  13. Change Detection of Lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczynski, R.; Rylko, A.

    2016-06-01

    Old topographic map published in 1975 elaborated from aerial photographs taken in 1972, Landsat TM data acquired in May 1986 and Landsat ETM+ from June 2002 have been used to assess the changes of the lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia. First map of the lake has been done in the framework of UNDP project running in 1988-90 in the Ethiopian Mapping Authority. The second classification map has been done as M.Sc. thesis in the MUT in 2015. Supervised classification methods with the use of ground truth data have been used for elaboration of the Landsat TM data. From the year 1972 up to 1986 the area of the lake has decreased by 23%. From 1986 up to 2002 the area of the lake has decreased by 20%. Therefore, after 30 years the lake was smaller by 43%. This have had very bad influence on the lives of the local population. From other recent data in the period from 2002-2015 the lake has practically disappeared and now it is only a small part of the river Akaki. ENVI 5.2 and ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2 have been used for Radiometric Calibration, Quick Atmospheric Correction (QUAC) and supervised classification of Landsat ETM+ data. The Optimum Index Factor shows the best combination of Landsat TM and ETM+ bands for color composite as 1,4,5 in the color filters: B, G, R for the signature development. Methodology and final maps are enclosed in the paper.

  14. Function of ABA in Stomatal Defense against Biotic and Drought Stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Chae Woo Lim; Woonhee Baek; Jangho Jung; Jung-Hyun Kim; Sung Chul Lee

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many key processes involved in plant development and adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Under stress conditions, plants synthesize ABA in various organs and initiate defense mechanisms, such as the regulation of stomatal aperture and expression of defense-related genes conferring resistance to environmental stresses. The regulation of stomatal opening and closure is important to pathogen defense and control of transpirational water loss....

  15. LTP3 contributes to disease susceptibility in Arabidopsis by enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Guo, Wenya; Feng, Wen; Liu, Liang; Song, Xiaorui; Chen, Jian; Hou, Wei; Zhu, Hongxia; Tang, Saijun; Hu, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Several plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) act positively in plant disease resistance. Here, we show that LTP3 (At5g59320), a pathogen and abscisic acid (ABA)-induced gene, negatively regulates plant immunity in Arabidopsis. The overexpression of LTP3 (LTP3-OX) led to an enhanced susceptibility to virulent bacteria and compromised resistance to avirulent bacteria. On infection of LTP3-OX plants with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, genes involved in ABA biosynthesis, NCED3 and AAO3, were highly induced, whereas salicylic acid (SA)-related genes, ICS1 and PR1, were down-regulated. Accordingly, in LTP3-OX plants, we observed increased ABA levels and decreased SA levels relative to the wild-type. We also showed that the LTP3 overexpression-mediated enhanced susceptibility was partially dependent on AAO3. Interestingly, loss of function of LTP3 (ltp3-1) did not affect ABA pathways, but resulted in PR1 gene induction and elevated SA levels, suggesting that LTP3 can negatively regulate SA in an ABA-independent manner. However, a double mutant consisting of ltp3-1 and silent LTP4 (ltp3/ltp4) showed reduced susceptibility to Pseudomonas and down-regulation of ABA biosynthesis genes, suggesting that LTP3 acts in a redundant manner with its closest homologue LTP4 by modulating the ABA pathway. Taken together, our data show that LTP3 is a novel negative regulator of plant immunity which acts through the manipulation of the ABA-SA balance. PMID:26123657

  16. A Glycine soja ABA-responsive receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, GsRLCK, positively controls plant tolerance to salt and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, XiaoLi; Sun, Mingzhe; Luo, Xiao; Ding, XiaoDong; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi; Liu, XiaoFei; Zhu, YanMing

    2013-06-01

    Receptor such as protein kinases are proposed to work as sensors to initiate signaling cascades in higher plants. However, little is known about the precise functions of receptor such as protein kinases in abiotic stress response in plants, especially in wild soybean. Here, we focused on characterization of the biological functions of a receptor-like cytoplasmic serine/threonine protein kinase gene, GsRLCK, which was previously identified as a putative salt-alkali stress-related gene from the transcriptome profiles of Glycine soja. Bioinformatic analysis showed that GsRLCK protein contained a conserved kinase catalytic domain and two transmembrane domains at the N-terminus, but no typical extracellular domain. Consistently, GsRLCK-eGFP fusion protein was observed on the plasma membrane, but eGFP alone was distributing throughout the cytoplasm in onion epidermal cells. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed the induced expression of GsRLCK by ABA, salt, alkali, and drought stresses. However, the expression levels of GsRLCK seemed to be similar in different tissues, except soybean pod. Phenotypic assays demonstrated that GsRLCK overexpression decreased ABA sensitivity and altered expression levels of ABA-responsive genes. Furthermore, we also found that GsRLCK conferred increased tolerance to salt and drought stresses and increased expression levels of a handful of stress-responsive genes, when overexpressing in Arabidopsis. In a word, we gave exact evidence that GsRLCK was a novel receptor-like cytoplasmic protein kinase and played a crucial role in plant responses to ABA, salt, and drought stresses.

  17. Wogonin, a plant flavone from Scutellariae radix, attenuated ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in mouse model of asthma via the suppression of IL-4/STAT6 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Eun Kyung; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Jang, Eun Jeong; Choi, Yoon Suk; Kim, Seon Tae; Hahm, Ki Baik; Lee, Ho-Jae

    2015-09-01

    Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by a marked infiltration of eosinophils at the site of inflammation. Eotaxins are potent chemoattractants for eosinophils and play important roles in pathogenesis of asthma. In the course of screening for eotaxin-3 inhibitors, we found that wogonin showed potent inhibitory activity of interleukin-4 (IL-4)-induced eotaxin-3 expression in BEAS-2B cells. In this study, we examined the effects of wogonin on IL-4/STAT6 signaling pathway and biological implication in a mouse model of asthma. Wogonin inhibited IL-4-induced activation and nuclear translocation of STAT6 which plays a key role in either the transcription of STAT6-response genes or Th2 cytokine-mediated inflammation. Oral administration of wogonin significantly reduced activation of STAT6 in the lung and the expression of eotaxin and RANTES in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Histological examination of lung tissue demonstrated that wogonin significantly inhibited allergen-induced eosinophilic inflammation. Administration of wogonin reduced the total IgE and ovalbumin-specific IgE levels compared with the ovalbumin-challenged group. All of these data demonstrated that wogonin could alleviate airway inflammation through inhibition of STAT6 activation induced by Th2 cytokines. Our finding implicates a potential therapeutic value of wogonin in the treatment of asthma through regulation of IL-4/STAT6 signaling pathway. PMID:26388667

  18. Blockade of prostaglandin E2 signaling through EP1 and EP3 receptors attenuates Flt3L-dependent dendritic cell development from hematopoietic progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pratibha; Hoggatt, Jonathan; Hu, Peirong; Speth, Jennifer M.; Fukuda, Seiji; Breyer, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) homeostasis, like all mature blood cells, is maintained via hierarchal generation from hematopoietic precursors; however, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms governing DC generation. Here, we show that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is required for optimal Flt3 ligand–mediated DC development and regulates expression of the Flt3 receptor on DC-committed progenitor cells. Inhibition of PGE2 biosynthesis reduces Flt3-mediated activation of STAT3 and expression of the antiapoptotic protein survivin, resulting in increased apoptosis of DC-committed progenitor cells. Reduced DC development caused by diminished PGE2 signaling is reversed by overexpression of Flt3 or survivin in DC progenitors and conversely is mimicked by STAT3 inhibition. PGE2 regulation of DC generation is specifically mediated through the EP1 and EP3 G protein PGE2 receptors. These studies define a novel DC progenitor regulatory pathway in which PGE2 signaling through EP1/EP3 receptors regulates Flt3 expression and downstream STAT3 activation and survivin expression, required for optimal DC progenitor survival and DC development in vivo. PMID:22110249

  19. Reactive oxygen species are involved in gibberellin/abscisic acid signaling in barley aleurone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Yushi; Tawaratsumida, Tomoya; Kondo, Koji; Kasa, Shinsuke; Sakamoto, Masatsugu; Aoki, Nozomi; Zheng, Shao-Hui; Yuasa, Takashi; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari

    2012-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as signal molecules for a variety of processes in plants. However, many questions about the roles of ROS in plants remain to be clarified. Here, we report the role of ROS in gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone cells. The production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a type of ROS, was induced by GA in aleurone cells but suppressed by ABA. Furthermore, exogenous H2O2 appeared to promote the induction of α-amylases by GA. In contrast, antioxidants suppressed the induction of α-amylases. Therefore, H2O2 seems to function in GA and ABA signaling, and in regulation of α-amylase production, in aleurone cells. To identify the target of H2O2 in GA and ABA signaling, we analyzed the interrelationships between H2O2 and DELLA proteins Slender1 (SLN1), GA-regulated Myb transcription factor (GAmyb), and ABA-responsive protein kinase (PKABA) and their roles in GA and ABA signaling in aleurone cells. In the presence of GA, exogenous H2O2 had little effect on the degradation of SLN1, the primary transcriptional repressor mediating GA signaling, but it promoted the production of the mRNA encoding GAMyb, which acts downstream of SLN1 and involves induction of α-amylase mRNA. Additionally, H2O2 suppressed the production of PKABA mRNA, which is induced by ABA:PKABA represses the production of GAMyb mRNA. From these observations, we concluded that H2O2 released the repression of GAMyb mRNA by PKABA and consequently promoted the production of α-amylase mRNA, thus suggesting that the H2O2 generated by GA in aleurone cells is a signal molecule that antagonizes ABA signaling.

  20. Alleviation of Drought Stress by Hydrogen Sulfide Is Partially Related to the Abscisic Acid Signaling Pathway in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Han, Qiaoxia; Hou, Junfeng; Lu, Hongfang; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Little information is available describing the effects of exogenous H2S on the ABA pathway in the acquisition of drought tolerance in wheat. In this study, we investigated the physiological parameters, the transcription levels of several genes involved in the abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism pathway, and the ABA and H2S contents in wheat leaves and roots under drought stress in response to exogenous NaHS treatment. The results showed that pretreatment with NaHS significantly increased plant height and the leaf relative water content of seedlings under drought stress. Compared with drought stress treatment alone, H2S application increased antioxidant enzyme activities and reduced MDA and H2O2 contents in both leaves and roots. NaHS pretreatment increased the expression levels of ABA biosynthesis and ABA reactivation genes in leaves; whereas the expression levels of ABA biosynthesis and ABA catabolism genes were up-regulated in roots. These results indicated that ABA participates in drought tolerance induced by exogenous H2S, and that the responses in leaves and roots are different. The transcription levels of genes encoding ABA receptors were up-regulated in response to NaHS pretreatment under drought conditions in both leaves and roots. Correspondingly, the H2S contents in leaves and roots were increased by NaHS pretreatment, while the ABA contents of leaves and roots decreased. This implied that there is complex crosstalk between these two signal molecules, and that the alleviation of drought stress by H2S, at least in part, involves the ABA signaling pathway. PMID:27649534

  1. Alleviation of Drought Stress by Hydrogen Sulfide Is Partially Related to the Abscisic Acid Signaling Pathway in Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongyun; Ding, Huina; Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Han, Qiaoxia; Hou, Junfeng; Lu, Hongfang; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Little information is available describing the effects of exogenous H2S on the ABA pathway in the acquisition of drought tolerance in wheat. In this study, we investigated the physiological parameters, the transcription levels of several genes involved in the abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism pathway, and the ABA and H2S contents in wheat leaves and roots under drought stress in response to exogenous NaHS treatment. The results showed that pretreatment with NaHS significantly increased plant height and the leaf relative water content of seedlings under drought stress. Compared with drought stress treatment alone, H2S application increased antioxidant enzyme activities and reduced MDA and H2O2 contents in both leaves and roots. NaHS pretreatment increased the expression levels of ABA biosynthesis and ABA reactivation genes in leaves; whereas the expression levels of ABA biosynthesis and ABA catabolism genes were up-regulated in roots. These results indicated that ABA participates in drought tolerance induced by exogenous H2S, and that the responses in leaves and roots are different. The transcription levels of genes encoding ABA receptors were up-regulated in response to NaHS pretreatment under drought conditions in both leaves and roots. Correspondingly, the H2S contents in leaves and roots were increased by NaHS pretreatment, while the ABA contents of leaves and roots decreased. This implied that there is complex crosstalk between these two signal molecules, and that the alleviation of drought stress by H2S, at least in part, involves the ABA signaling pathway. PMID:27649534

  2. Regulation of microglia activity by glaucocalyxin-A: attenuation of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated neuroinflammation through NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Wook Kim

    Full Text Available Microglial cells are the resident macrophages and intrinsic arm of the central nervous system innate immune defense. Microglial cells become activated in response to injury, infection, environmental toxins, and other stimuli that threaten neuronal survival. Therefore, regulating microglial activation may have therapeutic benefits that lead to alleviating the progression of inflammatory-mediated neurodegeneration. In the present study, we investigated the effect of glaucocalyxin A (GLA isolated from Rabdosia japonica on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated primary microglia and BV-2 cells. GLA significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and reversed the morphological changes in primary microglia. Further, GLA suppressed expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 dose-dependently at the mRNA and protein levels. The production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and IL-6 were inhibited by suppressing their transcriptional activity. Furthermore, GLA suppressed nuclear factor-κB activation by blocking degradation of IκB-α and inhibited the induction of lipocalin-2 expression in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Mechanistic study revealed that the inhibitory effects of GLA were accompanied by blocking the p38 mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathway in activated microglia. In conclusion, given that microglial activation contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, GLA could be developed as a potential therapeutic agent for treating microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory diseases.

  3. The Systemic Acquired Resistance Regulator OsNPR1 Attenuates Growth by Repressing Auxin Signaling through Promoting IAA-Amido Synthase Expression1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance is a long-lasting and broad-spectrum disease resistance to pathogens. Our previous study demonstrated that overexpression of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (OsNPR1), a master gene for systemic acquired resistance in rice (Oryza sativa), greatly enhanced resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae. However, the growth and development of the OsNPR1 overexpression (OsNPR1-OX) plants were restrained, and the mechanism remained elusive. In this study, we dissected the OsNPR1-induced growth inhibition. We found that the OsNPR1-OX lines displayed phenotypes mimicking auxin-defective mutants, with decreases in root system, seed number and weight, internode elongation, and tiller number. Whole-genome expression analysis revealed that genes related to the auxin metabolism and signaling pathway were differentially expressed between the OsNPR1-OX and wild-type plants. Consistently, the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content was decreased and the auxin distribution pattern was altered in OsNPR1-OX plants. Importantly, we found that some GH3 family members, in particular OsGH3.8 coding IAA-amido synthetase, were constitutively up-regulated in OsNPR1-OX plants. Decreased OsGH3.8 expression by RNA interference could partially restore IAA level and largely rescue the restrained growth and development phenotypes but did not affect the disease resistance of OsNPR1-OX plants. Taken together, we revealed that OsNPR1 affects rice growth and development by disrupting the auxin pathway at least partially through indirectly up-regulating OsGH3.8 expression. PMID:27378815

  4. MicroRNA-520a attenuates proliferation of Raji cells through inhibition of AKT1/NF-κB and PERK/eIF2α signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Wang, Pei; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Jinqian; Wang, Hongwei

    2016-09-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a fast growing cancer of the human lymphatic system, and an extremely invasive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We explored the mechanism of apoptosis in Raji cells associated with the post-transcriptional regulation factors. To confirm that the predicted microRNA-520a (miR-520a) is matched with AKT1, 3' untranslated region (UTR) luciferase activity of AKT1 was used in the assessment. In the presence of the mimics or inhibitors of miR-520a, cell function of Raji, such as proliferation, growth and apoptosis were analyzed. The expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress‑related proteins were examined. Luciferase reporter analysis showed that miR‑520a leads to decreased activity of luciferase gene fused with AKT1 3'UTR. Therefore, AKT1 is a direct target of miR‑520a. Our data indicated that the mimics of miR‑520a inhibited growth, proliferation of Raji cells and promoted its apoptosis, which was related to downregulation of AKT1, NF‑κB and ER stress response mediated by PERK/eIF2α pathway. On the contrary, the inhibitors of miR‑520a promoted growth, proliferation of Raji cells and inhibited its apoptosis, which was related to AKT1/NF‑κB and PERK/eIF2α pathway. We identified miR‑520a, which specifically binds to AKT1 mRNA 3'UTR. miR‑520a is a crucial mediator for proliferation and ER stress in Raji cells through regulating the AKT1/NF‑κB or PERK/eIF2α signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that targeting miR‑520a is a promising therapeutic strategy in BL. PMID:27461820

  5. The Systemic Acquired Resistance Regulator OsNPR1 Attenuates Growth by Repressing Auxin Signaling through Promoting IAA-Amido Synthase Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaozun; Yang, Dong-Lei; Sun, Li; Li, Qun; Mao, Bizeng; He, Zuhua

    2016-09-01

    Systemic acquired resistance is a long-lasting and broad-spectrum disease resistance to pathogens. Our previous study demonstrated that overexpression of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (OsNPR1), a master gene for systemic acquired resistance in rice (Oryza sativa), greatly enhanced resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae However, the growth and development of the OsNPR1 overexpression (OsNPR1-OX) plants were restrained, and the mechanism remained elusive. In this study, we dissected the OsNPR1-induced growth inhibition. We found that the OsNPR1-OX lines displayed phenotypes mimicking auxin-defective mutants, with decreases in root system, seed number and weight, internode elongation, and tiller number. Whole-genome expression analysis revealed that genes related to the auxin metabolism and signaling pathway were differentially expressed between the OsNPR1-OX and wild-type plants. Consistently, the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content was decreased and the auxin distribution pattern was altered in OsNPR1-OX plants. Importantly, we found that some GH3 family members, in particular OsGH3.8 coding IAA-amido synthetase, were constitutively up-regulated in OsNPR1-OX plants. Decreased OsGH3.8 expression by RNA interference could partially restore IAA level and largely rescue the restrained growth and development phenotypes but did not affect the disease resistance of OsNPR1-OX plants. Taken together, we revealed that OsNPR1 affects rice growth and development by disrupting the auxin pathway at least partially through indirectly up-regulating OsGH3.8 expression. PMID:27378815

  6. Science for sale in a free market economy: But at what price? ABA and the treatment of autism in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Mickey Keenan, U.U.; Dillenburger, Karola; Röttgers, Hanns-Rüdiger; Moderato, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Educating the public accurately about Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is an important undertaking, not least because misconceptions and myths about ABA abound. In this paper we argue that, unfortunately, the efforts of many dedicated professionals and parents to disseminate accurate information about the benefits of ABA for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are damaged by a few behavior analysts whose focus seems to be more on monetary gains than social responsibility. We...

  7. ZmABA2, an interacting protein of ZmMPK5, is involved in abscisic acid biosynthesis and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fangfang; Ni, Lan; Liu, Libo; Li, Xi; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Aying; Tan, Mingpu; Jiang, Mingyi

    2016-02-01

    In maize (Zea mays), the mitogen-activated protein kinase ZmMPK5 has been shown to be involved in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defence and to enhance the tolerance of plants to drought, salt stress and oxidative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, using ZmMPK5 as bait in yeast two-hybrid screening, a protein interacting with ZmMPK5 named ZmABA2, which belongs to a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, was identified. Pull-down assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis and co-immunoprecipitation test confirmed that ZmMPK5 interacts with ZmABA2 in vitro and in vivo. Phosphorylation of Ser173 in ZmABA2 by ZmMPK5 was shown to increase the activity of ZmABA2 and the protein stability. Various abiotic stimuli induced the expression of ZmABA2 in leaves of maize plants. Pharmacological, biochemical and molecular biology and genetic analyses showed that both ZmMPK5 and ZmABA2 coordinately regulate the content of ABA. Overexpression of ZmABA2 in tobacco plants was found to elevate the content of ABA, regulate seed germination and root growth under drought and salt stress and enhance the tolerance of tobacco plants to drought and salt stress. These results suggest that ZmABA2 is a direct target of ZmMPK5 and is involved in ABA biosynthesis and functions. PMID:26096642

  8. Plant MAPK cascades: Just rapid signaling modules?

    KAUST Repository

    Boudsocq, Marie

    2015-08-27

    © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major phytohormone mediating important stress-related processes. We recently unveiled an ABA-activated MAPK signaling module constituted of MAP3K17/18-MKK3-MPK1/2/7/14. Unlike classical rapid MAPK activation, we showed that the activation of the new MAPK module is delayed and relies on the MAP3K protein synthesis. In this addendum, we discuss the role of this original and unexpected activation mechanism of MAPK cascades which suggests that MAPKs can regulate both early and longterm plant stress responses.

  9. HOS3, an ELO-Like Gene, Inhibits Effects of ABA and Implicates a S-1-P/Ceramide Control System for Abiotic Stress Responses in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tanya M. Quist; Irina Sokolchik; Huazhong Shi; Robert J. Joly; Ray A. Bressan; Albino Maggio; Meena Narsimhan; Xia Li

    2009-01-01

    A hyper-osmotically sensitive mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, designated hos3-1 (high expression of osmotically responsive genes), was identified based on its hyper-luminescence of RD29A:LUC promoter fusion plants upon treatment with NaCI and ABA. These responses implicate the disrupted gene as a direct or indirect negative regulator of the RD29A stress-responsive pathway. By sequencing the flanking regions of the T-DNA borders, it was determined that the disrupted gene is at locus At4g36830, annotated as encoding a putative protein with high homology to CIG30 (ELO2/FEN1).CIG30 has been implicated in synthesis of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA), which are essential precursors for sphingolipids and ceramides. Altered stress responses characteristic of ABA-hypersensitivity, including reduced root growth inhibition and reduced germination with ABA treatment and reduced water loss from leaves, were exhibited by allelic hos3-1 and hos3-2 mutants. The hos3-2 mutant is partially suppressed in its transcript abundance and is inherited as a recessive trait. Further, the HOS30RF under the control of the 35SCaMV promoter restored wild-type NaCI- and ABA-root growth sensitivity as well as RD29A:LUC luminescence in mutant plants. We also show here that the HOS3 wild-type gene functionally complements the sensitivity of elo2 and elo3 yeast mutants to monensin. Furthermore, both hos3-1 and hos3-2 alleles shared increased sensitivity to the herbicide Metolachlor, which inhibits acyl chain elongation in synthesis of VLCFA, and HOS3 functionally complemented both elo2 and elo3 and restored levels of VLCFA. Together, these data establish that HOS3 inhibits ABA-mediated stress responses and implicate the VLCFA pathway and products as control points for several aspects of abiotic stress signaling and responses. The results also provide support for a role of ceramide in the control of stomatal behavior.

  10. Jasmonate signaling involves the abscisic acid receptor PYL4 to regulate metabolic reprogramming in Arabidopsis and tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackman, Petri; González-Guzmán, Miguel; Tilleman, Sofie; Carqueijeiro, Inês; Pérez, Amparo Cuéllar; Moses, Tessa; Seo, Mitsunori; Kanno, Yuri; Häkkinen, Suvi T.; Van Montagu, Marc C. E.; Thevelein, Johan M.; Maaheimo, Hannu; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Rischer, Heiko; Goossens, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The phytohormones jasmonates (JAs) constitute an important class of elicitors for many plant secondary metabolic pathways. However, JAs do not act independently but operate in complex networks with crosstalk to several other phytohormonal signaling pathways. Here, crosstalk was detected between the JA and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways in the regulation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) alkaloid biosynthesis. A tobacco gene from the PYR/PYL/RCAR family, NtPYL4, the expression of which is regulated by JAs, was found to encode a functional ABA receptor. NtPYL4 inhibited the type-2C protein phosphatases known to be key negative regulators of ABA signaling in an ABA-dependent manner. Overexpression of NtPYL4 in tobacco hairy roots caused a reprogramming of the cellular metabolism that resulted in a decreased alkaloid accumulation and conferred ABA sensitivity to the production of alkaloids. In contrast, the alkaloid biosynthetic pathway was not responsive to ABA in control tobacco roots. Functional analysis of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homologs of NtPYL4, PYL4 and PYL5, indicated that also in Arabidopsis altered PYL expression affected the JA response, both in terms of biomass and anthocyanin production. These findings define a connection between a component of the core ABA signaling pathway and the JA responses and contribute to the understanding of the role of JAs in balancing tradeoffs between growth and defense. PMID:21436041

  11. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Type 1 Signaling Prevents Delayed Wound Healing in Diabetes by Attenuating the Production of IL-1β by Recruited Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okizaki, Shin-Ichiro; Ito, Yoshiya; Hosono, Kanako; Oba, Kazuhito; Ohkubo, Hirotoki; Kojo, Ken; Nishizawa, Nobuyuki; Shibuya, Masabumi; Shichiri, Masayoshi; Majima, Masataka

    2016-06-01

    The persistence of proinflammatory macrophages, which are recruited to the granulation tissue, impairs the healing of diabetic wounds. Herein, we examined the role of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 1 (VEGFR1) signaling in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic wound healing. Angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and the healing of full-thickness skin wounds were impaired in STZ-treated wild-type (WT) mice compared with vehicle-treated WT mice, with attenuated recruitment of VEGFR1-positive macrophages expressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D to the wound granulation tissue. These phenomena were even more prevalent in STZ-treated VEGFR1 tyrosine kinase knockout mice (VEGFR1 TK(-/-) mice). STZ-treated WT mice, but not STZ-treated VEGFR1 TK(-/-) mice, showed accelerated wound healing when treated with placenta growth factor. Compared with that of STZ-treated WT mice, the wound granulation tissue of STZ-treated VEGFR1 TK(-/-) mice contained more VEGFR1-positive cells expressing IL-1β [a classic (M1) activated macrophage marker] and fewer VEGFR1-positive cells expressing the mannose receptor [CD206; an alternatively activated (M2) macrophage marker]. Treatment of STZ-treated VEGFR1 TK(-/-) mice with an IL-1β-neutralizing antibody restored impaired wound healing and angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis and induced macrophages in the wound granulation tissue to switch to an M2 phenotype. Taken together, these results suggest that VEGFR1 signaling plays a role in regulating the balance between macrophage phenotypes in STZ-induced diabetic wounds, prevents impaired diabetic wound healing, and promotes angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis. PMID:27085138

  12. Signal intensity change of the labyrinth in patients with surgically confirmed or radiologically diagnosed vestibular schwannoma on isotropic 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MR imaging at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ho; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Eunhee; Moon, Jung Won; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Keon Ha; Jeon, Pyoung; Byun, Hong Sik [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Chung, Won Ho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the signal intensity (SI) change of the labyrinth in patients with vestibular schwannoma on isotropic 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging at 3 T. Thirty-four patients with surgically confirmed or radiologically diagnosed vestibular schwannoma were included in this study. Retrospectively, we visually and quantitatively compared the SIs of the cochlea and vestibule on the affected side with those on the unaffected side. We also investigated whether there was correlation between the SI ratios (SIRs) of the labyrinth and the audiometric findings. On 3D FLAIR images, the SI of the cochlea and vestibule on the affected side was significantly increased in 97% (33/34) and 91% (31/34), respectively. While the SI of the cochlea was diffusely increased, that of the vestibule was only partially increased. Quantitative study also revealed statistically significantly higher SIRs of the cochlea (0.99 {+-} 0.29) and vestibule (0.73 {+-} 0.31) on the affected side, compared with the cochlea (0.47 {+-} 0.20) and vestibule (0.19 {+-} 0.10) on the unaffected side. There was no significant correlation of the SIRs of the labyrinth with the degree of hearing loss. In patients with vestibular schwannoma, isotropic 3D FLAIR imaging is a useful method for the evaluation of the SI changes of the labyrinth. (orig.)

  13. Azospirillum brasilense ameliorates the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to drought mainly via enhancement of ABA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ana C; Bottini, Rubén; Pontin, Mariela; Berli, Federico J; Moreno, Daniela; Boccanlandro, Hernán; Travaglia, Claudia N; Piccoli, Patricia N

    2015-01-01

    Production of phytohormones is one of the main mechanisms to explain the beneficial effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Azospirillum sp. The PGPRs induce plant growth and development, and reduce stress susceptibility. However, little is known regarding the stress-related phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) produced by bacteria. We investigated the effects of Azospirillum brasilense Sp 245 strain on Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and aba2-1 mutant plants, evaluating the morphophysiological and biochemical responses when watered and in drought. We used an in vitro-grown system to study changes in the root volume and architecture after inoculation with Azospirillum in Arabidopsis wild-type Col-0 and on the mutant aba2-1, during early growth. To examine Arabidopsis development and reproductive success as affected by the bacteria, ABA and drought, a pot experiment using Arabidopsis Col-0 plants was also carried out. Azospirillum brasilense augmented plant biomass, altered root architecture by increasing lateral roots number, stimulated photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments and retarded water loss in correlation with incremented ABA levels. As well, inoculation improved plants seed yield, plants survival, proline levels and relative leaf water content; it also decreased stomatal conductance, malondialdehyde and relative soil water content in plants submitted to drought. Arabidopsis inoculation with A. brasilense improved plants performance, especially in drought.

  14. Root ABA Accumulation Enhances Rice Seedling Drought Tolerance under Ammonium Supply: Interaction with Aquaporins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Ying; Gao, Limin; Wang, Min; Chaumont, François; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated that ammonium nutrition enhances the drought tolerance of rice seedlings compared to nitrate nutrition and contributes to a higher root water uptake ability. It remains unclear why rice seedlings maintain a higher water uptake ability when supplied with ammonium under drought stress. Here, we focused on the effects of nitrogen form and drought stress on root abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and aquaporin expression using hydroponics experiments and stimulating drought stress with 10% PEG6000. Drought stress decreased the leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductivity and increased the leaf temperature of plants supplied with either ammonium or nitrate, but especially under nitrate supply. After 4 h of PEG treatment, the root protoplast water permeability and the expression of root PIP and TIP genes decreased in plants supplied with ammonium or nitrate. After 24 h of PEG treatment, the root hydraulic conductivity, the protoplast water permeability, and the expression of some aquaporin genes increased in plants supplied with ammonium compared to those under non-PEG treatment. Root ABA accumulation was induced by 24 h of PEG treatment, especially in plants supplied with ammonium. The addition of exogenous ABA decreased the expression of PIP and TIP genes under non-PEG treatment but increased the expression of some of them under PEG treatment. We concluded that drought stress induced a down-regulation of aquaporin expression, which appeared earlier than did root ABA accumulation. With continued drought stress, aquaporin expression and activity increased due to root ABA accumulation in plants supplied with ammonium.

  15. Photonic Crystal Fiber Attenuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo Beom Eom; Hokyung Kim; Jinchae Kim; Un-Chul Paek; Byeong Ha Lee

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel fiber attenuator based on photonic crystal fibers. The difference in the modal field diameters of a conventional single mode fiber and a photonic crystal fiber was used. A variable optical attenuator was also achieved by applying macro-bending on the PCF part of the proposed attenuator

  16. Fruit load induces changes in global gene expression and in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis in citrus buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2014-07-01

    Many fruit trees undergo cycles of heavy fruit load (ON-Crop) in one year, followed by low fruit load (OFF-Crop) the following year, a phenomenon known as alternate bearing (AB). The mechanism by which fruit load affects flowering induction during the following year (return bloom) is still unclear. Although not proven, it is commonly accepted that the fruit or an organ which senses fruit presence generates an inhibitory signal that moves into the bud and inhibits apical meristem transition. Indeed, fruit removal from ON-Crop trees (de-fruiting) induces return bloom. Identification of regulatory or metabolic processes modified in the bud in association with altered fruit load might shed light on the nature of the AB signalling process. The bud transcriptome of de-fruited citrus trees was compared with those of ON- and OFF-Crop trees. Fruit removal resulted in relatively rapid changes in global gene expression, including induction of photosynthetic genes and proteins. Altered regulatory mechanisms included abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and auxin polar transport. Genes of ABA biosynthesis were induced; however, hormone analyses showed that the ABA level was reduced in OFF-Crop buds and in buds shortly following fruit removal. Additionally, genes associated with Ca(2+)-dependent auxin polar transport were remarkably induced in buds of OFF-Crop and de-fruited trees. Hormone analyses showed that auxin levels were reduced in these buds as compared with ON-Crop buds. In view of the auxin transport autoinhibition theory, the possibility that auxin distribution plays a role in determining bud fate is discussed.

  17. An Update on Abscisic Acid Signaling in Plants and More...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aleksandra Wasilewska; Florina Vlad; Caroline Sirichandra; Yulia Redko; Fabien Jammes; Christiane Valon; Nicolas Frei dit Frey; Jeffrey Leung

    2008-01-01

    The mode of abscisic acid (ABA) action,and its relations to drought adaptive responses in particular,has been a captivating area of plant hormone research for much over a decade.The hormone triggers stomatal closure to limit water loss through transpiration,as well as mobilizes a battery of genes that presumably serve to protect the cells from the ensuing oxidative damage in prolonged stress.The signaling network orchestrating these various responses is,however,highly complex.This review summarizes several significant advances made within the last few years.The biosynthetic pathway of the hormone is now almost completely elucidated,with the latest identification of the ABA4 gene encoding a neoxanthin synthase,which seems essential for de novo ABA biosynthesis during water stress.This leads to the interesting question on how ABA is then delivered to perception sites.In this respect,regulated transport has attracted renewed focus by the unexpected finding of a shoot-to-root translocation of ABA during drought response,and at the cellular level,by the identification of a β-galactosidase that releases biologically active ABA from inactive ABA-glucose ester.Surprising candidate ABA receptors were also identified in the form of the Flowering Time Control Protein A (FCA)and the Chloroplastic Magnesium Protoporphyrin-IX Chelatase H subunit (CHLH) in chloroplast-nucleus communication,both of which have been shown to bind ABA in vitro.On the other hand,the protein(s) corresponding to the physiologically detectable cell-surface ABA receptor(s) is (are) still not known with certainty.Genetic and physiological studies based on the guard cell have reinforced the central importance of reversible phosphorylation in modulating rapid ABA responses.Sucrose Non-Fermenting Related Kinases (SnRK),Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases (CDPK),Protein Phosphatases (PP) of the 2C and 2A classes figure as prominent regulators in this single-cell model.Identifying their direct in vivo targets of

  18. ABA Affects Brassinosteroid-Induced Antioxidant Defense via ZmMAP65-1a in Maize Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan; Liu, Weijuan; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Juan; Chiu, Tsanyu; Yan, Jingwei; Jiang, Mingyi; Tan, Mingpu; Zhang, Aying

    2015-07-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and ABA co-ordinately regulate water deficit tolerance in maize leaves. ZmMAP65-1a, a maize microtubule-associated protein (MAP) which plays an essential role in BR-induced antioxidant defense, has been characterized previously. However, the interactions among BR, ABA and ZmMAP65-1a in water deficit tolerance remain unexplored. In this study, we demonstrated that ABA was required for BR-induced antioxidant defense via ZmMAP65-1a by using biochemical blocking and ABA biosynthetic mutants. The expression of ZmMAP65-1a in maize leaves and mesophyll protoplasts could be increased under polyethylene glycol- (PEG) stimulated water deficit and ABA treatments. Furthermore, the importance of ABA in the early pathway of BR-induced water deficit tolerance was demonstrated by limiting ABA availability. Blocking ABA biosynthesis biochemically or by a null mutation inhibited the downstream gene expression of ZmMAP65-1a and the activity of ZmMAPK5 in the pathway. It also affected the activities of BR-induced antioxidant defense-related enzymes, namely ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and NADPH oxidase. In addition, combining results from transiently overexpressed or silenced ZmMAP65-1a in mesophyll protoplasts, we discovered that ZmMAP65-1a mediated the ABA-induced gene expression and activities of APX and SOD. Surprisingly, silencing of ZmMAP65-1a in mesophyll protoplasts did not alter the gene expression of ZmCCaMK and vice versa in response to ABA. Taken together, our data indicate that water deficit-induced ABA is a key mediator in BR-induced antioxidant defense via ZmMAP65-1a in maize.

  19. Identification and Characterization of ABA-Responsive MicroRNAs in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Caijuan; Zuo, Zhangli; Qiu, Jin-Long

    2015-07-20

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding small RNAs that silence genes through mRNA degradation or translational inhibition. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is essential for plant development and adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses. In Arabidopsis, miRNAs are implicated in ABA functions. However, ABA-responsive miRNAs have not been systematically studied in rice. Here high throughput sequencing of small RNAs revealed that 107 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the rice ABA deficient mutant, Osaba1. Of these, 13 were confirmed by stem-loop RT-PCR. Among them, miR1425-5P, miR169a, miR169n, miR390-5P, miR397a and miR397b were up-regulated, but miR162b reduced in expression in Osaba1. The targets of these 13 miRNAs were predicted and validated by gene expression profiling. Interestingly, the expression levels of these miRNAs and their targets were regulated by ABA. Cleavage sites were detected on 7 of the miRNA targets by 5'-Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (5'-RACE). Finally, miR162b and its target OsTRE1 were shown to affect rice resistance to drought stress, suggesting that miR162b increases resistance to drought by targeting OsTRE1. Our work provides important information for further characterization and functional analysis of ABA-responsive miRNAs in rice. PMID:26233894

  20. Role of protein farnesylation events in the ABA-mediated regulation of the Pinoresinol-Lariciresinol Reductase 1 (LuPLR1) gene expression and lignan biosynthesis in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Cyrielle; Decourtil, Cédric; Marosevic, Djurdjica; Bailly, Marlène; Lopez, Tatiana; Renouard, Sullivan; Doussot, Joël; Dutilleul, Christelle; Auguin, Daniel; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Lainé, Eric; Lamblin, Frédéric; Hano, Christophe

    2013-11-01

    A Linum usitatissimum LuERA1 gene encoding a putative ortholog of the ERA1 (Enhanced Response to ABA 1) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana (encoding the beta subunit of a farnesyltransferase) was analyzed in silico and for its expression in flax. The gene and the protein sequences are highly similar to other sequences already characterized in plants and all the features of a farnesyltransferase were detected. Molecular modeling of LuERA1 protein confirmed its farnesyltransferase nature. LuERA1 is expressed in the vegetative organs and also in the outer seedcoat of the flaxseed, where it could modulate the previously observed regulation operated by ABA on lignan synthesis. This effect could be mediated by the regulation of the transcription of a key gene for lignan synthesis in flax, the LuPLR1 gene, encoding a pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase. The positive effect of manumycin A, a specific inhibitor of farnesyltransferase, on lignan biosynthesis in flax cell suspension systems supports the hypothesis of the involvement of such an enzyme in the negative regulation of ABA action. In Arabidopsis, ERA1 is able to negatively regulate the ABA effects and the mutant era1 has an enhanced sensitivity to ABA. When expressed in an Arabidopsis cell suspension (heterologous system) LuERA1 is able to reverse the effect of the era1 mutation. RNAi experiments in flax targeting the farnesyltransferase β-subunit encoded by the LuERA1 gene led to an increase LuPLR1 expression level associated with an increased content of lignan in transgenic calli. Altogether these results strongly suggest a role of the product of this LuERA1 gene in the ABA-mediated upregulation of lignan biosynthesis in flax cells through the activation of LuPLR1 promoter. This ABA signaling pathway involving ERA1 probably acts through the ABRE box found in the promoter sequence of LuPLR1, a key gene for lignan synthesis in flax, as demonstrated by LuPLR1 gene promoter-reporter experiments in flax cells using wild

  1. The Relationship Between Heat-induced Chilling Tolerance and Endogenous ABA Levels in Mangoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shi-jiang; JI Zuo-liang

    2002-01-01

    Heating "Zhihua" mangoes (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zhihua) in hot air at 38℃ for 12hours significantly reduced the development of chilling injury following storage for 12days at 2℃. Prolonging the heating up to 72hours acquired similar results. During the 12 days' storage at 2℃ following heating for 72hours, the membrane leakage of the mango peels showed little change, while it increased with time for the control fruits, and the endogenous ABA levels in the heated fruits were higher than that in the control. These results indicated that higher ABA rates were linked with stronger chilling tolerance in mangoes.

  2. Structure of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine-specific restriction enzyme, AbaSI, in complex with DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, John R.; Borgaro, Janine G.; Griggs, Rose M.; Quimby, Aine; Guan, Shengxi; Zhang, Xing; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Zheng, Yu; Zhu, Zhenyu; Cheng, Xiaodong (Emory-MED); (NE Biolabs)

    2014-07-03

    AbaSI, a member of the PvuRts1I-family of modification-dependent restriction endonucleases, cleaves DNA containing 5-hydroxymethylctosine (5hmC) and glucosylated 5hmC (g5hmC), but not DNA containing unmodified cytosine. AbaSI has been used as a tool for mapping the genomic locations of 5hmC, an important epigenetic modification in the DNA of higher organisms. Here we report the crystal structures of AbaSI in the presence and absence of DNA. These structures provide considerable, although incomplete, insight into how this enzyme acts. AbaSI appears to be mainly a homodimer in solution, but interacts with DNA in our structures as a homotetramer. Each AbaSI subunit comprises an N-terminal, Vsr-like, cleavage domain containing a single catalytic site, and a C-terminal, SRA-like, 5hmC-binding domain. Two N-terminal helices mediate most of the homodimer interface. Dimerization brings together the two catalytic sites required for double-strand cleavage, and separates the 5hmC binding-domains by ~ 70 Å, consistent with the known activity of AbaSI which cleaves DNA optimally between symmetrically modified cytosines ~ 22 bp apart. The eukaryotic SET and RING-associated (SRA) domains bind to DNA containing 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in the hemi-methylated CpG sequence. They make contacts in both the major and minor DNA grooves, and flip the modified cytosine out of the helix into a conserved binding pocket. In contrast, the SRA-like domain of AbaSI, which has no sequence specificity, contacts only the minor DNA groove, and in our current structures the 5hmC remains intra-helical. A conserved, binding pocket is nevertheless present in this domain, suitable for accommodating 5hmC and g5hmC. We consider it likely, therefore, that base-flipping is part of the recognition and cleavage mechanism of AbaSI, but that our structures represent an earlier, pre-flipped stage, prior to actual recognition.

  3. CONCEPTOS GENERALES SOBRE ABA EN NIÑOS CON TRASTORNO DEL ESPECTRO AUTISTA General concepts concerning applied behaviour analysis (ABA in children suffering autistic spectrum disorders (ASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Elizabeth Piñeros-Ortiz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos del espectro autista (TEA son entidades que generan discapacidad. Diversas intervenciones psicofarmacológicas y psicosociales modulan algunas de las alteraciones comportamentales asociadas y mejoran la calidad de vida de las personas afectadas y de sus cuidadores. La terapia ABA es una de las intervenciones psicosociales más conocidas y utilizada en población con TEA. Mediante de la formulación de preguntas clave y sus respuestas, este artículo realiza una breve descripción de los aspectos históricos, las principales características y los fundamentos teóricos del ABA. Se discuten los resultados de diversos estudios que señalan las limitaciones metodológicas de las investigaciones sobre la efectividad de esta terapia y sus implicaciones para la práctica clínica.Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD cause disability. Psychopharmacological and psychosocial interventions modulate some of the associated behavioural alterations and improve the quality of life for those affected and the people caring for them. Applied behaviour analysis (ABA therapy is one of the most well-known psychosocial interventions and is used with populations suffering ASD. This article gives a brief description of the historical aspects, the main characteristics and theoretical foundations regarding applied behaviour analysis (ABA by formulating key questions and their (expected responses. The results of some pertinent studies are discussed, pointing out the methodological limitations of research into the effectiveness of this therapy and its implications for clinical practice.

  4. Supervisor Support as a Predictor of Burnout and Therapeutic Self-Efficacy in Therapists Working in ABA Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer A.; Grey, Ian M.; Hastings, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about factors potentially affecting the performance of therapists delivering applied behavior analysis (ABA) interventions for young children with autism. Eighty-one therapists working in ABA schools participated in a questionnaire study focused on their reports of burnout and perceived therapeutic self-efficacy in their work…

  5. Parents' Experiences of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA)-Based Interventions for Children Diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhilemy, Catherine; Dillenburger, Karola

    2013-01-01

    Applied behaviour analysis (ABA)-based programmes are endorsed as the gold standard for treatment of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in most of North America. This is not the case in most of Europe, where instead a non-specified "eclectic" approach is adopted. We explored the social validity of ABA-based interventions with…

  6. Regulation of salt and ABA responses by CIPK14, a calcium sensor interacting protein kinase in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Calcium and protein kinase serve as the common mediators to regulate plant responses to multiple stresses including salt and ABA stimulus. Here we reported a novel protein kinase (CIPK14) that regulated the responses to ABA treatment and salt stress in Arabidopsis. CIPK14 transcripts, capable been checked in roots, stems, leaves and flowers, were highly expressed in flowers and roots. CIPK14 was induced by ABA and salt treatments. The disruption of CIPK14 altered the transcriptional pattern of a gene marker line related to ABA and salt responses, and the results suggested that CIPK14 probably was responsible to the control of the salt and ABA responses. Comparing with wild types, the lines inserted with the T-DNA in which CIPK14 gene expression was knocked out were also more sensitive to ABA and salt stimulus, showing low germination rate and the less root elongation. While, when these conditioned seeds were treated with norflurazon, their germination percentages could recover to a certain extent. We also found that exogenous calcium could have an effect on the transcription of CIPK14 under ABA and salt treatments, and it seemed that calcium ion might work upstream CIPK14 to regulate the plant response to ABA and salt response.

  7. 40 CFR 63.1297 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production-HAP ABA emissions from the production line. 63.1297 Section 63.1297 Protection of... Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1297 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane... § 63.1293(a)(1) shall control HAP ABA emissions from the slabstock polyurethane foam production line...

  8. Regulation of salt and ABA responses by CIPK14, a calcium sensor interacting protein kinase in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN YuZhi; LI Xu; GUO Ming; DENG KeQin; LIN dianZhong; TANG DongYing; GUO XinHong; LIU XuanMing

    2008-01-01

    Calcium and protein kinsse serve as the common mediators to regulate plant responses to multiple stresses including salt and ABA stimulus. Here we reported a novel protein kinase (CIPK14) that regulated the responses to ABA treatment and salt stress in Arabidopsis. CIPK14 transcripts, capable been checked in roots, stems, leaves and flowers, were highly expressed in flowers and roots. CIPK14 was induced by ABA and salt treatments. The disruption of CIPK14 altered the transcriptional pattern of a gene marker line related to ABA and salt responses, and the results suggested that CIPK14 probably was responsible to the control of the salt and ABA responses. Comparing with wild types, the lines inserted with the T-DNA in which CIPK14 gene expression was knocked out were also more sensitive to ABA and salt stimulus, showing low germination rate and the less root elongation. While, when these conditioned seeds were treated with norflurazon, their germination percentages could recover to a certain extent. We also found that exogenous calcium could have an effect on the transcription of CIPK14 under ABA end salt treatments, and it seemed that calcium ion might work upstream ClPK14 to regulate the plant response to ABA and salt response.

  9. The p450 monooxygenase BcABA1 is essential for abscisic acid biosynthesis in Botrytis cinerea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siewers, V.; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Tudzynski, P.

    2004-01-01

    The phytopathogenic ascomycete Botrytis cinerea is known to produce abscisic acid (ABA), which is thought to be involved in host-pathogen interaction. Biochemical analyses had previously shown that, in contrast to higher plants, the fungal ABA biosynthesis probably does not proceed via carotenoids...

  10. RNA-Seq and Gene Network Analysis Uncover Activation of an ABA-Dependent Signalosome During the Cork Oak Root Response to Drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Alexandre P; Verde, Nuno; Reis, Francisca; Martins, Inês; Costa, Daniela; Lino-Neto, Teresa; Castro, Pedro H; Tavares, Rui M; Azevedo, Herlânder

    2015-01-01

    Quercus suber (cork oak) is a West Mediterranean species of key economic interest, being extensively explored for its ability to generate cork. Like other Mediterranean plants, Q. suber is significantly threatened by climatic changes, imposing the need to quickly understand its physiological and molecular adaptability to drought stress imposition. In the present report, we uncovered the differential transcriptome of Q. suber roots exposed to long-term drought, using an RNA-Seq approach. 454-sequencing reads were used to de novo assemble a reference transcriptome, and mapping of reads allowed the identification of 546 differentially expressed unigenes. These were enriched in both effector genes (e.g., LEA, chaperones, transporters) as well as regulatory genes, including transcription factors (TFs) belonging to various different classes, and genes associated with protein turnover. To further extend functional characterization, we identified the orthologs of differentially expressed unigenes in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, which then allowed us to perform in silico functional inference, including gene network analysis for protein function, protein subcellular localization and gene co-expression, and in silico enrichment analysis for TFs and cis-elements. Results indicated the existence of extensive transcriptional regulatory events, including activation of ABA-responsive genes and ABF-dependent signaling. We were then able to establish that a core ABA-signaling pathway involving PP2C-SnRK2-ABF components was induced in stressed Q. suber roots, identifying a key mechanism in this species' response to drought.

  11. RNA-Seq and gene network analysis uncover activation of an ABA-dependent signalosome during the cork oak root response to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Papadopoulos Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercus suber (cork oak is a West Mediterranean species of key economic interest, being extensively explored for its ability to generate cork. Like other Mediterranean plants, Q. suber is significantly threatened by climatic changes, imposing the need to quickly understand its physiological and molecular adaptability to drought stress imposition. In the present report, we uncovered the differential transcriptome of Q. suber roots exposed to long-term drought, using an RNA-Seq approach. 454 sequencing reads were used to de novo assemble a reference transcriptome, and mapping of reads allowed the identification of 546 differentially expressed unigenes. These were enriched in both effector genes (e.g. LEA, chaperones, transporters as well as regulatory genes, including transcription factors (TFs belonging to various different classes, and genes associated with protein turnover. To further extend functional characterization, we identified the orthologs of differentially expressed unigenes in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, which then allowed us to perform in silico functional inference, including gene network analysis for protein function, protein subcellular localization and gene co-expression, and in silico enrichment analysis for TFs and cis-elements. Results indicated the existence of extensive transcriptional regulatory events, including activation of ABA-responsive genes and ABF-dependent signaling. We were then able to establish that all components of a core ABA-signaling pathway involving PP2C-SnRK2-ABF components was induced in stressed Q. suber roots, identifying a key mechanism in this species’ response to drought.

  12. N(6)-(2-Hydroxyethyl)adenosine in the Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps cicadae Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Pro-inflammatory Responses by Suppressing TLR4-Mediated NF-κB Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng-Ying; Chen, Chin-Chu; Lee, Li-Ya; Lin, Ting-Wei; Kuo, Chia-Feng

    2015-10-23

    Natural products play an important role in promoting health with relation to the prevention of chronic inflammation. N(6)-(2-Hydroxyethyl)adenosine (HEA), a physiologically active compound in the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps cicadae, has been identified as a Ca(2+) antagonist and shown to control circulation and possess sedative activity in pharmacological tests. The fruiting body of C. cicadae has been widely applied in Chinese medicine. However, neither the anti-inflammatory activities of HEA nor the fruiting bodies of C. cicadae have been carefully examined. In this study, we first cultured the fruiting bodies of C. cicadae and then investigated the anti-inflammatory activities of water and methanol extracts of wild and artificially cultured C. cicadae fruiting bodies. Next, we determined the amount of three bioactive compounds, adenosine, cordycepin, and HEA, in the extracts and evaluated their synergistic anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, the possible mechanism involved in anti-inflammatory action of HEA isolated from C. cicadae was investigated. The results indicate that cordycepin is more potent than adenosine and HEA in suppressing the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by RAW 264.7 macrophages; however, no synergistic effect was observed with these three compounds. HEA attenuated the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses by suppressing the toll-like receptor (TLR)4-mediated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. This result will support the use of HEA as an anti-inflammatory agent and C. cicadae fruiting bodies as an anti-inflammatory mushroom. PMID:26394068

  13. Arabidopsis WRKY6 Transcription Factor Acts as a Positive Regulator of Abscisic Acid Signaling during Seed Germination and Early Seedling Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun; Feng, Cui-Zhu; Ye, Qing; Wu, Wei-Hua; Chen, Yi-Fang

    2016-02-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays important roles during seed germination and early seedling development. Here, we characterized the function of the Arabidopsis WRKY6 transcription factor in ABA signaling. The transcript of WRKY6 was repressed during seed germination and early seedling development, and induced by exogenous ABA. The wrky6-1 and wrky6-2 mutants were ABA insensitive, whereas WRKY6-overexpressing lines showed ABA-hypersensitive phenotypes during seed germination and early seedling development. The expression of RAV1 was suppressed in the WRKY6-overexpressing lines and elevated in the wrky6 mutants, and the expression of ABI3, ABI4, and ABI5, which was directly down-regulated by RAV1, was enhanced in the WRKY6-overexpressing lines and repressed in the wrky6 mutants. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that WRKY6 could bind to the RAV1 promoter in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of RAV1 in WRKY6-overexpressing lines abolished their ABA-hypersensitive phenotypes, and the rav1 wrky6-2 double mutant showed an ABA-hypersensitive phenotype, similar to rav1 mutant. Together, the results demonstrated that the Arabidopsis WRKY6 transcription factor played important roles in ABA signaling by directly down-regulating RAV1 expression.

  14. Radioprotective 105 kDa protein attenuates ischemia/reperfusion-induced myocardial apoptosis and autophagy by inhibiting the activation of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin; Jiang, Hong; Yang, Jun; Chen, Jing; Yang, Jian; Ding, Jia-Wang; Li, Song; Wu, Hui; Ding, Hua-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) serves as an important inducer of apoptotic and autophagic responses in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury (MIRI). Radioprotective 105 kDa protein (RP105) is a specific inhibitor of TLR4. However, the molecular mechanisms by which RP105 represses myocardial apoptosis and autophagy through TLR4‑mediated signaling during I/R have not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to examine whether adenovirus-mediated RP105 overexpression repressed myocardial apoptosis and autophagy by inhibiting the TLR4-driven mechanism in MIRI. Three days after the injection of virus or saline into the myocardium, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to 30 min of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and 6 h of reperfusion. Myocardial specimens were prepared for analysis. We performed immunohistochemichal and histopathological analysis, the measurement of cardiac biomarkers, TUNEL assay , RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. The results indicated that the overexpression of RP105 contributed to an amelioration of myocardial histological damage, decreased leakage of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), as well as a reduction in the number of TUNEL-positive cardiomyocytes. The levels of positively associated modulators of apoptosis and autophagy were also significantly downregulated by RP105, whereas Bcl-2, which plays an opposite role in inducing apoptosis and autophagy, was inversely upregulated. Furthermore, the overexpression of RP105 led to the repression of TLR4 activity and the phosphorylation of NF-κB/p65, as well as the reduced production of the cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Taken together, these data suggest that RP105 protects the myocardium against apoptosis and autophagy, and plays a cardioprotective role during I/R injury. This is most likely due to the inactivation of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. Thus, RP105 may represent

  15. A gate-latch-lock mechanism for hormone signalling by abscisic acid receptors

    KAUST Repository

    Melcher, Karsten

    2009-12-03

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a ubiquitous hormone that regulates plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses. Its action is mediated by the PYR/PYL/RCAR family of START proteins, but it remains unclear how these receptors bind ABA and, in turn, how hormone binding leads to inhibition of the downstream type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C) effectors. Here we report crystal structures of apo and ABA-bound receptors as well as a ternary PYL2-ABA-PP2C complex. The apo receptors contain an open ligand-binding pocket flanked by a gate that closes in response to ABA by way of conformational changes in two highly conserved ?-loops that serve as a gate and latch. Moreover, ABA-induced closure of the gate creates a surface that enables the receptor to dock into and competitively inhibit the PP2C active site. A conserved tryptophan in the PP2C inserts directly between the gate and latch, which functions to further lock the receptor in a closed conformation. Together, our results identify a conserved gate-latch-lock mechanism underlying ABA signalling. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  16. A gate-latch-lock mechanism for hormone signalling by abscisic acid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melcher, Karsten; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X Edward; Soon, Fen-Fen; Xu, Yong; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; Park, Sang-Youl; Weiner, Joshua J; Fujii, Hiroaki; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Kovach, Amanda; Li, Jun; Wang, Yonghong; Li, Jiayang; Peterson, Francis C; Jensen, Davin R; Yong, Eu-Leong; Volkman, Brian F; Cutler, Sean R; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xu, H Eric; (NU Sinapore); (Van Andel); (MCW); (UCR); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2010-01-12

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a ubiquitous hormone that regulates plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses. Its action is mediated by the PYR/PYL/RCAR family of START proteins, but it remains unclear how these receptors bind ABA and, in turn, how hormone binding leads to inhibition of the downstream type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C) effectors. Here we report crystal structures of apo and ABA-bound receptors as well as a ternary PYL2-ABA-PP2C complex. The apo receptors contain an open ligand-binding pocket flanked by a gate that closes in response to ABA by way of conformational changes in two highly conserved β-loops that serve as a gate and latch. Moreover, ABA-induced closure of the gate creates a surface that enables the receptor to dock into and competitively inhibit the PP2C active site. A conserved tryptophan in the PP2C inserts directly between the gate and latch, which functions to further lock the receptor in a closed conformation. Together, our results identify a conserved gate-latch-lock mechanism underlying ABA signalling.

  17. ABA and PBS: The Dangers in Creating Artificial Dichotomies in Behavioral Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Mary Jane; DelPizzo-Cheng, Eliza; LaRue, Robert H.; Sloman, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of controversy regarding the definition and independence of Positive Behavioral Supports (PBS) within the context of behavioral intervention. Specifically, behavior analysts have argued over whether PBS is subsumed within Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) or whether it can be considered a separate…

  18. Inspection of the grapevine BURP superfamily highlights an expansion of RD22 genes with distinctive expression features in berry development and ABA-mediated stress responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tomás Matus

    Full Text Available The RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 22 (RD22 gene is a molecular link between abscisic acid (ABA signalling and abiotic stress responses. Its expression has been used as a reliable ABA early response marker. In Arabidopsis, the single copy RD22 gene possesses a BURP domain also located at the C-terminus of USP embryonic proteins and the beta subunit of polygalacturonases. In grapevine, a RD22 gene has been identified but putative paralogs are also found in the grape genome, possibly forming a large RD22 family in this species. In this work, we searched for annotations containing BURP domains in the Vitis vinifera genome. Nineteen proteins were defined by a comparative analysis between the two genome predictions and RNA-Seq data. These sequences were compared to other plant BURPs identified in previous genome surveys allowing us to reconceive group classifications based on phylogenetic relationships and protein motif occurrence. We observed a lineage-specific evolution of the RD22 family, with the biggest expansion in grapevine and poplar. In contrast, rice, sorghum and maize presented highly expanded monocot-specific groups. The Vitis RD22 group may have expanded from segmental duplications as most of its members are confined to a region in chromosome 4. The inspection of transcriptomic data revealed variable expression of BURP genes in vegetative and reproductive organs. Many genes were induced in specific tissues or by abiotic and biotic stresses. Three RD22 genes were further studied showing that they responded oppositely to ABA and to stress conditions. Our results show that the inclusion of RNA-Seq data is essential while describing gene families and improving gene annotations. Robust phylogenetic analyses including all BURP members from other sequenced species helped us redefine previous relationships that were erroneously established. This work provides additional evidence for RD22 genes serving as marker genes for different organs or stresses

  19. Inspection of the grapevine BURP superfamily highlights an expansion of RD22 genes with distinctive expression features in berry development and ABA-mediated stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Espinoza, Carmen; Vega, Andrea; Cavallini, Erika; Dal Santo, Silvia; Cañón, Paola; Rodríguez-Hoces de la Guardia, Amparo; Serrano, Jennifer; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    The RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 22 (RD22) gene is a molecular link between abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and abiotic stress responses. Its expression has been used as a reliable ABA early response marker. In Arabidopsis, the single copy RD22 gene possesses a BURP domain also located at the C-terminus of USP embryonic proteins and the beta subunit of polygalacturonases. In grapevine, a RD22 gene has been identified but putative paralogs are also found in the grape genome, possibly forming a large RD22 family in this species. In this work, we searched for annotations containing BURP domains in the Vitis vinifera genome. Nineteen proteins were defined by a comparative analysis between the two genome predictions and RNA-Seq data. These sequences were compared to other plant BURPs identified in previous genome surveys allowing us to reconceive group classifications based on phylogenetic relationships and protein motif occurrence. We observed a lineage-specific evolution of the RD22 family, with the biggest expansion in grapevine and poplar. In contrast, rice, sorghum and maize presented highly expanded monocot-specific groups. The Vitis RD22 group may have expanded from segmental duplications as most of its members are confined to a region in chromosome 4. The inspection of transcriptomic data revealed variable expression of BURP genes in vegetative and reproductive organs. Many genes were induced in specific tissues or by abiotic and biotic stresses. Three RD22 genes were further studied showing that they responded oppositely to ABA and to stress conditions. Our results show that the inclusion of RNA-Seq data is essential while describing gene families and improving gene annotations. Robust phylogenetic analyses including all BURP members from other sequenced species helped us redefine previous relationships that were erroneously established. This work provides additional evidence for RD22 genes serving as marker genes for different organs or stresses in grapevine. PMID

  20. Guard cell photosynthesis is critical for stomatal turgor production, yet does not directly mediate CO2 - and ABA-induced stomatal closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay-Shemer, Tamar; Palomares, Axxell; Bagheri, Andisheh; Israelsson-Nordstrom, Maria; Engineer, Cawas B; Bargmann, Bastiaan O R; Stephan, Aaron B; Schroeder, Julian I

    2015-08-01

    Stomata mediate gas exchange between the inter-cellular spaces of leaves and the atmosphere. CO2 levels in leaves (Ci) are determined by respiration, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and atmospheric [CO2 ]. [CO2 ] in leaves mediates stomatal movements. The role of guard cell photosynthesis in stomatal conductance responses is a matter of debate, and genetic approaches are needed. We have generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that are chlorophyll-deficient in guard cells only, expressing a constitutively active chlorophyllase in a guard cell specific enhancer trap line. Our data show that more than 90% of guard cells were chlorophyll-deficient. Interestingly, approximately 45% of stomata had an unusual, previously not-described, morphology of thin-shaped chlorophyll-less stomata. Nevertheless, stomatal size, stomatal index, plant morphology, and whole-leaf photosynthetic parameters (PSII, qP, qN, FV '/FM' ) were comparable with wild-type plants. Time-resolved intact leaf gas-exchange analyses showed a reduction in stomatal conductance and CO2 -assimilation rates of the transgenic plants. Normalization of CO2 responses showed that stomata of transgenic plants respond to [CO2 ] shifts. Detailed stomatal aperture measurements of normal kidney-shaped stomata, which lack chlorophyll, showed stomatal closing responses to [CO2 ] elevation and abscisic acid (ABA), while thin-shaped stomata were continuously closed. Our present findings show that stomatal movement responses to [CO2 ] and ABA are functional in guard cells that lack chlorophyll. These data suggest that guard cell CO2 and ABA signal transduction are not directly modulated by guard cell photosynthesis/electron transport. Moreover, the finding that chlorophyll-less stomata cause a 'deflated' thin-shaped phenotype, suggests that photosynthesis in guard cells is critical for energization and guard cell turgor production. PMID:26096271

  1. Guard cell photosynthesis is critical for stomatal turgor production, yet does not directly mediate CO2 - and ABA-induced stomatal closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay-Shemer, Tamar; Palomares, Axxell; Bagheri, Andisheh; Israelsson-Nordstrom, Maria; Engineer, Cawas B; Bargmann, Bastiaan O R; Stephan, Aaron B; Schroeder, Julian I

    2015-08-01

    Stomata mediate gas exchange between the inter-cellular spaces of leaves and the atmosphere. CO2 levels in leaves (Ci) are determined by respiration, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and atmospheric [CO2 ]. [CO2 ] in leaves mediates stomatal movements. The role of guard cell photosynthesis in stomatal conductance responses is a matter of debate, and genetic approaches are needed. We have generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that are chlorophyll-deficient in guard cells only, expressing a constitutively active chlorophyllase in a guard cell specific enhancer trap line. Our data show that more than 90% of guard cells were chlorophyll-deficient. Interestingly, approximately 45% of stomata had an unusual, previously not-described, morphology of thin-shaped chlorophyll-less stomata. Nevertheless, stomatal size, stomatal index, plant morphology, and whole-leaf photosynthetic parameters (PSII, qP, qN, FV '/FM' ) were comparable with wild-type plants. Time-resolved intact leaf gas-exchange analyses showed a reduction in stomatal conductance and CO2 -assimilation rates of the transgenic plants. Normalization of CO2 responses showed that stomata of transgenic plants respond to [CO2 ] shifts. Detailed stomatal aperture measurements of normal kidney-shaped stomata, which lack chlorophyll, showed stomatal closing responses to [CO2 ] elevation and abscisic acid (ABA), while thin-shaped stomata were continuously closed. Our present findings show that stomatal movement responses to [CO2 ] and ABA are functional in guard cells that lack chlorophyll. These data suggest that guard cell CO2 and ABA signal transduction are not directly modulated by guard cell photosynthesis/electron transport. Moreover, the finding that chlorophyll-less stomata cause a 'deflated' thin-shaped phenotype, suggests that photosynthesis in guard cells is critical for energization and guard cell turgor production.

  2. Variable laser attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprng one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength.

  3. Applying Echoes Mean Frequency Shift for Attenuation Imaging in Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litniewski, J.; Klimonda, Z.; Nowicki, A.

    The purpose of this study was to develop the attenuation parametric imaging technique and to apply it for in vivo characterization of tissue. Local attenuation coefficient was determined by evaluating the frequency downshift that encounters the amplitude spectrum of the interrogating ultrasonic pulse during propagation in the absorbing tissue. Operation and accuracy of the processing methods were verified by assessing the size-independent region of interest (ROI) for attenuation determination and calculating the attenuation coefficient distribution for experimentally recorded tissue-phantom scattered waveforms. The Siemens Antares scanner equipped with Ultrasound Research Interface unit allowing for direct radiofrequency (RF) signals recording was used for B-scan imaging of the tissue- mimicking phantom in vitro and liver in vivo. RF data were processed to determine attenuation coefficient along the B-scan lines. Also, the preliminary studies of backscattered signals from skin recorded using a skin scanner were performed to calculate parametric-attenuation images.

  4. Root ABA Accumulation Enhances Rice Seedling Drought Tolerance under Ammonium Supply: Interaction with Aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Ying; Gao, Limin; Wang, Min; Chaumont, François; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated that ammonium nutrition enhances the drought tolerance of rice seedlings compared to nitrate nutrition and contributes to a higher root water uptake ability. It remains unclear why rice seedlings maintain a higher water uptake ability when supplied with ammonium under drought stress. Here, we focused on the effects of nitrogen form and drought stress on root abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and aquaporin expression using hydroponics experiments and stimulating drought stress with 10% PEG6000. Drought stress decreased the leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductivity and increased the leaf temperature of plants supplied with either ammonium or nitrate, but especially under nitrate supply. After 4 h of PEG treatment, the root protoplast water permeability and the expression of root PIP and TIP genes decreased in plants supplied with ammonium or nitrate. After 24 h of PEG treatment, the root hydraulic conductivity, the protoplast water permeability, and the expression of some aquaporin genes increased in plants supplied with ammonium compared to those under non-PEG treatment. Root ABA accumulation was induced by 24 h of PEG treatment, especially in plants supplied with ammonium. The addition of exogenous ABA decreased the expression of PIP and TIP genes under non-PEG treatment but increased the expression of some of them under PEG treatment. We concluded that drought stress induced a down-regulation of aquaporin expression, which appeared earlier than did root ABA accumulation. With continued drought stress, aquaporin expression and activity increased due to root ABA accumulation in plants supplied with ammonium. PMID:27559341

  5. Root ABA Accumulation Enhances Rice Seedling Drought Tolerance under Ammonium Supply: Interaction with Aquaporins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Ying; Gao, Limin; Wang, Min; Chaumont, François; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated that ammonium nutrition enhances the drought tolerance of rice seedlings compared to nitrate nutrition and contributes to a higher root water uptake ability. It remains unclear why rice seedlings maintain a higher water uptake ability when supplied with ammonium under drought stress. Here, we focused on the effects of nitrogen form and drought stress on root abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and aquaporin expression using hydroponics experiments and stimulating drought stress with 10% PEG6000. Drought stress decreased the leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductivity and increased the leaf temperature of plants supplied with either ammonium or nitrate, but especially under nitrate supply. After 4 h of PEG treatment, the root protoplast water permeability and the expression of root PIP and TIP genes decreased in plants supplied with ammonium or nitrate. After 24 h of PEG treatment, the root hydraulic conductivity, the protoplast water permeability, and the expression of some aquaporin genes increased in plants supplied with ammonium compared to those under non-PEG treatment. Root ABA accumulation was induced by 24 h of PEG treatment, especially in plants supplied with ammonium. The addition of exogenous ABA decreased the expression of PIP and TIP genes under non-PEG treatment but increased the expression of some of them under PEG treatment. We concluded that drought stress induced a down-regulation of aquaporin expression, which appeared earlier than did root ABA accumulation. With continued drought stress, aquaporin expression and activity increased due to root ABA accumulation in plants supplied with ammonium. PMID:27559341

  6. Functional roles of the pepper RING finger protein gene, CaRING1, in abscisic acid signaling and dehydration tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae Woo; Hwang, Byung Kook; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-09-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses, which include pathogens and conditions of high salinity, low temperature, and drought. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major plant hormone involved in signal transduction pathways that mediate the defense response of plants to abiotic stress. Previously, we isolated Ring finger protein gene (CaRING1) from pepper (Capsicum annuum), which is associated with resistance to bacterial pathogens, accompanied by hypersensitive cell death. Here, we report a new function of the CaRING1 gene product in the ABA-mediated defense responses of plants to dehydration stress. The expression of the CaRING1 gene was induced in pepper leaves treated with ABA or exposed to dehydration or NaCl. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaRING1 in pepper plants exhibited low degree of ABA-induced stomatal closure and high levels of transpirational water loss in dehydrated leaves. These led to be more vulnerable to dehydration stress in CaRING1-silenced pepper than in the control pepper, accompanied by reduction of ABA-regulated gene expression and low accumulation of ABA and H2O2. In contrast, CaRING1-overexpressing transgenic plants showed enhanced sensitivity to ABA during the seedling growth and establishment. These plants were also more tolerant to dehydration stress than the wild-type plants because of high ABA accumulation, enhanced stomatal closure and increased expression of stress-responsive genes. Together, these results suggest that the CaRING1 acts as positive factor for dehydration tolerance in Arabidopsis by modulating ABA biosynthesis and ABA-mediated stomatal closing and gene expression. PMID:26249046

  7. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Possible Influences of ABA on Secondary Metabolism of Pigments, Flavonoids and Antioxidants in Tomato Fruit during Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Wangshu; Li, Dongdong; Luo, Zisheng; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has been proven to be involved in the regulation of climacteric fruit ripening, but a comprehensive investigation of its influence on ripening related processes is still lacking. By applying the next generation sequencing technology, we conducted a comparative analysis of the effects of exogenous ABA and NDGA (Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis) on tomato fruit ripening. The high throughput sequencing results showed that out of the 25728 genes expressed across all three samples, 10388 were identified as significantly differently expressed genes. Exogenous ABA was found to enhance the transcription of genes involved in pigments metabolism, including carotenoids biosynthesis and chlorophyll degradation, whereas NDGA treatment inhibited these processes. The results also revealed the crucial role of ABA in flavonoids synthesis and regulation of antioxidant system. Intriguingly, we also found that an inhibition of endogenous ABA significantly enhanced the transcriptional abundance of genes involved in photosynthesis. Our results highlighted the significance of ABA in regulating tomato ripening, which provided insight into the regulatory mechanism of fruit maturation and senescence process.

  8. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Possible Influences of ABA on Secondary Metabolism of Pigments, Flavonoids and Antioxidants in Tomato Fruit during Ripening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangshu Mou

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA has been proven to be involved in the regulation of climacteric fruit ripening, but a comprehensive investigation of its influence on ripening related processes is still lacking. By applying the next generation sequencing technology, we conducted a comparative analysis of the effects of exogenous ABA and NDGA (Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis on tomato fruit ripening. The high throughput sequencing results showed that out of the 25728 genes expressed across all three samples, 10388 were identified as significantly differently expressed genes. Exogenous ABA was found to enhance the transcription of genes involved in pigments metabolism, including carotenoids biosynthesis and chlorophyll degradation, whereas NDGA treatment inhibited these processes. The results also revealed the crucial role of ABA in flavonoids synthesis and regulation of antioxidant system. Intriguingly, we also found that an inhibition of endogenous ABA significantly enhanced the transcriptional abundance of genes involved in photosynthesis. Our results highlighted the significance of ABA in regulating tomato ripening, which provided insight into the regulatory mechanism of fruit maturation and senescence process.

  9. ABA suppresses Botrytis cinerea elicited NO production in tomato to influence H2O2 generation and increase host susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushen eSivakumaran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA production has emerged a susceptibility factor in plant-pathogen interactions. This work examined the interaction of ABA with NO in tomato following challenge with the ABA-synthesising pathogen, Botrytis cinerea. Trace gas detection using a quantum cascade laser detected NO production within minutes of challenge with B. cinerea whilst photoacoustic laser detection detected ethylene production – an established mediator of defence against this pathogen - occurring after 6 h. Application of the NO generation inhibitor N-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME suppressed both NO and ethylene production and resistance against B. cinerea. The tomato mutant sitiens fails to accumulate ABA (abscisic acid, shows increased resistance to B. cinerea and we noted exhibited elevated NO and ethylene production. Exogenous application of L-NAME or ABA reduced NO production in sitiens and reduced resistance to B. cinerea. Increased resistance to B. cinerea in sitiens have previously been linked to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation but this was reduced in both L-NAME and ABA treated sitiens. Taken together, our data suggests that ABA can decreases resistance to B. cinerea via reduction of NO production which also suppresses both ROS and ethylene production.

  10. COPPER AMINE OXIDASE1 (CuA01)of Arabidopsis thaliana Contributes to Abscisic Acid-and Polyamine-Induced Nitric Oxide Biosynthesis and Abscisic Acid Signal Transduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rinukshi Wimalasekera; Corina Villar; Tahmina Begum; Günther F. E. Scherer

    2011-01-01

    Polyamines (PA), polyamine oxidases, copper amine oxidases, and nitric oxide (NO)play important roles in physiology and stress responses in plants. NO biosynthesis as a result of catabolism of PA by polyamine oxidases and copper amine oxidases may explain in part PA-mediated responses. Involvement of a copper amine oxidase gene, COPPER AMINE OXIDASE1 (CuA01), of Arabidopsis was tested for its role in stress responses using the knockouts cuaol.1 and cuaol-2. PA-induced and ABA-induced NO production investigated by fluorometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that the cuaol-1 and cuaol-2 are impaired in NO production, suggesting a function of CuAO1 in PA and ABA-mediated NO production. Furthermore, we found a PA-dependent increase in protein S-nitrosylation. The addition of PA and ABA also resulted in HO increases, cuaol-1 and cuaol-2 showed less sensitivity to exogenous ABA supplementation during ger-mination, seedling establishment, and root growth inhibition as compared to wild-type. In response to ABA treatment,expression levels of the stress-responsive genes RD29A and ADH1 were significantly lower in the knockouts. These obser-vations characterize cuaol-1 and cuaol-2 as ABA-insensitive mutants. Taken together, our findings extend the ABA signal transduction network to include CuAO1 as one potential contributor to enhanced NO production by ABA.

  11. Up-regulation of abscisic acid signaling pathway facilitates aphid xylem absorption and osmoregulation under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huijuan; Sun, Yucheng; Peng, Xinhong; Wang, Qinyang; Harris, Marvin; Ge, Feng

    2016-02-01

    The activation of the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway reduces water loss from plants challenged by drought stress. The effect of drought-induced ABA signaling on the defense and nutrition allocation of plants is largely unknown. We postulated that these changes can affect herbivorous insects. We studied the effects of drought on different feeding stages of pea aphids in the wild-type A17 of Medicago truncatula and ABA signaling pathway mutant sta-1. We examined the impact of drought on plant water status, induced plant defense signaling via the abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) pathways, and on the host nutritional quality in terms of leaf free amino acid content. During the penetration phase of aphid feeding, drought decreased epidermis/mesophyll resistance but increased mesophyll/phloem resistance of A17 but not sta-1 plants. Quantification of transcripts associated with ABA, JA and SA signaling indicated that the drought-induced up-regulation of ABA signaling decreased the SA-dependent defense but increased the JA-dependent defense in A17 plants. During the phloem-feeding phase, drought had little effect on the amino acid concentrations and the associated aphid phloem-feeding parameters in both plant genotypes. In the xylem absorption stage, drought decreased xylem absorption time of aphids in both genotypes because of decreased water potential. Nevertheless, the activation of the ABA signaling pathway increased water-use efficiency of A17 plants by decreasing the stomatal aperture and transpiration rate. In contrast, the water potential of sta-1 plants (unable to close stomata) was too low to support xylem absorption activity of aphids; the aphids on sta-1 plants had the highest hemolymph osmolarity and lowest abundance under drought conditions. Taken together this study illustrates the significance of cross-talk between biotic-abiotic signaling pathways in plant-aphid interaction, and reveals the mechanisms leading to alter

  12. Hydrogen peroxide modulates abscisic acid signaling in root growth and development in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Ling; ZHOU Yun; ZHANG XiaoRan; SONG ChunPeng; Gao MingQing

    2007-01-01

    Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) can inhibit root growth and promote formation of more root hairs in the root tip of Arabidopsis. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie root ABA signaling are largely unknown. We report here that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) reduces the root growth of wild type,and the phenotype of H2O2 on the root growth is similar to ABA response. Meanwhile ABA-induced changes in the morphology of root system can be partly reversed by ascorbic acid in wild type and abolished in NADPH oxidase defective mutant atrbohF and atrbohC. Further, ABA can induce H2O2 accumulation in the root cells and enhance transcription level of OXI1, which is necessary for many more AOS-dependent processes such as root hair growth in Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that H2O2 as an important signal molecule is required for the ABA-regulated root growth and development in Arabidopsis.

  13. Optimized ultrasonic attenuation measures for non-homogeneous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovés, V; Gosálbez, J; Carrión, A; Miralles, R; Payá, J

    2016-02-01

    In this paper the study of frequency-dependent ultrasonic attenuation in strongly heterogeneous materials is addressed. To determine the attenuation accurately over a wide frequency range, it is necessary to have suitable excitation techniques. Three kinds of transmitted signals have been analysed, grouped according to their bandwidth: narrowband and broadband signals. The mathematical formulation has revealed the relation between the distribution of energy in their spectra and their immunity to noise. Sinusoidal and burst signals have higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) but need many measurements to cover their frequency range. However, linear swept-frequency signals (chirp) improve the effective bandwidth covering a wide frequency range with a single measurement and equivalent accuracy, at the expense of a lower SNR. In the case of highly attenuating materials, it is proposed to use different configurations of chirp signals, enabling injecting more energy, and therefore, improving the sensitivity of the technique without a high time cost. Thus, if the attenuation of the material and the sensitivity of the measuring equipment allows the use of broadband signals, the combination of this kind of signal and suitable signal processing results in an optimal estimate of frequency-dependent attenuation with a minimum measurement time. PMID:26432190

  14. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  15. 干旱胁迫下外源喷施 ABA 对地被菊生理特性的影响%Effect of Application of ABA on Physiological Characteristics of Chry santhemum Under Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨; 毛洪玉; 马磊; 谭霖

    2015-01-01

    为探讨外源ABA的化学调控作用,研究了干旱胁迫条件下喷施不同浓度外源激素脱落酸(ABA )对地被菊幼苗生理特性的影响。结果表明:喷施ABA后,地被菊幼苗蒸腾速率(Tr)、气孔导度(Gs)明显下降。外源ABA延缓了叶片相对含水量和叶绿素含量的下降,提高丙二醛和可溶性糖等渗透调节物质的水平,提高了植物的抗旱能力。浓度为100 mg·L ‐1 ABA的处理效果最佳。%In order to explore the chemical control effect of exogenous ABA ,the effect of different concentrations of exogenous ABA on physiological property of Chrysanthemum seedling under drought stress was analyzed . The results showed that after spraying exogenous ABA ,transpiration rate and stomatal conductance decreased , exogenous ABA slowed the decline of leaf relative water content and chlorophyll content ,increased the content of osmotic regulation substances ,such as MDA and soluble sugar ,and improved the resistance to drought .100 mg·L‐1 exogenous ABA performed the best .

  16. Antisocial thinking in adolescents: further psychometric development of the Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (ABAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen M; Parry, Rachael; Fearon, R M Pasco

    2015-03-01

    Investigating the impact of "off-line" cognitive structures on the broad range of antisocial behaviors shown by young people has been hampered by the absence of psychometrically robust measures of antisocial cognitions. This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (ABAS), a developmentally sensitive measure of young people's beliefs and attitudes toward social standards of acceptable behavior at home and at school. The reliability and validity of the ABAS was assessed in a sample of British school children (N = 486) aged 9-16 years (M = 12.79, SD = 1.90) and male young offenders (N = 84) aged 13-17 years (M = 15.15, SD = 0.27). Participants completed the ABAS, together with a self-report measure of antisocial behavior; maternal reports of antisocial activity were also collected in the offending sample. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the 2-factor structure of Rule Noncompliance and Peer Conflict previously derived from a sample of Canadian school children, and these factors showed good test-retest reliability. Rule Noncompliance predicted self-reported antisocial behavior for ages 11-16 years, while Peer Conflict predicted antisocial behavior for ages 9-16 years. Comparisons between young offenders and an age-matched subsample of males from the school group showed significant differences. In young offenders, Rule Noncompliance and Peer Conflict were significantly predictive of self-reported antisocial behavior, while Rule Noncompliance independently predicted mothers' ratings of their sons' antisocial behavior. These findings provide support for the ABAS as a psychometrically sound measure of antisocial thinking.

  17. Overexpression of an ABA biosynthesis gene using a stress-inducible promoter enhances drought resistance in petunia

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada-Melo, Alejandro C; Chao,; Reid, Michael S; Cai-Zhong Jiang

    2015-01-01

    The response of plants to drought stress includes reduced transpiration as stomates close in response to increased abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations. Constitutive overexpression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in ABA biosynthesis, increases drought resistance, but causes negative pleiotropic effects on plant growth and development. We overexpressed the tomato NCED (LeNCED1) in petunia plants under the control of a stress-inducible promoter, rd29A. Under water stress...

  18. The GCR2 gene family is not required for ABA control of seed germination and early seedling development in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA regulates diverse processes of plant growth and development. It has recently been proposed that GCR2 functions as a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR for ABA. However, the structural relationships and functionality of GCR2 have been challenged by several independent studies. A central question in this controversy is whether gcr2 mutants are insensitive to ABA, because gcr2 mutants were shown to display reduced sensitivity to ABA under one experimental condition (e.g. 22 degrees C, continuous white light with 150 micromol m(-2 s(-1 but were shown to display wild-type sensitivity under another slightly different condition (e.g. 23 degrees C, 14/10 hr photoperiod with 120 micromol m(-2 s(-1. It has been hypothesized that gcr2 appears only weakly insensitive to ABA because two other GCR2-like genes in Arabidopsis, GCL1 and GCL2, compensate for the loss of function of GCR2. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to test this hypothesis, we isolated a putative loss-of-function allele of GCL2, and then generated all possible combinations of mutations in each member of the GCR2 gene family. We found that all double mutants, including gcr2 gcl1, gcr2 gcl2, gcl1 gcl2, as well as the gcr2 gcl1 gcl2 triple mutant displayed wild-type sensitivity to ABA in seed germination and early seedling development assays, demonstrating that the GCR2 gene family is not required for ABA responses in these processes. CONCLUSION: These results provide compelling genetic evidence that GCR2 is unlikely to act as a receptor for ABA in the context of either seed germination or early seedling development.

  19. An ABA-based Intervention Package for Treating the Inappropriate Use of a Communication Device Within Autistic Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Virge Connery

    2013-01-01

    The principles of applied behaviour analysis (ABA) are widely used with autistic populations in managing challenging behaviour. The following paper will review supporting literature for creating a treatment package for targeting the misuse of a communication device in brief detail by using key elements in ABA. It will examine various types of attention (or response) that may reinforce the problem behaviour, as well as intervention methods, such as functional communication training and noncont...

  20. Magnetic oscillation of optical phonon in ABA- and ABC-stacked trilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Chunxiao; Jung, Jeil; Cao, Bingchen; Qiu, Caiyu; Shen, Xiaonan; Ferreira, Aires; Adam, Shaffique; Yu, Ting

    2015-06-01

    We present a comparative measurement of the G -peak oscillations of phonon frequency, Raman intensity, and linewidth in the magneto-Raman scattering of optical E2 g phonons in mechanically exfoliated ABA- and ABC-stacked trilayer graphene (TLG). Whereas in ABA-stacked TLG, we observe magnetophonon oscillations consistent with single-bilayer chiral band doublets, the features are flat for ABC-stacked TLG up to magnetic fields of 9 T. This suppression can be attributed to the enhancement of band chirality that compactifies the spectrum of Landau levels and modifies the magnetophonon resonance properties. The drastically different coupling behavior between the electronic excitations and the E2 g phonons in ABA- and ABC-stacked TLG reflects their different electronic band structures and the electronic Landau level transitions and thus can be another way to determine the stacking orders and to probe the stacking-order-dependent electronic structures. In addition, the sensitivity of the magneto-Raman scattering to the particular stacking order in few-layer graphene highlights the important role of interlayer coupling in modifying the optical response properties in van der Waals layered materials.

  1. Magnetic Oscillation of Optical Phonon in ABA- and ABC-Stacked Trilayer Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Cong, Chunxiao; Cao, Bingchen; Qiu, Caiyu; Shen, Xiaonan; Ferreira, Aires; Adam, Shaffique; Yu, Ting

    2015-01-01

    We present a comparative measurement of the G-peak oscillations of phonon frequency, Raman intensity and linewidth in the Magneto-Raman scattering of optical E2g phonons in mechanically exfoliated ABA- and ABC-stacked trilayer graphene (TLG). Whereas in ABA-stacked TLG, we observe magnetophonon oscillations consistent with single-bilayer chiral band doublets, the features are flat for ABC-stacked TLG up to magnetic fields of 9 T. This suppression can be attributed to the enhancement of band chirality that compactifies the spectrum of Landau levels and modifies the magnetophonon resonance properties. The drastically different coupling behaviour between the electronic excitations and the E2g phonons in ABA- and ABC-stacked TLG reflects their different electronic band structures and the electronic Landau level transitions and thus can be another way to determine the stacking orders and to probe the stacking-order-dependent electronic structures. In addition, the sensitivity of the magneto-Raman scattering to the...

  2. Graphene oxide modulates root growth of Brassica napus L. and regulates ABA and IAA concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fan; Liu, Yu-Feng; Lu, Guang-Yuan; Zhang, Xue-Kun; Xie, Ling-Li; Yuan, Cheng-Fei; Xu, Ben-Bo

    2016-04-01

    Researchers have proven that nanomaterials have a significant effect on plant growth and development. To better understand the effects of nanomaterials on plants, Zhongshuang 11 was treated with different concentrations of graphene oxide. The results indicated that 25-100mg/l graphene oxide treatment resulted in shorter seminal root length compared with the control samples. The fresh root weight decreased when treated with 50-100mg/l graphene oxide. The graphene oxide treatment had no significant effect on the Malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Treatment with 50mg/l graphene oxide increased the transcript abundance of genes involved in ABA biosynthesis (NCED, AAO, and ZEP) and some genes involved in IAA biosynthesis (ARF2, ARF8, IAA2, and IAA3), but inhibited the transcript levels of IAA4 and IAA7. The graphene oxide treatment also resulted in a higher ABA content, but a lower IAA content compared with the control samples. The results indicated that graphene oxide modulated the root growth of Brassica napus L. and affected ABA and IAA biosynthesis and concentration. PMID:26945480

  3. Responses in gas exchange and water status between drought-tolerant and-susceptible soybean genotypes with ABA application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Mokter Hossain; Hon-Ming Lam; Jianhua Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of drought-tolerant and drought-susceptible soybean genotypes to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) application during progressive soil drying at seedling stages. Five-day old soybean seedlings were transplanted into PVC tubes filled with soil mixture. Seedlings were watered daily with similar water volumes until second trifoliate leaves emerged, and thereafter soil drying with or without exogenous ABA application was imposed. Half of the seedlings of each genotype were left for regular watering as control plants. Soil water status declined significantly over seven days of withholding water supply for both genotypes. Leaf expansion rate, stomatal conductance (gs), leaf water potential (ψw), and relative water content of leaves (%RWC) declined significantly under soil drying as well as soil drying with ABA application, compared to their values for well-watered soybean genotypes. However, a drought-tolerant genotype (C12) responded more rapidly than a drought-susceptible genotype (C08) after imposition of soil drying and soil drying with exogenous ABA. In addition, application of exogenous ABA to water-restricted soybeans resulted in higher%RWC andψw in the drought-tolerant than in the drought-susceptible genotype. Compared to the drought-susceptible genotype, the drought-tolerant genotype was more responsive to exogenous ABA application, resulting in a higher root-to-shoot ratio.

  4. Responses in gas exchange and water status between drought-tolerant and -susceptible soybean genotypes with ABA application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mokter Hossain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of drought-tolerant and drought-susceptible soybean genotypes to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA application during progressive soil drying at seedling stages. Five-day old soybean seedlings were transplanted into PVC tubes filled with soil mixture. Seedlings were watered daily with similar water volumes until second trifoliate leaves emerged, and thereafter soil drying with or without exogenous ABA application was imposed. Half of the seedlings of each genotype were left for regular watering as control plants. Soil water status declined significantly over seven days of withholding water supply for both genotypes. Leaf expansion rate, stomatal conductance (gs, leaf water potential (ψw, and relative water content of leaves (%RWC declined significantly under soil drying as well as soil drying with ABA application, compared to their values for well-watered soybean genotypes. However, a drought-tolerant genotype (C12 responded more rapidly than a drought-susceptible genotype (C08 after imposition of soil drying and soil drying with exogenous ABA. In addition, application of exogenous ABA to water-restricted soybeans resulted in higher %RWC and ψw in the drought-tolerant than in the drought-susceptible genotype. Compared to the drought-susceptible genotype, the drought-tolerant genotype was more responsive to exogenous ABA application, resulting in a higher root-to-shoot ratio.

  5. Overexpression of Arachis hypogaea AREB1 Gene Enhances Drought Tolerance by Modulating ROS Scavenging and Maintaining Endogenous ABA Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AhAREB1 (Arachis hypogaea Abscisic-acid Response Element Binding Protein 1 is a member of the basic domain leucine zipper (bZIP-type transcription factor in peanut. Previously, we found that expression of AhAREB1 was specifically induced by abscisic acid (ABA, dehydration and drought. To understand the drought defense mechanism regulated by AhAREB1, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing AhAREB1 was conducted in wild-type (WT, and a complementation experiment was employed to ABA non-sensitivity mutant abi5 (abscisic acid-insensitive 5. Constitutive expression of AhAREB1 confers water stress tolerance and is highly sensitive to exogenous ABA. Microarray and further real-time PCR analysis revealed that drought stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging, ABA synthesis/metabolism-related genes and others were regulated in transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing AhAREB1. Accordingly, low level of ROS, but higher ABA content was detected in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants’ overexpression of AhAREB1. Taken together, it was concluded that AhAREB1 modulates ROS accumulation and endogenous ABA level to improve drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

  6. Genome Wide Transcriptome Analysis reveals ABA mediated response in Arabidopsis during Gold (AuCl4- treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh eShukla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The unique physico-chemical properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs find manifold applications in diagnostics, medicine and catalysis. Chemical synthesis produces reactive AuNPs and generates hazardous by-products. Alternatively, plants can be utilized to produce AuNPs in an eco-friendly manner. To better control the biosynthesis of AuNPs, we need to first understand the detailed molecular response induced by AuCl4- In this study, we carried out global transcriptome analysis in root tissue of Arabidopsis grown for 12- hours in presence of gold solution (HAuCl4 using the novel unbiased Affymetrix exon array. Transcriptomics analysis revealed differential regulation of a total of 704 genes and 4900 exons. Of these, 492 and 212 genes were up- and downregulated, respectively. The validation of the expressed key genes, such as glutathione-S-transferases, auxin responsive genes, cytochrome P450 82C2, methyl transferases, transducin (G protein beta subunit, ERF transcription factor, ABC, and MATE transporters, was carried out through quantitative RT-PCR. These key genes demonstrated specific induction under AuCl4- treatment relative to other heavy metals, suggesting a unique plant-gold interaction. GO enrichment analysis reveals the upregulation of processes like oxidative stress, glutathione binding, metal binding, transport, and plant hormonal responses. Changes predicted in biochemical pathways indicated major modulation in glutathione mediated detoxification, flavones and derivatives, and plant hormone biosynthesis. Motif search analysis identified a highly significant enriched motif, ACGT, which is an abscisic acid responsive core element (ABRE, suggesting the possibility of ABA- mediated signaling. Identification of abscisic acid response element (ABRE points to the operation of a predominant signaling mechanism in response to AuCl4- exposure. Overall, this study presents a useful picture of plant-gold interaction with an identification of

  7. Genome wide transcriptome analysis reveals ABA mediated response in Arabidopsis during gold (AuCl(-) 4) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Devesh; Krishnamurthy, Sneha; Sahi, Shivendra V

    2014-01-01

    The unique physico-chemical properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) find manifold applications in diagnostics, medicine and catalysis. Chemical synthesis produces reactive AuNPs and generates hazardous by-products. Alternatively, plants can be utilized to produce AuNPs in an eco-friendly manner. To better control the biosynthesis of AuNPs, we need to first understand the detailed molecular response induced by AuCl(-) 4 In this study, we carried out global transcriptome analysis in root tissue of Arabidopsis grown for 12- h in presence of gold solution (HAuCl4) using the novel unbiased Affymetrix exon array. Transcriptomics analysis revealed differential regulation of a total of 704 genes and 4900 exons. Of these, 492 and 212 genes were up- and downregulated, respectively. The validation of the expressed key genes, such as glutathione-S-transferases, auxin responsive genes, cytochrome P450 82C2, methyl transferases, transducin (G protein beta subunit), ERF transcription factor, ABC, and MATE transporters, was carried out through quantitative RT-PCR. These key genes demonstrated specific induction under AuCl4(-) treatment relative to other heavy metals, suggesting a unique plant-gold interaction. GO enrichment analysis reveals the upregulation of processes like oxidative stress, glutathione binding, metal binding, transport, and plant hormonal responses. Changes predicted in biochemical pathways indicated major modulation in glutathione mediated detoxification, flavones and derivatives, and plant hormone biosynthesis. Motif search analysis identified a highly significant enriched motif, ACGT, which is an abscisic acid responsive core element (ABRE), suggesting the possibility of ABA- mediated signaling. Identification of abscisic acid response element (ABRE) points to the operation of a predominant signaling mechanism in response to AuCl(-) 4 exposure. Overall, this study presents a useful picture of plant-gold interaction with an identification of candidate genes

  8. Co-evolution of Hormone Metabolism and Signaling Networks Expands Plant Adaptive Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jing-Ke; Ye, Mingli; Li, Bin; Noel, Joseph P

    2016-08-11

    Classically, hormones elicit specific cellular responses by activating dedicated receptors. Nevertheless, the biosynthesis and turnover of many of these hormone molecules also produce chemically related metabolites. These molecules may also possess hormonal activities; therefore, one or more may contribute to the adaptive plasticity of signaling outcomes in host organisms. Here, we show that a catabolite of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA), namely phaseic acid (PA), likely emerged in seed plants as a signaling molecule that fine-tunes plant physiology, environmental adaptation, and development. This trait was facilitated by both the emergence-selection of a PA reductase that modulates PA concentrations and by the functional diversification of the ABA receptor family to perceive and respond to PA. Our results suggest that PA serves as a hormone in seed plants through activation of a subset of ABA receptors. This study demonstrates that the co-evolution of hormone metabolism and signaling networks can expand organismal resilience. PMID:27518563

  9. Cloning of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) gene encoding a key enzyme during abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and ABA-regulated ethylene production in detached young persimmon calyx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Ping; ZHANG GuangLian; LI XiangXin; WANG LiangHe; ZHENG ZhongMing

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the typical climacteric fruits,persimmons (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) produce higher levels of ethylene when they are detached from trees at a younger stage.In order to obtain detailed information on the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in ripening,we cloned the DKNCED1,DKACS2,and DKAC01 genes from the calyx.Water loss was first noted in the calyx lobe,and DKNCED1 was highly expressed 1 d after the fruits were detached,coinciding with an increase in the ABA content.Then,the DKACS2 and DKAC01 genes were expressed after some delay.In the calyx,the ABA peak was observed 2 d after the fruits were harvested,and this peak preceded the ethylene peak observed on day 3.The fruit firmness rapidly decreased on day 4,and the fruits softened completely 6 d after they were harvested.The increases in the expressions of ABA,ethylene,and the genes in the calyxes occurred earlier than the corresponding increases in the pulp,although the 3 increases occurred on different days.Exogenous ABA treatment increased ABA concentration,induced expression of both ACS and ACO,and promoted ethylene synthesis and young-fruit softening;by contrast,treatment with NDGA inhibited the gene expressions and ethylene synthesis and delayed young-fruit softening.These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis in the detached young persimmon fruits is initially triggered by ABA,which is induced by water loss in the calyx,through the induction of DKACS2 and DKAC01 expressions.The ethylene produced in the calyx subsequently diffuses into the pulp tissue,where it induces autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis,resulting in an abrupt increase in ethylene production.

  10. Predicting essential components of signal transduction networks: a dynamic model of guard cell abscisic acid signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Li

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants both lose water and take in carbon dioxide through microscopic stomatal pores, each of which is regulated by a surrounding pair of guard cells. During drought, the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA inhibits stomatal opening and promotes stomatal closure, thereby promoting water conservation. Dozens of cellular components have been identified to function in ABA regulation of guard cell volume and thus of stomatal aperture, but a dynamic description is still not available for this complex process. Here we synthesize experimental results into a consistent guard cell signal transduction network for ABA-induced stomatal closure, and develop a dynamic model of this process. Our model captures the regulation of more than 40 identified network components, and accords well with previous experimental results at both the pathway and whole-cell physiological level. By simulating gene disruptions and pharmacological interventions we find that the network is robust against a significant fraction of possible perturbations. Our analysis reveals the novel predictions that the disruption of membrane depolarizability, anion efflux, actin cytoskeleton reorganization, cytosolic pH increase, the phosphatidic acid pathway, or K(+ efflux through slowly activating K(+ channels at the plasma membrane lead to the strongest reduction in ABA responsiveness. Initial experimental analysis assessing ABA-induced stomatal closure in the presence of cytosolic pH clamp imposed by the weak acid butyrate is consistent with model prediction. Simulations of stomatal response as derived from our model provide an efficient tool for the identification of candidate manipulations that have the best chance of conferring increased drought stress tolerance and for the prioritization of future wet bench analyses. Our method can be readily applied to other biological signaling networks to identify key regulatory components in systems where quantitative information is limited.

  11. Planetary Ices Attenuation Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Christine; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    In this chapter, we review the topic of energy dissipation in the context of icy satellites experiencing tidal forcing. We describe the physics of mechanical dissipation, also known as attenuation, in polycrystalline ice and discuss the history of laboratory methods used to measure and understand it. Because many factors - such as microstructure, composition and defect state - can influence rheological behavior, we review what is known about the mechanisms responsible for attenuation in ice and what can be inferred from the properties of rocks, metals and ceramics. Since attenuation measured in the laboratory must be carefully scaled to geologic time and to planetary conditions in order to provide realistic extrapolation, we discuss various mechanical models that have been used, with varying degrees of success, to describe attenuation as a function of forcing frequency and temperature. We review the literature in which these models have been used to describe dissipation in the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Finally, we address gaps in our present knowledge of planetary ice attenuation and provide suggestions for future inquiry.

  12. Up-regulating the abscisic acid inactivation gene ZmABA8ox1b contributes to seed germination heterosis by promoting cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangyang; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Xinye; Song, Jian; Li, Hongjian; Sui, Zhipeng; Zhang, Ming; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Xin, Mingming; Xie, Chaojie; Zhang, Yirong; Sun, Qixin; Ni, Zhongfu

    2016-04-01

    Heterosis has been widely used in agriculture, but the underlying molecular principles are still largely unknown. During seed germination, we observed that maize (Zea mays) hybrid B73/Mo17 was less sensitive than its parental inbred lines to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), and endogenous ABA content in hybrid embryos decreased more rapidly than in the parental inbred lines. ZmABA8ox1b, an ABA inactivation gene, was consistently more highly up-regulated in hybrid B73/Mo17 than in its parental inbred lines at early stages of seed germination. Moreover, ectopic expression of ZmABA8ox1b obviously promoted seed germination in Arabidopsis Remarkably, microscopic observation revealed that cell expansion played a major role in the ABA-mediated maize seed germination heterosis, which could be attributed to the altered expression of cell wall-related genes. PMID:27034328

  13. Study Progress in Perception and Transduction of the Abscisic Acid Signals%脱落酸信号感受和转导研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 李宏; 王兴春

    2011-01-01

    脱落酸是五大类经典激素之一,它在植物的生长发育和抗逆等生理过程中起着极其重要的作用.近年来,随着脱落酸受体等相继发现,脱落酸信号转导再次成为人们关注的焦点.综述了脱落酸信号转导的最新研究进展,并展望了未来的研究方向.%Abscisic acid (ABA) is one of the five classical phytohormones that plays crucial roles in the plant growth and in stress and drought tolerance. With the discovery of the ABA receptors, the ABA signal transduction has attracted great attention once again. In this paper, the latest advances in ABA signal transduction were reviewed and the future developing prospects were also discussed.

  14. Frequency Dependent Attenuation Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Kowar; Xavier, Bonnefond

    2009-01-01

    The work is inspired by thermo-and photoacoustic imaging, where recent efforts are devoted to take into account attenuation and varying wave speed parameters. In this paper we study causal equations describing propagation of attenuated pressure waves. We review standard models like frequency power laws and and the thermo-viscous equation. The lack of causality of standard models in the parameter range relevant for photoacoustic imaging requires to derive novel equations. The main ingredients for deriving causal equations are the Kramers-Kronig relation and the mathematical concept of linear system theory. The theoretical results of this work are underpined by numerical experiments.

  15. Sequence Variation and Expression Analysis of Seed Dormancy- and Germination-Associated ABA- and GA-Related Genes in Rice Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fei; Zhang, Hangxiao; Wu, Gang; Sun, Jing; Hao, Lili; Ge, Xiaomeng; Yu, Jun; Wang, Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and Gibberellic acid (GA) play key roles in regulating seed dormancy and germination. First, when examining germination of different rice cultivars, we found that their germination timing and dormancy status are rather distinct, coupled with different GA/ABA ratio. Second, we studied genomic sequences of ABA and GA dormancy- and germination-associated genes in rice and discovered single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions (Indels) in both coding and regulator...

  16. The barley HvNAC6 transcription factor affects ABA accumulation and promotes basal resistance against powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yan-Jun; Perera, Venura; Wagner, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    /dark rhythm of ABA levels which were, however, not influenced by Bgh inoculation. The expression of the two ABA biosynthetic genes HvNCED1 and HvNCED2 was compromised, and transcript levels of the ABA conjugating HvBG7 enzyme were elevated in the HvNAC6 RNAi lines, but this effect was not clearly associated...

  17. Accounting for sap flow from different parts of the root system improves the prediction of xylem ABA concentration in plants grown with heterogeneous soil moisture

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, Ian C; Egea, Gregorio; Davies, William J.

    2008-01-01

    When soil moisture is heterogeneous, sap flow from, and ABA status of, different parts of the root system impact on leaf xylem ABA concentration ([X-ABA]leaf). The robustness of a model for predicting [X-ABA]leaf was assessed. ‘Two root-one shoot’ grafted sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants received either deficit irrigation (DI, each root system received the same irrigation volumes) or partial rootzone drying (PRD, only one root system was watered and the other dried the soil). Irrespect...

  18. Study on the Change of GAs,ABA Level and ABA/GAs Ratio in the Embryos of Spring Wheat and Winter Wheat During Vernalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MiGuohua; LiWenxong

    1995-01-01

    Spring wheat(cv.7742)and winter wheat (cv.Nongda 015) were vernalized by seed chilling,and the changes of GAs,ABA content and GAs/ABA ration in embryo wer investigated.The differences between cultivars,treatments and variety-treatment inleractions were significant for both GAs and ABA.The level of GAs and ABA as well as GAs/ABA ratio were hardly changed by seed chilling in spriug wheat Howerve,in winter wheat,the GAs content decreased much less compared with ABA that reduced sharply after chilling.It showed that the GAs/ABA ratio in winter wheat was increased remarkably(4.55 times)than in spring wheat.It was suggested that the absolute GAs Ievel was independent of the vernalization effect because there was a higher GAs Level before and after seed chilling in winter wheat when compared with spring wheat,One of the vemalization effects was the decline of ABA level that led to the increase of GAs/ABA ratio.

  19. Functional analysis of TaABF1 during abscisic acid and gibberellin signalling in aleurone cells of cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lauren J; Martinez, Sarah A; Keyser, Benjamin R; Dyer, William E; Johnson, Russell R

    2013-06-01

    The wheat transcription factor TaABF1 physically interacts with the protein kinase PKABA1 and mediates both abscisic acid (ABA)-induced and ABA-suppressed gene expression. In bombarded aleurone cells of imbibing grains, the effect of TaABF1 in down-regulating the gibberellin (GA)-induced Amy32b promoter was stronger in the presence of exogenous ABA. As these grains contained low levels of endogenous ABA, the effect of TaABF1 may also be mediated by ABA-induced activation even in the absence of exogenous ABA. Levels of TaABF1 protein decreased slightly during imbibition of afterripened grains. However, TaABF1 levels (especially in aleurone layers) were not substantially affected by exogenous ABA or GA, indicating that changes in TaABF1 protein level are not an important part of regulating its role in hormone signalling. We found that TaABF1 was phosphorylated in vivo in aleurone cells, suggesting a role for post-translational modification in regulating TaABF1 activity. Induction of Amy32b by overexpression of the transcription factor GAMyb could not be prevented by TaABF1, indicating that TaABF1 acts upstream of GAMyb transcription in the signalling pathway. Supporting this view, knockdown of TaABF1 by RNA interference resulted in increased expression from the GAMyb promoter. These results are consistent with a model in which TaABF1 is constitutively present in aleurone cells, while its ability to down-regulate GAMyb is regulated in response to ABA.

  20. Transcription factor veracity: is GBF3 responsible for ABA-regulated expression of Arabidopsis Adh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G; Paul, A L; McCarty, D R; Ferl, R J

    1996-01-01

    Assignment of particular transcription factors to specific roles in promoter elements can be problematic, especially in systems such as the G-box, where multiple factors of overlapping specificity exist. In the Arabidopsis alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) promoter, the G-box regulates expression in response to cold and dehydration, presumably through the action of abscisic acid (ABA), and is bound by a nuclear protein complex in vivo during expression in cell cultures. In this report, we test the conventional wisdom of biochemical approaches used to identify DNA binding proteins and assess their specific interactions by using the G-box and a nearby half G-box element of the Arabidopsis Adh promoter as a model system. Typical in vitro assays demonstrated specific interaction of G-box factor 3 (GBF3) with both the G-box and the half G-box element. Dimethyl sulfate footprint analysis confirmed that the in vitro binding signature of GBF3 essentially matches the footprint signature detected in vivo at the G-box. Because RNA gel blot data indicated that GBF3 is itself induced by ABA, we might have concluded that GBF3 is indeed the GBF responsible in cell cultures for binding to the Adh G-box and is therefore responsible for ABA-regulated expression of Adh. Potential limitations of this conclusion are exposed by the fact that other GBFs bind the G-box with the same signature as GBF3, and subtle differences between in vivo and in vitro footprint signatures indicate that factors other than or in addition to GBF3 interact with the half G-box element. PMID:8672884

  1. StudyonCollegeTourismEnglishTeaching CombiningwithAbaLocalTourismCulture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗琴

    2013-01-01

    Boasting of rich, outstanding natural and cultural tourism resources, marvelous landscape, specific humanistic environment,AbaTibetanandQiangAutonomousPrefectureiswell-known to the world, which has been attracting ever-increasing touristshomeandabroadwithitsuniquecharm,suchasthefairy-landlikenaturalscenery,mysteriousTibetanBuddhistculture, ancient Qiang’s Shibi (necromancer) culture, the Red Army’s LongMarchcultureandsoon.Theserichnaturalandcultural tourismresourcesraisetheeconomicbenefitsofculturaltourism developmentemphasis.Abaisanethnicminorityarealeadingwith the tourism industry; after years of development, tourism has becomethemainsourceofincomeforthelocalethnicminorities. Moreandmoreforeigntouristshavebeenattractedintothisarea, particularly,Europe,theUnitedStatesandotherEnglish-speaking countrieshavebecomethemajorsourcecountries; alargenumberof high-qualifiedtourismprofessionalsareinurgentneed,andtourism EnglishteachingplaysaveryimportantroleforcultivatingHigh qualitytalentswhoarebothproficientinEnglish,graspinghigh leveltourismskills,andquitefamiliarwithAbatourismresources. Thispaperanalyzesandputsforwardsomeconstructivemeasureson howtocombineAbatourismresources,localculturewithcollege tourismEnglishteaching.

  2. Auxin modulation of salt stress signaling in Arabidopsis seed germination

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jae-Hoon; Park, Chung-Mo

    2011-01-01

    Seed germination is an elaborate developmental process that is regulated through intricate signaling networks integrating diverse environmental cues into endogenous hormonal signaling pathways. Accumulating evidence in recent years supports the role of auxin in seed germination. Whereas the roles of gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in the germination process have been studied extensively, how auxin modulates seed germination is largely unknown. We found that a membrane-bound NAC ...

  3. Forest Parameter Prediction Using an Image-Based Point Cloud: A Comparison of Semi-ITC with ABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Rahlf

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Image-based point clouds obtained using aerial photogrammetry share many characteristics with point clouds obtained by airborne laser scanning (ALS. Two approaches have been used to predict forest parameters from ALS: the area-based approach (ABA and the individual tree crown (ITC approach. In this article, we apply the semi-ITC approach, a variety of the ITC approach, on an image-based point cloud to predict forest parameters and compare the performance to the ABA. Norwegian National Forest Inventory sample plots on a site in southeastern Norway were used as the reference data. Tree crown objects were delineated using a watershed segmentation algorithm, and explanatory variables were calculated for each tree crown segment. A multivariate kNN model for timber volume, stem density, basal area and quadratic mean diameter with the semi-ITC approach produced RMSEs of 30%, 46%, 25%, 26%, respectively. The corresponding measures for the ABA were 30%, 51%, 26%, 35%, respectively. Univariate kNN models resulted in timber volume RMSEs of 25% for the semi-ITC approach and 22% for the ABA. A non-linear logistic regression model with the ABA produced an RMSE of 23%. Both approaches predicted timber volume with comparable precision and accuracy at the plot level. The multivariate kNN model was slightly more precise with the semi-ITC approach, while biases were larger

  4. Overexpression of an ABA biosynthesis gene using a stress-inducible promoter enhances drought resistance in petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Melo, Alejandro C; Chao; Reid, Michael S; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The response of plants to drought stress includes reduced transpiration as stomates close in response to increased abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations. Constitutive overexpression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in ABA biosynthesis, increases drought resistance, but causes negative pleiotropic effects on plant growth and development. We overexpressed the tomato NCED (LeNCED1) in petunia plants under the control of a stress-inducible promoter, rd29A. Under water stress, the transgenic plants had increased transcripts of NCED mRNA, elevated leaf ABA concentrations, increased concentrations of proline, and a significant increase in drought resistance. The transgenic plants also displayed the expected decreases in stomatal conductance, transpiration, and photosynthesis. After 14 days without water, the control plants were dead, but the transgenic plants, though wilted, recovered fully when re-watered. Well-watered transgenic plants grew like non-transformed control plants and there was no effect of the transgene on seed dormancy. PMID:26504568

  5. A Dual-Function Transcription Factor, AtYY1, Is a Novel Negative Regulator of the Arabidopsis ABA Response Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian; Wu, Xiu-Yun; Li, Hui; Song, Jian-Hui; Liu, Jin-Yuan

    2016-05-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays crucial roles in plant growth and development, as well as in response to various environmental stresses. To date, many regulatory genes involved in the ABA response network have been identified; however, their roles have remained to be fully elucidated. In this study, we identified AtYY1, an Arabidopsis homolog of the mammalian C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1), as a novel negative regulator of the ABA response. AtYY1 is a dual-function transcription factor with both repression and activation domains. The expression of AtYY1 was induced by ABA and stress conditions including high salt and dehydration. The yy1 mutant was more sensitive to ABA and NaCl than the wild-type, while overexpressing AtYY1 plants were less sensitive. AtYY1 loss also enhanced ABA-induced stomatal closing and drought resistance. Moreover, AtYY1 can bind the ABA REPRESSOR1 (ABR1) promoter and directly upregulate ABR1 expression, as well as negatively regulate ABA- and salt-responsive gene expression. Additional analysis indicated that ABA INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) might positively regulate AtYY1 expression and that ABR1 can antagonize this regulation. Our findings provide direct evidence that AtYY1 is a novel negative regulator of the ABA response network and that the ABI4-AtYY1-ABR1 regulatory pathway may fine-tune ABA-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis. PMID:26961720

  6. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm/sup 2/, of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A /sup 90/Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (..mu..P) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined.

  7. Attenuation of diacylglycerol second messengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, W.R.; Ganong, B.R.; Bell, R.M.

    1986-05-01

    Diacylglycerol(DAG) derived from phosphatidylinositol activates protein kinase C in agonist-stimulated cells. At least two pathways may contribute to the attenuation of the DAG signal: (1) phosphorylation to phosphatidic acid(PA) by DAG kinase(DGK), and (2) deacylation by DAG and monoacylglycerol lipases. A number of DAG analogs were tested as substrates and inhibitors of partially purified pig brain DGK. Two analogs were potent inhibitors in vitro, 1-monooleoylglycerol(MOG,K/sub I/ = 91 ..mu..M) and diotanoylethyleneglycol (diC/sub 8/EG, K/sub I/ = 58 ..mu..M). These compounds were tested in human platelets. DiC/sub 8/EG inhibited (70 - 100%) (/sup 32/P/sub i/) incorporation into PA in thrombin-stimulated platelets. Under these conditions the DAG signal was somewhat long-lived but was still metabolized, presumably by the lipase pathway. MOG treatment elevated DAG levels up to 4-fold in unstimulated platelets. The DAG formed was in a pool where it did not activate protein kinase C. Thrombin-stimulation of MOG-treated platelets resulted in DAG levels 10-fold higher than control platelets. This appears to be due to the inability of these platelets to metabolize agonist-linked DAG via the lipase pathway. The development of specific inhibitors of DAG kinase and DAG lipase, in conjunction with mass quantification of DAG levels as used here, will provide further insights into the regulation of DAG second messengers.

  8. Introduction of Pinus radiata for afforestation: a review with reference to Aba, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIHui-quan; JackSimpson; LIRong-wei; YANHong; WUZong-xing; CAIShi-min; RobertEldridge

    2003-01-01

    Pinus radiata D. Don, native to a Californian coastal environment, has been introduced to many parts of the world as an exotic species for afforestation. It is now a major plantation species in the Southern Hemisphere. In 1990, it was introduced to the heavily degraded, dry Min river valley area in Aba prefecture of Sichuan Province, P. R. China. Survival and growth of young trees planted at several sites appear to be reasonable. This review is to serve as an introduction to the large body of literature on P.radiata for forest scientists in China. It covers the following aspects: P. radiata in its native environment and in ex situ plantations,provenance and genetic variations, environmental limitations and climate niche, diseases and pests, lessons from unsuccessful introductions, and the use of P. radiata for ecological restoration. The early growth of P. radiata planted in the dry river valley area is briefly described. Potential problems associated with the introduction of P. radiata in Aba and future research needs are also identified.

  9. Osmotic stress represses strigolactone biosynthesis in Lotus japonicus roots: exploring the interaction between strigolactones and ABA under abiotic stress

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Junwei

    2015-02-26

    Main conclusion: Strigolactone changes and cross talk with ABA unveil a picture of root-specific hormonal dynamics under stress.Abstract: Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived hormones influencing diverse aspects of development and communication with (micro)organisms, and proposed as mediators of environmental stimuli in resource allocation processes; to contribute to adaptive adjustments, therefore, their pathway must be responsive to environmental cues. To investigate the relationship between SLs and abiotic stress in Lotus japonicus, we compared wild-type and SL-depleted plants, and studied SL metabolism in roots stressed osmotically and/or phosphate starved. SL-depleted plants showed increased stomatal conductance, both under normal and stress conditions, and impaired resistance to drought associated with slower stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid (ABA). This confirms that SLs contribute to drought resistance in species other than Arabidopsis. However, we also observed that osmotic stress rapidly and strongly decreased SL concentration in tissues and exudates of wild-type Lotus roots, by acting on the transcription of biosynthetic and transporter-encoding genes and independently of phosphate abundance. Pre-treatment with exogenous SLs inhibited the osmotic stress-induced ABA increase in wild-type roots and down-regulated the transcription of the ABA biosynthetic gene LjNCED2. We propose that a transcriptionally regulated, early SL decrease under osmotic stress is needed (but not sufficient) to allow the physiological increase of ABA in roots. This work shows that SL metabolism and effects on ABA are seemingly opposite in roots and shoots under stress.

  10. Effects of ABA Content on the Development of Abscission Zone and Berry Falling After Harvesting of Grapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG You-lin; ZHANG Run-guang

    2009-01-01

    The commodity price of grape reduces as berry falling after harvest. It is crucial to prevent grape from berry falling during storage. In this article, the structure change of grape cells in the abscission zone was observed, the ABA content and the activities of cellulase and polygalacturonase (PG) were measured, and the relationship of ABA and berry falling was investigated. The results suggest that cells in the abscission zone grow into a separation layer soon after the grapes are cut off. According to the level of development, we designed 6 grades to sort the different development stages. The grade 3 plays an important role in berry falling. ABA enhances the activities of cellulase and polygalacturonase, and accelerates the decomposition of cellulose and pectin, which determines the level of development of abscission zone and berry falling. If ABA ratio is less than 20 ng g-1 fresh weight (FW), the abscission zone is not developed to the grade 3, and the berry falling is effectively stopped. We treated grape bunches with nine plant growth regulators and two chemicals. The results indicated that 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) can (a) inhibit the generation of ABA significantly, (b) inactivate the activities of cellulase and PG, (c) delay the development of the grade 3 of abscission zone, and (d) stop berry falling. Indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), calcium chloride (CaCl2), and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) caused similar results as TIBA. Chlorocholine chloride (CCC), dimethyl amino succinamic acid (B9), chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA) and exogenous ABA showed opposite effects.

  11. Rain Attenuation Prediction for Terrestrial Microwave Link in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN Sakir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rain attenuation is a major shortcoming of microwave transmission. As a subtropical country, Bangladesh is one of the highest rainy areas of the world. Thus, designing a terrestrial microwave link is a serious challenge to the engineers. In this paper, the annual rain rate and monthly variation of rate are predicted for different percentage of time of the year from the measured rainfall data. Using ITU rain model for terrestrial microwave communication, the rain attenuation is predicted for five major cities of Bangladesh, namely Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Sylhet, and Khulna. It is found that rain attenuation is the most severe in Sylhet and least in Rajshahi. The attenuation is estimated for different frequency and polarization. A horizontally polarized signal encounters 15% more rain attenuation than that of vertically polarized signal. It is also found that attenuation in Rajshahi is about 20% lesser than that in Sylhet. Thus, the horizontally polarized transmission in Rajshahi experiences about 5% less attenuation than the vertically polarized transmission in Sylhet.

  12. FSO and radio link attenuation: meteorological models verified by experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazda, Vladimir; Fiser, Ondrej; Svoboda, Jaroslav

    2011-09-01

    Institute of Atmospheric Physics of Czech Academy measures atmospheric attenuation on 60 m experimental FSO link on 830 and 1550 nm for more than three years. Visibility sensors and two 3D sonic anemometers on both transmitting and receiving site, rain gauge and many sensors enabling the refractivity index computation are spaced along the optical link. Meteorological visibility, wind turbulent energy, sonic temperature, structure index and rain rate are correlated with measured attenuation. FSO link attenuation dependence on the above mentioned parameters is analyzed. The paper shows also basic statistical behavior of the long-term FSO signal level and also the simulation of hybrid link techniques.

  13. The effect of an extinction cue on ABA-renewal: Does valence matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibbets, P.; Maes, J.H.R.

    2011-01-01

    The present human fear conditioning study examined whether the valence of an extinction cue has a differential effect on attenuating renewal that is induced by removal of the extinction context. Additionally, the study aimed to assess whether such attenuating effect is based on a modulatory or safet

  14. Transport and concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin (IAA) in deciduous and coniferous trees. Transport und Gehalt von Abscisinsaeure (ABA) und Auxin (IAA) in Laub- und Nadelblaettern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartung, W.

    1988-09-01

    Abscisic acid and indoleacetic acid were chosen to examine whether intact deciduous and coniferous tissues from spruce, hemlock fir, spinage, barley and sorrel or isolated mesophyll protoplasts from barley and closing cell preparations from Valerianella locusta are affected by sulphur dioxide in terms of changes in the concentration, transportation and distribution of such plant hormones. The distribution of phytohormones like ABA and IAA over the individual cell compartments is determined by the different pH gradients of the latter. Owing to their acidity these hormones are accumulated in alkaline cell inclusion bodies like chloroplasts and cytosol. Potentially acid air pollutants like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} lead to acidification of previously alkaline cell compartments, due to which fact the cellular pH gradients are reduced. This, in turn, gives rise to a redistribution of phytohormones to the effect that certain target cells such as closing cells of leaves or meristem cells come under the influence of altered hormone concentrations and compositions. This is bound to affect the processes controlling the development, growth and stress behaviour of plants. (orig.) With 55 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  15. Isolation of ABA-responsive mutants in allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Drawing connections to grain dormancy, preharvest sprouting, and drought tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes the isolation of Wheat ABA-responsive mutants (Warm) in Chinese spring background of allohexaploid Triticum aestivum. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is required for the induction of seed dormancy, the induction of