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  1. Erythropoietin Attenuates Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension through Interplay between Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Heme Oxygenase

    OpenAIRE

    van Loon, Rosa Laura E; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Wagener, Frank A D T G; Affara, Nada; Mohaupt, Saffloer; Wijnberg, Hans; Pennings, Sebastiaan W C; Takens, Janny; Berger, Rolf M F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a pulmonary vascular disease with a high mortality, characterized by typical angio-proliferative lesions. Erythropoietin (EPO) attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH. We postulated that EPO acts through mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and activation of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). METHODS: Rats with flow-associated PAH, resembling pediatric PAH, were treated with HO-1 inducer EPO in the pre...

  2. Erythropoietin Attenuates Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension through Interplay between Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Heme Oxygenase

    OpenAIRE

    van Loon, Rosa Laura E.; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Wagener, Frank A. D. T. G.; Affara, Nada; Mohaupt, Saffloer; Wijnberg, Hans; Pennings, Sebastiaan W. C.; Takens, Janny; Berger, Rolf M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a pulmonary vascular disease with a high mortality, characterized by typical angio-proliferative lesions. Erythropoietin (EPO) attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH. We postulated that EPO acts through mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and activation of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Methods Rats with flow-associated PAH, resembling pediatric PAH, were treated with HO-1 inducer EPO i...

  3. Nicorandil attenuates monocrotaline-induced vascular endothelial damage and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

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    Makoto Sahara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An antianginal K(ATP channel opener nicorandil has various beneficial effects on cardiovascular systems; however, its effects on pulmonary vasculature under pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we attempted to determine whether nicorandil can attenuate monocrotaline (MCT-induced PAH in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats injected intraperitoneally with 60 mg/kg MCT were randomized to receive either vehicle; nicorandil (5.0 mg·kg(-1·day(-1 alone; or nicorandil as well as either a K(ATP channel blocker glibenclamide or a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor N(ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, from immediately or 21 days after MCT injection. Four or five weeks later, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP was measured, and lung tissue was harvested. Also, we evaluated the nicorandil-induced anti-apoptotic effects and activation status of several molecules in cell survival signaling pathway in vitro using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. RESULTS: Four weeks after MCT injection, RVSP was significantly increased in the vehicle-treated group (51.0±4.7 mm Hg, whereas it was attenuated by nicorandil treatment (33.2±3.9 mm Hg; P<0.01. Nicorandil protected pulmonary endothelium from the MCT-induced thromboemboli formation and induction of apoptosis, accompanied with both upregulation of endothelial NOS (eNOS expression and downregulation of cleaved caspase-3 expression. Late treatment with nicorandil for the established PAH was also effective in suppressing the additional progression of PAH. These beneficial effects of nicorandil were blocked similarly by glibenclamide and l-NAME. Next, HUVECs were incubated in serum-free medium and then exhibited apoptotic morphology, while these changes were significantly attenuated by nicorandil administration. Nicorandil activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK

  4. Endothelin B receptor blockade attenuates pulmonary vasodilation in oxygen-ventilated fetal lambs.

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    Ivy, D Dunbar; Lee, Dong-Seok; Rairigh, Robyn L; Parker, Thomas A; Abman, Steven H

    2004-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) contributes to the regulation of pulmonary vascular tone in the normal ovine fetus and in models of perinatal pulmonary hypertension. In the fetal lamb lung, the effects of ET-1 depend on the balance of at least two endothelin receptor subtypes: ETA and ETB. ETA receptors are located on smooth muscle cells and mediate vasoconstriction and smooth muscle proliferation. Stimulation of endothelial ETB receptors causes vasodilation through release of nitric oxide and also functions to remove ET-1 from the circulation. However, whether activation of ETB receptors contributes to the fall in pulmonary vascular tone at birth is unknown. To determine the role of acute ETB receptor blockade in pulmonary vasodilation in response to birth-related stimuli, we studied the hemodynamic effects of selective ETB receptor blockade with BQ-788 during mechanical ventilation with low (<10%) and high FiO2 (100%) in near-term fetal sheep. Intrapulmonary infusion of BQ-788 did not change left pulmonary artery (LPA) blood flow and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) at baseline. In comparison with controls, BQ-788 treatment attenuated the rise in LPA flow with low and high FiO2 ventilation (p <0.001 vs. control for each FiO2 concentration). PVR progressively decreased during mechanical ventilation with low and high FiO2 in both groups, but PVR remained higher after BQ-788 treatment throughout the study period (p <0.001). We conclude that selective ETB receptor blockade attenuates pulmonary vasodilation at birth. We speculate that ETB receptor stimulation contributes to pulmonary vasodilation at birth in the ovine fetus.

  5. Pulmonary vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedullo, P.F.; Shure, D.

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of pulmonary vascular imaging techniques are available for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease. The characteristics of any ideal technique would include high sensitivity and specificity, safety, simplicity, and sequential applicability. To date, no single technique meets these ideal characteristics. Conventional pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute thromboembolic disease despite the introduction of newer techniques such as digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Improved noninvasive lower extremity venous testing methods, particularly impedance plethysmography, and ventilation-perfusion scanning can play significant roles in the noninvasive diagnosis of acute pulmonary emboli when properly applied. Ventilation-perfusion scanning may also be useful as a screening test to differentiate possible primary pulmonary hypertension from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. And, finally, angioscopy may be a useful adjunctive technique to detect chronic thromboembolic disease and determine operability. Optimal clinical decision-making, however, will continue to require the proper interpretation of adjunctive information obtained from the less-invasive techniques, applied with an understanding of the natural history of the various forms of pulmonary vascular disease and with a knowledge of the capabilities and shortcomings of the individual techniques

  6. Lung irradiation induces pulmonary vascular remodelling resembling pulmonary arterial hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghobadi, G.; Bartelds, B.; van der Veen, S. J.; Dickinson, M. G.; Brandenburg, S.; Berger, R. M. F.; Langendijk, J. A.; Coppes, R. P.; van Luijk, P.

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a commonly fatal pulmonary vascular disease that is often diagnosed late and is characterised by a progressive rise in pulmonary vascular resistance resulting from typical vascular remodelling. Recent data suggest that vascular damage plays an

  7. An Analysis of Responses to Defibrotide in the Pulmonary Vascular Bed of the Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Alan D; Skonieczny, Brendan D; Kaye, Aaron J; Harris, Zoey I; Luk, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Defibrotide is a polydisperse mixture of single-stranded oligonucleotides with many pharmacologic properties and multiple actions on the vascular endothelium. Responses to defibrotide and other vasodepressor agents were evaluated in the pulmonary vascular bed of the cat under conditions of controlled pulmonary blood flow and constant left atrial pressure. Lobar arterial pressure was increased to a high steady level with the thromboxane A2 analog U-46619. Under increased-tone conditions, defibrotide caused dose-dependent decreases in lobar arterial pressure without altering systemic arterial and left atrial pressures. Responses to defibrotide were significantly attenuated after the administration of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor sodium meclofenamate. Responses to defibrotide were also significantly attenuated after the administration of both the adenosine 1 and 2 receptor antagonists 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine and 8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine. Responses to defibrotide were not altered after the administration of the vascular selective adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel blocker U-37883A, or after the administration of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-N-(1-iminoethyl)-ornithine. These data show that defibrotide has significant vasodepressor activity in the pulmonary vascular bed of the cat. They also suggest that pulmonary vasodilator responses to defibrotide are partially dependent on both the activation of the cyclooxygenase enzyme and adenosine 1 and 2 receptor pathways and independent of the activation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels or the synthesis of nitric oxide in the pulmonary vascular bed of the cat.

  8. The zinc transporter ZIP12 regulates the pulmonary vascular response to chronic hypoxia.

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    Zhao, Lan; Oliver, Eduardo; Maratou, Klio; Atanur, Santosh S; Dubois, Olivier D; Cotroneo, Emanuele; Chen, Chien-Nien; Wang, Lei; Arce, Cristina; Chabosseau, Pauline L; Ponsa-Cobas, Joan; Frid, Maria G; Moyon, Benjamin; Webster, Zoe; Aldashev, Almaz; Ferrer, Jorge; Rutter, Guy A; Stenmark, Kurt R; Aitman, Timothy J; Wilkins, Martin R

    2015-08-20

    The typical response of the adult mammalian pulmonary circulation to a low oxygen environment is vasoconstriction and structural remodelling of pulmonary arterioles, leading to chronic elevation of pulmonary artery pressure (pulmonary hypertension) and right ventricular hypertrophy. Some mammals, however, exhibit genetic resistance to hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. We used a congenic breeding program and comparative genomics to exploit this variation in the rat and identified the gene Slc39a12 as a major regulator of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodelling. Slc39a12 encodes the zinc transporter ZIP12. Here we report that ZIP12 expression is increased in many cell types, including endothelial, smooth muscle and interstitial cells, in the remodelled pulmonary arterioles of rats, cows and humans susceptible to hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. We show that ZIP12 expression in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells is hypoxia dependent and that targeted inhibition of ZIP12 inhibits the rise in intracellular labile zinc in hypoxia-exposed pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells and their proliferation in culture. We demonstrate that genetic disruption of ZIP12 expression attenuates the development of pulmonary hypertension in rats housed in a hypoxic atmosphere. This new and unexpected insight into the fundamental role of a zinc transporter in mammalian pulmonary vascular homeostasis suggests a new drug target for the pharmacological management of pulmonary hypertension.

  9. Pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling in mice exposed to crystalline silica.

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    Zelko, Igor N; Zhu, Jianxin; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D; Roman, Jesse

    2016-11-28

    Occupational and environmental exposure to crystalline silica may lead to the development of silicosis, which is characterized by inflammation and progressive fibrosis. A substantial number of patients diagnosed with silicosis develop pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension associated with silicosis and with related restrictive lung diseases significantly reduces survival in affected subjects. An animal model of silicosis has been described previously however, the magnitude of vascular remodeling and hemodynamic effects of inhaled silica are largely unknown. Considering the importance of such information, this study investigated whether mice exposed to silica develop pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling. C57BL6 mice were intratracheally injected with either saline or crystalline silica at doses 0.2 g/kg, 0.3 g/kg and 0.4 g/kg and then studied at day 28 post-exposure. Pulmonary hypertension was characterized by changes in right ventricular systolic pressure and lung histopathology. Mice exposed to saline showed normal lung histology and hemodynamic parameters while mice exposed to silica showed increased right ventricular systolic pressure and marked lung pathology characterized by a granulomatous inflammatory reaction and increased collagen deposition. Silica-exposed mice also showed signs of vascular remodeling with pulmonary artery muscularization, vascular occlusion, and medial thickening. The expression of pro-inflammatory genes such as TNF-α and MCP-1 was significantly upregulated as well as the expression of the pro-remodeling genes collagen type I, fibronectin and the metalloproteinases MMP-2 and TIMP-1. On the other hand, the expression of several vasculature specific genes involved in the regulation of endothelial function was significantly attenuated. We characterized a new animal model of pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmonary fibrosis induced by crystalline silica. Our data suggest that silica promotes the damage of the

  10. Complement C3 deficiency attenuates chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice.

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    Eileen M Bauer

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests a role of both innate and adaptive immunity in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The complement system is a key sentry of the innate immune system and bridges innate and adaptive immunity. To date there are no studies addressing a role for the complement system in pulmonary arterial hypertension.Immunofluorescent staining revealed significant C3d deposition in lung sections from IPAH patients and C57Bl6/J wild-type mice exposed to three weeks of chronic hypoxia to induce pulmonary hypertension. Right ventricular systolic pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy were increased in hypoxic vs. normoxic wild-type mice, which were attenuated in C3-/- hypoxic mice. Likewise, pulmonary vascular remodeling was attenuated in the C3-/- mice compared to wild-type mice as determined by the number of muscularized peripheral arterioles and morphometric analysis of vessel wall thickness. The loss of C3 attenuated the increase in interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in response to chronic hypoxia, but not endothelin-1 levels. In wild-type mice, but not C3-/- mice, chronic hypoxia led to platelet activation as assessed by bleeding time, and flow cytometry of platelets to determine cell surface P-selectin expression. In addition, tissue factor expression and fibrin deposition were increased in the lungs of WT mice in response to chronic hypoxia. These pro-thrombotic effects of hypoxia were abrogated in C3-/- mice.Herein, we provide compelling genetic evidence that the complement system plays a pathophysiologic role in the development of PAH in mice, promoting pulmonary vascular remodeling and a pro-thrombotic phenotype. In addition we demonstrate C3d deposition in IPAH patients suggesting that complement activation plays a role in the development of PAH in humans.

  11. Pulmonary vascular responses during acute and sustained respiratory alkalosis or acidosis in intact newborn piglets.

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    Gordon, J B; Rehorst-Paea, L A; Hoffman, G M; Nelin, L D

    1999-12-01

    Acute alkalosis-induced pulmonary vasodilation and acidosis-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction have been well described, but responses were generally measured within 5-30 min of changing pH. In contrast, several in vitro studies have found that relatively brief periods of sustained alkalosis can enhance, and sustained acidosis can decrease, vascular reactivity. In this study of intact newborn piglets, effects of acute (20 min) and sustained (60-80 min) alkalosis or acidosis on baseline (35% O2) and hypoxic (12% O2) pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were compared with control piglets exposed only to eucapnia. Acute alkalosis decreased hypoxic PVR, but sustained alkalosis failed to attenuate either baseline PVR or the subsequent hypoxic response. Acute acidosis did not significantly increase hypoxic PVR, but sustained acidosis markedly increased both baseline PVR and the subsequent hypoxic response. Baseline PVR was similar in all piglets after resumption of eucapnic ventilation, but the final hypoxic response was greater in piglets previously exposed to alkalosis than in controls. Thus, hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction was not attenuated during sustained alkalosis, but was accentuated during sustained acidosis and after the resumption of eucapnia in alkalosis-treated piglets. Although extrapolation of data from normal piglets to infants and children with pulmonary hypertension must be done with caution, this study suggests that sustained alkalosis may be of limited efficacy in treating acute hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and the risks of pulmonary hypertension must be considered when using ventilator strategies resulting in permissive hypercapnic acidosis.

  12. Pulmonary vascular input impedance is a combined measure of pulmonary vascular resistance and stiffness and predicts clinical outcomes better than pulmonary vascular resistance alone in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kendall S; Lee, Po-Feng; Lanning, Craig J; Ivy, D Dunbar; Kirby, K Scott; Claussen, Lori R; Chan, K Chen; Shandas, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is the current standard for evaluating reactivity in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, PVR measures only the mean component of right ventricular afterload and neglects pulsatile effects. We recently developed and validated a method to measure pulmonary vascular input impedance, which revealed excellent correlation between the zero harmonic impedance value and PVR and suggested a correlation between higher-harmonic impedance values and pulmonary vascular stiffness. Here we show that input impedance can be measured routinely and easily in the catheterization laboratory, that impedance provides PVR and pulmonary vascular stiffness from a single measurement, and that impedance is a better predictor of disease outcomes compared with PVR. Pressure and velocity waveforms within the main pulmonary artery were measured during right heart catheterization of patients with normal pulmonary artery hemodynamics (n = 14) and those with PAH undergoing reactivity evaluation (49 subjects, 95 conditions). A correction factor needed to transform velocity into flow was obtained by calibrating against cardiac output. Input impedance was obtained off-line by dividing Fourier-transformed pressure and flow waveforms. Exceptional correlation was found between the indexed zero harmonic of impedance and indexed PVR (y = 1.095x + 1.381, R2 = 0.9620). In addition, the modulus sum of the first 2 harmonics of impedance was found to best correlate with indexed pulse pressure over stroke volume (y = 13.39x - 0.8058, R2 = 0.7962). Among a subset of patients with PAH (n = 25), cumulative logistic regression between outcomes to total indexed impedance was better (R(L)2 = 0.4012) than between outcomes and indexed PVR (R(L)2 = 0.3131). Input impedance can be consistently and easily obtained from pulse-wave Doppler and a single catheter pressure measurement, provides comprehensive characterization of the main components of RV afterload, and

  13. Beneficial Effects of Renal Denervation on Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Pulmonary Artery Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingyan, Zhao; Xuejun, Jiang; Yanhong, Tang; Zixuan, Dai; Xiaozhan, Wang; Xule, Wang; Zongwen, Guo; Wei, Hu; Shengbo, Yu; Congxin, Huang

    2015-07-01

    Activation of both the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is closely associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. We hypothesized that renal denervation decreases renin-angiotensin-aldosterone activity and inhibits the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Twenty-two beagles were randomized into 3 groups. The dogs' pulmonary dynamics were measured before and 8 weeks after injection of 0.1mL/kg dimethylformamide (control dogs) or 2mg/kg dehydromonocrotaline (pulmonary arterial hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension + renal denervation dogs). Eight weeks after injection, neurohormone levels and pulmonary tissue morphology were measured. Levels of plasma angiotensin II and endothelin-1 were significantly increased after 8 weeks in the pulmonary arterial hypertension dogs and were higher in the lung tissues of these dogs than in those of the control and renal denervation dogs (mean [standard deviation] angiotensin II: 65 [9.8] vs 38 [6.7], 46 [8.1]; endothelin-1: 96 [10.3] vs 54 [6.2], 67 [9.4]; P < .01). Dehydromonocrotaline increased the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (16 [3.4] mmHg vs 33 [7.3] mmHg; P < .01), and renal denervation prevented this increase. Pulmonary smooth muscle cell proliferation was higher in the pulmonary arterial hypertension dogs than in the control and pulmonary arterial hypertension + renal denervation dogs. Renal denervation attenuates pulmonary vascular remodeling and decreases pulmonary arterial pressure in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension. The effect of renal denervation may contribute to decreased neurohormone levels. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Progenitor cells in pulmonary vascular remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Michael E.; Frid, Maria G.; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by cellular and structural changes in the walls of pulmonary arteries. Intimal thickening and fibrosis, medial hypertrophy and fibroproliferative changes in the adventitia are commonly observed, as is the extension of smooth muscle into the previously non-muscularized vessels. A majority of these changes are associated with the enhanced presence of α-SM-actin+ cells and inflammatory cells. Atypical abundances of functionally distinct endothelial cells, particularly in the intima (plexiform lesions), and also in the perivascular regions, are also described. At present, neither the origin(s) of these cells nor the molecular mechanisms responsible for their accumulation, in any of the three compartments of the vessel wall, have been fully elucidated. The possibility that they arise from either resident vascular progenitors or bone marrow–derived progenitor cells is now well established. Resident vascular progenitor cells have been demonstrated to exist within the vessel wall, and in response to certain stimuli, to expand and express myofibroblastic, endothelial or even hematopoietic markers. Bone marrow–derived or circulating progenitor cells have also been shown to be recruited to sites of vascular injury and to assume both endothelial and SM-like phenotypes. Here, we review the data supporting the contributory role of vascular progenitors (including endothelial progenitor cells, smooth muscle progenitor cells, pericytes, and fibrocytes) in vascular remodeling. A more complete understanding of the processes by which progenitor cells modulate pulmonary vascular remodeling will undoubtedly herald a renaissance of therapies extending beyond the control of vascular tonicity and reduction of pulmonary artery pressure. PMID:22034593

  15. Melatonin Decreases Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling and Oxygen Sensitivity in Pulmonary Hypertensive Newborn Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian R. Astorga

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic hypoxia and oxidative stress during gestation lead to pulmonary hypertension of the neonate (PHN, a condition characterized by abnormal pulmonary arterial reactivity and remodeling. Melatonin has strong antioxidant properties and improves pulmonary vascular function. Here, we aimed to study the effects of melatonin on the function and structure of pulmonary arteries from PHN lambs.Methods: Twelve lambs (Ovis aries gestated and born at highlands (3,600 m were instrumented with systemic and pulmonary catheters. Six of them were assigned to the control group (CN, oral vehicle and 6 were treated with melatonin (MN, 1 mg.kg−1.d−1 during 10 days. At the end of treatment, we performed a graded oxygenation protocol to assess cardiopulmonary responses to inspired oxygen variations. Further, we obtained lung and pulmonary trunk samples for histology, molecular biology, and immunohistochemistry determinations.Results: Melatonin reduced the in vivo pulmonary pressor response to oxygenation changes. In addition, melatonin decreased cellular density of the media and diminished the proliferation marker KI67 in resistance vessels and pulmonary trunk (p < 0.05. This was associated with a decreased in the remodeling markers α-actin (CN 1.28 ± 0.18 vs. MN 0.77 ± 0.04, p < 0.05 and smoothelin-B (CN 2.13 ± 0.31 vs. MN 0.88 ± 0.27, p < 0.05. Further, melatonin increased vascular density by 134% and vascular luminal surface by 173% (p < 0.05. Finally, melatonin decreased nitrotyrosine, an oxidative stress marker, in small pulmonary vessels (CN 5.12 ± 0.84 vs. MN 1.14 ± 0.34, p < 0.05.Conclusion: Postnatal administration of melatonin blunts the cardiopulmonary response to hypoxia, reduces the pathological vascular remodeling, and increases angiogenesis in pulmonary hypertensive neonatal lambs.These effects improve the pulmonary vascular structure and function in the neonatal period under chronic hypoxia.

  16. Melatonin Decreases Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling and Oxygen Sensitivity in Pulmonary Hypertensive Newborn Lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorga, Cristian R.; González-Candia, Alejandro; Candia, Alejandro A.; Figueroa, Esteban G.; Cañas, Daniel; Ebensperger, Germán; Reyes, Roberto V.; Llanos, Aníbal J.; Herrera, Emilio A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Chronic hypoxia and oxidative stress during gestation lead to pulmonary hypertension of the neonate (PHN), a condition characterized by abnormal pulmonary arterial reactivity and remodeling. Melatonin has strong antioxidant properties and improves pulmonary vascular function. Here, we aimed to study the effects of melatonin on the function and structure of pulmonary arteries from PHN lambs. Methods: Twelve lambs (Ovis aries) gestated and born at highlands (3,600 m) were instrumented with systemic and pulmonary catheters. Six of them were assigned to the control group (CN, oral vehicle) and 6 were treated with melatonin (MN, 1 mg.kg−1.d−1) during 10 days. At the end of treatment, we performed a graded oxygenation protocol to assess cardiopulmonary responses to inspired oxygen variations. Further, we obtained lung and pulmonary trunk samples for histology, molecular biology, and immunohistochemistry determinations. Results: Melatonin reduced the in vivo pulmonary pressor response to oxygenation changes. In addition, melatonin decreased cellular density of the media and diminished the proliferation marker KI67 in resistance vessels and pulmonary trunk (p < 0.05). This was associated with a decreased in the remodeling markers α-actin (CN 1.28 ± 0.18 vs. MN 0.77 ± 0.04, p < 0.05) and smoothelin-B (CN 2.13 ± 0.31 vs. MN 0.88 ± 0.27, p < 0.05). Further, melatonin increased vascular density by 134% and vascular luminal surface by 173% (p < 0.05). Finally, melatonin decreased nitrotyrosine, an oxidative stress marker, in small pulmonary vessels (CN 5.12 ± 0.84 vs. MN 1.14 ± 0.34, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Postnatal administration of melatonin blunts the cardiopulmonary response to hypoxia, reduces the pathological vascular remodeling, and increases angiogenesis in pulmonary hypertensive neonatal lambs.These effects improve the pulmonary vascular structure and function in the neonatal period under chronic hypoxia. PMID:29559926

  17. Inapparent pulmonary vascular disease in an ex-heroin user

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonelli Incalzi, R.; Ludovico Maini, C.; Giuliano Bonetti, M.; Campioni, P.; Pistelli, R.; Fuso, L.

    1986-01-01

    A severe pulmonary vascular derangement, usually reported in drug addicts, was diagnosed in a 28-year-old asymptomatic ex-heroin user by means of fortuitously performed pulmonary perfusion imaging. Neither physical findings nor pulmonary function tests, aroused suspicion of the diagnosis. A search for asymptomatic pulmonary vascular disease probably should be undertaken in drug addicts

  18. Pulmonary vascular limitation to exercise and survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, Mart N.; van Kan, Coen; Blumenthal, Judith; Jansen, Henk M.; Wells, Athol U.; Bresser, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is frequently observed in advanced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and is associated with poor prognosis. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) can be used to detect less advanced pulmonary vascular impairment, and therefore may be of prognostic use. We studied the

  19. CT pulmonary angiography of adult pulmonary vascular diseases: Technical considerations and interpretive pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taslakian, Bedros; Latson, Larry A.; Truong, Mylene T.; Aaltonen, Eric; Shiau, Maria C.; Girvin, Francis; Alpert, Jeffrey B.; Wickstrom, Maj; Ko, Jane P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CTPA plays a key role in the evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases. • Improvements in CT technology have improved visualization of pulmonary arteries. • Knowledge of the technical pitfalls is essential for accurate diagnosis. • Dual energy CT imaging enables parenchymal iodine evaluation. • An awareness of the entities affecting the pulmonary arteries is important. - Abstract: Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has become the primary imaging modality for evaluating the pulmonary arteries. Although pulmonary embolism is the primary indication for CTPA, various pulmonary vascular abnormalities can be detected in adults. Knowledge of these disease entities and understanding technical pitfalls that can occur when performing CTPA are essential to enable accurate diagnosis and allow timely management. This review will cover a spectrum of acquired abnormalities including pulmonary embolism due to thrombus and foreign bodies, primary and metastatic tumor involving the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary hypertension, as well as pulmonary artery aneurysms and stenoses. Additionally, methods to overcome technical pitfalls and interventional treatment options will be addressed.

  20. CT pulmonary angiography of adult pulmonary vascular diseases: Technical considerations and interpretive pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taslakian, Bedros, E-mail: bedros.taslakian@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States); Latson, Larry A., E-mail: larry.latson@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States); Truong, Mylene T., E-mail: mtruong@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiology, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, TX (United States); Aaltonen, Eric, E-mail: Eric.Aaltonen@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States); Shiau, Maria C., E-mail: Maria.Shiau@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States); Girvin, Francis, E-mail: Francis.Girvin@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States); Alpert, Jeffrey B., E-mail: Jeffrey.Alpert@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States); Wickstrom, Maj, E-mail: Maj.Wickstrom@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States); Ko, Jane P., E-mail: Jane.Ko@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • CTPA plays a key role in the evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases. • Improvements in CT technology have improved visualization of pulmonary arteries. • Knowledge of the technical pitfalls is essential for accurate diagnosis. • Dual energy CT imaging enables parenchymal iodine evaluation. • An awareness of the entities affecting the pulmonary arteries is important. - Abstract: Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has become the primary imaging modality for evaluating the pulmonary arteries. Although pulmonary embolism is the primary indication for CTPA, various pulmonary vascular abnormalities can be detected in adults. Knowledge of these disease entities and understanding technical pitfalls that can occur when performing CTPA are essential to enable accurate diagnosis and allow timely management. This review will cover a spectrum of acquired abnormalities including pulmonary embolism due to thrombus and foreign bodies, primary and metastatic tumor involving the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary hypertension, as well as pulmonary artery aneurysms and stenoses. Additionally, methods to overcome technical pitfalls and interventional treatment options will be addressed.

  1. [Pulmonary reperfusion syndrome after pulmonary stent implants in a patient with vascular tortuosity syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer Potenciano, M; Piris Borregas, S; Mendoza Soto, A; Velasco Bayon, J M; Caro Barri, A

    2015-01-01

    Vascular tortuosity syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that causes tortuosity and stenosis of the pulmonary, systemic and / or coronary circulations. As a result of treatment of pulmonary stenosis, symptoms of pulmonary edema, known as lung reperfusion syndrome, may occur. The case is presented of an adolescent patient with vascular tortuosity syndrome who presented with a pulmonary reperfusion syndrome after multiple stent implants in the left pulmonary artery. After the procedure, the patient immediately developed an acute pulmonary edema with severe clinical deterioration, which required assistance with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for recovery. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurement of pulmonary vascular resistance of Fontan candidates with pulmonary arterial distortion by means of pulmonary perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In-Sam; Mizukami, Ayumi; Tomimatsu, Hirofumi; Kondou, Chisato; Nakanishi, Toshio; Nakazawa, Makoto; Momma, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    We measured the distribution of blood flow to the right (R) and left lung (L) by means of pulmonary perfusion imaging and calculated pulmonary vascular resistance (Rp) in 13 patients, whose right and left pulmonary artery pressures were different by 2 to 9 mmHg due to pulmonary arterial distortion (5 interruption, 8 stenosis). The right lung/left lung blood flow ratio was determined and from the ratio and the total pulmonary blood flow, which was determined using the Fick's principle, the absolute values of right and left pulmonary blood flow were calculated. Using the right and left pulmonary blood flow and the right and left pulmonary arterial pressures, right and left pulmonary vascular resistance were calculated, separately. Vascular resistance of the whole lung (Rp) was then calculated using the following equation. 1/(Rp of total lung)=1/(Rp of right lung)+1/(Rp of left lung). Rp calculated from this equation was 1.8+/-0.8 U·m 2 and all values were less than 3 U·m 2 (range 0.3-2.8). Rp estimated from the conventional method using the total pulmonary blood flow and pulmonary arterial pressures, without using the right/left blood flow ratio, ranging from 0.4 to 3.8 U·m 2 and 5 of 13 patients showed Rp>3 U·m 2 . All patients underwent Fontan operation successfully. These data indicated that this method is useful to estimate Rp and to determine the indication of Fontan operation in patients with pulmonary arterial distortions. (author)

  3. Role of platelets in maintenance of pulmonary vascular permeability to protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, S.K.; Burhop, K.E.; Kaplan, J.E.; Malik, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    The authors examined the role of platelets in maintenance of pulmonary vascular integrity by inducing thrombocytopenia in sheep using antiplatelet serum (APS). A causal relationship between thrombocytopenia and increase in pulmonary vascular permeability was established by platelet repletion using platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Sheep were chronically instrumented and lung lymph fistulas prepared to monitor pulmonary lymph flow (Q lym ). A balloon catheter was positioned in the left atrium to assess pulmonary vascular permeability to protein after raising the left atrial pressure (P la ). Thrombocytopenia was maintained for 3 days by daily intramuscular APS injections. In studies using cultured bovine pulmonary artery endothelial monolayers, transendothelia permeability of 125 I-labeled albumin was reduced 50 and 95%, respectively, when 2.5 x 10 7 or 5 x 10 7 platelets were added onto endothelial monolayers. However, addition of 5 x 10 6 platelets or 5 x 10 7 red blood cells did not reduce endothelial monolayer albumin permeability. Results indicate that platelets are required for the maintenance of pulmonary vascular permeability. Reduction in permeability appears to involve an interaction of platelets with the endothelium

  4. Ginsenoside Rb1 Attenuates Agonist-Induced Contractile Response via Inhibition of Store-Operated Calcium Entry in Pulmonary Arteries of Normal and Pulmonary Hypertensive Rats

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    Rui-Xing Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH is characterized by sustained vasoconstriction, enhanced vasoreactivity and vascular remodeling, which leads to right heart failure and death. Despite several treatments are available, many forms of PH are still incurable. Ginsenoside Rb1, a principle active ingredient of Panax ginseng, exhibits multiple pharmacological effects on cardiovascular system, and suppresses monocrotaline (MCT-induced right heart hypertrophy. However, its effect on the pulmonary vascular functions related to PH is unknown. Methods: We examined the vasorelaxing effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on endothelin-1 (ET-1 induced contraction of pulmonary arteries (PAs and store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs from chronic hypoxia (CH and MCT-induced PH. Results: Ginsenoside Rb1 elicited concentration-dependent relaxation of ET-1-induced PA contraction. The vasorelaxing effect was unaffected by nifedipine, but abolished by the SOCE blocker Gd3+. Ginsenoside Rb1 suppressed cyclopiazonic acid (CPA-induced PA contraction, and CPA-activated cation entry and Ca2+ transient in PASMCs. ET-1 and CPA-induced contraction, and CPA-activated cation entry and Ca2+ transients were enhanced in PA and PASMCs of CH and MCT-treated rats; the enhanced responses were abolished by ginsenoside Rb1. Conclusion: Ginsenoside Rb1 attenuates ET-1-induced contractile response via inhibition of SOCE, and it can effectively antagonize the enhanced pulmonary vasoreactivity in PH.

  5. Imaging findings of pulmonary vascular disorders in portal hypertension

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    Nagasawa, Kenichi; Takahashi, Koji; Furuse, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate and compare the imaging findings of hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings of five patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome and four patients with portopulmonary hypertension. We evaluated chest radiographs, chest and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans, 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) lung perfusion scans, and pulmonary angiograms. In patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome, the presence of peripheral pulmonary vascular dilatation was detected by chest radiograph, chest CT scan, and pulmonary angiogram, especially the basilar segment. 99m Tc-MAA lung perfusion scan showed extrapulmonary tracer distribution (brain, thyroid, and kidney), which revealed pulmonary right-left shunting. In patients with portopulmonary hypertension, chest radiographs and chest CT scans showed the classic findings of primary pulmonary hypertension. In patients with both disorders, extrahepatic features of portal hypertension including ascites, splenomegaly, and portosystemic collateral vessels were seen on abdominal CT. In conclusion, chest radiographs and CT in hepatopulmonary syndrome usually showed peripheral pulmonary vascular dilatation, whereas those in portopulmonary hypertension showed central pulmonary artery dilatation. The extrahepatic features of portal hypertension might be helpful for the diagnosis of both disorders. (author)

  6. Comparison Between the Acute Pulmonary Vascular Effects of Oxygen with Nitric Oxide and Sildenafil

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    Ronald W. Day

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Right heart catheterization is performed in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension to determine the severity of disease and their pulmonary vascular reactivity. The acute pulmonary vascular effect of inhaled nitric oxide is frequently used to identify patients who will respond favorably to vasodilator therapy. This study sought to determine whether the acute pulmonary vascular effects of oxygen with nitric oxide and intravenous sildenafil are similar. Methods. A retrospective, descriptive study of 13 individuals with pulmonary hypertension who underwent heart catheterization and acute vasodilator testing was performed. The hemodynamic measurements during five phases (21% to 53% oxygen, 100% oxygen, 100% oxygen with 20 ppm nitric oxide, 21% to 51% oxygen, and 21% to 51% oxygen with 0.05 mg/kg to 0.29 mg/kg intravenous sildenafil of the procedures were compared.Results. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance acutely decreased with 100% oxygen with nitric oxide, and 21% to 51% oxygen with sildenafil. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mm Hg, mean ± standard error of the mean was 38 ± 4 during 21% to 53% oxygen, 32 ± 3 during 100% oxygen, 29 ± 2 during 100% oxygen with nitric oxide, 37 ± 3 during 21% to 51% oxygen, and 32 ± 2 during 21% to 51% oxygen with sildenafil. There was not a significant correlation between the percent change in pulmonary vascular resistance from baseline with oxygen and nitric oxide, and from baseline with sildenafil (r2 = 0.011, p = 0.738. Conclusions. Oxygen with nitric oxide and sildenafil decreased pulmonary vascular resistance. However, the pulmonary vascular effects of oxygen and nitric oxide cannot be used to predict the acute response to sildenafil. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the acute response to sildenafil can be used to predict the long-term response to treatment with an oral phosphodiesterase V inhibitor.

  7. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade partially attenuates hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets: relationship with the nitrergic system

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    Camelo, J.S. Jr. [Departamento de Puericultura e Pediatria, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Martins, A.R. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG (Brazil); Rosa, E. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Ramos, S.G. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SPBrasil (Brazil); Hehre, D.; Bancalari, E.; Suguihara, C. [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Neonatal Developmental Biology Laboratory, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States)

    2012-02-10

    The objective of this study was to observe possible interactions between the renin-angiotensin and nitrergic systems in chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets. Thirteen chronically instrumented newborn piglets (6.3 ± 0.9 days; 2369 ± 491 g) were randomly assigned to receive saline (placebo, P) or the AT{sub 1} receptor (AT{sub 1}-R) blocker L-158,809 (L) during 6 days of hypoxia (FiO{sub 2} = 0.12). During hypoxia, pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa; P < 0.0001), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR; P < 0.02) and the pulmonary to systemic vascular resistance ratio (PVR/SVR; P < 0.05) were significantly attenuated in the L (N = 7) group compared to the P group (N = 6). Western blot analysis of lung proteins showed a significant decrease of endothelial NOS (eNOS) in both P and L animals, and of AT{sub 1}-R in P animals during hypoxia compared to normoxic animals (C group, N = 5; P < 0.01 for all groups). AT{sub 1}-R tended to decrease in L animals. Inducible NOS (iNOS) did not differ among P, L, and C animals and iNOS immunohistochemical staining in macrophages was significantly more intense in L than in P animals (P < 0.01). The vascular endothelium showed moderate or strong eNOS and AT{sub 1}-R staining. Macrophages and pneumocytes showed moderate or strong iNOS and AT{sub 1}-R staining, but C animals showed weak iNOS and AT{sub 1}-R staining. Macrophages of L and P animals showed moderate and weak AT{sub 2}-R staining, respectively, but the endothelium of all groups only showed weak staining. In conclusion, pulmonary hypertension induced by chronic hypoxia in newborn piglets is partially attenuated by AT{sub 1}-R blockade. We suggest that AT{sub 1}-R blockade might act through AT{sub 2}-R and/or Mas receptors and the nitrergic system in the lungs of hypoxemic newborn piglets.

  8. Valsartan attenuates pulmonary hypertension via suppression of mitogen activated protein kinase signaling and matrix metalloproteinase expression in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuyan; Guo, Haipeng; Sun, Yuxi; Pan, Xin; Dong, Jia; Gao, Di; Chen, Wei; Xu, Yawei; Xu, Dachun

    2017-08-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that the renin-angiotensin system is involved in the pathogenesis and development of pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, the efficacy of angiotensin II type I (AT1) receptor blockers in the treatment of PH is variable. The present study examined the effects of the AT1 receptor blocker valsartan on monocrotaline (MCT)‑induced PH in rats and chronic hypoxia‑induced PH in mice. The results demonstrated that valsartan markedly attenuated development of PH in rats and mice, as indicated by reduced right ventricular systolic pressure, diminished lung vascular remodeling and decreased right ventricular hypertrophy, compared with vehicle treated animals. Immunohistochemical analyses of proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression revealed that valsartan suppressed smooth muscle cell proliferation. Western blot analysis demonstrated that valsartan limited activation of p38, c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase 1/2 and extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathways and significantly reduced MCT‑induced upregulation of pulmonary matrix metalloproteinases‑2 and ‑9, and transforming growth factor‑β1 expression. The results suggested that valsartan attenuates development of PH in rodents by reducing expression of extracellular matrix remodeling factors and limiting smooth muscle cell proliferation to decrease pathological vascular remodeling. Therefore, valsartan may be a valuable future therapeutic approach for the treatment of PH.

  9. Nebulization of the acidified sodium nitrite formulation attenuates acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

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    Surber Mark W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generalized hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV occurring during exposure to hypoxia is a detrimental process resulting in an increase in lung vascular resistance. Nebulization of sodium nitrite has been shown to inhibit HPV. The aim of this project was to investigate and compare the effects of nebulization of nitrite and different formulations of acidified sodium nitrite on acute HPV. Methods Ex vivo isolated rabbit lungs perfused with erythrocytes in Krebs-Henseleit buffer (adjusted to 10% hematocrit and in vivo anesthetized catheterized rabbits were challenged with periods of hypoxic ventilation alternating with periods of normoxic ventilation. After baseline hypoxic challenges, vehicle, sodium nitrite or acidified sodium nitrite was delivered via nebulization. In the ex vivo model, pulmonary arterial pressure and nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas were monitored. Nitrite and nitrite/nitrate were measured in samples of perfusion buffer. Pulmonary arterial pressure, systemic arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were monitored in the in vivo model. Results In the ex vivo model, nitrite nebulization attenuated HPV and increased nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas and nitrite concentrations in the perfusate. The acidified forms of sodium nitrite induced higher levels of nitric oxide in exhaled gas and had longer vasodilating effects compared to nitrite alone. All nitrite formulations increased concentrations of circulating nitrite to the same degree. In the in vivo model, inhaled nitrite inhibited HPV, while pulmonary arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were not affected. All nitrite formulations had similar potency to inhibit HPV. The tested concentration of appeared tolerable. Conclusion Nitrite alone and in acidified forms effectively and similarly attenuates HPV. However, acidified nitrite formulations induce a more pronounced increase in nitric oxide exhalation.

  10. Clinical application of subtraction CT imaging for evaluation of pulmonary vascular permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shiro; Asai, Toshihiko; Yatagai, Shigeo; Oonuma, Noboru; Ohno, Kunihiko; Nakamoto, Takaaki; Iizuka, Masahiko

    1991-01-01

    In this clinical study, one normal subject, one patient with primary interstitial pneumonia, one patient with segmental pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus, one patient with post-operative esophageal carcinoma, and two patients with mitral stenosis were studied. Dynamic CT scan images under continuous injection of low osmotic contrast medium were analyzed in series, in an attempt to evaluate vascular permeability quantitatively. The following results were obtained. Subtraction CT scan image 10 minutes after the start of contrast medium injection in two patients with pneumonia, showed a reduction of pulmonary vascular permeability following therapy. Subtraction CT scan image of the patient with post-operative esophageal carcinoma treated with 25 Gy radiation showed a discrepancy between pulmonary vascular permeability and other findings. In hemodynamically stable patients with mitral stenosis, subtraction CT images demonstrated that pulmonary vascular permeability was not affected by pulmonary congestion, irrespective of its severity. (author)

  11. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension via attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Zhong, Wei; Shao, Chen; Liu, Peijing; Wang, Cuiping; Wang, Zhongqun; Jiang, Meiping; Lu, Yi; Yan, Jinchuan

    2018-02-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation contribute to pulmonary hypertension (PH) pathogenesis. Previously, we confirmed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could improve hypoxia-induced PH. However, little is known about the link between DHA and monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PH. Our aims were, therefore, to evaluate the effects and molecular mechanisms of DHA on MCT-induced PH in rats. Rat PH was induced by MCT. Rats were treated with DHA daily in the prevention group (following MCT injection) and the reversal group (after MCT injection for 2 wk) by gavage. After 4 wk, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy index, and morphological and immunohistochemical analyses were evaluated. Rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were used to investigate the effects of DHA on cell proliferation stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB. DHA decreased mPAP and attenuated pulmonary vascular remodeling and RV hypertrophy, which were associated with suppressed ER stress. DHA blocked the mitogenic effect of PDGF-BB on PASMCs and arrested the cell cycle via inhibiting nuclear factor of activated T cells-1 (NFATc1) expression and activation and regulating cell cycle-related proteins. Moreover, DHA ameliorated inflammation in lung and suppressed macrophage and T lymphocyte accumulation in lung and adventitia of resistance pulmonary arteries. These findings suggest that DHA could protect against MCT-induced PH by reducing ER stress, suppressing cell proliferation and inflammation.

  12. Angiotensin II prevents hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and vascular changes in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinovitch, M.; Mullen, M.; Rosenberg, H.C.; Maruyama, K.; O'Brodovich, H.; Olley, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    Angiotensin II, a vasoconstrictor, has been previously demonstrated to produce a secondary vasodilatation due to release of prostaglandins. Because of this effect, the authors investigated whether infusion of exogenous angiotensin II via miniosmopumps in rats during a 1-wk exposure to chronic hypobaric hypoxia might prevent pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular changes. They instrumented the rats with indwelling cardiovascular catheters and compared the hemodynamic and structural response in animals given angiotensin II, indomethacin in addition to angiotensin II (to block prostaglandin production), or saline with or without indomethacin. They then determine whether angiotensin II infusion also prevents acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. They observed that exogenous angiotensin II infusion abolished the rise in pulmonary artery pressure, the right ventricular hypertrophy, and the vascular changes induced during chronic hypoxia in control saline-infused rats with or without indomethacin. The protective effects of angiotensin II was lost when indomethacin was given to block prostaglandin synthesis. During acute hypoxia, both antiotensin II and prostacyclin infusion similarly prevented the rise in pulmonary artery pressure observed in saline-infused rats and in rats given indomethacin or saralasin in addition to angiotensin II. Thus exogenous angiotensin II infusion prevents chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, associated right ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular changes and blocks acute hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, and this is likely related to its ability to release vasodilator prostaglandins

  13. Pulmonary vascular anomalies: a review of clinical and radiological findings of cases presenting with different complaints in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacaroğlu, Hikmet Tekin; Ünsal-Karkıner, Canan Şule; Bahçeci-Erdem, Semiha; Özdemir, Rahmi; Karkıner, Aytaç; Alper, Hüdaver; Can, Demet

    2016-01-01

    Congenital pulmonary vascular abnormalities arise from several etiologies. These anomalies are difficult to categorize and sorted into distinct classifications. Major pulmonary vascular abnormalities can be ranked as interruption of the main pulmonary artery or its absence, emergence of the left pulmonary artery in the right pulmonary artery, pulmonary venous drainage abnormalities, and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs). Some of the cases are asymptomatic and diagnosed by coincidence, whereas a few of them are diagnosed by typical findings in the newborn and infancy period, symptoms, and radiological appearances. Early diagnosis is important, since death may occur as a result of pulmonary and cardiac pathologies developed in patients with pulmonary vascular anomalies. In this case presentation, the clinical and radiological findings of patients that presented with different complaints and were diagnosed with pulmonary vascular anomalies were introduced.

  14. Effects of irradiation on the pulmonary hemodynamics and the pulmonary vascular permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkuda, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Shinkichi; Okada, Shinichiroh

    1982-01-01

    In 4 sheeps, base lines of hemodynamics and lymph dynamics were observed for 2 hours, and then 1,000 rad of 60 Co was irradiated to the inferior lobes of the lung. Pulmonary hemodynamics and lymph dynamics were continuously observed, and water and protein permeability of the irradiated pulmonary vessels was evaluated. In 4 control sheeps, no change in pulmonary hemodynamics and lymph dynamics was noted. In the irradiated group, there was no remarkable change in pulmonary hemodynamics for 6 to 8 hours after 60 Co irradiation. Pulmonary lymph flow began to increase 2 hours after irradiation to about 1.7 times the base line level after 4 hours. The increase in pulmonary lymph flow was accompanied by decrease in plasma protein concentration and increase in protein concentration of the lung lymph, resulting in an apparent increase in the ratio of lymph/plasma protein concentration. Water and protein leak from the pulmonary vessels increased. A photomicroscopic observation revealed dilatation of the lymphatic vessels in the lung interstice and a mild pulmonary interstitial edema. Vascular damage, especially due to increased water and protein permeability of the lung capillary vessels, occurred immediately after 60 Co irradiation. (Ueda, J.)

  15. Molecular imaging of the human pulmonary vascular endothelium in pulmonary hypertension: a phase II safety and proof of principle trial

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    Harel, Francois [Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite de Montreal, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Langleben, David; Abikhzer, Gad [McGill University, Lady Davis Institute and Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Provencher, Steve; Guimond, Jean [Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Fournier, Alain; Letourneau, Myriam [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec (Canada); Finnerty, Vincent; Nguyen, Quang T.; Levac, Xavier [Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Mansour, Asmaa; Guertin, Marie-Claude [Montreal Health Innovation Coordination Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Dupuis, Jocelyn [Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite de Montreal, Department of Medicine, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2017-07-15

    The adrenomedullin receptor is densely expressed in the pulmonary vascular endothelium. PulmoBind, an adrenomedullin receptor ligand, was developed for molecular diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease. We evaluated the safety of PulmoBind SPECT imaging and its capacity to detect pulmonary vascular disease associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH) in a human phase II study. Thirty patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, n = 23) or chronic thromboembolic PH (CTEPH, n = 7) in WHO functional class II (n = 26) or III (n = 4) were compared to 15 healthy controls. Lung SPECT was performed after injection of 15 mCi {sup 99m}Tc-PulmoBind in supine position. Qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of lung uptake were performed. Reproducibility of repeated testing was evaluated in controls after 1 month. PulmoBind injection was well tolerated without any serious adverse event. Imaging was markedly abnormal in PH with ∝50% of subjects showing moderate to severe heterogeneity of moderate to severe extent. The abnormalities were unevenly distributed between the right and left lungs as well as within each lung. Segmental defects compatible with pulmonary embolism were present in 7/7 subjects with CTEPH and in 2/23 subjects with PAH. There were no segmental defects in controls. The PulmoBind activity distribution index, a parameter indicative of heterogeneity, was elevated in PH (65% ± 28%) vs. controls (41% ± 13%, p = 0.0003). In the only subject with vasodilator-responsive idiopathic PAH, PulmoBind lung SPECT was completely normal. Repeated testing 1 month later in healthy controls was well tolerated and showed no significant variability of PulmoBind distribution. In this phase II study, molecular SPECT imaging of the pulmonary vascular endothelium using {sup 99m}Tc-PulmoBind was safe. PulmoBind showed potential to detect both pulmonary embolism and abnormalities indicative of pulmonary vascular disease in PAH. Phase III studies with this novel tracer and

  16. Pulmonary vascular complications in portal hypertension and liver disease: A concise review

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    M. Porres-Aguilar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic liver disease and/or portal hypertension may be associated with one of the two pulmonary vascular complications: portopulmonary hypertension and hepatopulmonary syndrome. These pulmonary vascular disorders are notoriously underdiagnosed; however, they have a substantial negative impact on survival and require special attention in order to understand their diagnostic approach and to select the best therapeutic options. Portopulmonary hypertension results from excessive vasoconstriction, vascular remodeling, and proliferative and thrombotic events within the pulmonary circulation that lead to progressive right ventricular failure and ultimately to death. On the other hand, abnormal intrapulmonary vascular dilations, profound hypoxemia, and a wide alveolar-arterial gradient are the hallmarks of the hepatopulmonary syndrome, resulting in difficult-to-treat hypoxemia. The aim of this review is to summarize the latest pathophysiologic concepts, diagnostic approach, therapy, and prognosis of portopulmonary hypertension and hepatopulmonary syndrome, as well as to discuss the role of liver transplantation as a definitive therapy in selected patients with these conditions.

  17. Pioglitazone Attenuates Vascular Fibrosis in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

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    Dengfeng Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We sought to investigate whether the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ ligand pioglitazone can attenuate vascular fibrosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs and explore the possible molecular mechanisms. Methods. SHRs (8-week-old males were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=8 each for treatment: pioglitazone (10 mg/kg/day, hydralazine (25 mg/kg/day, or saline. Normal male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats (n=8 served as normal controls. Twelve weeks later, we evaluated the effect of pioglitazone on vascular fibrosis by Masson’s trichrome and immunohistochemical staining of collagen III and real-time RT-PCR analysis of collagen I, III and fibronectin mRNA.Vascular expression of PPAR-γ and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β expression were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining, western blot analysis, and real-time RT-PCR. Results. Pioglitazone and hydralazine treatment significantly decreased systolic blood pressure in SHRs. Masson’s trichrome staining for collagen III and real-time RT-PCR analysis of collagen I, III and fibronectin mRNA indicated that pioglitazone significantly inhibited extracellular matrix production in the aorta. Compared with Wistar Kyoto rats, SHRs showed significantly increased vascular CTGF expression. Pioglitazone treatment significantly increased PPAR-γ expression and inhibited CTGF expression but had no effect on TGF-β expression. Conclusions. The results indicate that pioglitazone attenuated vascular fibrosis in SHRs by inhibiting CTGF expression in a TGF-β-independent mechanism.

  18. Pulmonary Vascular Congestion: A Mechanism for Distal Lung Unit Dysfunction in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Beno W; Berger, Kenneth I; Ali, Saleem; Segal, Leopoldo N; Donnino, Robert; Katz, Stuart; Parikh, Manish; Goldring, Roberta M

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by increased systemic and pulmonary blood volumes (pulmonary vascular congestion). Concomitant abnormal alveolar membrane diffusion suggests subclinical interstitial edema. In this setting, functional abnormalities should encompass the entire distal lung including the airways. We hypothesize that in obesity: 1) pulmonary vascular congestion will affect the distal lung unit with concordant alveolar membrane and distal airway abnormalities; and 2) the degree of pulmonary congestion and membrane dysfunction will relate to the cardiac response. 54 non-smoking obese subjects underwent spirometry, impulse oscillometry (IOS), diffusion capacity (DLCO) with partition into membrane diffusion (DM) and capillary blood volume (VC), and cardiac MRI (n = 24). Alveolar-capillary membrane efficiency was assessed by calculation of DM/VC. Mean age was 45±12 years; mean BMI was 44.8±7 kg/m2. Vital capacity was 88±13% predicted with reduction in functional residual capacity (58±12% predicted). Despite normal DLCO (98±18% predicted), VC was elevated (135±31% predicted) while DM averaged 94±22% predicted. DM/VC varied from 0.4 to 1.4 with high values reflecting recruitment of alveolar membrane and low values indicating alveolar membrane dysfunction. The most abnormal IOS (R5 and X5) occurred in subjects with lowest DM/VC (r2 = 0.31, ppulmonary vascular congestion and failure to achieve the high output state of obesity. Pulmonary vascular congestion and consequent fluid transudation and/or alterations in the structure of the alveolar capillary membrane may be considered often unrecognized causes of airway dysfunction in obesity.

  19. Effect of prepro-calcitonin gene-related peptide-expressing endothelial progenitor cells on pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang; Liu, Zixiong; Wang, Zhe; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Jun; Lu, Jun

    2007-08-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent smooth muscle cell proliferation inhibitor and vasodilator. It is now believed that CGRP plays an important role in maintaining a low pulmonary vascular resistance. We evaluated the therapeutic effect of intravenously administered CGRP-expressing endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) on left-to-right shunt-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Endothelial progenitor cells were obtained from cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The genetic sequence for CGRP was subcloned into cultured EPCs by human expression plasmid. Pulmonary hypertension was established in immunodeficient rats with an abdominal aorta to inferior vena cava shunt operation. The transfected EPCs were injected through the left jugular vein at 10 weeks after the shunt operation. Mean pulmonary artery pressure and total pulmonary vascular resistance were detected with right cardiac catheterization at 4 weeks. The distribution of EPCs in the lung tissue was examined with immunofluorescence technique. Histopathologic changes in the structure of the pulmonary arteries was observed with electron microscopy and subjected to computerized image analysis. The lungs of rats transplanted with CGRP-expressing EPCs demonstrated a decrease in both mean pulmonary artery pressure (17.64 +/- 0.79 versus 22.08 +/- 0.95 mm Hg; p = 0.018) and total pulmonary vascular resistance (1.26 +/- 0.07 versus 2.45 +/- 0.18 mm Hg x min/mL; p = 0.037) at 4 weeks. Immunofluorescence revealed that intravenously administered cells were incorporated into the pulmonary vasculature. Pulmonary vascular remodeling was remarkably attenuated with the administration of CGRP-expressing EPCs. The transplantation of CGRP-expressing EPCs may effectively attenuate established pulmonary hypertension and exert reversal effects on pulmonary vascular remodeling. Our findings suggest that the therapy based on the combination of both CGRP transfection and EPCs may be a potentially useful

  20. Mycophenolate mofetil attenuates pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Chihiro; Takahashi, Masafumi; Morimoto, Hajime; Izawa, Atsushi; Ise, Hirohiko; Hongo, Minoru; Hoshikawa, Yasushi; Ito, Takayuki; Miyashita, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Ikeda, Uichi

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by abnormal proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), leading to occlusion of pulmonary arterioles, right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy, and death. We investigated whether mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), a potent immunosuppresssant, prevents the development of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH in rats. MMF effectively decreased RV systolic pressure and RV hypertrophy, and reduced the medial thickness of pulmonary arteries. MMF significantly inhibited the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells, infiltration of macrophages, and expression of P-selectin and interleukin-6 on the endothelium of pulmonary arteries. The infiltration of T cells and mast cells was not affected by MMF. In vitro experiments revealed that mycophenolic acid (MPA), an active metabolite of MMF, dose-dependently inhibited proliferation of human pulmonary arterial SMCs. MMF attenuated the development of PAH through its anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties. These findings provide new insight into the potential role of immunosuppressants in the treatment of PAH

  1. Chronic Embolic Pulmonary Hypertension Caused by Pulmonary Embolism and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto-Neves, Evandro M; Brown, Mary B; Zaretskaia, Maria V; Rezania, Samin; Goodwill, Adam G; McCarthy, Brian P; Persohn, Scott A; Territo, Paul R; Kline, Jeffrey A

    2017-04-01

    Our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) will be accelerated by an animal model that replicates the phenotype of human CTEPH. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a combination of a single dose each of plastic microspheres and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor antagonist in polystyrene microspheres (PE) + tyrosine kinase inhibitor SU5416 (SU) group. Shams received volume-matched saline; PE and SU groups received only microspheres or SU5416, respectively. PE + SU rats exhibited sustained pulmonary hypertension (62 ± 13 and 53 ± 14 mmHg at 3 and 6 weeks, respectively) with reduction of the ventriculoarterial coupling in vivo coincident with a large decrement in peak rate of oxygen consumption during aerobic exercise, respectively. PE + SU produced right ventricular hypokinesis, dilation, and hypertrophy observed on echocardiography, and 40% reduction in right ventricular contractile function in isolated perfused hearts. High-resolution computed tomographic pulmonary angiography and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry revealed abundant lung neovascularization and cellular proliferation in PE that was distinctly absent in the PE + SU group. We present a novel rodent model to reproduce much of the known phenotype of CTEPH, including the pivotal pathophysiological role of impaired vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent vascular remodeling. This model may reveal a better pathophysiological understanding of how PE transitions to CTEPH in human treatments. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pulmonary Vascular Input Impedance is a Combined Measure of Pulmonary Vascular Resistance and Stiffness and Predicts Clinical Outcomes Better than PVR Alone in Pediatric Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kendall S.; Lee, Po-Feng; Lanning, Craig J.; Ivy, D. Dunbar; Kirby, K. Scott; Claussen, Lori R.; Chan, K. Chen; Shandas, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Background Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is the current standard for evaluating reactivity in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, PVR measures only the mean component of right ventricular afterload and neglects pulsatile effects. We recently developed and validated an method to measure pulmonary vascular input impedance, which revealed excellent correlation between the zero-harmonic impedance value and PVR, and suggested a correlation between higher harmonic impedance values and pulmonary vascular stiffness (PVS). Here we show that input impedance can be measured routinely and easily in the catheterization laboratory, that impedance provides PVR and PVS from a single measurement, and that impedance is a better predictor of disease outcomes compared to PVR. Methods Pressure and velocity waveforms within the main PA were measured during right-heart catheterization of patients with normal PA hemodynamics (n=14) and those with PAH undergoing reactivity evaluation (49 subjects; 95 conditions). A correction factor needed to transform velocity into flow was obtained by calibrating against cardiac output. Input impedance was obtained off-line by dividing Fourier-transformed pressure and flow waveforms. Results Exceptional correlation was found between the indexed zero harmonic of impedance and indexed PVR (y=1.095·x+1.381, R2=0.9620). Additionally, the modulus sum of the first two harmonics of impedance was found to best correlate with indexed pulse pressure over stroke volume (PP/SV) (y=13.39·x-0.8058, R2=0.7962). Amongst a subset of PAH patients (n=25), cumulative logistic regression between outcomes to total indexed impedance was better (RL2=0.4012) than between outcomes and indexed PVR (RL2=0.3131). Conclusions Input impedance can be consistently and easily obtained from PW Doppler and a single catheter pressure measurement, provides comprehensive characterization of the main components of RV afterload, and better predicts patient

  3. Measurements of pulmonary vascular permeability with PET and gallium-68 transferrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintun, M.A.; Dennis, D.R.; Welch, M.J.; Mathias, C.J.; Schuster, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    We quantified pulmonary vascular permeability with positron emission tomography (PET) and gallium-68-( 68 Ga) labeled transferrin. Six dogs with oleic acid-induced lung injury confined to the left lower lobe, two normal human volunteers, and two patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were evaluated. Lung tissue-activity measurements were obtained from sequential 1-5 min PET scans collected over 60 min, after in vivo labeling of transferrin through intravenous administration of [ 68 Ga]citrate. Blood-activity measurements were measured from simultaneously obtained peripheral blood samples. A forward rate constant describing the movement of transferrin from pulmonary vascular to extravascular compartments, the pulmonary transcapillary escape rate (PTCER), was then calculated from these data using a two-compartment model. In dogs, PTCER was 49 +/- 18 in normal lung tissue and 485 +/- 114 10(-4) min-1 in injured lung. A repeat study in these dogs 4 hr later showed no significant change. Values in the human subjects showed similarly marked differences between normal and abnormal lung tissue. We conclude that PET will be a useful method of evaluating vascular permeability changes after acute lung injury

  4. Pulmonary allergic reactions impair systemic vascular relaxation in ragweed sensitive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Surovi; Van Scott, Michael R; Lust, Robert M; Wingard, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    Asthma is often associated with cardiovascular complications, and recent observations in animal models indicate that induction of pulmonary allergic inflammation increases susceptibility of the myocardium to ischemia and reperfusion injury. In this study, we used a murine model of allergen sensitization in which aspiration of allergen induces pulmonary and systemic inflammation, to test the hypothesis that pulmonary exposure to allergen alters vascular relaxation responses. BALB/C mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ragweed and challenged by intratracheal instillation of allergen. Airway hyperreactivity and pulmonary inflammation were confirmed, and endothelium-dependent and -independent reactivity of thoracic aorta rings were evaluated. Ragweed sensitization and challenge induced airway hyperreactivity to methacholine and pulmonary inflammation, but did not affect constrictor responses of the aortic rings to phenylephrine and K+ depolarization. In contrast, maximal relaxation of aortic rings to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside decreased from 87.6±3.9% and 97.7±1.2% to 32±4% and 51±6%, respectively (p<0.05). The sensitivity to acetylcholine was likewise reduced (EC₅₀=0.26±0.05 μM vs. 1.09±0.16 μM, p<0.001). The results demonstrate that induction of allergic pulmonary inflammation in mice depresses endothelium-dependent and -independent vascular relaxation, which can contribute to cardiovascular complications associated with allergic inflammation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased systemic vascular resistance in neonates with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstein, J M; Goetzman, B W; Riemenschneider, T A; Wennberg, R P

    1979-11-01

    The time necessary for aortic diastolic pressure to decrease to 50 percent of an initially selected value after dissipation of the dicrotic notch (T 1/2) was determined in newborn infants with and without pulmonary hypertension. The mean T 1/2 was 671 +/- 167 msec in seven infants with clinical evidence of pulmonary hypertension and documented right to left ductus arteriosus shunting; 849 +/- 243 msec in nine infants with clinical evidence of pulmonary hypertension but no documented right to left ductus arteriosus shunting; and 457 +/- 66 msec in eight infants with hyaline membrane disease and no clinical evidence of pulmonary hypertension or a patent ductus arteriosus. The mean T 1/2 values in the former two groups were significantly different from that in the group with no pulmonary hypertension (P less than 0.01). An evaluation of factors affecting T 1/2 leads to the conclusion that the patients with pulmonary hypertension had increased systemic vascular resistance as well. This finding has important diagnostic, etiologic and therapeutic implications.

  6. Decline in arterial partial pressure of oxygen after exercise: a surrogate marker of pulmonary vascular obstructive disease in patients with atrial septal defect and severe pulmonary hypertension.

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    Laksmivenkateshiah, Srinivas; Singhi, Anil K; Vaidyanathan, Balu; Francis, Edwin; Karimassery, Sundaram R; Kumar, Raman K

    2011-06-01

    To examine the utility of decline in arterial partial pressure of oxygen after exercise as a marker of pulmonary vascular obstructive disease in patients with atrial septal defect and pulmonary hypertension. Treadmill exercise was performed in 18 patients with atrial septal defect and pulmonary hypertension. Arterial blood gas samples were obtained before and after peak exercise. A decline in the arterial pressure of oxygen of more than 10 millimetres of mercury after exercise was considered significant based on preliminary tests conducted on the controls. Cardiac catheterisation was performed in all patients and haemodynamic data sets were obtained on room air, oxygen, and a mixture of oxygen and nitric oxide (30-40 parts per million). There were 10 patients who had more than a 10 millimetres of mercury drop in arterial partial pressure of oxygen after exercise and who had a basal pulmonary vascular resistance index of more than 7 Wood units per square metre. Out of eight patients who had less than a 10 millimetres of mercury drop in arterial partial pressure of oxygen after exercise, seven had a basal pulmonary vascular resistance index of less than 7 Wood units per square metre, p equals 0.0001. A decline in arterial partial pressure of oxygen of more than 10 millimetres of mercury predicted a basal pulmonary vascular resistance index of more than 7 Wood units per square metre with a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 90%. A decline in arterial partial pressure of oxygen following exercise appears to predict a high pulmonary vascular resistance index in patients with atrial septal defect and pulmonary hypertension. This test is a useful non-invasive marker of pulmonary vascular obstructive disease in this subset.

  7. [Clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular complications hospitalized at the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormeño Julca, Alexis Jose; Alvarez Murillo, Carlos Melchor; Amoretti Alvino, Pedro Miguel; Florian Florian, Angel Aladino; Castro Johanson, Rosa Aurora; Celi Perez, Maria Danisa; Huamán Prado, Olga Rocío

    2017-01-01

    The hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) and portopulmonary hypertension (PPHN) are distinct pulmonary vascular complications of portal hypertension (PHT) and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular complications hospitalized at the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño. We included patients with HTP hospitalized from January 2012 to June 2013 and that during its evolution progressed with SHP or HTPP. For analysis, they were divided into a first group of patients with liver cirrhosis and a second group with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. Of 22 patients with HPT 45.5% were male and the age range was between 1 month and 17 years. The etiology in the group of cirrhosis (n=14) was: autoimmune hepatitis (35.7%), cryptogenic cirrhosis (35.7%), inborn error of metabolism (14.3%), chronic viral hepatitis C (7.15%) virus and atresia extra-hepatic bile ducts (7.15%). Pulmonary vascular complications more frequently occurred in patients with liver cirrhosis (1 case of HPS and a case of PPHTN). They most often dyspnea, asthenia, edema, malnutrition, ascites, hypersplenism and gastrointestinal bleeding from esophageal varices was found. Also, they had elevated ALT values, alkaline phosphatase and serum albumin values decreased. In children with pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary vascular complications are rare. In the evaluation of these patients pulse oximetry should be included to detect hypoxemia and ubsequently a Doppler echocardiography and contrast echocardiography necessary. Dueto the finding of systolic pulmonary hypertension it is necessary to perform right heart catheterization.

  8. Sildenafil attenuates pulmonary inflammation and fibrin deposition, mortality and right ventricular hypertrophy in neonatal hyperoxic lung injury

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    Boersma Hester

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition with sildenafil has been used to treat severe pulmonary hypertension and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, a chronic lung disease in very preterm infants who were mechanically ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome. Methods Sildenafil treatment was investigated in 2 models of experimental BPD: a lethal neonatal model, in which rat pups were continuously exposed to hyperoxia and treated daily with sildenafil (50–150 mg/kg body weight/day; injected subcutaneously and a neonatal lung injury-recovery model in which rat pups were exposed to hyperoxia for 9 days, followed by 9 days of recovery in room air and started sildenafil treatment on day 6 of hyperoxia exposure. Parameters investigated include survival, histopathology, fibrin deposition, alveolar vascular leakage, right ventricular hypertrophy, and differential mRNA expression in lung and heart tissue. Results Prophylactic treatment with an optimal dose of sildenafil (2 × 50 mg/kg/day significantly increased lung cGMP levels, prolonged median survival, reduced fibrin deposition, total protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, inflammation and septum thickness. Treatment with sildenafil partially corrected the differential mRNA expression of amphiregulin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, fibroblast growth factor receptor-4 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in the lung and of brain and c-type natriuretic peptides and the natriuretic peptide receptors NPR-A, -B, and -C in the right ventricle. In the lethal and injury-recovery model we demonstrated improved alveolarization and angiogenesis by attenuating mean linear intercept and arteriolar wall thickness and increasing pulmonary blood vessel density, and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH. Conclusion Sildenafil treatment, started simultaneously with exposure to hyperoxia after birth, prolongs survival, increases pulmonary cGMP levels, reduces the pulmonary

  9. Hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenmark, Kurt R; Fagan, Karen A; Frid, Maria G

    2006-09-29

    Chronic hypoxic exposure induces changes in the structure of pulmonary arteries, as well as in the biochemical and functional phenotypes of each of the vascular cell types, from the hilum of the lung to the most peripheral vessels in the alveolar wall. The magnitude and the specific profile of the changes depend on the species, sex, and the developmental stage at which the exposure to hypoxia occurred. Further, hypoxia-induced changes are site specific, such that the remodeling process in the large vessels differs from that in the smallest vessels. The cellular and molecular mechanisms vary and depend on the cellular composition of vessels at particular sites along the longitudinal axis of the pulmonary vasculature, as well as on local environmental factors. Each of the resident vascular cell types (ie, endothelial, smooth muscle, adventitial fibroblast) undergo site- and time-dependent alterations in proliferation, matrix protein production, expression of growth factors, cytokines, and receptors, and each resident cell type plays a specific role in the overall remodeling response. In addition, hypoxic exposure induces an inflammatory response within the vessel wall, and the recruited circulating progenitor cells contribute significantly to the structural remodeling and persistent vasoconstriction of the pulmonary circulation. The possibility exists that the lung or lung vessels also contain resident progenitor cells that participate in the remodeling process. Thus the hypoxia-induced remodeling of the pulmonary circulation is a highly complex process where numerous interactive events must be taken into account as we search for newer, more effective therapeutic interventions. This review provides perspectives on each of the aforementioned areas.

  10. Expression of PDGF-beta receptor in broilers with pulmonary hypertension induced by cold temperature and its association with pulmonary vascular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Chun; Pan, Jia-Qiang; Huang, Guo-Qing; Tan, Xun; Sun, Wei-Dong; Liu, Yan-Juan; Wang, Xiao-Long

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the relationship between platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor (PDGF-beta receptor) expression and pulmonary vascular remodeling found in broilers subjected to cold temperature beginning at 14 days of age. One hundred and sixty-one-day-old mixed-sex Avian-2000 commercial broilers were randomly divided into a normal temperature group (control) and a cold temperature group (cold). All the birds were brooded in normal temperature up to day 14, with the lighting schedule at 24 h per day. Starting at day 14, birds in the cold group were moved to a pen in the cold house and subjected to low temperature, while birds in the control group were still brooded at normal temperature. On days 14, 23, 30, 37 and 44, the right/total ventricle weight ratio (RV/TV), packed cell volume (PCV), the vessel wall area to vessel total area ratio (WA/TA), mean media thickness in pulmonary arterioles (mMTPA) and the expression of PDGF-beta receptor in pulmonary arterioles were measured, respectively. Cumulative pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) morbidity was recorded in each group. Cool ambient temperature increased PHS morbidity of broilers. The values of WA/TA and mMTPA were also increased significantly compared with control group. PCV values in the cold temperature group were elevated from days 30 to 44, and RV/TV ratios were increased on days 37 and 44. Cold exposure enhanced PDGF-beta receptor expression in pulmonary arterioles, and the PDGF-beta receptor expression was significantly correlated with pulmonary vascular remodeling that was dedicated by increased WA/TA and mMTPA. The results indicated that PDGF-beta and its receptor were involved in the underlying mechanisms of pulmonary vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertensive broilers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vinpocetine Attenuates the Osteoblastic Differentiation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

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    Yun-Yun Ma

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is an active process of osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, its definite mechanism remains unknown. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has been demonstrated to inhibit the high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, it remains unknown whether vinpocetine can affect the osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. We hereby investigated the effect of vinpocetine on vascular calcification using a beta-glycerophosphate-induced cell model. Our results showed that vinpocetine significantly reduced the osteoblast-like phenotypes of vascular smooth muscle cells including ALP activity, osteocalcin, collagen type I, Runx2 and BMP-2 expression as well as the formation of mineralized nodule. Vinpocetine, binding to translocation protein, induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase and Akt and thus inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B into the nucleus. Silencing of translocator protein significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of vinpocetine on osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Taken together, vinpocetine may be a promising candidate for the clinical therapy of vascular calcification.

  12. MURC deficiency in smooth muscle attenuates pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Naohiko; Ogata, Takehiro; Naito, Daisuke; Miyagawa, Kotaro; Taniguchi, Takuya; Hamaoka, Tetsuro; Maruyama, Naoki; Kasahara, Takeru; Nishi, Masahiro; Matoba, Satoaki; Ueyama, Tomomi

    2016-08-22

    Emerging evidence suggests that caveolin-1 (Cav1) is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. MURC (also called Cavin-4) is a member of the cavin family, which regulates caveolar formation and functions together with caveolins. Here, we show that hypoxia increased Murc mRNA expression in the mouse lung, and that Murc-null mice exhibited attenuation of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) accompanied by reduced ROCK activity in the lung. Conditional knockout mice lacking Murc in smooth muscle also resist hypoxia-induced PH. MURC regulates the proliferation and migration of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) through Rho/ROCK signalling. Cav1 suppresses RhoA activity in PASMCs, which is reversed by MURC. MURC binds to Cav1 and inhibits the association of Cav1 with the active form of Gα13, resulting in the facilitated association of the active form of Gα13 with p115RhoGEF. These results reveal that MURC has a function in the development of PH through modulating Rho/ROCK signalling.

  13. The α and Δ isoforms of CREB1 are required to maintain normal pulmonary vascular resistance.

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    Lili Li

    Full Text Available Chronic hypoxia causes pulmonary hypertension associated with structural alterations in pulmonary vessels and sustained vasoconstriction. The transcriptional mechanisms responsible for these distinctive changes are unclear. We have previously reported that CREB1 is activated in the lung in response to alveolar hypoxia but not in other organs. To directly investigate the role of α and Δ isoforms of CREB1 in the regulation of pulmonary vascular resistance we examined the responses of mice in which these isoforms of CREB1 had been inactivated by gene mutation, leaving only the β isoform intact (CREB(αΔ mice. Here we report that expression of CREB regulated genes was altered in the lungs of CREB(αΔ mice. CREB(αΔ mice had greater pulmonary vascular resistance than wild types, both basally in normoxia and following exposure to hypoxic conditions for three weeks. There was no difference in rho kinase mediated vasoconstriction between CREB(αΔ and wild type mice. Stereological analysis of pulmonary vascular structure showed characteristic wall thickening and lumen reduction in hypoxic wild-type mice, with similar changes observed in CREB(αΔ. CREB(αΔ mice had larger lungs with reduced epithelial surface density suggesting increased pulmonary compliance. These findings show that α and Δ isoforms of CREB1 regulate homeostatic gene expression in the lung and that normal activity of these isoforms is essential to maintain low pulmonary vascular resistance in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions and to maintain the normal alveolar structure. Interventions that enhance the actions of α and Δ isoforms of CREB1 warrant further investigation in hypoxic lung diseases.

  14. Hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling requires recruitment of circulating mesenchymal precursors of a monocyte/macrophage lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Maria G; Brunetti, Jacqueline A; Burke, Danielle L; Carpenter, Todd C; Davie, Neil J; Reeves, John T; Roedersheimer, Mark T; van Rooijen, Nico; Stenmark, Kurt R

    2006-02-01

    Vascular remodeling in chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension includes marked fibroproliferative changes in the pulmonary artery (PA) adventitia. Although resident PA fibroblasts have long been considered the primary contributors to these processes, we tested the hypothesis that hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling requires recruitment of circulating mesenchymal precursors of a monocyte/macrophage lineage, termed fibrocytes. Using two neonatal animal models (rats and calves) of chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, we demonstrated a dramatic perivascular accumulation of mononuclear cells of a monocyte/macrophage lineage (expressing CD45, CD11b, CD14, CD68, ED1, ED2). Many of these cells produced type I collagen, expressed alpha-smooth muscle actin, and proliferated, thus exhibiting mesenchymal cell characteristics attributed to fibrocytes. The blood-borne origin of these cells was confirmed in experiments wherein circulating monocytes/macrophages of chronically hypoxic rats were in vivo-labeled with DiI fluorochrome via liposome delivery and subsequently identified in the remodeled pulmonary, but not systemic, arterial adventitia. The DiI-labeled cells that appeared in the vessel wall expressed monocyte/macrophage markers and procollagen. Selective depletion of this monocytic cell population, using either clodronate-liposomes or gadolinium chloride, prevented pulmonary adventitial remodeling (ie, production of collagen, fibronectin, and tenascin-C and accumulation of myofibroblasts). We conclude that circulating mesenchymal precursors of a monocyte/macrophage lineage, including fibrocytes, are essential contributors to hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling.

  15. Agmatine attenuates silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Agamy, D S; Sharawy, M H; Ammar, E M

    2014-06-01

    There is a large body of evidence that nitric oxide (NO) formation is implicated in mediating silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis. As a reactive free radical, NO may not only contribute to lung parenchymal tissue injury but also has the ability to combine with superoxide and form a highly reactive toxic species peroxynitrite that can induce extensive cellular toxicity in the lung tissues. This study aimed to explore the effect of agmatine, a known NO synthase inhibitor, on silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated with agmatine for 60 days following a single intranasal instillation of silica suspension (50 mg in 0.1 ml saline/rat). The results revealed that agmatine attenuated silica-induced lung inflammation as it decreased the lung wet/dry weight ratio, protein concentration, and the accumulation of the inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Agmatine showed antifibrotic activity as it decreased total hydroxyproline content of the lung and reduced silica-mediated lung inflammation and fibrosis in lung histopathological specimen. In addition, agmatine significantly increased superoxide dismutase (p Agmatine also reduced silica-induced overproduction of pulmonary nitrite/nitrate as well as tumor necrosis factor α. Collectively, these results demonstrate the protective effects of agmatine against the silica-induced lung fibrosis that may be attributed to its ability to counteract the NO production, lipid peroxidation, and regulate cytokine effects. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Hypoxia Inducible Factor Signaling and Experimental Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn: A Therapeutic Opportunity

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    Stephen eWedgwood

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB activity are increased in a lamb model of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN. These events can trigger hypoxia inducible factor (HIF signaling in response to hypoxia, which has been shown to contribute to pulmonary vascular remodeling in rodent models of pulmonary hypertension. However the role of HIF signaling in chronic intrauterine pulmonary hypertension is not well understood.AIM: To determine if HIF signaling is increased in the lamb model of PPHN, and to identify the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: PPHN was induced in lambs by antenatal ligation of the ductus arteriosus at 128 days gestation. After 9 days, lungs and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC were isolated from control and PPHN lambs. HIF-1α expression was increased in PPHN lungs and HIF activity was increased in PPHN PASMC relative to controls. Hypoxia increased HIF activity to a greater degree in PPHN vs. control PASMC. Control PASMC were exposed to cyclic stretch at 1Hz and 15% elongation for 24h, as an in vitro model of vascular stress. Stretch increased HIF activity, which was attenuated by inhibition of mitochondrial complex III and NFκB.CONCLUSION: Increased HIF signaling in PPHN is triggered by stretch, via mechanisms involving mitochondrial ROS and NFκB. Hypoxia substantially amplifies HIF activity in PPHN vascular cells. Targeting these signaling molecules may attenuate and reverse pulmonary vascular remodeling associated with PPHN.

  17. In smokers, Sonic hedgehog modulates pulmonary endothelial function through vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henno, Priscilla; Grassin-Delyle, Stanislas; Belle, Emeline; Brollo, Marion; Naline, Emmanuel; Sage, Edouard; Devillier, Philippe; Israël-Biet, Dominique

    2017-05-23

    Tobacco-induced pulmonary vascular disease is partly driven by endothelial dysfunction. The Sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway is involved in vascular physiology. We sought to establish whether the SHH pathway has a role in pulmonary endothelial dysfunction in smokers. The ex vivo endothelium-dependent relaxation of pulmonary artery rings in response to acetylcholine (Ach) was compared in 34 current or ex-smokers and 8 never-smokers. The results were expressed as a percentage of the contraction with phenylephrine. We tested the effects of SHH inhibitors (GANT61 and cyclopamine), an SHH activator (SAG) and recombinant VEGF on the Ach-induced relaxation. The level of VEGF protein in the pulmonary artery ring was measured in an ELISA. SHH pathway gene expression was quantified in reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reactions. Ach-induced relaxation was much less intense in smokers than in never-smokers (respectively 24 ± 6% and 50 ± 7% with 10 -4 M Ach; p = 0.028). All SHH pathway genes were expressed in pulmonary artery rings from smokers. SHH inhibition by GANT61 reduced Ach-induced relaxation and VEGF gene expression in the pulmonary artery ring. Recombinant VEGF restored the ring's endothelial function. VEGF gene and protein expression levels in the pulmonary artery rings were positively correlated with the degree of Ach-induced relaxation and negatively correlated with the number of pack-years. SHH pathway genes and proteins are expressed in pulmonary artery rings from smokers, where they modulate endothelial function through VEGF.

  18. Gap junction protein connexin43 exacerbates lung vascular permeability.

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    James J O'Donnell

    Full Text Available Increased vascular permeability causes pulmonary edema that impairs arterial oxygenation and thus contributes to morbidity and mortality associated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and sepsis. Although components of intercellular adhesive and tight junctions are critical for maintaining the endothelial barrier, there has been limited study of the roles of gap junctions and their component proteins (connexins. Since connexins can modulate inflammatory signaling in other systems, we hypothesized that connexins may also regulate pulmonary endothelial permeability. The relationships between connexins and the permeability response to inflammatory stimuli were studied in cultured human pulmonary endothelial cells. Prolonged treatment with thrombin, lipopolysaccharide, or pathological cyclic stretch increased levels of mRNA and protein for the major connexin, connexin43 (Cx43. Thrombin and lipopolysaccharide both increased intercellular communication assayed by transfer of microinjected Lucifer yellow. Although thrombin decreased transendothelial resistance in these cells, the response was attenuated by pretreatment with the connexin inhibitor carbenoxolone. Additionally, the decreases of transendothelial resistance produced by either thrombin or lipopolysaccharide were attenuated by reducing Cx43 expression by siRNA knockdown. Both carbenoxolone and Cx43 knockdown also abrogated thrombin-induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain. Taken together, these data suggest that increased lung vascular permeability induced by inflammatory conditions may be amplified via increased expression of Cx43 and intercellular communication among pulmonary endothelial cells.

  19. Reversal of reflex pulmonary vasoconstriction induced by main pulmonary arterial distension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juratsch, C E; Grover, R F; Rose, C E; Reeves, J T; Walby, W F; Laks, M M

    1985-04-01

    Distension of the main pulmonary artery (MPA) induces pulmonary hypertension, most probably by neurogenic reflex pulmonary vasoconstriction, although constriction of the pulmonary vessels has not actually been demonstrated. In previous studies in dogs with increased pulmonary vascular resistance produced by airway hypoxia, exogenous arachidonic acid has led to the production of pulmonary vasodilator prostaglandins. Hence, in the present study, we investigated the effect of arachidonic acid in seven intact anesthetized dogs after pulmonary vascular resistance was increased by MPA distention. After steady-state pulmonary hypertension was established, arachidonic acid (1.0 mg/min) was infused into the right ventricle for 16 min; 15-20 min later a 16-mg bolus of arachidonic acid was injected. MPA distension was maintained throughout the study. Although the infusion of arachidonic acid significantly lowered the elevated pulmonary vascular resistance induced by MPA distension, the pulmonary vascular resistance returned to control levels only after the bolus injection of arachidonic acid. Notably, the bolus injection caused a biphasic response which first increased the pulmonary vascular resistance transiently before lowering it to control levels. In dogs with resting levels of pulmonary vascular resistance, administration of arachidonic acid in the same manner did not alter the pulmonary vascular resistance. It is concluded that MPA distension does indeed cause reflex pulmonary vasoconstriction which can be reversed by vasodilator metabolites of arachidonic acid. Even though this reflex may help maintain high pulmonary vascular resistance in the fetus, its function in the adult is obscure.

  20. Mosaic pattern of lung attenuation on thin-section CT : review of 31 cases

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    Choi, Young Hi; An, Jee Hyun; Lee, Kye Young; Jee, Young Koo; Lee, Young Seok [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Choan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    To correlate radiologic findings with clinical findings in patients with a mosaic pattern of lung attenuation, as seen on thin-section CT. Materials and Methods : Thirty-one cases in which a mosaic pattern of lung attenuation was detected on combined expiratory and inspiratory scans of thin-section CT were retrospectively analyzed. Cases involving infiltrative lung disease were excluded. Both thin-section CT and clinical findings we reanalyzed and the relationship between the extent of the area of hyperlucency -as seen on expiratory scan- and physiologic parameters was evaluated. The subjects were 10 men and 21 women ranged in age from 25 to 76 (mean 50)years. Results : Twenty-nine patients with small airway disease, [chronic bronchitis and/or bronchiolitis(n=11),bronchiectasis(n=8), bronchial asthma(n=8), mycoplasmic pneumonitis(n=1) and hypersensitive pneumonitis(n=1),] and two patients with pulmonary vascular disease, [chronic pulmonary thromboembolism(n=1) and stenosis of the left upper pulmonary artery(n=1)] were included in our study. Commonly associated thin-section CT findings in the cases involving small airway disease(n=29) were bronchial wall thickening(n=25), nodular opacity(n=25), bronchial and bronchiolar dilatation(n=20) and small branching opacity(n=16). These findings were not observed in two patients with pulmonary vascular disease, though bronchial wall thickening was seen in the patient with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. At expiratory scan level, there was statistical correlation between FEV1/FVC and the number of pulmonary segments(r= 0.982, p<0.05), but no correlation between FEV1/FVC and the percentage area of hyperlucency(r=0.803, p>0.05). Conclusion: The mosaic pattern of lung attenuation seen on thin-section CT is indicative of various diseases, involving small airways such as bronchiolitis, bronchitis, bronchiectasis and bronchial asthma, and vascular lung disease. Bronchial wall thickening and nodular opacity can be associated with

  1. Pulmonary venous flow index as a predictor of pulmonary vascular resistance variability in congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary flow: a comparative study before and after oxygen inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Ivan Romero; Mendonça, Maria Alayde; Andrade, José Lázaro; Moises, Valdir; Campos, Orlando; Silva, Célia Camelo; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos

    2013-09-01

    There is no definitive and reliable echocardiographic method for estimating the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) to differentiate persistent vascular disease from dynamic pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the pulmonary venous blood flow velocity-time integral (VTIpv) and PVR. Eighteen patients (10 females; 4 months to 22 years of age) with congenital heart disease and left to right shunt were studied. They underwent complete cardiac catheterization, including measurements of the PVR and Qp:Qs ratio, before and after 100% oxygen inhalation. Simultaneous left inferior pulmonary venous flow VTIpv was obtained by Doppler echocardiography. The PVR decreased significantly from 5.0 ± 2.6 W to 2.8 ± 2.2 W (P = 0.0001) with a significant increase in the Qp:Qs ratio, from 3.2 ± 1.4 to 4.9 ± 2.4 (P = 0.0008), and the VTIpv increased significantly from 22.6 ± 4.7 cm to 28.1 ± 6.2 cm (P = 0.0002) after 100% oxygen inhalation. VTIpv correlated well with the PVR and Qp:Qs ratio (r = -0.74 and 0.72, respectively). Diagnostic indexes indicated a sensitivity of 86%, specificity of 75%, accuracy of 83%, a positive predictive value of 92% and a negative predictive value of 60%. The VTIpv correlated well with the PVR. The measurement of this index before and after oxygen inhalation may become a useful noninvasive test for differentiating persistent vascular disease from dynamic and flow-related pulmonary hypertension. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Use of spiral CT angiography to judge central pulmonary vascular involvement from lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Qunyou; Zhao Shaohong; Wang Fangze; Cai Zulong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of spiral CT angiography (SCTA) in judging central pulmonary vascular involvement from lung cancer located in the hilum and correlate the resultant images with pathologic and surgical findings. Methods: SCTA was done in 33 patients who were preoperatively diagnosed as having lung carcinoma located in the hilum. Contrast medium was injected at a rate of 3 ml/sec with a power injector. The delay time was from 20 to 25 seconds. The pitch was 1 with 3 mm-collimation. Images of central pulmonary arteries and veins were reconstructed with shaded surface display (SSD), maximum intensity projection (MIP), curved planar reformation (CPR), and multi-planar reformation (MPR). Then the relation between tumor and vessels was assessed prospectively on both 3 mm interval axial CT and SCTA images with comparison to subsequent pathologic or surgical findings. Results: (1) In showing the integrity of central pulmonary arteries and veins, images reconstructed by different ways of SCTA had different strong and weak points. (2) The grading standard in this study, with which the relation between vessels and tumor was judged, reflected the basic and common characters of central pulmonary vascular involvement by tumor located in the hilum. compared with axial CT images, SCTA was more accurate in judging the relation between central pulmonary vessels and tumor, and the correlation of SCTA imaging features with pathological patterns and surgical findings was better than that of axial CT images, P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001, respectively. Conclusion: It was feasible to show the relation between central pulmonary vessel and lung cancer located in the hilum with SCTA. And the accuracy of judging the vascular involvement with SCTA was higher than that with axial CT

  3. Prognostic Value of Pulmonary Vascular Resistance by Magnetic Resonance in Systolic Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Fabregat-Andrés, Óscar; Estornell-Erill, Jordi; Ridocci-Soriano, Francisco; Pérez-Boscá, José Leandro; García-González, Pilar; Payá-Serrano, Rafael; Morell, Salvador; Cortijo, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pulmonary hypertension is associated with poor prognosis in heart failure. However, non-invasive diagnosis is still challenging in clinical practice. Objective: We sought to assess the prognostic utility of non-invasive estimation of pulmonary vascular resistances (PVR) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance to predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Methods: Prospective registry of patients with left ventricular e...

  4. The adventitia: Essential role in pulmonary vascular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenmark, Kurt R; Nozik-Grayck, Eva; Gerasimovskaya, Evgenia; Anwar, Adil; Li, Min; Riddle, Suzette; Frid, Maria

    2011-01-01

    A rapidly emerging concept is that the vascular adventitia acts as a biological processing center for the retrieval, integration, storage, and release of key regulators of vessel wall function. It is the most complex compartment of the vessel wall and comprises a variety of cells including fibroblasts, immunomodulatory cells, resident progenitor cells, vasa vasorum endothelial cells, and adrenergic nerves. In response to vascular stress or injury, resident adventitial cells are often the first to be activated and reprogrammed to then influence tone and structure of the vessel wall. Experimental data indicate that the adventitial fibroblast, the most abundant cellular constituent of adventitia, is a critical regulator of vascular wall function. In response to vascular stresses such as overdistension, hypoxia, or infection, the adventitial fibroblast is activated and undergoes phenotypic changes that include proliferation, differentiation, and production of extracellular matrix proteins and adhesion molecules, release of reactive oxygen species, chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and metalloproteinases that, collectively, affect medial smooth muscle cell tone and growth directly and that stimulate recruitment and retention of circulating inflammatory and progenitor cells to the vessel wall. Resident dendritic cells also participate in "sensing" vascular stress and actively communicate with fibroblasts and progenitor cells to simulate repair processes that involve expansion of the vasa vasorum, which acts as a conduit for further delivery of inflammatory/progenitor cells. This review presents the current evidence demonstrating that the adventitia acts as a key regulator of pulmonary vascular wall function and structure from the "outside in." © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  5. Attenuation correction in pulmonary and myocardial single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almquist, H

    2000-01-01

    The objective was to develop and validate methods for single photon emission computed tomography, SPECT, allowing quantitative physiologic and diagnostic studies of lung and heart. A method for correction of variable attenuation in SPECT, based on transmission measurements before administration of an isotope to the subject, was developed and evaluated. A protocol based upon geometrically well defined phantoms was developed. In a mosaic pattern phantom count rates were corrected from 39-43% to 101-110% of reference. In healthy subjects non-gravitational pulmonary perfusion gradients observed without attenuation correctionwere artefacts caused by attenuation. Pulmonary density in centre of right lung, obtained from the transmission measurement, was 0.28 {+-} 0.03 g/ml in normal subjects. Mean density was lower in large lungs compared to smaller ones. We also showed that regional ventilation/perfusion ratios could be measured with SPECT, using the readily available tracer {sup 133}Xe. Because of the low energy of {sup 133}Xe this relies heavily upon attenuation correction. A commercially available system for attenuation correction with simultaneous emission and transmission, considered to improve myocardial SPECT, performed erroneously. This could lead to clinical misjudgement. We considered that manufacturer-independent pre-clinical tests are required. In a test of two other commercial systems, based on different principles, an adapted variant of our initial protocol was proven useful. Only one of the systems provided correct emission count rates independently on phantom configuration. Errors in the other system were related to inadequate compensation of the influence of emission activity on the transmission study.

  6. Attenuation correction in pulmonary and myocardial single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almquist, H.

    2000-01-01

    The objective was to develop and validate methods for single photon emission computed tomography, SPECT, allowing quantitative physiologic and diagnostic studies of lung and heart. A method for correction of variable attenuation in SPECT, based on transmission measurements before administration of an isotope to the subject, was developed and evaluated. A protocol based upon geometrically well defined phantoms was developed. In a mosaic pattern phantom count rates were corrected from 39-43% to 101-110% of reference. In healthy subjects non-gravitational pulmonary perfusion gradients observed without attenuation correction were artefacts caused by attenuation. Pulmonary density in centre of right lung, obtained from the transmission measurement, was 0.28 ± 0.03 g/ml in normal subjects. Mean density was lower in large lungs compared to smaller ones. We also showed that regional ventilation/perfusion ratios could be measured with SPECT, using the readily available tracer 133 Xe. Because of the low energy of 133 Xe this relies heavily upon attenuation correction. A commercially available system for attenuation correction with simultaneous emission and transmission, considered to improve myocardial SPECT, performed erroneously. This could lead to clinical misjudgement. We considered that manufacturer-independent pre-clinical tests are required. In a test of two other commercial systems, based on different principles, an adapted variant of our initial protocol was proven useful. Only one of the systems provided correct emission count rates independently on phantom configuration. Errors in the other system were related to inadequate compensation of the influence of emission activity on the transmission study

  7. [Association between pulmonary vascular remodeling and expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, endothelin-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in pulmonary vessels in neonatal rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Rong; Zhou, Ying; Sang, Kui; Li, Ming-Xia

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the association between pulmonary vascular remodeling and expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in pulmonary vessels in neonatal rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). A neonatal rat model of HPH was established as an HPH group, and normal neonatal rats were enrolled as a control group. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) was measured. The percentage of medial thickness to outer diameter of the small pulmonary arteries (MT%) and the percentage of medial cross-section area to total cross-section area of the pulmonary small arteries (MA%) were measured as the indicators for pulmonary vascular remodeling. The immunohistochemical reaction intensities for HIF-1α, ET-1 and iNOS and their mRNA expression in lung tissues of neonatal rats were measured. Correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between pulmonary vascular remodeling and mRNA expression of HIF-1α, ET-1 and iNOS. The mPAP of the HPH group kept increasing on days 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21 of hypoxia, with a significant difference compared with the control group (P<0.05). The HPH group had significantly higher MT% and MA% than the control group from day 7 of hypoxia (P<0.05). HIF-1α protein expression increased significantly on days 3, 5, 7 and 10 days of hypoxia, and HIF-1α mRNA expression increased significantly on days 3, 5 and 7 days of hypoxia in the HPH group compared with the control group (P<0.05). ET-1 protein expression increased significantly on days 3, 5 and 7 days of hypoxia and ET-1 mRNA expression increased significantly on day 3 of hypoxia in the HPH group compared with the control group (P<0.05). Both iNOS protein and mRNA expression were significantly higher on days 3, 5 and 7 days of hypoxia than the control group (P<0.05). Both MT% and MA% were positively correlated with HIF-1α mRNA expression (r=0.835 and 0.850 respectively; P<0.05). Pulmonary vascular

  8. DSA - a helpful tool in diagnosis of aberrant left pulmonary artery (vascular sling) in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooyaart, E.L.; Boomsma, J.H.B.; Postmus, P.E.; Formanek, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two new adult patients with aberrant origin of the left pulmonary artery from the right pulmonary artery - pulmonary artery sling - are described, totalling the published adult cases to eight. Differentiation from a mediastinal mass closely mimicking this vascular anomaly is discussed. For the definitive diagnosis, digital subtraction angiography was applied for the first time. The clearest demonstration of the anatomy is in 20-25 0 RPO and 20-25 0 sitting position. The aberrant left pulmonary artery in adults is asymptomatic.

  9. Loss of Matrix Metalloproteinase-13 Attenuates Murine Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flechsig, Paul; Hartenstein, Bettina; Teurich, Sybille; Dadrich, Monika; Hauser, Kai; Abdollahi, Amir; Groene, Hermann-Josef; Angel, Peter; Huber, Peter E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Pulmonary fibrosis is a disorder of the lungs with limited treatment options. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a family of proteases that degrade extracellular matrix with roles in fibrosis. Here we studied the role of MMP13 in a radiation-induced lung fibrosis model using a MMP13 knockout mouse. Methods and Materials: We investigated the role of MMP13 in lung fibrosis by investigating the effects of MMP13 deficiency in C57Bl/6 mice after 20-Gy thoracic irradiation (6-MV Linac). The morphologic results in histology were correlated with qualitative and quantitative results of volume computed tomography (VCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and clinical outcome. Results: We found that MMP13 deficient mice developed less pulmonary fibrosis than their wildtype counterparts, showed attenuated acute pulmonary inflammation (days after irradiation), and a reduction of inflammation during the later fibrogenic phase (5-6 months after irradiation). The reduced fibrosis in MMP13 deficient mice was evident in histology with reduced thickening of alveolar septi and reduced remodeling of the lung architecture in good correlation with reduced features of lung fibrosis in qualitative and quantitative VCT and MRI studies. The partial resistance of MMP13-deficient mice to fibrosis was associated with a tendency towards a prolonged mouse survival. Conclusions: Our data indicate that MMP13 has a role in the development of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Further, our findings suggest that MMP13 constitutes a potential drug target to attenuate radiation-induced lung fibrosis.

  10. Congenital anomalous/aberrant systemic artery to pulmonary venous fistula: Closure with vascular plugs & coil embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Jariwala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-month-old girl with failure to thrive, who, on clinical and diagnostic evaluation [echocardiography & CT angiography] to rule out congenital heart disease, revealed a rare vascular anomaly called systemic artery to pulmonary venous fistula. In our case, there was dual abnormal supply to the entire left lung as1 anomalous supply by normal systemic artery [internal mammary artery]2 and an aberrant feeder vessel from the abdominal aorta. Left Lung had normal bronchial connections and normal pulmonary vasculature. The fistula drained through the pulmonary veins to the left atrium leading to ‘left–left shunt’. Percutaneous intervention in two stages was performed using Amplatzer vascular plugs and coil embolization to close them successfully. The patient gained significant weight in follow up with other normal developmental and mental milestones.

  11. The Effects of Iodine Attenuation on Pulmonary Nodule Volumetry using Novel Dual-Layer Computed Tomography Reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Harder, A M; Bangert, F; van Hamersvelt, R W; Leiner, T; Milles, Julien; Schilham, A M R; Willemink, M J; de Jong, P A

    2017-12-01

    To assess the effect of iodine attenuation on pulmonary nodule volumetry using virtual non-contrast (VNC) and mono-energetic reconstructions. A consecutive series of patients who underwent a contrast-enhanced chest CT scan were included. Images were acquired on a novel dual-layer spectral CT system. Conventional reconstructions as well as VNC and mono-energetic images at different keV levels were used for nodule volumetry. Twenty-four patients with a total of 63 nodules were included. Conventional reconstructions showed a median (interquartile range) volume and diameter of 174 (87 - 253) mm 3 and 6.9 (5.4 - 9.9) mm, respectively. VNC reconstructions resulted in a significant volume reduction of 5.5% (2.6 - 11.2%; p<0.001). Mono-energetic reconstructions showed a correlation between nodule attenuation and nodule volume (Spearman correlation 0.77, (0.49 - 0.94)). Lowering the keV resulted in increased volumes while higher keV levels resulted in decreased pulmonary nodule volumes compared to conventional CT. Novel dual-layer spectral CT offers the possibility to reconstruct VNC and mono-energetic images. Those reconstructions show that higher pulmonary nodule attenuation results in larger nodule volumes. This may explain the reported underestimation in nodule volume on non-contrast enhanced compared to contrast-enhanced acquisitions. • Pulmonary nodule volumes were measured on virtual non-contrast and mono-energetic reconstructions • Mono-energetic reconstructions showed that higher attenuation results in larger volumes • This may explain the reported nodule volume underestimation on non-contrast enhanced CT • Mostly metastatic pulmonary nodules were evaluated, results might differ for benign nodules.

  12. Prevention of pulmonary vascular and myocardial remodeling by the combined tyrosine and serine-/threonine kinase inhibitor, sorafenib, in pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Klein

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of tyrosine kinases can reverse pulmonary hypertension but little is known about the role of serine-/threonine kinases in vascular and myocardial remodeling. We investigated the effects of sorafenib, an inhibitor of the tyrosine kinases VEGFR, PDGFR and c-kit as well as the serine-/threonine kinase Raf-1, in pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular (RV pressure overload. In monocrotaline treated rats, sorafenib (10 mg·kg–1·d–1 p.o. reduced pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary artery muscularization and RV hypertrophy, and improved systemic hemodynamics (table 1. Sorafenib prevented phosphorylation of Raf-1 and suppressed activation of downstream signaling pathways (Erk 1/2. After pulmonary banding, sorafenib, but not the PDGFR/c-KIT/ABL-inhibitor imatinib reduced RV mass and RV filling pressure significantly. Congruent with these results, sorafenib only prevented ERK phosphorylation and vasopressin induced hypertrophy of the cardiomyocyte cell line H9c2 dose dependently (IC50 = 300 nM. Combined inhibition of tyrosine and serine-/threonine kinases by sorafenib prevents vascular and cardiac remodeling in pulmonary hypertension, which is partly mediated via inhibition of the Raf kinase pathway.

  13. Thymosin Beta 4 protects mice from monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyu Wei

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH is a progressive vascular disease of pulmonary arteries that impedes ejection of blood by the right ventricle. As a result there is an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary arterial pressure causing right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH and RV failure. The pathology of PAH involves vascular cell remodeling including pulmonary arterial endothelial cell (PAEC dysfunction and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC proliferation. Current therapies are limited to reverse the vascular remodeling. Investigating a key molecule is required for development of new therapeutic intervention. Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4 is a ubiquitous G-actin sequestering protein with diverse biological function and promotes wound healing and modulates inflammatory responses. However, it remains unknown whether Tβ4 has any protective role in PH. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the whether Tβ4 can be used as a vascular-protective agent. In monocrotaline (MCT-induced PH mouse model, we showed that mice treated with Tβ4 significantly attenuated the systolic pressure and RVH, compared to the MCT treated mice. Our data revealed for the first time that Tβ4 selectively targets Notch3-Col 3A-CTGF gene axis in preventing MCT-induced PH and RVH. Our study may provide pre-clinical evidence for Tβ4 and may consider as vasculo-protective agent for the treatment of PH induced RVH.

  14. Comparison of vascular width and accuracy of subjective assessment of pulmonary flow X-ray films of children with left-right shunt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegenbarth, R.; Toeroek, M.; Hannover Medizinische Hochschule

    1985-01-01

    The authors established a comparative relationship between accuracy of measurement of pulmonary flow and extent of vascular widening in 72 children with Left-Right shunt vitiae; this accuracy of pulmonary flow measurement had been subjectively estimated by 4 investigators without knowing the diagnosis and in comparison to the haemodynamic values (percentage of correct findings). The following procedure was adopted: In a control group of 143 healthy children, we first determined the vascular diameter of the right descending pulmonary artery, of the right upper lobal vein, and of the peripheral vessels in the upper and lower pulmonary fields, at an accurately defined distance from the point of the hilus, and compared with the vascular diameters of the children with left-right shunt, employing the method of discrimination analysis. Comparison of the judgement by the 4 investigators with the degree of increase of the vascular diameters showed an accuracy of 65-100% if the right descending pulmonary artery became wider by 2.6 mm, and an accuracy of 79-95% if the mean vascular width in the right upper field increased by 0.7 mm. The accuracy was 83-94% if the mean vascular width in the right lower field increased by 0.6 mm. Statistical studies also showed that the judgement of the 4 investigators was influenced by different vessels. (orig.) [de

  15. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis vs. pulmonary involvement of collagen vascular disease: HRCT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Myung Kwan; Im, Jung Gi; Ahn, Joong Mo; Kim, Ji Hye; Lee, Seon Kyu

    1993-01-01

    Both idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and pulmonary involvement of collagen vascular disease (CVD) are well known cause of diffuse interstitial lung disease which lead to fibrosis and honeycombing. We analyzed HRCT findings of 33 patients with IPF and 14 patients with CVD in terms of predominant pattern, site of involvement, mediastinal lymph node enlargement, pleural change and pulmonary volume loss. Criteria of mediastinal lymph node enlargement and pleural thickening were 15 mm in long diameter and 3 mm, respectively. Volume loss of the lung was measured by using hilar height ratio (apex to hilum/hilum to diaphragmatic dome). Mean age was 61 years for IPF and 46 years for CVD and male: female ratio was 27:6, 4:10, respectively. Predominant HRCT pattern was honeycombing for IPF (63%), and ground-glass opacity for CVD (66%) (p=0.001). Predominantly, subpleural involvement was seen in 90% for IPF and 74% for CVD. Mediastinal lymph node enlargement was seen in 47% of the patient with IPF and 14% with CVD (p=0.004). Pleural thickening was seen in 97% of the patients with IPF and 42% with CVD (p=0.002). Pleural effusion was seen in 10% of the patients with IPF and 36% with CVD (p=0.009). Hilar height ratio of more than 1.5 was seen in 84% of the patients with IPF and 29% with CVD. In conclusion, our study shows that patients with IPF are prone to have more progressed stage of pulmonary fibrosis than the patients with CVD on HRCT

  16. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis vs. pulmonary involvement of collagen vascular disease: HRCT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Myung Kwan; Im, Jung Gi; Ahn, Joong Mo; Kim, Ji Hye; Lee, Seon Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-15

    Both idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and pulmonary involvement of collagen vascular disease (CVD) are well known cause of diffuse interstitial lung disease which lead to fibrosis and honeycombing. We analyzed HRCT findings of 33 patients with IPF and 14 patients with CVD in terms of predominant pattern, site of involvement, mediastinal lymph node enlargement, pleural change and pulmonary volume loss. Criteria of mediastinal lymph node enlargement and pleural thickening were 15 mm in long diameter and 3 mm, respectively. Volume loss of the lung was measured by using hilar height ratio (apex to hilum/hilum to diaphragmatic dome). Mean age was 61 years for IPF and 46 years for CVD and male: female ratio was 27:6, 4:10, respectively. Predominant HRCT pattern was honeycombing for IPF (63%), and ground-glass opacity for CVD (66%) (p=0.001). Predominantly, subpleural involvement was seen in 90% for IPF and 74% for CVD. Mediastinal lymph node enlargement was seen in 47% of the patient with IPF and 14% with CVD (p=0.004). Pleural thickening was seen in 97% of the patients with IPF and 42% with CVD (p=0.002). Pleural effusion was seen in 10% of the patients with IPF and 36% with CVD (p=0.009). Hilar height ratio of more than 1.5 was seen in 84% of the patients with IPF and 29% with CVD. In conclusion, our study shows that patients with IPF are prone to have more progressed stage of pulmonary fibrosis than the patients with CVD on HRCT.

  17. Hypoxic contraction of cultured pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, T.R.; Chen, L.; Marshall, B.E.; Macarak, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    The cellular events involved in generating the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction response are not clearly understood, in part because of the multitude of factors that alter pulmonary vascular tone. The goal of the present studies was to determine if a cell culture preparation containing vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells could be made to contract when exposed to a hypoxic atmosphere. Cultures containing only fetal bovine pulmonary artery VSM cells were assessed for contractile responses to hypoxic stimuli by two methods. In the first, tension forces generated by cells grown on a flexible growth surface (polymerized polydimethyl siloxane) were manifested as wrinkles and distortions of the surface under the cells. Wrinkling of the surface was noted to progressively increase with time as the culture medium bathing the cells was made hypoxic (PO2 approximately 25 mmHg). The changes were sometimes reversible upon return to normoxic conditions and appeared to be enhanced in cells already exhibiting evidence of some baseline tone. Repeated passage in culture did not diminish the hypoxic response. Evidence for contractile responses to hypoxia was also obtained from measurements of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation. Conversion of MLC to the phosphorylated species is an early step in the activation of smooth muscle contraction. Lowering the PO2 in the culture medium to 59 mmHg caused a 45% increase in the proportion of MLC in the phosphorylated form as determined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Similarly, cultures preincubated for 4 h with 32P and then exposed to normoxia or hypoxia for a 5-min experimental period showed more than twice as much of the label in MLCs of the hypoxic cells

  18. Nitrate decreases xanthine oxidoreductase-mediated nitrite reductase activity and attenuates vascular and blood pressure responses to nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damacena-Angelis, Célio; Oliveira-Paula, Gustavo H; Pinheiro, Lucas C; Crevelin, Eduardo J; Portella, Rafael L; Moraes, Luiz Alberto B; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2017-08-01

    Nitrite and nitrate restore deficient endogenous nitric oxide (NO) production as they are converted back to NO, and therefore complement the classic enzymatic NO synthesis. Circulating nitrate and nitrite must cross membrane barriers to produce their effects and increased nitrate concentrations may attenuate the nitrite influx into cells, decreasing NO generation from nitrite. Moreover, xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) mediates NO formation from nitrite and nitrate. However, no study has examined whether nitrate attenuates XOR-mediated NO generation from nitrite. We hypothesized that nitrate attenuates the vascular and blood pressure responses to nitrite either by interfering with nitrite influx into vascular tissue, or by competing with nitrite for XOR, thus inhibiting XOR-mediated NO generation. We used two independent vascular function assays in rats (aortic ring preparations and isolated mesenteric arterial bed perfusion) to examine the effects of sodium nitrate on the concentration-dependent responses to sodium nitrite. Both assays showed that nitrate attenuated the vascular responses to nitrite. Conversely, the aortic responses to the NO donor DETANONOate were not affected by sodium nitrate. Further confirming these results, we found that nitrate attenuated the acute blood pressure lowering effects of increasing doses of nitrite infused intravenously in freely moving rats. The possibility that nitrate could compete with nitrite and decrease nitrite influx into cells was tested by measuring the accumulation of nitrogen-15-labeled nitrite ( 15 N-nitrite) by aortic rings using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Nitrate exerted no effect on aortic accumulation of 15 N-nitrite. Next, we used chemiluminescence-based NO detection to examine whether nitrate attenuates XOR-mediated nitrite reductase activity. Nitrate significantly shifted the Michaelis Menten saturation curve to the right, with a 3-fold increase in the

  19. Contribution of Impaired Parasympathetic Activity to Right Ventricular Dysfunction and Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Gonçalves Bós, Denielli; Van Der Bruggen, Cathelijne E E; Kurakula, Kondababu; Sun, Xiao-Qing; Casali, Karina R; Casali, Adenauer G; Rol, Nina; Szulcek, Robert; Dos Remedios, Cris; Guignabert, Christophe; Tu, Ly; Dorfmüller, Peter; Humbert, Marc; Wijnker, Paul J M; Kuster, Diederik W D; van der Velden, Jolanda; Goumans, Marie-José; Bogaard, Harm-Jan; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; de Man, Frances S; Handoko, M Louis

    2018-02-27

    PYR treatment in PH rats normalized the cardiovascular autonomic function, demonstrated by an increase in parasympathetic activity and baroreflex sensitivity. PYR improved survival, increased RV contractility, and reduced RV stiffness, RV hypertrophy, RV fibrosis, RV inflammation, and RV α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and muscarinic acetylcholine type 2 receptor expression, as well. Furthermore, PYR reduced pulmonary vascular resistance, RV afterload, and pulmonary vascular remodeling, which was associated with reduced local and systemic inflammation. RV dysfunction is associated with reduced systemic parasympathetic activity in patients with PAH, with an inadequate adaptive response of the cholinergic system in the RV. Enhancing parasympathetic activity by PYR improved survival, RV function, and pulmonary vascular remodeling in experimental PH. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Effect of carbon dioxide inhalation on pulmonary hypertension induced by increased blood flow and hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chun Chuang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available There is now increasing evidence from the experimental and clinical setting that therapeutic hypercapnia from intentionally inspired carbon dioxide (CO2 or lower tidal volume might be a beneficial adjunct to the strategies of mechanical ventilation in critical illness. Although previous reports indicate that CO2 exerts a beneficial effect in the lungs, the pulmonary vascular response to hypercapnia under various conditions remains to be clarified. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the pulmonary vascular response to CO2 under the different conditions of pulmonary hypertension secondary to increased pulmonary blood flow and secondary to hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Isolated rat lung (n = 32 was used to study (1 the vasoactive action of 5% CO2 in either N2 (hypoxic-hypercapnia or air (normoxic-hypercapnia at different pulmonary arterial pressure levels induced by graded speed of perfusion flow and (2 the role of nitric oxide (NO in mediating the pulmonary vascular response to hypercapnia, hypoxia, and flow-associated pulmonary hypertension. The results indicated that inhaled CO2 reversed pulmonary hypertension induced by hypoxia but not by flow alteration. Endogenous NO attenuates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction but does not augment the CO2-induced vasodilatation. Acute change in blood flow does not alter the endogenous NO production.

  1. Precision and accuracy in CT attenuation measurement of vascular wall using region-of-interest supported by differentiation curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Kidouchi, Takashi; Kuwahara, Sadatoshi; Vembar, Mani; Takei, Ryoji; Yamamoto, Asako

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the precision and accuracy in CT attenuation measurement of vascular wall using region-of-interest (ROI) supported by differentiation curves. Study design: We used vascular models (actual attenuation value of the wall: 87 HU) with wall thicknesses of 1.5, 1.0, or 0.5 mm, filled with contrast material of 250, 348, or 436 HU. The nine vascular models were scanned with a 64-detector CT. The wall attenuation values were measured using three sizes (diameter: 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mm) of ROIs without differentiation curves. Sixteen measurements were repeated for each vascular model by each of two operators. Measurements supported by differentiation curves were also performed. We used analyses of variance with repeated measures for the measured attenuations for each size of the ROI. Results: Without differentiation curves, there were significant differences in the attenuation values of the wall among the three densities of contrast material, and the attenuation values tended to be overestimated more as the contrast material density increased. Operator dependencies were also found in measurements for 0.5- and 1.5-mm thickness models. With differentiation curves, measurements were not possible for 0.5- and 1.0-mm thickness models. Using differentiation curves for 1.5-mm thickness models with a ROI of 1.0- or 1.5-mm diameter, the wall attenuations were not affected by the contrast material densities and were operator independent, measuring between 75 and 103 HU. Conclusions: The use of differentiation curves can improve the precision and accuracy in wall attenuation measurement using a ROI technique, while measurements for walls of ≤1.0 mm thickness are difficult.

  2. Influence of vascular enhancement, age and gender on pulmonary perfused blood volume quantified by dual-energy-CTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinel, Felix G.; Graef, Anita; Sommer, Wieland H.; Thierfelder, Kolja M.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Johnson, Thorsten R.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the influence of technical and demographic parameters on quantification of pulmonary perfused blood volume (PBV) in dual energy computed tomography pulmonary angiography (DE-CTPA). Materials and methods: Pulmonary PBV was quantified in 142 patients who underwent DE-CTPA for suspected pulmonary embolism but in whom no thoracic pathologies were detected. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to calculate the influence of age, gender, enhancement of pulmonary trunk and enhancement difference between pulmonary trunk and left atrium (as a measure of timing) on PBV values. The resulting regression coefficients were used to calculate age-specific ranges of normal for PBV values adjusted for vascular enhancement and timing. Results: Enhancement of the pulmonary trunk (β = −0.29, p = 0.001) and enhancement difference between pulmonary trunk and left atrium (β = −0.24, p = 0.003) were found to significantly influence PBV values. Age (β = −0.33, p < 0.001) but not gender (β = 0.14, p = 0.05) had a significant negative influence on pulmonary PBV values. There was a 20% relative decrease of pulmonary PBV from patients aged <30 to patients over 80 years of age. Conclusions: DE-CTPA derived PBV values need to be corrected for age, vascular enhancement and timing but not for gender. The age-specific ranges of normal derived from this study can be used as a reference in future studies of PBV in pulmonary pathologies

  3. Upregulated copper transporters in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M Zimnicka

    Full Text Available Pulmonary vascular remodeling and increased arterial wall stiffness are two major causes for the elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary arterial pressure in patients and animals with pulmonary hypertension. Cellular copper (Cu plays an important role in angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling; increased Cu in vascular smooth muscle cells has been demonstrated to be associated with atherosclerosis and hypertension in animal experiments. In this study, we show that the Cu-uptake transporter 1, CTR1, and the Cu-efflux pump, ATP7A, were both upregulated in the lung tissues and pulmonary arteries of mice with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Hypoxia also significantly increased expression and activity of lysyl oxidase (LOX, a Cu-dependent enzyme that causes crosslinks of collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix. In vitro experiments show that exposure to hypoxia or treatment with cobalt (CoCl2 also increased protein expression of CTR1, ATP7A, and LOX in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC. In PASMC exposed to hypoxia or treated with CoCl2, we also confirmed that the Cu transport is increased using 64Cu uptake assays. Furthermore, hypoxia increased both cell migration and proliferation in a Cu-dependent manner. Downregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α with siRNA significantly attenuated hypoxia-mediated upregulation of CTR1 mRNA. In summary, the data from this study indicate that increased Cu transportation due to upregulated CTR1 and ATP7A in pulmonary arteries and PASMC contributes to the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. The increased Cu uptake and elevated ATP7A also facilitate the increase in LOX activity and thus the increase in crosslink of extracellular matrix, and eventually leading to the increase in pulmonary arterial stiffness.

  4. Pulmonary vascular volume ratio measured by cardiac computed tomography in children and young adults with congenital heart disease: comparison with lung perfusion scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Hyub [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    Lung perfusion scintigraphy is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating differential lung perfusion ratio in congenital heart disease. To compare cardiac CT with lung perfusion scintigraphy for estimated pulmonary vascular volume ratio in patients with congenital heart disease. We included 52 children and young adults (median age 4 years, range 2 months to 28 years; 31 males) with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy without an interim surgical or transcatheter intervention and within 1 year. We calculated the right and left pulmonary vascular volumes using threshold-based CT volumetry. Then we compared right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT with right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy by using paired t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. The right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT (66.3 ± 14.0%) were significantly smaller than the right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy (69.1 ± 15.0%; P=0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -2.8 ± 5.8% and 95% limits of agreement (-14.1%, 8.5%) between these two variables. Cardiac CT, in a single examination, can offer pulmonary vascular volume ratio in addition to pulmonary artery anatomy essential for evaluating peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in patients with congenital heart disease. However there is a wide range of agreement between cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy. (orig.)

  5. Pulmonary vascular volume ratio measured by cardiac computed tomography in children and young adults with congenital heart disease: comparison with lung perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Hyub

    2017-01-01

    Lung perfusion scintigraphy is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating differential lung perfusion ratio in congenital heart disease. To compare cardiac CT with lung perfusion scintigraphy for estimated pulmonary vascular volume ratio in patients with congenital heart disease. We included 52 children and young adults (median age 4 years, range 2 months to 28 years; 31 males) with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy without an interim surgical or transcatheter intervention and within 1 year. We calculated the right and left pulmonary vascular volumes using threshold-based CT volumetry. Then we compared right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT with right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy by using paired t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. The right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT (66.3 ± 14.0%) were significantly smaller than the right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy (69.1 ± 15.0%; P=0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -2.8 ± 5.8% and 95% limits of agreement (-14.1%, 8.5%) between these two variables. Cardiac CT, in a single examination, can offer pulmonary vascular volume ratio in addition to pulmonary artery anatomy essential for evaluating peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in patients with congenital heart disease. However there is a wide range of agreement between cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy. (orig.)

  6. Pulmonary vascular volume ratio measured by cardiac computed tomography in children and young adults with congenital heart disease: comparison with lung perfusion scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Hyub

    2017-11-01

    Lung perfusion scintigraphy is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating differential lung perfusion ratio in congenital heart disease. To compare cardiac CT with lung perfusion scintigraphy for estimated pulmonary vascular volume ratio in patients with congenital heart disease. We included 52 children and young adults (median age 4 years, range 2 months to 28 years; 31 males) with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy without an interim surgical or transcatheter intervention and within 1 year. We calculated the right and left pulmonary vascular volumes using threshold-based CT volumetry. Then we compared right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT with right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy by using paired t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. The right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT (66.3 ± 14.0%) were significantly smaller than the right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy (69.1 ± 15.0%; P=0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -2.8 ± 5.8% and 95% limits of agreement (-14.1%, 8.5%) between these two variables. Cardiac CT, in a single examination, can offer pulmonary vascular volume ratio in addition to pulmonary artery anatomy essential for evaluating peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in patients with congenital heart disease. However there is a wide range of agreement between cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy.

  7. Correlation of grading of pulmonary emphysema by computed tomography to pulmonary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Masahiko; Mori, Masaki; Hirai, Hideyuki; Mori, Yuji; Koba, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akira

    1988-01-01

    We studied the CT findings of 17 emphysema patients with special reference to the extent of emphysematous changes. Characteristic CT findings were low-attenuation area (LAA) and vascular abnormality and the appearance of various images on CT. To assess the extent of emphysematous changes, we classified the CT images into 4 grades based on the distribution and size of LAAs. As the grades progressed, the distribution and size of LAAs became wider and larger and vascular abnormalities were clearly evident. Although this CT-grading is a semiquantitative method, it is simple to use and gives information on the approximate extent of disease. This CT-grading was also used to show pulmonary function. The RV/TLC and expiratory flow showed a tendency to be impaired in Grade IV and the diffusion capacity was impaired parallel to CT-grading. CT is able to demonstrate the presence and distribution of LAAs noninvasively. Therefore it is considered that CT is useful for clinical diagnosis and the assessment of the extent of pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  8. Pulmonary venous remodeling in COPD-pulmonary hypertension and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Hasseriis; Andersen, Claus Bøgelund; Gustafsson, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular arterial remodeling is an integral and well-understood component of pulmonary hypertension (PH). In contrast, morphological alterations of pulmonary veins in PH are scarcely described. Explanted lungs (n = 101) from transplant recipients with advanced chronic obstructive...... pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) were analyzed for venous vascular involvement according to a pre-specified, semi-quantitative grading scheme, which categorizes the intensity of venous remodeling in three groups of incremental severity: venous hypertensive (VH......) grade 0 = characterized by an absence of venous vascular remodeling; VH grade 1 = defined by a dominance of either arterialization or intimal fibrosis; and VH grade 2 = a substantial composite of arterialization and intimal fibrosis. Patients were grouped according to clinical and hemodynamic...

  9. Chymase: a multifunctional player in pulmonary hypertension associated with lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanovic, Djuro; Luitel, Himal; Dahal, Bhola Kumar; Cornitescu, Teodora; Janssen, Wiebke; Danser, A H Jan; Garrelds, Ingrid M; De Mey, Jo G R; Fazzi, Gregorio; Schiffers, Paul; Iglarz, Marc; Fischli, Walter; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Weissmann, Norbert; Grimminger, Friedrich; Seeger, Werner; Reiss, Irwin; Schermuly, Ralph Theo

    2015-10-01

    Limited literature sources implicate mast-cell mediator chymase in the pathologies of pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary fibrosis. However, there is no evidence on the contribution of chymase to the development of pulmonary hypertension associated with lung fibrosis, which is an important medical condition linked with increased mortality of patients who already suffer from a life-threatening interstitial lung disease.The aim of this study was to investigate the role of chymase in this particular pulmonary hypertension form, by using a bleomycin-induced pulmonary hypertension model.Chymase inhibition resulted in attenuation of pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary fibrosis, as evident from improved haemodynamics, decreased right ventricular remodelling/hypertrophy, pulmonary vascular remodelling and lung fibrosis. These beneficial effects were associated with a strong tendency of reduction in mast cell number and activity, and significantly diminished chymase expression levels. Mechanistically, chymase inhibition led to attenuation of transforming growth factor β1 and matrix-metalloproteinase-2 contents in the lungs. Furthermore, chymase inhibition prevented big endothelin-1-induced vasoconstriction of the pulmonary arteries.Therefore, chymase plays a role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension associated with pulmonary fibrosis and may represent a promising therapeutic target. In addition, this study may provide valuable insights on the contribution of chymase in the pulmonary hypertension context, in general, regardless of the pulmonary hypertension form. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  10. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and collagen vascular diseases - high resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira Neto, Armando Leao; Mogami, Roberto; Marchiori, Edson; Capone, Domenico

    1996-01-01

    The aspects of the thorax high-resolution computed tomography of 15 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 11 patients with collagen vascular diseases are described and characterized mainly by the presence of reticular lesions with little cysts predominantly in the periphery and lower lobes. They may be associated with ground-glass lesions that, as usual, means areas of alveolitis. (author)

  11. Baicalein attenuates vinorelbine-induced vascular endothelial cell injury and chemotherapeutic phlebitis in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Gang-Feng; Shi, Wei-Wen; Yu, Chen-Huan; Jin, Xiao-Yin; Zhang, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Wen-You; Wang, Lu-Chen; Yu, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the major strategies for cancer treatment. Several antineoplastic drugs including vinorelbine (VRB) are commonly intravenously infused and liable to cause serious phlebitis. The therapeutic drugs for preventing this complication are limited. In this study, the mechanism of baicalein (BCN) was investigated on VRB-induced phlebitis in vivo and vascular endothelial cell injury in vitro. Treatment with BCN obviously attenuated vascular endothelial cell loss, edema, inflammatory cell infiltration and blood clots, and reduced the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and ICAM-1 in the rabbit model of phlebitis induced by intravenous injection of VRB compared with vehicle. Further tests in vitro demonstrated that BCN lessened VRB-induced endothelial cell apoptosis, decreased intracellular ROS levels, suppressed phosphorylation of p38 and eventually inhibited activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. And these effects could be reversed by p38 agonist P79350. These results suggested that BCN exerted the protective effects against VRB-induced endothelial disruption in the rabbit model of phlebitis via inhibition of intracellular ROS generation and inactivation of p38/NF-κB pathway, leading to the decreased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, BCN could be used as a potential agent for the treatment of phlebitis. - Highlights: • Baicalein attenuated vinorelbine-induced vascular endothelial cell apoptosis. • Baicalein inhibited vinorelbine-induced oxidative stress in HUVECs. • Baicalein inhibited activation of p38/NF-κB signaling. • Baicalein attenuated vinorelbine-induced phlebitis and inflammation in rabbits.

  12. Baicalein attenuates vinorelbine-induced vascular endothelial cell injury and chemotherapeutic phlebitis in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Gang-Feng [Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310053 (China); Shi, Wei-Wen [Zhejiang Medical Science and Education Development Center, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Yu, Chen-Huan; Jin, Xiao-Yin; Zhang, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Wen-You [Key Laboratory of Experimental Animal and Safety Evaluation, Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences, Hangzhou 310013 (China); Wang, Lu-Chen [Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310053 (China); Yu, Bing, E-mail: Jellycook2002@163.com [Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310053 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the major strategies for cancer treatment. Several antineoplastic drugs including vinorelbine (VRB) are commonly intravenously infused and liable to cause serious phlebitis. The therapeutic drugs for preventing this complication are limited. In this study, the mechanism of baicalein (BCN) was investigated on VRB-induced phlebitis in vivo and vascular endothelial cell injury in vitro. Treatment with BCN obviously attenuated vascular endothelial cell loss, edema, inflammatory cell infiltration and blood clots, and reduced the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and ICAM-1 in the rabbit model of phlebitis induced by intravenous injection of VRB compared with vehicle. Further tests in vitro demonstrated that BCN lessened VRB-induced endothelial cell apoptosis, decreased intracellular ROS levels, suppressed phosphorylation of p38 and eventually inhibited activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. And these effects could be reversed by p38 agonist P79350. These results suggested that BCN exerted the protective effects against VRB-induced endothelial disruption in the rabbit model of phlebitis via inhibition of intracellular ROS generation and inactivation of p38/NF-κB pathway, leading to the decreased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, BCN could be used as a potential agent for the treatment of phlebitis. - Highlights: • Baicalein attenuated vinorelbine-induced vascular endothelial cell apoptosis. • Baicalein inhibited vinorelbine-induced oxidative stress in HUVECs. • Baicalein inhibited activation of p38/NF-κB signaling. • Baicalein attenuated vinorelbine-induced phlebitis and inflammation in rabbits.

  13. Vascular dysfunction by myofibroblast activation in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and prognostic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Parra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we demonstrated the importance of telomerase protein expression and determined the relationships among telomerase, endothelin-1 (ET-1 and myofibroblasts during early and late remodeling of parenchymal and vascular areas in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP using 27 surgical lung biopsies from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Telomerase+, myofibroblasts α-SMA+, smooth muscle cells caldesmon+, endothelium ET-1+ cellularity, and fibrosis severity were evaluated in 30 fields covering normal lung parenchyma, minimal fibrosis (fibroblastic foci, severe (mural fibrosis, and vascular areas of UIP by the point-counting technique and a semiquantitative score. The impact of these markers was determined in pulmonary functional tests and follow-up until death from IPF. Telomerase and ET-1 expression was significantly increased in normal and vascular areas compared to areas of fibroblast foci. Telomerase and ET-1 expression was inversely correlated with minimal fibrosis in areas of fibroblast foci and directly associated with severe fibrosis in vascular areas. Telomerase activity in minimal fibrosis areas was directly associated with diffusing capacity of the lung for oxygen/alveolar volume and ET-1 expression and indirectly associated with diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide and severe fibrosis in vascular areas. Cox proportional hazards regression revealed a low risk of death for females with minimal fibrosis displaying high telomerase and ET-1 expression in normal areas. Vascular dysfunction by telomerase/ET-1 expression was found earlier than vascular remodeling by myofibroblast activation in UIP with impact on IPF evolution, suggesting that strategies aimed at preventing the effect of these mediators may have a greater impact on patient outcome.

  14. Redistribution of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Causes Neonatal Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling and PH but Protects Against Experimental Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie G. Sherlock

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A naturally occurring single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, (R213G, in extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3, decreases SOD3 matrix binding affinity. Humans and mature mice expressing the R213G SNP exhibit increased cardiovascular disease but decreased lung disease. The impact of this SNP on the neonatal lung at baseline or with injury is unknown. Methods: Wild type and homozygous R213G mice were injected with intraperitoneal bleomycin or phosphate buffered saline (PBS three times weekly for three weeks and tissue harvested at 22 days of life. Vascular and alveolar development were evaluated by morphometric analysis and immunostaining of lung sections. Pulmonary hypertension (PH was assessed by right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH. Lung protein expression for superoxide dismutase (SOD isoforms, catalase, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 (GTPCH-1 was evaluated by western blot. SOD activity and SOD3 expression were measured in serum. Results: In R213G mice, SOD3 lung protein expression decreased, serum SOD3 protein expression and SOD serum activity increased compared to wild type (WT mice. Under control conditions, R213G mice developed pulmonary vascular remodeling (decreased vessel density and increased medial wall thickness and PH; alveolar development was similar between strains. After bleomycin injury, in contrast to WT, R213G mice were protected from impaired alveolar development and their vascular abnormalities and PH did not worsen. Bleomycin decreased VEGFR2 and GTPCH-1 only in WT mice. Conclusion: R213G neonatal mice demonstrate impaired vascular development and PH at baseline without alveolar simplification, yet are protected from bleomycin induced lung injury and worsening of pulmonary vascular remodeling and PH. These results show that vessel bound SOD3 is essential in normal pulmonary vascular development, and

  15. Dynamic and diverse changes in the functional properties of vascular smooth muscle cells in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenmark, Kurt R; Frid, Maria G; Graham, Brian B; Tuder, Rubin M

    2018-03-15

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is the end result of interaction between pulmonary vascular tone and a complex series of cellular and molecular events termed 'vascular remodelling'. The remodelling process, which can involve the entirety of pulmonary arterial vasculature, almost universally involves medial thickening, driven by increased numbers and hypertrophy of its principal cellular constituent, smooth muscle cells (SMCs). It is noted, however that SMCs comprise heterogeneous populations of cells, which can exhibit markedly different proliferative, inflammatory, and extracellular matrix production changes during remodelling. We further consider that these functional changes in SMCs of different phenotype and their role in PH are dynamic and may undergo significant changes over time (which we will refer to as cellular plasticity); no single property can account for the complexity of the contribution of SMC to pulmonary vascular remodelling. Thus, the approaches used to pharmacologically manipulate PH by targeting the SMC phenotype(s) must take into account processes that underlie dominant phenotypes that drive the disease. We present evidence for time- and location-specific changes in SMC proliferation in various animal models of PH; we highlight the transient nature (rather than continuous) of SMC proliferation, emphasizing that the heterogenic SMC populations that reside in different locations along the pulmonary vascular tree exhibit distinct responses to the stresses associated with the development of PH. We also consider that cells that have often been termed 'SMCs' may arise from many origins, including endothelial cells, fibroblasts and resident or circulating progenitors, and thus may contribute via distinct signalling pathways to the remodelling process. Ultimately, PH is characterized by long-lived, apoptosis-resistant SMC. In line with this key pathogenic characteristic, we address the acquisition of a pro-inflammatory phenotype by SMC that is essential

  16. RhoA–Rho kinase and Platelet Activating Factor Stimulation of Ovine Fetal Pulmonary Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Lissette S.; Austin, Monique; Lazaro, Mariecon; Andrews, Mari Ashley; Lustina, Jennessee; Raj, J. Usha; Ibe, Basil O.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) is produced by pulmonary vascular smooth muscle Cells (PVSMC). We studied effect of Rho kinase on PAF stimulation of PVSMC proliferation in an attempt to understand a role for RhoA/Rho kinase on PAF-induced ovine fetal pulmonary vascular remodeling. Our hypothesis is that PAF acts through Rho kinase, as one of its downstream signaling, to induce arterial (SMC-PA) and venous (SMC-PV) growth in the hypoxic lung environment of the fetus in utero. Materials and methods Rho kinase and MAPK effects on PAF receptor (PAFR)-mediated cell growth and PAFR expression were studied by DNA synthesis, Western and immunocytochemistry. Effects of constructs T19N and G14V on PAF-induced cell proliferation was also studied. Results Hypoxia increased PVSMC proliferation and the Rho kinase inhibitors, Y-27632 and Fasudil (HA-1077) as well as MAPK inhibitors PD 98059 and SB 203580 attenuated PAF stimulation of cell proliferation. RhoA T19N and G14V stimulated cell proliferation, but co-incubation with PAF did not affect proliferative effects of the constructs. PAFR protein expression was significantly down-regulated in both cell types by both Y-27632 and HA-1077 with comparable profiles. Also cells treated with Y-27632 showed less PAF receptor fluorescence with significant disruption of the cell morphology. Conclusions Our results show that Rho kinase nonspecifically modulates PAFR-mediated responses via a translational modification of PAFR protein and suggest that, in vivo, activation of Rho kinase by PAF may be one other pathway to sustain PAFR-mediated PVSMC growth. PMID:24033386

  17. RhoA-Rho kinase and platelet-activating factor stimulation of ovine foetal pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, L S; Austin, M; Lazaro, M; Andrews, M A; Lustina, J; Raj, J U; Ibe, B O

    2013-10-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is produced by pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells (PVSMC). We studied effects of Rho kinase on PAF stimulation of PVSMC proliferation in an attempt to understand the role of RhoA/Rho kinase on PAF-induced ovine foetal pulmonary vascular remodelling. Our hypothesis is that PAF acts through Rho kinase, as one of its downstream signals, to induce arterial (SMC-PA) and venous (SMC-PV) cell proliferation in the hypoxic lung environment of the foetus, in utero. Rho kinase and MAPK effects on PAF receptor (PAFR)-mediated cell population expansion, and PAFR expression, were studied by DNA synthesis, western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Effects of constructs T19N and G14V on PAF-induced cell proliferation were also investigated. Hypoxia increased PVSMC proliferation and Rho kinase inhibitors, Y-27632 and Fasudil (HA-1077) as well as MAPK inhibitors PD 98059 and SB 203580 attenuated PAF stimulation of cell proliferation. RhoA T19N and G14V stimulated cell proliferation, but co-incubation with PAF did not affect proliferative effects of the constructs. PAFR protein expression was significantly downregulated in both cell types by both Y-27632 and HA-1077, with comparable profiles. Also, cells treated with Y-27632 had less PAF receptor fluorescence with significant disruption of cell morphology. Our results show that Rho kinase non-specifically modulated PAFR-mediated responses by a translational modification of PAFR protein, and suggest that, in vivo, activation of Rho kinase by PAF may be a further pathway to sustain PAFR-mediated PVSMC proliferation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Functional high-resolution computed tomography of pulmonary vascular and airway reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, C.J.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD; Brown, R.H.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD; Wetzel, R.C.; Herold, S.M.; Zeerhouni, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the use of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for assessment of the function of pulmonary vessels and airways. With its excellent spatial resolution, HRCT is able to demonstrate pulmonary structures as small as 300 μm and can be used to monitor changes following various stimuli. HRCT also provides information about structures smaller than 300 μm through measurement of parenchymal background density. To date, sequential, spiral and ultrafast HRCT techniques have been used in a variety of challenges to gather information about the anatomical correlates of traditional physiological measurements, thus making anatomical-physiological correlation possible. HRCT of bronchial reactivity can demonstrate the location and time course of aerosol-induced broncho-constriction and may show changes not apparent on spirometry. HRCT of the pulmonary vascular system visualized adaptations of vessels during hypoxia and intravascular volume loading and elucidates cardiorespiratory interactions. Experimental studies provide a basis for potential clinical applications of this method. (orig.) [de

  19. CT findings of pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yukio; Tanimoto, Akihiro; Sato, Toru; Kuribayashi, Sachio

    2006-01-01

    For the treatment for pulmonary hypertension (PH), the differential diagnosis of its causal diseases is essential. To determine whether X-ray CT is useful for differentiating PH, we reviewed CT findings of 53 patients (18 men and 35 women, mean age of 44.9) given a diagnosis of PH, consisting of 25 with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), 18 with chronic pulmonary embolism (cPE), 6 with Eisenmenger syndrome, 5 cases of collagen diseases, 2 of acute PE, and 1 of cor pulmonale. The intrapulmonary distribution of CT findings (ground glass opacity [GGO], mosaic attenuation, striation and/or infiltration, and interlobular septal thickening) were reviewed and scored on a 4-point scale (grade 0: no findings, 1: involving one third of the lung, 2: involving one-two thirds, and 3: diffuse distribution) by two radiologists who reached a consensus. PPH showed preferentially diffuse distribution of GGO as compared with cPE (p<0.05). However, there was no apparent relationship between the pulmonary vascular resistance and the distribution of GGO in PPH cases. The mosaic attenuation pattern was more frequent in cPE (43%) than PPH (12%; p<0.05). Striation and/or infiltration was observed in 36% of cPE, but only 4% of PPH. Interlobular septal thickening was seen in 16% of PPH, and 0% in cPE. Evaluation of CT findings is useful to differentiate PH. (author)

  20. Prostaglandin D2 Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Lung Inflammation and Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Taiki; Ayabe, Shinya; Omori, Keisuke; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Maehara, Toko; Aritake, Kosuke; Urade, Yoshihiro; Murata, Takahisa

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal lung disease with limited therapeutic options. Although it is well known that lipid mediator prostaglandins are involved in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, the role of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether genetic disruption of hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS) affects the bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis in mouse. Compared with H-PGDS naïve (WT) mice, H-PGDS-deficient mice (H-PGDS-/-) represented increased collagen deposition in lungs 14 days after the bleomycin injection. The enhanced fibrotic response was accompanied by an increased mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 on day 3. H-PGDS deficiency also increased vascular permeability on day 3 and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages in lungs on day 3 and 7. Immunostaining showed that the neutrophils and macrophages expressed H-PGDS, and its mRNA expression was increased on day 3and 7 in WT lungs. These observations suggest that H-PGDS-derived PGD2 plays a protective role in bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis.

  1. Inhaled tolafentrine reverses pulmonary vascular remodeling via inhibition of smooth muscle cell migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weissmann Norbert

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to assess the chronic effects of combined phosphodiesterase 3/4 inhibitor tolafentrine, administered by inhalation, during monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH in rats. Methods CD rats were given a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline to induce PAH. Four weeks after, rats were subjected to inhalation of tolafentrine or sham nebulization in an unrestrained, whole body aerosol exposure system. In these animals (i the acute pulmonary vasodilatory efficacy of inhaled tolafentrine (ii the anti-remodeling effect of long-term inhalation of tolafentrine (iii the effects of tolafentrine on the expression profile of 96 genes encoding cell adhesion and extracellular matrix regulation were examined. In addition, the inhibitory effect of tolafentrine on ex vivo isolated pulmonary artery SMC cell migration was also investigated. Results Monocrotaline injection provoked severe PAH (right ventricular systolic pressure increased from 25.9 ± 4.0 to 68.9 ± 3.2 after 4 weeks and 74.9 ± 5.1 mmHg after 6 weeks, cardiac output depression and right heart hypertrophy. The media thickness of the pulmonary arteries and the proportion of muscularization of small precapillary resistance vessels increased dramatically, and the migratory response of ex-vivo isolated pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC was increased. Micro-arrays and subsequent confirmation with real time PCR demonstrated upregulation of several extracellular matrix regulation and adhesion genes, such as matrixmetalloproteases (MMP 2, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 20, Icam, Itgax, Plat and serpinb2. When chronically nebulized from day 28 to 42 (12 daily aerosol maneuvers, after full establishment of severe pulmonary hypertension, tolafentrine reversed about 60% of all hemodynamic abnormalities, right heart hypertrophy and monocrotaline-induced structural lung vascular changes, including the proportion of pulmonary artery

  2. The Critical Role of Pulmonary Arterial Compliance in Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Kurt W.; Pritzker, Marc R.; Scandurra, John; Volmers, Karl; Weir, E. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The normal pulmonary circulation is a low-pressure, high-compliance system. Pulmonary arterial compliance decreases in the presence of pulmonary hypertension because of increased extracellular matrix/collagen deposition in the pulmonary arteries. Loss of pulmonary arterial compliance has been consistently shown to be a predictor of increased mortality in patients with pulmonary hypertension, even more so than pulmonary vascular resistance in some studies. Decreased pulmonary arterial compliance causes premature reflection of waves from the distal pulmonary vasculature, leading to increased pulsatile right ventricular afterload and eventually right ventricular failure. Evidence suggests that decreased pulmonary arterial compliance is a cause rather than a consequence of distal small vessel proliferative vasculopathy. Pulmonary arterial compliance decreases early in the disease process even when pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance are normal, potentially enabling early diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease, especially in high-risk populations. With the recognition of the prognostic importance of pulmonary arterial compliance, its impact on right ventricular function, and its contributory role in the development and progression of distal small-vessel proliferative vasculopathy, pulmonary arterial compliance is an attractive target for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26848601

  3. Immunohistochemical examination of plexiform-like complex vascular lesions in the lungs of broiler chickens selected for susceptibility to idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamal, Krishna R; Erf, Gisela F; Anthony, Nicholas B; Wideman, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a disease of unknown cause that is characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance, and by extensive vascular remodelling. In human IPAH patients, remodelling of the pulmonary vasculature results in the formation of plexiform lesions in the terminal pulmonary arterioles. Various molecules are expressed in the human plexiform lesions, including alpha smooth muscle actin, von Willebrand factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2, hypoxia inducible factor-1α, survivin, tenascin, collagen, fibronectin, and various immune/inflammatory cells such as, cytotoxic lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, MHC class II cells, and monocytes/macrophages are also present. Plexiform lesions rarely develop in the lungs of laboratory animals, but plexiform-like complex vascular lesions (CVL) do develop spontaneously in the lungs of broiler chickens from an IPAH-susceptible line. To examine angioproliferative and immune-system-related activities associated with CVL in broiler lungs, paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung sections from 8-week-old to 24-week-old broiler chickens were stained immunohistochemically using monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies specific for angioproliferative molecules and immune/inflammatory cells. The CVL in the lungs of broiler chickens exhibited positive staining for both angioproliferative molecules and immune/inflammatory cells. These observations combined with the close histological resemblance of broiler CVL to the plexiform lesions of human IPAH patients further validates chickens from our IPAH-susceptible line as an excellent animal model of spontaneous plexogenic arteriopathy.

  4. Pulmonary hypertension in children with congenital heart disease (PAH-CHD, PPHVD-CHD). Expert consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of paediatric pulmonary hypertension. The European Paediatric Pulmonary Vascular Disease Network, endorsed by ISHLT and DGPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlik-Feldmann, Rainer; Hansmann, Georg; Bonnet, Damien; Schranz, Dietmar; Apitz, Christian; Michel-Behnke, Ina

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease (PAH-CHD) is a complex disease that presents with a broad spectrum of morphological and haemodynamic findings of varying severity. Recently, the aspect of paediatric pulmonary hypertensive vascular disease (PPHVD) has been introduced to expand the understanding of the full spectrum of pulmonary hypertension and increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Evaluation and treatment of PAH-CHD/PPHVD-CHD can be divided into in different topics. First, defining criteria for operability and initiation of advanced therapies preoperatively and postoperatively is an unresolved issue. Second, management of Eisenmenger syndrome is still an important question, with recent evidence on the severity of the disease and a more rapidly progressive course than previously described. Third, the Fontan circulation with no subpulmonary ventricle requires a distinct discussion, definition and classification since even a mild rise in pulmonary vascular resistance may lead to the so-called failing Fontan situation. Patients with CHD and single-ventricle physiology (Fontan/total cavopulmonary anastomosis) require a particularly stepwise and individualised approach. This consensus statement is on the current evidence for the most accurate evaluation and treatment of increased pulmonary artery pressure and resistance, as well as ventricular dysfunction, in children with congenital heart defects, and provides according practical recommendations. To optimise preoperative and postoperative management in patients with PAH-CHD, diagnostic and treatment algorithms are provided. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Pulmonary arterial hypertension : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendermis, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), defined as group 1 of the World Heart Organisation (WHO) classification of pulmonary hypertension, is an uncommon disorder of the pulmonary vascular system. It is characterised by an increased pulmonary artery pressure, increased pulmonary vascular resistance

  6. Attenuation of pancreatitis-induced pulmonary injury by aerosolized hypertonic saline.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, C J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The immunomodulatory effects of hypertonic saline (HTS) provide potential strategies to attenuate inappropriate inflammatory reactions. This study tested the hypothesis that administration of intratracheal aerosolized HTS modulates the development of lung injury in pancreatitis. METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced in 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of 20% L-arginine (500 mg\\/100 g body weight). At 24 and 48 h, intratracheal aerosolized HTS (7.5% NaCl, 0.5 mL) was administered to 8 rats, while a further 8 received 0.5 mL of aerosolized normal saline (NS). At 72 hours, pulmonary neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity) and endothelial permeability (bronchoalveolar lavage and wet:dry weight ratios) were assessed. In addition, histological assessment of representative lung tissue was performed by a blinded assessor. In a separate experiment, polymorphonucleocytes (PMN) were isolated from human donors, and exposed to increments of HTS. Neutrophil transmigration across an endothelial cell layer, VEGF release, and apoptosis at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h were assessed. RESULTS: Histopathological lung injury scores were significantly reduced in the HTS group (4.78 +\\/- 1.43 vs. 8.64 +\\/- 0.86); p < 0.001). Pulmonary neutrophil sequestration (1.40 +\\/- 0.2) and increased endothelial permeability (6.77 +\\/- 1.14) were evident in the animals resuscitated with normal saline when compared with HTS (0.70 +\\/- 0.1 and 3.57 +\\/- 1.32), respectively; p < 0.04). HTS significantly reduced PMN transmigration (by 97.1, p = 0.002, and induced PMN apoptosis (p < 0.03). HTS did not impact significantly upon neutrophil VEGF release (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Intratracheal aerosolized HTS attenuates the neutrophil-mediated pulmonary insult subsequent to pancreatitis. This may represent a novel therapeutic strategy.

  7. Amplatzer vascular plug IV for occlusion of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in a patient with cryptogenic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendranath R Veeram Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paradoxical embolism resulting in cryptogenic stroke has received much attention recently, with the primary focus on patent foramen ovale (PFO. However, it is essential to be vigilant in the search for other causes of paradoxical embolic events, such as pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM. We describe successful closure of pulmonary AVM with a St Jude Medical (Plymouth, MN Amplatzer TM vascular plug IV. The newer AVP-IV devices can be used for successful embolization of tortuous pulmonary AVM in remote locations where use of other traditional devices may be technically challenging.

  8. The effects of iodine attenuation on pulmonary nodule volumetry using novel dual-layer computed tomography reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, A.M. den; Hamersvelt, R.W. van; Leiner, T.; Schilham, A.M.R.; Willemink, M.J.; Jong, P.A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bangert, F. [Sint Antonius Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Milles, Julien [Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands)

    2017-12-15

    To assess the effect of iodine attenuation on pulmonary nodule volumetry using virtual non-contrast (VNC) and mono-energetic reconstructions. A consecutive series of patients who underwent a contrast-enhanced chest CT scan were included. Images were acquired on a novel dual-layer spectral CT system. Conventional reconstructions as well as VNC and mono-energetic images at different keV levels were used for nodule volumetry. Twenty-four patients with a total of 63 nodules were included. Conventional reconstructions showed a median (interquartile range) volume and diameter of 174 (87 - 253) mm{sup 3} and 6.9 (5.4 - 9.9) mm, respectively. VNC reconstructions resulted in a significant volume reduction of 5.5% (2.6 - 11.2%; p<0.001). Mono-energetic reconstructions showed a correlation between nodule attenuation and nodule volume (Spearman correlation 0.77, (0.49 - 0.94)). Lowering the keV resulted in increased volumes while higher keV levels resulted in decreased pulmonary nodule volumes compared to conventional CT. Novel dual-layer spectral CT offers the possibility to reconstruct VNC and mono-energetic images. Those reconstructions show that higher pulmonary nodule attenuation results in larger nodule volumes. This may explain the reported underestimation in nodule volume on non-contrast enhanced compared to contrast-enhanced acquisitions. (orig.)

  9. The effects of iodine attenuation on pulmonary nodule volumetry using novel dual-layer computed tomography reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, A.M. den; Hamersvelt, R.W. van; Leiner, T.; Schilham, A.M.R.; Willemink, M.J.; Jong, P.A. de; Bangert, F.; Milles, Julien

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effect of iodine attenuation on pulmonary nodule volumetry using virtual non-contrast (VNC) and mono-energetic reconstructions. A consecutive series of patients who underwent a contrast-enhanced chest CT scan were included. Images were acquired on a novel dual-layer spectral CT system. Conventional reconstructions as well as VNC and mono-energetic images at different keV levels were used for nodule volumetry. Twenty-four patients with a total of 63 nodules were included. Conventional reconstructions showed a median (interquartile range) volume and diameter of 174 (87 - 253) mm 3 and 6.9 (5.4 - 9.9) mm, respectively. VNC reconstructions resulted in a significant volume reduction of 5.5% (2.6 - 11.2%; p<0.001). Mono-energetic reconstructions showed a correlation between nodule attenuation and nodule volume (Spearman correlation 0.77, (0.49 - 0.94)). Lowering the keV resulted in increased volumes while higher keV levels resulted in decreased pulmonary nodule volumes compared to conventional CT. Novel dual-layer spectral CT offers the possibility to reconstruct VNC and mono-energetic images. Those reconstructions show that higher pulmonary nodule attenuation results in larger nodule volumes. This may explain the reported underestimation in nodule volume on non-contrast enhanced compared to contrast-enhanced acquisitions. (orig.)

  10. Estimation of pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with pulmonary fibrosis by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayukawa, Yuichiro; Murayama, Sadayuki; Tsuchiya, Nanae; Yara, Satomi; Fujita, Jiro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in patients with pulmonary fibrosis (PF) by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Subjects were 11 healthy volunteers and 11 patients with PF. Using phase-contrast MRI, we measured pulmonary arterial blood flow and calculated the parameters of PVR. Parameters were compared between volunteers and patients using unpaired t-tests. The diagnostic capability of the parameters was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Patients underwent respiratory function tests (RFTs) and chest computed tomography (CT), and they were correlated with MRI parameters. Most MRI parameters were significantly different between volunteers and patients (t-test P values were <0.05 in 9 of 10 parameters). Regarding the RFT and CT visual score, only the %DLco/VA and acceleration time and the CT visual score and average flow volume had significant correlation [r=-0.667 (P=0.024) and r=-0.6 (P=0.031)], respectively. Our findings suggest that PVR derived from phase-contrast MRI is significantly higher in patients with PF than in volunteers. However, all but two of these parameters may not correlate with the severity of PF. (author)

  11. Ozone-Induced Vascular Contractility and Pulmonary Injury Are Differentially Impacted by Diets Enriched With Coconut Oil, Fish Oil, and Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Samantha J; Cheng, Wan-Yun; Henriquez, Andres; Hodge, Myles; Bass, Virgina; Nelson, Gail M; Carswell, Gleta; Richards, Judy E; Schladweiler, Mette C; Ledbetter, Allen D; Chorley, Brian; Gowdy, Kymberly M; Tong, Haiyan; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2018-05-01

    Fish, olive, and coconut oil dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if they protect against air pollution-induced adverse effects. We hypothesized that these dietary supplements would attenuate ozone-induced systemic and pulmonary effects. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were fed either a normal diet, or a diet supplemented with fish, olive, or coconut oil for 8 weeks. Animals were then exposed to air or ozone (0.8 ppm), 4 h/day for 2 days. Ozone exposure increased phenylephrine-induced aortic vasocontraction, which was completely abolished in rats fed the fish oil diet. Despite this cardioprotective effect, the fish oil diet increased baseline levels of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) markers of lung injury and inflammation. Ozone-induced pulmonary injury/inflammation were comparable in rats on normal, coconut oil, and olive oil diets with altered expression of markers in animals fed the fish oil diet. Fish oil, regardless of exposure, led to enlarged, foamy macrophages in the BALF that coincided with decreased pulmonary mRNA expression of cholesterol transporters, cholesterol receptors, and nuclear receptors. Serum microRNA profile was assessed and demonstrated marked depletion of a variety of microRNAs in animals fed the fish oil diet, several of which were of splenic origin. No ozone-specific changes were noted. Collectively, these data indicate that although fish oil offered vascular protection from ozone exposure, it increased pulmonary injury/inflammation and impaired lipid transport mechanisms resulting in foamy macrophage accumulation, demonstrating the need to be cognizant of potential off-target pulmonary effects that might offset the overall benefit of this vasoprotective supplement.

  12. Adventitial gene transfer of catalase attenuates angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cun-Fei; Zhang, Jia; Shen, Kai; Gao, Ping-Jin; Wang, Hai-Ya; Jin, Xin; Meng, Chao; Fang, Ning-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Vascular adventitia and adventitia‑derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to vascular remodeling following vascular injury. A previous ex vivo study in adventitial fibroblasts showed that catalase, one of most important anti‑oxide enzymes, was downregulated by angiotensin II (AngII). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether adventitial gene transfer of catalase affects AngII‑induced vascular remodeling in vivo. Adenoviruses co‑expressing catalase and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or expressing eGFP only were applied to the adventitial surface of common carotid arteries of Sprague‑Dawley rats. Alzet minipumps administering AngII (0.75 mg/kg/day) were then implanted subcutaneously for 14 days. Systolic blood pressure and biological parameters of vascular remodeling were measured in each group. Adventitial fibroblasts were cultured and p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was measured using western blot analysis. The results showed that adventitial gene transfer of catalase had no effect on AngII‑induced systolic blood pressure elevation. However, catalase adenovirus transfection significantly inhibited AngII‑induced media hypertrophy compared with that of the control virus (Padventitial α‑smooth muscle actin expression. Furthermore, catalase transfection significantly inhibited the AngII‑induced increase in p38MAPK phosphorylation. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that adventitial gene transfer of catalase significantly attenuated AngII‑induced vascular remodeling in rats via inhibition of adventitial p38MAPK phosphorylation.

  13. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery vascular hyperintensities in predicting cerebral hyperperfusion after intracranial arterial stenting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Chih-Cheng; Chen, David Yen-Ting; Tseng, Ying-Chi; Lee, Kun-Yu; Chiang, Chen-Hua; Chen, Chi-Jen [Taipei Medical University, Department of Radiology, Shuang-Ho Hospital, New Taipei City (China); Taipei Medical University, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei (China); Yan, Feng-Xian [Taipei Medical University, Department of Radiology, Shuang-Ho Hospital, New Taipei City (China)

    2017-08-15

    No reliable imaging sign predicting cerebral hyperperfusion after intracranial arterial stenting (IAS) had been described in the literature. This study evaluated the effect of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery vascular hyperintensities (FVHs), also called hyperintense vessel sign on T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (T2-FLAIR) MR images, in predicting significant increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) defined by arterial spin labeling (ASL) after IAS. We reviewed ASL CBF images and T2-FLAIR MR images before (D0), 1 day after (D1), and 3 days after (D3) IAS of 16 patients. T1-weighted MR images were used as cerebral maps for calculating CBF. The changes in CBF values after IAS were calculated in and compared among stenting and nonstenting vascular territories. An increase more than 50% of CBF was considered as hyperperfusion. The effect of FVHs in predicting hyperperfusion was calculated. The D1 CBF value was significantly higher than the D0 CBF value in stenting vascular, contralateral anterior cerebral artery, contralateral middle cerebral artery, and contralateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territories (all P <.05). The D1 and D3 CBF values were significantly higher than the D0 CBF value in overall vascular (P <.001), overall nonstenting vascular (P <.001), and ipsilateral PCA (P <.05) territories. The rate of more than 50% increases in CBF was significantly higher in patients who exhibited asymmetric FVHs than in those who did not exhibit these findings. FVHs could be a critical predictor of a significant increase in CBF after IAS. (orig.)

  14. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery vascular hyperintensities in predicting cerebral hyperperfusion after intracranial arterial stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Chih-Cheng; Chen, David Yen-Ting; Tseng, Ying-Chi; Lee, Kun-Yu; Chiang, Chen-Hua; Chen, Chi-Jen; Yan, Feng-Xian

    2017-01-01

    No reliable imaging sign predicting cerebral hyperperfusion after intracranial arterial stenting (IAS) had been described in the literature. This study evaluated the effect of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery vascular hyperintensities (FVHs), also called hyperintense vessel sign on T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (T2-FLAIR) MR images, in predicting significant increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) defined by arterial spin labeling (ASL) after IAS. We reviewed ASL CBF images and T2-FLAIR MR images before (D0), 1 day after (D1), and 3 days after (D3) IAS of 16 patients. T1-weighted MR images were used as cerebral maps for calculating CBF. The changes in CBF values after IAS were calculated in and compared among stenting and nonstenting vascular territories. An increase more than 50% of CBF was considered as hyperperfusion. The effect of FVHs in predicting hyperperfusion was calculated. The D1 CBF value was significantly higher than the D0 CBF value in stenting vascular, contralateral anterior cerebral artery, contralateral middle cerebral artery, and contralateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territories (all P <.05). The D1 and D3 CBF values were significantly higher than the D0 CBF value in overall vascular (P <.001), overall nonstenting vascular (P <.001), and ipsilateral PCA (P <.05) territories. The rate of more than 50% increases in CBF was significantly higher in patients who exhibited asymmetric FVHs than in those who did not exhibit these findings. FVHs could be a critical predictor of a significant increase in CBF after IAS. (orig.)

  15. Passion fruit peel extract attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilakapati, Shanmuga Reddy; Serasanambati, Mamatha; Manikonda, Pavan Kumar; Chilakapati, Damodar Reddy; Watson, Ronald Ross

    2014-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive fatal lung disease characterized by excessive collagen deposition, with no effective treatments. We investigated the efficacy of natural products with high anti-inflammatory activity, such as passion fruit peel extract (PFPE), in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF). C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin to induce PF. Daily PFPE treatment significantly reduced loss of body mass and mortality rate in mice compared with those treated with bleomycin. While bleomycin-induced PF resulted in elevated total numbers of inflammatory cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid on both days 7 and 21, PFPE administration significantly attenuated these phenomena compared with bleomycin group. On day 7, the decreased superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase activities observed in the bleomycin group were significantly restored with PFPE treatment. On day 21, enhanced hydroxyproline deposition in the bleomycin group was also suppressed by PFPE administration. PFPE treatment significantly attenuated extensive inflammatory cell infiltration and accumulation of collagen in lung tissue sections of bleomycin-induced mice on days 7 and 21, respectively. Our results indicate that administration of PFPE decreased bleomycin-induced PF because of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

  16. Pulmonary arterial lesions in explanted lungs after transplantation correlate with severity of pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Jørn; Andersen, Kasper Hasseriis; Boesgaard, Søren

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vascular findings are largely unreported in end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Pulmonary vascular lesions in explanted lungs from 70 patients with COPD/emphysema or α-1-antitrypsin deficiency were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were stratified...... of pulmonary vascular lesions in COPD correlate with the severity of PH. Morphologic lesions similar to those characteristic of IPAH can be observed as PH in COPD progresses to levels characteristic of IPAH....... by the presence and severity of pulmonary hypertension (PH) assessed by right-heart catheterization in 3 hemodynamically distinct groups: (1) non-PH (mean pulmonary arterial pressure [mPAP]50 mm Hg; median HE Grade 4 (range 3-6), with generalized arterial dilatation and plexiform lesions. CONCLUSIONS: The extent...

  17. Prospective comparison of helical CT with angiography in pulmonary embolism: global and selective vascular territory analysis. Interobserver agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Yolanda; Caballero, Paloma; Caniego, Jose Luis; Friera, Alfonsa; Olivera, Maria Jose; Tagarro, David; Alvarez-Sala, Rodolfo

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and interobserver agreement in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism with helical CT, compared with pulmonary angiography, for both global results and for selective vascular territories. Helical CT and pulmonary angiography were performed on 66 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary embolism. The exams were blindly interpreted by a vascular radiologist and by two independent thoracic radiologists. Results were analyzed for the final diagnosis as well as separately for 20 different arterial territories in each patient. Pulmonary angiography revealed embolism in 25 patients (38%); 48% were main, 28% lobar, 16% segmental, and 8% subsegmental. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of helical CT for observer 1 were, respectively, 91, 81.5, 75, and 94%; in 7.5% of the patients the exam was considered indeterminate. For observer 2 the values were, respectively, 88, 86, 81.5, and 91%; in 9% of the patients the exam was considered indeterminate. Main arteries were considered as non-valuable in 0-0.8%, the lobar in 1.5%, the segmental in 7.5-8.5%, and the subsegmental in 55-60%. Interobserver agreement for the final diagnosis was 80% (kappa 0.65). For each vascular territory, this was 98% (kappa 0.91) for main arteries, 92% (kappa 0.78) for lobar arteries, 79% (kappa 0.56) for segmental arteries, and 59% (kappa 0.21) for subsegmental arteries. Helical CT is a reliable method for pulmonary embolism diagnosis, with good interobserver agreement for main, lobar, and segmental territories. Worse results are found for subsegmental arteries, with high incidence of non-valuable branches and poor interobserver agreement. (orig.)

  18. Measurement of vascular wall attenuation: Comparison of CT angiography using model-based iterative reconstruction with standard filtered back-projection algorithm CT in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Machida, Haruhiko; Tanaka, Isao; Ueno, Eiko

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the performance of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) with that of standard filtered back projection (FBP) for measuring vascular wall attenuation. Study design: After subjecting 9 vascular models (actual attenuation value of wall, 89 HU) with wall thickness of 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 mm that we filled with contrast material of 275, 396, or 542 HU to scanning using 64-detector computed tomography (CT), we reconstructed images using MBIR and FBP (Bone, Detail kernels) and measured wall attenuation at the center of the wall for each model. We performed attenuation measurements for each model and additional supportive measurements by a differentiation curve. We analyzed statistics using analyzes of variance with repeated measures. Results: Using the Bone kernel, standard deviation of the measurement exceeded 30 HU in most conditions. In measurements at the wall center, the attenuation values obtained using MBIR were comparable to or significantly closer to the actual wall attenuation than those acquired using Detail kernel. Using differentiation curves, we could measure attenuation for models with walls of 1.0- or 1.5-mm thickness using MBIR but only those of 1.5-mm thickness using Detail kernel. We detected no significant differences among the attenuation values of the vascular walls of either thickness (MBIR, P = 0.1606) or among the 3 densities of intravascular contrast material (MBIR, P = 0.8185; Detail kernel, P = 0.0802). Conclusions: Compared with FBP, MBIR reduces both reconstruction blur and image noise simultaneously, facilitates recognition of vascular wall boundaries, and can improve accuracy in measuring wall attenuation.

  19. Renal sympathetic denervation attenuates hypertension and vascular remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Huang, Pei-Pei; Yang, Yun; Liu, Chi; Lu, Yan; Wang, Fang; Sun, Wei; Kong, Xiang-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Li P, Huang P, Yang Y, Liu C, Lu Y, Wang F, Sun W, Kong X. Renal sympathetic denervation attenuates hypertension and vascular remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats. J Appl Physiol 122: 121-129, 2017. First published October 14, 2016; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01019.2015-Sympathetic activity is enhanced in patients with essential or secondary hypertension, as well as in various hypertensive animal models. Therapeutic targeting of sympathetic activation is considered an effective antihypertensive strategy. We hypothesized that renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) attenuates hypertension and improves vascular remodeling and renal disease in the 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) rat model. Rats underwent 2K1C modeling or sham surgery; then rats underwent RSD or sham surgery 4 wk later, thus resulting in four groups (normotensive-sham, normotensive-RSD, 2K1C-sham, and 2K1C-RSD). Norepinephrine was measured by ELISA. Echocardiography was used to assess heart function. Fibrosis and apoptosis were assessed by Masson and TUNEL staining. Changes in mean arterial blood pressure in response to hexamethonium and plasma norepinephrine levels were used to evaluate basal sympathetic nerve activity. The 2K1C modeling success rate was 86.8%. RSD reversed the elevated systolic blood pressure induced by 2K1C, but had no effect on body weight. Compared with rats in the 2K1C-sham group, rats in the 2K1C-RSD group showed lower left ventricular mass/body weight ratio, interventricular septal thickness in diastole, left ventricular end-systolic diameter, and left ventricular posterior wall thickness in systole, whereas fractional shortening and ejection fraction were higher. Right kidney apoptosis and left kidney hypertrophy were not changed by RSD. Arterial fibrosis was lower in animals in the 2K1C-RSD group compared with those in the 2K1C-sham group. RSD reduced plasma norepinephrine and basal sympathetic activity in rats in the 2K1C-RSD group compared with rats in the 2K1C-sham group. These

  20. Effects on Pulmonary Vascular Mechanics of Two Different Lung-Protective Ventilation Strategies in an Experimental Model of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Arnoldo; Gomez-Peñalver, Eva; Monge-Garcia, M Ignacio; Retamal, Jaime; Borges, João Batista; Tusman, Gerardo; Hedenstierna, Goran; Larsson, Anders; Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    To compare the effects of two lung-protective ventilation strategies on pulmonary vascular mechanics in early acute respiratory distress syndrome. Experimental study. University animal research laboratory. Twelve pigs (30.8 ± 2.5 kg). Acute respiratory distress syndrome was induced by repeated lung lavages and injurious mechanical ventilation. Thereafter, animals were randomized to 4 hours ventilation according to the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network protocol or to an open lung approach strategy. Pressure and flow sensors placed at the pulmonary artery trunk allowed continuous assessment of pulmonary artery resistance, effective elastance, compliance, and reflected pressure waves. Respiratory mechanics and gas exchange data were collected. Acute respiratory distress syndrome led to pulmonary vascular mechanics deterioration. Four hours after randomization, pulmonary vascular mechanics was similar in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network and open lung approach: resistance (578 ± 252 vs 626 ± 153 dyn.s/cm; p = 0.714), effective elastance, (0.63 ± 0.22 vs 0.58 ± 0.17 mm Hg/mL; p = 0.710), compliance (1.19 ± 0.8 vs 1.50 ± 0.27 mL/mm Hg; p = 0.437), and reflection index (0.36 ± 0.04 vs 0.34 ± 0.09; p = 0.680). Open lung approach as compared to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network was associated with improved dynamic respiratory compliance (17.3 ± 2.6 vs 10.5 ± 1.3 mL/cm H2O; p mechanics similarly. The use of higher positive end-expiratory pressures in the open lung approach strategy did not worsen pulmonary vascular mechanics, improved lung mechanics, and gas exchange but at the expense of a lower cardiac index.

  1. Pulmonary capillary pressure in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rogerio; Amato, Marcelo Britto Passos; Demarzo, Sergio Eduardo; Deheinzelin, Daniel; Barbas, Carmen Silvia Valente; Schettino, Guilherme Paula Pinto; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2005-04-01

    Pulmonary capillary pressure (PCP), together with the time constants of the various vascular compartments, define the dynamics of the pulmonary vascular system. Our objective in the present study was to estimate PCPs and time constants of the vascular system in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), and compare them with these measures in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We conducted the study in two groups of patients with pulmonary hypertension: 12 patients with IPAH and 11 with ARDS. Four methods were used to estimate the PCP based on monoexponential and biexponential fitting of pulmonary artery pressure decay curves. PCPs in the IPAH group were considerably greater than those in the ARDS group. The PCPs measured using the four methods also differed significantly, suggesting that each method measures the pressure at a different site in the pulmonary circulation. The time constant for the slow component of the biexponential fit in the IPAH group was significantly longer than that in the ARDS group. The PCP in IPAH patients is greater than normal but methodological limitations related to the occlusion technique may limit interpretation of these data in isolation. Different disease processes may result in different times for arterial emptying, with resulting implications for the methods available for estimating PCP.

  2. NFATc3 and VIP in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony M Szema

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are both debilitating lung diseases which can lead to hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension (PH. Nuclear Factor of Activated T-cells (NFAT is a transcription factor implicated in the etiology of vascular remodeling in hypoxic PH. We have previously shown that mice lacking the ability to generate Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP develop spontaneous PH, pulmonary arterial remodeling and lung inflammation. Inhibition of NFAT attenuated PH in these mice suggesting a connection between NFAT and VIP. To test the hypotheses that: 1 VIP inhibits NFAT isoform c3 (NFATc3 activity in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells; 2 lung NFATc3 activation is associated with disease severity in IPF and COPD patients, and 3 VIP and NFATc3 expression correlate in lung tissue from IPF and COPD patients. NFAT activity was determined in isolated pulmonary arteries from NFAT-luciferase reporter mice. The % of nuclei with NFAT nuclear accumulation was determined in primary human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC cultures; in lung airway epithelia and smooth muscle and pulmonary endothelia and smooth muscle from IPF and COPD patients; and in PASMC from mouse lung sections by fluorescence microscopy. Both NFAT and VIP mRNA levels were measured in lungs from IPF and COPD patients. Empirical strategies applied to test hypotheses regarding VIP, NFATc3 expression and activity, and disease type and severity. This study shows a significant negative correlation between NFAT isoform c3 protein expression levels in PASMC, activity of NFATc3 in pulmonary endothelial cells, expression and activity of NFATc3 in bronchial epithelial cells and lung function in IPF patients, supporting the concept that NFATc3 is activated in the early stages of IPF. We further show that there is a significant positive correlation between NFATc3 mRNA expression and VIP RNA expression only in lungs from IPF patients

  3. Measurement of vascular wall attenuation: comparison of CT angiography using model-based iterative reconstruction with standard filtered back-projection algorithm CT in vitro.

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    Suzuki, Shigeru; Machida, Haruhiko; Tanaka, Isao; Ueno, Eiko

    2012-11-01

    To compare the performance of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) with that of standard filtered back projection (FBP) for measuring vascular wall attenuation. After subjecting 9 vascular models (actual attenuation value of wall, 89 HU) with wall thickness of 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 mm that we filled with contrast material of 275, 396, or 542 HU to scanning using 64-detector computed tomography (CT), we reconstructed images using MBIR and FBP (Bone, Detail kernels) and measured wall attenuation at the center of the wall for each model. We performed attenuation measurements for each model and additional supportive measurements by a differentiation curve. We analyzed statistics using analyzes of variance with repeated measures. Using the Bone kernel, standard deviation of the measurement exceeded 30 HU in most conditions. In measurements at the wall center, the attenuation values obtained using MBIR were comparable to or significantly closer to the actual wall attenuation than those acquired using Detail kernel. Using differentiation curves, we could measure attenuation for models with walls of 1.0- or 1.5-mm thickness using MBIR but only those of 1.5-mm thickness using Detail kernel. We detected no significant differences among the attenuation values of the vascular walls of either thickness (MBIR, P=0.1606) or among the 3 densities of intravascular contrast material (MBIR, P=0.8185; Detail kernel, P=0.0802). Compared with FBP, MBIR reduces both reconstruction blur and image noise simultaneously, facilitates recognition of vascular wall boundaries, and can improve accuracy in measuring wall attenuation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The α-MSH analogue AP214 attenuates rise in pulmonary pressure and fall in ejection fraction in lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome in pigs.

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    Kristensen, Jens; Jonassen, Thomas E N; Rehling, Michael; Tønnesen, Else; Sloth, Erik; Nielsen, Søren; Frøkiaer, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The effect of an α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) analogue (AP214) on experimentally endotoxin-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) was studied, because α-MSH in rodent models has shown promise in attenuating inflammatory response markers and associated organ damage in SIRS. SIRS is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Consequently, new treatment modalities are still warranted to address the different aspects of the pathophysiological process. SIRS was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (Escherichia coli endotoxin) infusion in anaesthetized Danish Landrace pigs (20-25 kg). The pigs received an α-MSH analogue (AP214) or saline as a bolus at the initiation of the LPS infusion. The hemodynamic response was registered as well as echocardiographic indices of left ventricular function. The cardiovascular response was recorded together with echocardiographic indices of left ventricular function in control and in intervention animals. AP214 reduced the early peak in pulmonary pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance by approximately 33%. Furthermore, AP214 prevented the decline in left ventricular fractional shortening as observed in the control group. Mean change and standard deviation in fractional shortening (ΔFS) in control group: - 7·3 (4·7), AP214 (low dose): 0·9 (8·2) and AP214 (high dose) 4·1 (6·0), P < 0·05 for both intervention groups versus control. In the porcine model, the peak increase in pulmonary pressure was attenuated, and the LPS-induced decline in left ventricular function was prevented. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2010 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  5. β2-Adrenergic receptor-dependent attenuation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction prevents progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension in intermittent hypoxic rats.

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    Hisashi Nagai

    Full Text Available In sleep apnea syndrome (SAS, intermittent hypoxia (IH induces repeated episodes of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV during sleep, which presumably contribute to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. However, the prevalence of PAH was low and severity is mostly mild in SAS patients, and mild or no right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH was reported in IH-exposed animals. The question then arises as to why PAH is not a universal finding in SAS if repeated hypoxia of sufficient duration causes cycling HPV. In the present study, rats underwent IH at a rate of 3 min cycles of 4-21% O2 for 8 h/d for 6 w. Assessment of diameter changes in small pulmonary arteries in response to acute hypoxia and drugs were performed using synchrotron radiation microangiography on anesthetized rats. In IH-rats, neither PAH nor RVH was observed and HPV was strongly reversed. Nadolol (a hydrophilic β(1, 2-blocker augmented the attenuated HPV to almost the same level as that in N-rats, but atenolol (a hydrophilic β1-blocker had no effect on the HPV in IH. These β-blockers had almost no effect on the HPV in N-rats. Chronic administration of nadolol during 6 weeks of IH exposure induced PAH and RVH in IH-rats, but did not in N-rats. Meanwhile, atenolol had no effect on morphometric and hemodynamic changes in N and IH-rats. Protein expression of the β1-adrenergic receptor (AR was down-regulated while that of β2AR was preserved in pulmonary arteries of IH-rats. Phosphorylation of p85 (chief component of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, protein kinase B (Akt, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS were abrogated by chronic administration of nadolol in the lung tissue of IH-rats. We conclude that IH-derived activation of β2AR in the pulmonary arteries attenuates the HPV, thereby preventing progression of IH-induced PAH. This protective effect may depend on the β2AR-Gi mediated PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway.

  6. Pulmonary arterial capacitance in children with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease: relation to pulmonary vascular resistance, exercise capacity, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajan, Imran; Manlhiot, Cedric; Reyes, Janette; McCrindle, Brian W; Humpl, Tilman; Friedberg, Mark K

    2011-09-01

    Pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), whether idiopathic PAH (iPAH) or PAH associated with congenital heart disease (aPAH), carries high morbidity and mortality. Low pulmonary arterial capacitance (PAC), defined as right ventricular stroke volume/pulmonary artery pulse pressure, is a risk factor for mortality in adults with PAH. However, the relation of PAC to pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), exercise endurance, and survival is poorly defined in children. Catheterization and clinical data of children with PAH (mean pulmonary artery pressure >25 mm Hg) were reviewed. Children with pulmonary shunts, stents, collaterals, or pulmonary venous hypertension were excluded. Primary outcomes were 6-minute walk distance and freedom from death/lung transplant. Forty-seven patients were studied. Nineteen (43%) had iPAH, and 28 (57%) had aPAH (7.1 ± 6.2 vs 8.4 ± 5.5 years, P = .45). Patients with iPAH had higher PVR indexed for body surface area (PVRi), lower indexed PAC (PACi), lower exercise tolerance, and lower freedom from death/lung transplant than patients with aPAH. Both higher PVRi (P 1.25 mL/mm Hg per square meter and a PVRi >13 Wood units × m(2) were associated with decreased freedom from death or lung transplant. The relationships between PVRi and PACi and survival were independent of each other and not confounded by etiologic group. Low PACi and high PVRi are independently associated with low 6-minute walk distance and survival in children with PAH. Therefore, both should be assessed for better prognostication and management in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanism by which nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-kB regulates ovine fetal pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation

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    Uchenna D. Ogbozor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Platelet activating factor (PAF modulates ovine fetal pulmonary hemodynamic. PAF acts through its receptors (PAFR in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells (PVSMC to phosphorylate and induce nuclear translocation of NF-kB p65 leading to PVSMC proliferation. However, the interaction of NF-kB p65 and PAF in the nuclear domain to effect PVSMC cell growth is not clearly defined. We used siRNA-dependent translation initiation arrest to study a mechanism by which NF-kB p65 regulates PAF stimulation of PVSMC proliferation. Our hypotheses are: (a PAF induces NF-kB p65 DNA binding and (b NF-kB p65 siRNA attenuates PAF stimulation of PVSMC proliferation. For DNA binding, cells were fed 10 nM PAF with and without PAFR antagonists WEB 2170, CV 3988 or BN 52021 and incubated for 12 h. DNA binding was measured by specific ELISA. For NF-kB p65 siRNA effect, starved cells transfected with the siRNA were incubated for 24 h with and without 10 nM PAF. Cell proliferation was measured by DNA synthesis while expression of NF-kB p65 and PAFR protein was measured by Western blotting. In both studies, the effect of 10% FBS alone was used as the positive control. In general, PAF stimulated DNA binding which was inhibited by PAFR antagonists. siRNAs to NF-kB p65 and PAFR significantly attenuated cell proliferation compared to 10% FBS and PAF effect. Inclusion of PAF in siRNA-treated cells did not reverse inhibitory effect of NF-kB p65 siRNA on DNA synthesis. PAFR expression was inhibited in siRNA-treated cells. These data show that PAF-stimulation of PVSMC proliferation occurs via a PAFR-NF-kB p65 linked pathway.

  8. Mechanism by which nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-kB) regulates ovine fetal pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbozor, Uchenna D; Opene, Michael; Renteria, Lissette S; McBride, Shaemion; Ibe, Basil O

    2015-09-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) modulates ovine fetal pulmonary hemodynamic. PAF acts through its receptors (PAFR) in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells (PVSMC) to phosphorylate and induce nuclear translocation of NF-kB p65 leading to PVSMC proliferation. However, the interaction of NF-kB p65 and PAF in the nuclear domain to effect PVSMC cell growth is not clearly defined. We used siRNA-dependent translation initiation arrest to study a mechanism by which NF-kB p65 regulates PAF stimulation of PVSMC proliferation. Our hypotheses are: (a) PAF induces NF-kB p65 DNA binding and (b) NF-kB p65 siRNA attenuates PAF stimulation of PVSMC proliferation. For DNA binding, cells were fed 10 nM PAF with and without PAFR antagonists WEB 2170, CV 3988 or BN 52021 and incubated for 12 h. DNA binding was measured by specific ELISA. For NF-kB p65 siRNA effect, starved cells transfected with the siRNA were incubated for 24 h with and without 10 nM PAF. Cell proliferation was measured by DNA synthesis while expression of NF-kB p65 and PAFR protein was measured by Western blotting. In both studies, the effect of 10% FBS alone was used as the positive control. In general, PAF stimulated DNA binding which was inhibited by PAFR antagonists. siRNAs to NF-kB p65 and PAFR significantly attenuated cell proliferation compared to 10% FBS and PAF effect. Inclusion of PAF in siRNA-treated cells did not reverse inhibitory effect of NF-kB p65 siRNA on DNA synthesis. PAFR expression was inhibited in siRNA-treated cells. These data show that PAF-stimulation of PVSMC proliferation occurs via a PAFR-NF-kB p65 linked pathway.

  9. Platelet-rich plasma extract prevents pulmonary edema through angiopoietin-Tie2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammoto, Tadanori; Jiang, Amanda; Jiang, Elisabeth; Mammoto, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Increased vascular permeability contributes to life-threatening pathological conditions, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Current treatments for sepsis-induced pulmonary edema rely on low-tidal volume mechanical ventilation, fluid management, and pharmacological use of a single angiogenic or chemical factor with antipermeability activity. However, it is becoming clear that a combination of multiple angiogenic/chemical factors rather than a single factor is required for maintaining stable and functional blood vessels. We have demonstrated that mouse platelet-rich plasma (PRP) extract contains abundant angiopoietin (Ang) 1 and multiple other factors (e.g., platelet-derived growth factor), which potentially stabilize vascular integrity. Here, we show that PRP extract increases tyrosine phosphorylation levels of Tunica internal endothelial cell kinase (Tie2) and attenuates disruption of cell-cell junctional integrity induced by inflammatory cytokine in cultured human microvascular endothelial cells. Systemic injection of PRP extract also increases Tie2 phosphorylation in mouse lung and prevents endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema and the consequent decreases in lung compliance and exercise intolerance resulting from endotoxin challenge. Soluble Tie2 receptor, which inhibits Ang-Tie2 signaling, suppresses the ability of PRP extract to inhibit pulmonary edema in mouse lung. These results suggest that PRP extract prevents endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema mainly through Ang-Tie2 signaling, and PRP extract could be a potential therapeutic strategy for sepsis-induced pulmonary edema and various lung diseases caused by abnormal vascular permeability.

  10. Extravascular lung water and the pulmonary vascular permeability index may improve the definition of ARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perel, Azriel

    2013-01-24

    The recent Berlin definition has made some improvements in the older definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), although the concepts and components of the definition remained largely unchanged. In an effort to improve both predictive and face validity, the Berlin panel has examined a number of additional measures that may reflect increased pulmonary vascular permeability, including extravascular lung water. The panel concluded that although extravascular lung water has improved face validity and higher values are associated with mortality, it is infeasible to mandate on the basis of availability and the fact that it does not distinguish between hydrostatic and inflammatory pulmonary edema. However, the results of a multi-institutional study that appeared in the previous issue of Critical Care show that this latter reservation may not necessarily be true. By using extravascular lung water and the pulmonary vascular permeability index, both of which are derived from transpulmonary thermodilution, the authors could successfully differentiate between patients with ARDS and other patients in respiratory failure due to either cardiogenic edema or pleural effusion with atelectasis. This commentary discusses the merits and limitations of this study in view of the potential improvement that transpulmonary thermodilution may bring to the definition of ARDS.

  11. Residual high- and low-attenuation lung lesions in survivors of adult respiratory distress syndrome: Etiologies and functional consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, R.; Kanarek, D.; Lynch, K.; Stark, P.; Zapol, W.

    1986-01-01

    Postrecovery CT and tests of respiratory function were performed in a subset of survivors from among 100 patients who had previously undergone bedide balloon occlusion pulmonary angiography for adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). CT demonstrated multiple poorly marginated, low attenuation lesions, frequently corresponding to areas of vascular obstruction demonstrated on angiography during ARDS. The severity and extent of the lesions correlated with the clinical severity of ARDS, the presence of angiographic filling defects during ARDS, and persistent abnormalities of pulmonary function

  12. Rosiglitazone attenuates pulmonary fibrosis and radiation-induced intestinal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangoni, M.; Gerini, C.; Sottili, M.; Cassani, S.; Stefania, G.; Biti, G.; Castiglione, F.; Vanzi, E.; Bottoncetti, A.; Pupi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Purpose.-The aim of the study was to evaluate radioprotective effect of rosiglitazone (RGZ) on a murine model of late pulmonary damage and of acute intestinal damage. Methods.- Lung fibrosis: C57 mice were treated with the radiomimetic agent bleomycin, with or without rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day). To obtain an independent qualitative and quantitative measure for lung fibrosis we used high resolution CT, performed twice a week during the entire observation period. Hounsfield Units (HU) of section slides from the upper and lower lung region were determined. On day 31 lungs were collected for histological analysis. Acute intestinal damage: mice underwent 12 Gy total body irradiation with or without rosiglitazone. Mice were sacrificed 24 or 72 h after total body irradiation and ileum and colon were collected. Results.- Lung fibrosis: after bleomycin treatment, mice showed typical CT features of lung fibrosis, including irregular septal thickening and patchy peripheral reticular abnormalities. Accordingly, HU lung density was dramatically increased. Rosiglitazone markedly attenuated the radiological signs of fibrosis and strongly inhibited HU lung density increase (60% inhibition at the end of the observation period). Histological analysis revealed that in bleomycin-treated mice, fibrosis involved 50-55% of pulmonary parenchyma and caused an alteration of the alveolar structures in 10% of parenchyma, while in rosiglitazone-treated mice, fibrosis involved only 20-25% of pulmonary parenchyma, without alterations of the alveolar structures. Acute intestinal damage: 24 h after 12 Gy of total body irradiation intestinal mucosa showed villi shortening, mucosal thickness and crypt necrotic changes. Rosiglitazone showed a histological improvement of tissue structure, with villi and crypts normalization and oedema reduction. Conclusion.- These results demonstrate that rosiglitazone displays a protective effect on pulmonary fibrosis and radiation

  13. Rosiglitazone attenuates pulmonary fibrosis and radiation-induced intestinal damage

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    Mangoni, M.; Gerini, C.; Sottili, M.; Cassani, S.; Stefania, G.; Biti, G. [Radiotherapy Unit, Clinical Physiopathology Department, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Castiglione, F. [Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Vanzi, E.; Bottoncetti, A.; Pupi, A. [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Clinical Physiopathology Department, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Full text of publication follows: Purpose.-The aim of the study was to evaluate radioprotective effect of rosiglitazone (RGZ) on a murine model of late pulmonary damage and of acute intestinal damage. Methods.- Lung fibrosis: C57 mice were treated with the radiomimetic agent bleomycin, with or without rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day). To obtain an independent qualitative and quantitative measure for lung fibrosis we used high resolution CT, performed twice a week during the entire observation period. Hounsfield Units (HU) of section slides from the upper and lower lung region were determined. On day 31 lungs were collected for histological analysis. Acute intestinal damage: mice underwent 12 Gy total body irradiation with or without rosiglitazone. Mice were sacrificed 24 or 72 h after total body irradiation and ileum and colon were collected. Results.- Lung fibrosis: after bleomycin treatment, mice showed typical CT features of lung fibrosis, including irregular septal thickening and patchy peripheral reticular abnormalities. Accordingly, HU lung density was dramatically increased. Rosiglitazone markedly attenuated the radiological signs of fibrosis and strongly inhibited HU lung density increase (60% inhibition at the end of the observation period). Histological analysis revealed that in bleomycin-treated mice, fibrosis involved 50-55% of pulmonary parenchyma and caused an alteration of the alveolar structures in 10% of parenchyma, while in rosiglitazone-treated mice, fibrosis involved only 20-25% of pulmonary parenchyma, without alterations of the alveolar structures. Acute intestinal damage: 24 h after 12 Gy of total body irradiation intestinal mucosa showed villi shortening, mucosal thickness and crypt necrotic changes. Rosiglitazone showed a histological improvement of tissue structure, with villi and crypts normalization and oedema reduction. Conclusion.- These results demonstrate that rosiglitazone displays a protective effect on pulmonary fibrosis and radiation

  14. Mosaic Pattern of Lung Attenuation on Chest CT in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension

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    Kamonpun Ussavarungsi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A mosaic pattern of lung attenuation on chest computed tomography (CT may be due to various etiologies. There is limited published data on CT results when used to evaluate pulmonary hypertension (PH. We retrospectively studied the frequency of mosaic pattern in patients with PH and the cause of the PH by diagnostic group, as well as the correlation between the mosaic pattern and the following: demographics, severity of the PH, main pulmonary artery (PA size, PA/aorta (PA/Ao ratio, pulmonary function tests (PFT, and ventilation perfusion scan results. Overall, 18% of the cohort had CT mosaic pattern (34/189. Mosaic pattern was present in 17/113 (15% in Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension, 5/13 (28% in Group 2 pulmonary venous hypertension and 8/50 (16% in Group 3 PH. Conversely, Group 4 chronic thromboembolic PH was more prevalent in 4/8 (50%. Main PA size, PA/Ao ratio, and segmental perfusion defect were positively associated with mosaic pattern. In contrast, factors such as age, gender, body mass index, functional class, hemodynamic data, and PFT values were not associated with mosaic pattern. Mosaic pattern is not specific as an isolated finding for distinguishing the subtype of PH.

  15. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome With a Novel Missense COL3A1 Mutation Present With Pulmonary Complications and Iliac Arterial Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guangchao; Yang, Hang; Cui, Lijia; Fu, Yuanyuan; Li, Fangda; Zhou, Zhou; Zheng, Yuehong

    2018-02-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is a life-threatening connective tissue disorder due to its high tendency of arterial and organ rupture. Pulmonary complications in vEDS are rare. We present a young male patient with vEDS who developed severe pulmonary complications and severe rupture of the iliac artery at different stages of his life. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was diagnosed based on clinical manifestations and confirmed by the identification of COL3A1 gene mutation. Due to high bleeding tendency and weak cardiopulmonary capacity, conservative treatment was taken for him. To our knowledge, this is the first report of vEDS case in which the patient developed both pulmonary complications and dissection of large arteries. Our report emphasizes the importance of considering vEDS when an adolescent develops unexplained pulmonary cysts with fragility of lung tissues. Genetic counseling and close monitoring should be performed for earlier diagnosis and prevention of severe complications of large arteries. The typical presentations of vEDS were also discussed by means of a review of case reports on vEDS with pulmonary complications.

  16. Characterization of proximal pulmonary arterial cells from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients

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    Quarck Rozenn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is associated with proximal pulmonary artery obstruction and vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that pulmonary arterial smooth muscle (PASMC and endothelial cells (PAEC may actively contribute to remodeling of the proximal pulmonary vascular wall in CTEPH. Our present objective was to characterize PASMC and PAEC from large arteries of CTEPH patients and investigate their potential involvement in vascular remodeling. Methods Primary cultures of proximal PAEC and PASMC from patients with CTEPH, with non-thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (PH and lung donors have been established. PAEC and PASMC have been characterized by immunofluorescence using specific markers. Expression of smooth muscle specific markers within the pulmonary vascular wall has been studied by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Mitogenic activity and migratory capacity of PASMC and PAEC have been investigated in vitro. Results PAEC express CD31 on their surface, von Willebrand factor in Weibel-Palade bodies and take up acetylated LDL. PASMC express various differentiation markers including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, desmin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC. In vascular tissue from CTEPH and non-thromboembolic PH patients, expression of α-SMA and desmin is down-regulated compared to lung donors; desmin expression is also down-regulated in vascular tissue from CTEPH compared to non-thromboembolic PH patients. A low proportion of α-SMA positive cells express desmin and SMMHC in the neointima of proximal pulmonary arteries from CTEPH patients. Serum-induced mitogenic activity of PAEC and PASMC, as well as migratory capacity of PASMC, were increased in CTEPH only. Conclusions Modified proliferative and/or migratory responses of PASMC and PAEC in vitro, associated to a proliferative phenotype of PASMC suggest that PASMC and PAEC could contribute to proximal vascular remodeling in CTEPH.

  17. Pulmonary endarterectomy outputs in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gude, María Jesús; Pérez de la Sota, Enrique; Pérez Vela, Jose Luís; Centeno Rodríguez, Jorge; Muñoz Guijosa, Christian; Velázquez, María Teresa; Alonso Chaterina, Sergio; Hernández González, Ignacio; Escribano Subías, Pilar; Cortina Romero, José María

    2017-07-07

    Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgery is the treatment of choice for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension; extremely high pulmonary vascular resistance constitutes a risk factor for hospital mortality. The objective of this study was to analyze the immediate and long-term results of the surgical treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in patients with very severe pulmonary hypertension. Since February 1996, we performed 160 pulmonary thromboendarterectomies. We divided the patient population in 2 groups: group 1, which included 40 patients with pulmonary vascular resistance≥1090dyn/sec/cm -5 , and group 2, which included the remaining 120 patients. Hospital mortality (15 vs. 2.5%), reperfusion pulmonary edema (33 vs. 14%) and heart failure (23 vs. 3.3%) were all higher in group 1; however, after one year of follow-up, there were no significant differences in the clinical, hemodynamic and echocardiographic conditions of both groups. Survival rate after 5 years was 77% in group 1 and 92% in group 2 (P=.033). After the learning curve including the 46 first patients, there was no difference in hospital mortality (3.8 vs. 2.3%) or survival rate after 5 years (96.2% in group 1 and 96.2% in group 2). Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy is linked to significantly higher morbidity and mortality rates in patients with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Nevertheless, these patients benefit the same from the procedure in the mid-/long-term. In our experience, after the learning curve, this surgery is safe in severe pulmonary hypertension and no level of pulmonary vascular resistance should be an absolute counter-indication for this surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Ischemic preconditioning of the lower extremity attenuates the normal hypoxic increase in pulmonary artery systolic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gary P; Westerdahl, Daniel E; Foster, Laura A; Hsu, Jeffrey V; Anholm, James D

    2011-12-15

    Ischemic pre-condition of an extremity (IPC) induces effects on local and remote tissues that are protective against ischemic injury. To test the effects of IPC on the normal hypoxic increase in pulmonary pressures and exercise performance, 8 amateur cyclists were evaluated under normoxia and hypoxia (13% F(I)O(2)) in a randomized cross-over trial. IPC was induced using an arterial occlusive cuff to one thigh for 5 min followed by deflation for 5 min for 4 cycles. In the control condition, the resting pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) increased from a normoxic value of 25.6±2.3 mmHg to 41.8±7.2 mmHg following 90 min of hypoxia. In the IPC condition, the PASP increased to only 32.4±3.1 mmHg following hypoxia, representing a 72.8% attenuation (p=0.003). No significant difference was detected in cycle ergometer time trial duration between control and IPC conditions with either normoxia or hypoxia. IPC administered prior to hypoxic exposure was associated with profound attenuation of the normal hypoxic increase of pulmonary artery systolic pressure. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Perinatal hypoxia increases susceptibility to high-altitude polycythemia and attendant pulmonary vascular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Colleen Glyde; Gonzales, Marcelino; Rodriguez, Armando; Bellido, Diva; Salmon, Carlos Salinas; Ladenburger, Anne; Reardon, Lindsay; Vargas, Enrique; Moore, Lorna G

    2015-08-15

    Perinatal exposures exert a profound influence on physiological function, including developmental processes vital for efficient pulmonary gas transfer throughout the lifespan. We extend the concept of developmental programming to chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a debilitating syndrome marked by polycythemia, ventilatory impairment, and pulmonary hypertension that affects ∼10% of male high-altitude residents. We hypothesized that adverse perinatal oxygenation caused abnormalities of ventilatory and/or pulmonary vascular function that increased susceptibility to CMS in adulthood. Subjects were 67 male high-altitude (3,600-4,100 m) residents aged 18-25 yr with excessive erythrocytosis (EE, Hb concentration ≥18.3 g/dl), a preclinical form of CMS, and 66 controls identified from a community-based survey (n = 981). EE subjects not only had higher Hb concentrations and erythrocyte counts, but also lower alveolar ventilation, impaired pulmonary diffusion capacity, higher systolic pulmonary artery pressure, lower pulmonary artery acceleration time, and more frequent right ventricular hypertrophy, than controls. Compared with controls, EE subjects were more often born to mothers experiencing hypertensive complications of pregnancy and hypoxia during the perinatal period, with each increasing the risk of developing EE (odds ratio = 5.25, P = 0.05 and odds ratio = 6.44, P = 0.04, respectively) after other factors known to influence EE status were taken into account. Adverse perinatal oxygenation is associated with increased susceptibility to EE accompanied by modest abnormalities of the pulmonary circulation that are independent of increased blood viscosity. The association between perinatal hypoxia and EE may be due to disrupted alveolarization and microvascular development, leading to impaired gas exchange and/or pulmonary hypertension. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Genome wide expression analysis suggests perturbation of vascular homeostasis during high altitude pulmonary edema.

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    Manish Sharma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE is a life-threatening form of non-cardiogenic edema which occurs in unacclimatized but otherwise normal individuals within two to four days after rapid ascent to altitude beyond 3000 m. The precise pathoetiology and inciting mechanisms regulating HAPE remain unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We performed global gene expression profiling in individuals with established HAPE compared to acclimatized individuals. Our data suggests concurrent modulation of multiple pathways which regulate vascular homeostasis and consequently lung fluid dynamics. These pathways included those which regulate vasoconstriction through smooth muscle contraction, cellular actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and endothelial permeability/dysfunction. Some notable genes within these pathways included MYLK; rho family members ARGEF11, ARHGAP24; cell adhesion molecules such as CLDN6, CLDN23, PXN and VCAM1 besides other signaling intermediates. Further, several important regulators of systemic/pulmonary hypertension including ADRA1D, ECE1, and EDNRA were upregulated in HAPE. We also observed significant upregulation of genes involved in paracrine signaling through chemokines and lymphocyte activation pathways during HAPE represented by transcripts of TNF, JAK2, MAP2K2, MAP2K7, MAPK10, PLCB1, ARAF, SOS1, PAK3 and RELA amongst others. Perturbation of such pathways can potentially skew vascular homeostatic equilibrium towards altered vascular permeability. Additionally, differential regulation of hypoxia-sensing, hypoxia-response and OXPHOS pathway genes in individuals with HAPE were also observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data reveals specific components of the complex molecular circuitry underlying HAPE. We show concurrent perturbation of multiple pathways regulating vascular homeostasis and suggest multi-genic nature of regulation of HAPE.

  1. Defective angiogenesis delays thrombus resolution: a potential pathogenetic mechanism underlying chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzenboeck, Adelheid; Winter, Max P; Schubert, Uwe; Voswinckel, Robert; Frey, Maria K; Jakowitsch, Johannes; Alimohammadi, Arman; Hobohm, Lukas; Mangold, Andreas; Bergmeister, Helga; Sibilia, Maria; Wagner, Erwin F; Mayer, Eckhard; Klepetko, Walter; Hoelzenbein, Thomas J; Preissner, Klaus T; Lang, Irene M

    2015-01-01

    Objective Restoration of patency is a natural target of vascular remodeling following venous thrombosis that involves vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells as well as leukocytes. Acute pulmonary emboli usually resolve within six months. However, in some instances, thrombi transform into fibrous vascular obstructions, resulting in occlusion of the deep veins, or in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We proposed that dysregulated thrombus angiogenesis may contribute to thrombus persistence. Approach and Results Mice with an endothelial-cell-specific conditional deletion of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2/kinase insert domain protein receptor (VEGF-R2/Kdr) were utilized in a model of stagnant flow venous thrombosis closely resembling human deep vein thrombosis. Biochemical and functional analyses were performed on pulmonary endarterectomy specimens from patients with CTEPH, a human model of non-resolving venous thromboembolism. Endothelial cell-specific deletion of Kdr and subsequent ablation of thrombus vascularization delayed thrombus resolution. In accordance with these findings, organized human CTEPH thrombi were largely devoid of vascular structures. Several vessel-specific genes such as KDR, vascular endothelial cadherin and podoplanin were expressed at lower levels in white CTEPH thrombi than in organizing deep vein thrombi and organizing thrombi from aortic aneurysms. In addition, red CTEPH thrombi attenuated the angiogenic response induced by VEGF. Conclusions In the present work, we propose a mechanism of thrombus non-resolution demonstrating that endothelial cell-specific deletion of Kdr abates thrombus vessel formation, misguiding thrombus resolution. Medical conditions associated with the development of CTEPH may be compromising early thrombus angiogenesis. PMID:24526692

  2. Consenso sobre la clasificación de la enfermedad vascular pulmonar hipertensiva en niños: reporte del task force pediátrico del Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute (PVRI Panamá 2011 A consensus approach to the classification of pediatric pulmonary hypertensive vascular disease: Report from the PVRI Pediatric Taskforce, Panama 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús del Cerro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las clasificaciones actuales de la hipertensión pulmonar han contribuido significativamente al conocimiento de la enfermedad vascular pulmonar, han facilitado ensayos farmacológicos y han mejorado nuestro conocimiento de las cardiopatías congénitas del adulto; sin embargo estas clasificaciones no son aplicables completamente a la enfermedad en el niño. La clasificación que aquí se propone se basa principalmente en la práctica clínica. Los objetivos específicos de esta nueva clasificación son mejorar las estrategias diagnósticas, promover la investigación clínica, mejorar nuestro conocimiento de la patogénesis, de la fisiología y de la epidemiología de la enfermedad y orientar el desarrollo de modelos de la enfermedad humana en el laboratorio y estudios en animales; también puede servir como un recurso docente. Se hace énfasis en los conceptos de maladaptación perinatal, alteraciones del desarrollo e hipoplasia pulmonar como factores causantes de la hipertensión pulmonar pediátrica; así mismo, en la importancia de los múltiples síndromes malformativos congénitos, genéticos y cromosómicos en la presentación de la hipertensión pulmonar pediátrica. La enfermedad vascular pulmonar hipertensiva en niños se divide en diez grandes categorías.Current classifications of pulmonary hypertension have contributed a great deal to our understanding of pulmonary vascular disease, facilitated drug trials, and improved our understanding of congenital heart disease in adult survivors. However, these classifications are not applicable readily to pediatric disease. The classification system that we propose is based firmly in clinical practice. The specific aims of this new system are to improve diagnostic strategies, to promote appropriate clinical investigation, to improve our understanding of disease pathogenesis, physiology and epidemiology, and to guide the development of human disease models in laboratory and animal studies. It

  3. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with cryptorchidism, recurrent pneumothorax, and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis-like foci: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min A; Shin, So Youn; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Myung Jae; Lee, Seung Hyeun

    2017-11-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited collagen disorder caused by defects or deficiency of pro-alpha 1 chain of type III procollagen encoded by COL3A1. vEDS is characterized not only by soft tissue manifestations including hyperextensibility of skin and joint hypermobility but also by early mortality due to rupture of arteries or vital organs. Although pulmonary complications are not common, vEDS cases complicated by pneumothorax, hemothorax, or intrapulmonary hematoma have been reported. When a patient initially presents only with pulmonary complications, it is not easy for clinicians to suspect vEDS. We report a case of an 18-year-old high school student, with a past history of cryptorchidism, presenting with recurrent pneumothorax. Routine laboratory findings were unremarkable. Chest high resolution computed tomographic scan showed age-unmatched hyperinflation of both lungs, atypical cystic changes and multifocal ground glass opacities scattered in both lower lobes. His slender body shape, hyperflexible joints, and hyperextensible skin provided clue to suspicion of a possible connective tissue disorder. The histological examination of the lung lesions showed excessive capillary proliferation in the pulmonary interstitium and pleura allowing the diagnosis of pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH)-like foci. Genetic study revealed COL3A1 gene splicing site mutation confirming his diagnosis as vEDS. Although his diagnosis vEDS is notorious for fatal vascular complication, there was no evidence of such complication at presentation. Fortunately, he has been followed up for 10 months without pulmonary or vascular complications. To the best of our knowledge, both cryptorchidism and PCH-like foci have never been reported yet as complications of vEDS, suggesting our case might be a new variant of this condition. This case emphasizes the importance of comprehensive physical examination and history-taking, and the clinical

  4. A Potential Role for Exosomal TCTP Export in Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Elisabet; Dunmore, Benjamin J; Hassan, Dhiya; Ormiston, Mark L; Moore, Stephen; Deighton, John; Long, Lu; Yang, Xu Dong; Stewart, Duncan J; Morrell, Nicholas W

    2018-04-20

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by increased proliferation and resistance to apoptosis of pulmonary vascular cells. Increased expression of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), a pro-survival and anti-apoptotic mediator, has recently been demonstrated in patients with hereditary PAH (HPAH) although its role in the pathobiology of PAH remains unclear. Silencing of TCTP in blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) isolated from control subjects led to significant changes in morphology, cytoskeletal organization, increased apoptosis and decreased directionality during migration. As TCTP is also localized in extracellular vesicles (EVs), we isolated BOEC-derived EVs (exosomes and microparticles) by sequential ultracentrifugation. BOECs isolated from patients harboring BMPR2 mutations released more exosomes than controls in pro-apoptotic conditions. Furthermore, TCTP protein expression was significantly higher in exosomes compared to microparticles, indicating that TCTP is mainly exported via exosomes. Co-culture assays demonstrated that exosomes transferred TCTP from endothelial cells (ECs) to pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) suggesting a role for endothelial-derived TCTP in conferring proliferation and apoptotic resistance. In an experimental model of PAH, rats treated with monocrotaline demonstrated increased concentrations of TCTP in the lung and plasma. Consistent with this finding, we observed increased circulating TCTP levels in patients with IPAH compared with controls. Therefore, our data suggests an important role for TCTP in regulating the critical vascular cell phenotypes implicated in the pathobiology of PAH. In addition, this research implicates TCTP as a potential biomarker for the onset and development of PAH.

  5. The Effects of Iodine Attenuation on Pulmonary Nodule Volumetry using Novel Dual-Layer Computed Tomography Reconstructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Harder, A M; Bangert, F; van Hamersvelt, R W; Leiner, T; Milles, Julien; Schilham, A M R; Willemink, M J; de Jong, P A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of iodine attenuation on pulmonary nodule volumetry using virtual non-contrast (VNC) and mono-energetic reconstructions. METHODS: A consecutive series of patients who underwent a contrast-enhanced chest CT scan were included. Images were acquired on a novel

  6. Dual-energy CT based vascular iodine analysis improves sensitivity for peripheral pulmonary artery thrombus detection: An experimental study in canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chun Xiang [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Zhang, Long Jiang, E-mail: kevinzhlj@163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Han, Zong Hong; Zhou, Chang Sheng [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Krazinski, Aleksander W.; Silverman, Justin R. [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U. Joseph [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China); Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Lu, Guang Ming, E-mail: cjr.luguangming@vip.163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of dual-energy CT (DECT) based vascular iodine analysis for the detection of acute peripheral pulmonary thrombus (PE) in a canine model with histopathological findings as the reference standard. Materials and methods: The study protocol was approved by our institutional animal committee. Thrombi (n = 12) or saline (n = 4) were intravenously injected via right femoral vein in sixteen dogs, respectively. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in DECT mode was performed and conventional CTPA images and DECT based vascular iodine studies using Lung Vessels application were reconstructed. Two radiologists visually evaluated the number and location of PEs using conventional CTPA and DECT series on a per-animal and a per-clot basis. Detailed histopathological examination of lung specimens and catheter angiography served as reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of DECT and CTPA were calculated on a segmental and subsegmental or more distal pulmonary artery basis. Weighted κ values were computed to evaluate inter-modality and inter-reader agreement. Results: Thirteen dogs were enrolled for final image analysis (experimental group = 9, control group = 4). Histopathological results revealed 237 emboli in 45 lung lobes in 9 experimental dogs, 11 emboli in segmental pulmonary arteries, 49 in subsegmental pulmonary arteries, 177 in fifth-order or more distal pulmonary arteries. Overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV, and NPV for CTPA plus DECT were 93.1%, 76.9%, 87.8%, 89.4%, and 84.2% for the detection of pulmonary emboli. With CTPA versus DECT, sensitivities, specificities, accuracies, PPVs, and NPVs are all 100% for the detection of pulmonary emboli on a segmental pulmonary artery basis, 88.9%, 100%, 96.0%, 100%, and 94.1% for CTPA and 90.4%, 93.0%, 92.0%, 88.7%, and 94.1% for DECT on a subsegmental pulmonary artery basis; 23.8%, 96.4%, 50.4%, 93

  7. Enhanced bronchial expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and receptors (Flk-1 and Flt-1) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Kranenburg (Andor); W.I. de Boer (Pim); V.K.T. Alagappan (Vijay Kumar Thyagarajan); P.J. Sterk (Peter); H.S. Sharma (Hari)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Ongoing inflammatory processes resulting in airway and vascular remodelling characterise chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors VEGFR-1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR-2 (KDR/Flk-1) could play a role in

  8. The pulmonary vasculature in a neonatal porcine model with increased pulmonary blood flow and pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbøg, Elisabeth Vidstid; Steinbruchel, Daniel Andreas; Thomsen, Anne Bloch

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertension and hyperperfusion of the pulmonary vascular bed in the setting of congenital cardiac malformations may lead to progressive pulmonary vascular disease. To improve the understanding of the basic mechanisms of this disease, there is a need for clinically relevant animal....... By three months of age, nearly all shunts had closed spontaneously, and haemodynamics were normal. Ligation of the left pulmonary artery resulted in a normal total pulmonary blood flow, despite only the right lung being perfused, and a 33% increase in systolic pulmonary arterial pressure...... in humans. Elevated circulating levels of endothelin were associated with abnormal haemodynamics rather than abnormal pathology. These findings could be valuable for future studies on the pathogenesis of hypertensive pulmonary vascular disease associated with congenital cardiac malformations....

  9. Pulmonary Edema: Classification, Mechanisms of Development, Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary edema remains a topical problem of modern reanimatology. In clinical practice, there is a need for continuous monitoring of the content of extravascular water in the lung and the pulmonary vascular permeability index for the timely detection and treatment of pulmonary edema. This literature review considers the minor mechanisms of pulmonary extravas-cular water exchange in health and in different types of pulmonary edema (acute lung injury, pneumonia, sepsis, postoperative period, burns, injuries etc., as well as the most accessible current (irradiation and dilution studies permitting an estimate of the level of pulmonary extravascular water and the pulmonary vascular permeability index in clinical practice. Key words: pulmonary edema, acute lung injury, pulmonary extravascular water, pulmonary vascular permeability index.

  10. Scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts and histologic examination of pulmonary microvasculature in dogs with dirofilariosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Hiroyoshi; Wakao, Yoshito

    2002-11-01

    To characterize structural changes in pulmonary vessels of dogs with dirofilariosis. 8 dogs with dirofilariosis and 2 unaffected control dogs. Pulmonary artery pressure was measured in affected dogs, and dogs then were euthanatized. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine vascular corrosion casts of pulmonary vasculature. Tissue sections of pulmonary vasculature were evaluated by use of histologic examination. Pulmonary artery pressure was higher in dogs with severely affected pulmonary vessels. In tissue sections, dilatation, as well as lesions in the tunica intima and proliferative lesions resulting in constriction or obstruction, were frequently observed in branches of the pulmonary artery. Numerous dilated bronchial arteries were observed around affected pulmonary arteries. Hyperplastic venous sphincters were observed in small pulmonary veins and venules. In corrosion casts, affected pulmonary lobar arteries had dilatation, pruning, abnormal tapering, constriction, and obstruction. In small arteries and arterioles, surface structures representing aneurisms and edema were seen. Bronchial arteries were well developed and extremely dilated, and they formed numerous anastomoses with pulmonary arteries at all levels, from the pulmonary trunk to peripheral vessels. Capillaries in the lungs were dilated with little structural change. Small pulmonary veins and venules had irregular annular constrictions that were caused by hyperplastic smooth muscle cells of venous sphincters. Scanning electron microscopy of microvascular casts delineated links between the bronchial and pulmonary circulations in dogs with dirofilariosis. Results of scanning electron microscopy provided a structural explanation for the development of pulmonary circulatory disturbances and pulmonary hypertension in dogs affected by dirofilariosis.

  11. Increased pulmonary vascular permeability as a cause of re-expansion edema in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlin, D.J.; Nessly, M.L.; Cheney, F.W.

    1981-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism(s) underlying re-expansion edema, we measured the concentration of labeled albumin (RISA) in the extravascular, extracellular water (EVECW) of the lung as a measure of pulmonary vascular permeability. Re-expansion edema was first induced by rapid re-expansion of rabbit lungs that had been collapsed for 1 wk by pneumothorax. The RISA in EVECW was expressed as a fraction of its plasma concentration: (RISA)L/(RISA)PL. The volume of EVECW (ml/gm dry lung) was measured using a 24 Na indicator. Results in re-expansion edema were compared with normal control lungs and with oleic acid edema as a model of permeability edema. In re-expanded lungs, EVECW (3.41 +/- SD 1.24 ml/g) and (RISA)L/(RISA)PL 0.84 +/- SD 0.15) were significantly increased when compared with normal control lungs (2.25 +/- 0.41 ml/g and 0.51 +/- 0.20, respectively). Results in oleic acid edema (5.66 +/- 2.23 ml/g and 0.84 +/- 0.23) were similar to re-expansion edema. This suggested that re-expansion edema is due to increased pulmonary vascular permeability caused by mechanical stresses applied to the lung during re-expansion

  12. Enhanced bronchial expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and receptors (Flk-1 and Flt-1) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, A. R.; de Boer, W. I.; Alagappan, V. K. T.; Sterk, P. J.; Sharma, H. S.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ongoing inflammatory processes resulting in airway and vascular remodelling characterise chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors VEGFR-1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR-2 (KDR/Flk-1) could play a role in tissue remodelling and

  13. Live attenuated Francisella novicida vaccine protects against Francisella tularensis pulmonary challenge in rats and non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Chu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis causes the disease tularemia. Human pulmonary exposure to the most virulent form, F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (Ftt, leads to high morbidity and mortality, resulting in this bacterium being classified as a potential biothreat agent. However, a closely-related species, F. novicida, is avirulent in healthy humans. No tularemia vaccine is currently approved for human use. We demonstrate that a single dose vaccine of a live attenuated F. novicida strain (Fn iglD protects against subsequent pulmonary challenge with Ftt using two different animal models, Fischer 344 rats and cynomolgus macaques (NHP. The Fn iglD vaccine showed protective efficacy in rats, as did a Ftt iglD vaccine, suggesting no disadvantage to utilizing the low human virulent Francisella species to induce protective immunity. Comparison of specific antibody profiles in vaccinated rat and NHP sera by proteome array identified a core set of immunodominant antigens in vaccinated animals. This is the first report of a defined live attenuated vaccine that demonstrates efficacy against pulmonary tularemia in a NHP, and indicates that the low human virulence F. novicida functions as an effective tularemia vaccine platform.

  14. A novel model of IgE-mediated passive pulmonary anaphylaxis in rats.

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    Eva Wex

    Full Text Available Mast cells are central effector cells in allergic asthma and are augmented in the airways of asthma patients. Attenuating mast cell degranulation and with it the early asthmatic response is an important intervention point to inhibit bronchoconstriction, plasma exudation and tissue oedema formation. To validate the efficacy of novel pharmacological interventions, appropriate and practicable in vivo models reflecting mast cell-dependent mechanisms in the lung, are missing. Thus, we developed a novel model of passive pulmonary anaphylaxis in rats. Rats were passively sensitized by concurrent intratracheal and intradermal (ear application of an anti-DNP IgE antibody. Intravenous application of the antigen, DNP-BSA in combination with Evans blue dye, led to mast cell degranulation in both tissues. Quantification of mast cell degranulation in the lung was determined by (1 mediator release into bronchoalveolar lavage, (2 extravasation of Evans blue dye into tracheal and bronchial lung tissue and (3 invasive measurement of antigen-induced bronchoconstriction. Quantification of mast cell degranulation in the ear was determined by extravasation of Evans blue dye into ear tissue. We pharmacologically validated our model using the SYK inhibitor Fostamatinib, the H1-receptor antagonist Desloratadine, the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate (DSCG and the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist Formoterol. Fostamatinib was equally efficacious in lung and ear. Desloratadine effectively inhibited bronchoconstriction and ear vascular leakage, but was less effective against pulmonary vascular leakage, perhaps reflecting the differing roles for histamine receptor sub-types. DSCG attenuated both vascular leakage in the lung and bronchoconstriction, but with a very short duration of action. As an inhaled approach, Formoterol was more effective in the lung than in the ear. This model of passive pulmonary anaphylaxis provides a tissue relevant readout of early mast cell

  15. Pulmonary Hypertension and Pulmonary Vasodilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Roberta L

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension in the perinatal period can present acutely (persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn) or chronically. Clinical and echocardiographic diagnosis of acute pulmonary hypertension is well accepted but there are no broadly validated criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension later in the clinical course, although there are significant populations of infants with lung disease at risk for this diagnosis. Contributing cardiovascular comorbidities are common in infants with pulmonary hypertension and lung disease. It is not clear who should be treated without confirmation of pulmonary vascular disease by cardiac catheterization, with concurrent evaluation of any contributing cardiovascular comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adiponectin attenuates lung fibroblasts activation and pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat.

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    Rong Yao

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is one of the most common complications of paraquat (PQ poisoning, which demands for more effective therapies. Accumulating evidence suggests adiponectin (APN may be a promising therapy against fibrotic diseases. In the current study, we determine whether the exogenous globular APN isoform protects against pulmonary fibrosis in PQ-treated mice and human lung fibroblasts, and dissect the responsible underlying mechanisms. BALB/C mice were divided into control group, PQ group, PQ + low-dose APN group, and PQ + high-dose APN group. Mice were sacrificed 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after PQ treatment. We compared pulmonary histopathological changes among different groups on the basis of fibrosis scores, TGF-β1, CTGF and α-SMA pulmonary content via Western blot and real-time quantitative fluorescence-PCR (RT-PCR. Blood levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were determined by ELISA. Human lung fibroblasts WI-38 were divided into control group, PQ group, APN group, and APN receptor (AdipoR 1 small-interfering RNA (siRNA group. Fibroblasts were collected 24, 48, and 72 hours after PQ exposure for assay. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined via Kit-8 (CCK-8 and fluorescein Annexin V-FITC/PI double labeling. The protein and mRNA expression level of collagen type III, AdipoR1, and AdipoR2 were measured by Western blot and RT-PCR. APN treatment significantly decreased the lung fibrosis scores, protein and mRNA expression of pulmonary TGF-β1, CTGF and α-SMA content, and blood MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05. Pretreatment with APN significantly attenuated the reduced cell viability and up-regulated collagen type III expression induced by PQ in lung fibroblasts, (p<0.05. APN pretreatment up-regulated AdipoR1, but not AdipoR2, expression in WI-38 fibroblasts. AdipoR1 siRNA abrogated APN-mediated protective effects in PQ-exposed fibroblasts. Taken together, our data suggests APN protects against PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a

  17. Enhancing Insights into Pulmonary Vascular Disease through a Precision Medicine Approach. A Joint NHLBI-Cardiovascular Medical Research and Education Fund Workshop Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John H; Rich, Stuart; Abman, Steven H; Alexander, John H; Barnard, John; Beck, Gerald J; Benza, Raymond L; Bull, Todd M; Chan, Stephen Y; Chun, Hyung J; Doogan, Declan; Dupuis, Jocelyn; Erzurum, Serpil C; Frantz, Robert P; Geraci, Mark; Gillies, Hunter; Gladwin, Mark; Gray, Michael P; Hemnes, Anna R; Herbst, Roy S; Hernandez, Adrian F; Hill, Nicholas S; Horn, Evelyn M; Hunter, Kendall; Jing, Zhi-Cheng; Johns, Roger; Kaul, Sanjay; Kawut, Steven M; Lahm, Tim; Leopold, Jane A; Lewis, Greg D; Mathai, Stephen C; McLaughlin, Vallerie V; Michelakis, Evangelos D; Nathan, Steven D; Nichols, William; Page, Grier; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Rich, Jonathan; Rischard, Franz; Rounds, Sharon; Shah, Sanjiv J; Tapson, Victor F; Lowy, Naomi; Stockbridge, Norman; Weinmann, Gail; Xiao, Lei

    2017-06-15

    The Division of Lung Diseases of the NHLBI and the Cardiovascular Medical Education and Research Fund held a workshop to discuss how to leverage the anticipated scientific output from the recently launched "Redefining Pulmonary Hypertension through Pulmonary Vascular Disease Phenomics" (PVDOMICS) program to develop newer approaches to pulmonary vascular disease. PVDOMICS is a collaborative, protocol-driven network to analyze all patient populations with pulmonary hypertension to define novel pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) phenotypes. Stakeholders, including basic, translational, and clinical investigators; clinicians; patient advocacy organizations; regulatory agencies; and pharmaceutical industry experts, joined to discuss the application of precision medicine to PVD clinical trials. Recommendations were generated for discussion of research priorities in line with NHLBI Strategic Vision Goals that include: (1) A national effort, involving all the stakeholders, should seek to coordinate biosamples and biodata from all funded programs to a web-based repository so that information can be shared and correlated with other research projects. Example programs sponsored by NHLBI include PVDOMICS, Pulmonary Hypertension Breakthrough Initiative, the National Biological Sample and Data Repository for PAH, and the National Precision Medicine Initiative. (2) A task force to develop a master clinical trials protocol for PVD to apply precision medicine principles to future clinical trials. Specific features include: (a) adoption of smaller clinical trials that incorporate biomarker-guided enrichment strategies, using adaptive and innovative statistical designs; and (b) development of newer endpoints that reflect well-defined and clinically meaningful changes. (3) Development of updated and systematic variables in imaging, hemodynamic, cellular, genomic, and metabolic tests that will help precisely identify individual and shared features of PVD and serve as the basis of novel

  18. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor attenuates ischemia-reperfusion induced acute lung injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou-Chin Lan

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion (IR-induced acute lung injury (ALI is implicated in several clinical conditions including lung transplantation, cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, re-expansion of collapsed lung from pneumothorax or pleural effusion and etc. IR-induced ALI remains a challenge in the current treatment. Carbonic anhydrase has important physiological function and influences on transport of CO2. Some investigators suggest that CO2 influences lung injury. Therefore, carbonic anhydrase should have the role in ALI. This study was undertaken to define the effect of a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide (AZA, in IR-induced ALI, that was conducted in a rat model of isolated-perfused lung with 30 minutes of ischemia and 90 minutes of reperfusion. The animals were divided into six groups (n = 6 per group: sham, sham + AZA 200 mg/kg body weight (BW, IR, IR + AZA 100 mg/kg BW, IR + AZA 200 mg/kg BW and IR+ AZA 400 mg/kg BW. IR caused significant pulmonary micro-vascular hyper-permeability, pulmonary edema, pulmonary hypertension, neutrophilic sequestration, and an increase in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Increases in carbonic anhydrase expression and perfusate pCO2 levels were noted, while decreased Na-K-ATPase expression was noted after IR. Administration of 200mg/kg BW and 400mg/kg BW AZA significantly suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-17 and attenuated IR-induced lung injury, represented by decreases in pulmonary hyper-permeability, pulmonary edema, pulmonary hypertension and neutrophilic sequestration. AZA attenuated IR-induced lung injury, associated with decreases in carbonic anhydrase expression and pCO2 levels, as well as restoration of Na-K-ATPase expression.

  19. Lung salvage by pulmonary arterioplasty after vascular injury during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical right upper lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petel, M R; Mahieu, J; Baste, J M

    2015-01-01

    Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgical (VATS) lobectomy is now considered feasible and safe. Nevertheless, thoracic surgeons need to be aware of dramatic complications that may occur during this procedure and how best to manage them. We report the case of a severe tear of the right pulmonary artery (PA) during elective VATS upper lobectomy, leading to emergency conversion to control the bleeding. Initial arterial repair was performed by end-to-end anastomosis. Early CT angiography showed thrombosis of the right PA due to anastomotic stenosis. We performed emergency pulmonary arterioplasty with a prosthetic patch to save the right lung. A CT scan days after surgical lung salvage confirmed the permeability of the PA and normal vascularization of the two remaining right lobes. We discuss herein this dramatic complication of VATS lobectomy, the viability of the lung after pulmonary arterial thrombosis, and advocate for early postoperative imaging after pulmonary arterioplasty. Copyright© Acta Chirurgica Belgica.

  20. Juxta-Vascular Pulmonary Nodule Segmentation in PET-CT Imaging Based on an LBF Active Contour Model with Information Entropy and Joint Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Hao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate segmentation of pulmonary nodules is an important preprocessing step in computer-aided diagnoses of lung cancers. However, the existing segmentation methods may cause the problem of edge leakage and cannot segment juxta-vascular pulmonary nodules accurately. To address this problem, a novel automatic segmentation method based on an LBF active contour model with information entropy and joint vector is proposed in this paper. Our method extracts the interest area of pulmonary nodules by a standard uptake value (SUV in Positron Emission Tomography (PET images, and automatic threshold iteration is used to construct an initial contour roughly. The SUV information entropy and the gray-value joint vector of Positron Emission Tomography–Computed Tomography (PET-CT images are calculated to drive the evolution of contour curve. At the edge of pulmonary nodules, evolution will be stopped and accurate results of pulmonary nodule segmentation can be obtained. Experimental results show that our method can achieve 92.35% average dice similarity coefficient, 2.19 mm Hausdorff distance, and 3.33% false positive with the manual segmentation results. Compared with the existing methods, our proposed method that segments juxta-vascular pulmonary nodules in PET-CT images is more accurate and efficient.

  1. Pulmonary artery wave propagation and reservoir function in conscious man: impact of pulmonary vascular disease, respiration and dynamic stress tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junjing; Manisty, Charlotte; Simonsen, Ulf; Howard, Luke S; Parker, Kim H; Hughes, Alun D

    2017-10-15

    Wave travel plays an important role in cardiovascular physiology. However, many aspects of pulmonary arterial wave behaviour remain unclear. Wave intensity and reservoir-excess pressure analyses were applied in the pulmonary artery in subjects with and without pulmonary hypertension during spontaneous respiration and dynamic stress tests. Arterial wave energy decreased during expiration and Valsalva manoeuvre due to decreased ventricular preload. Wave energy also decreased during handgrip exercise due to increased heart rate. In pulmonary hypertension patients, the asymptotic pressure at which the microvascular flow ceases, the reservoir pressure related to arterial compliance and the excess pressure caused by waves increased. The reservoir and excess pressures decreased during Valsalva manoeuvre but remained unchanged during handgrip exercise. This study provides insights into the influence of pulmonary vascular disease, spontaneous respiration and dynamic stress tests on pulmonary artery wave propagation and reservoir function. Detailed haemodynamic analysis may provide novel insights into the pulmonary circulation. Therefore, wave intensity and reservoir-excess pressure analyses were applied in the pulmonary artery to characterize changes in wave propagation and reservoir function during spontaneous respiration and dynamic stress tests. Right heart catheterization was performed using a pressure and Doppler flow sensor tipped guidewire to obtain simultaneous pressure and flow velocity measurements in the pulmonary artery in control subjects and patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) at rest. In controls, recordings were also obtained during Valsalva manoeuvre and handgrip exercise. The asymptotic pressure at which the flow through the microcirculation ceases, the reservoir pressure related to arterial compliance and the excess pressure caused by arterial waves increased in PAH patients compared to controls. The systolic and diastolic rate constants

  2. Baicalin inhibits hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation via the AKT/HIF-1α/p27-associated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Pu, Zhichen; Wang, Junsong; Zhang, Zhifeng; Hu, Dongmei; Wang, Junjie

    2014-05-09

    Baicalin, a flavonoid compound purified from the dry roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been shown to possess various pharmacological actions. Previous studies have revealed that baicalin inhibits the growth of cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease characterized by enhanced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMCs) proliferation and suppressed apoptosis. However, the potential mechanism of baicalin in the regulation of PASMC proliferation and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases remains unexplored. To test the effects of baicalin on hypoxia, we used rats treated with or without baicalin (100 mg·kg⁻¹ each rat) at the beginning of the third week after hypoxia. Hemodynamic and pulmonary pathomorphology data showed that right ventricular systolic pressures (RVSP), the weight of the right ventricle/left ventricle plus septum (RV/LV + S) ratio and the medial width of pulmonary arterioles were much higher in chronic hypoxia. However, baicalin treatment repressed the elevation of RVSP, RV/LV + S and attenuated the pulmonary vascular structure remodeling (PVSR) of pulmonary arterioles induced by chronic hypoxia. Additionally, baicalin (10 and 20 μmol·L⁻¹) treatment suppressed the proliferation of PASMCs and attenuated the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF-α) under hypoxia exposure. Meanwhile, baicalin reversed the hypoxia-induced reduction of p27 and increased AKT/protein kinase B phosphorylation p-AKT both in vivo and in vitro. These results suggested that baicalin could effectively attenuate PVSR and hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

  3. Pulmonary manifestations in collagen vascular diseases; Pulmonale Manifestationen bei Kollagenosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, M.N.A. [Thoraxklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie mit Nuklearmedizin, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Heidelberg (Germany); Kreuter, M. [Thoraxklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Zentrum fuer interstitielle und seltene Lungenerkrankungen, Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, H.U. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Heidelberg (Germany); Heussel, C.P. [Thoraxklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie mit Nuklearmedizin, Heidelberg (Germany); Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Pulmonary complications are frequent in patients with collagen vascular diseases (CVD). Frequent causes are a direct manifestation of the underlying disease, side effects of specific medications and lung infections. The standard radiological procedure for the work-up of pulmonary pathologies in patients with CVD is multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with thin-slice high-resolution reconstruction. The accuracy of thin-slice CT for the identification of particular disease patterns is very high. The pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) representing the direct pulmonary manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can be identified with a sensitivity of 45 % and a specificity of 96 %. Both direct pulmonary manifestations, drug-induced toxicity and certain infections can have a similar appearance in thin-slice MDCT in various forms of CVD. Knowledge of the patterns and causes contributes to the diagnostic certainty. At first diagnosis of a CVD and associated pulmonary symptoms thin-slice MDCT is recommended. Clinical, lung function and imaging follow-up examinations should be performed every 6-12 months depending on the results of the MDCT. In every case the individual CT morphological patterns of pulmonary involvement must be identified. The combination of information on the anamnesis, clinical and imaging results is a prerequisite for an appropriate disease management. (orig.) [German] Pulmonale Komplikationen sind bei Patienten mit Kollagenosen keine Seltenheit. Haeufig sind eine direkte Manifestation der Grunderkrankung, eine Nebenwirkung der medikamentoesen Therapie oder eine Lungeninfektion die Ursachen. Das radiologische Standardverfahren zur Klaerung pulmonaler Pathologien bei Patienten mit Kollagenosen ist die Multidetektorcomputertomographie mit duennschichtigen Rekonstruktionen (Duennschicht-MDCT). Die Treffsicherheit der Duennschicht-MDCT ist fuer die Identifikation eines Erkrankungsmusters sehr hoch. So kann beispielsweise das Muster einer

  4. Localized-low attenuation of the lung on thin-section CT in experimentally induced pulmonary arterial occlusion with balloon catheter in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Ju; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung Gi; Kim, Ji Hye

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether a localized low-attenuation (LLA) is induced on a thin-section CT (TSCT) during an acute pulmonary arterial occlusion in pigs. In eight pigs, 14 sites of the descending pulmonary artery were obstructed using balloon catheters. The lung TSCTs were obtained immediately after pulmonary artery obstruction (n=13), 10 min (n=10), 30 min (n=14) and 60 min (n=14) after pulmonary artery obstruction at the end of expiration. The TSCTs were also obtained after balloon-deflation at the end of expiration (n=11) and with the balloon-reinflation at inspiration (n=6). Of the 14 sites of pulmonary artery obstruction, 11 (79%) showed LLA. However, LLA progressively became fainter or disappeared on a follow-up CT in seven sites. When the balloon was deflated, 10 of the 11 sites measured showed no change in lung attenuation. After full inspiration, LLA disappeared in three of the six sites. The corresponding areas of LLA on the CT showed a statistically significant increase compared to the baseline CT immediately after inflation (ρ =0.021) and 30 minutes after inflation (ρ = 0.041), and after balloon deflation (ρ = 0.036). LLA was induced by acute pulmonary artery obstruction. However, LLA, gradually faded over the 60 minutes following obstruction. LLAs were maintained despite the restoration of pulmonary arterial flow, but disappeared as a result of a full inspiration. Thus, LLA might be caused by air trapping

  5. Baicalin Attenuates Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension to Improve Hypoxic Cor Pulmonale by Reducing the Activity of the p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway and MMP-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangquan Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Baicalin has a protective effect on hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats, but the mechanism of this effect remains unclear. Thus, investigating the potential mechanism of this effect was the aim of the present study. Model rats that display hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale under control conditions were successfully generated. We measured a series of indicators to observe the levels of pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary arteriole remodeling, and right ventricular remodeling. We assessed the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK in the pulmonary arteriole walls and pulmonary tissue homogenates using immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses, respectively. The matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 protein and mRNA levels in the pulmonary arteriole walls were measured using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Our results demonstrated that baicalin not only reduced p38 MAPK activation in both the pulmonary arteriole walls and tissue homogenates but also downregulated the protein and mRNA expression levels of MMP-9 in the pulmonary arteriole walls. This downregulation was accompanied by the attenuation of pulmonary hypertension, arteriole remodeling, and right ventricular remodeling. These results suggest that baicalin may attenuate pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale, which are induced by chronic hypoxia, by downregulating the p38 MAPK/MMP-9 pathway.

  6. Role of secretory phospholipase A(2) in rhythmic contraction of pulmonary arteries of rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Yoshiyuki; Saito-Tanji, Maki; Morikawa, Yuki; Kamataki, Akihisa; Sawai, Takashi; Nakayama, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Excessive stretching of the vascular wall in accordance with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induces a variety of pathogenic cellular events in the pulmonary arteries. We previously reported that indoxam, a selective inhibitor for secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)), blocked the stretch-induced contraction of rabbit pulmonary arteries by inhibition of untransformed prostaglandin H(2) (PGH(2)) production. The present study was undertaken to investigate involvement of sPLA(2) and untransformed PGH(2) in the enhanced contractility of pulmonary arteries of experimental PAH in rats. Among all the known isoforms of sPLA(2), sPLA(2)-X transcript was most significantly augmented in the pulmonary arteries of rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension (MCT-PHR). The pulmonary arteries of MCT-PHR frequently showed two types of spontaneous contraction in response to stretch; 27% showed rhythmic contraction, which was sensitive to indoxam and SC-560 (selective COX-1 inhibitor), but less sensitive to NS-398 (selective COX-2 inhibitor); and 47% showed sustained incremental tension (tonic contraction), which was insensitive to indoxam and SC-560, but sensitive to NS-398 and was attenuated to 45% of the control. Only the rhythmically contracting pulmonary arteries of MCT-PHR produced a substantial amount of untransformed PGH(2), which was abolished by indoxam. These results suggest that sPLA(2)-mediated PGH(2) synthesis plays an important role in the rhythmic contraction of pulmonary arteries of MCT-PHR.

  7. High altitude pulmonary edema: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia P, Edward; Contreras Zuniga, Eduardo; Zuluaga, Sandra Ximena

    2006-01-01

    Acute pulmonary edema is characterized by the accumulation of liquid in the pulmonary interstice, the alveoli, the bronchi and bronchioles; it is from the excessive circulation from the pulmonary vascular system towards extra vascular and the respiratory spaces. The Liquid filters first at the interstitial space to soon perivascular and peri bronchial and, gradually, towards the alveoli and bronchi

  8. Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis: a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K Anand; Supraja, K; Singh, Raj B

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PCH) is a rare disorder of unknown aetiology, characterised by proliferating capillaries that invade the pulmonary interstitium, alveolar septae and the pulmonary vasculature. It is often mis-diagnosed as primary pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis is a locally aggressive benign vascular neoplasm of the lung. We report the case of a 19-year-old female who was referred to us in the early post-partum period with severe pulmonary artery hypertension, which was diagnosed as PCH by open lung biopsy.

  9. Specificity and sensitivity of noninvasive measurement of pulmonary vascular protein leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauber, I.M.; Pluss, W.T.; VanGrondelle, A.; Trow, R.S.; Weil, J.V.

    1985-01-01

    Noninvasive techniques employing external counting of radiolabeled protein have the potential for measuring pulmonary vascular protein permeability, but their specificity and sensitivity remain unclear. The authors tested the specificity and sensitivity of a double-radioisotope method by injecting radiolabeled albumin ( 131 I) and erythrocytes (/sup 99m/Tc) into anesthetized dogs and measuring the counts of each isotope for 150 min after injection with an external gamma probe fixed over the lung. They calculated the rate of increase of albumin counts measured by the probe (which reflects the rate at which protein leaks into the extravascular space). To assess permeability the authors normalized the rate of increase in albumin counts for changes in labeled erythrocyte signal to minimize influence of changes in vascular surface area and thus derived an albumin leak index. They measured the albumin leak index and gravimetric lung water during hydrostatic edema (acutely elevating left atrial pressure by left atrial balloon inflation: mean pulmonary arterial wedge pressure = 22.6 Torr) and in lung injury edema induced by high- (1.0 g/kg) and low-dose (0.25 g/kg) intravenous thiourea. To test specificity hydrostatic and high-dose thiourea edema were compared. The albumin leak index increased nearly fourfold from control after thiourea injury (27.2 +/- 2.3 x 10-4 vs. 7.6 +/- 0.9 x 10-4 min-1) but did not change from control levels after elevating left atrial pressure (8.9 +/- 1.2 x 10-4 min-1) despite comparable increases in gravimetric lung water. To test sensitivity the authors compared low-dose thiourea with controls. Following low-dose thiourea, the albumin leak index nearly doubled despite the absence of a measurable increase in lung water

  10. Pulmonary circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongartz, G.; Boos, M.; Scheffler, K.; Steinbrich, W.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of the pulmonary vasculature is mainly indicated in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism. The routine procedure so far is ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy alone or in combination with diagnostic assessment of the legs to rule out deep venous thrombosis. The results are still not reliable for the majority of patients. In the case of equivocal diagnosis, invasive conventional angiography is considered the gold standard. With steady improvements in tomographic imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), non-invasive alternatives to the routine diagnostic work-up are given. Helical CT and CTA techniques are already in clinical use and estimated to sufficiently serve the demands for detection/exclusion of pulmonary thromboembolism. The disadvantages mainly concern peripheral disease and reconstruction artifacts. MRI and MR angiography have been implemented in the diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease since the introduction of contrast-enhanced MRA. In breath-hold techniques, the entire lung vascularization can be delineated and thromboemboli can be detected. The clinical experience in this field is limited, but MRI has the potential to demonstrate its superiority over CT due to its improved delineation of the vascular periphery and the more comprehensive three-dimensional reconstruction. (orig.)

  11. Extravascular lung water and the pulmonary vascular permeability index may improve the definition of ARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Perel, Azriel

    2013-01-01

    The recent Berlin definition has made some improvements in the older definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), although the concepts and components of the definition remained largely unchanged. In an effort to improve both predictive and face validity, the Berlin panel has examined a number of additional measures that may reflect increased pulmonary vascular permeability, including extravascular lung water. The panel concluded that although extravascular lung water has improve...

  12. Fundamentals of management of acute postoperative pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mary B; Laussen, Peter C

    2010-03-01

    In the last several years, there have been numerous advancements in the field of pulmonary hypertension as a whole, but there have been few changes in the management of children with pulmonary hypertension after cardiac surgery. Patients at particular risk for postoperative pulmonary hypertension can be identified preoperatively based on their cardiac disease and can be grouped into four broad categories based on the mechanisms responsible for pulmonary hypertension: 1) increased pulmonary vascular resistance; 2) increased pulmonary blood flow with normal pulmonary vascular resistance; 3) a combination of increased pulmonary vascular resistance and increased blood flow; and 4) increased pulmonary venous pressure. In this review of the immediate postoperative management of pulmonary hypertension, various strategies are discussed including medical therapies, monitoring, ventilatory strategies, and weaning from these supports. With early recognition of patients at particular risk for severe pulmonary hypertension, management strategies can be directed at preventing or minimizing hemodynamic instability and thereby prevent the development of ventricular dysfunction and a low output state.

  13. Anomalies of Pulmonary Circulation as a Cause of Hemoptysis: A Series of Unusual Cases and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Gupta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The expectoration of blood originating from the lower respiratory tract, called hemoptysis, is a common clinical condition with many potential etiologies. Massive hemoptysis is life threatening and needs urgent intervention. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT is a useful non-invasive imaging modality for the initial assessment of hemoptysis. Using MDCT with multiplanar reformatted images has improved the diagnosis and management of hemoptysis by providing a more precise depiction of bronchial and non-bronchial systemic arteries than conventional computed tomography (CT. In 95% of hemoptysis cases, the systemic arterial system is the origin of bleeding and pulmonary vascular anomalies are a rare cause. Among these, pulmonary arteriovenous malformation, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and Osler-Weber-Rendu disease are well known entities. However, primary anomalies affecting pulmonary vessels in the mediastinum or diseases secondarily affecting the pulmonary vessels are unusual causes. Here we present three cases where patients had pulmonary vascular anomalies causing hemoptysis. These patients had decreased pulmonary arterial pressures leading to bronchial and systemic arterial hypertrophy and development of bronchopulmonary collaterals. Secondary CT signs in the parenchyma and mediastinum (mosaic attenuation, ground glass haze, subpleural interstitial thickening, and hypertrophied bronchial arteries were similar in all patients. Hence, evaluation of the MDCT images for primary abnormality led to the diagnosis.

  14. Isorhynchophylline protects against pulmonary arterial hypertension and suppresses PASMCs proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Haipeng; Zhang, Xin; Cui, Yuqian; Deng, Wei; Xu, Dachun; Han, Hui; Wang, Hao; Chen, Yuguo; Li, Yu; Wu, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We focus on PASMCs proliferation in the pathogenesis of PAH. • Isorhynchophylline inhibited PASMCs proliferation and alleviated PAH. • IRN blocked PDGF-Rβ phosphorylation and its downstream signal transduction. • IRN regulated cyclins and CDKs to arrest cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. • We reported IRN has the potential to be a candidate for PAH treatment. - Abstract: Increased pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) proliferation is a key pathophysiological component of pulmonary vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Isorhynchophylline (IRN) is a tetracyclic oxindole alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Uncaria rhynchophylla. It has long been used clinically for treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, very little is known about whether IRN can influence the development of PAH. Here we examined the effect of IRN on monocrotaline (MCT) induced PAH in rats. Our data demonstrated that IRN prevented MCT induced PAH in rats, as assessed by right ventricular (RV) pressure, the weight ratio of RV to (left ventricular + septum) and RV hypertrophy. IRN significantly attenuated the percentage of fully muscularized small arterioles, the medial wall thickness, and the expression of smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In vitro studies, IRN concentration-dependently inhibited the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferation of PASMCs. Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis showed that IRN caused G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. IRN-induced growth inhibition was associated with downregulation of Cyclin D1 and CDK6 as well as an increase in p27Kip1 levels in PDGF-BB-stimulated PASMCs. Moreover, IRN negatively modulated PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of PDGF-Rβ, ERK1/2, Akt/GSK3β, and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). These results demonstrate that IRN could inhibit PASMCs proliferation and

  15. Isorhynchophylline protects against pulmonary arterial hypertension and suppresses PASMCs proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Haipeng; Zhang, Xin [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Cui, Yuqian [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Deng, Wei [Department of Cardiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China); Xu, Dachun [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Han, Hui; Wang, Hao [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Chen, Yuguo [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Li, Yu, E-mail: qlliyu@126.com [Department of Respiratory, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Wu, Dawei, E-mail: wdwu55@163.com [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We focus on PASMCs proliferation in the pathogenesis of PAH. • Isorhynchophylline inhibited PASMCs proliferation and alleviated PAH. • IRN blocked PDGF-Rβ phosphorylation and its downstream signal transduction. • IRN regulated cyclins and CDKs to arrest cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. • We reported IRN has the potential to be a candidate for PAH treatment. - Abstract: Increased pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) proliferation is a key pathophysiological component of pulmonary vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Isorhynchophylline (IRN) is a tetracyclic oxindole alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Uncaria rhynchophylla. It has long been used clinically for treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, very little is known about whether IRN can influence the development of PAH. Here we examined the effect of IRN on monocrotaline (MCT) induced PAH in rats. Our data demonstrated that IRN prevented MCT induced PAH in rats, as assessed by right ventricular (RV) pressure, the weight ratio of RV to (left ventricular + septum) and RV hypertrophy. IRN significantly attenuated the percentage of fully muscularized small arterioles, the medial wall thickness, and the expression of smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In vitro studies, IRN concentration-dependently inhibited the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferation of PASMCs. Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis showed that IRN caused G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. IRN-induced growth inhibition was associated with downregulation of Cyclin D1 and CDK6 as well as an increase in p27Kip1 levels in PDGF-BB-stimulated PASMCs. Moreover, IRN negatively modulated PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of PDGF-Rβ, ERK1/2, Akt/GSK3β, and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). These results demonstrate that IRN could inhibit PASMCs proliferation and

  16. Lung heparan sulfates modulate Kfc during increased vascular pressure: evidence for glycocalyx-mediated mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluff, Mark; Kingston, Joseph; Hill, Denzil; Chen, Haiyan; Hoehne, Soeren; Malleske, Daniel T.; Kaur, Rajwinederjit

    2012-01-01

    Lung endothelial cells respond to changes in vascular pressure through mechanotransduction pathways that alter barrier function via non-Starling mechanism(s). Components of the endothelial glycocalyx have been shown to participate in mechanotransduction in vitro and in systemic vessels, but the glycocalyx's role in mechanosensing and pulmonary barrier function has not been characterized. Mechanotransduction pathways may represent novel targets for therapeutic intervention during states of elevated pulmonary pressure such as acute heart failure, fluid overload, and mechanical ventilation. Our objective was to assess the effects of increasing vascular pressure on whole lung filtration coefficient (Kfc) and characterize the role of endothelial heparan sulfates in mediating mechanotransduction and associated increases in Kfc. Isolated perfused rat lung preparation was used to measure Kfc in response to changes in vascular pressure in combination with superimposed changes in airway pressure. The roles of heparan sulfates, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species were investigated. Increases in capillary pressure altered Kfc in a nonlinear relationship, suggesting non-Starling mechanism(s). nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and heparanase III attenuated the effects of increased capillary pressure on Kfc, demonstrating active mechanotransduction leading to barrier dysfunction. The nitric oxide (NO) donor S-nitrosoglutathione exacerbated pressure-mediated increase in Kfc. Ventilation strategies altered lung NO concentration and the Kfc response to increases in vascular pressure. This is the first study to demonstrate a role for the glycocalyx in whole lung mechanotransduction and has important implications in understanding the regulation of vascular permeability in the context of vascular pressure, fluid status, and ventilation strategies. PMID:22160307

  17. Inhaled nitric oxide pretreatment but not posttreatment attenuates ischemia-reperfusion-induced pulmonary microvascular leak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetham, P M; Sefton, W D; Bridges, J P; Stevens, T; McMurtry, I F

    1997-04-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) pulmonary edema probably reflects a leukocyte-dependent, oxidant-mediated mechanism. Nitric oxide (NO) attenuates leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and I/R-induced microvascular leak. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) agonists reverse and prevent I/R-induced microvascular leak, but reversal by inhaled NO (INO) has not been tested. In addition, the role of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activation in the NO protection effect is unknown. Rat lungs perfused with salt solution were grouped as either I/R, I/R with INO (10 or 50 ppm) on reperfusion, or time control. Capillary filtration coefficients (Kfc) were estimated 25 min before ischemia (baseline) and after 30 and 75 min of reperfusion. Perfusate cell counts and lung homogenate myeloperoxidase activity were determined in selected groups. Additional groups were treated with either INO (50 ppm) or isoproterenol (ISO-10 microM) after 30 min of reperfusion. Guanylyl cyclase was inhibited with 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ-15 microM), and Kfc was estimated at baseline and after 30 min of reperfusion. (1) Inhaled NO attenuated I/R-induced increases in Kfc. (2) Cell counts were similar at baseline. After 75 min of reperfusion, lung neutrophil retention (myeloperoxidase activity) and decreased perfusate neutrophil counts were similar in all groups. (3) In contrast to ISO, INO did not reverse microvascular leak. (4) 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-br-cGMP) prevented I/R-induced microvascular leak in ODQ-treated lungs, but INO was no longer effective. Inhaled NO attenuates I/R-induced pulmonary microvascular leak, which requires sGC activation and may involve a mechanism independent of inhibition of leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions. In addition, INO is ineffective in reversing I/R-induced microvascular leak.

  18. Benfotiamine attenuates nicotine and uric acid-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Sharma, Ramica; Singh, Manjeet

    2008-01-01

    The study has been designed to investigate the effect of benfotiamine, a thiamine derivative, in nicotine and uric acid-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Nicotine (2 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., 4 weeks) and uric acid (150 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., 3 weeks) were administered to produce VED in rats. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate. Further, the integrity of vascular endothelium was assessed using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of thoracic aorta. Moreover, the oxidative stress was assessed by estimating serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aortic superoxide anion generation. The administration of nicotine and uric acid produced VED by impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium and subsequently decreasing serum and aortic concentration of nitrite/nitrate and attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation. Further, nicotine and uric acid produced oxidative stress, which was assessed in terms of increase in serum TBARS and aortic superoxide generation. However, treatment with benfotiamine (70 mg kg(-1)day(-1), p.o.) or atorvastatin (30 mg kg(-1)day(-1) p.o., a standard agent) markedly prevented nicotine and uric acid-induced VED and oxidative stress by improving the integrity of vascular endothelium, increasing the concentration of serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate, enhancing the acetylcholine-induced endothelium dependent relaxation and decreasing serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation. Thus, it may be concluded that benfotiamine reduces the oxidative stress and consequently improves the integrity of vascular endothelium and enhances the generation of nitric oxide to prevent nicotine and uric acid-induced experimental VED.

  19. Pulmonary CCR2+CD4+ T cells are immune regulatory and attenuate lung fibrosis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milger, Katrin; Yu, Yingyan; Brudy, Eva; Irmler, Martin; Skapenko, Alla; Mayinger, Michael; Lehmann, Mareike; Beckers, Johannes; Reichenberger, Frank; Behr, Jürgen; Eickelberg, Oliver; Königshoff, Melanie; Krauss-Etschmann, Susanne

    2017-11-01

    Animal models have suggested that CCR2-dependent signalling contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, but global blockade of CCL2 failed to improve the clinical course of patients with lung fibrosis. However, as levels of CCR2 + CD4 + T cells in paediatric lung fibrosis had previously been found to be increased, correlating with clinical symptoms, we hypothesised that distinct CCR2 + cell populations might either increase or decrease disease pathogenesis depending on their subtype. To investigate the role of CCR2 + CD4 + T cells in experimental lung fibrosis and in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other fibrosis. Pulmonary CCR2 + CD4 + T cells were analysed using flow cytometry and mRNA profiling, followed by in silico pathway analysis, in vitro assays and adoptive transfer experiments. Frequencies of CCR2 + CD4 + T cells were increased in experimental fibrosis-specifically the CD62L - CD44 + effector memory T cell phenotype, displaying a distinct chemokine receptor profile. mRNA profiling of isolated CCR2 + CD4 + T cells from fibrotic lungs suggested immune regulatory functions, a finding that was confirmed in vitro using suppressor assays. Importantly, adoptive transfer of CCR2 + CD4 + T cells attenuated fibrosis development. The results were partly corroborated in patients with lung fibrosis, by showing higher percentages of Foxp3 + CD25 + cells within bronchoalveolar lavage fluid CCR2 + CD4 + T cells as compared with CCR2 - CD4 + T cells. Pulmonary CCR2 + CD4 + T cells are immunosuppressive, and could attenuate lung inflammation and fibrosis. Therapeutic strategies completely abrogating CCR2-dependent signalling will therefore also eliminate cell populations with protective roles in fibrotic lung disease. This emphasises the need for a detailed understanding of the functions of immune cell subsets in fibrotic lung disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  20. Factors affecting regional pulmonary blood flow in chronic ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistolesi, M.; Miniati, M.; Bonsignore, M.

    1988-01-01

    To assess the effect of left heart disease on pulmonary blood flow distribution, we measured mean pulmonary arterial and wedge pressures, cardiac output, pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary blood volume, and arterial oxygen tension before and after treatment in 13 patients with longstanding ischemic heart failure and pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema was evaluated by a radiographic score, and regional lung perfusion was quantified on a lung scan by the upper to lower third ratio (U:L ratio) of pulmonary blood flow per unit of lung volume. In all cases, redistribution of lung perfusion toward the apical regions was observed; this pattern was not affected by treatment. After treatment, pulmonary vascular pressures, resistance, and edema were reduced, while pulmonary blood volume did not change. At this time, pulmonary vascular resistance showed a positive correlation with the U:L ratio (r = 0.78; P less than 0.01), whereas no correlation was observed between U:L ratio and wedge pressure, pulmonary edema, or arterial oxygen tension. Hence, redistribution of pulmonary blood flow, in these patients, reflects chronic structural vascular changes prevailing in the dependent lung regions

  1. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in pulmonary hypertension produces pathologic autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Kelley L; Cripe, Patrick J; Ivy, D Dunbar; Stenmark, Kurt R; Yeager, Michael E

    2013-11-01

    Autoimmunity has long been associated with pulmonary hypertension. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue plays important roles in antigen sampling and self-tolerance during infection and inflammation. We reasoned that activated bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue would be evident in rats with pulmonary hypertension, and that loss of self-tolerance would result in production of pathologic autoantibodies that drive vascular remodeling. We used animal models, histology, and gene expression assays to evaluate the role of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in pulmonary hypertension. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue was more numerous, larger, and more active in pulmonary hypertension compared with control animals. We found dendritic cells in and around lymphoid tissue, which were composed of CD3(+) T cells over a core of CD45RA(+) B cells. Antirat IgG and plasma from rats with pulmonary hypertension decorated B cells in lymphoid tissue, resistance vessels, and adventitia of large vessels. Lymphoid tissue in diseased rats was vascularized by aquaporin-1(+) high endothelial venules and vascular cell adhesion molecule-positive vessels. Autoantibodies are produced in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and, when bound to pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts, change their phenotype to one that may promote inflammation. Passive transfer of autoantibodies into rats caused pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension. Diminution of lymphoid tissue reversed pulmonary hypertension, whereas immunologic blockade of CCR7 worsened pulmonary hypertension and hastened its onset. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue expands in pulmonary hypertension and is autoimmunologically active. Loss of self-tolerance contributes to pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension. Lymphoid tissue-directed therapies may be beneficial in treating pulmonary hypertension.

  2. [Pulmonary hypertension of the newborn--recent advances in the management and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakrilova, L; Radulova, P; Hitrova, St; Slancheva, B

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension of the newborn is a clinical syndrome with diverse etiology in which the transition from fetal circulation with high pulmonary vascular resistance to postnatal circulation with low pulmonary vascular resistance failed. The persistence of high pulmonary vascular pressure leads to right-left shunts and marked cyanosis. Despite of the advances in neonatology, the treatment of some forms of PPHN is often difficult and mortality rate remains high. In infants with PPHN appropriate interventions are critical to reverse hypoxemia, improve pulmonary and systemic perfusion and preserve end-organ function. Our understanding for management of PPHN has evaluated over decades. This review summarizes the current strategies for treatment of pulmonary hypertension of the newborn: general care, cardiovascular support, the advantages and limitations of different ventilatory strategies, oxygen therapy, extracorporal membrane oxygenation, and the evidence-based inhaled nitric oxide therapy. The balance between pulmonary vasoconstrictor and vasodilator mediators plays an important role for pulmonary vascular resistance. Recent studies are designed to develop evidence-based therapies for regulation of pulmonary vascular tone, safe medications for selective pulmonary vasodilatation effective for treatment of PPHN and other forms of pulmonary hypertension in the neonatal intensive care unit.

  3. Pulmonary stromal cells induce the generation of regulatory DC attenuating T-cell-mediated lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Guo, Zhenhong; Xu, Xiongfei; Xia, Sheng; Cao, Xuetao

    2008-10-01

    The tissue microenvironment may affect the development and function of immune cells such as DC. Whether and how the pulmonary stromal microenvironment can affect the development and function of lung DC need to be investigated. Regulatory DC (DCreg) can regulate T-cell response. We wondered whether such regulatory DC exist in the lung and what is the effect of the pulmonary stromal microenvironment on the generation of DCreg. Here we demonstrate that murine pulmonary stromal cells can drive immature DC, which are regarded as being widely distributed in the lung, to proliferate and differentiate into a distinct subset of DCreg, which express high levels of CD11b but low levels of MHC class II (I-A), CD11c, secrete high amounts of IL-10, NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and suppress T-cell proliferation. The natural counterpart of DCreg in the lung with similar phenotype and regulatory function has been identified. Pulmonary stroma-derived TGF-beta is responsible for the differentiation of immature DC to DCreg, and DCreg-derived PGE2 contributes to their suppression of T-cell proliferation. Moreover, DCreg can induce the generation of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg. Importantly, infusion with DCreg attenuates T-cell-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation in vivo. Therefore, the pulmonary microenvironment may drive the generation of DCreg, thus contributing to the maintenance of immune homoeostasis and the control of inflammation in the lung.

  4. MicroRNA-124 controls the proliferative, migratory, and inflammatory phenotype of pulmonary vascular fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daren; Zhang, Hui; Li, Min; Frid, Maria G; Flockton, Amanda R; McKeon, B Alexandre; Yeager, Michael E; Fini, Mehdi A; Morrell, Nicholas W; Pullamsetti, Soni S; Velegala, Sivareddy; Seeger, Werner; McKinsey, Timothy A; Sucharov, Carmen C; Stenmark, Kurt R

    2014-01-03

    Pulmonary hypertensive remodeling is characterized by excessive proliferation, migration, and proinflammatory activation of adventitial fibroblasts. In culture, fibroblasts maintain a similar activated phenotype. The mechanisms responsible for generation/maintenance of this phenotype remain unknown. We hypothesized that aberrant expression of microRNA-124 (miR-124) regulates this activated fibroblast phenotype and sought to determine the signaling pathways through which miR-124 exerts effects. We detected significant decreases in miR-124 expression in fibroblasts isolated from calves and humans with severe pulmonary hypertension. Overexpression of miR-124 by mimic transfection significantly attenuated proliferation, migration, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression of hypertensive fibroblasts, whereas anti-miR-124 treatment of control fibroblasts resulted in their increased proliferation, migration, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression. Furthermore, the alternative splicing factor, polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1, was shown to be a direct target of miR-124 and to be upregulated both in vivo and in vitro in bovine and human pulmonary hypertensive fibroblasts. The effects of miR-124 on fibroblast proliferation were mediated via direct binding to the 3' untranslated region of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 and subsequent regulation of Notch1/phosphatase and tensin homolog/FOXO3/p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 signaling. We showed that miR-124 directly regulates monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression in pulmonary hypertension/idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension fibroblasts. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-124 expression is suppressed by histone deacetylases and that treatment of hypertensive fibroblasts with histone deacetylase inhibitors increased miR-124 expression and decreased proliferation and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production. Stable decreases in miR-124 expression contribute to an epigenetically reprogrammed, highly

  5. Losartan attenuates chronic cigarette smoke exposure-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats: Possible involvement of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Suxia; He Guangming; Wang Tao; Chen Lei; Ning Yunye; Luo Feng; An Jin; Yang Ting; Dong Jiajia; Liao Zenglin; Xu Dan; Wen Fuqiang

    2010-01-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking induces pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by largely unknown mechanisms. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is known to function in the development of PAH. Losartan, a specific angiotensin II receptor antagonist, is a well-known antihypertensive drug with a potential role in regulating angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), a recently found regulator of RAS. To determine the effect of losartan on smoke-induced PAH and its possible mechanism, rats were daily exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 months in the absence and in the presence of losartan. Elevated right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), thickened wall of pulmonary arteries with apparent medial hypertrophy along with increased angiotensin II (Ang II) and decreased ACE2 levels were observed in smoke-exposed-only rats. Losartan administration ameliorated pulmonary vascular remodeling, inhibited the smoke-induced RVSP and Ang II elevation and partially reversed the ACE2 decrease in rat lungs. In cultured primary pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from 3- and 6-month smoke-exposed rats, ACE2 levels were significantly lower than in those from the control rats. Moreover, PASMCs from 6-month exposed rats proliferated more rapidly than those from 3-month exposed or control rats, and cells grew even more rapidly in the presence of DX600, an ACE2 inhibitor. Consistent with the in vivo study, in vitro losartan pretreatment also inhibited cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cell proliferation and ACE2 reduction in rat PASMCs. The results suggest that losartan may be therapeutically useful in the chronic smoking-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling and PAH and ACE2 may be involved as part of its mechanism. Our study might provide insight into the development of new therapeutic interventions for PAH smokers.

  6. Pulmonary Effective Arterial Elastance as a Measure of Right Ventricular Afterload and Its Prognostic Value in Pulmonary Hypertension Due to Left Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampakakis, Emmanouil; Shah, Sanjiv J; Borlaug, Barry A; Leary, Peter J; Patel, Harnish H; Miller, Wayne L; Kelemen, Benjamin W; Houston, Brian A; Kolb, Todd M; Damico, Rachel; Mathai, Stephen C; Kasper, Edward K; Hassoun, Paul M; Kass, David A; Tedford, Ryan J

    2018-04-01

    Patients with combined post- and precapillary pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease have a worse prognosis compared with isolated postcapillary. However, it remains unclear whether increased mortality in combined post- and precapillary pulmonary hypertension is simply a result of higher total right ventricular load. Pulmonary effective arterial elastance (Ea) is a measure of total right ventricular afterload, reflecting both resistive and pulsatile components. We aimed to test whether pulmonary Ea discriminates survivors from nonsurvivors in patients with pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease and if it does so better than other hemodynamic parameters associated with combined post- and precapillary pulmonary hypertension. We combined 3 large heart failure patient cohorts (n=1036) from academic hospitals, including patients with pulmonary hypertension due to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (n=232), reduced ejection fraction (n=335), and a mixed population (n=469). In unadjusted and 2 adjusted models, pulmonary Ea more robustly predicted mortality than pulmonary vascular resistance and the transpulmonary gradient. Along with pulmonary arterial compliance, pulmonary Ea remained predictive of survival in patients with normal pulmonary vascular resistance. The diastolic pulmonary gradient did not predict mortality. In addition, in a subset of patients with echocardiographic data, Ea and pulmonary arterial compliance were better discriminators of right ventricular dysfunction than the other parameters. Pulmonary Ea and pulmonary arterial compliance more consistently predicted mortality than pulmonary vascular resistance or transpulmonary gradient across a spectrum of left heart disease with pulmonary hypertension, including patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, and pulmonary hypertension with a normal pulmonary vascular resistance. © 2018 American Heart Association

  7. DNA Damage and Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchoux, Benoît; Meloche, Jolyane; Paulin, Roxane; Boucherat, Olivier; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is defined by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure over 25 mmHg at rest and is diagnosed by right heart catheterization. Among the different groups of PH, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by a progressive obstruction of distal pulmonary arteries, related to endothelial cell dysfunction and vascular cell proliferation, which leads to an increased pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular hypertrophy, and right heart failure. Although the primary trigger of PAH remains unknown, oxidative stress and inflammation have been shown to play a key role in the development and progression of vascular remodeling. These factors are known to increase DNA damage that might favor the emergence of the proliferative and apoptosis-resistant phenotype observed in PAH vascular cells. High levels of DNA damage were reported to occur in PAH lungs and remodeled arteries as well as in animal models of PH. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that impaired DNA-response mechanisms may lead to an increased mutagen sensitivity in PAH patients. Finally, PAH was linked with decreased breast cancer 1 protein (BRCA1) and DNA topoisomerase 2-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) expression, both involved in maintaining genome integrity. This review aims to provide an overview of recent evidence of DNA damage and DNA repair deficiency and their implication in PAH pathogenesis. PMID:27338373

  8. Adventitial fibroblasts induce a distinct proinflammatory/profibrotic macrophage phenotype in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kasmi, Karim C; Pugliese, Steven C; Riddle, Suzette R; Poth, Jens M; Anderson, Aimee L; Frid, Maria G; Li, Min; Pullamsetti, Soni S; Savai, Rajkumar; Nagel, Maria A; Fini, Mehdi A; Graham, Brian B; Tuder, Rubin M; Friedman, Jacob E; Eltzschig, Holger K; Sokol, Ronald J; Stenmark, Kurt R

    2014-07-15

    Macrophage accumulation is not only a characteristic hallmark but is also a critical component of pulmonary artery remodeling associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that drive vascular macrophage activation and their functional phenotype remain poorly defined. Using multiple levels of in vivo (bovine and rat models of hypoxia-induced PH, together with human tissue samples) and in vitro (primary mouse, rat, and bovine macrophages, human monocytes, and primary human and bovine fibroblasts) approaches, we observed that adventitial fibroblasts derived from hypertensive pulmonary arteries (bovine and human) regulate macrophage activation. These fibroblasts activate macrophages through paracrine IL-6 and STAT3, HIF1, and C/EBPβ signaling to drive expression of genes previously implicated in chronic inflammation, tissue remodeling, and PH. This distinct fibroblast-activated macrophage phenotype was independent of IL-4/IL-13-STAT6 and TLR-MyD88 signaling. We found that genetic STAT3 haplodeficiency in macrophages attenuated macrophage activation, complete STAT3 deficiency increased macrophage activation through compensatory upregulation of STAT1 signaling, and deficiency in C/EBPβ or HIF1 attenuated fibroblast-driven macrophage activation. These findings challenge the current paradigm of IL-4/IL-13-STAT6-mediated alternative macrophage activation as the sole driver of vascular remodeling in PH, and uncover a cross-talk between adventitial fibroblasts and macrophages in which paracrine IL-6-activated STAT3, HIF1α, and C/EBPβ signaling are critical for macrophage activation and polarization. Thus, targeting IL-6 signaling in macrophages by completely inhibiting C/EBPβ or HIF1α or by partially inhibiting STAT3 may hold therapeutic value for treatment of PH and other inflammatory conditions characterized by increased IL-6 and absent IL-4/IL-13 signaling. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists

  9. Upregulation of Klotho potentially inhibits pulmonary vascular remodeling by blocking the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in rats with PM2.5-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Lu-Hong; Du, Shi-Yu; Wu, Yi-Na; Liu, Ying; Li, Tao; Wang, Hui; Li, Gang; Duan, Jun

    2018-01-30

    We evaluated the effects of Klotho on pulmonary vascular remodeling and cell proliferation and apoptosis in rat models with PM2.5-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) via the Wnt signaling pathway. After establishing rat models of PM2.5-induced PAH, these Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomized into control and model groups. Cells extracted from the model rats were sub-categorized into different groups. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling transcription factor was detected by a TOPFlash/FOPFlash assay. A serial of experiment was conducted to identify the mechanism of Klotho on PHA via the Wnt signaling pathway. VEGF levels and PaCO 2 content were higher in the model group, while PaO 2, NO 2 - /NO 3 - content and Klotho level was lower compared to the control group. In comparison to the control group, the model group had decreased Klotho and Bax levels, and elevated Wnt-1, β-catenin, bcl-2, survivin, and PCNA expression, VEGF, IL-6, TNF-α, TNF-β1, and bFGF levels, as well as the percentage of pulmonary artery ring contraction. The Klotho vector, DKK-1 and DKK-1 + Klotho vector groups exhibited reduced cell proliferation, luciferase activity, and the expression of Wnt-1, β-catenin, bcl-2, survivin, and PCNA, as well as shortened S phase compared with the blank and NC groups. Compared with the Klotho vector and DKK-1 groups, the DKK-1 + Klotho vector groups had reduced cell proliferation, luciferase activity, and the expression of Wnt-1, β-catenin, bcl-2, survivin, and PCNA, as well as a shortened S phase. Conclusively, Klotho inhibits pulmonary vascular remodeling by inactivation of Wnt signaling pathway. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Pulmonary microvascular hyperpermeability and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in smoke inhalation- and pneumonia-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Matthias; Hamahata, Atsumori; Traber, Daniel L; Connelly, Rhykka; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Traber, Lillian D; Schmalstieg, Frank C; Herndon, David N; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2012-11-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and sepsis are major contributors to the morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. The current study was designed further evaluate the mechanism of pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability in sheep with these injuries. Sheep were randomized to a sham-injured control group (n=6) or ALI/sepsis group (n=7). The sheep in the ALI/sepsis group received inhalation injury followed by instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa into the lungs. These groups were monitored for 24 h. Additional sheep (n=16) received the injury and lung tissue was harvested at different time points to measure lung wet/dry weight ratio, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein expression as well as 3-nitrotyrosine protein expression in lung homogenates. The injury induced severe deterioration in pulmonary gas exchange, increases in lung lymph flow and protein content, and lung water content (P<0.01 each). These alterations were associated with elevated lung and plasma nitrite/nitrate concentrations, increased tracheal blood flow, and enhanced VEGF mRNA and protein expression in lung tissue as well as enhanced 3-nitrotyrosine protein expression (P<0.05 each). This study describes the time course of pulmonary microvascular hyperpermeability in a clinical relevant large animal model and may improve the experimental design of future studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Propylthiouracil Attenuates Experimental Pulmonary Hypertension via Suppression of Pen-2, a Key Component of Gamma-Secretase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ju Lai

    Full Text Available Gamma-secretase-mediated Notch3 signaling is involved in smooth muscle cell (SMC hyper-activity and proliferation leading to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. In addition, Propylthiouracil (PTU, beyond its anti-thyroid action, has suppressive effects on atherosclerosis and PAH. Here, we investigated the possible involvement of gamma-secretase-mediated Notch3 signaling in PTU-inhibited PAH. In rats with monocrotaline-induced PAH, PTU therapy improved pulmonary arterial hypertrophy and hemodynamics. In vitro, treatment of PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats with PTU inhibited their proliferation and migration. Immunocyto, histochemistry, and western blot showed that PTU treatment attenuated the activation of Notch3 signaling in PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats, which was mediated via inhibition of gamma-secretase expression especially its presenilin enhancer 2 (Pen-2 subunit. Furthermore, over-expression of Pen-2 in PASMCs from control rats increased the capacity of migration, whereas knockdown of Pen-2 with its respective siRNA in PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats had an opposite effect. Transfection of PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats with Pen-2 siRNA blocked the inhibitory effect of PTU on PASMC proliferation and migration, reflecting the crucial role of Pen-2 in PTU effect. We present a novel cell-signaling paradigm in which overexpression of Pen-2 is essential for experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension to promote motility and growth of smooth muscle cells. Propylthiouracil attenuates experimental PAH via suppression of the gamma-secretase-mediated Notch3 signaling especially its presenilin enhancer 2 (Pen-2 subunit. These findings provide a deep insight into the pathogenesis of PAH and a novel therapeutic strategy.

  12. Treatment Effect of Balloon Pulmonary Angioplasty in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension Quantified by Automatic Comparative Imaging in Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zhiwei; Ota, Hideki; Staring, Marius; Stolk, Jan; Sugimura, Koichiro; Takase, Kei; Stoel, Berend C

    2018-05-01

    Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) in patients with inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) can have variable outcomes. To gain more insight into this variation, we designed a method for visualizing and quantifying changes in pulmonary perfusion by automatically comparing computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography before and after BPA treatment. We validated these quantifications of perfusion changes against hemodynamic changes measured with right-sided heart catheterization. We studied 14 consecutive CTEPH patients (12 women; age, 70.5 ± 24), who underwent CT pulmonary angiography and right-sided heart catheterization, before and after BPA. Posttreatment images were registered to pretreatment CT scans (using the Elastix toolbox) to obtain corresponding locations. Pulmonary vascular trees and their centerlines were detected using a graph cuts method and a distance transform method, respectively. Areas distal from vessels were defined as pulmonary parenchyma. Subsequently, the density changes within the vascular centerlines and parenchymal areas were calculated and corrected for inspiration level differences. For visualization, the densitometric changes were displayed in color-coded overlays. For quantification, the median and interquartile range of the density changes in the vascular and parenchymal areas (ΔVD and ΔPD) were calculated. The recorded changes in hemodynamic parameters, including changes in systolic, diastolic, and mean pulmonary artery pressure (ΔsPAP, ΔdPAP, and ΔmPAP, respectively) and vascular resistance (ΔPVR), were used as reference assessments of the treatment effect. Spearman correlation coefficients were employed to investigate the correlations between changes in perfusion and hemodynamic changes. Comparative imaging maps showed distinct patterns in perfusion changes among patients. Within pulmonary vessels, the interquartile range of ΔVD correlated significantly with ΔsPAP (R = -0.58, P = 0.03),

  13. Gallic acid attenuates pulmonary fibrosis in a mouse model of transverse aortic contraction-induced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li; Piao, Zhe Hao; Sun, Simei; Liu, Bin; Ryu, Yuhee; Choi, Sin Young; Kim, Gwi Ran; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kee, Hae Jin; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2017-12-01

    Gallic acid, a trihydroxybenzoic acid found in tea and other plants, attenuates cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and hypertension in animal models. However, the role of gallic acid in heart failure remains unknown. In this study, we show that gallic acid administration prevents heart failure-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Heart failure induced in mice, 8weeks after transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgery, was confirmed by echocardiography. Treatment for 2weeks with gallic acid but not furosemide prevented cardiac dysfunction in mice. Gallic acid significantly inhibited TAC-induced pathological changes in the lungs, such as increased lung mass, pulmonary fibrosis, and damaged alveolar morphology. It also decreased the expression of fibrosis-related genes, including collagen types I and III, fibronectin, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and phosphorylated Smad3. Further, it inhibited the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes, such as N-cadherin, vimentin, E-cadherin, SNAI1, and TWIST1. We suggest that gallic acid has therapeutic potential for the treatment of heart failure-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Targeting of the pulmonary capillary vascular niche promotes lung alveolar repair and ameliorates fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhongwei; Lis, Raphael; Ginsberg, Michael; Chavez, Deebly; Shido, Koji; Rabbany, Sina Y; Fong, Guo-Hua; Sakmar, Thomas P; Rafii, Shahin; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-02-01

    Although the lung can undergo self-repair after injury, fibrosis in chronically injured or diseased lungs can occur at the expense of regeneration. Here we study how a hematopoietic-vascular niche regulates alveolar repair and lung fibrosis. Using intratracheal injection of bleomycin or hydrochloric acid in mice, we show that repetitive lung injury activates pulmonary capillary endothelial cells (PCECs) and perivascular macrophages, impeding alveolar repair and promoting fibrosis. Whereas the chemokine receptor CXCR7, expressed on PCECs, acts to prevent epithelial damage and ameliorate fibrosis after a single round of treatment with bleomycin or hydrochloric acid, repeated injury leads to suppression of CXCR7 expression and recruitment of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1)-expressing perivascular macrophages. This recruitment stimulates Wnt/β-catenin-dependent persistent upregulation of the Notch ligand Jagged1 (encoded by Jag1) in PCECs, which in turn stimulates exuberant Notch signaling in perivascular fibroblasts and enhances fibrosis. Administration of a CXCR7 agonist or PCEC-targeted Jag1 shRNA after lung injury promotes alveolar repair and reduces fibrosis. Thus, targeting of a maladapted hematopoietic-vascular niche, in which macrophages, PCECs and perivascular fibroblasts interact, may help to develop therapy to spur lung regeneration and alleviate fibrosis.

  15. Targeting of the pulmonary capillary vascular niche promotes lung alveolar repair and ameliorates fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhongwei; Lis, Raphael; Ginsberg, Michael; Chavez, Deebly; Shido, Koji; Rabbany, Sina Y.; Fong, Guo-Hua; Sakmar, Thomas P.; Rafii, Shahin; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Although the lung can undergo self-repair after injury, fibrosis in chronically injured or diseased lungs can occur at the expense of regeneration. Here we study how a hematopoietic-vascular niche regulates alveolar repair and lung fibrosis. Using intratracheal injection of bleomycin or hydrochloric acid in mice, we show that repetitive lung injury activates pulmonary capillary endothelial cells (PCECs) and perivascular macrophages, impeding alveolar repair and promoting fibrosis. Whereas the chemokine receptor CXCR7, expressed on PCECs, acts to prevent epithelial damage and ameliorate fibrosis after a single round of treatment with bleomycin or hydrochloric acid, repeated injury leads to suppression of CXCR7 expression and recruitment of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1)-expressing perivascular macrophages. This recruitment stimulates Wnt/β-catenin–dependent persistent upregulation of the Notch ligand Jagged1 (encoded by Jag1) in PCECs, which in turn stimulates exuberant Notch signaling in perivascular fibroblasts and enhances fibrosis. Administration of a CXCR7 agonist or PCEC-targeted Jag1 shRNA after lung injury promotes alveolar repair and reduces fibrosis. Thus, targeting of a maladaptbed hematopoietic-vascular niche, in which macrophages, PCECs and perivascular fibroblasts interact, may help to develop therapy to spur lung regeneration and alleviate fibrosis. PMID:26779814

  16. Optimisation of window settings for traditional and noise-optimised virtual monoenergetic imaging in dual-energy computed tomography pulmonary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, Tommaso; ''G. Martino'' University Hospital, Messina; Bucher, Andreas M.; Lenga, Lukas; Arendt, Christophe T.; Peterke, Julia L.; Martin, Simon S.; Leithner, Doris; Vogl, Thomas J.; Wichmann, Julian L.; Caruso, Damiano; University Hospital, Latina; Mazziotti, Silvio; Blandino, Alfredo; Ascenti, Giorgio; University Hospital, Messina; Othman, Ahmed E.

    2018-01-01

    To define optimal window settings for displaying virtual monoenergetic images (VMI) of dual-energy CT pulmonary angiography (DE-CTPA). Forty-five patients who underwent clinically-indicated third-generation dual-source DE-CTPA were retrospectively evaluated. Standard linearly-blended (M 0 .6), 70-keV traditional VMI (M70), and 40-keV noise-optimised VMI (M40+) reconstructions were analysed. For M70 and M40+ datasets, the subjectively best window setting (width and level, B-W/L) was independently determined by two observers and subsequently related with pulmonary artery attenuation to calculate separate optimised values (O-W/L) using linear regression. Subjective evaluation of image quality (IQ) between W/L settings were assessed by two additional readers. Repeated measures of variance were performed to compare W/L settings and IQ indices between M 0 .6, M70, and M40+. B-W/L and O-W/L for M70 were 460/140 and 450/140, and were 1100/380 and 1070/380 for M40+, respectively, differing from standard DE-CTPA W/L settings (450/100). Highest subjective scores were observed for M40+ regarding vascular contrast, embolism demarcation, and overall IQ (all p<0.001). Application of O-W/L settings is beneficial to optimise subjective IQ of VMI reconstructions of DE-CTPA. A width slightly less than two times the pulmonary trunk attenuation and a level approximately of overall pulmonary vessel attenuation are recommended. (orig.)

  17. Natriuretic peptide receptor-C activation attenuates angiotensin II-induced enhanced oxidative stress and hyperproliferation of aortic vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiraju, Padma; Hossain, Ekhtear; Anand-Srivastava, Madhu B

    2018-02-07

    We showed previously that natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPR-C) agonist, C-ANP 4-23 , attenuated the enhanced expression of Giα proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) through the inhibition of enhanced oxidative stress. Since the enhanced levels of endogenous angiotensin II (Ang II) contribute to the overexpression of Giα proteins and augmented oxidative stress in VSMC from SHR, the present study was undertaken to investigate if C-ANP 4-23 could also attenuate angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced oxidative stress and associated signaling. Ang II treatment of aortic VSMC augmented the levels of superoxide anion (O 2 - ), NADPH oxidase activity, and the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits and C-ANP 4-23 treatment attenuated all these to control levels. In addition, Ang II-induced enhanced levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyl content were also attenuated toward control levels by C-ANP 4-23 treatment. On the other hand, Ang II inhibited the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and augmented the levels of peroxynitrite (OONO - ) in VSMC which were restored to control levels by C-ANP 4-23 treatment. Furthermore, C-ANP 4-23 treatment attenuated Ang II-induced enhanced expression of Giα proteins, phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK 1,2 as well as hyperproliferation of VSMC as determined by DNA synthesis, and metabolic activity. These results indicate that C-ANP 4-23 , via the activation of NPR-C, attenuates Ang II-induced enhanced nitroxidative stress, overexpression of Giα proteins, increased activation of the p38/JNK/ERK 1,2 signaling pathways, and hyperproliferation of VSMC. It may be suggested that C-ANP 4-23 could be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of vascular remodeling associated with hypertension and atherosclerosis.

  18. Quercetin Attenuates Vascular Calcification through Suppressed Oxidative Stress in Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Failure Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-ying Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study investigated whether quercetin could alleviate vascular calcification in experimental chronic renal failure rats induced by adenine. Methods. 32 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups fed normal diet, normal diet with quercetin supplementation (25 mg/kg·BW/d, 0.75% adenine diet, or adenine diet with quercetin supplementation. All rats were sacrificed after 6 weeks of intervention. Serum renal functions biomarkers and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured and status of vascular calcification in aorta was assessed. Furthermore, the induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK pathway was determined to explore the potential mechanism. Results. Adenine successfully induced renal failure and vascular calcification in rat model. Quercetin supplementation reversed unfavorable changes of phosphorous, uric acid (UA and creatinine levels, malonaldehyde (MDA content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in serum and the increases of calcium and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in the aorta (P<0.05 and attenuated calcification and calcium accumulation in the medial layer of vasculature in histopathology. Western blot analysis showed that iNOS/p38MAPK pathway was normalized by the quercetin supplementation. Conclusions. Quercetin exerted a protective effect on vascular calcification in adenine-induced chronic renal failure rats, possibly through the modulation of oxidative stress and iNOs/p38MAPK pathway.

  19. Treatment of pediatric pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Hawkins

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Amy Hawkins, Robert TullohDepartment of Congenital Heart Disease, Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, Bristol UKAbstract: Pulmonary hypertension was once thought to be a rare condition and only managed in specialized centers. Now however, with the advent of echocardiography, it is found in many clinical scenarios, in the neonate with chronic lung disease, in the acute setting in the intensive care unit, in connective tissue disease and in cardiology pre- and postoperatively. We have a better understanding of the pathological process and have a range of medication which is starting to be able to palliate this previously fatal condition. This review describes the areas that are known in this condition and those that are less familiar. The basic physiology behind pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular disease is explained. The histopathologic process and the various diagnostic tools are described and are followed by the current and future therapy at our disposal.Keywords: pulmonary hypertension, congenital heart disease, pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary vasodilators

  20. Aerobic exercise training does not alter vascular structure and function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinas, Jinelle C; Lewis, Nia C; Harper, Megan I; Melzer, Bernie; Agar, Gloria; Rolf, J Douglass; Eves, Neil D

    2017-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffness and systemic inflammation, which are linked to increased cardiovascular disease risk. We asked whether periodized aerobic exercise training could improve vascular structure and function in patients with COPD. What is the main finding and its importance? Eight weeks of periodized aerobic training did not improve endothelial function, arterial stiffness or systemic inflammation in COPD, despite improvements in aerobic capacity, blood pressure and dyspnoea. Short-term training programmes may not be long enough to improve vascular-related cardiovascular risk in COPD. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been associated with endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening, which are predictive of future cardiovascular events. Although aerobic exercise improves vascular function in healthy individuals and those with chronic disease, it is unknown whether aerobic exercise can positively modify the vasculature in COPD. We examined the effects of 8 weeks of periodized aerobic training on vascular structure and function and inflammation in 24 patients with COPD (age, 69 ± 7 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second as a percentage of predicted (FEV 1 %pred), 68 ± 19%) and 20 matched control subjects (age, 64 ± 5 years; FEV 1 %pred, 113 ± 16%) for comparison. Endothelial function was measured using brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation, whereas central and peripheral pulse wave velocity, carotid artery intima-media thickness, carotid compliance, distensibility and β-stiffness index were measured using applanation tonometry and ultrasound. Peak aerobic power (V̇O2 peak ) was measured using an incremental cycling test. Upper and lower body cycling training was performed three times per week for 8 weeks, and designed to optimize vascular adaptation by increasing and sustaining vascular

  1. MR imaging of the pulmonary vasculature - an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Mark R.; Fisher, Mark T. [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Beek, Edwin J.R. van [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, JPP 3895, Department of Radiology, Iowa City, Iowa (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Although the advent of multi-detector row computed tomography (CT) angiography has been at the heart of improving the diagnostic management of pulmonary vascular disease, MR technology has also moved forward. This review outlines the current state of affairs of MR techniques for the assessment of pulmonary vascular diseases such as pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary arteritis and arteriovenous malformations. It highlights the main areas of MR angiography and MR perfusion imaging and discusses novel methods, such as non-contrast enhanced direct thrombus imaging, and will discuss its merits in the context of other diagnostic modalities. (orig.)

  2. Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Antibody Suppresses ERK and NF-κB Activation in Ischemia-Reperfusion Lung Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou-Chin Lan

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion (IR-induced acute lung injury (ALI is implicated in several clinical conditions like lung transplantation, acute pulmonary embolism after thrombolytic therapy, re-expansion of collapsed lung from pneumothorax or pleural effusion, cardiopulmonary bypass and etc. Because mortality remains high despite advanced medical care, prevention and treatment are important clinical issues for IR-induced ALI. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has a controversial role in ALI. We therefore conducted this study to determine the effects of anti-VEGF antibody in IR-induced ALI. In the current study, the IR-induced ALI was conducted in a rat model of isolated-perfused lung in situ in the chest. The animals were divided into the control, control + preconditioning anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab, 5mg/kg, IR, IR + preconditioning anti-VEGF antibody (1mg/kg, IR+ preconditioning anti-VEGF antibody (5mg/kg and IR+ post-IR anti-VEGF antibody (5mg/kg group. There were eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in each group. The IR caused significant pulmonary micro-vascular hyper-permeability, pulmonary edema, neutrophilic infiltration in lung tissues, increased tumor necrosis factor-α, and total protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. VEGF and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK were increased in IR-induced ALI. Administration of preconditioning anti-VEGF antibody significantly suppressed the VEGF and ERK expressions and attenuated the IR-induced lung injury. This study demonstrates the important role of VEGF in early IR-induced ALI. The beneficial effects of preconditioning anti-VEGF antibody in IR-induced ALI include the attenuation of lung injury, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and neutrophilic infiltration into the lung tissues.

  3. Functional Mechanism of Lung Mosaic CT Attenuation: Assessment with Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold Perfusion SPECT-CT Fusion Imaging and Non-Breath-Hold Technegas SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, K.; Yasuhiko, K.; Iwanaga, H.; Tokuda, O.; Matsunaga, N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The functional mechanism of lung mosaic computed tomography attenuation (MCA) in pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) and obstructive airway disease (OAD) has not yet been fully clarified. Purpose: To clarify the mechanism of MCA in these diseases by assessing the relationship between regional lung function and CT attenuation change at MCA sites with the use of automated deep-inspiratory breath-hold (DIBrH) perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-CT fusion images and non-breath-hold Technegas SPECT. Material and Methods: Subjects were 42 PVD patients (31 pulmonary thromboembolism, four primary/two secondary pulmonary hypertension, and five Takayasu arteritis), 12 OAD patients (five acute asthma, four obliterative bronchiolitis, and three bronchiectasis), and 12 normal controls, all of whom had MCA on DIBrH CT. The relationship between regional lung function and CT attenuation change at the lung slices with MCA was assessed using DIBrH perfusion SPECT-CT fusion images and non-breath-hold Technegas SPECT. The severity of perfusion defects with or without MCA was quantified by regions-of-interest analysis. Results: On DIBrH CT and perfusion SPECT, in contrast to no noticeable CT attenuation abnormality and fairly uniform perfusion in controls, 60 MCA and 274 perfusion defects in PVD patients, and 18 MCA and 61 defects in OAD patients were identified, with a total of 77 ventilation defects on Technegas SPECT in all patients. SPECT-CT correlation showed that, throughout the 78 MCA sites of all patients, lung perfusion was persistently decreased at low CT attenuation and preserved at intervening high CT attenuation, while lung ventilation was poorly correlated with CT attenuation change. The radioactivity ratios of reduced perfusion and the intervening preserved perfusion at the 78 perfusion defects with MCA were significantly lower than those at the remaining 257 defects without MCA (P<0.0001). Conclusion: Although further validation is

  4. Functional Mechanism of Lung Mosaic CT Attenuation: Assessment with Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold Perfusion SPECT-CT Fusion Imaging and Non-Breath-Hold Technegas SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suga, K.; Yasuhiko, K. (Dept. of Radiology, St. Hill Hospital, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan)); Iwanaga, H.; Tokuda, O.; Matsunaga, N. (Dept. of Radiology, Yamaguchi Univ. School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan))

    2009-01-15

    Background: The functional mechanism of lung mosaic computed tomography attenuation (MCA) in pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) and obstructive airway disease (OAD) has not yet been fully clarified. Purpose: To clarify the mechanism of MCA in these diseases by assessing the relationship between regional lung function and CT attenuation change at MCA sites with the use of automated deep-inspiratory breath-hold (DIBrH) perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-CT fusion images and non-breath-hold Technegas SPECT. Material and Methods: Subjects were 42 PVD patients (31 pulmonary thromboembolism, four primary/two secondary pulmonary hypertension, and five Takayasu arteritis), 12 OAD patients (five acute asthma, four obliterative bronchiolitis, and three bronchiectasis), and 12 normal controls, all of whom had MCA on DIBrH CT. The relationship between regional lung function and CT attenuation change at the lung slices with MCA was assessed using DIBrH perfusion SPECT-CT fusion images and non-breath-hold Technegas SPECT. The severity of perfusion defects with or without MCA was quantified by regions-of-interest analysis. Results: On DIBrH CT and perfusion SPECT, in contrast to no noticeable CT attenuation abnormality and fairly uniform perfusion in controls, 60 MCA and 274 perfusion defects in PVD patients, and 18 MCA and 61 defects in OAD patients were identified, with a total of 77 ventilation defects on Technegas SPECT in all patients. SPECT-CT correlation showed that, throughout the 78 MCA sites of all patients, lung perfusion was persistently decreased at low CT attenuation and preserved at intervening high CT attenuation, while lung ventilation was poorly correlated with CT attenuation change. The radioactivity ratios of reduced perfusion and the intervening preserved perfusion at the 78 perfusion defects with MCA were significantly lower than those at the remaining 257 defects without MCA (P<0.0001). Conclusion: Although further validation is

  5. Functional mechanism of lung mosaic CT attenuation: assessment with deep-inspiration breath-hold perfusion SPECT-CT fusion imaging and non-breath-hold Technegas SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, K; Yasuhiko, K; Iwanaga, H; Tokuda, O; Matsunaga, N

    2009-01-01

    The functional mechanism of lung mosaic computed tomography attenuation (MCA) in pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) and obstructive airway disease (OAD) has not yet been fully clarified. To clarify the mechanism of MCA in these diseases by assessing the relationship between regional lung function and CT attenuation change at MCA sites with the use of automated deep-inspiratory breath-hold (DIBrH) perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-CT fusion images and non-breath-hold Technegas SPECT. Subjects were 42 PVD patients (31 pulmonary thromboembolism, four primary/two secondary pulmonary hypertension, and five Takayasu arteritis), 12 OAD patients (five acute asthma, four obliterative bronchiolitis, and three bronchiectasis), and 12 normal controls, all of whom had MCA on DIBrH CT. The relationship between regional lung function and CT attenuation change at the lung slices with MCA was assessed using DIBrH perfusion SPECT-CT fusion images and non-breath-hold Technegas SPECT. The severity of perfusion defects with or without MCA was quantified by regions-of-interest analysis. On DIBrH CT and perfusion SPECT, in contrast to no noticeable CT attenuation abnormality and fairly uniform perfusion in controls, 60 MCA and 274 perfusion defects in PVD patients, and 18 MCA and 61 defects in OAD patients were identified, with a total of 77 ventilation defects on Technegas SPECT in all patients. SPECT-CT correlation showed that, throughout the 78 MCA sites of all patients, lung perfusion was persistently decreased at low CT attenuation and preserved at intervening high CT attenuation, while lung ventilation was poorly correlated with CT attenuation change. The radioactivity ratios of reduced perfusion and the intervening preserved perfusion at the 78 perfusion defects with MCA were significantly lower than those at the remaining 257 defects without MCA (P<0.0001). Although further validation is required, our results indicate that heterogeneous pulmonary arterial

  6. Vascular structure determines pulmonary blood flow distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlastala, M. P.; Glenny, R. W.

    1999-01-01

    Scientific knowledge develops through the evolution of new concepts. This process is usually driven by new methodologies that provide observations not previously available. Understanding of pulmonary blood flow determinants advanced significantly in the 1960s and is now changing rapidly again, because of increased spatial resolution of regional pulmonary blood flow measurements.

  7. Study of the therapeutic benefit of cationic copolymer administration to vascular endothelium under mechanical stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giantsos-Adams, Kristina; Lopez-Quintero, Veronica; Kopeckova, Pavla; Kopecek, Jindrich; Tarbell, John M.; Dull, Randal

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary edema and the associated increases in vascular permeability continue to represent a significant clinical problem in the intensive care setting, with no current treatment modality other than supportive care and mechanical ventilation. Therapeutic compound(s) capable of attenuating changes in vascular barrier function would represent a significant advance in critical care medicine. We have previously reported the development of HPMA-based copolymers, targeted to endothelial glycocalyx that are able to enhance barrier function. In this work, we report the refinement of copolymer design and extend our physiological studies todemonstrate that the polymers: 1) reduce both shear stress and pressure-mediated increase in hydraulic conductivity, 2) reduce nitric oxide production in response to elevated hydrostatic pressure and, 3) reduce the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) in an isolated perfused mouse lung model. These copolymers represent an important tool for use in mechanotransduction research and a novel strategy for developing clinically useful copolymers for the treatment of vascular permeability. PMID:20932573

  8. Prognostic Value of Pulmonary Vascular Resistance by Magnetic Resonance in Systolic Heart Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabregat-Andrés, Óscar, E-mail: osfabregat@gmail.com [Departamento de Cardiologia - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Fundación para la Investigación - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Estornell-Erill, Jordi [Unidad de Imagen Cardiaca - ERESA - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Ridocci-Soriano, Francisco [Departamento de Cardiologia - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Medicina. Universitat de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Pérez-Boscá, José Leandro [Departamento de Cardiologia - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); García-González, Pilar [Unidad de Imagen Cardiaca - ERESA - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Payá-Serrano, Rafael [Departamento de Cardiologia - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Medicina. Universitat de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Morell, Salvador [Departamento de Cardiologia - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Cortijo, Julio [Fundación para la Investigación - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Farmacologia. Universitat de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    Pulmonary hypertension is associated with poor prognosis in heart failure. However, non-invasive diagnosis is still challenging in clinical practice. We sought to assess the prognostic utility of non-invasive estimation of pulmonary vascular resistances (PVR) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance to predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Prospective registry of patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 40% and recently admitted for decompensated heart failure during three years. PVRwere calculated based on right ventricular ejection fraction and average velocity of the pulmonary artery estimated during cardiac magnetic resonance. Readmission for heart failure and all-cause mortality were considered as adverse events at follow-up. 105 patients (average LVEF 26.0 ±7.7%, ischemic etiology 43%) were included. Patients with adverse events at long-term follow-up had higher values of PVR (6.93 ± 1.9 vs. 4.6 ± 1.7estimated Wood Units (eWu), p < 0.001). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, PVR ≥ 5 eWu(cutoff value according to ROC curve) was independently associated with increased risk of adverse events at 9 months follow-up (HR2.98; 95% CI 1.12-7.88; p < 0.03). In patients with HFrEF, the presence of PVR ≥ 5.0 Wu is associated with significantly worse clinical outcome at follow-up. Non-invasive estimation of PVR by cardiac magnetic resonance might be useful for risk stratification in HFrEF, irrespective of etiology, presence of late gadolinium enhancement or LVEF.

  9. Prognostic Value of Pulmonary Vascular Resistance by Magnetic Resonance in Systolic Heart Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabregat-Andrés, Óscar; Estornell-Erill, Jordi; Ridocci-Soriano, Francisco; Pérez-Boscá, José Leandro; García-González, Pilar; Payá-Serrano, Rafael; Morell, Salvador; Cortijo, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is associated with poor prognosis in heart failure. However, non-invasive diagnosis is still challenging in clinical practice. We sought to assess the prognostic utility of non-invasive estimation of pulmonary vascular resistances (PVR) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance to predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Prospective registry of patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 40% and recently admitted for decompensated heart failure during three years. PVRwere calculated based on right ventricular ejection fraction and average velocity of the pulmonary artery estimated during cardiac magnetic resonance. Readmission for heart failure and all-cause mortality were considered as adverse events at follow-up. 105 patients (average LVEF 26.0 ±7.7%, ischemic etiology 43%) were included. Patients with adverse events at long-term follow-up had higher values of PVR (6.93 ± 1.9 vs. 4.6 ± 1.7estimated Wood Units (eWu), p < 0.001). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, PVR ≥ 5 eWu(cutoff value according to ROC curve) was independently associated with increased risk of adverse events at 9 months follow-up (HR2.98; 95% CI 1.12-7.88; p < 0.03). In patients with HFrEF, the presence of PVR ≥ 5.0 Wu is associated with significantly worse clinical outcome at follow-up. Non-invasive estimation of PVR by cardiac magnetic resonance might be useful for risk stratification in HFrEF, irrespective of etiology, presence of late gadolinium enhancement or LVEF

  10. Pulmonary Arterial Stiffness: Toward a New Paradigm in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Pathophysiology and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Michal; Myers, Cynthia; Brown, R Dale; Frid, Maria G; Tan, Wei; Hunter, Kendall; Stenmark, Kurt R

    2016-01-01

    Stiffening of the pulmonary arterial bed with the subsequent increased load on the right ventricle is a paramount feature of pulmonary hypertension (PH). The pathophysiology of vascular stiffening is a complex and self-reinforcing function of extracellular matrix remodeling, driven by recruitment of circulating inflammatory cells and their interactions with resident vascular cells, and mechanotransduction of altered hemodynamic forces throughout the ventricular-vascular axis. New approaches to understanding the cell and molecular determinants of the pathophysiology combine novel biopolymer substrates, controlled flow conditions, and defined cell types to recapitulate the biomechanical environment in vitro. Simultaneously, advances are occurring to assess novel parameters of stiffness in vivo. In this comprehensive state-of-art review, we describe clinical hemodynamic markers, together with the newest translational echocardiographic and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging methods, to assess vascular stiffness and ventricular-vascular coupling. Finally, fluid-tissue interactions appear to offer a novel route of investigating the mechanotransduction processes and disease progression.

  11. Circulating microparticles in severe pulmonary arterial hypertension increase intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression selectively in pulmonary artery endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie A. Blair

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microparticles (MPs stimulate inflammatory adhesion molecule expression in systemic vascular diseases, however it is unknown whether circulating MPs stimulate localized ICAM-1 expression in the heterogeneically distinct pulmonary endothelium during pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. Pulmonary vascular lesions with infiltrating inflammatory cells in PAH form in the pulmonary arteries and arterioles, but not the microcirculation. Therefore, we sought to determine whether circulating MPs from PAH stimulate pulmonary artery endothelial cell-selective ICAM-1 expression. Results Pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs were exposed to MPs isolated from the circulation of a rat model of severe PAH. During late-stage (8-weeks PAH, but not early-stage (3-weeks, an increase in ICAM-1 was observed. To determine whether PAH MP-induced ICAM-1 was selective for a specific segment of the pulmonary circulation, pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs were exposed to late-stage PAH MPs and no increase in ICAM-1 was detected. A select population of circulating MPs, the late-stage endoglin + MPs, were used to assess their ability to stimulate ICAM-1 and it was determined that the endoglin + MPs were sufficient to promote ICAM-1 increases in the whole cell, but not surface only expression. Conclusions Late-stage, but not early-stage, MPs in a model of severe PAH selectively induce ICAM-1 in pulmonary artery endothelium, but not pulmonary microcirculation. Further, the selected endoglin + PAH MPs, but not endoglin + MPs from control, are sufficient to promote whole cell ICAM-1 in PAECs. The implications of this work are that MPs in late-stage PAH are capable of inducing ICAM-1 expression selectively in the pulmonary artery. ICAM-1 likely plays a significant role in the observed inflammatory cell recruitment, specifically to vascular lesions in the pulmonary artery and not the pulmonary microcirculation.

  12. X-ray CT evaluation of pulmonary involvements of sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Koichi; Izumi, Takateru; Kitaichi, Masanori

    1987-01-01

    We evaluated high resolution CT in 60 patients with histologically diagnosed pulmonary sarcoidosis and, also, studied the relationship between CT and findings in open lung biopsy specimens in 2 cases. The CT findings were as follows: (1) thickening of bronchial wall shadows (27 out of 60 cases, 45.0 %), (2) irregular enlargement of pulmonary vascular shadows (39 cases, 65.0 %), (3) small or large nodular shadows (24 cases, 40.0 %), (4) local volume loss (14 cases, 23.3 %), (5) slightly increased density of localized lung field areas (24 cases, 40.0 %), (6) pleural or subpleural involvement (27 cases, 45.0 %), (7) lymph node enlargement (59 cases, 98.3 %). X-ray CT in 7 patients revealed no evidence of lung field involvement in patients with histologicall confirmed epithelioid cell granuloma in transbronchial lung biopsy specimens. Lesions located within vessels or in the vascular wall, perivascular sheath or alveoli surrounding blood vessels might cause pulmonary vascular shadows to appear swollen on CT. In a comparative study, we found irregular dilatation of pulmonary vascular shadows corresponding to granulomas in the connective tissue sheath of blood vessels. Also, thickening of bronchial wall shadows corresponded to granulomas in and around the bronchial wall. From the point of histopathological view epithelioid cell granulomas in the bronchovascular sheath were most marked in sarcoidosis, and they apperaed on CT as an irregular enlargement of pulmonary vascular shadows and thickening of the bronchial wall. On the other hand, we reported that collapse of alveoli and fibrosis surrounding blood vessels could cause irregular enlargement of pulmonary vascular shadows on CT in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Such shadows were seen on CT in both sarcoidosis and IPF but the mechanism of their appearance differed. (J.P.N.)

  13. Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cell Interaction via FoxM1 Signaling Mediates Vascular Remodeling and Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhiyu; Zhu, Maggie M; Peng, Yi; Jin, Hua; Machireddy, Narsa; Qian, Zhijian; Zhang, Xianming; Zhao, You-Yang

    2018-04-17

    Angioproliferative vasculopathy is a hallmark of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, little is known how endothelial cell (EC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) crosstalk regulates the angioproliferative vascular remodeling. We aimed to investigate the role of EC and SMC interaction and underlying signaling pathways in PH development. SMC-specific Foxm1 or Cxcr4 knockout mice, EC-specific Foxm1 or Egln1 knockout mice, as well as EC-specific Egln1/Cxcl12 double knockout mice were used to assess the role of FoxM1 on SMC proliferation and PH. Lung tissues and cells from PAH patients were employed to validate clinical relevance. FoxM1 inhibitor Thiostrepton was used in Sugen 5416/hypoxia- and monocrotaline-challenged rats. FoxM1 expression was markedly upregulated in lungs and pulmonary arterial SMCs of idiopathic PAH patients and 4 discrete PH rodent models. Mice with SMC- (but not EC-) specific deletion of Foxm1 were protected from hypoxia- or Sugen 5416/hypoxia-induced PH. The upregulation of FoxM1 in SMCs induced by multiple EC-derived factors (PDGF-B, CXCL12, ET-1 and MIF) mediated SMC proliferation. Genetic deletion of endothelial Cxcl12 in Egln1Tie2Cre mice or loss of its cognate receptor Cxcr4 in SMCs in hypoxia-treated mice inhibited FoxM1 expression, SMC proliferation and PH. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition of FoxM1 inhibited severe PH in both Sugen 5416/hypoxia and monocrotaline-challenged rats. Multiple factors derived from dysfunctional ECs induced FoxM1 expression in SMCs and activated FoxM1-dependent SMC proliferation which contributes to pulmonary vascular remodeling and PH. Thus, targeting FoxM1 signaling represents a novel strategy for treatment of IPAH.

  14. Interleukin-6 overexpression induces pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, M Kathryn; Syrkina, Olga L; Kolliputi, Narasaish; Mark, Eugene J; Hales, Charles A; Waxman, Aaron B

    2009-01-30

    Inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 is elevated in the serum and lungs of patients with pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). Several animal models of PAH cite the potential role of inflammatory mediators. We investigated role of IL-6 in the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disease. Indices of pulmonary vascular remodeling were measured in lung-specific IL-6-overexpressing transgenic mice (Tg(+)) and compared to wild-type (Tg(-)) controls in both normoxic and chronic hypoxic conditions. The Tg(+) mice exhibited elevated right ventricular systolic pressures and right ventricular hypertrophy with corresponding pulmonary vasculopathic changes, all of which were exacerbated by chronic hypoxia. IL-6 overexpression increased muscularization of the proximal arterial tree, and hypoxia enhanced this effect. It also reproduced the muscularization and proliferative arteriopathy seen in the distal arteriolar vessels of PAH patients. The latter was characterized by the formation of occlusive neointimal angioproliferative lesions that worsened with hypoxia and were composed of endothelial cells and T-lymphocytes. IL-6-induced arteriopathic changes were accompanied by activation of proangiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, the proproliferative kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase, proproliferative transcription factors c-MYC and MAX, and the antiapoptotic proteins survivin and Bcl-2 and downregulation of the growth inhibitor transforming growth factor-beta and proapoptotic kinases JNK and p38. These findings suggest that IL-6 promotes the development and progression of pulmonary vascular remodeling and PAH through proproliferative antiapoptotic mechanisms.

  15. Pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayer, Stephen A; Liu, Yang

    2010-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension presenting in the neonatal period can be due to congenital heart malformations (most commonly associated with obstruction to pulmonary venous drainage), high output cardiac failure from large arteriovenous malformations and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Of these, the most common cause is PPHN. PPHN develops when pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) remains elevated after birth, resulting in right-to-left shunting of blood through foetal circulatory pathways. The PVR may remain elevated due to pulmonary hypoplasia, like that seen with congenital diaphragmatic hernia; maldevelopment of the pulmonary arteries, seen in meconium aspiration syndrome; and maladaption of the pulmonary vascular bed as occurs with perinatal asphyxia. These newborn patients typically require mechanical ventilatory support and those with underlying lung disease may benefit from high-frequency oscillatory ventilation or extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Direct pulmonary vasodilators, such as inhaled nitric oxide, have been shown to improve the outcome and reduce the need for ECMO. However, there is very limited experience with other pulmonary vasodilators. The goals for anaesthetic management are (1) to provide an adequate depth of anaesthesia to ablate the rise in PVR associated with surgical stimuli; (2) to maintain adequate ventilation and oxygenation; and (3) to be prepared to treat a pulmonary hypertensive crisis--an acute rise in PVR with associated cardiovascular collapse.

  16. Effects of bone marrow-derived cells on monocrotaline- and hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vainchenker William

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone marrow -derived cells (BMDCs can either limit or contribute to the process of pulmonary vascular remodeling. Whether the difference in their effects depends on the mechanism of pulmonary hypertension (PH remains unknown. Objectives We investigated the effect of BMDCs on PH induced in mice by either monocrotaline or exposure to chronic hypoxia. Methods Intravenous administration of the active monocrotaline metabolite (monocrotaline pyrrole, MCTp to C57BL/6 mice induced PH within 15 days, due to remodeling of small distal vessels. Three days after the MCTp injection, the mice were injected with BMDCs harvested from femurs and tibias of donor mice treated with 5-fluorouracil (3.5 mg IP/animal to deplete mature cells and to allow proliferation of progenitor cells. Results BMDCs significantly attenuated PH as assessed by reductions in right ventricular systolic pressure (20 ± 1 mmHg vs. 27 ± 1 mmHg, P ≤ 0.01, right ventricle weight/left ventricle+septum weight ratio (0.29 ± 0.02 vs. 0.36 ± 0.01, P ≤ 0.03, and percentage of muscularized vessels (26.4% vs. 33.5%, P ≤ 0.05, compared to control animals treated with irradiated BMDCs. Tracking cells from constitutive GFP-expressing male donor mice with anti-GFP antibodies or chromosome Y level measurement by quantitative real-time PCR showed BMDCs in the lung. In contrast, chronically hypoxic mice subjected to the same procedure failed to show improvement in PH. Conclusion These results show that BMDCs limit pulmonary vascular remodeling induced by vascular injury but not by hypoxia.

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension in infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhorn, Robin H.

    2013-01-01

    Normal pulmonary vascular development in infancy requires maintenance of low pulmonary vascular resistance after birth, and is necessary for normal lung function and growth. The developing lung is subject to multiple genetic, pathological and/or environmental influences that can adversely affect lung adaptation, development, and growth, leading to pulmonary hypertension. New classifications of pulmonary hypertension are beginning to account for these diverse phenotypes, and or pulmonary hypertension in infants due to PPHN, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The most effective pharmacotherapeutic strategies for infants with PPHN are directed at selective reduction of PVR, and take advantage of a rapidly advancing understanding of the altered signaling pathways in the remodeled vasculature. PMID:24083892

  18. Evaluation of the pulmonary vascular bed by digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikuwa, Masahiro; Asai, Sadahiro; Hara, Shiro; Yamasa, Toshihiko; Miyahara, Yoshiyuki; Hara, Kohei; Nishijima, Kyoji.

    1995-01-01

    We studied the usefulness of digital subtraction angiography for evaluating the pulmonary capillary bed. Four individuals underwent the procedure. One was a healthy volunteer and the others were patients with chronic pulmonary emphysema. During catheterization, an 8 F balloon catheter was manipulated into the right pulmonary artery. A total of 20 ml of contrast material was injected at a rate of 10 ml/sec at full inspiration. In the normal subject, the capillary bed filled homogeneously and no defect was seen. In the patients, the pulmonary artery was nearly normal, but severe defects were observed in the pulmonary capillaries. Contrast resolvability was greater with digital subtraction pulmonary angiography than with pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy or pulmonary arteriography. This technique makes possible the visual evaluation of the pulmonary capillary bed. (author)

  19. The Influence of CO2 and Exercise on Hypobaric Hypoxia Induced Pulmonary Edema in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan L. Sheppard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with a known susceptibility to high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE demonstrate a reduced ventilation response and increased pulmonary vasoconstriction when exposed to hypoxia. It is unknown whether reduced sensitivity to hypercapnia is correlated with increased incidence and/or severity of HAPE, and while acute exercise at altitude is known to exacerbate symptoms the effect of exercise training on HAPE susceptibility is unclear.Purpose: To determine if chronic intermittent hypercapnia and exercise increases the incidence of HAPE in rats.Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomized to sedentary (sed-air, CO2 (sed-CO2, exercise (ex-air, or exercise + CO2 (ex-CO2 groups. CO2 (3.5% and treadmill exercise (15 m/min, 10% grade were conducted on a metabolic treadmill, 1 h/day for 4 weeks. Vascular reactivity to CO2 was assessed after the training period by rheoencephalography (REG. Following the training period, animals were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (HH equivalent to 25,000 ft for 24 h. Pulmonary injury was assessed by wet/dry weight ratio, lung vascular permeability, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, and histology.Results: HH increased lung wet/dry ratio (HH 5.51 ± 0.29 vs. sham 4.80 ± 0.11, P < 0.05, lung permeability (556 ± 84 u/L vs. 192 ± 29 u/L, P < 0.001, and BAL protein (221 ± 33 μg/ml vs. 114 ± 13 μg/ml, P < 0.001, white blood cell (1.16 ± 0.26 vs. 0.66 ± 0.06, P < 0.05, and platelet (16.4 ± 2.3, vs. 6.0 ± 0.5, P < 0.001 counts in comparison to normobaric normoxia. Vascular reactivity was suppressed by exercise (−53% vs. sham, P < 0.05 and exercise+CO2 (−71% vs. sham, P < 0.05. However, neither exercise nor intermittent hypercapnia altered HH-induced changes in lung wet/dry weight, BAL protein and cellular infiltration, or pulmonary histology.Conclusion: Exercise training attenuates vascular reactivity to CO2 in rats but neither exercise training nor chronic intermittent hypercapnia affect HH- induced

  20. Morphometric changes of pulmonary tissues after 20 Gy external irradiation of rat chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Zhenshan; Ye Changqing; Yuan Lizhen

    1996-01-01

    The changes in the main parameters of the lungs at different periods of early stage after local 20 Gy external irradiation of the lungs were measured with morphometric method. The results indicated that the walls of pulmonary arterioles and venules thickened and the vascular permeability index (area of vascular lumen/total area of blood vessel) decreased 7 days after irradiation (P 2 , r = -0.919), indicating that narrowing of the vascular lumen was the result of thickening of the vascular wall. Fifteen days after irradiation, the pulmonary alveolar wall thickened, the area of alveolar cavity decreased and the area of pulmonary interstitial space increased (P<0.01). Electron microscopic examination demonstrated profuse exudation surrounding the microvessels, obvious evacuation of pulmonary type-II cells and increase in cellular types and quantity of pulmonary tissues

  1. Activation of the sweet taste receptor, T1R3, by the artificial sweetener sucralose regulates the pulmonary endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Elizabeth O; Vang, Alexander; Braza, Julie; Shil, Aparna; Chichger, Havovi

    2018-01-01

    A hallmark of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is pulmonary vascular permeability. In these settings, loss of barrier integrity is mediated by cell-contact disassembly and actin remodeling. Studies into molecular mechanisms responsible for improving microvascular barrier function are therefore vital in the development of therapeutic targets for reducing vascular permeability in ARDS. The sweet taste receptor T1R3 is a G protein-coupled receptor, activated following exposure to sweet molecules, to trigger a gustducin-dependent signal cascade. In recent years, extraoral locations for T1R3 have been identified; however, no studies have focused on T1R3 within the vasculature. We hypothesize that activation of T1R3, in the pulmonary vasculature, plays a role in regulating endothelial barrier function in settings of ARDS. Our study demonstrated expression of T1R3 within the pulmonary vasculature, with a drop in expression levels following exposure to barrier-disruptive agents. Exposure of lung microvascular endothelial cells to the intensely sweet molecule sucralose attenuated LPS- and thrombin-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction. Likewise, sucralose exposure attenuated bacteria-induced lung edema formation in vivo. Inhibition of sweet taste signaling, through zinc sulfate, T1R3, or G-protein siRNA, blunted the protective effects of sucralose on the endothelium. Sucralose significantly reduced LPS-induced increased expression or phosphorylation of the key signaling molecules Src, p21-activated kinase (PAK), myosin light chain-2 (MLC2), heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), and p110α phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (p110αPI3K). Activation of T1R3 by sucralose protects the pulmonary endothelium from edemagenic agent-induced barrier disruption, potentially through abrogation of Src/PAK/p110αPI3K-mediated cell-contact disassembly and Src/MLC2/HSP27-mediated actin remodeling. Identification of sweet taste sensing in the pulmonary vasculature may represent a novel

  2. Imaging of pulmonary emphysema: A pictorial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masashi; Fukuoka, Junya; Nitta, Norihisa; Takazakura, Ryutaro; Nagatani, Yukihiro; Murakami, Yoko; Otani, Hideji; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    The term ‘emphysema’ is generally used in a morphological sense, and therefore imaging modalities have an important role in diagnosing this disease. In particular, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is a reliable tool for demonstrating the pathology of emphysema, even in subtle changes within secondary pulmonary lobules. Generally, pulmonary emphysema is classified into three types related to the lobular anatomy: centrilobular emphysema, panlobular emphysema, and paraseptal emphysema. In this pictorial review, we discuss the radiological – pathological correlation in each type of pulmonary emphysema. HRCT of early centrilobular emphysema shows an evenly distributed centrilobular tiny areas of low attenuation with ill-defined borders. With enlargement of the dilated airspace, the surrounding lung parenchyma is compressed, which enables observation of a clear border between the emphysematous area and the normal lung. Because the disease progresses from the centrilobular portion, normal lung parenchyma in the perilobular portion tends to be preserved, even in a case of far-advanced pulmonary emphysema. In panlobular emphysema, HRCT shows either panlobular low attenuation or ill-defined diffuse low attenuation of the lung. Paraseptal emphysema is characterized by subpleural well-defined cystic spaces. Recent topics related to imaging of pulmonary emphysema will also be discussed, including morphometry of the airway in cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, combined pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary emphysema, and bronchogenic carcinoma associated with bullous lung disease. PMID:18686729

  3. Isthmin is a novel vascular permeability inducer that functions through cell-surface GRP78-mediated Src activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Shruthi; Chen, Mo; Liao, Wupeng; Er, Shi Yin; Wong, Wai-Shiu Fred; Ge, Ruowen

    2015-07-01

    Isthmin (ISM) is a recently identified 60 kDa secreted angiogenesis inhibitor. Two cell-surface receptors for ISM have been defined, the high-affinity glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78) and the low-affinity αvβ5 integrin. As αvβ5 integrin plays an important role in pulmonary vascular permeability (VP) and ISM is highly expressed in mouse lung, we sought to clarify the role of ISM in VP. Recombinant ISM (rISM) dose-dependently enhances endothelial monolayer permeability in vitro and local dermal VP when administered intradermally in mice. Systemic rISM administration through intravenous injection leads to profound lung vascular hyperpermeability but not in other organs. Mechanistic investigations using molecular, biochemical approaches and specific chemical inhibitors revealed that ISM-GRP78 interaction triggers a direct interaction between GRP78 and Src, leading to Src activation and subsequent phosphorylation of adherens junction proteins and loss of junctional proteins from inter-endothelial junctions, resulting in enhanced VP. Dynamic studies of Src activation, VP and apoptosis revealed that ISM induces VP directly via Src activation while apoptosis contributes indirectly only after prolonged treatment. Furthermore, ISM is significantly up-regulated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mouse lung. Blocking cell-surface GRP78 by systemic infusion of anti-GRP78 antibody significantly attenuates pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability in LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. ISM is a novel VP inducer that functions through cell-surface GRP78-mediated Src activation as well as induction of apoptosis. It induces a direct GRP78-Src interaction, leading to cytoplasmic Src activation. ISM contributes to pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability of LPS-induced ALI in mice. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases on high-resolution chest computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C. Isabela S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Vancouver General Hospital]. E-mail: isabela.silva@vch.ca; Mueller, Nestor L. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Vancouver General Hospital. Dept. of Radiology

    2008-05-15

    Intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases are very common. The frequency of intrathoracic manifestations and the patterns of abnormality are variable depending on the type of collagen vascular disease and may simultaneously involve one or more of the following: lung parenchyma, airways, pulmonary vessels, pericardium, and pleura. The most common pulmonary manifestations are diffuse interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary hypertension which together represent the main causes of morbidity and mortality of these patients. Pulmonary, airway and pleural involvement may also be secondary to the disease therapy, or result from bacterial pneumonia or opportunistic infection. In the present review, the authors summarize the main intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases and the differential diagnosis on high-resolution chest computed tomography. (author)

  5. Isoproterenol attenuates high vascular pressure-induced permeability increases in isolated rat lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J C; Ivey, C L

    1997-12-01

    To separate the contributions of cellular and basement membrane components of the alveolar capillary barrier to the increased microvascular permeability induced by high pulmonary venous pressures (Ppv), we subjected isolated rat lungs to increases in Ppv, which increased capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) without significant hemorrhage (31 cmH2O) and with obvious extravasation of red blood cells (43 cmH2O). Isoproterenol (20 microM) was infused in one group (Iso) to identify a reversible cellular component of injury, and residual blood volumes were measured to assess extravasation of red blood cells through ruptured basement membranes. In untreated lungs (High Ppv group), Kfc increased 6.2 +/- 1.3 and 38.3 +/- 15.2 times baseline during the 31 and 43 cmH2O Ppv states. In Iso lungs, Kfc was 36.2% (P Kfc increases at moderate Ppv, possibly because of an endothelial effect, but it did not affect red cell extravasation at higher vascular pressures.

  6. Vildagliptin ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury by inhibiting endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshio; Tada, Yuji; Gladson, Santhi; Nishimura, Rintaro; Shimomura, Iwao; Karasawa, Satoshi; Tatsumi, Koichiro; West, James

    2017-10-16

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a late manifestation of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Sepsis is a major cause of ARDS, and its pathogenesis includes endotoxin-induced vascular injury. Recently, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) was shown to play an important role in pulmonary fibrosis. On the other hand, dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 was reported to improve vascular dysfunction in an experimental sepsis model, although whether DPP-4 affects EndMT and fibrosis initiation during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-EndMT effects of the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin in pulmonary fibrosis after systemic endotoxemic injury. A septic lung injury model was established by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in eight-week-old male mice (5 mg/kg for five consecutive days). The mice were then treated with vehicle or vildagliptin (intraperitoneally, 10 mg/kg, once daily for 14 consecutive days from 1 day before the first administration of LPS.). Flow cytometry, immunohistochemical staining, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis was used to assess cell dynamics and EndMT function in lung samples from the mice. Lung tissue samples from treated mice revealed obvious inflammatory reactions and typical interstitial fibrosis 2 days and 28 days after LPS challenge. Quantitative flow cytometric analysis showed that the number of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PVECs) expressing alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) or S100 calcium-binding protein A4 (S100A4) increased 28 days after LPS challenge. Similar increases in expression were also confirmed by qPCR of mRNA from isolated PVECs. EndMT cells had higher proliferative activity and migration activity than mesenchymal cells. All of these changes were alleviated by intraperitoneal injection of vildagliptin. Interestingly, vildagliptin and linagliptin significantly attenuated EndMT in the absence of immune

  7. Baicalein attenuates vinorelbine-induced vascular endothelial cell injury and chemotherapeutic phlebitis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Gang-Feng; Shi, Wei-Wen; Yu, Chen-Huan; Jin, Xiao-Yin; Zhang, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Wen-You; Wang, Lu-Chen; Yu, Bing

    2017-03-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the major strategies for cancer treatment. Several antineoplastic drugs including vinorelbine (VRB) are commonly intravenously infused and liable to cause serious phlebitis. The therapeutic drugs for preventing this complication are limited. In this study, the mechanism of baicalein (BCN) was investigated on VRB-induced phlebitis in vivo and vascular endothelial cell injury in vitro. Treatment with BCN obviously attenuated vascular endothelial cell loss, edema, inflammatory cell infiltration and blood clots, and reduced the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and ICAM-1 in the rabbit model of phlebitis induced by intravenous injection of VRB compared with vehicle. Further tests in vitro demonstrated that BCN lessened VRB-induced endothelial cell apoptosis, decreased intracellular ROS levels, suppressed phosphorylation of p38 and eventually inhibited activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. And these effects could be reversed by p38 agonist P79350. These results suggested that BCN exerted the protective effects against VRB-induced endothelial disruption in the rabbit model of phlebitis via inhibition of intracellular ROS generation and inactivation of p38/NF-κB pathway, leading to the decreased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, BCN could be used as a potential agent for the treatment of phlebitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Distinguishing Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension From Other Causes of Pulmonary Hypertension Using CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Alexandra; Grosse, Claudia; Lang, Irene M

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to discern imaging findings that separate chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) from other causes of pulmonary hypertension (PH). A total of 143 patients with proven PH (group 1, pulmonary arterial hypertension; group 2, PH due to left heart disease; group 3, PH due to lung disease; group 4, CTEPH; and group 5, PH due to unclear or multifactorial mechanisms) underwent MDCT angiography. The CT images were assessed for the presence of chronic pulmonary embolism (PE), disparity in segmental vessel size, mosaic perfusion, parenchymal densities, bronchial dilatation, and collateral arteries. The frequencies of vascular signs of chronic PE, disparity in segmental vessel size, mosaic perfusion, parenchymal densities, bronchial collateral arteries, and bronchial dilatation were statistically significantly higher in patients with CTEPH than in patients with nonthromboembolic PH. Vascular signs of chronic PE, mosaic perfusion, parenchymal densities, and bronchial dilatation without bronchial wall thickening were significantly more frequent in patients with CTEPH than in patients in groups 1, 2, 3, and 5. There was no significant difference in the frequencies of bronchial collateral arteries between patients with CTEPH and patients in groups 3 and 5. Most patients with CTEPH have direct vascular signs of chronic PE. Secondary signs include disparity in segmental vessel size, mosaic perfusion pattern, parenchymal densities, collateral bronchial arteries, and bronchial dilatation, which help distinguish CTEPH from other causes of PH.

  9. CT findings of pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weidong; Guan Yubao; Li Chuanxing; Wu Peihong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT findings of pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Methods: The CT examinations of 12 patients with pathologically proven pulmonary MALT lymphoma were reviewed retrospectively. Evaluated imaging findings included number, distribution, shape, attenuation and other associated findings of each lesion were evaluated. Results: Thirty-two pulmonary lesions, including consolidations, masses, nodules and lesions with ground glass attenuation, were identified in 12 patients. Multiple lesions were founded in 10 of 12 patients and solitary lesion in 2 patients. Multiple lesions found in one lung in 2 patients, and multiple lesions found in both lungs in 8 patients. Ten cases demonstrated 21 consolidation lesions with air bronchogram, and one of the ten cases demonstrated two lesions with airway dilatation. Three cases demonstrated 5 masses or nodular lesions, 3 of these 5 lesions showed air bronchogram. Two cases demonstrated 6 ground glass attenuation lesions. One case showed mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. Conclusion: Pulmonary MALT lymphoma usually appears as multiple bilateral consolidations, masses, nodules with air bronchogram or lesions with ground- glass attenuation at CT imaging. The imaging findings described above and with an indolent clinical course may suggest the diagnosis of pulmonary MALT lymphoma. (authors)

  10. Clinical evaluation of respiration-induced attenuation uncertainties in pulmonary 3D PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Matthijs F; van de Kamer, Jeroen B; Vogel, Wouter V; Belderbos, José Sa; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; van Herk, Marcel

    2015-12-01

    In contemporary positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scanners, PET attenuation correction is performed by means of a CT-based attenuation map. Respiratory motion can however induce offsets between the PET and CT data. Studies have demonstrated that these offsets can cause errors in quantitative PET measures. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of respiration-induced CT differences on the attenuation correction of pulmonary 18-fluordeoxyglucose (FDG) 3D PET/CT in a patient population and to investigate contributing factors. For 32 lung cancer patients, 3D-CT, 4D-PET and 4D-CT data were acquired. The 4D FDG PET data were attenuation corrected (AC) using a free-breathing 3D-CT (3D-AC), the end-inspiration CT (EI-AC), the end-expiration CT (EE-AC) or phase-by-phase (P-AC). After reconstruction and AC, the 4D-PET data were averaged. In the 4Davg data, we measured maximum tumour standardised uptake value (SUV)max in the tumour, SUVmean in a lung volume of interest (VOI) and average SUV (SUVmean) in a muscle VOI. On the 4D-CT, we measured the lung volume differences and CT number changes between inhale and exhale in the lung VOI. Compared to P-AC, we found -2.3% (range -9.7% to 1.2%) lower tumour SUVmax in EI-AC and 2.0% (range -0.9% to 9.5%) higher SUVmax in EE-AC. No differences in the muscle SUV were found. The use of 3D-AC led to respiration-induced SUVmax differences up to 20% compared to the use of P-AC. SUVmean differences in the lung VOI between EI-AC and EE-AC correlated to average CT differences in this region (ρ = 0.83). SUVmax differences in the tumour correlated to the volume changes of the lungs (ρ = -0.55) and the motion amplitude of the tumour (ρ = 0.53), both as measured on the 4D-CT. Respiration-induced CT variations in clinical data can in extreme cases lead to SUV effects larger than 10% on PET attenuation correction. These differences were case specific and correlated to differences in CT number

  11. Pulmonary balloon angioplasty of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) in surgically inaccessible cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitton, M.B.; Herber, S.; Thelen, M.; Mayer, E.

    2003-01-01

    The clinical course of patients suffering from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) depends on the distribution pattern of the thromboembolic material. In patients with thromboembolic findings in the central pulmonary segments pulmonary thrombendarterectomy (PTE) has excellent results and acceptable operative risk. This paper presents two surgically inaccessable cases that were successfully treated with balloon pulmonary angioplasty. Balloon angioplasty improved parenchymal perfusion, increased cardiac index (ΔCI + 19.2% [Case 1], and + 15.4% [2]), reduced pulmonary vascular resistance during follow-up (ΔPVRI - 25.0% [1] and - 15.9% [2]), and is discussed as an alternative treatment option for cases not suited for surgery. (orig.) [de

  12. Edaravone attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome associated early pulmonary fibrosis via amelioration of oxidative stress and transforming growth factor-β1/Smad3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xida; Lai, Rongde; Su, Xiangfen; Chen, Guibin; Liang, Zijing

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is responsible for the both short-term and long-term outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). There is still no effective cure to improve prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether edaravone, a free radical scavenger, have anti-fibrosis effects in the rat model of ARDS associated early pulmonary fibrosis by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Rats were subjected to intravenous injection of LPS, and edaravone was given intraperitoneally after LPS administration daily for 7 consecutive days. LPS treatment rapidly increased lung histopathology abnormalities, coefficient of lung, hydroxyproline and collagen I levels, stimulated myofibroblast differentiation and induced expression of TGF-β1 and activation of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling as early as day 7 after LPS injection. Moreover, LPS intoxication significantly increased the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), whereas it dramatically decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activities from day 1 after LPS treatment. On the contrary, edaravone treatment ameliorated LPS-induced myofibroblast differentiation and pulmonary fibrosis, simultaneously, and attenuated LPS-stimulated oxidative stress and activation of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling. Collectively, edaravone may attenuate ARDS associated early pulmonary fibrosis through amelioration of oxidative stress and TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. Edaravone may be a promising drug candidate for the treatment of ARDS-related pulmonary fibrosis in early period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of pulmonary vascular response to oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, F.C. III; Egan, E.A.; Ferguson, W.; Lundgren, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of the pulmonary circulation of the fetal lamb to respond to a rise in oxygen tension was studied from 94 to 146 days of gestation. The unanesthetized ewe breathed room air at normal atmospheric pressure, followed by 100% oxygen at three atmospheres absolute pressure in a hyperbaric chamber. In eleven near-term lambs, fetal arterial oxygen tension (Pa O 2 ) increased from 25 to 55 Torr, which increased the proportion or right ventricular output distributed to the fetal lungs from 8 to 59%. In five very immature lambs fetal Pa O 2 increased from 27 to 174 Torr, but the proportion of right ventricular output distributed to the lung did not change. In five of the near-term lambs, pulmonary blood flow was measured. For each measurement of the distribution of blood flow, approximately 8 x 10 5 spheres of 15-μm diameter, labeled with either 153 Gd, 113 Sn, 103 Ru, 95 Nb, or 46 Sc were injected. It increased from 34 to 298 ml · kg fetal wt -1 · min -1 , an 8.8-fold increase. The authors conclude that the pulmonary circulation of the fetal lamb does not respond to an increase in oxygen tension before 101 days of gestation; however, near term an increase in oxygen tension alone can induce the entire increase in pulmonary blood flow that normally occurs after the onset of breathing at birth

  14. The clinical usefulness of extravascular lung water and pulmonary vascular permeability index to diagnose and characterize pulmonary edema: a prospective multicenter study on the quantitative differential diagnostic definition for acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by features other than increased pulmonary vascular permeability. Pulmonary vascular permeability combined with increased extravascular lung water content has been considered a quantitative diagnostic criterion of ALI/ARDS. This prospective, multi-institutional, observational study aimed to clarify the clinical pathophysiological features of ALI/ARDS and establish its quantitative diagnostic criteria. Methods The extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and the pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) were measured using the transpulmonary thermodilution method in 266 patients with PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 300 mmHg and bilateral infiltration on chest radiography, in 23 ICUs of academic tertiary referral hospitals. Pulmonary edema was defined as EVLWI ≥ 10 ml/kg. Three experts retrospectively determined the pathophysiological features of respiratory insufficiency by considering the patients' history, clinical presentation, chest computed tomography and radiography, echocardiography, EVLWI and brain natriuretic peptide level, and the time course of all preceding findings under systemic and respiratory therapy. Results Patients were divided into the following three categories on the basis of the pathophysiological diagnostic differentiation of respiratory insufficiency: ALI/ARDS, cardiogenic edema, and pleural effusion with atelectasis, which were noted in 207 patients, 26 patients, and 33 patients, respectively. EVLWI was greater in ALI/ARDS and cardiogenic edema patients than in patients with pleural effusion with atelectasis (18.5 ± 6.8, 14.4 ± 4.0, and 8.3 ± 2.1, respectively; P edema or pleural effusion with atelectasis patients (3.2 ± 1.4, 2.0 ± 0.8, and 1.6 ± 0.5; P edema patients. A PVPI value of 2.6 to 2.85 provided a definitive diagnosis of ALI/ARDS (specificity, 0.90 to 0.95), and a value < 1.7 ruled out an ALI/ARDS diagnosis (specificity, 0.95). Conclusion

  15. The role of inflammation in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension: from cellular mechanisms to clinical phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poth, Jens M.; Fini, Mehdi A.; Olschewski, Andrea; El Kasmi, Karim C.; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (PH) comprises a heterogeneous group of diseases sharing the common feature of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling. The disease is usually characterized by mild to moderate pulmonary vascular remodeling that is largely thought to be reversible compared with the progressive irreversible disease seen in World Health Organization (WHO) group I disease. However, in these patients, the presence of PH significantly worsens morbidity and mortality. In addition, a small subset of patients with hypoxic PH develop “out-of-proportion” severe pulmonary hypertension characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling that is irreversible and similar to that in WHO group I disease. In all cases of hypoxia-related vascular remodeling and PH, inflammation, particularly persistent inflammation, is thought to play a role. This review focuses on the effects of hypoxia on pulmonary vascular cells and the signaling pathways involved in the initiation and perpetuation of vascular inflammation, especially as they relate to vascular remodeling and transition to chronic irreversible PH. We hypothesize that the combination of hypoxia and local tissue factors/cytokines (“second hit”) antagonizes tissue homeostatic cellular interactions between mesenchymal cells (fibroblasts and/or smooth muscle cells) and macrophages and arrests these cells in an epigenetically locked and permanently activated proremodeling and proinflammatory phenotype. This aberrant cellular cross-talk between mesenchymal cells and macrophages promotes transition to chronic nonresolving inflammation and vascular remodeling, perpetuating PH. A better understanding of these signaling pathways may lead to the development of specific therapeutic targets, as none are currently available for WHO group III disease. PMID:25416383

  16. Estudo angiográfico da circulação pulmonar na tetralogia de Fallot com atresia pulmonar Angiographic study of pulmonary circulation in tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Santos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar os tipos de suprimento sangüíneo vascular pulmonar na tetralogia de Fallot com atresia pulmonar por meio de estudo hemodinâmico. MÉTODOS: Foram submetidos a estudo cineangiocardiográfico 56 pacientes portadores de tetralogia de Fallot com atresia pulmonar com idade de 20 dias a 4 anos e efetuadas injeções de contraste nas seguintes estruturas vasculares: 1 veia pulmonar encunhada, 2 colaterais aortopulmonares, 3 aorta torácica e 4 ductus arteriosus e/ou shunt sistêmico pulmonar. RESULTADOS: Dos 56 pacientes, 15 tinham o suprimento sangüíneo pulmonar através de colaterais aortopulmonares, em 36 o suprimento sangüíneo pulmonar era feito isoladamente pelo ductus arteriosus e em 5 pelo ductus arteriosus e colaterais aortopulmonares. Conforme a presença ou ausência de estruturas vasculares que compõem a circulação pulmonar na tetralogia de Fallot com atresia pulmonar e do tipo de perfusão vascular pulmonar, os doentes foram classificados em 6 tipos. CONCLUSÃO: Em função da grande complexidade e extrema variabilidade do suprimento sangüíneo pulmonar na tetralogia de Fallot com atresia pulmonar torna-se possível, com este tipo de abordagem, a obtenção de informações, suficientemente necessárias, para o correto manuseio clínico-cirúrgico.OBJECTIVE: To identify the types of pulmonary vascular blood supply in tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia by use of hemodynamic study. METHODS: Fifty-six patients with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia, and ages ranging from 20 days to 4 years, underwent cineangiocardiographic study with contrast medium injections in the following vascular structures: 1 wedged pulmonary vein; 2 aortopulmonary collaterals; 3 thoracic aorta; and 4 ductus arteriosus or systemic-pulmonary shunt. RESULTS: In the 56 patients studied, pulmonary blood was supplied as follows: in 15, by aortopulmonary collaterals; in 36, only by the ductus arteriosus; and in 5, by the ductus

  17. Definition and classification of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Marc; Montani, David; Evgenov, Oleg V; Simonneau, Gérald

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is defined as an increase of mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥25 mmHg at rest as assessed by right heart catheterization. According to different combinations of values of pulmonary wedge pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac output, a hemodynamic classification of pulmonary hypertension has been proposed. Of major importance is the pulmonary wedge pressure which allows to distinguish pre-capillary (pulmonary wedge pressure ≤15 mmHg) and post-capillary (pulmonary wedge pressure >15 mmHg) pulmonary hypertension. Pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension includes the clinical groups 1 (pulmonary arterial hypertension), 3 (pulmonary hypertension due to lung diseases and/or hypoxia), 4 (chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension) and 5 (pulmonary hypertension with unclear and/or multifactorial mechanisms). Post-capillary pulmonary hypertension corresponds to the clinical group 2 (pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases).

  18. Clinical and haemodynamic evaluation of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients scheduled for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy: Is schistosomiasis hypertension an important confounding factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Terra-Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is a disease affecting approximately 4,000 people per year in the United States. The incidence rate in Brazil, however, is unknown. The estimated survival for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without treatment is approximately three years. Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy for select patients is a potentially curative procedure when correctly applied. In Brazil, the clinical and hemodynamic profiles of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients have yet to be described. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical and hemodynamic characteristics of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients scheduled for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy in a referral center for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension treatment in Brazil. METHODS: From December 2006 to November 2009, patients were evaluated and scheduled for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. The subjects were classified according to gender, age and functional class and were tested for thrombofilia and brain natriuretic peptide levels. RESULTS: Thirty-five consecutive chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients were evaluated. Two patients tested positive for schistosomiasis, and 31 were enrolled in the study (19 female, 12 male. The majority of patients were categorized in functional classes III and IV. Hemodynamic data showed a mean pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR of 970.8 ± 494.36 dynas·s·cm-5 and a low cardiac output of 3.378 ± 1.13 L/min. Linear regression revealed a direct relation between cardiac output and pulmonary vascular resistance. Paradoxical septal movement was strongly correlated with pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac output (p=0.001. Brain natriuretic peptide serum levels were elevated in 19 of 27 patients. CONCLUSIONS: In a referral center for pulmonary hypertension in Brazil, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients evaluated for

  19. Mast Cell Inhibition Improves Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelds, Beatrijs; van Loon, Rosa Laura E.; Mohaupt, Saffloer; Wijnberg, Hans; Dickinson, Michael G.; Takens, Janny; van Albada, Mirjam; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Boersma, B.

    Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive angioproliferative disease with high morbidity and mortality. Although the histopathology is well described, its pathogenesis is largely unknown. We previously identified the increased presence of mast cells and their markers in a

  20. Analysis of perfusion defects by causes other than acute pulmonary thromboembolism on contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT in consecutive 537 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Hyun; Seo, Joon Beom; Chae, Eun Jin; Lee, Hyun Joo; Hwang, Hye Jeon; Lim, Chaehun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess causes, incidence and patterns of perfusion defects (PDs) on dual-energy perfusion CT angiography (DECTA) in clinically suspected acute pulmonary thromboembolisms (PTE). Materials and methods: Consecutive 537 patients who underwent DECTA for suspicion of PTE were retrospectively reviewed. After excluding patients with possible PTE or unsatisfactory perfusion map quality, 299 patients with 1697 lobes were included. The DECTA (Somatom Definition, Siemens) was performed at 140 kV and 80 kV. Color-coded perfusion images were obtained with a lung PBV application of the workstation software (Syngo Dual Energy). The presence, incidence, three patterns of PDs (wedge-shaped, heterogeneous, and regionally homogeneous), pulmonary diseases, and the matchedness between the PD and the disease extent were studied. Results: 315 of 1697 lobes (18.6%) in 156 of 299 patients (81.3%) showed PDs. Among them, 51 (3%), 257 (15.1%), and 7 (0.4%) lobes had PDs due to vascular, nonvascular, and unidentifiable causes, respectively. Vascular causes include: pulmonary arterial (PA) hypertension (0.7%), extrinsic occlusion of PA by fibrosis (0.6%), PA hypoplasia (0.6%), vasculitis (0.5%), cancer mass compressing PA, venous occlusion, AVM, and pulmonary angiosarcoma. Most of PDs were wedge-shaped and well-matched. Nonvascular causes include: mosaic attenuation (4.1%), emphysema (3.2%), interstitial fibrosis (1.6%), bronchitis (1.4%), GGO (1.2%), cellular bronchiolitis (1%), bronchiectasis, airway obstruction, compensaroty lung hyperinflation, air trapping, cor-pulmonale, bronchopneumonia, physiologic decreased ventilation, and segmental bronchial atresia. Most of PDs showed heterogeneous pattern and were not matched. Conclusions: Various vascular and nonvascular diseases cause PDs on DECTA. Each disease shows different pattern of PD depending on pathophysiology and physiologic compensation.

  1. [The effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide on collagen accumulation in pulmonary arteries of rats with hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Wei; Du, Jie; Li, Yuan-Jian

    2013-03-01

    To observe the effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on pulmonary vascular collagen accumulation in hypoxia rats in order to study the effect of CGRP on hypoxic pulmonary vascular structural remodeling and its possible mechanism. Rats were acclimated for 1 week, and then were randomly divided into three groups: normoxia group, hypoxia group, and hypoxia plus capsaicin group. Pulmonary arterial hypertension was induced by hypoxia in rats. Hypoxia plus capsaicin group, rats were given capsaicin (50 mg/(kg x d), s.c) 4 days before hypoxia to deplete endogenous CGRP. Hypoxia (3% O2) stimulated proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and proliferation was measured by BrdU marking. The expression levels of CGRP, phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/ 2), collagen I and collagen III were detected by real-time PCR or Western blot. Right ventricle systolic pressure (RVSP) and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) rats induced by hypoxia were higher than those of normoxia rats. By HE and Masson staining, it was demonstrated that hypoxia also significantly induced hypertrophy of pulmonary arteries and increased level of collagen accumulation. Hypoxia dramatically decreased the CGRP level and increased the expression of p-ERK1/2, collagen I, collagen III in pulmonary arteries. All these effects of hypoxia were further aggravated by pre-treatment of rats with capsaicin. CGRP concentration-dependently inhibited hypoxia-induced proliferation of PASMCs, markedly decreased the expression of p-ERK1/2, collagen I and collagen III. All these effects of CGRP were abolished in the presence of CGRP8-37. These results suggest that CGRP might inhibit hypoxia-induced PAH and pulmonary vascular remodeling, through inhibiting phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and alleviating the collagen accumulation of pulmonary arteries.

  2. The radiographic findings in diagnosis of pulmonary lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Wei; Wang Li; Yan Hongzhen

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the radiographic findings in the diagnosis of pulmonary lymphoma and pseudo lymphoma. Methods: Eight patients with pulmonary lymphoma and 2 with pseudo lymphoma were examined by X-ray film, tomography, and CT. Results: Single or multiple nodules or masses were observed in 8 patients with pulmonary lymphoma, shaggy borders or halo of ground-glass attenuation in 7 patients, 2 patients had multiple patchy infiltrates bilaterally, 2 had diffuse interstitial infiltrates and 1 had miliary nodules. Multiple consolidations with air bronchogram and without hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy were observed in 2 patients with pulmonary pseudo lymphoma. Conclusion: Radiographic findings of pulmonary lymphoma were varied, the most common findings were the nodules or masses with shaggy borders or halo of ground-glass attenuation. The specific findings of pulmonary pseudo lymphoma were multiple consolidations with air bronchogram and without hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. The final diagnosis relied on pathology

  3. Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin Subtype 8 Attenuates Cold-Induced Hypertension Through Ameliorating Vascular Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shiqiang; Wang, Bin; Lin, Shaoyang; Zhang, Hexuan; Li, Yingsha; Wei, Xing; Cui, Yuanting; Wei, Xiao; Lu, Zongshi; Gao, Peng; Li, Li; Zhao, Zhigang; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2017-08-02

    Environmental cold-induced hypertension is common, but how to treat cold-induced hypertension remains an obstacle. Transient receptor potential melastatin subtype 8 (TRPM8) is a mild cold-sensing nonselective cation channel that is activated by menthol. Little is known about the effect of TRPM8 activation by menthol on mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis and the vascular function in cold-induced hypertension. Primary vascular smooth muscle cells from wild-type or Trpm8 -/- mice were cultured. In vitro, we confirmed that sarcoplasmic reticulum-resident TRPM8 participated in the regulation of cellular and mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis in the vascular smooth muscle cells. TRPM8 activation by menthol antagonized angiotensin II induced mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction and excess reactive oxygen species generation by preserving pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, which hindered reactive oxygen species-triggered Ca 2+ influx and the activation of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway. In vivo, long-term noxious cold stimulation dramatically increased vasoconstriction and blood pressure. The activation of TRPM8 by dietary menthol inhibited vascular reactive oxygen species generation, vasoconstriction, and lowered blood pressure through attenuating excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediated the activation of RhoA/Rho kinase in a TRPM8-dependent manner. These effects of menthol were further validated in angiotensin II-induced hypertensive mice. Long-term dietary menthol treatment targeting and preserving mitochondrial function may represent a nonpharmaceutical measure for environmental noxious cold-induced hypertension. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  4. Osteopontin is an endogenous modulator of the constitutively activated phenotype of pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Adil; Li, Min; Frid, Maria G.; Kumar, Binod; Gerasimovskaya, Evgenia V.; Riddle, Suzette R.; McKeon, B. Alexandre; Thukaram, Roopa; Meyrick, Barbara O.; Fini, Mehdi A.

    2012-01-01

    Increased cell proliferation and migration, of several cell types are key components of vascular remodeling observed in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Our previous data demonstrate that adventitial fibroblasts isolated from pulmonary arteries of chronically hypoxic hypertensive calves (termed PH-Fibs) exhibit a “constitutively activated” phenotype characterized by high proliferative and migratory potential. Osteopontin (OPN) has been shown to promote several cellular activities including growth and migration in cancer cells. We thus tested the hypothesis that elevated OPN expression confers the “activated” highly proproliferative and promigratory/invasive phenotype of PH-Fibs. Our results demonstrate that, both in vivo and ex vivo, PH-Fibs exhibited increased expression of OPN, as well as its cognate receptors, αVβ3 and CD44, compared with control fibroblasts (CO-Fibs). Augmented OPN expression in PH-Fibs corresponded to their high proliferative, migratory, and invasive properties and constitutive activation of ERK1/2 and AKT signaling. OPN silencing via small interfering RNA or sequestering OPN production by specific antibodies led to decreased proliferation, migration, invasion, and attenuated ERK1/2, AKT phosphorylation in PH-Fibs. Furthermore, increasing OPN levels in CO-Fibs via recombinant OPN resulted in significant increases in their proliferative, migratory, and invasive capabilities to the levels resembling those of PH-Fibs. Thus our data suggest OPN as an essential contributor to the activated (highly proliferative, migratory, and proinvasive) phenotype of pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts in hypoxic PH. PMID:22582113

  5. An Isolated Pulmonary Hematoma Mimicking a Lung Tumor as the Initial Finding of Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Ju; Lee, Ki Nam; Choi, Pil Jo [Dept. of Radiology, Dong-A University Medicine Center, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ki, Chang Seok [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is an uncommon inherited disorder characterized by abnormalities in type III collagen, presenting itself as arterial dissection or rupture. We report a case of an isolated pulmonary hematoma mimicking a lung tumor in an 18-year-old man which turned out to be the initial finding of vEDS. Pneumothorax and hemothorax occurred repeatedly for 15 months following the surgical removal of the mass, and were treated by repeated left upper and lower lobectomy and thoracotomy. The diagnosis of vEDS was confirmed by pathologic and genetic studies.

  6. An Isolated Pulmonary Hematoma Mimicking a Lung Tumor as the Initial Finding of Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Eun Ju; Lee, Ki Nam; Choi, Pil Jo; Ki, Chang Seok

    2012-01-01

    The vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is an uncommon inherited disorder characterized by abnormalities in type III collagen, presenting itself as arterial dissection or rupture. We report a case of an isolated pulmonary hematoma mimicking a lung tumor in an 18-year-old man which turned out to be the initial finding of vEDS. Pneumothorax and hemothorax occurred repeatedly for 15 months following the surgical removal of the mass, and were treated by repeated left upper and lower lobectomy and thoracotomy. The diagnosis of vEDS was confirmed by pathologic and genetic studies.

  7. Intraprocedural Safety and Technical Success of the MVP Micro Vascular Plug for Embolization of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Miles B; Ishaque, Brandon M; Surman, Andrew M; Kerlan, Robert K; Hope, Michael D; Dickey, Melissa A; Hetts, Steven W; Wilson, Mark W

    2015-11-01

    This case series describes early experience, intraprocedural safety, and technical success of the MVP Micro Vascular Plug (MVP; Covidien, Irvine, California) for embolization of 20 pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) using 23 plugs in seven patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. There was no device migration, and all devices were successfully detached electrolytically. Immediate cessation of flow through the feeding artery was achieved in 21 of 23 (91%) deployments. There was one minor complication. This series demonstrates the MVP to be safe and technically successful in the treatment of PAVMs. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia-associated pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, Matthew T

    2017-06-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a complex entity wherein a diaphragmatic defect allows intrathoracic herniation of intra-abdominal contents and both pulmonary parenchymal and vascular development are stifled. Pulmonary pathology and pathophysiology, including pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension, are hallmarks of CDH and are associated with disease severity. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is sustained, supranormal pulmonary arterial pressure, and among patients with CDH (CDH-PH), is driven by hypoplastic pulmonary vasculature, including alterations at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels, along with pathophysiologic pulmonary vasoreactivity. This review addresses the basic mechanisms, altered anatomy, definition, diagnosis, and management of CDH-PH. Further, emerging therapies targeting CDH-PH and PH are explored. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Relationship between pulmonary artery volumes at computed tomography and pulmonary artery pressures in patients with- and without pulmonary hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froelich, Jens J. [Department of Radiology, Philipps-University Hospital, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany)], E-mail: jens.froelich@klinikum-hef.de; Koenig, Helmut [Department of Radiology, Philipps-University Hospital, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany)], E-mail: helmut.koenig@siemens.com; Knaak, Lennard [Department of Medicine, Philipps-University Hospital, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany)], E-mail: froehlic@staff.uni-marburg.de; Krass, Stefan [MeVis Research, Universitaetsallee 29, 28359 Bremen (Germany)], E-mail: krass@mevis.de; Klose, Klaus J. [Department of Radiology, Philipps-University Hospital, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany)], E-mail: klose@med.uni-marburg.de

    2008-09-15

    Objectives: This study was designed to determine the relationship between pulmonary artery (PA) volumes at computed tomography (CT) and PA pressures at right-sided heart catheterization in patients with and without pulmonary hypertension (PAH) to develop a noninvasive CT method of PA pressure quantification. Materials and methods: Sixteen patients with chronic sleep apnea syndrome underwent contrast enhanced helical CT (slice thickness 3 mm; pitch 2; increment 2 mm) at inspiration. Eight patients had PAH while cardiopulmonary disease has been excluded in eight other patients. Vascular volumes were determined using a 3D technique (threshold seeded vascular tracing algorithm; thresholds -600 H [lower] and 3000 H [upper]). Right-sided heart catheterization measurements were available for linear regression analysis of PA volumes and pressures. Results: Correlation between PA pressures and volumes (normalized for BMI), was high in both groups (without PAH: r = .85; with PAH .90, Pearson). Compared to elevated PA pressures in patients with pulmonary hypertension (p < .005), PA volumes also were significantly increased (p < .05) among the groups. Conclusions: High correlation was found between PA volumes and mean PA pressures in patients with- and without PAH. Significant differences in PA volumes at CT-volumetry may admit non-invasive determination of pulmonary hypertension.

  10. Relationship between pulmonary artery volumes at computed tomography and pulmonary artery pressures in patients with- and without pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froelich, Jens J.; Koenig, Helmut; Knaak, Lennard; Krass, Stefan; Klose, Klaus J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to determine the relationship between pulmonary artery (PA) volumes at computed tomography (CT) and PA pressures at right-sided heart catheterization in patients with and without pulmonary hypertension (PAH) to develop a noninvasive CT method of PA pressure quantification. Materials and methods: Sixteen patients with chronic sleep apnea syndrome underwent contrast enhanced helical CT (slice thickness 3 mm; pitch 2; increment 2 mm) at inspiration. Eight patients had PAH while cardiopulmonary disease has been excluded in eight other patients. Vascular volumes were determined using a 3D technique (threshold seeded vascular tracing algorithm; thresholds -600 H [lower] and 3000 H [upper]). Right-sided heart catheterization measurements were available for linear regression analysis of PA volumes and pressures. Results: Correlation between PA pressures and volumes (normalized for BMI), was high in both groups (without PAH: r = .85; with PAH .90, Pearson). Compared to elevated PA pressures in patients with pulmonary hypertension (p < .005), PA volumes also were significantly increased (p < .05) among the groups. Conclusions: High correlation was found between PA volumes and mean PA pressures in patients with- and without PAH. Significant differences in PA volumes at CT-volumetry may admit non-invasive determination of pulmonary hypertension

  11. Measurement of regional pulmonary blood volume in patients with increased pulmonary blood flow or pulmonary arterial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollmer, P.; Rozcovek, A.; Rhodes, C.G.; Allan, R.M.; Maseri, A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow and chronic pulmonary hypertension on regional pulmonary blood volume was measured in two groups of patients. One group of patients had intracardiac, left-to-right shunts without appreciable pulmonary hypertension, and the other consisted of patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome or primary pulmonary hypertension, i.e. patients with normal or reduced blood flow and severe pulmonary hypertension. A technique based on positron tomography was used to measure lung density (by transmission scanning) and regional pulmonary blood volume (after inhalation of /sup 11/CO). The distribution of pulmonary blood volume was more uniform in patients with chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow than in normal subjects. There were also indications of an absolute increase in intrapulmonary blood volume by about 15%. In patients with chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension, the distribution of pulmonary blood volume was also abnormally uniform. There was, however, no indication that overall intrapulmonary blood volume was substantially different from normal subjects. The abnormally uniform distribution of pulmonary blood volume can be explained by recruitment and/or dilatation of vascular beds. Intrapulmonary blood volume appears to be increased in patients with intracardiac, left-to-right shunts. With the development of pulmonary hypertension, intrapulmonary blood volume falls, which may be explained by reactive changes in the vasculature and/or obliteration of capillaries

  12. Predisposing factors of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy: comparison between CT emphysema score and pulmonary function test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Park, Kyung Joo; Park, Dong Won; Jung, Kyung Il; Suh, Jung Ho [Ajou Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-11-01

    To compare the CT emphysema score with various factors of pulmonary function test by simple spirometry and to use the result as a predictor of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy. The CT scans of 106 patients who had undergone percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions within the previous 18 months were retrospectively reviewed. In 75 of these 106 cases, the results of the pulmonary function test were also reviewed. On plain chest radiography, pneumothorax was noted in 20 cases (19%). Emphysema was blindly evaluated. We divided each lung into four segments and determined the severity and involved volume of emphysema, as seen on CT. Severity was classified as one of four grades, as follow : absence of emphysema=0 ; low attenuation area of less than 5mm=1 ; low attenuation area of more than 5mm, and vascular pruning with normal lung intervening=2 ; and diffuse low attenuation without intervening normal lung, and larger confluent low attenuation with vascular pruning and distortion of branching pattern occupying all or almost all the involved parenchyma=3. The involved area was also classified as one of four grades : less than 25%=1 ; 25 - 49%=2 ; 51 - 74%=3 ; and more than 75%=4. The CT emphysema score was defined as the average of the grade of severity multiplied by the grade of involved area. Pulmonary function tests, consisting of simple spirometry and a pulmonologist's interpretation, were evaluated. We also evaluated depth and size of lesion as known predisposing factors in postbioptic pneumothorax. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test, Wilcoxon ranks sum W test and the student t test. A comparison between the two groups of occurrence(with or without pneumothorax) showed the emphysema scores to be 1.69{+-}2.0 and 1.11{+-}2.9, respectively ; there was thus no significant difference between the two groups (z= - 0.048, p>0.10). Nor were differences revealed by the

  13. Predisposing factors of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy: comparison between CT emphysema score and pulmonary function test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Park, Kyung Joo; Park, Dong Won; Jung, Kyung Il; Suh, Jung Ho

    1997-01-01

    To compare the CT emphysema score with various factors of pulmonary function test by simple spirometry and to use the result as a predictor of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy. The CT scans of 106 patients who had undergone percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions within the previous 18 months were retrospectively reviewed. In 75 of these 106 cases, the results of the pulmonary function test were also reviewed. On plain chest radiography, pneumothorax was noted in 20 cases (19%). Emphysema was blindly evaluated. We divided each lung into four segments and determined the severity and involved volume of emphysema, as seen on CT. Severity was classified as one of four grades, as follow : absence of emphysema=0 ; low attenuation area of less than 5mm=1 ; low attenuation area of more than 5mm, and vascular pruning with normal lung intervening=2 ; and diffuse low attenuation without intervening normal lung, and larger confluent low attenuation with vascular pruning and distortion of branching pattern occupying all or almost all the involved parenchyma=3. The involved area was also classified as one of four grades : less than 25%=1 ; 25 - 49%=2 ; 51 - 74%=3 ; and more than 75%=4. The CT emphysema score was defined as the average of the grade of severity multiplied by the grade of involved area. Pulmonary function tests, consisting of simple spirometry and a pulmonologist's interpretation, were evaluated. We also evaluated depth and size of lesion as known predisposing factors in postbioptic pneumothorax. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test, Wilcoxon ranks sum W test and the student t test. A comparison between the two groups of occurrence(with or without pneumothorax) showed the emphysema scores to be 1.69±2.0 and 1.11±2.9, respectively ; there was thus no significant difference between the two groups (z= - 0.048, p>0.10). Nor were differences revealed by the pulmonary

  14. C-type natriuretic peptide ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis by acting on lung fibroblasts in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Toru; Nojiri, Takashi; Hino, Jun; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Miura, Koichi; Shintani, Yasushi; Inoue, Masayoshi; Zenitani, Masahiro; Takabatake, Hiroyuki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Okumura, Meinoshin; Kangawa, Kenji

    2016-02-19

    Pulmonary fibrosis has high rates of mortality and morbidity; however, no effective pharmacological therapy has been established. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), a member of the natriuretic peptide family, selectively binds to the transmembrane guanylyl cyclase (GC)-B receptor and exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects in various organs through vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts that have a cell-surface GC-B receptor. Given the pathophysiological importance of fibroblast activation in pulmonary fibrosis, we hypothesized that the anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of exogenous CNP against bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis were exerted in part by the effect of CNP on pulmonary fibroblasts. C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups, CNP-treated (2.5 μg/kg/min) and vehicle, to evaluate BLM-induced (1 mg/kg) pulmonary fibrosis and inflammation. A periostin-CNP transgenic mouse model exhibiting CNP overexpression in fibroblasts was generated and examined for the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects of CNP via fibroblasts in vivo. Additionally, we assessed CNP attenuation of TGF-β-induced differentiation into myofibroblasts by using immortalized human lung fibroblasts stably expressing GC-B receptors. Furthermore, to investigate whether CNP acts on human lung fibroblasts in a clinical setting, we obtained primary-cultured fibroblasts from surgically resected lungs of patients with lung cancer and analyzed levels of GC-B mRNA transcription. CNP reduced mRNA levels of the profibrotic cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, as well as collagen deposition and the fibrotic area in lungs of mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, similar CNP effects were observed in transgenic mice exhibiting fibroblast-specific CNP overexpression. In cultured-lung fibroblasts, CNP treatment attenuated TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and increased mRNA and protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin and SM22

  15. Nitric Oxide-Sensitive Pulmonary Hypertension in Congenital Rubella Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Raimondi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent pulmonary hypertension is a very rare presentation of congenital virus infection. We discuss the case of complete congenital rubella syndrome presenting at echocardiography with pulmonary hypertension that worsened after ductus ligation. Cardiac catheterization showed a normal pulmonary valve and vascular tree but a PAP=40 mmHg. The infant promptly responded to inhaled nitric oxide while on mechanical ventilation and was later shifted to oral sildenafil. It is not clear whether our observation may be due to direct viral damage to the endothelium or to the rubella virus increasing the vascular tone via a metabolic derangement.

  16. Vaccine-induced inflammation attenuates the vascular responses to mental stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paine, N.J.; Ring, C.; Bosch, J.A.; Drayson, M.T.; Aldred, S.; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J.J.C.S.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is associated with poorer vascular function, with evidence to suggest that inflammation can also impair the vascular responses to mental stress. This study examined the effects of vaccine-induced inflammation on vascular responses to mental stress in healthy participants. Eighteen male

  17. Down-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor by HEXIM1 attenuates myocardial angiogenesis in hypoxic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Noritada; Shimizu, Noriaki; Ojima, Hidenori; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Hosono, Osamu; Tanaka, Hirotoshi

    2014-10-24

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) sustains elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance and ultimately leads to right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy and failure and death. Recently, proangiogenic factors hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have been known to promote left ventricular myocardial angiogenesis and lead to cardiac hypertrophy, and this would be involved in RV hypertrophy of PH patients. Previously, we revealed that overexpression of HEXIM1 prevents endothelin-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and hypertrophic genes expression, and that cardiomyocyte-specific HEXIM1 transgenic mice ameliorates RV hypertrophy in hypoxia-induced PH model. Given these results, here we analyzed the effect of HEXIM1 on the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF and on myocardial angiogenesis of RV in PH. We revealed that overexpression of HEXIM1 prevented hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1α protein and its target genes including VEGF in the cultured cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts, and that cardiomyocyte-specific HEXIM1 transgenic mice repressed RV myocardial angiogenesis in hypoxia-induced PH model. Thus, we conclude that HEXIM1 could prevent RV hypertrophy, at least in part, via suppression of myocardial angiogenesis through down-regulation of HIF-1α and VEGF in the myocardium under hypoxic condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid Attenuated Inflammation and Edema via Suppressing HIF-1α in Seawater Aspiration-Induced Lung Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongyang; Xi, Ronggang; Zhang, Zhiran; Li, Wangping; Liu, Yan; Jin, Faguang; Wang, Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPA) is an active component of Chinese herb Aster tataricus which had been widely used in China for the treatment of pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of 4-HPA on seawater aspiration-induced lung injury. Pulmonary inflammation and edema were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) white cell count, Evans blue dye analysis, wet to dry weight ratios, and histology study. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) siRNA and permeability assay were used to study the effect of 4-HPA on the production of inflammatory cytokines and monolayer permeability in vitro. The results showed that 4-HPA reduced seawater instillation-induced mortality in rats. In lung tissues, 4-HPA attenuated hypoxia, inflammation, vascular leak, and edema, and decreased HIF-1α protein level. In primary rat alveolar epithelial cells (AEC), 4-HPA decreased hypertonicity- and hypoxia-induced HIF-1α protein levels through inhibiting the activations of protein translational regulators and via promoting HIF-1α protein degradation. In addition, 4-HPA lowered inflammatory cytokines levels through suppressing hypertonicity- and hypoxia-induced HIF-1α in NR8383 macrophages. Moreover, 4-HPA decreased monolayer permeability through suppressing hypertonicity and hypoxia-induced HIF-1α, which was mediated by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in rat lung microvascular endothelial cell line (RLMVEC). In conclusion, 4-HPA attenuated inflammation and edema through suppressing hypertonic and hypoxic induction of HIF-1α in seawater aspiration-induced lung injury in rats. PMID:25050781

  19. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor gemigliptin protects against vascular calcification in an experimental chronic kidney disease and vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Youn Choi

    Full Text Available Although dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, a class of antidiabetic drugs, have various pleiotropic effects, it remains undetermined whether gemigliptin has a beneficial effect on vascular calcification. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of gemigliptin on vascular calcification in a rat model of adenine-induced chronic kidney disease and in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Gemigliptin attenuated calcification of abdominal aorta and expression of RUNX2 in adenine-induced chronic kidney disease rats. In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, phosphate-induced increase in calcium content was reduced by gemigliptin. Gemigliptin reduced phosphate-induced PiT-1 mRNA expression, reactive oxygen species generation, and NADPH oxidase mRNA expression (p22phox and NOX4. The reduction of oxidative stress by gemigliptin was associated with the downregulation of phospho-PI3K/AKT expression. High phosphate increased the expression of frizzled-3 (FDZ3 and decreased the expression of dickkopf-related protein-1 (DKK-1 in the Wnt pathway. These changes were attenuated by gemigliptin treatment. Gemigliptin restored the decreased expression of vascular smooth muscle cells markers (α-SMA and SM22α and increased expression of osteogenic makers (CBFA1, OSX, E11, and SOST induced by phosphate. In conclusion, gemigliptin attenuated vascular calcification and osteogenic trans-differentiation in vascular smooth muscle cells via multiple steps including downregulation of PiT-1 expression and suppression of reactive oxygen species generation, phospho-PI3K/AKT, and the Wnt signaling pathway.

  20. Cytochrome P450 1B1 and 2C9 genotypes and risk of ischemic vascular disease, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize present knowledge of genetic variation in cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and 2C9 (CYP2C9) genes and risk of tobacco-related cancer, female cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and ischemic vascular disease. The CYP1B1 and CYP2C9 enzymes metabolize pol...

  1. Tetralogy of Fallot with origin of left pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robida, A.; Fettich, D.

    1985-09-01

    Anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery in tetralogy of Fallot was diagnosed in a 4-year-old boy by cardiac catheterization. Corrective surgery was performed. The child died immediately following the surgical procedure. Postmortem examination revealed obstructive pulmonary vascular disease of the left lung and normal histology of right lung vessels. Early recognition and surgical correction of the anomaly is important with the view to preventing obstructive pulmonary vascular disease.

  2. Pulmonary hypertension—“state of the art” management in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH is a pathological condition of small pulmonary arteries, characterised by vascular proliferation and remodelling. The pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance progressively rise, leading to right heart failure and death. Pulmonary artery hypertension may be secondary to various conditions, or it may be idiopathic where no underlying cause is identifiable. Earlier, only symptomatic treatment was available for such patients which did not change the natural history of the disease. However, over the years, improvement in understanding the pathogenesis has resulted in the development of targeted approaches to the treatment of PAH. Survival advantage has also been shown with some of the pharmacologic agents. This review article discusses the current management strategy for PAH with special emphasis on an idiopathic variety, in an Indian context.

  3. Hemodynamic Effects of Phenylephrine, Vasopressin, and Epinephrine in Children With Pulmonary Hypertension: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siehr, Stephanie L; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Yang, Weiguang; Peng, Lynn F; Ogawa, Michelle T; Ramamoorthy, Chandra

    2016-05-01

    During a pulmonary hypertensive crisis, the marked increase in pulmonary vascular resistance can result in acute right ventricular failure and death. Currently, there are no therapeutic guidelines for managing an acute crisis. This pilot study examined the hemodynamic effects of phenylephrine, arginine vasopressin, and epinephrine in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension. In this prospective, open-label, nonrandomized pilot study, we enrolled pediatric patients previously diagnosed with pulmonary hypertensive who were scheduled electively for cardiac catheterization. Primary outcome was a change in the ratio of pulmonary-to-systemic vascular resistance. Baseline hemodynamic data were collected before and after the study drug was administered. Eleven of 15 participants were women, median age was 9.2 years (range, 1.7-14.9 yr), and median weight was 26.8 kg (range, 8.5-55.2 kg). Baseline mean pulmonary artery pressure was 49 ± 19 mm Hg, and mean indexed pulmonary vascular resistance was 10 ± 5.4 Wood units. Etiology of pulmonary hypertensive varied, and all were on systemic pulmonary hypertensive medications. Patients 1-5 received phenylephrine 1 μg/kg; patients 6-10 received arginine vasopressin 0.03 U/kg; and patients 11-15 received epinephrine 1 μg/kg. Hemodynamics was measured continuously for up to 10 minutes following study drug administration. After study drug administration, the ratio of pulmonary-to-systemic vascular resistance decreased in three of five patients receiving phenylephrine, five of five patients receiving arginine vasopressin, and three of five patients receiving epinephrine. Although all three medications resulted in an increase in aortic pressure, only arginine vasopressin consistently resulted in a decrease in the ratio of systolic pulmonary artery-to-aortic pressure. This prospective pilot study of phenylephrine, arginine vasopressin, and epinephrine in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertensive showed an increase in aortic

  4. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor agonist Compound 21 attenuates pulmonary inflammation in a model of acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menk M

    2018-05-01

    expressions in the lungs, whereas the expressions of IL-1, IL-10, and IL-4 remained unchanged. During the 240-min observation period, AT2 receptor stimulation did not improve pulmonary gas exchange or lung edema. Conclusion: In this rodent model of acute lung injury after repeated pulmonary lavage, AT2 receptor stimulation attenuates pulmonary inflammation but does not improve gas exchange. Keywords: AT2 receptor, lung failure, ARDS, acute lung injury, Compound 21 (C21

  5. On the pathologically altered pulmonary pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, M.A.; Kinoshenko, Yu.T.

    1982-01-01

    The notions ''normal'' and ''pathologically altered pulmonary pattern'' are specified. A grouping of lung pattern alterations based on morphopathogenetic features is provided: blood and lymphatic vascular alterations, changes in the bronchi, lung stroma, and combined alterations. Radiologic appearance of the altered pulmonary pattern is classified in keeping with the basic principles of an X-ray shade examination. The terms, such as ''enriching'', ''strengthening'', ''deformation'', etc., used for describing the pathologically altered pulmonary pattern are defined

  6. Hepatopulmonary syndrome induced by common bile duct ligation in a rabbit model: correlation between pulmonary vascular dilatation on thin-section CT and angiography and serum nitrite concentration or endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Nam; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Lee, Jin Wha; Kim, Ki Nam; Park, Byung Ho; Kwak, Jong Young; Jeong, Jin Sook; Kim, Young Hoon

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between radiologic vascular dilatation and serum nitrite concentration and eNOS expression in the endothelial cell and pneumocyte in a rabbit model of hepatopulmonary syndrome induced by common bile duct ligation (CBDL). Thin-section CT scans of the lung and pulmonary angiography were obtained 3 weeks after CBDL (n=6), or a sham operation (n=4), and intrapulmonary vasodilatation was assessed. The diameter and tortuosity of peripheral vessels in the right lower lobe by thin-section CT and angiography at the same level of the right lower lobe in all subjects were correlated to serum nitrite concentration and eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) expression as determined by immunostaining. The diameters of pulmonary vessels on thin-section CT were well correlated with nitrite concentrations in serum (r=0.92, ρ < 0.001). Dilated pulmonary vessels were significantly correlated with an increased eNOS expression (r=0.94, ρ < 0.0001), and the severity of pulmonary vessel tortuosity was found to be well correlated with serum nitrite concentration (r=0.90, ρ < 0.001). The peripheral pulmonary vasculature in hepatopulmonary syndrome induced by CBLD was dilated on thin-section CT and on angiographs. Our findings suggest that peripheral pulmonary vascular dilatations are correlated with serum nitrite concentrations and pulmonary eNOS expression

  7. Pulmonary vasculitis: imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Joon Beom; Im, Jung Gi; Chung, Jin Wook; Goo, Jin Mo; Park, Jae Hyung; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Song, Jae Woo

    1999-01-01

    Vasculitis is defined as an inflammatory process involving blood vessels, and can lead to destruction of the vascular wall and ischemic damage to the organs supplied by these vessels. The lung is commonly affected. A number of attempts have been made to classify and organize pulmonary vasculitis, but because the clinical manifestations and pathologic features of the condition overlap considerably, these afforts have failed to achieve a consensus. We classified pulmonary vasculitis as belonging to either the angitiis-granulomatosis group, the diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage with capillaritis group, or 'other'. Characteristic radiographic and CT findings of the different types of pulmonary vasculitis are illustrated, with a brief discussion of the respective disease entities

  8. Pan-PPAR agonist IVA337 is effective in experimental lung fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avouac, Jerome; Konstantinova, Irena; Guignabert, Christophe; Pezet, Sonia; Sadoine, Jeremy; Guilbert, Thomas; Cauvet, Anne; Tu, Ly; Luccarini, Jean-Michel; Junien, Jean-Louis; Broqua, Pierre; Allanore, Yannick

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the antifibrotic effects of the pan-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist IVA337 in preclinical mouse models of pulmonary fibrosis and related pulmonary hypertension (PH). IVA337 has been evaluated in the mouse model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and in Fra-2 transgenic mice, this latter being characterised by non-specific interstitial pneumonia and severe vascular remodelling of pulmonary arteries leading to PH. Mice received two doses of IVA337 (30 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg) or vehicle administered by daily oral gavage up to 4 weeks. IVA337 demonstrated at a dose of 100 mg/kg a marked protection from the development of lung fibrosis in both mouse models compared with mice receiving 30 mg/kg of IVA337 or vehicle. Histological score was markedly reduced by 61% in the bleomycin model and by 50% in Fra-2 transgenic mice, and total lung hydroxyproline concentrations decreased by 28% and 48%, respectively, as compared with vehicle-treated mice. IVA337 at 100 mg/kg also significantly decreased levels of fibrogenic markers in lesional lungs of both mouse models. In addition, IVA337 substantially alleviated PH in Fra-2 transgenic mice by improving haemodynamic measurements and vascular remodelling. In primary human lung fibroblasts, IVA337 inhibited in a dose-dependent manner fibroblast to myofibroblasts transition induced by TGF-β and fibroblast proliferation mediated by PDGF. We demonstrate that treatment with 100 mg/kg IVA337 prevents lung fibrosis in two complementary animal models and substantially attenuates PH in the Fra-2 mouse model. These findings confirm that the pan-PPAR agonist IVA337 is an appealing therapeutic candidate for these cardiopulmonary involvements. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Pulmonary endarterectomy in the management of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenkins

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a type of pulmonary hypertension, resulting from fibrotic transformation of pulmonary artery clots causing chronic obstruction in macroscopic pulmonary arteries and associated vascular remodelling in the microvasculature. Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA offers the best chance of symptomatic and prognostic improvement in eligible patients; in expert centres, it has excellent results. Current in-hospital mortality rates are 90% at 1 year and >70% at 10 years. However, PEA, is a complex procedure and relies on a multidisciplinary CTEPH team led by an experienced surgeon to decide on an individual's operability, which is determined primarily by lesion location and the haemodynamic parameters. Therefore, treatment of patients with CTEPH depends largely on subjective judgements of eligibility for surgery by the CTEPH team. Other controversies discussed in this article include eligibility for PEA versus balloon pulmonary angioplasty, the new treatment algorithm in the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society guidelines and the definition of an “expert centre” for the management of this condition.

  10. Pulmonary hypertension-"state of the art" management in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is a pathological condition of small pulmonary arteries, characterised by vascular proliferation and remodelling. The pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance progressively rise, leading to right heart failure and death. Pulmonary artery hypertension may be secondary to various conditions, or it may be idiopathic where no underlying cause is identifiable. Earlier, only symptomatic treatment was available for such patients which did not change the natural history of the disease. However, over the years, improvement in understanding the pathogenesis has resulted in the development of targeted approaches to the treatment of PAH. Survival advantage has also been shown with some of the pharmacologic agents. This review article discusses the current management strategy for PAH with special emphasis on an idiopathic variety, in an Indian context. Copyright © 2012 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Tetralogy of Fallot with origin of left pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robida, A.; Fettich, D.

    1985-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery in tetralogy of Fallot was diagnosed in a 4-year-old boy by cardiac catheterization. Corrective surgery was performed. The child died immediately following the surgical procedure. Postmortem examination revealed obstructive pulmonary vascular disease of the left lung and normal histology of right lung vessels. Early recognition and surgical correction of the anomaly is important with the view to preventing obstructive pulmonary vascular disease. (orig.)

  12. Association between HCV induced mixed cryoglobulinemia and pulmonary affection: The role of TNF-alpha in the pathogenesis of pulmonary changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdelBaset M. Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that pulmonary involvement is common in patients with chronic HCV infection and mixed cryoglobulinemia. Cryoglobulinemia may lead to pulmonary involvement through vascular and interstitial deposition of cryoglobulins, which results in impaired gas exchange and airway affection.

  13. Adventitial Fibroblasts induce a distinct Pro-inflammatory/Pro-fibrotic Macrophage Phenotype in Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kasmi, Karim C.; Pugliese, Steven C.; Riddle, Suzette R.; Poth, Jens M.; Anderson, Aimee L.; Frid, Maria G.; Li, Min; Pullamsetti, Soni S.; Savai, Rajkumar; Nagel, Maria A.; Fini, Mehdi A.; Graham, Brian B.; Tuder, Rubin M.; Friedman, Jacob E.; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Sokol, Ronald J.; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage accumulation is not only a characteristic hallmark but also a critical component of pulmonary artery (PA) remodeling associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that drive vascular macrophage activation and their functional phenotype remain poorly defined. Utilizing multiple levels of in vivo (bovine and rat models of hypoxia-induced PH, together with human tissue samples) and in vitro (primary mouse, rat, and bovine macrophages, human monocytes, as well as primary human and bovine fibroblasts) approaches, we observed that adventitial fibroblasts derived from hypertensive Pas (bovine and human) regulate macrophage activation. These fibroblasts activate macrophages through paracrine IL6 and STAT3, HIF1, and C/EBPβ signaling to drive expression of genes previously implicated in chronic inflammation, tissue remodeling, and PH. This distinct fibroblast-activated macrophage phenotype was independent of IL4/IL13-STAT6 and TLR-MyD88 signaling. We found that genetic STAT3 haplodeficiency in macrophages attenuated macrophage activation while complete STAT3 deficiency increased macrophage activation through compensatory upregulation of STAT1 signaling, while deficiency in C/EBPβ or HIF1 attenuated fibroblast driven macrophage activation. These findings challenge the current paradigm of IL4/IL13-STAT6 mediated alternative macrophage activation as the sole driver of vascular remodeling in PH and uncover a crosstalk between adventitial fibroblasts and macrophages in which paracrine IL6 activated STAT3, HIF1, and C/EBPβ signaling is critical for macrophage activation and polarization. Thus, targeting IL6 signaling in macrophages by completely inhibiting C/EBPβ, HIF1a or partially inhibiting STAT3 may hold therapeutic value for treatment of PH and other inflammatory conditions characterized by increased IL6 and absent IL4/IL13 signaling. PMID:24928992

  14. Role of Lipoxygenase Metabolites of Arachidonic Acid in Enhanced Pulmonary Artery Contractions of Female Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Pfister, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure and vascular resistance. In women the incidence is 4 fold greater than that in men. Studies suggest sustained vasoconstriction is a factor in increased vascular resistance. Possible vasoconstrictor mediators include arachidonic acid-derived lipoxygenase metabolites. Our studies in rabbits showed enhanced endothelium-dependent contractions to arachidonic acid in pulmonary arteries from females compared to ma...

  15. Intrauterine growth restriction decreases pulmonary alveolar and vessel growth and causes pulmonary artery endothelial cell dysfunction in vitro in fetal sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedorf, Gregory J.; Brown, Alicia; Roe, Gates; O'Meara, Meghan C.; Gien, Jason; Tang, Jen-Ruey; Abman, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Abnormal lung structure has been noted in animal models of IUGR, but whether IUGR adversely impacts fetal pulmonary vascular development and pulmonary artery endothelial cell (PAEC) function is unknown. We hypothesized that IUGR would decrease fetal pulmonary alveolarization, vascular growth, and in vitro PAEC function. Studies were performed in an established model of severe placental insufficiency and IUGR induced by exposing pregnant sheep to elevated temperatures. Alveolarization, quantified by radial alveolar counts, was decreased 20% (P growth by 68% (P growth was reduced in IUGR PAECs by 29% at baseline (P growth and PAEC dysfunction in vitro. This may contribute to the increased risk for adverse respiratory outcomes and BPD in infants with IUGR. PMID:21873446

  16. Pulmonary vasculature in dogs assessed by three-dimensional fractal analysis and chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anna V; Marschner, Clara B; Kristensen, Annemarie T

    2017-01-01

    Fractal analysis of canine pulmonary vessels could allow quantification of their space-filling properties. Aims of this prospective, analytical, cross-sectional study were to describe methods for reconstructing three dimensional pulmonary arterial vascular trees from computed tomographic pulmonary...... angiogram, applying fractal analyses of these vascular trees in dogs with and without diseases that are known to predispose to thromboembolism, and testing the hypothesis that diseased dogs would have a different fractal dimension than healthy dogs. A total of 34 dogs were sampled. Based on computed...... for each dog using a semiautomated segmentation technique. Vascular three-dimensional reconstructions were then evaluated using fractal analysis. Fractal dimensions were analyzed, by group, using analysis of variance and principal component analysis. Fractal dimensions were significantly different among...

  17. A study on the pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume by RI-cardiogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushio, Norio

    1987-01-01

    The pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume in cases of cardio-pulmonary disease were measured using Giuntini's method which is considered the most appropriate among radiocardiographic methods. The errors in this method were confirmed to be almost negligible. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The pulmonary mean transit time was related to the systemic mean transit time and markedly prolonged in left heart failure. On the other hand, it was markedly shortened in some cases of chronic pulmonary disease, particularly pulmonary emphysema. 2) The pulmonary blood volume tended to increase in left heart disorders and mitral valve disease and tended to decrease in the chronic pulmonary disease. The decrease was conspicuous particularly in some cases of pulmonary emphysema. 3) A structural change of the pulmonary vascular system in the chronic pulmonary disease appeared to bring about shortening of the pulmonary mean transit time and a decrease in the pulmonary blood volume. The pathophysiology of cardio-pulmonary disease can be more clarified by the RI-cardiogram used in this study, in which the pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume are used as the indicator. (author)

  18. Computed chest tomography in rats with pulmonary damage due to microembolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, T.; Wegenius, G.; Hemmingsson, A.; Jung, B.; Saldeen, T.

    Computed chest tomography was performed in 13 rats with pulmonary damage due to microembolism, caused by injection of thrombin (500 NIH/kg body weight) and tranexamic acid, a fibrinolytic inhibitor (200 mg/kg body weight), and in 9 control rats. The purpose of the investigation was to perform attenuation measurements at two levels of the right lung, each with three regions of interest (anterior, mid and posterior). Alterations in attenuation, compared with controls, were correlated with lung weight. Compared with controls, the attenuation was significantly increased in the anterior and posterior regions at both levels in animals with pulmonary damage, but not in the mid regions. There was a statistically significant correlation between increasing attenuation and increasing lung weight. A significant difference was found between damaged and control lungs regarding the microscopic grade of interstitial oedema, alveolar oedema and fibrin. Histograms of attenuation values in computed tomograms might be of value in detecting alveolar oedema. It is concluded that computed chest tomography is a good method for detection pulmonary oedema at an early stage of experimental microembolism in the rat.

  19. Computed chest tomography in rats with pulmonary damage due to microembolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegener, T.; Wegenius, G.; Hemmingsson, A.; Jung, B.; Saldeen, T.; Uppsala Univ.; Uppsala Univ.; Uppsala Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Computed chest tomography was performed in 13 rats with pulmonary damage due to microembolism, caused by injection of thrombin (500 NIH/kg body weight) and tranexamic acid, a fibrinolytic inhibitor (200 mg/kg body weight), and in 9 control rats. The purpose of the investigation was to perform attenuation measurements at two levels of the right lung, each with three regions of interest (anterior, mid and posterior). Alterations in attenuation, compared with controls, were correlated with lung weight. Compared with controls, the attenuation was significantly increased in the anterior and posterior regions at both levels in animals with pulmonary damage, but not in the mid regions. There was a statistically significant correlation between increasing attenuation and increasing lung weight. A significant difference was found between damaged and control lungs regarding the microscopic grade of interstitial oedema, alveolar oedema and fibrin. Histograms of attenuation values in computed tomograms might be of value in detecting alveolar oedema. It is concluded that computed chest tomography is a good method for detection pulmonary oedema at an early stage of experimental microembolism in the rat. (orig.)

  20. Comparison between the radiological manifestations of thoracic involvement in collagen vascular diseases and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirova, G.; Rashkov, R.; Georgiev, O.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare the presentation and distribution of lung abnormalities seen in Collagen Vascular Diseases (CVD) with those specifics for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). The HRCT scans of 92 patients fulfilling the ARA criteria's for the diagnosis of four different CVD were reviewed and compared with those of 18 patients with IPF. The presentations of three main patterns of lung disease were assessed into the both groups. In order to find out the trend distribution in each disease, the grade and severity of presentation for the main abnormalities were assessed, using a scoring system.The incidence of reticular lung abnormalities for the group of IPF is 100 % versus 57.3 % for the CVD (p<0.0009). At the same time CVD, except for PSS, had a low incidence of reticular diseases (37 %). The incidence of alveolar abnormalities in CVD (57.3 %) were similar as these in IPF (66.6 %) (p=NS). The severity of the disease was greatest in IPF and PSS without significant difference between them. Nevertheless of uniform character of the abnormalities in the rest of CVD, they were presented with lesser degree and severity. The main abnormalities, seen in pulmonary parenchyma in patients with IPF and CVD were similar but with different grade, severity and distribution. (authors)

  1. Milrinone relaxes pulmonary veins in guinea pigs and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette D Rieg

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor milrinone improves ventricular contractility, relaxes pulmonary arteries and reduces right ventricular afterload. Thus, it is used to treat heart failure and pulmonary hypertension (PH. However, its action on pulmonary veins (PVs is not defined, although particularly PH due to left heart disease primarily affects the pulmonary venous bed. We examined milrinone-induced relaxation in PVs from guinea pigs (GPs and humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS were prepared from GPs or from patients undergoing lobectomy. Milrinone-induced relaxation was studied by videomicroscopy in naïve PVs and in PVs pre-constricted with the ETA-receptor agonist BP0104. Baseline luminal area was defined as 100%. Intracellular cAMP was measured by ELISA and milrinone-induced changes of segmental vascular resistances were studied in the GP isolated perfused lung (IPL. RESULTS: In the IPL (GP, milrinone (10 µM lowered the postcapillary resistance of pre-constricted vessels. In PCLS (GP, milrinone relaxed naïve and pre-constricted PVs (120% and this relaxation was attenuated by inhibition of protein kinase G (KT 5823, adenyl cyclase (SQ 22536 and protein kinase A (KT 5720, but not by inhibition of NO-synthesis (L-NAME. In addition, milrinone-induced relaxation was dependent on the activation of K ATP-, BK Ca (2+- and Kv-channels. Human PVs also relaxed to milrinone (121%, however only if pre-constricted. DISCUSSION: Milrinone relaxes PVs from GPs and humans. In GPs, milrinone-induced relaxation is based on K ATP-, BK Ca (2+- and Kv-channel-activation and on cAMP/PKA/PKG. The relaxant properties of milrinone on PVs lead to reduced postcapillary resistance and hydrostatic pressures. Hence they alleviate pulmonary edema and suggest beneficial effects of milrinone in PH due to left heart disease.

  2. Milrinone relaxes pulmonary veins in guinea pigs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieg, Annette D; Suleiman, Said; Perez-Bouza, Alberto; Braunschweig, Till; Spillner, Jan W; Schröder, Thomas; Verjans, Eva; Schälte, Gereon; Rossaint, Rolf; Uhlig, Stefan; Martin, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor milrinone improves ventricular contractility, relaxes pulmonary arteries and reduces right ventricular afterload. Thus, it is used to treat heart failure and pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, its action on pulmonary veins (PVs) is not defined, although particularly PH due to left heart disease primarily affects the pulmonary venous bed. We examined milrinone-induced relaxation in PVs from guinea pigs (GPs) and humans. Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were prepared from GPs or from patients undergoing lobectomy. Milrinone-induced relaxation was studied by videomicroscopy in naïve PVs and in PVs pre-constricted with the ETA-receptor agonist BP0104. Baseline luminal area was defined as 100%. Intracellular cAMP was measured by ELISA and milrinone-induced changes of segmental vascular resistances were studied in the GP isolated perfused lung (IPL). In the IPL (GP), milrinone (10 µM) lowered the postcapillary resistance of pre-constricted vessels. In PCLS (GP), milrinone relaxed naïve and pre-constricted PVs (120%) and this relaxation was attenuated by inhibition of protein kinase G (KT 5823), adenyl cyclase (SQ 22536) and protein kinase A (KT 5720), but not by inhibition of NO-synthesis (L-NAME). In addition, milrinone-induced relaxation was dependent on the activation of K ATP-, BK Ca (2+)- and Kv-channels. Human PVs also relaxed to milrinone (121%), however only if pre-constricted. Milrinone relaxes PVs from GPs and humans. In GPs, milrinone-induced relaxation is based on K ATP-, BK Ca (2+)- and Kv-channel-activation and on cAMP/PKA/PKG. The relaxant properties of milrinone on PVs lead to reduced postcapillary resistance and hydrostatic pressures. Hence they alleviate pulmonary edema and suggest beneficial effects of milrinone in PH due to left heart disease.

  3. When a pulmonary embolism is not a pulmonary embolism: a rare case of primary pulmonary leiomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargiz Muganlinskaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arterial leiomyosarcomas account for up to 21% of vascular leiomyosarcomas, with 56% of arterial leiomyosarcomas occurring in the pulmonary artery. While isolated cases of primary pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma document survival up to 36 months after treatment, these uncommon, aggressive tumors are highly lethal, with 1-year survival estimated at 20% from the onset of symptoms. We discuss a rare case of a pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma that was originally diagnosed as a pulmonary embolism (PE. A 72-year-old Caucasian female was initially diagnosed with ‘saddle pulmonary embolism’ based on computerized tomographic angiography of the chest 2 months prior to admission and placed on anticoagulation. Dyspnea escalated, and serial computed tomography scans showed cardiomegaly with pulmonary emboli involving the right and left main pulmonary arteries with extension into the right and left upper and lower lobe branches. An echocardiogram on admission showed severe pulmonary hypertension with a pulmonary artery pressure of 82.9 mm Hg, and a severely enlarged right ventricle. Respiratory distress and multiorgan failure developed and, unfortunately, the patient expired. Autopsy showed a lobulated, yellow mass throughout the main pulmonary arteries measuring 13 cm in diameter. The mass extended into the parenchyma of the right upper lobe. On microscopy, the mass was consistent with a high-grade primary pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma. Median survival of patients with primary pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma without surgery is one and a half months, and mortality is usually due to right-sided heart failure. Pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma is a rare but highly lethal disease commonly mistaken for PE. Thus, we recommend clinicians to suspect this malignancy when anticoagulation fails to relieve initial symptoms. In conclusion, early detection and suspicion of pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma should be considered in patients refractory to anticoagulation

  4. Pulmonary embolism and cor pulmonale in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sottiaux, J.; Franck, M.

    1999-01-01

    A 14-year-old male neutered cat experienced pulmonary embolism 15 days following surgical debridement of a recurrent dorsolumbar abscess. Clinical signs were dominated by respiratory distress. Pulmonary embolism was suggested from the lateral thoracic radiograph by the presence of an abruptly attenuated lobar artery and a contiguous oligaemic area in the caudal lung lobe. Pulmonary hypertension was demonstrated on Doppler echocardiography by right pulmonary artery dilation and tricuspid regurgitation raising the pulmonary arterial pressure to 56 mmHg. Chronic pulmonary hypertension, assumed from right ventricular wall hypertrophy, and hypokinesia, indicating chronic cor pulmonale, was suggestive of chronic rather than acute pulmonary embolism. Postmortem histological evidence of pulmonary arteriolar occlusion confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism

  5. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging-derived pulmonary artery distensibility index correlates with pulmonary artery stiffness and predicts functional capacity in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ki-Woon; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Kim, Young-Jin; Choi, Byoung-Wook; Yang, Woo-In; Shim, Chi-Young; Ha, Jongwon; Chung, Namsik; Lee, Hye-Sun

    2011-01-01

    Increased stiffness of the pulmonary vascular bed is known to increase mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); and pulmonary artery (PA) stiffness is also thought to be associated with exercise capacity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI)-derived PA distensibility index correlates with PA stiffness estimated on right heart catheterization (RHC) and predicts functional capacity (FC) in patients with PAH. Thirty-five consecutive PAH patients (23% male, mean age, 44±13 years; 69% idiopathic) underwent CMRI, RHC, and 6-min walk test (6MWT). PA distensibility indices were derived from cross-sectional area change (%) in the transverse view, perpendicular to the axis of the main PA, on CMRI [(maximum area-minimum area)/minimum area during cardiac cycle]. Among the PA stiffness indices, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and PA capacitance were calculated using hemodynamic dataset from RHC. CMRI-derived PA distensibility was inversely correlated with PVR (R 2 =0.34, P 2 =0.35, P 2 =0.61, P<0.001). Furthermore, PA distensibility <20% predicted poor FC (<400 m in 6MWT) with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 94%. Non-invasive CMRI-derived PA distensibility index correlates with PA stiffness and can predict FC in patients with PAH. (author)

  6. Attenuation of chondrogenic transformation in vascular smooth muscle by dietary quercetin in the MGP-deficient mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly E Beazley

    Full Text Available Cartilaginous metaplasia of vascular smooth muscle (VSM is characteristic for arterial calcification in diabetes and uremia and in the background of genetic alterations in matrix Gla protein (MGP. A better understanding of the molecular details of this process is critical for the development of novel therapeutic approaches to VSM transformation and arterial calcification.This study aimed to identify the effects of bioflavonoid quercetin on chondrogenic transformation and calcification of VSM in the MGP-null mouse model and upon TGF-β3 stimulation in vitro, and to characterize the associated alterations in cell signaling.Molecular analysis revealed activation of β-catenin signaling in cartilaginous metaplasia in Mgp-/- aortae in vivo and during chondrogenic transformation of VSMCs in vitro. Quercetin intercepted chondrogenic transformation of VSM and blocked activation of β-catenin both in vivo and in vitro. Although dietary quercetin drastically attenuated calcifying cartilaginous metaplasia in Mgp-/- animals, approximately one-half of total vascular calcium mineral remained as depositions along elastic lamellae.Quercetin is potent in preventing VSM chondrogenic transformation caused by diverse stimuli. Combined with the demonstrated efficiency of dietary quercetin in preventing ectopic chondrogenesis in the MGP-null vasculature, these findings indicate a potentially broad therapeutic applicability of this safe for human consumption bioflavonoid in the therapy of cardiovascular conditions linked to cartilaginous metaplasia of VSM. Elastocalcinosis is a major component of MGP-null vascular disease and is controlled by a mechanism different from chondrogenic transformation of VSM and not sensitive to quercetin.

  7. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in reptiles: a comparative study of four species with different lung structures and pulmonary blood pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Nini; Abe, Augusto S; Andrade, Denis V; Wang, Tobias

    2005-11-01

    Low O2 levels in the lungs of birds and mammals cause constriction of the pulmonary vasculature that elevates resistance to pulmonary blood flow and increases pulmonary blood pressure. This hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) diverts pulmonary blood flow from poorly ventilated and hypoxic areas of the lung to more well-ventilated parts and is considered important for the local matching of ventilation to blood perfusion. In the present study, the effects of acute hypoxia on pulmonary and systemic blood flows and pressures were measured in four species of anesthetized reptiles with diverse lung structures and heart morphologies: varanid lizards (Varanus exanthematicus), caimans (Caiman latirostris), rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus), and tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae). As previously shown in turtles, hypoxia causes a reversible constriction of the pulmonary vasculature in varanids and caimans, decreasing pulmonary vascular conductance by 37 and 31%, respectively. These three species possess complex multicameral lungs, and it is likely that HPV would aid to secure ventilation-perfusion homogeneity. There was no HPV in rattlesnakes, which have structurally simple lungs where local ventilation-perfusion inhomogeneities are less likely to occur. However, tegu lizards, which also have simple unicameral lungs, did exhibit HPV, decreasing pulmonary vascular conductance by 32%, albeit at a lower threshold than varanids and caimans (6.2 kPa oxygen in inspired air vs. 8.2 and 13.9 kPa, respectively). Although these observations suggest that HPV is more pronounced in species with complex lungs and functionally divided hearts, it is also clear that other components are involved.

  8. Automated assessment of aortic and main pulmonary arterial diameters using model-based blood vessel segmentation for predicting chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in low-dose CT lung screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidenobu; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro

    2018-02-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by obstruction of the pulmonary vasculature by residual organized thrombi. A morphological abnormality inside mediastinum of CTEPH patient is enlargement of pulmonary artery. This paper presents an automated assessment of aortic and main pulmonary arterial diameters for predicting CTEPH in low-dose CT lung screening. The distinctive feature of our method is to segment aorta and main pulmonary artery using both of prior probability and vascular direction which were estimated from mediastinal vascular region using principal curvatures of four-dimensional hyper surface. The method was applied to two datasets, 64 lowdose CT scans of lung cancer screening and 19 normal-dose CT scans of CTEPH patients through the training phase with 121 low-dose CT scans. This paper demonstrates effectiveness of our method for predicting CTEPH in low-dose CT screening.

  9. Functional high-resolution computed tomography of pulmonary vascular and airway reactions. Experimental results. Funktionelle HR-CT der Lunge. Experimentelle Untersuchungen pulmonaler Gefaess- und Atemwegsreaktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, C.J. (Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Vienna (Austria) Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Radiology); Brown, R.H. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Radiology Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physiology); Wetzel, R.C.; Herold, S.M. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine); Zeerhouni, E.A. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Radiology)

    1993-03-01

    We describe the use of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for assessment of the function of pulmonary vessels and airways. With its excellent spatial resolution, HRCT is able to demonstrate pulmonary structures as small as 300 [mu]m and can be used to monitor changes following various stimuli. HRCT also provides information about structures smaller than 300 [mu]m through measurement of parenchymal background density. To date, sequential, spiral and ultrafast HRCT techniques have been used in a variety of challenges to gather information about the anatomical correlates of traditional physiological measurements, thus making anatomical-physiological correlation possible. HRCT of bronchial reactivity can demonstrate the location and time course of aerosol-induced broncho-constriction and may show changes not apparent on spirometry. HRCT of the pulmonary vascular system visualized adaptations of vessels during hypoxia and intravascular volume loading and elucidates cardiorespiratory interactions. Experimental studies provide a basis for potential clinical applications of this method. (orig.).

  10. Does exercise pulmonary hypertension exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edmund M; Chemla, Denis; Whyte, Kenneth; Kovacs, Gabor; Olschewski, Horst; Herve, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The exercise definition of pulmonary hypertension using a mean pulmonary artery pressure threshold of greater than 30 mmHg was abandoned following the 4th World Pulmonary Hypertension Symposium in 2008, as this definition was not supported by evidence and healthy individuals frequently exceed this threshold. Meanwhile, the clinical value of exercise pulmonary hemodynamic testing has also been questioned. Recent data support the notion that an abnormal pulmonary hemodynamic response during exercise (or exercise pulmonary hypertension) is associated with symptoms and exercise limitation. Pathophysiologic mechanisms accounting for the development of exercise pulmonary hypertension include increased vascular resistance, excessive elevation in left atrial pressure and/or increased volume of trapped air during exercise, resulting in a steep rise in pulmonary artery pressure relative to cardiac output. Recent evidence suggests that exercise pulmonary hypertension may be defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure surpassing 30 mmHg together with a simultaneous total pulmonary resistance exceeding 3 WU. Exercise pulmonary hypertension is a clinically relevant entity and an improved definition has been suggested based on new evidence. Exercise pulmonary hemodynamics may help unmask early or latent disease, particularly in populations that are at high risk for the development of pulmonary hypertension.

  11. Correlation between CT review findings and pulmonary function in pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masaki; Fukuda, Kiyoshi; Homma, Toshiaki

    1987-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between CT and pulmonary function test results in five normal controls and ten patients with severe pulmonary emphysema. We used mean lung attenuation values (MLAV) and ΔEMP as the index of emphysematous change in CT. ΔEMP was defined as the ratio of the area (-960 Hounsfield Units ∼ -1024 HU) to the area (-774 HU ∼ -1024 HU). MLAV and ΔEMP were measured from histograms of the CT review. Mean MLAV in pulmonary emphysema was -947.1 ± 9.3 HU, and that in normal controls was -906.6 ± 23.6 HU. Mean ΔEMP in pulmonary emphysema was 50.0 ± 9.9 %, and that in normal controls was 18.8 ± 13.0 %. The data in pulmonary emphysema cases differed significantly from those in normal controls. Furthermore MLAV and ΔEMP had good correlation to VC, %VC, FEV 1 , FEV 1 /FVC, RV/TLC, %V 25 and Raw. CT is an easier examination than pulmonary function test for patients, and can show the extent and the distribution of emphysematous area. In this study it is suggested that CT is a useful examination in severe pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  12. Dimethylfumarate attenuates restenosis after acute vascular injury by cell-specific and Nrf2-dependent mechanisms

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    Chang Joo Oh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and incomplete re-endothelialization is a major clinical problem limiting the long-term efficacy of percutaneous coronary angioplasty. We tested if dimethylfumarate (DMF, an anti-psoriasis drug, could inhibit abnormal vascular remodeling via NF−E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2-NAD(PH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1 activity. DMF significantly attenuated neointimal hyperplasia induced by balloon injury in rat carotid arteries via suppression of the G1 to S phase transition resulting from induction of p21 protein in VSMCs. Initially, DMF increased p21 protein stability through an enhancement in Nrf2 activity without an increase in p21 mRNA. Later on, DMF stimulated p21 mRNA expression through a process dependent on p53 activity. However, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 or NQO1 activity, well-known target genes induced by Nrf2, were dispensable for the DMF induction of p21 protein and the effect on the VSMC proliferation. Likewise, DMF protected endothelial cells from TNF-α-induced apoptosis and the dysfunction characterized by decreased eNOS expression. With knock-down of Nrf2 or NQO1, DMF failed to prevent TNF-α-induced cell apoptosis and decreased eNOS expression. Also, CD31 expression, an endothelial specific marker, was restored in vivo by DMF. In conclusion, DMF prevented abnormal proliferation in VSMCs by G1 cell cycle arrest via p21 upregulation driven by Nrf2 and p53 activity, and had a beneficial effect on TNF-α-induced apoptosis and dysfunction in endothelial cells through Nrf2–NQO1 activity suggesting that DMF might be a therapeutic drug for patients with vascular disease.

  13. Eisenmenger syndrome and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension: do parenchymal lung changes reflect aetiology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, N.; Allen, D.; Wort, J.; Rubens, M.; Padley, S.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To document the pulmonary vascular changes on thin-section computed tomography (CT) in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and to determine whether there is any correlation with pulmonary arterial pressures or the aetiology of pulmonary hypertension. Material and methods: From the National Pulmonary Hypertension Database, we identified eight patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and 20 patients with Eisenmenger syndrome (secondary to a ventriculoseptal defect) who had also undergone contrast-enhanced thin-section CT. CT studies were reviewed for the presence of centrilobular nodules, mosaicism, neovascularity, and bronchial artery hypertrophy. Haemodynamic data were also reviewed. Results: Centrilobular nodules, mosaicism, and neovascularity were seen in both patient groups (p > 0.05). A significantly higher number of enlarged bronchial arteries were seen in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome. There was no correlation with pulmonary arterial pressures. Conclusion: Patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and Eisenmenger syndrome demonstrated similar pulmonary vascular changes on CT. These changes did not predict the underlying cause of pulmonary hypertension or its severity

  14. Eisenmenger syndrome and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension: do parenchymal lung changes reflect aetiology?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, N. [Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: nyreegriffin@hotmail.com; Allen, D. [Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Wort, J. [Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Rubens, M. [Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Padley, S. [Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    Aim: To document the pulmonary vascular changes on thin-section computed tomography (CT) in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and to determine whether there is any correlation with pulmonary arterial pressures or the aetiology of pulmonary hypertension. Material and methods: From the National Pulmonary Hypertension Database, we identified eight patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and 20 patients with Eisenmenger syndrome (secondary to a ventriculoseptal defect) who had also undergone contrast-enhanced thin-section CT. CT studies were reviewed for the presence of centrilobular nodules, mosaicism, neovascularity, and bronchial artery hypertrophy. Haemodynamic data were also reviewed. Results: Centrilobular nodules, mosaicism, and neovascularity were seen in both patient groups (p > 0.05). A significantly higher number of enlarged bronchial arteries were seen in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome. There was no correlation with pulmonary arterial pressures. Conclusion: Patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and Eisenmenger syndrome demonstrated similar pulmonary vascular changes on CT. These changes did not predict the underlying cause of pulmonary hypertension or its severity.

  15. Visual and semiquantitative analysis of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography using a partial-ring tomograph without attenuation correction to differentiate benign and malignant pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skehan, S.J.; Coates, G.; Otero, C.; O'Donovan, N.; Pelling, M.; Nahmias, C.

    2001-01-01

    Many studies have reported the use of attenuation-corrected positron emission tomography with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG PET) with full-ring tomographs to differentiate between benign and malignant pulmonary nodules. We sought to evaluate FDG PET using a partial-ring tomograph without attenuation correction. A retrospective review of PET images from 77 patients (range 38-84 years of age) with proven benign or malignant pulmonary nodules was undertaken. All images were obtained using a Siemens/CTI ECAT ART tomograph, without attenuation correction, after 185 MBq 18 F-FDG was injected. Images were visually graded on a 5-point scale from 'definitely malignant' to 'definitely benign,' and lesion-to-background (LB) ratios were calculated using region of interest analysis. Visual and semiquantitative analyses were compared using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Twenty lesions were benign and 57 were malignant. The mean LB ratio for benign lesions was 1.5 (range 1.0-5.7) and for malignant lesions 5.7 (range 1.2-14.1) (p < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve for LB ratio analysis was 0.95, and for visual analysis 0.91 (p = 0.39). The optimal cut-off ratio with LB ratio analysis was 1.8, giving a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 85%. For lesions thought to be 'definitely malignant' on visual analysis, the sensitivity was 93% and the specificity 85%. Three proven infective lesions were rated as malignant by both techniques (LB ratio 2.6-5.7). FDG PET without attenuation correction is accurate for differentiating between benign and malignant lung nodules. Results using simple LB ratios without attenuation correction compare favourably with the published sensitivity and specificity for standard uptake ratios. Visual analysis is equally accurate. (author)

  16. Impact of Major Pulmonary Resections on Right Ventricular Function: Early Postoperative Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrakhawy, Hany M; Alassal, Mohamed A; Shaalan, Ayman M; Awad, Ahmed A; Sayed, Sameh; Saffan, Mohammad M

    2018-01-15

    postoperative records for heart rate, mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular ejection fraction and right ventricular end diastolic volume index, in all postoperative records. For group (II): There were no statistically significant changes between the preoperative and all postoperative records for the central venous pressure, mean arterial pressure and cardiac index. There were statistically significant changes between the preoperative and postoperative records for heart rate, mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular ejection fraction and right ventricular end diastolic volume index in all postoperative records. There were statistically significant changes between the two groups in all postoperative records for heart rate, mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular ejection fraction and right ventricular end diastolic volume index. There is right ventricular dysfunction early after major pulmonary resection caused by increased right ventricular afterload. This dysfunction is more present in pneumonectomy than in lobectomy. Heart rate, mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular ejection fraction, and right ventricular end diastolic volume index are significantly affected by pulmonary resection.

  17. Pulmonary Hypertension in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzer, Jacob C; Mathier, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary hypertension occurs as the result of disease processes increasing pressure within the pulmonary circulation, eventually leading to right ventricular failure. Patients may become critically ill from complications of pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure or may develop pulmonary hypertension as the result of critical illness. Diagnostic testing should evaluate for common causes such as left heart failure, hypoxemic lung disease and pulmonary embolism. Relatively few patients with pulmonary hypertension encountered in clinical practice require specific pharmacologic treatment of pulmonary hypertension targeting the pulmonary vasculature. Management of right ventricular failure involves optimization of preload, maintenance of systemic blood pressure and augmentation of inotropy to restore systemic perfusion. Selected patients may require pharmacologic therapy to reduce right ventricular afterload by directly targeting the pulmonary vasculature, but only after excluding elevated left heart filling pressures and confirming increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Critically-ill patients with pulmonary hypertension remain at high risk of adverse outcomes, requiring a diligent and thoughtful approach to diagnosis and treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Noninvasive Doppler tissue measurement of pulmonary artery compliance in children with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Karrie; Lanning, Craig; Das, Bibhuti; Lee, Po-Feng; Ivy, D Dunbar; Valdes-Cruz, Lilliam; Shandas, Robin

    2006-04-01

    We have shown previously that input impedance of the pulmonary vasculature provides a comprehensive characterization of right ventricular afterload by including compliance. However, impedance-based compliance assessment requires invasive measurements. Here, we develop and validate a noninvasive method to measure pulmonary artery (PA) compliance using ultrasound color M-mode (CMM) Doppler tissue imaging (DTI). Dynamic compliance (C(dyn)) of the PA was obtained from CMM DTI and continuous wave Doppler measurement of the tricuspid regurgitant velocity. C(dyn) was calculated as: [(D(s) - D(d))/(D(d) x P(s))] x 10(4); where D(s) = systolic diameter, D(d) = diastolic diameter, and P(s) = systolic pressure. The method was validated both in vitro and in 13 patients in the catheterization laboratory, and then tested on 27 pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension, with comparison with 10 age-matched control subjects. C(dyn) was also measured in an additional 13 patients undergoing reactivity studies. Instantaneous diameter measured using CMM DTI agreed well with intravascular ultrasound measurements in the in vitro models. Clinically, C(dyn) calculated by CMM DTI agreed with C(dyn) calculated using invasive techniques (23.4 +/- 16.8 vs 29.1 +/- 20.6%/100 mm Hg; P = not significant). Patients with pulmonary hypertension had significantly lower peak wall velocity values and lower C(dyn) values than control subjects (P < .01). C(dyn) values followed an exponentially decaying relationship with PA pressure, indicating the nonlinear stress-strain behavior of these arteries. Reactivity in C(dyn) agreed with reactivity measured using impedance techniques. The C(dyn) method provides a noninvasive means of assessing PA compliance and should be useful as an additional measure of vascular reactivity subsequent to pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with pulmonary hypertension.

  19. Ghrelin attenuates vascular calcification in diabetic patients with amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Suining; Ye, Fei; Li, Lihua; Yan, Jinchuan; Bao, Zhengyang; Sun, Zhen; Xu, Liangjie; Zhu, Jie; Wang, Zhongqun

    2017-07-01

    Vascular calcification is established to be a critical factor in diabetes mellitus, which causes cardiovascular and amputation complication of diabetic patients. OPG/RANKL/RANK axis serves as a regulatory role in vascular calcification. Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), has been reported to exhibit potent cardiovascular protective effects. However, the role of ghrelin in the regulation of diabetic vascular calcification is still elusive. Here, we reported the role of ghrelin and its relationship with OPG/RANKL/RANK system in patients with diabetic foot amputation. In vivo and in vitro investigations were performed. Sixty type 2 diabetic patients with foot amputation were enrolled in vivo investigation, and they were divided into three groups through Doppler ultrasound: mild stenosis group (n=20), moderate stenosis group (n=20), and severe stenosis/occlusion group (n=20). Morphological analysis results showed diffused calcium depositions in the anterior tibial artery of diabetic amputees. Compared with the mild and moderate stenosis group, the severe stenosis/occlusion group had more spotty calcium depositions in atherosclerotic plaques. Western blot analysis indicated the expressions of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and ghrelin were downregulated, while the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) was upregulated with the vascular stenosis aggravation. Pearson correlation analysis revealed a negative correlation between calcium content and ghrelin levels (r=-0.58, Pghrelin levels and sRANKL levels (r=-0.57, Pghrelin levels (r=0.63, PGhrelin blunted calcification in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, ghrelin upregulated OPG expression and downregulated RANKL expression in VSMC calcification when anti-OPG antibody and RANKL were performed. Collectively, we therefore conclude serum ghrelin level may be a predictor of diabetic vascular calcification. The possible mechanism may be related with OPG

  20. Pulmonary phenotypes associated with genetic variation in telomere-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Thijs W; van Moorsel, Coline H M; Borie, Raphael; Crestani, Bruno

    2018-05-01

    Genomic mutations in telomere-related genes have been recognized as a cause of familial forms of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, it has become increasingly clear that telomere syndromes and telomere shortening are associated with various types of pulmonary disease. Additionally, it was found that also single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in telomere-related genes are risk factors for the development of pulmonary disease. This review focuses on recent updates on pulmonary phenotypes associated with genetic variation in telomere-related genes. Genomic mutations in seven telomere-related genes cause pulmonary disease. Pulmonary phenotypes associated with these mutations range from many forms of pulmonary fibrosis to emphysema and pulmonary vascular disease. Telomere-related mutations account for up to 10% of sporadic IPF, 25% of familial IPF, 10% of connective-tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease, and 1% of COPD. Mixed disease forms have also been found. Furthermore, SNPs in TERT, TERC, OBFC1, and RTEL1, as well as short telomere length, have been associated with several pulmonary diseases. Treatment of pulmonary disease caused by telomere-related gene variation is currently based on disease diagnosis and not on the underlying cause. Pulmonary phenotypes found in carriers of telomere-related gene mutations and SNPs are primarily pulmonary fibrosis, sometimes emphysema and rarely pulmonary vascular disease. Genotype-phenotype relations are weak, suggesting that environmental factors and genetic background of patients determine disease phenotypes to a large degree. A disease model is presented wherever genomic variation in telomere-related genes cause specific pulmonary disease phenotypes whenever triggered by environmental exposure, comorbidity, or unknown factors.

  1. Adiponectin attenuates angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell remodeling through nitric oxide and the RhoA/ROCK pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wared eNour-Eldine

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adiponectin (APN, an adipocytokine, exerts protective effects on cardiac remodeling, while angiotensin II (Ang II induces hypertension and vascular remodeling. The potential protective role of APN on the vasculature during hypertension has not been fully elucidated yet. Here, we evaluate the molecular mechanisms of the protective role of APN in the physiological response of the vascular wall to Ang II.METHODS AND RESULTS: Rat aortic tissues were used to investigate the effect of APN on Ang II-induced vascular remodeling and hypertrophy. We investigated whether nitric oxide (NO, the RhoA/ROCK pathway, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and reactive oxygen species (ROS mediate the anti-hypertrophic effect of APN. Ang II-induced protein synthesis was attenuated by pre-treatment with APN, NO donor (SNAP, or cGMP. The hypertrophic response to Ang II was associated with a significant increase in RhoA activation and vascular force production, which were prevented by APN and SNAP. NO was also associated with inhibition of Ang II-induced phosphorylation of cofilin. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed that 24 hr Ang II treatment increased the F- to G-actin ratio, an effect that was inhibited by SNAP. Ang II-induced ROS formation and upregulation of p22phox mRNA expression were inhibited by APN and NO. Both compounds failed to inhibit Nox1 and p47phox expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the anti-hypertrophic effects of APN are due, in part, to NO-dependent inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK pathway and ROS formation.

  2. Pulmonary Arterial Capacitance Predicts Cardiac Events in Pulmonary Hypertension Due to Left Heart Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Sugimoto

    Full Text Available Although pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (LHD-PH accounts for the largest proportion of pulmonary hypertension, few reports on the epidemiological analysis of LHD-PH exist. Recently, pulmonary arterial capacitance (PAC has attracted attention as a possible factor of right ventricular afterload along with pulmonary vascular resistance. We therefore investigated the clinical significance of PAC in LHD-PH.The subject consisted of 252 LHD-PH patients (145 men, mean age 63.4 ± 14.7 years diagnosed by right heart catheterization. PAC was estimated by the ratio between stroke volume and pulmonary arterial pulse pressure. Patients were classified into four groups according to the PAC (1st quartile was 0.74 to 1.76 ml/mmHg, the 2nd quartile 1.77 to 2.53 ml/mmHg, the 3rd quartile 2.54 to 3.59 ml/mmHg, and the 4th quartile 3.61 to 12.14 ml/mmHg. The end-points were defined as rehospitalization due to worsening heart failure and/or cardiac death. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to determine what variables were associated with cardiac events.The patients in the 1st quartile had the lowest cardiac index and stroke volume index, and the highest mean pulmonary arterial pressure, mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and pulmonary vascular resistance compared with the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartiles. Fifty-four patients experienced cardiac events during the follow-up period (median 943 days. The event-free rate of the 1st quartile was significantly lower than that of the 3rd and 4th quartiles (66.7% vs 82.5% [3rd quartile], P = 0.008; and 92.1% [4th quartile], P < 0.001. The Cox hazard analysis revealed that PAC was significantly associated with cardiac events (HR 0.556, 95% CI 0.424-0.730, P < 0.001.PAC is useful in the prediction of cardiac event risk in LHD-PH patients.

  3. Pulmonary Arterial Capacitance Predicts Cardiac Events in Pulmonary Hypertension Due to Left Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Koichi; Yoshihisa, Akiomi; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Jin, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yokokawa, Tetsuro; Misaka, Tomofumi; Yamaki, Takayoshi; Kunii, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Shu-ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2016-01-01

    Background Although pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (LHD-PH) accounts for the largest proportion of pulmonary hypertension, few reports on the epidemiological analysis of LHD-PH exist. Recently, pulmonary arterial capacitance (PAC) has attracted attention as a possible factor of right ventricular afterload along with pulmonary vascular resistance. We therefore investigated the clinical significance of PAC in LHD-PH. Methods The subject consisted of 252 LHD-PH patients (145 men, mean age 63.4 ± 14.7 years) diagnosed by right heart catheterization. PAC was estimated by the ratio between stroke volume and pulmonary arterial pulse pressure. Patients were classified into four groups according to the PAC (1st quartile was 0.74 to 1.76 ml/mmHg, the 2nd quartile 1.77 to 2.53 ml/mmHg, the 3rd quartile 2.54 to 3.59 ml/mmHg, and the 4th quartile 3.61 to 12.14 ml/mmHg). The end-points were defined as rehospitalization due to worsening heart failure and/or cardiac death. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to determine what variables were associated with cardiac events. Results The patients in the 1st quartile had the lowest cardiac index and stroke volume index, and the highest mean pulmonary arterial pressure, mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and pulmonary vascular resistance compared with the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartiles. Fifty-four patients experienced cardiac events during the follow-up period (median 943 days). The event-free rate of the 1st quartile was significantly lower than that of the 3rd and 4th quartiles (66.7% vs 82.5% [3rd quartile], P = 0.008; and 92.1% [4th quartile], P < 0.001). The Cox hazard analysis revealed that PAC was significantly associated with cardiac events (HR 0.556, 95% CI 0.424–0.730, P < 0.001). Conclusion PAC is useful in the prediction of cardiac event risk in LHD-PH patients. PMID:27875533

  4. Pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis

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    Suri Harpreet S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (PLCH is a relatively uncommon lung disease that generally, but not invariably, occurs in cigarette smokers. The pathologic hallmark of PLCH is the accumulation of Langerhans and other inflammatory cells in small airways, resulting in the formation of nodular inflammatory lesions. While the overwhelming majority of patients are smokers, mechanisms by which smoking induces this disease are not known, but likely involve a combination of events resulting in enhanced recruitment and activation of Langerhans cells in small airways. Bronchiolar inflammation may be accompanied by variable lung interstitial and vascular involvement. While cellular inflammation is prominent in early disease, more advanced stages are characterized by cystic lung destruction, cicatricial scarring of airways, and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Pulmonary function is frequently abnormal at presentation. Imaging of the chest with high resolution chest CT scanning may show characteristic nodular and cystic abnormalities. Lung biopsy is necessary for a definitive diagnosis, although may not be required in instances were imaging findings are highly characteristic. There is no general consensus regarding the role of immunosuppressive therapy in smokers with PLCH. All smokers must be counseled on the importance of smoking cessation, which may result in regression of disease and obviate the need for systemic immunosuppressive therapy. The prognosis for most patients is relatively good, particularly if longitudinal lung function testing shows stability. Complications like pneumothoraces and secondary pulmonary hypertension may shorten life expectancy. Patients with progressive disease may require lung transplantation.

  5. Regulation of Pulmonary Vascular Tone in Health and Disease: Special emphasis on exercise and pulmonary hypertension after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Houweling (Birgit)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHigh bloodpressure in the pulmonary circulation is called pulmonary hypertension (PH). In patients with PH, the balance between vasodilators and vasoconstrictors is disturbed. PH is an important cause of death; it is characterized by elevated levels of pulmonary artery pressure

  6. Pulmonary artery enlargement and cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbations: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J. Michael; Farris, Roopan F.; Gosdin, Taylor A.; Dransfield, Mark T.; Wood, Michelle E.; Bell, Scott C.; Rowe, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Acute pulmonary exacerbations are associated with progressive lung function decline and increased mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). The role of pulmonary vascular disease in pulmonary exacerbations is unknown. We investigated the association between pulmonary artery enlargement (PA:A>1), a marker of pulmonary vascular disease, and exacerbations. Methods We analyzed clinical, computed tomography (CT), and prospective exacerbation data in a derivation cohort of 74 adult CF patients, measuring the PA:A at the level of the PA bifurcation. We then replicated our findings in a validation cohort of 190 adult CF patients. Patients were separated into groups based on the presence or absence of a PA:A>1 and were followed for 1-year in the derivation cohort and 2-years in the validation cohort. The primary endpoint was developing ≥1 acute pulmonary exacerbation during follow-up. Linear and logistic regression models were used to determine associations between clinical factors, the PA:A ratio, and pulmonary exacerbations. We used Cox regression to determine time to first exacerbation in the validation cohort. Findings We found that PA:A>1 was present in n=37/74 (50%) of the derivation and n=89/190 (47%) of the validation cohort. In the derivation cohort, n=50/74 (68%) had ≥1 exacerbation at 1 year and n=133/190 (70%) in the validation cohort had ≥1 exacerbation after 2 years. PA:A>1 was associated with younger age in both cohorts and with elevated sweat chloride (100.5±10.9 versus 90.4±19.9mmol/L, difference between groups 10.1mmol/L [95%CI 2.5–17.7], P=0.017) in the derivation group. PA:A>1 was associated with exacerbations in the derivation (OR 3.49, 95%CI 1.18–10.3, P=0.023) and validation (OR 2.41, 95%CI 1.06–5.52, P=0.037) cohorts when adjusted for confounders. Time to first exacerbation was shorter in PA:A>1 versus PA:Apulmonary exacerbation risk in two well-characterized cohorts. PA:A may be a predictive marker in CF. PMID:27298019

  7. A continuum model for pressure-flow relationship in human pulmonary circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Zhou, Qinlian; Gao, Jian; Yen, R T

    2011-06-01

    A continuum model was introduced to analyze the pressure-flow relationship for steady flow in human pulmonary circulation. The continuum approach was based on the principles of continuum mechanics in conjunction with detailed measurement of vascular geometry, vascular elasticity and blood rheology. The pulmonary arteries and veins were considered as elastic tubes and the "fifth-power law" was used to describe the pressure-flow relationship. For pulmonary capillaries, the "sheet-flow" theory was employed and the pressure-flow relationship was represented by the "fourth-power law". In this paper, the pressure-flow relationship for the whole pulmonary circulation and the longitudinal pressure distribution along the streamlines were studied. Our computed data showed general agreement with the experimental data for the normal subjects and the patients with mitral stenosis and chronic bronchitis in the literature. In conclusion, our continuum model can be used to predict the changes of steady flow in human pulmonary circulation.

  8. Radiographic findings in pulmonary hypertension from unresolved embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, W.W. III; Hoeck, B.E.; Chitwood, W.R. Jr.; Lyerly, H.K.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Chen, J.T.T.

    1985-04-01

    Pulmonary artery hypertension with chronic pulmonary embolism is an uncommon entity that is potentially treatable with pulmonary embolectomy. Although the classic radiographic features have been described, several recent investigators report a significant percentage of these patients with normal chest radiographs. In a series of 22 patients, no normal radiographs were seen. Findings included cardiomegaly (86.4%) with right-sided enlargement (68.4%), right descending pulmonary artery enlargement (54.5%), azygos vein enlargement (27.3%), mosaic oligemia (68.2%), chronic volume loss (27.3%), atelectasis and/or effusion (22.7%), and pleural thickening (13.6%). Good correlation with specific areas of diminished vascularity was seen on chest radiographs compared with pulmonary angiograms.

  9. Radiographic findings in pulmonary hypertension from unresolved embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.W. III; Hoeck, B.E.; Chitwood, W.R. Jr.; Lyerly, H.K.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Chen, J.T.T.

    1985-01-01

    Pulmonary artery hypertension with chronic pulmonary embolism is an uncommon entity that is potentially treatable with pulmonary embolectomy. Although the classic radiographic features have been described, several recent investigators report a significant percentage of these patients with normal chest radiographs. In a series of 22 patients, no normal radiographs were seen. Findings included cardiomegaly (86.4%) with right-sided enlargement (68.4%), right descending pulmonary artery enlargement (54.5%), azygos vein enlargement (27.3%), mosaic oligemia (68.2%), chronic volume loss (27.3%), atelectasis and/or effusion (22.7%), and pleural thickening (13.6%). Good correlation with specific areas of diminished vascularity was seen on chest radiographs compared with pulmonary angiograms

  10. Bcl-2 silencing attenuates hypoxia-induced apoptosis resistance in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yongmei; Jiang, Zhen; Zeng, Zhen; Liu, Yujing; Gu, Yuchun; Ji, Yingying; Zhao, Yupeng; Li, Yingchuan

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disorder that ultimately causes heart failure. While the underlying causes of this condition are not well understood, previous studies suggest that the anti-apoptotic nature of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) in hypoxic environments contributes to PAH pathogenesis. In this study, we focus on the contribution of Bcl-2 and hypoxia response element (HRE) to apoptosis-resistant endothelial cells and investigate the mechanism. PMVECs obtained from either normal rats or apoptosis-resistant PMVECs obtained from PAH rats were transduced with recombinant lentiviral vectors carrying either Bcl-2-shRNA or HRE combined Bcl-2-shRNA, and then cultured these cells for 24 h under hypoxic (5% O2) or normoxic (21% O2) conditions. In normal PMVECs, Bcl-2-shRNA or HRE combined with Bcl-2-shRNA transduction successfully decreased Bcl-2 expression, while increasing apoptosis as well as caspase-3 and P53 expression in a normoxic environment. In a hypoxic environment, the effects of Bcl-2-shRNA treatment on cell apoptosis, and on Bcl-2, caspase-3, P53 expression were significantly suppressed. Conversely, HRE activation combined with Bcl-2-shRNA transduction markedly enhanced cell apoptosis and upregulated caspase-3 and P53 expression, while decreasing Bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, in apoptosis-resistant PMVECs, HRE-mediated Bcl-2 silencing effectively enhanced cell apoptosis and caspase-3 activity. The apoptosis rate was significantly depressed when Lv-HRE-Bcl-2-shRNA was combined with Lv-P53-shRNA or Lv-caspase3-shRNA transduction in a hypoxic environment. These results suggest that HRE-mediated Bcl-2 inhibition can effectively attenuate hypoxia-induced apoptosis resistance in PMVECs by downregulating Bcl-2 expression and upregulating caspase-3 and P53 expression. This study therefore reveals critical insight into potential therapeutic targets for treating PAH.

  11. Hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension augments lung injury and airway reactivity caused by ozone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zychowski, Katherine E.; Lucas, Selita N.; Sanchez, Bethany; Herbert, Guy; Campen, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Ozone (O 3 )-related cardiorespiratory effects are a growing public health concern. Ground level O 3 can exacerbate pre-existing respiratory conditions; however, research regarding therapeutic interventions to reduce O 3 -induced lung injury is limited. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypoxia-associated pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a frequent comorbidity that is difficult to treat clinically, yet associated with increased mortality and frequency of exacerbations. In this study, we hypothesized that established HPH would confer vulnerability to acute O 3 pulmonary toxicity. Additionally, we tested whether improvement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity via rho-kinase inhibition could mitigate pulmonary inflammation and injury. To determine if O 3 exacerbated HPH, male C57BL/6 mice were subject to either 3 weeks continuous normoxia (20.9% O 2 ) or hypoxia (10.0% O 2 ), followed by a 4-h exposure to either 1 ppm O 3 or filtered air (FA). As an additional experimental intervention fasudil (20 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally prior to and after O 3 exposures. As expected, hypoxia significantly increased right ventricular pressure and hypertrophy. O 3 exposure in normoxic mice caused lung inflammation but not injury, as indicated by increased cellularity and edema in the lung. However, in hypoxic mice, O 3 exposure led to increased inflammation and edema, along with a profound increase in airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Fasudil administration resulted in reduced O 3 -induced lung injury via the enhancement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity. These results indicate that increased pulmonary vascular pressure may enhance lung injury, inflammation and edema when exposed to pollutants, and that enhancement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity may alleviate such vulnerability. - Highlights: • Environmental exposures can exacerbate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). • It is unknown if comorbid

  12. The clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, A.C.; Dunn, M.; Van der Merwe, B.; Katz, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Pulmonary embolism is often misdiagnosed by many clinicians because of confusion with pulmonary infarction. According to present literature, the latter seldomly occurs, thus pleuritic pain and hemoptysis are usually absent. The purpose of our study was to re-evaluate the clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism with specific reference to the presence of pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary infarction. Materials and methods: Ethical committee approval was obtained to study fifteen patients with abnormal lung perfusion and high probability for pulmonary embolism retrospectively. Clinical data will be presented in table format. Appropriate symptoms and signs not mentioned was considered absent. Specific investigations not available was considered not done. Results: Will be displayed in table format. The main findings can be summarized as follows: 1. Dyspnea was present in all the patients; 2. Pleuritic pain and hemoptysis was absent in all the patients; 3. None of the patients had clinical signs of pulmonary hypertension or infarction; 4. The available special investigations confirmed the above mentioned findings. Conclusion: The absence of pulmonary infarction and pulmonary hypertension with submassive pulmonary embolism (<60% of pulmonary vascular bed occluded) was reconfirmed and should be emphasized more in clinical practice. (author)

  13. Involvement of Rho kinase in the pathogenesis of acute pulmonary embolism-induced polystyrene microspheres in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toba, M; Nagaoka, T; Morio, Y; Sato, K; Uchida, K; Homma, N; Takahashi, K

    2010-03-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a life-threatening disease, and several vasoconstrictors, including endothelin-1 (ET-1), play a key role in vasoconstriction and hypoxemia during the development of PE. Rho kinase is activated by various vasoconstrictors resulting in vascular contraction and remodeling. Recent evidence has revealed an important role of Rho kinase in the pathogenesis of systemic and pulmonary vascular diseases. However, contribution of Rho kinase in PE remains unclear. We thus investigated the role of Rho kinase in the PE rat model induced by intrajugular administration of polystyrene microspheres (mean diameter, 26 microm). At 6 h following the administration of microspheres (1.5 ml/kg), right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was higher in the PE than in the control rats (15.8 +/- 1.6 vs. 32.9 +/- 7.5 mmHg). Arterial oxygen tension was lower (92.3 +/- 12.5 vs. 66.0 +/- 17.7 Torr), and alveolar-arterial difference in oxygen partial pressure was higher (3.9 +/- 3.8 vs. 36.5 +/- 26.9 Torr) in the PE rats. Western blotting analysis revealed upregulation and downregulation in expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in lungs from the PE rats, respectively, and radioimmunoassay demonstrated an increase in plasma ET-1 levels. Lung Rho kinase alpha expression was greater in the PE rats. At 5 h following administration of microspheres (0.75 ml/kg), intravenous Rho kinase inhibitors HA1077 and Y27632 (3 mg/kg each) attenuated elevation of RVSP (22.0 +/- 3.7, 17.1 +/- 3.2, 14.3 +/- 2.6 mmHg, PE, PE+HA1077, PE+Y27632) and the severity of hypoxemia (66.3 +/- 16.2, 94.9 +/- 23.0, 89.1 +/- 8.5 Torr, PE, PE+HA1077, PE+Y27632) in the PE rats. These results suggest that pulmonary endothelial dysfunction and activation of Rho kinase may contribute to the potentiation of vasoconstriction and hypoxemia in the PE rats.

  14. Ghrelin improves vascular autophagy in rats with vascular calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingming; Liu, Lin; Song, Chenfang; Chen, Wei; Gui, Shuyan

    2017-06-15

    This study aimed to investigate whether ghrelin ameliorated vascular calcification (VC) through improving autophagy. VC model was induced by nicotine plus vitamin D 3 in rats and β-glycerophosphate in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC). Calcium deposition was detected by von Kossa staining or alizarin red S staining. ALP activity was also detected. Western blot was used to assess the protein expression. Ghrelin treatment attenuated the elevation of calcium deposition and ALP activity in VC model both in vivo and in vitro. Interesting, the protein levels of autophagy markers, LC3 and beclin1 were significantly upregulated by ghrelin in VC model. An autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine blocks the ameliorative effect of ghrelin on VC. Furthermore, protein expressions of phosphate-AMPK were increased by ghrelin treatment both in calcified aorta and VSMC. The effect of ghrelin on autophagy induction and VC attenuation was prevented by AMPK inhibitor, compound C. Our results suggested that ghrelin improved autophagy through AMPK activation, which was resulted in VC amelioration. These data maybe throw light on prevention and therapy of VC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Contemporary Management of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Nicholas; Gurley, John; Saha, Sibu

    2017-12-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are atypical vascular structures involving a direct connection between the pulmonary arterial and venous circulations. While PAVMs are a relatively uncommon disorder, unmanaged cases are at risk for the development of serious complications including embolization and infection. Since their first description in 1897, PAVMs have been identified and treated in a variety of ways. Advancements in diagnostic methods and operative techniques have allowed for more effective treatment of the disease. Most recently, the use of vascular plug transcatheter embolization has been described as an effective therapeutic procedure in the management of PAVMs. In this report, we present our experience with nine cases of PAVMs treated at the University of Kentucky, including special consideration of an exemplary case that illustrates the typical course of treatment for the disease.

  16. Saudi Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension: Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with connective tissue diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Boueiz

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we summarize available information about the pulmonary vascular and cardiac manifestations of SSc with special emphasis on their prognostic implications as well as the peculiarity of their detection.

  17. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and collagen vascular diseases - high resolution CT findings; Pneumopatias intersticiais difusas idiopaticas e associadas a colagenoses - aspectos da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Neto, Armando Leao; Mogami, Roberto [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro Biomedico. Inst. de Radiologia; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Biomedico. Dept. de Radiologia; Capone, Domenico [Universidade Estadual, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Penumologia

    1996-09-01

    The aspects of the thorax high-resolution computed tomography of 15 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 11 patients with collagen vascular diseases are described and characterized mainly by the presence of reticular lesions with little cysts predominantly in the periphery and lower lobes. They may be associated with ground-glass lesions that, as usual, means areas of alveolitis. (author) 31 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Mild hypothermia increases pulmonary anti-inflammatory response during protective mechanical ventilation in a piglet model of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruces, Pablo; Erranz, Benjamín; Donoso, Alejandro; Carvajal, Cristóbal; Salomón, Tatiana; Torres, María Fernanda; Díaz, Franco

    2013-11-01

    The effects of mild hypothermia (HT) on acute lung injury (ALI) are unknown in species with metabolic rate similar to that of humans, receiving protective mechanical ventilation (MV). We hypothesized that mild hypothermia would attenuate pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses in piglets with ALI managed with a protective MV. Acute lung injury (ALI) was induced with surfactant deactivation in 38 piglets. The animals were then ventilated with low tidal volume, moderate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and permissive hypercapnia throughout the experiment. Subjects were randomized to HT (33.5°C) or normothermia (37°C) groups over 4 h. Plasma and tissue cytokines, tissue apoptosis, lung mechanics, pulmonary vascular permeability, hemodynamic, and coagulation were evaluated. Lung interleukin-10 concentrations were higher in subjects that underwent HT after ALI induction than in those that maintained normothermia. No difference was found in other systemic and tissue cytokines. HT did not induce lung or kidney tissue apoptosis or influence lung mechanics or markers of pulmonary vascular permeability. Heart rate, cardiac output, oxygen uptake, and delivery were significantly lower in subjects that underwent HT, but no difference in arterial lactate, central venous oxygen saturation, and coagulation test was observed. Mild hypothermia induced a local anti-inflammatory response in the lungs, without affecting lung function or coagulation, in this piglet model of ALI. The HT group had lower cardiac output without signs of global dysoxia, suggesting an adaptation to the decrease in oxygen uptake and delivery. Studies are needed to determine the therapeutic role of HT in ALI. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Hypoxia-Induced Mitogenic Factor (HIMF/FIZZ1/RELM?) Recruits Bone Marrow-Derived Cells to the Murine Pulmonary Vasculature

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, Daniel J.; Su, Qingning; Kolosova, Irina A.; Fan, Chunling; Skinner, John T.; Yamaji-Kegan, Kazuyo; Collector, Michael; Sharkis, Saul J.; Johns, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a disease of multiple etiologies with several common pathological features, including inflammation and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Recent evidence has suggested a potential role for the recruitment of bone marrow-derived (BMD) progenitor cells to this remodeling process. We recently demonstrated that hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF/FIZZ1/RELM?) is chemotactic to murine bone marrow cells in vitro and involved in pulmonary vascular remodeling ...

  20. Ketamine and Pulmonary Oedema-Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Parthasarathy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Perioperative pulmonary oedema is one of the most challenging complications faced by anaesthesiologists. In most of the instances, coronary artery disease, valvular heart diseases, hypertension may precipitate pulmonary oedema due to increased hydrostatic pressure while acid aspiration, airway obstruction may cause it due to increased vascular permeability. In a few instances, acute pulmonary oedema can present in an otherwise healthy patient to cause diagnostic difficulties. We report two such cases of intra operative pulmonary oedema with the use of ketamine which were identified and managed successfully. The most probable cause is also described.

  1. Importance of absent ductus arteriosus in tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Yasir; Burkhart, Harold M; Julsrud, Paul; Cetta, Frank

    2014-12-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot without pulmonary valve syndrome is almost always associated with an absent ductus arteriosus. Patients with right aortic arch and retroesophageal left subclavian artery have a vascular ring if the left ductus arteriosus or its remnant and the Kommerell diverticulum are present. We report the cases of 2 infants in whom the role of an absent ductus arteriosus or its remnant is noteworthy. Both patients had a combination of tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve syndrome and right aortic arch with retroesophageal left subclavian artery without a vascular ring. The absence of the ductus arteriosus has a role in the pathogenesis of tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve syndrome. The absence of a ductus arteriosus in the right aortic arch with retroesophageal left subclavian artery precludes a vascular ring.

  2. Impact of a CXCL12/CXCR4 Antagonist in Bleomycin (BLM Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis and Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4 Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leola N Chow

    Full Text Available Modulation of chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 has been implicated in attenuation of bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatic injury. In pulmonary fibrosis, published reports suggest that collagen production in the injured lung is derived from fibrocytes recruited from the circulation in response to release of pulmonary CXCL12. Conversely, in hepatic fibrosis, resident hepatic stellate cells (HSC, the key cell type in progression of fibrosis, upregulate CXCR4 expression in response to activation. Further, CXCL12 induces HSC proliferation and subsequent production of collagen I. In the current study, we evaluated AMD070, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXCL12/CXCR4 in alleviating BLM-induced pulmonary and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. Similar to other CXCR4 antagonists, treatment with AMD070 significantly increased leukocyte mobilization. However, in these two models of fibrosis, AMD070 had a negligible impact on extracellular matrix deposition. Interestingly, our results indicated that CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling has a role in improving mortality associated with BLM induced pulmonary injury, likely through dampening an early inflammatory response and/or vascular leakage. Together, these findings indicate that the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling axis is not an effective target for reducing fibrosis.

  3. mTOR drives cerebral blood flow and memory deficits in LDLR-/- mice modeling atherosclerosis and vascular cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahrling, Jordan B; Lin, Ai-Ling; DeRosa, Nicholas; Hussong, Stacy A; Van Skike, Candice E; Girotti, Milena; Javors, Martin; Zhao, Qingwei; Maslin, Leigh Ann; Asmis, Reto; Galvan, Veronica

    2018-01-01

    We recently showed that mTOR attenuation blocks progression and abrogates established cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models. These outcomes were associated with the restoration of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and brain vascular density (BVD) resulting from relief of mTOR inhibition of NO release. Recent reports suggested a role of mTOR in atherosclerosis. Because mTOR drives aging and vascular dysfunction is a universal feature of aging, we hypothesized that mTOR may contribute to brain vascular and cognitive dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis. We measured CBF, BVD, cognitive function, markers of inflammation, and parameters of cardiovascular disease in LDLR -/- mice fed maintenance or high-fat diet ± rapamycin. Cardiovascular pathologies were proportional to severity of brain vascular dysfunction. Aortic atheromas were reduced, CBF and BVD were restored, and cognitive dysfunction was attenuated potentially through reduction in systemic and brain inflammation following chronic mTOR attenuation. Our studies suggest that mTOR regulates vascular integrity and function and that mTOR attenuation may restore neurovascular function and cardiovascular health. Together with our previous studies in AD models, our data suggest mTOR-driven vascular damage may be a mechanism shared by age-associated neurological diseases. Therefore, mTOR attenuation may have promise for treatment of cognitive impairment in atherosclerosis.

  4. Pulmonary thromboembolism in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babyn, Paul S.; Gahunia, Harpal K. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Pediatric Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Massicotte, Patricia [Stollery Children' s Hospital and University of Alberta, Departments of Pediatric Hematology and Cardiology, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-03-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is uncommonly diagnosed in the pediatric patient, and indeed often only discovered on autopsy. The incidence of pediatric PTE depends upon the associated underlying disease, diagnostic tests used, and index of suspicion. Multiple risk factors can be found including: peripartum asphyxia, dyspnea, haemoptysis, chest pain, dehydration, septicemia, central venous lines (CVLs), trauma, surgery, ongoing hemolysis, vascular lesions, malignancy, renal disease, foreign bodies or, uncommonly, intracranial venous sinus thrombosis, burns, or nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Other types of embolism can occur uncommonly in childhood and need to be recognized, as the required treatment will vary. These include pulmonary cytolytic thrombi, foreign bodies, tumor and septic emboli, and post-traumatic fat emboli. No single noninvasive test for pulmonary embolism is both sensitive and specific. A combination of diagnostic procedures must be used to identify suspect or confirmed cases of PTE. This article reviews the risk factors, clinical presentation and treatment of pulmonary embolism in children. It also highlights the current diagnostic tools and protocols used to evaluate pulmonary embolism in pediatric patients. (orig.)

  5. Pulmonary thromboembolism in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babyn, Paul S.; Gahunia, Harpal K.; Massicotte, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is uncommonly diagnosed in the pediatric patient, and indeed often only discovered on autopsy. The incidence of pediatric PTE depends upon the associated underlying disease, diagnostic tests used, and index of suspicion. Multiple risk factors can be found including: peripartum asphyxia, dyspnea, haemoptysis, chest pain, dehydration, septicemia, central venous lines (CVLs), trauma, surgery, ongoing hemolysis, vascular lesions, malignancy, renal disease, foreign bodies or, uncommonly, intracranial venous sinus thrombosis, burns, or nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Other types of embolism can occur uncommonly in childhood and need to be recognized, as the required treatment will vary. These include pulmonary cytolytic thrombi, foreign bodies, tumor and septic emboli, and post-traumatic fat emboli. No single noninvasive test for pulmonary embolism is both sensitive and specific. A combination of diagnostic procedures must be used to identify suspect or confirmed cases of PTE. This article reviews the risk factors, clinical presentation and treatment of pulmonary embolism in children. It also highlights the current diagnostic tools and protocols used to evaluate pulmonary embolism in pediatric patients. (orig.)

  6. Treatment of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: The Role of Medical Therapy and Balloon Pulmonary Angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Timothy M; Poch, David S; Auger, William R

    2016-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a potentially curable disease when treated with pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE). However, even at experienced surgical centers, nearly one-third of patients with CTEPH will be deemed inoperable for reasons including distal disease, comorbidities, or out-of-proportion pulmonary hypertension. It is in these patients with inoperable CTEPH that pulmonary hypertension (PH)-targeted medical therapy and balloon pulmonary angioplasty have potential therapeutic value. Previous unblinded cohort trials have assessed PH-targeted medical therapy in various subpopulations of CTEPH patients using epoprostenol, treprostinil, sildenafil, bosentan, and iloprost, each demonstrating measurable pulmonary hemodynamic effects. However, riociguat, a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, is the first FDA-approved therapy for inoperable CTEPH to demonstrate both an improvement in functional capabilities (6-minute walk time) as well as significant gains in secondary pulmonary hemodynamic end points in a large placebo-controlled trial. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty is an interventional procedure using telescoping catheters placed in the pulmonary arteries, through which wires and balloons are used to mechanically disrupt chronic clot material and relieve pulmonary vascular obstruction. Contemporary case series from multiple centers worldwide have demonstrated pulmonary hemodynamic improvement with this approach. As a result of these advances, patients with inoperable CTEPH who had few options as recently as 5 years ago now have alternatives with emerging evidence of therapeutic efficacy.

  7. Eccentric-exercise induced inflammation attenuates the vascular responses to mental stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paine, N.J.; Ring, C.; Aldred, S.; Bosch, J.A.; Wadley, A.J.; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J.J.C.S.

    2013-01-01

    Mental stress has been identified as a trigger of myocardial infarction (MI), with inflammation and vascular responses to mental stress independently implicated as contributing factors. This study examined whether inflammation moderates the vascular responses to mental stress. Eighteen healthy male

  8. Low-dose CT pulmonary angiography on a 15-year-old CT scanner: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Kaup

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Computed tomography (CT low-dose (LD imaging is used to lower radiation exposure, especially in vascular imaging; in current literature, this is mostly on latest generation high-end CT systems. Purpose To evaluate the effects of reduced tube current on objective and subjective image quality of a 15-year-old 16-slice CT system for pulmonary angiography (CTPA. Material and Methods CTPA scans from 60 prospectively randomized patients (28 men, 32 women were examined in this study on a 15-year-old 16-slice CT scanner system. Standard CT (SD settings were 100 kV and 150 mAs, LD settings were 100 kV and 50 mAs. Attenuation of the pulmonary trunk, various anatomic landmarks, and image noise were quantitatively measured; contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR were calculated. Three independent blinded radiologists subjectively rated each image series using a 5-point grading scale. Results CT dose index (CTDI in the LD series was 66.46% lower compared to the SD settings (2.49 ± 0.55 mGy versus 7.42 ± 1.17 mGy. Attenuation of the pulmonary trunk showed similar results for both series (SD 409.55 ± 91.04 HU; LD 380.43 HU ± 93.11 HU; P = 0.768. Subjective image analysis showed no significant differences between SD and LD settings regarding the suitability for detection of central and peripheral PE (central SD/LD, 4.88; intra-class correlation coefficients [ICC], 0.894/4.83; ICC, 0.745; peripheral SD/LD, 4.70; ICC, 0.943/4.57; ICC, 0.919; all P > 0.4. Conclusion The LD protocol, on a 15-year-old CT scanner system without current high-end hardware or post-processing tools, led to a dose reduction of approximately 67% with similar subjective image quality and delineation of central and peripheral pulmonary arteries.

  9. Postoperative management of pulmonary endarterectomy and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayana Iyengar Ramakrishna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary artery thromboendarterectomy (PTE has been regarded as a promising, potentially curative surgical procedure. However, PTE is associated with specific postoperative complications, such as reperfusion pulmonary edema and right heart failure leading to a considerable mortality of 7-24%. Despite its limitations PTE is a better surgical alternative to lung transplantation which carries high morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study is to analyze the efficacy, safety, morbidity and survival associated in the postoperative period and quality of life after six months of PTE in Indian patients. Forty-one patients with surgically correctable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension underwent pulmonary endarterectomy. All patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA Class II, III or IV. Preoperative mean pulmonary artery pressure was 40.98 ± 9.29 mmHg and mean pulmonary vascular resistance was 418.39 ± 95.88 dynes/sec/cm -5 . All patients were followed up to six months and a telephonic survey was conducted using a standard questionnaire. They were assessed and classified as per NYHA grading. There was a significant reduction in the mean pulmonary artery pressure (from 40.98 ± 9.29 mmHg to 24.13 ± 7.36 mmHg, P < 0.001 and pulmonary vascular resistance (from 418.39 ± 95.88 dynes/sec/cm -5 to 142.45 ± 36.27 dynes/sec/cm -5 , P < 0.001 with a concomitant increase in the cardiac index (from 1.99 ± 0.20 L/min/m 2 to 3.28 ± 0.56 L/min/m 2 , P < 0.001 during the postoperative period. The mortality rate in our study was 12.19% (five patients. Ninety per cent of the patients reported a significant improvement in the quality of life and exercise tolerance after surgery compared to the preoperative state. Pulmonary endarterectomy is an effective and potentially curative surgical treatment for patients with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. The current techniques of operation make the procedure relatively safe and

  10. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia with bilateral pulmonary vascular malformations: A case report

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    Lončarević Olivera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease that occurs due to vascular dysplasia associated with the disorder in the signaling pathway of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β. The clinical consequence is a disorder of blood vessels in multiple organ systems with the existence of telangiectasia which causes dilation of capillaries and veins, are present from birth and are localized on the skin and mucosa of the mouth, respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tract. They can make a rupture with consequent serious bleeding that can end up with fatal outcome. Since there is a disruption of blood vessels of more than one organic system, the diagnosis is very complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Case report. We reported a 40-year-old female patient with a long-time evolution of problems, who was diagnosed and treated at the Clinic for Lung Diseases of the Military Medical Academy in Belgrade, Serbia, because of bilaterally pulmonary arteriovenous malformations associated with HHT. Embolization was performed in two acts, followed with normalization of clinical, radiological and functional findings with the cessation of hemoptysis, effort intolerance with a significant improvement of the quality of life. Conclusion. HHT is a rare dominant inherited multisystem disease that requires multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment. Embolization is the method of choice in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations with minor adverse effects and very satisfying therapeutic effect.

  11. Mucosal immunization with live attenuated Francisella novicida U112ΔiglB protects against pulmonary F. tularensis SCHU S4 in the Fischer 344 rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee L Signarovitz

    Full Text Available The need for an efficacious vaccine against Francisella tularensis is a consequence of its low infectious dose and high mortality rate if left untreated. This study sought to characterize a live attenuated subspecies novicida-based vaccine strain (U112ΔiglB in an established second rodent model of pulmonary tularemia, namely the Fischer 344 rat using two distinct routes of vaccination (intratracheal [i.t.] and oral. Attenuation was verified by comparing replication of U112ΔiglB with wild type parental strain U112 in F344 primary alveolar macrophages. U112ΔiglB exhibited an LD(50>10(7 CFU compared to the wild type (LD(50 = 5 × 10(6 CFU i.t.. Immunization with 10(7 CFU U112ΔiglB by i.t. and oral routes induced antigen-specific IFN-γ and potent humoral responses both systemically (IgG2a>IgG1 in serum and at the site of mucosal vaccination (respiratory/intestinal compartment. Importantly, vaccination with U112ΔiglB by either i.t. or oral routes provided equivalent levels of protection (50% survival in F344 rats against a subsequent pulmonary challenge with ~25 LD(50 (1.25 × 10(4 CFU of the highly human virulent strain SCHU S4. Collectively, these results provide further evidence on the utility of a mucosal vaccination platform with a defined subsp. novicida U112ΔiglB vaccine strain in conferring protective immunity against pulmonary tularemia.

  12. Avaliação do suprimento sangüíneo vascular pulmonar nos portadores de atresia pulmonar com comunicação interventricular e artérias colaterais sistêmico-pulmonares Assessment of the pulmonary vascular blood supply in patients with pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect, and aortopulmonary collateral arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses Alexandre Croti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as características morfométricas das artérias pulmonares centrais e artérias colaterais sistêmico-pulmonares, avaliando a morfologia do suprimento sangüíneo vascular pulmonar, procurando estabelecer suas implicações no tratamento cirúrgico. MÉTODO: Entre janeiro/1990 e junho/2001, foram estudados 40 pacientes, incluíndo-se os que apresentavam estudo cineangiocardiográfico completo e prévio à primeira intervenção cirúrgica. Analisaram-se as características morfométricas das artérias pulmonares centrais e artérias colaterais sistêmico-pulmonares, assim como a distribuição da irrigação sangüínea nos pulmões. Calcularam-se os índices arterial pulmonar (IAAPP, arterial colateral sistêmico-pulmonar (IACSP e arterial neopulmonar total (IANPT = IAAPP + IACSP. O tratamento cirúrgico foi considerado paliativo (TP, paliativo definitivo (TPD e definitivo (TD. RESULTADOS: O TP foi predominante. Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os pacientes com TP, TPD e TD, em relação ao IAAPP, IACSP e IANPT. Comparando o IAAPP e o IACSP, não houve diferença entre os índices para o TD (p=0,4309, o IACSP foi maior que o IAAPP para o TP (p=0,0176 e descritivamente também maior para o TPD. O IANPT dos pacientes em TD foi maior que os em TP (p=0,0959. Foram identificados cinco subgrupos morfologicamente semelhantes, denominados: B1, B2, B3, B4 e B5. A mortalidade total foi de 17,5%. CONCLUSÃO: A morfologia do suprimento sangüíneo vascular pulmonar das artérias pulmonares centrais e artérias colaterais sistêmico-pulmonares mostrou-se soberana na orientação do tratamento cirúrgico. Independentemente da divisão didática em subgrupos, o TP foi predominante. A mortalidade não apresentou correlação com as características morfométricas.OBJECTIVE: To study the morphometric characteristics of the central pulmonary arteries and aortopulmonary collateral arteries by assessing the morphology

  13. Mycotic pulmonary artery aneurysm as an unusual complication of thoracic actinomycosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung-Soo; Lee, Sang-Yeub [Wonkwang University College, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Yu-Whan; Noh, Hyung-Jun; Lee, Ki-Yeol; Kang, Eun-Young [Korea University Hospital and Korea University College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    Although pulmonary artery aneurysms are a rare vascular anomaly, they are seen in a wide variety of conditions, such as congenital heart disease, infection, trauma, pulmonary hypertension, cystic medial necrosis and generalized vasculitis. To our knowledge, mycotic aneurysms caused by pulmonary actinomycosis have not been reported in the radiologic literature. Herein, a case of pulmonary actinomycosis complicated by mycotic aneurysm is presented. On CT scans, this case showed focal aneurysmal dilatation of a peripheral pulmonary artery within necrotizing pneumonia of the right lower lobe, which was successfully treated with transcatheter embolization using wire coils.

  14. Mycotic pulmonary artery aneurysm as an unusual complication of thoracic actinomycosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung-Soo; Lee, Sang-Yeub; Oh, Yu-Whan; Noh, Hyung-Jun; Lee, Ki-Yeol; Kang, Eun-Young

    2004-01-01

    Although pulmonary artery aneurysms are a rare vascular anomaly, they are seen in a wide variety of conditions, such as congenital heart disease, infection, trauma, pulmonary hypertension, cystic medial necrosis and generalized vasculitis. To our knowledge, mycotic aneurysms caused by pulmonary actinomycosis have not been reported in the radiologic literature. Herein, a case of pulmonary actinomycosis complicated by mycotic aneurysm is presented. On CT scans, this case showed focal aneurysmal dilatation of a peripheral pulmonary artery within necrotizing pneumonia of the right lower lobe, which was successfully treated with transcatheter embolization using wire coils

  15. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and oxidative stress in monocrotaline-induced right heart dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puukila, Stephanie; Fernandes, Rafael Oliveira; Türck, Patrick; Carraro, Cristina Campos; Bonetto, Jéssica Hellen Poletto; de Lima-Seolin, Bruna Gazzi; da Rosa Araujo, Alex Sander; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Boreham, Douglas; Khaper, Neelam

    2017-08-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) occurs when remodeling of pulmonary vessels leads to increased pulmonary vascular resistance resulting in increased pulmonary arterial pressure. Increased pulmonary arterial pressure results in right ventricle hypertrophy and eventually heart failure. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of PAH and may play a role in the regulation of cellular signaling involved in cardiac response to pressure overload. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), a component from flaxseed, has been shown to reduce cardiac oxidative stress in various pathophysiological conditions. We investigated the potential protective effects of SDG in a monocrotaline-induced model of PAH. Five- to six-week-old male Wistar rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline (60 mg/kg) and sacrificed 21 days later where heart, lung, and plasma were collected. SDG (25 mg/kg) was given via gavage as either a 21-day co-treatment or pre-treatment of 14 days before monocrotaline administration and continued for 21 days. Monocrotaline led to right ventricle hypertrophy, increased lipid peroxidation, and elevated plasma levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). Co-treatment with SDG did not attenuate hypertrophy or ALT and AST levels but decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and catalase and superoxide dismutase activity compared to the monocrotaline-treated group. Pre-treatment with SDG decreased right ventricle hypertrophy, ROS levels, lipid peroxidation, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activity and plasma levels of ALT and AST when compared to the monocrotaline group. These findings indicate that pre-treatment with SDG provided better protection than co-treatment in this model of right heart dysfunction, suggesting an important role for SDG in PAH and right ventricular remodeling.

  16. Novel mechanisms of sildenafil in pulmonary hypertension involving cytokines/chemokines, MAP kinases and Akt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Kiss

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH is associated with high mortality due to right ventricular failure and hypoxia, therefore to understand the mechanism by which pulmonary vascular remodeling initiates these processes is very important. We used a well-characterized monocrotaline (MCT-induced rat PH model, and analyzed lung morphology, expression of cytokines, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphorylation, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI-3k-Akt pathway and nuclear factor (NF-κB activation in order to elucidate the mechanisms by which sildenafil's protective effect in PH is exerted. Besides its protective effect on lung morphology, sildenafil suppressed multiple cytokines involved in neutrophil and mononuclear cells recruitment including cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC-1, CINC-2α/β, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1, interleukin (IL-1α, lipopolysaccharide induced CXC chemokine (LIX, monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α, and MIP-3α. NF-κB activation and phosphorylation were also attenuated by sildenafil. Furthermore, sildenafil reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK activation while enhanced activation of the cytoprotective Akt pathway in PH. These data suggest a beneficial effect of sildenafil on inflammatory and kinase signaling mechanisms that substantially contribute to its protective effects, and may have potential implications in designing future therapeutic strategies in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

  17. The brain in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia with pulmonary AVM: The clinical importance of paradoxical embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.S.; Kinnison, M.L.; Charnas, L.; Rosenbaum, A.E.; White, R.I. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Despite the literature's emphasis on the presence of intracerebral vascular malformations in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), few cases have been documented. The authors prospectively evaluated brain CT scans in 29 consecutive patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and known HHT. Fifty-five percent of the CT scans revealed the signs of embolic phenomena: infarctions (n=11) and intracerebral abscesses (n=5). In only one patient was a small enhancing vascular lesion seen. They conclude that embolic phenomena rather than vascular malformations cause the majority of abnormal CT findings in patients with HHT and pulmonary AVMs. Infarctions and intracerebral abscesses probably result from paradoxical embolization through the AVMs in the lungs. The therapeutic implications seem clear, since 55% of these patients are potentially treatable by balloon occlusion of the pulmonary AVMs

  18. [Effects of feixin decoction on the contents of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor in the rat model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong-Jun; Dai, Ai-Guo

    2012-05-01

    To explore the effects of Feixin Decoction (FXD) on the hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the rat model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH), and to study its mechanisms for treating HPH. Forty healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups, i. e., the normal control group, the HPH model group, the FXD group, and the Nifedipine group, 10 rats in each group. The HPH rat model was prepared using normal pressure intermittent hypoxia method. Except the normal control group, rats in the rest groups were fed in a self-made hypoxic plexiglass cabin, with the poor oxygen condition for 8 h daily for 14 successive days. Then the distilled water (at 30 mL/kg) was given by gastrogavage to rats in the normal control group and the HPH model group. FXD (at 28 g/kg) and Nifedipine (at 20 mg/kg) were given by gastrogavage to rats in the FXD group and the Nifedipine group respectively, once daily, for 14 successive days. Besides, hypoxia was continued for 14 days while medicating. The mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was detected on the second day after the last medication. The morphology of the pulmonary arteriole was detected. The ratio of pulmonary artery wall area and tube area (WA%) was determined. The protein and mRNA expressions of HIF-1alpha and VEGF were detected using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization technique. Compared with the normal control group, mPAP, WA%, and the protein and mRNA expressions of HIF-1alpha and VEGF significantly increased in the model group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). Compared with the HPH model group, mPAP, WA%, and the protein and mRNA expressions of HIF-1alpha and VEGF significantly decreased in the FXD group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). FXD down-regulated the expression of VEGF through decreasing the expression of HIF-1alpha. One of its mechanisms for treating HPH might be partially due to reversing the remodeling of pulmonary vascular smooth muscle.

  19. Pulmonary Hypertension in Pregnancy: Critical Care Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M. Bassily-Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension is common in critical care settings and in presence of right ventricular failure is challenging to manage. Pulmonary hypertension in pregnant patients carries a high mortality rates between 30–56%. In the past decade, new treatments for pulmonary hypertension have emerged. Their application in pregnant women with pulmonary hypertension may hold promise in reducing morbidity and mortality. Signs and symptoms of pulmonary hypertension are nonspecific in pregnant women. Imaging workup may have undesirable radiation exposure. Pulmonary artery catheter remains the gold standard for diagnosing pulmonary hypertension, although its use in the intensive care unit for other conditions has slowly fallen out of favor. Goal-directed bedside echocardiogram and lung ultrasonography provide attractive alternatives. Basic principles of managing pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular failure are maintaining right ventricular function and reducing pulmonary vascular resistance. Fluid resuscitation and various vasopressors are used with caution. Pulmonary-hypertension-targeted therapies have been utilized in pregnant women with understanding of their safety profile. Mainstay therapy for pulmonary embolism is anticoagulation, and the treatment for amniotic fluid embolism remains supportive care. Multidisciplinary team approach is crucial to achieving successful outcomes in these difficult cases.

  20. Adiponectin attenuates lung fibroblasts activation and pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Rong; Cao, Yu; He, Ya-rong; Lau, Wayne Bond; Zeng, Zhi; Liang, Zong-an

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is one of the most common complications of paraquat (PQ) poisoning, which demands for more effective therapies. Accumulating evidence suggests adiponectin (APN) may be a promising therapy against fibrotic diseases. In the current study, we determine whether the exogenous globular APN isoform protects against pulmonary fibrosis in PQ-treated mice and human lung fibroblasts, and dissect the responsible underlying mechanisms. BALB/C mice were divided into control group, PQ group, PQ + low-dose APN group, and PQ + high-dose APN group. Mice were sacrificed 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after PQ treatment. We compared pulmonary histopathological changes among different groups on the basis of fibrosis scores, TGF-β1, CTGF and α-SMA pulmonary content via Western blot and real-time quantitative fluorescence-PCR (RT-PCR). Blood levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were determined by ELISA. Human lung fibroblasts WI-38 were divided into control group, PQ group, APN group, and APN receptor (AdipoR) 1 small-interfering RNA (siRNA) group. Fibroblasts were collected 24, 48, and 72 hours after PQ exposure for assay. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined via Kit-8 (CCK-8) and fluorescein Annexin V-FITC/PI double labeling. The protein and mRNA expression level of collagen type III, AdipoR1, and AdipoR2 were measured by Western blot and RT-PCR. APN treatment significantly decreased the lung fibrosis scores, protein and mRNA expression of pulmonary TGF-β1, CTGF and α-SMA content, and blood MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in a dose-dependent manner (ppulmonary fibrosis in a dose-dependent manner, via suppression of lung fibroblast activation. Functional AdipoR1 are expressed by human WI-38 lung fibroblasts, suggesting potential future clinical applicability of APN against pulmonary fibrosis.

  1. Placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor B expression in the hypoxic lung

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sands, Michelle

    2011-01-25

    Abstract Background Chronic alveolar hypoxia, due to residence at high altitude or chronic obstructive lung diseases, leads to pulmonary hypertension, which may be further complicated by right heart failure, increasing morbidity and mortality. In the non-diseased lung, angiogenesis occurs in chronic hypoxia and may act in a protective, adaptive manner. To date, little is known about the behaviour of individual vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family ligands in hypoxia-induced pulmonary angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of placenta growth factor (PlGF) and VEGFB during the development of hypoxic pulmonary angiogenesis and their functional effects on the pulmonary endothelium. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to conditions of normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (10% O2) for 1-21 days. Stereological analysis of vascular structure, real-time PCR analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), VEGFB, placenta growth factor (PlGF), VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and VEGFR2, immunohistochemistry and western blots were completed. The effects of VEGF ligands on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were determined using a wound-healing assay. Results Typical vascular remodelling and angiogenesis were observed in the hypoxic lung. PlGF and VEGFB mRNA expression were significantly increased in the hypoxic lung. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced expression of VEGFB protein in hypoxia although PlGF protein was unchanged. The expression of VEGFA mRNA and protein was unchanged. In vitro PlGF at high concentration mimicked the wound-healing actions of VEGFA on pulmonary microvascular endothelial monolayers. Low concentrations of PlGF potentiated the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while higher concentrations of PlGF were without this effect. VEGFB inhibited the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while VEGFB and PlGF together were mutually antagonistic. Conclusions VEGFB and PlGF can either inhibit or potentiate the

  2. Development of occlusive neointimal lesions in distal pulmonary arteries of endothelin B receptor-deficient rats: a new model of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, D Dunbar; McMurtry, Ivan F; Colvin, Kelley; Imamura, Masatoshi; Oka, Masahiko; Lee, Dong-Seok; Gebb, Sarah; Jones, Peter Lloyd

    2005-06-07

    Human pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by proliferation of vascular smooth muscle and, in its more severe form, by the development of occlusive neointimal lesions. However, few animal models of pulmonary neointimal proliferation exist, thereby limiting a complete understanding of the pathobiology of PAH. Recent studies of the endothelin (ET) system demonstrate that deficiency of the ET(B) receptor predisposes adult rats to acute and chronic hypoxic PAH, yet these animals fail to develop neointimal lesions. Herein, we determined and thereafter showed that exposure of ET(B) receptor-deficient rats to the endothelial toxin monocrotaline (MCT) leads to the development of neointimal lesions that share hallmarks of human PAH. The pulmonary hemodynamic and morphometric effects of 60 mg/kg MCT in control (MCT(+/+)) and ET(B) receptor-deficient (MCT(sl/sl)) rats at 6 weeks of age were assessed. MCT(sl/sl) rats developed more severe PAH, characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure, diminished cardiac output, and right ventricular hypertrophy. In MCT(sl/sl) rats, morphometric evaluation revealed the presence of neointimal lesions within small distal pulmonary arteries, increased medial wall thickness, and decreased arterial-to-alveolar ratio. In keeping with this, barium angiography revealed diminished distal pulmonary vasculature of MCT(sl/sl) rat lungs. Cells within neointimal lesions expressed smooth muscle and endothelial cell markers. Moreover, cells within neointimal lesions exhibited increased levels of proliferation and were located in a tissue microenvironment enriched with vascular endothelial growth factor, tenascin-C, and activated matrix metalloproteinase-9, factors already implicated in human PAH. Finally, assessment of steady state mRNA showed that whereas expression of ET(B) receptors was decreased in MCT(sl/sl) rat lungs, ET(A) receptor expression increased. Deficiency of the ET(B) receptor markedly accelerates the progression of

  3. Development of Occlusive Neointimal Lesions in Distal Pulmonary Arteries of Endothelin B Receptor–Deficient Rats: A New Model of Severe Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, D. Dunbar; McMurtry, Ivan F.; Colvin, Kelley; Imamura, Masatoshi; Oka, Masahiko; Lee, Dong-Seok; Gebb, Sarah; Jones, Peter Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    Background Human pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by proliferation of vascular smooth muscle and, in its more severe form, by the development of occlusive neointimal lesions. However, few animal models of pulmonary neointimal proliferation exist, thereby limiting a complete understanding of the pathobiology of PAH. Recent studies of the endothelin (ET) system demonstrate that deficiency of the ETB receptor predisposes adult rats to acute and chronic hypoxic PAH, yet these animals fail to develop neointimal lesions. Herein, we determined and thereafter showed that exposure of ETB receptor–deficient rats to the endothelial toxin monocrotaline (MCT) leads to the development of neointimal lesions that share hallmarks of human PAH. Methods and Results The pulmonary hemodynamic and morphometric effects of 60 mg/kg MCT in control (MCT+/+) and ETB receptor–deficient (MCTsl/sl) rats at 6 weeks of age were assessed. MCTsl/sl rats developed more severe PAH, characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure, diminished cardiac output, and right ventricular hypertrophy. In MCTsl/sl rats, morphometric evaluation revealed the presence of neointimal lesions within small distal pulmonary arteries, increased medial wall thickness, and decreased arterial-to-alveolar ratio. In keeping with this, barium angiography revealed diminished distal pulmonary vasculature of MCTsl/sl rat lungs. Cells within neointimal lesions expressed smooth muscle and endothelial cell markers. Moreover, cells within neointimal lesions exhibited increased levels of proliferation and were located in a tissue microenvironment enriched with vascular endothelial growth factor, tenascin-C, and activated matrix metalloproteinase-9, factors already implicated in human PAH. Finally, assessment of steady state mRNA showed that whereas expression of ETB receptors was decreased in MCTsl/sl rat lungs, ETA receptor expression increased. Conclusions Deficiency of the ETB receptor markedly

  4. Quantitative assessment of cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels in patients with COPD using inspiratory and expiratory MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Yukiko; Kawata, Naoko; Yanagawa, Noriyuki; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Sakurai, Yoriko; Sato, Misuzu; Iesato, Ken; Terada, Jiro; Sakao, Seiichiro; Tada, Yuji; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Suzuki, Yoichi; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Structural and functional changes in pulmonary vessels are prevalent at the initial stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These vascular alterations can be assessed using cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessels. However, neither in non-COPD smokers nor in COPD patients it has been defined whether the structural changes of pulmonary vessels detected by paired inspiratory and expiratory CT scans are associated with emphysematous changes. We quantified the CSA and low attenuation area (LAA) and evaluated the changes in these parameters in the inspiratory and expiratory phases. Materials and methods: Fifty consecutive non-COPD smokers and COPD patients were subjected to multi detector-row CT and the percentage of vessels with a CSA less than 5 mm 2 as well as the percentage LAA for total lung area (%CSA < 5, %LAA, respectively) were calculated. Results: The %CSA < 5 correlated negatively with %LAA. The %CSA < 5 was lower in COPD patients with emphysema as compared with non-COPD smokers and COPD patients with or without mild emphysema. In addition, the %CSA < 5 was lower in the no/mild emphysema subgroup as compared with non-COPD smokers. The respiratory phase change of %CSA < 5 in COPD patients was greater than that in non-COPD smokers. Conclusion: The percentage of small pulmonary vessels decreased as emphysematous changes increase, and this decrease was observed even in patients with no/mild emphysema. Furthermore, respiratory phase changes in CSA were higher in COPD patients than in non-COPD smokers

  5. Contribution of reactive oxygen species to the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Jay S.; Weise-Cross, Laura; Detweiler, Neil D.; Herbert, Lindsay M.; Yellowhair, Tracylyn R.; Resta, Thomas C.

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is associated with a decreased antioxidant capacity. However, neither the contribution of reactive oxygen species to pulmonary vasoconstrictor sensitivity, nor the therapeutic efficacy of antioxidant strategies in this setting are known. We hypothesized that reactive oxygen species play a central role in mediating both vasoconstrictor and arterial remodeling components of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. We examined the effect of the chemical antioxidant, TEMPOL, on right ventricular systolic pressure, vascular remodeling, and enhanced vasoconstrictor reactivity in both chronic hypoxia and hypoxia/SU5416 rat models of pulmonary hypertension. SU5416 is a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor antagonist and the combination of chronic hypoxia/SU5416 produces a model of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension with vascular plexiform lesions/fibrosis that is not present with chronic hypoxia alone. The major findings from this study are: 1) compared to hypoxia alone, hypoxia/SU5416 exposure caused more severe pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, adventitial lesion formation, and greater vasoconstrictor sensitivity through a superoxide and Rho kinase-dependent Ca2+ sensitization mechanism. 2) Chronic hypoxia increased medial muscularization and superoxide levels, however there was no effect of SU5416 to augment these responses. 3) Treatment with TEMPOL decreased right ventricular systolic pressure in both hypoxia and hypoxia/SU5416 groups. 4) This effect of TEMPOL was associated with normalization of vasoconstrictor responses, but not arterial remodeling. Rather, medial hypertrophy and adventitial fibrotic lesion formation were more pronounced following chronic TEMPOL treatment in hypoxia/SU5416 rats. Our findings support a major role for reactive oxygen species in mediating enhanced vasoconstrictor reactivity and pulmonary hypertension in both chronic hypoxia and hypoxia/SU5416 rat models, despite a

  6. Pulmonary gangrene as a complication of mucormycosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagoria, R.J.; Choplin, R.H.; Karstaedt, N.

    1985-01-01

    Pulmonary gangrene, a rare complication of pneumonia occurs when vascular thrombosis leads to necrosis of a large portion of lung. The devitalized lung is then sloughed into a cavity, resulting in a characteristic radiographic appearance. The previously reported cases of pulmonary gangrene have been associated with either bacterial or tuberculous pneumonia; the authors describe a case resulting from mucormycosis. In addition to the plain-film findings, the computed tomographic (CT) appearance is described

  7. Pulmonary complications in renal transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung Bin; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Seung Rho; Hahm, Chang Kok; Joo, Kyung Bin [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate the radiographic and CT findings of pulmonary complications other than pulmonary edema arising from renal transplantation. Among 393 patients who had undergone renal transplantation at our hospital during a previous ten-year period, 23 with pulmonary complications other than pulmonary edema were included in this study. The complications involved were infection caused by CMV (n=6), bacteria (n=4), fungus (n=4), tuberculosis (n=2), varicella (n=1) or chlamydia (n=1), and malignancy involving lung cancer (n=4) or Kaposi's sarcoma (n=1). Two chest radiologists reviewed all images. The complications manifesting mainly as pulmonary nodules were lung cancer (4/4), tuberculosis (1/2), and Kaposi's sarcoma (1/1). Pulmonary consolidation was a main feature in bacterial infection (4/4), fungal infection (3/4), tuberculosis (1/2), chlamydial infection (1/1), and varicellar pneumonia (1/1). Ground-glass attenuation was a main CT feature in CMV pneumonia (4/6), and increased interstitial making was a predominant radiographic feature in CMV pneumonia (2/6). The main radiologic features described above can be helpful for differential diagnosis of the pulmonary complications of renal transplantation.

  8. A review of wave mechanics in the pulmonary artery with an emphasis on wave intensity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Junjing; Hilberg, Ole; Howard, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) remain the most common haemodynamic measures to evaluate the severity and prognosis of pulmonary hypertension. However, PVR only captures the non-oscillatory component of the right ventricular hydraulic load and neglects...

  9. The Selective Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Agonist, Compound 21, Attenuates the Progression of Lung Fibrosis and Pulmonary Hypertension in an Experimental Model of Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathinasabapathy, Anandharajan; Horowitz, Alana; Horton, Kelsey; Kumar, Ashok; Gladson, Santhi; Unger, Thomas; Martinez, Diana; Bedse, Gaurav; West, James; Raizada, Mohan K; Steckelings, Ulrike M; Sumners, Colin; Katovich, Michael J; Shenoy, Vinayak

    2018-01-01

    Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease characterized by scar formation and respiratory insufficiency, which progressively leads to death. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of IPF that negatively impacts clinical outcomes, and has been classified as Group III PH. Despite scientific advances, the dismal prognosis of IPF and associated PH remains unchanged, necessitating the search for novel therapeutic strategies. Accumulating evidence suggests that stimulation of the angiotensin II type 2 (AT 2 ) receptor confers protection against a host of diseases. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of Compound 21 (C21), a selective AT 2 receptor agonist in the bleomycin model of lung injury. A single intra-tracheal administration of bleomycin (2.5 mg/kg) to 8-week old male Sprague Dawley rats resulted in lung fibrosis and PH. Two experimental protocols were followed: C21 was administered (0.03 mg/kg/day, ip) either immediately (prevention protocol, BCP) or after 3 days (treatment protocol, BCT) of bleomycin-instillation. Echocardiography, hemodynamic, and Fulton's index assessments were performed after 2 weeks of bleomycin-instillation. Lung tissue was processed for gene expression, hydroxyproline content (a marker of collagen deposition), and histological analysis. C21 treatment prevented as well as attenuated the progression of lung fibrosis, and accompanying PH. The beneficial effects of C21 were associated with decreased infiltration of macrophages in the lungs, reduced lung inflammation and diminished pulmonary collagen accumulation. Further, C21 treatment also improved pulmonary pressure, reduced muscularization of the pulmonary vessels and normalized cardiac function in both the experimental protocols. However, there were no major differences in any of the outcomes measured from the two experimental protocols. Collectively, our findings indicate that stimulation of the AT 2 receptor by C21 attenuates

  10. The Selective Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Agonist, Compound 21, Attenuates the Progression of Lung Fibrosis and Pulmonary Hypertension in an Experimental Model of Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandharajan Rathinasabapathy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF is a chronic lung disease characterized by scar formation and respiratory insufficiency, which progressively leads to death. Pulmonary hypertension (PH is a common complication of IPF that negatively impacts clinical outcomes, and has been classified as Group III PH. Despite scientific advances, the dismal prognosis of IPF and associated PH remains unchanged, necessitating the search for novel therapeutic strategies. Accumulating evidence suggests that stimulation of the angiotensin II type 2 (AT2 receptor confers protection against a host of diseases. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of Compound 21 (C21, a selective AT2 receptor agonist in the bleomycin model of lung injury. A single intra-tracheal administration of bleomycin (2.5 mg/kg to 8-week old male Sprague Dawley rats resulted in lung fibrosis and PH. Two experimental protocols were followed: C21 was administered (0.03 mg/kg/day, ip either immediately (prevention protocol, BCP or after 3 days (treatment protocol, BCT of bleomycin-instillation. Echocardiography, hemodynamic, and Fulton's index assessments were performed after 2 weeks of bleomycin-instillation. Lung tissue was processed for gene expression, hydroxyproline content (a marker of collagen deposition, and histological analysis. C21 treatment prevented as well as attenuated the progression of lung fibrosis, and accompanying PH. The beneficial effects of C21 were associated with decreased infiltration of macrophages in the lungs, reduced lung inflammation and diminished pulmonary collagen accumulation. Further, C21 treatment also improved pulmonary pressure, reduced muscularization of the pulmonary vessels and normalized cardiac function in both the experimental protocols. However, there were no major differences in any of the outcomes measured from the two experimental protocols. Collectively, our findings indicate that stimulation of the AT2 receptor by C21 attenuates

  11. Arterial morphology responds differently to Captopril then N-acetylcysteine in a monocrotaline rat model of pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthen, Robert; Wu, Qingping; Baumgardt, Shelley; Kohlhepp, Laura; Shingrani, Rahul; Krenz, Gary

    2010-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an incurable condition inevitably resulting in death because of increased right heart workload and eventual failure. PH causes pulmonary vascular remodeling, including muscularization of the arteries, and a reduction in the typically large vascular compliance of the pulmonary circulation. We used a rat model of monocrotaline (MCT) induced PH to evaluated and compared Captopril (an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor with antioxidant capacity) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a mucolytic with a large antioxidant capacity) as possible treatments. Twenty-eight days after MCT injection, the rats were sacrificed and heart, blood, and lungs were studied to measure indices such as right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), hematocrit, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), vessel morphology and biomechanics. We implemented microfocal X-ray computed tomography to image the pulmonary arterial tree at intravascular pressures of 30, 21, 12, and 6 mmHg and then used automated vessel detection and measurement algorithms to perform morphological analysis and estimate the distensibility of the arterial tree. The vessel detection and measurement algorithms quickly and effectively mapped and measured the vascular trees at each intravascular pressure. Monocrotaline treatment, and the ensuing PH, resulted in a significantly decreased arterial distensibility, increased PVR, and tended to decrease the length of the main pulmonary trunk. In rats with PH induced by monocrotaline, Captopril treatment significantly increased arterial distensibility and decrease PVR. NAC treatment did not result in an improvement, it did not significantly increase distensibility and resulted in further increase in PVR. Interestingly, NAC tended to increase peripheral vascular density. The results suggest that arterial distensibility may be more important than distal collateral pathways in maintaining PVR at normally low values.

  12. Pulmonary function-morphologic relationships assessed by SPECT-CT fusion images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary single photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) fusion images provide objective and comprehensive assessment of pulmonary function and morphology relationships at cross-sectional lungs. This article reviewed the noteworthy findings of lung pathophysiology in wide-spectral lung disorders, which have been revealed on SPECT-CT fusion images in 8 years of experience. The fusion images confirmed the fundamental pathophysiologic appearance of lung low CT attenuation caused by airway obstruction-induced hypoxic vasoconstriction and that caused by direct pulmonary arterial obstruction as in acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). The fusion images showed better correlation of lung perfusion distribution with lung CT attenuation changes at lung mosaic CT attenuation (MCA) compared with regional ventilation in the wide-spectral lung disorders, indicating that lung heterogeneous perfusion distribution may be a dominant mechanism of MCA on CT. SPECT-CT angiography fusion images revealed occasional dissociation between lung perfusion defects and intravascular clots in acute PTE, indicating the importance of assessment of actual effect of intravascular colts on peripheral lung perfusion. Perfusion SPECT-CT fusion images revealed the characteristic and preferential location of pulmonary infarction in acute PTE. The fusion images showed occasional unexpected perfusion defects in normal lung areas on CT in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and interstitial lung diseases, indicating the ability of perfusion SPECT superior to CT for detection of mild lesions in these disorders. The fusion images showed frequent ''steal phenomenon''-induced perfusion defects extending to the surrounding normal lung of arteriovenous fistulas and those at normal lungs on CT in hepatopulmonary syndrome. Comprehensive assessment of lung function-CT morphology on fusion images will lead to more profound understanding of lung pathophysiology in wide-spectral lung

  13. Radiological aspects in pulmonary involvement of Behcet disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Im, Jung Gi; Kim, Hyung Jin; Park, Jae Hyung

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the pulmonary manifestations of Behcet disease, authors reviewed the chest radiographs of 130 cases of Behcet disease diagnosed at Seoul National University Hospital from January 1980 to December 1987 retrospectively. Of the 130 cases, 6 cases (4.6%) showed pulmonary abnormalities that were considered as a manifestation of Behcet disease. Two cases showed round masses near the hila on chest radiographs which were confirmed as pulmonary artery aneurysms on angiographies. Two cases showed pulmonary infiltrates due to pulmonary infarcts. Others were a case of unilateral pulmonary edema due to compression og the contralateral pulmonary artery by aortic aneurysm and a case of lung abscess due to esophagobronchial fistula as a compulmonary artery by aortic aneurysm and a case of lung abscess due to esophagobronchial fistula as a complication of esophageal ulcer. Though its occurrence is rare, nodular and/or infiltrative pulmonary lesions in patients with Behcet disease should be suspected as a vascular involvement of the disease itself until proven otherwise.

  14. Radiological aspects in pulmonary involvement of Behcet disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Im, Jung Gi; Kim, Hyung Jin; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-08-15

    To evaluate the pulmonary manifestations of Behcet disease, authors reviewed the chest radiographs of 130 cases of Behcet disease diagnosed at Seoul National University Hospital from January 1980 to December 1987 retrospectively. Of the 130 cases, 6 cases (4.6%) showed pulmonary abnormalities that were considered as a manifestation of Behcet disease. Two cases showed round masses near the hila on chest radiographs which were confirmed as pulmonary artery aneurysms on angiographies. Two cases showed pulmonary infiltrates due to pulmonary infarcts. Others were a case of unilateral pulmonary edema due to compression og the contralateral pulmonary artery by aortic aneurysm and a case of lung abscess due to esophagobronchial fistula as a compulmonary artery by aortic aneurysm and a case of lung abscess due to esophagobronchial fistula as a complication of esophageal ulcer. Though its occurrence is rare, nodular and/or infiltrative pulmonary lesions in patients with Behcet disease should be suspected as a vascular involvement of the disease itself until proven otherwise.

  15. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Emmanuelle; Bailly, Minh Tam; Hatimi, Safwane El; Robard, Ingrid; Rezgui, Hatem; Bouchachi, Amir; Montani, David; Sitbon, Olivier; Chemla, Denis; Assayag, Patrick

    Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease, also known as group 2 pulmonary hypertension according to the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society classification, is the most common cause of pulmonary hypertension. In patients with left heart disease, the development of pulmonary hypertension favours right heart dysfunction, which has a major impact on disease severity and outcome. Over the past few years, this condition has been considered more frequently. However, epidemiological studies of group 2 pulmonary hypertension are less exhaustive than studies of other causes of pulmonary hypertension. In group 2 patients, pulmonary hypertension may be caused by an isolated increase in left-sided filling pressures or by a combination of this condition with increased pulmonary vascular resistance, with an abnormally high pressure gradient between arteries and pulmonary veins. A better understanding of the conditions underlying pulmonary hypertension is of key importance to establish a comprehensive diagnosis, leading to an adapted treatment to reduce heart failure morbidity and mortality. In this review, epidemiology, mechanisms and diagnostic approaches are reviewed; then, treatment options and future approaches are considered. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Toxicity of aerosol propellants in the respiratory and circulatory systems. VI. Influence of cardiac and pulmonary vascular lesions in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, R E; Aviado, D M

    1975-01-01

    Three propellants were selected for investigation in rats because of their non-uniform effect in mice and monkeys. Trichlorofluoromethane (FC 11) provoked arrhythmia in all three animal species, dichlorodifluoromethane (FC 12) in monkeys and rats but not in mice, and difluoroethane (FC 152a) only in rats. In rats the alterations in heart rate and electrocardiographic pattern during inhalation of these propellants are largely brought about by release of catecholamines from the adrenal gland, because adrenalectomy or prior injection of beta-adrenergic blocking drugs decreased the incidence of cardiac effects. Rats that have pulmonary vascular thrombosis or cardiac necrosis become more sensitive to proarrhythmic activity of these propellants.

  17. Effects of hypercapnia on peripheral vascular reactivity in elderly patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Matthaeis A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Angela de Matthaeis,1 Antonio Greco,2,* Mariangela Pia Dagostino,2 Giulia Paroni,2 Andrea Fontana,3 Manlio Vinciguerra,1,4,5 Gianluigi Mazzoccoli,1,* Davide Seripa,2 Gianluigi Vendemiale61Division of Internal Medicine and Chronobiology Unit, 2Geriatrics Unit and Gerontology, Geriatrics Research Laboratory, Department of Medical Sciences, 3Unit of Biostatistics, IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo, Foggia, 4Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Sciences and Technology, Palermo, Italy; 5University College London, Institute for Liver and Digestive Health, Division of Medicine, Royal Free Campus, London, UK; 6Geriatrics Unit, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Blood acid-base imbalance has important effects on vascular reactivity, which can be related to nitric oxide (NO concentration and increased during hypercapnia. Release of NO seems to be linked to H+ and CO2 concentration and to exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, a common medical condition in the elderly. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD, a valuable cardiovascular risk indicator, allows assessment of endothelial-dependent vasodilation, which is to a certain extent mediated by NO. We investigated the effects of hypercapnia and acid-base imbalance on endothelial-dependent vasodilation by measurement of FMD in 96 elderly patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Patients underwent complete arterial blood gas analysis and FMD measurement before (phase 1 and after (phase 2 standard therapy for acute exacerbation of COPD and recovery. Significant differences between phase 1 and phase 2 were observed in the mean values of pH (7.38±0.03 versus 7.40±0.02, P<0.001, pO2 (59.6±4.9 mmHg versus 59.7±3.6 mmHg, P<0.001, pCO2 (59.3±8.63 mmHg versus 46.7±5.82 mmHg, P<0.001, FMD (10.0%±2.8% versus 8.28%±2.01%, P<0.001 and blood flow rate (1.5±0.3 m/s versus 1.5±0.3 m/s, P=0.001. FMD values were

  18. Pulmonary hypertension CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedevska, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The right heart catheterization is the gold standard in the diagnosis and determines the severity of pulmonary hypertension. The significant technical progress of noninvasive diagnostic imaging methods significantly improves the pixel density and spatial resolution in the study of cardiovascular structures, thus changes their role and place in the overall diagnostic plan. Learning points: What is the etiology, clinical manifestation and general pathophysiological disorders in pulmonary hypertension. What are the established diagnostic methods in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with pulmonary hypertension. What is the recommended protocol for CT scanning for patients with clinically suspected or documented pulmonary hypertension. What are the important diagnostic findings in CT scan of a patient with pulmonary hypertension. Discussion: The prospect of instantaneous complex - anatomical and functional cardiopulmonary and vascular diagnostics seems extremely attractive. The contrast enhanced multislice computed (CT ) and magnetic resonance imaging are very suitable methods for imaging the structures of the right heart, with the possibility of obtaining multiple projections and three-dimensional imaging reconstructions . There are specific morphological features that, if carefully analyzed, provide diagnostic information. Thus, it is possible to avoid or at least reduce the frequency of use of invasive diagnostic cardiac catheterization in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion: This review focuses on the use of contrast-enhanced CT for comprehensive evaluation of patients with pulmonary hypertension and presents the observed characteristic changes in the chest, lung parenchyma , the structures of the right half of the heart and pulmonary vessels

  19. Determinants of pulmonary blood flow distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenny, Robb W; Robertson, H Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The primary function of the pulmonary circulation is to deliver blood to the alveolar capillaries to exchange gases. Distributing blood over a vast surface area facilitates gas exchange, yet the pulmonary vascular tree must be constrained to fit within the thoracic cavity. In addition, pressures must remain low within the circulatory system to protect the thin alveolar capillary membranes that allow efficient gas exchange. The pulmonary circulation is engineered for these unique requirements and in turn these special attributes affect the spatial distribution of blood flow. As the largest organ in the body, the physical characteristics of the lung vary regionally, influencing the spatial distribution on large-, moderate-, and small-scale levels. © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  20. From here to there, progenitor cells and stem cells are everywhere in lung vascular remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Heise

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The field of stem cell biology, cell therapy and regenerative medicine has expanded almost exponentially in the last decade. Clinical trials are evaluating the potential therapeutic use of stem cells in many adult and pediatric lung diseases with vascular component, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. Extensive research activity is exploring lung resident and circulating progenitor cells and their contribution to vascular complications of chronic lung diseases, and researchers hope to use resident or circulating stem/progenitor cells to treat chronic lung diseases and their vascular complications. It is becoming more and more clear that progress in mechanobiology will help to understand the various influences of physical forces and extracellular matrix composition on the phenotype and features of the progenitor cells and stem cells. The current review provides an overview of current concepts in the field.

  1. High resolution CT in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spina, Juan C.; Curros, Marisela L.; Gomez, M.; Gonzalez, A.; Chacon, Carolina; Guerendiain, G.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the particular advantages of High Resolution CT (HRCT) for the diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Material and Methods: A series of fourteen patients, (4 men and 10 women; mean age 44,5 years) with thoracic sarcoidosis. All patients were studied using HRCT and diagnosis was confirmed for each case. Confidence intervals were obtained for different disease manifestations. Results: The most common findings were: lymph node enlargement (n=14 patients), pulmonary nodules (n=13), thickening of septa (n=6), peribronquial vascular thickening (n=5) pulmonary pseudo mass (n=5) and signs of fibrosis (n=4). The stage most commonly observed was stage II. It is worth noting that no cases of pleural effusion or cavitations of pulmonary lesions were observed. Conclusions: In this series, confidence interval overlapping for lymph node enlargement, single pulmonary nodules and septum thickening, allows to infer that their presence in a young adult, with few clinical symptoms, forces to rule out first the possibility of sarcoidosis. (author)

  2. Lung infarction following pulmonary embolism. A comparative study on clinical conditions and CT findings to identify predisposing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, J.; Obermann, A.; Stueckradt, S.; Tueshaus, C. [General Hospital Hagen (Germany). Radiology; Goltz, J.; Kickuth, R. [University Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany). Radiology; Liermann, D. [University Hospital Marienhospital Herne (Germany). Radiology

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this study was to identify factors predisposing to lung infarction in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). We performed a retrospective analysis on 154 patients with the final diagnosis of PE being examined between January 2009 and December 2012 by means of a Toshiba Aquilion 64 CT scanner. The severity of clinical symptoms was defined by means of a clinical index with 4 classes. The pulmonary clot load was quantified using a modified severity index of PE as proposed by Miller. We correlated several potential predictors of pulmonary infarction such as demographic data, pulmonary clot burden, distance of total vascular obstruction and pleura, the presence of cardiac congestion, signs of chronic bronchitis or emphysema with the occurrence of pulmonary infarction. Computed tomography revealed 78 areas of pulmonary infarction in 45/154 (29.2%) patients. The presence of infarction was significantly higher in the right lung than in the left lung (p < 0.001). We found no correlation between pulmonary infarction and the presence of accompanying malignant diseases (r=-0.069), signs of chronic bronchitis (r=-0.109), cardiac congestion (r=-0.076), the quantified clot burden score (r=0.176), and the severity of symptoms (r=-0.024). Only a very weak negative correlation between the presence of infarction and age (r=-0.199) was seen. However, we could demonstrate a moderate negative correlation between the distance of total vascular occlusion and the occurrence of infarction (r=-0.504). Neither cardiac congestion nor the degree of pulmonary vascular obstruction are main factors predisposing to pulmonary infarction in patients with PE. It seems that a peripheral total vascular obstruction more often results in infarction than even massive central clot burden.

  3. Definition, epidemiology and registries of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awdish, R; Cajigas, H

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a subcategory of pulmonary hypertension (PH) that comprises a group of disorders with similar pulmonary vascular pathology. Though PH is common, the estimated incidence of IPAH is 1-3 cases per million, making it a rare disease. The hemodynamic definition of PAH is a mean pulmonary artery pressure at rest >OR = 25 mm Hg in the presence of a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) greater than 3 WU. Specific maneuvers during right heart catheterization can be utilized to disclose vasoreactivity and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, which have implications for management. The inherent complexity in studying a rare disease that exhibits clinical overlap with a common syndrome necessitated the creation of registries. These registries have been indispensable in the characterization and mapping of the natural history of the disease. Equations and risk calculators derived from registries have given clinicians a basis for risk stratification and prognostication. The sequential accumulation of data since the registries began in the 1980s allows for comparisons to be made. Patients who are differentiated by treatment eras and environments can be contrasted. Variability among inclusion criteria similarly allows for comparisons of these subpopulations. This article provides an overview of available registries, highlights insights provided by each and discusses key issues around the interpretation and extrapolation of data from PAH registries. Registries have allowed us to appreciate the improvement in survival afforded by modern therapy and enhanced detection of this disease. Moving forward, a more global approach to registries is needed, as is enhanced collaboration and centralization.

  4. Sarcoidosis with Major Airway, Vascular and Nerve Compromise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Sekiguchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes a 60-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with progressive dyspnea, cough and wheeze. A computed tomography scan of the chest showed innumerable bilateral inflammatory pulmonary nodules with bronchovascular distribution and a mediastinal and hilar infiltrative process with calcified lymphadenopathy leading to narrowing of lobar bronchi and pulmonary arteries. An echocardiogram revealed pulmonary hypertension. Bronchoscopy showed left vocal cord paralysis and significant narrowing of the bilateral bronchi with mucosal thickening and multiple nodules. Transbronchial biopsy was compatible with sarcoidosis. Despite balloon angioplasty of the left lower lobe and pulmonary artery, and medical therapy with oral corticosteroids, her symptoms did not significantly improve. To the authors’ knowledge, the present report describes the first case of pulmonary sarcoidosis resulting in major airway, vascular and nerve compromise due to compressive lymphadenopathy and suspected concurrent granulomatous infiltration. Its presentation mimicked idiopathic mediastinal fibrosis.

  5. Treatment initiation in paediatric pulmonary hypertension: insights from a multinational registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpl, Tilman; Berger, Rolf M F; Austin, Eric D; Fasnacht Boillat, Margrit S; Bonnet, Damien; Ivy, Dunbar D; Zuk, Malgorzata; Beghetti, Maurice; Schulze-Neick, Ingram

    2017-08-01

    Different treatment options for pulmonary hypertension have emerged in recent years, and evidence-based management strategies have improved quality of life and survival in adults. In children with pulmonary vascular disease, therapeutic algorithms are not so clearly defined; this study determined current treatment initiation in children with pulmonary hypertension in participating centres of a registry. Through the multinational Tracking Outcomes and Practice in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension registry, patient demographics, diagnosis, and treatment as judged and executed by the local physician were collected. Inclusion criteria were >3 months and pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary arterial pressure ⩾25 mmHg, pulmonary vascular resistance index ⩾3 Wood units×m2, and mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ⩽12 mmHg). At diagnostic catheterisation, 217/244 patients (88.9%) were treatment naïve for pulmonary hypertension-targeted therapy. Targeted therapy was initiated after catheterisation in 170 (78.3%) treatment-naïve patients. A total of 19 patients received supportive therapy, 28 patients were not started on therapy, and 26 patients (10.7%) were on targeted treatment before catheterisation. Among treatment-naïve subjects, treatment was initiated with one targeted drug (n=112, 51.6%), dual therapy (n=39, 18%) or triple-therapy (n=5, 2.3%), and calcium channel blockers with one targeted medication in one patient (0.5%). Phosphodiesterase inhibitors type 5 were used frequently; some patients with pulmonary hypertension related to lung disease received targeted therapy. There is a diverse therapeutic approach for children with pulmonary hypertension with a need of better-defined treatment algorithms based on paediatric consensus for different aetiologies including the best possible diagnostic workup.

  6. Hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension augments lung injury and airway reactivity caused by ozone exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zychowski, Katherine E.; Lucas, Selita N.; Sanchez, Bethany; Herbert, Guy; Campen, Matthew J., E-mail: mcampen@salud.unm.edu

    2016-08-15

    Ozone (O{sub 3})-related cardiorespiratory effects are a growing public health concern. Ground level O{sub 3} can exacerbate pre-existing respiratory conditions; however, research regarding therapeutic interventions to reduce O{sub 3}-induced lung injury is limited. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypoxia-associated pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a frequent comorbidity that is difficult to treat clinically, yet associated with increased mortality and frequency of exacerbations. In this study, we hypothesized that established HPH would confer vulnerability to acute O{sub 3} pulmonary toxicity. Additionally, we tested whether improvement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity via rho-kinase inhibition could mitigate pulmonary inflammation and injury. To determine if O{sub 3} exacerbated HPH, male C57BL/6 mice were subject to either 3 weeks continuous normoxia (20.9% O{sub 2}) or hypoxia (10.0% O{sub 2}), followed by a 4-h exposure to either 1 ppm O{sub 3} or filtered air (FA). As an additional experimental intervention fasudil (20 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally prior to and after O{sub 3} exposures. As expected, hypoxia significantly increased right ventricular pressure and hypertrophy. O{sub 3} exposure in normoxic mice caused lung inflammation but not injury, as indicated by increased cellularity and edema in the lung. However, in hypoxic mice, O{sub 3} exposure led to increased inflammation and edema, along with a profound increase in airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Fasudil administration resulted in reduced O{sub 3}-induced lung injury via the enhancement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity. These results indicate that increased pulmonary vascular pressure may enhance lung injury, inflammation and edema when exposed to pollutants, and that enhancement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity may alleviate such vulnerability. - Highlights: • Environmental exposures can exacerbate chronic obstructive

  7. Role of endogenous nitric oxide on PAF-induced vascular and respiratory effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Clement

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO on vascular and respiratory smooth muscle basal tone was evaluated in six anaesthetized, paralysed, mechanically ventilated pigs. The involvement of endogenous NO in PAF-induced shock and airway hyperresponsiveness was also studied. PAF (50 ng/kg, i.v. was administered before and after pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 mg/kg, i.v., an NO synthesis inhibitor. PAF was also administered to three of these pigs after indomethacin infusion (3 mg/kg, i.v.. In normal pigs, L-NAME increased systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances, caused pulmonary hypertension and reduced cardiac output and stroke volume. The pulmonary vascular responses were correlated with the increase in static and dynamic lung elastances, without changing lung resistance. Inhibition of NO synthesis enhanced the PAF-dependent increase in total, intrinsic and viscoelastic lung resistances, without affecting lung elastances or cardiac activity. The systemic hypotensive effect of PAF was not abolished by pretreatment with L-NAME or indomethacin. This indicates that systemic hypotension is not correlated with the release of endogenous NO or prostacyclines. Indomethacin completely abolished the PAF-dependent respiratory effects.

  8. Pregnancy in women with pulmonary hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieper, P. G.; Hoendermis, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    Women with pulmonary hypertension have a high risk of morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. The inability to increase cardiac output leads to heart failure while further risks are introduced with hypercoagulability and decrease in systemic vascular resistance. There is no proof that new advanced

  9. The usefulness of computed tomography in distinguishing between asthma with irreversible air-flow limitation and pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Kenji; Nakajima, Yoko; Amano, Masao; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Kohei; Yokoyama, Sigeki; Matsubara, Kazuhito

    1988-01-01

    Chronic asthma may develop irreversible air-flow limitation and in this circumstance, it is clinically difficult to distinguish between asthma and pulmonary emphysema. Recently, it has been reported that computed tomography (CT) may assist in detecting changes in the lung specific for emphysema. We examined patients who suffered from asthma before the age of 45 which led to irreversible air-flow limitation (BA group; n = 17, mean age = 65.9) and patients with pulmonary emphysema (CPE group; n = 19, mean age = 69.8). Pulmonary function testing and CT were performed on all patients. In assessment of CT, areas of low attenuation and vascular disruption were considered to be suggestive of emphysema, and the Emphysema Score (ES) was calculated according to the method of Bergin et al. There was no significant difference in FEV1.0, % FEV1.0, % FEV1.0/FVC, % RV and RV/TLC between the BA group and the CPE group. In contrast, there was a significant decrease in the % DLco in CPE group compared with that of the BA group (p < 0.001). The ES in total lung was 54.9 ± 18.6 % in the CPE group and 7.8 ± 11.0 % in BA group (p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between the % DLco and the ES in the CPE group (p < 0.01). We conclude that the CT is useful in distinguishing between asthma with irreversible air-flow limitation and pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  10. [Pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital heart disease and Eisenmenger syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Colmenero, Juan; Sandoval Zárate, Julio; Beltrán Gámez, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a common complication of congenital heart disease (CHD). Congenital cardiopathies are the most frequent congenital malformations. The prevalence in our country remains unknown, based on birthrate, it is calculated that 12,000 to 16,000 infants in our country have some cardiac malformation. In patients with an uncorrected left-to-right shunt, increased pulmonary pressure leads to vascular remodeling and endothelial dysfunction secondary to an imbalance in vasoactive mediators which promotes vasoconstriction, inflammation, thrombosis, cell proliferation, impaired apotosis and fibrosis. The progressive rise in pulmonary vascular resistance and increased pressures in the right heart provocated reversal of the shunt may arise with the development of Eisenmenger' syndrome the most advanced form de Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease. The prevalence of Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with CHD has fallen in developed countries in recent years that is not yet achieved in developing countries therefore diagnosed late as lack of hospital infrastructure and human resources for the care of patients with CHD. With the development of targeted medical treatments for pulmonary arterial hypertension, the concept of a combined medical and interventional/surgical approach for patients with Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with CHD is a reality. We need to know the pathophysiological factors involved as well as a careful evaluation to determine the best therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. S-Nitrosylation and the Development of Pulmonary Hypertension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palmer, Lisa A

    2008-01-01

    .... In the current studies, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) was used as a bait reactant to measure NO transfer reactions in the blood and the vascular effects of these reactions in the pulmonary vasculature...

  12. Pulmonary venous thrombosis secondary to radiofrequency ablation of the pulmonary veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Reyes, Raquel; García-Ortega, Alberto; Torrents, Ana; Feced, Laura; Calvillo, Pilar; Libreros-Niño, Eugenia Alejandra; Escrivá-Peiró, Juan; Nauffal, Dolores

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary Vein Thrombosis (PVT) is a rare and underdiagnosed entity produced by local mechanical nature mechanisms, vascular torsion or direct injury to the vein. PVT has been described in clinical cases or small multicenter series mainly in relation to pulmonary vein stenosis, metastatic carcinoma, fibrosing mediastinitis, as an early surgical complication of lung transplantation lobectomy and radiofrequency ablation performed in patients with atrial fibrillation, although in some cases the cause is not known. We report the case of a 57 years old male with history of atrial fibrillation treated by radiofrequency ablation who was admitted in our center because of a two-week history of consistent pleuritic pain in the left hemithorax and low-grade hemoptysis and a lung consolidation treated as a pneumonia with antibiotic but not responding to medical therapy. In view of the poor evolution of the patient, computed tomography angiography was performed with findings of PVT and secondary venous infarction and anticoagulation therapy was optimized. At the end, pulmonary resection was performed due to hemorrhagic recurrence. PVT remains a rare complication of radiofrequency ablation and other procedures involving pulmonary veins. Clinical suspicion and early diagnosis is crucial because is a potentially life-threatening entity.

  13. Relationship between diminution of small pulmonary vessels and emphysema in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashimo, Shuko; Chubachi, Shotaro; Tsutsumi, Akihiro; Kameyama, Naofumi; Sasaki, Mamoru; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Nakamura, Hidetoshi; Asano, Koichiro; Reilly, John J; Betsuyaku, Tomoko

    To investigate the relationship between small pulmonary vessels and extent of emphysema on CT in individual lungs with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Forty-nine patients were included. The percentage of cross-sectional area of vessels emphysema were assessed. Less than half of the COPD patients demonstrated an inverse correlation between %CSA <5 and percentage of low attenuation area (LAA%). In the remaining patients, %CSA <5 was homogeneously distributed. Not all patients with COPD demonstrated an inverse correlation of the distributions between %CSA <5 and LAA% in individual lungs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hyperthyroidism and pulmonary hypertension: an important association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabhajosula, Sailaja; Radhi, Saba; Cevik, Cihan; Alalawi, Raed; Raj, Rishi; Nugent, Kenneth

    2011-12-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a complex disorder with multiple etiologies. The World Health Organization Group 5 (unclear multifactorial mechanisms) includes patients with thyroid disorders. The authors reviewed the literature on the association between hyperthyroidism and pulmonary hypertension and identified 20 publications reporting 164 patients with treatment outcomes. The systolic pulmonary artery (PA) pressures in these patients ranged from 28 to 78 mm Hg. They were treated with antithyroid medications, radioactive iodine and surgery. The mean pretherapy PA systolic pressure was 39 mm Hg; the mean posttreatment pressure was 30 mm Hg. Pulmonary hypertension should be considered in hyperthyroid patients with dyspnea. All patients with pulmonary hypertension should be screened for hyperthyroidism, because the treatment of hyperthyroidism can reduce PA pressures, potentially avoid the side-effects and costs with current therapies for pulmonary hypertension and limit the consequences of untreated hyperthyroidism. However, the long-term outcome in these patients is uncertain, and this issue needs more study. Changes in the pulmonary circulation and molecular regulators of vascular remodeling likely explain this association.

  15. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Kv1.5 is upregulated in intrauterine growth retardation rats with exaggerated pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Fu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR is associated with the development of adult-onset diseases, including pulmonary hypertension. However, the underlying mechanism of the early nutritional insult that results in pulmonary vascular dysfunction later in life is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the role of tyrosine phosphorylation of voltage-gated potassium channel 1.5 (Kv1.5 in this prenatal event that results in exaggerated adult vascular dysfunction. A rat model of chronic hypoxia (2 weeks of hypoxia at 12 weeks old following IUGR was used to investigate the physiological and structural effect of intrauterine malnutrition on the pulmonary artery by evaluating pulmonary artery systolic pressure and vascular diameter in male rats. Kv1.5 expression and tyrosine phosphorylation in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs were determined. We found that IUGR increased mean pulmonary artery pressure and resulted in thicker pulmonary artery smooth muscle layer in 14-week-old rats after 2 weeks of hypoxia, while no difference was observed in normoxia groups. In the PASMCs of IUGR-hypoxia rats, Kv1.5 mRNA and protein expression decreased while that of tyrosine-phosphorylated Kv1.5 significantly increased. These results demonstrate that IUGR leads to exaggerated chronic hypoxia pulmonary arterial hypertension (CH-PAH in association with decreased Kv1.5 expression in PASMCs. This phenomenon may be mediated by increased tyrosine phosphorylation of Kv1.5 in PASMCs and it provides new insight into the prevention and treatment of IUGR-related CH-PAH.

  16. Stepwise high-throughput virtual screening of Rho kinase inhibitors from natural product library and potential therapeutics for pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hao; Yan, Ji; Xu, Jian; Fan, Xi-Zhen; Sun, Xian-Lin; Chen, Kang-Yu

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a devastating disease characterized by progressive elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure and vascular resistance due to pulmonary vasoconstriction and vessel remodeling. The activation of RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway plays a central role in the pathologic progression of PH and thus the Rho kinase, an essential effector of the ROCK pathway, is considered as a potential therapeutic target to attenuate PH. In the current study, a synthetic pipeline is used to discover new potent Rho inhibitors from various natural products. In the pipeline, the stepwise high-throughput virtual screening, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR)-based rescoring, and kinase assay were integrated. The screening was performed against a structurally diverse, drug-like natural product library, from which six identified compounds were tested to determine their inhibitory potencies agonist Rho by using a standard kinase assay protocol. With this scheme, we successfully identified two potent Rho inhibitors, namely phloretin and baicalein, with activity values of IC50 = 0.22 and 0.95 μM, respectively. Structural examination suggested that complicated networks of non-bonded interactions such as hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic forces, and van der Waals contacts across the complex interfaces of Rho kinase are formed with the screened compounds.

  17. Pulmonary involvement of hypereosinophilic syndrome : high-resolution CT finding in three patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Young; Lee, Mee Ran; Shim, Jae Jeong [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-09-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome is a rare entity of eosinophilic lung disease characterized by idiopathic prolonged eosinophilia of marked degree and variable organ involvement. Pulmonary involvement of hypereosinophilic syndrome occurs in up to 40% of patients. We report HRCT findings of three patients with pulmonary involvement of hypereosinophilic syndrome diagnosed by clinical manifestation, bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial lung biopsy. On HRCT, several small nodules were seen in both lungs, especially in peripheral lung areas of the three patients. One had nodules with ground-glass attenuation halo and also focal areas of ground-glass attenuation in this area.

  18. Clinical implications for Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in the lung: friend or foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgoulianis Konstantinos I

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a potent mediator of angiogenesis which has multiple effects in lung development and physiology. VEGF is expressed in several parts of the lung and the pleura while it has been shown that changes in its expression play a significant role in the pathophysiology of some of the most common respiratory disorders, such as acute lung injury, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnea, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, pleural disease, and lung cancer. However, the exact role of VEGF in the lung is not clear yet, as there is contradictory evidence that suggests either a protective or a harmful role. VEGF seems to interfere in a different manner, depending on its amount, the location, and the underlying pathologic process in lung tissue. The lack of VEGF in some disease entities may provide implications for its substitution, whereas its overexpression in other lung disorders has led to interventions for the attenuation of its action. Many efforts have been made in order to regulate the expression of VEGF and anti-VEGF antibodies are already in use for the management of lung cancer. Further research is still needed for the complete understanding of the exact role of VEGF in health and disease, in order to take advantage of its benefits and avoid its adverse effects. The scope of the present review is to summarize from a clinical point of view the changes in VEGF expression in several disorders of the respiratory system and focus on its diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  19. Automation process for morphometric analysis of volumetric CT data from pulmonary vasculature in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingrani, Rahul; Krenz, Gary; Molthen, Robert

    2010-01-01

    With advances in medical imaging scanners, it has become commonplace to generate large multidimensional datasets. These datasets require tools for a rapid, thorough analysis. To address this need, we have developed an automated algorithm for morphometric analysis incorporating A Visualization Workshop computational and image processing libraries for three-dimensional segmentation, vascular tree generation and structural hierarchical ordering with a two-stage numeric optimization procedure for estimating vessel diameters. We combine this new technique with our mathematical models of pulmonary vascular morphology to quantify structural and functional attributes of lung arterial trees. Our physiological studies require repeated measurements of vascular structure to determine differences in vessel biomechanical properties between animal models of pulmonary disease. Automation provides many advantages including significantly improved speed and minimized operator interaction and biasing. The results are validated by comparison with previously published rat pulmonary arterial micro-CT data analysis techniques, in which vessels were manually mapped and measured using intense operator intervention. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Pulmonary uptake of thallium-201 in patients with congenital heart disease; Comparison between total anomalous pulmonary venous connection and tetralogy of Fallot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohata, Tohru; Ono, Yasuo; Iwatani, Hajime; Fukushima, Hideki; Kamiya, Tetsuro; Yagihara, Toshikatsu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Takamiya, Makoto (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the pulmonary extravascular space in patients with congenital heart disease, lung uptake of Tl-201 was quantitatively studied. Patients' diseases consisted of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC)--supracardiac (I), paracardiac (II) and infracardiac (III) types--, tetralogy of Fallot (T/F), ventricular septal defect (VSD), and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Tl-201 imaging was performed before operation and in the early and late stages after operation. Twenty-five other patients with arrhythemias or a history of Kawasaki disease without perfusion defects served as controls. Lung uptake of Tl-201 was analyzed with a computer using the anterior image of the chest, and the averge count ratio of the right lung (P) to the left ventricular wall (LV) was calculated. P/LV values were compared between the patients before and after operation, and differences in anatomical types in TAPVC were also evaluated. In TAPVC, P/LV values decreased gradually after operation, but were significantly higher than those of controls even in the late stage. In the late stage after operation, type I TAPVC had significantly higher P/LV values than those of type-II. In T/F, the P/LV values were significantly higher after operation, even in the late stage, than before operation. In the VSD or PDA group, the P/LV value returned to normal after operation and was significantly lower than that before operation. In conclusion, TAPVC patients was considered to have a larger pulmonary extravascular space even in the late stage after operation, suggesting a sign of pulmonary congestion due to intrapulmonary vascular damage in utero. In T/F, scanty pulmonary vascular beds before operation were perfused with increased pulmonary blood flow after operation. Therefore, postoperative increases in pulmonary blood flow may be responsible for the increased pulmonary extravascular space. (N.K.).

  1. Pulmonary hypertension associated with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    OpenAIRE

    Woolf, D.; Voigt, M. D.; Jaskiewicz, K.; Kalla, A. A.

    1994-01-01

    A case of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus, the first of our knowledge, is described. Severe pulmonary hypertension was associated with the portal hypertension and with markers of active auto-immunity. Pulmonary hypertension has not previously been associated with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. The coexistence of vasculopathy of the portal and pulmonary vascular beds in this patient with active autoimmunity supports the postulate that portal...

  2. Pulmonary edema: radiographic differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Dong Soo; Choi, Young Hi; Kim, Seung Cheol; An, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jee Young; Park, Hee Hong

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using chest radiography to differentiate between three different etiologies of pulmonary edema. Plain chest radiographs of 77 patients, who were clinically confirmed as having pulmonary edema, were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were classified into three groups : group 1 (cardiogenic edema : n = 35), group 2 (renal pulmonary edema : n = 16) and group 3 (permeability edema : n = 26). We analyzed the radiologic findings of air bronchogram, heart size, peribronchial cuffing, septal line, pleural effusion, vascular pedicle width, pulmonary blood flow distribution and distribution of pulmonary edema. In a search for radiologic findings which would help in the differentiation of these three etiologies, each finding was assessed. Cardiogenic and renal pulmonary edema showed overlapping radiologic findings, except for pulmonary blood flow distribution. In cardiogenic pulmonary edema (n=35), cardiomegaly (n=29), peribronchial cuffing (n=29), inverted pulmonary blood flow distribution (n=21) and basal distribution of edema (n=20) were common. In renal pulmonary edema (n=16), cardiomegaly (n=15), balanced blood flow distribution (n=12), and central (n=9) or basal distribution of edema (n=7) were common. Permeability edema (n=26) showed different findings. Air bronchogram (n=25), normal blood flow distribution (n=14) and peripheral distribution of edema (n=21) were frequent findings, while cardiomegaly (n=7), peribronchial cuffing (n=7) and septal line (n=5) were observed in only a few cases. On plain chest radiograph, permeability edema can be differentiated from cardiogenic or renal pulmonary edema. The radiographic findings which most reliably differentiated these two etiologies were air bronchogram, distribution of pulmonary edema, peribronchial cuffing and heart size. Only blood flow distribution was useful for radiographic differentiation of cardiogenic and renal edema

  3. The Right Ventricle Explains Sex Differences in Survival in Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, W.; van de Veerdonk, M.C.; Trip, P.; de Man, F.S.; Heymans, M.W.; Marcus, J.T.; Kawut, S.M.; Bogaard, H.J.; Boonstra, A.; Vonk-Noordegraaf, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Male sex is an independent predictor of worse survival in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). This finding might be explained by more severe pulmonary vascular disease, worse right ventricular (RV) function, or different response to therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate

  4. Pulmonary malaria: high-resolution computed tomography findings - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Rosana; Souza, Daniel Andrade Tinoco de; Marchiori, Edson

    2004-01-01

    We report the case of a 38-year-old man with pulmonary malaria. High-resolution computed tomography showed thickening of the peribronchovascular interstitium and interlobular septa, areas of consolidation and ground glass attenuation and bilateral pleural effusion suggesting pulmonary edema. The patient recovered well after receiving specific treatment and was discharged after 11 days of hospitalization. (author)

  5. Pulmonary edema predictive scoring index (PEPSI), a new index to predict risk of reperfusion pulmonary edema and improvement of hemodynamics in percutaneous transluminal pulmonary angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Takumi; Kataoka, Masaharu; Shimura, Nobuhiko; Ishiguro, Haruhisa; Yanagisawa, Ryoji; Taguchi, Hiroki; Fukuda, Keiichi; Yoshino, Hideaki; Satoh, Toru

    2013-07-01

    This study sought to identify useful predictors for hemodynamic improvement and risk of reperfusion pulmonary edema (RPE), a major complication of this procedure. Percutaneous transluminal pulmonary angioplasty (PTPA) has been reported to be effective for the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). PTPA has not been widespread because RPE has not been well predicted. We included 140 consecutive procedures in 54 patients with CTEPH. The flow appearance of the target vessels was graded into 4 groups (Pulmonary Flow Grade), and we proposed PEPSI (Pulmonary Edema Predictive Scoring Index) = (sum total change of Pulmonary Flow Grade scores) × (baseline pulmonary vascular resistance). Correlations between occurrence of RPE and 11 variables, including hemodynamic parameters, number of target vessels, and PEPSI, were analyzed. Hemodynamic parameters significantly improved after median observation period of 6.4 months, and the sum total changes in Pulmonary Flow Grade scores were significantly correlated with the improvement in hemodynamics. Multivariate analysis revealed that PEPSI was the strongest factor correlated with the occurrence of RPE (p PEPSI to be a useful marker of the risk of RPE (cutoff value 35.4, negative predictive value 92.3%). Pulmonary Flow Grade score is useful in determining therapeutic efficacy, and PEPSI is highly supportive to reduce the risk of RPE after PTPA. Using these 2 indexes, PTPA could become a safe and common therapeutic strategy for CTEPH. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor B expression in the hypoxic lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLoughlin Paul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic alveolar hypoxia, due to residence at high altitude or chronic obstructive lung diseases, leads to pulmonary hypertension, which may be further complicated by right heart failure, increasing morbidity and mortality. In the non-diseased lung, angiogenesis occurs in chronic hypoxia and may act in a protective, adaptive manner. To date, little is known about the behaviour of individual vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF family ligands in hypoxia-induced pulmonary angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of placenta growth factor (PlGF and VEGFB during the development of hypoxic pulmonary angiogenesis and their functional effects on the pulmonary endothelium. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to conditions of normoxia (21% O2 or hypoxia (10% O2 for 1-21 days. Stereological analysis of vascular structure, real-time PCR analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA, VEGFB, placenta growth factor (PlGF, VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, immunohistochemistry and western blots were completed. The effects of VEGF ligands on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were determined using a wound-healing assay. Results Typical vascular remodelling and angiogenesis were observed in the hypoxic lung. PlGF and VEGFB mRNA expression were significantly increased in the hypoxic lung. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced expression of VEGFB protein in hypoxia although PlGF protein was unchanged. The expression of VEGFA mRNA and protein was unchanged. In vitro PlGF at high concentration mimicked the wound-healing actions of VEGFA on pulmonary microvascular endothelial monolayers. Low concentrations of PlGF potentiated the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while higher concentrations of PlGF were without this effect. VEGFB inhibited the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while VEGFB and PlGF together were mutually antagonistic. Conclusions VEGFB and PlGF can either inhibit or

  7. Diffuse pulmonary ossification. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres D, Carlos A; Ojeda L, Paulina

    1997-01-01

    The diffuse pulmonary ossification (DPO) is a rare disease characterized by metaplastic formation of bony tissue in the lung parenchyma. Generally it is associated with other disorders as mitral stenosis and interstitial fibrosis. Sometimes the DPO is idiopathic. We report the case of a 49-year-old man who presented with cough and hemoptysis. The radiological findings suggested an interstitial lung disease. The fiber optic bronchoscopy was normal. The pulmonary function tests showed a mild airway obstruction. The bacteriological and serological studies for tuberculosis, mycosis, and collagen-vascular disease were negatives. An open lung biopsy was performed and the pathologic findings were interpreted as diffuse pulmonary ossification (DPO). Any other disease was found; so, in this case the DPO was classified as idiopathic

  8. The usefulness of 99mTc-Technegas scintigraphy for diagnosing pulmonary impairment caused by pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Katashi; Takahashi, Kazue; Kobayashi, Takuya; Yamamoto, Yuka; Nishiyama, Yoshihiro; Tanabe, Masatada

    1998-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been used for diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema because it can reveal the morphology of low attenuation areas. Recently, 99m Tc-Technegas imaging, one of several types of scintigraphic techniques, has been used for ventilation scintigraphy. Technegas scintigraphy was performed on 15 patients with pulmonary emphysema, and we compared the extent and degree of abnormal findings on Technegas scintigraphy with the extent of low attenuation areas shown by CT. We classified the findings of Technegas imaging into three grades, from mild to severe, according to the extent of peripheral irregularity and central hot spot formation. We also classified the findings of CT as centrilobular emphysema into three grades from mild to severe according to the extent of low attention areas in the peripheral lung fields. In 5 cases, CT and Technegas assessment resulted in equivalent diagnoses. In eight cases, Technegas images showed more detailed findings than CT images. In the two remaining cases, which were diagnosed as panlobular emphysema on CT, Technegas images showed the severe stage. Technegas scintigraphy was useful for diagnostic assessment of pulmonary emphysema, especially for panlobular emphysema, which is difficult to distinguish from the normal lung condition by CT assessment. (author)

  9. Vascular effects of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in dyslipidemic ApoE-/- mice and cultured endothelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yi; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Danielsen, Pernille Høgh

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidences indicate that pulmonary exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is associated with increased risk of lung diseases, whereas the effect on the vascular system is less studied. We investigated vascular effects of 2 types of multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) in apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice,...

  10. Diabetes Mellitus Associates with Increased Right Ventricular Afterload and Remodeling in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Morgan E; Nair, Vineet; Sinari, Shripad; Dherange, Parinita A; Natarajan, Balaji; Trutter, Lindsey; Brittain, Evan L; Hemnes, Anna R; Austin, Eric D; Patel, Kumar; Black, Stephen M; Garcia, Joe G N; Yuan Md PhD, Jason X; Vanderpool, Rebecca R; Rischard, Franz; Makino, Ayako; Bedrick, Edward J; Desai, Ankit A

    2018-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction. Parallel studies have also reported associations between diabetes mellitus and right ventricular dysfunction and reduced survival in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the impact of diabetes mellitus on the pulmonary vasculature has not been well characterized. We hypothesized that diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia could specifically influence right ventricular afterload and remodeling in patients with Group I pulmonary arterial hypertension, providing a link to their known susceptibility to right ventricular dysfunction. Using an adjusted model for age, sex, pulmonary vascular resistance, and medication use, associations of fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and the presence of diabetes mellitus were evaluated with markers of disease severity in 162 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. A surrogate measure of increased pulmonary artery stiffness, elevated pulmonary arterial elastance (P = .012), along with reduced log(pulmonary artery capacitance) (P = .006) were significantly associated with the presence of diabetes mellitus in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension in a fully adjusted model. Similar associations between pulmonary arterial elastance and capacitance were noted with both fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Furthermore, right ventricular wall thickness on echocardiography was greater in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients with diabetes, supporting the link between right ventricular remodeling and diabetes. Cumulatively, these data demonstrate that an increase in right ventricular afterload, beyond pulmonary vascular resistance alone, may influence right ventricular remodeling and provide a mechanistic link between the susceptibility to right ventricular dysfunction in patients with both diabetes mellitus and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Beyond the inhaled nitric oxide in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yin Lai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN is a consequence of failed pulmonary vascular transition at birth and leads to pulmonary hypertension with shunting of deoxygenated blood across the ductus arteriosus (DA and foramen ovale (FO resulting in severe hypoxemia, and it may eventually lead to life-threatening circulatory failure. PPHN is a serious event affecting both term and preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. It is often associated with diseases such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia, meconium aspiration, sepsis, congenital pneumonia, birth asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome. The diagnosis of PPHN should include echocardiographic evidence of increased pulmonary pressure, with demonstrable right-to-left shunt across the DA or FO, and the absence of cyanotic heart diseases. The mainstay therapy of PPHN includes treatment of underlying causes, maintenance of adequate systemic blood pressure, optimized ventilator support for lung recruitment and alveolar ventilation, and pharmacologic measures to increase pulmonary vasodilation and decrease pulmonary vascular resistance. Inhaled nitric oxide has been proved to treat PPHN successfully with improved oxygenation in 60–70% of patients and to significantly reduce the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO. About 14%–46% of the survivors develop long-term impairments such as hearing deficits, chronic lung disease, cerebral palsy and other neurodevelopmental disabilities.

  12. Quantitative assessment of cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels in patients with COPD using inspiratory and expiratory MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Yukiko, E-mail: matsuyuki_future@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Kawata, Naoko, E-mail: chumito_03@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Yanagawa, Noriyuki, E-mail: yanagawa@ho.chiba-u.ac.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sugiura, Toshihiko, E-mail: sugiura@js3.so-net.ne.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sakurai, Yoriko, E-mail: yoliri@nifty.com [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sato, Misuzu, E-mail: mis_misuzu@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Iesato, Ken, E-mail: iesato_k@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Terada, Jiro, E-mail: jirotera@chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sakao, Seiichiro, E-mail: sakao@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tada, Yuji, E-mail: ytada@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tanabe, Nobuhiro, E-mail: ntanabe@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Suzuki, Yoichi, E-mail: ysuzuki@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tatsumi, Koichiro, E-mail: tatsumi@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    Objectives: Structural and functional changes in pulmonary vessels are prevalent at the initial stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These vascular alterations can be assessed using cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessels. However, neither in non-COPD smokers nor in COPD patients it has been defined whether the structural changes of pulmonary vessels detected by paired inspiratory and expiratory CT scans are associated with emphysematous changes. We quantified the CSA and low attenuation area (LAA) and evaluated the changes in these parameters in the inspiratory and expiratory phases. Materials and methods: Fifty consecutive non-COPD smokers and COPD patients were subjected to multi detector-row CT and the percentage of vessels with a CSA less than 5 mm{sup 2} as well as the percentage LAA for total lung area (%CSA < 5, %LAA, respectively) were calculated. Results: The %CSA < 5 correlated negatively with %LAA. The %CSA < 5 was lower in COPD patients with emphysema as compared with non-COPD smokers and COPD patients with or without mild emphysema. In addition, the %CSA < 5 was lower in the no/mild emphysema subgroup as compared with non-COPD smokers. The respiratory phase change of %CSA < 5 in COPD patients was greater than that in non-COPD smokers. Conclusion: The percentage of small pulmonary vessels decreased as emphysematous changes increase, and this decrease was observed even in patients with no/mild emphysema. Furthermore, respiratory phase changes in CSA were higher in COPD patients than in non-COPD smokers.

  13. Teaching the effects of gravity and intravascular and alveolar pressures on the distribution of pulmonary blood flow using a classic paper by West et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzky, Michael G

    2006-03-01

    "Distribution of blood flow in isolated lung; relation to vascular and alveolar pressures" by J. B. West, C. T. Dollery, and A. Naimark (J Appl Physiol 19: 713-724, 1964) is a classic paper, although it has not yet been included in the Essays on the American Physiological Society Classic Papers Project (http://www.the-aps.org/publications/classics/). This is the paper that originally described the "zones of the lung." The final figure in the paper, which synthesizes the results and discussion, is now seen in most textbooks of physiology or respiratory physiology. The paper is also a model of clear, concise writing. The paper and its final figure can be used to teach or review a number of physiological concepts. These include the effects of gravity on pulmonary blood flow and pulmonary vascular resistance; recruitment and distention of pulmonary vessels; the importance of the transmural pressure on the diameter of collapsible distensible vessels; the Starling resistor; the interplay of the pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, and alveolar pressures; and the vascular waterfall. In addition, the figure can be used to generate discovery learning and discussion of several physiological or pathophysiological effects on pulmonary vascular resistance and the distribution of pulmonary blood flow.

  14. Dextromethorphan mediated bitter taste receptor activation in the pulmonary circuit causes vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Jasbir D; Singh, Nisha; Sikarwar, Anurag S; Chakraborty, Raja; Pydi, Sai P; Bhullar, Rajinder P; Dakshinamurti, Shyamala; Chelikani, Prashen

    2014-01-01

    Activation of bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) in human airway smooth muscle cells leads to muscle relaxation and bronchodilation. This finding led to our hypothesis that T2Rs are expressed in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and might be involved in regulating the vascular tone. RT-PCR was performed to reveal the expression of T2Rs in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Of the 25 T2Rs, 21 were expressed in these cells. Functional characterization was done by calcium imaging after stimulating the cells with different bitter agonists. Increased calcium responses were observed with most of the agonists, the largest increase seen for dextromethorphan. Previously in site-directed mutational studies, we have characterized the response of T2R1 to dextromethorphan, therefore, T2R1 was selected for further analysis in this study. Knockdown with T2R1 specific shRNA decreased mRNA levels, protein levels and dextromethorphan-induced calcium responses in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells by up to 50%. To analyze if T2Rs are involved in regulating the pulmonary vascular tone, ex vivo studies using pulmonary arterial and airway rings were pursued. Myographic studies using porcine pulmonary arterial and airway rings showed that stimulation with dextromethorphan led to contraction of the pulmonary arterial and relaxation of the airway rings. This study shows that dextromethorphan, acting through T2R1, causes vasoconstrictor responses in the pulmonary circuit and relaxation in the airways.

  15. SiO2-induced release of sVEGFRs from pulmonary macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jie; Lv, Yan; Chen, Jin; Wang, Jing; Yao, Honghong

    2018-01-01

    The inhalation of silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) particles causes silicosis, a stubborn pulmonary disease that is characterized by alveolar inflammation during the early stage. Soluble cytokine receptors (SCRs) play important roles in regulating inflammation by either attenuating or promoting cytokine signaling. However, the role of SCRs in silicosis remains unknown. Luminex assays revealed increased soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (sVEGFR) family levels in the plasma of silicosis patients. In an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), cells from the differentiated human monocytic cell line U937 released sVEGFR family proteins after exposure to SiO 2 (50μg/cm 2 ). Further Western blot experiments revealed that VEGFR expression was also elevated in U937 cells. In contrast, levels of sVEGFR family members did not change in the supernatants of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) after exposure to SiO 2 (50μg/cm 2 ). Interestingly, VEGFR expression in HUVECs decreased after SiO 2 treatment. In a scratch assay, HUVECs exhibited cell migration ability, indicating the acquisition of mesenchymal properties. Our findings highlight the important role of sVEGFRs in both inflammation and fibrosis induced by SiO 2 , suggesting a possible mechanism for the fibrogenic effects observed in pulmonary diseases associated with fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of computed tomography and automated software for quantitative analysis of the vasculature of patients with pulmonary hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Danilo Tadao; Pádua, Adriana Ignácio de; Lima Filho, Moyses Oliveira; Marin Neto, José Antonio; Elias Júnior, Jorge; Baddini-Martinez, José; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam, E-mail: danilowada@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de São Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clínicas

    2017-11-15

    Objective: To perform a quantitative analysis of the lung parenchyma and pulmonary vasculature of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) on computed tomography angiography (CTA) images, using automated software. Materials And Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the CTA findings and clinical records of 45 patients with PH (17 males and 28 females), in comparison with a control group of 20 healthy individuals (7 males and 13 females); the mean age differed significantly between the two groups (53 ± 14.7 vs. 35 ± 9.6 years; p = 0.0001). Results: The automated analysis showed that, in comparison with the controls, the patients with PH showed lower 10{sup th} percentile values for lung density, higher vascular volumes in the right upper lung lobe, and higher vascular volume ratios between the upper and lower lobes. In our quantitative analysis, we found no differences among the various PH subgroups. We inferred that a difference in the 10{sup th} percentile values indicates areas of hypovolaemia in patients with PH and that a difference in pulmonary vascular volumes indicates redistribution of the pulmonary vasculature and an increase in pulmonary vasculature resistance. Conclusion: Automated analysis of pulmonary vessels on CTA images revealed alterations and could represent an objective diagnostic tool for the evaluation of patients with PH. (author)

  17. Role of endothelin receptor activation in secondary pulmonary hypertension in awake swine after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Houweling (Birgit); D. Merkus (Daphne); O. Sorop (Oana); F. Boomsma (Frans); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe previously observed that pulmonary hypertension secondary to myocardial infarction (MI) in swine is characterized by elevated plasma endothelin (ET) levels and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Consequently, we tested the hypothesis that an increased ET-mediated vasoconstrictor

  18. [Early diagnosis and therapy in pulmonary hypertension--aspects of a vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, R; Olschewski, H; Ghofrani, H A; Opitz, C F

    2013-07-01

    In patients with pulmonary hypertension progressive vascular changes in the lung precede the clinical and hemodynamic manifestations of the disease. Therefore, early diagnosis and timely treatment of the disease are crucial. This has been the topic of an expert meeting in Greifswald, Germany in June 2012. The current definition of pulmonary hypertension requires a mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥ 25 mmHg at rest, a hemodynamic abnormality already reflecting pulmonary vascular changes beyond early disease. There is increasing evidence supporting the concept that a lower pressure threshold at rest or an abnormal pressure response with exercise better characterize early disease. While right heart catheterization at rest remains the diagnostic gold standard other methods for detecting early disease are explored with echocardiography being the most frequently used technique. Targeted therapy has been approved for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, WHO-group I) in functional class II-IV. Preliminary data in functional class I patients suggest therapeutic potential of theses drugs in early disease as well. Current guidelines propose therapeutic goals based on parameters with prognostic importance. However, these recommendations are based on mostly retrospective analyses of pre-treatment data obtained in patients with pulmonary hypertension in functional class II-IV. Therefore, evidence-based therapeutic goals for early interventions in functional class I patients are lacking. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Clinical application of gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional pulmonary MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Katsuyuki

    1999-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients with suspected pulmonary lesions, and three normal volunteers, underwent gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) pulmonary MR angiography (MRA). The MRA were obtained during intravenous administration of gadolinium-based contrast material, in a single breath-hold. Conspicuity of the normal pulmonary segmental arteries was estimated on the MRA. Abnormal findings such as ''vascular involvement'', ''abnormal connection'', stenosis'', or ''dilatation'' on the MRA were compared with those on conventional angiography or CT. Normal pulmonary segmental arteries, except for A 4,5,6,8and9 of the left pulmonary artery, could be clearly visualized. Blind reading of four different findings lead to characteristic findings for each pulmonary disease that can be aid in their differential diagnoses. This technique shows promise as a noninvasive diagnosis of lung diseases. (author)

  20. Model of pulmonary fluid traffic homeostasis based on respiratory cycle pressure, bidirectional bronchiolo-pulmonar shunting and water evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbel, Sven; Kurbel, Beatrica; Gulam, Danijela; Spajić, Borislav

    2010-06-01

    The main puzzle of the pulmonary circulation is how the alveolar spaces remain dry over a wide range of pulmonary vascular pressures and blood flows. Although normal hydrostatic pressure in pulmonary capillaries is probably always below 10 mmHg, well bellow plasma colloid pressure of 25 mmHg, most textbooks state that some fluid filtration through capillary walls does occur, while the increased lymph drainage prevents alveolar fluid accumulation. The lack of a measurable pressure drop along pulmonary capillaries makes the classic description of Starling forces unsuitable to the low pressure, low resistance pulmonary circulation. Here presented model of pulmonary fluid traffic describes lungs as a matrix of small vascular units, each consisting of alveoli whose capillaries are anastomotically linked to the bronchiolar capillaries perfused by a single bronchiolar arteriole. It proposes that filtration and absorption in pulmonary and in bronchiolar capillaries happen as alternating periods of low and of increased perfusion pressures. The model is based on three levels of filtration control: short filtration phases due to respiratory cycle of the whole lung are modulated by bidirectional bronchiolo-pulmonar shunting independently in each small vascular unit, while fluid evaporation from alveolar groups further tunes local filtration. These mechanisms are used to describe a self-sustaining regulator that allows optimal fluid traffic in different settings. The proposed concept is used to describe development of pulmonary edema in several clinical entities (exercise in wet or dry climate, left heart failure, people who rapidly move to high altitudes, acute cyanide and carbon monoxide poisoning, large pulmonary embolisms). .

  1. Imaging in congenital pulmonary vein anomalies: the role of computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, Kevin Todd; McQuiston, Andrew Douglas [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Hlavacek, Anthony Marcus; Pietris, Nicholas Peter [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology Department of Pediatrics, Charleston, SC (United States); Meinel, Felix Gabriel [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); De Cecco, Carlo Nicola [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' - Polo Pontino, Department of Radiological Sciences Oncology and Pathology, Latina (Italy); Schoepf, Uwe Joseph [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology Department of Pediatrics, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Pulmonary venous anomalies comprise a wide spectrum of anatomical variations and their clinical presentations may vary from the relatively benign single partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC) to the critical obstructed total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC). We briefly review the common anomalies encountered, while highlighting the utility that computed tomographic angiography (CTA) provides for this spectrum of extracardiac vascular malformations and connections. CTA has established itself as an invaluable imaging modality in these patients. A detailed knowledge of the CTA imaging findings in pulmonary venous anomalies is crucial to guide clinical decision-making in these patients. (orig.)

  2. Late Posthemorrhagic Structural and Functional Changes in Pulmonary Circulation Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Andreyeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal the major regularities and mechanisms of morphological changes in the rat pulmonary circulation arteries in the late posthemorrhagic period and to compare them with age-related features of the vessels. Materials and methods: experiments to generate graduated hemorrhagic hypotension with the blood pressure being maintained at 40 mm Hg were carried out on young (5—6-month albino male Wistar rats. Throughout hypotension and 60 days after blood loss, the blood was tested to determine low and average molecular-weight substances by spectrophotometry and the pro- and antioxidative systems by chemiluminescence. Pulmonary circulation arteries were morphologically studied in young animals, rats in the late posthemorrhagic period and old (24—25-month rats. Results. Sixty-minute hemorrhagic hypotension leads to the development of endotoxemia and imbalance of the pro- and antioxidative systems, the signs of which are observed in the late periods (2 months after hypotension. At the same time, the posthemorrhagic period is marked by the significant pulmonary circulation arterial morphological changes comparable with their age-related alterations in old rat. This shows up mainly in the reorganization of a connective tissue component in the vascular wall: the elevated levels of individual collagen fibers, their structural changes, elastic medial membrane destruction and deformity. At the same time, there is a change in the morphometric parameters of vessels at all study stages while their lowered flow capacity is only characteristic for intraorgan arteries. Conclusion: The increased activity of free radical oxidation and endotoxemia may be believed to be one of the causes of morphological changes in pulmonary circulation arteries in the late posthemorrhagic period, which is similar to age-related vascular alterations. Key words: hemorrhagic hypotension, pulmonary circulation arteries, free radical oxidation, endotoxemia, remodeling, late

  3. Selective Activation of At2 Receptor Attenuates Progression of Pulmonary Hypertension and Inhibits Cardiopulmonary Fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruce, E; Shenoy, V; Rathinasabapathy, A

    2015-01-01

    . However, the role of the angiotensin type II receptor (AT2 receptor) in PH has not been fully elucidated. We have taken advantage of a recently identified non-peptide AT2 receptor agonist, Compound 21 (C21), to investigate its effects on the well-established monocrotaline (MCT) rat model of PH....... EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: A single subcutaneous injection of MCT (50 mg/kg) was used to induce PH in 8-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats. After 2-weeks of MCT administration, a subset of animals began receiving, either 0.03mg/kg C21, 3mg/kg PD-123319, 0.5mg/kg A779 for an additional 2-weeks, after which right......-ventricular hemodynamic parameters were measured and tissues collected for gene expression and histological analyses. KEY RESULTS: Initiation of C21 treatment significantly attenuated much of the pathophysiology associated with MCT-induced PH. Most notably, C21 reversed pulmonary fibrosis and prevented right ventricular...

  4. High-resolution computed tomography findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in lung transplant recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacomelli, Irai Luis; Schuhmacher Neto, Roberto; Nin, Carlos Schuller; Cassano, Priscilla de Souza; Pereira, Marisa; Moreira, Jose da Silva; Nascimento, Douglas Zaione; Hochhegger, Bruno, E-mail: iraigiacomelli@gmail.com [Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    Objective: Respiratory infections constitute a major cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. The incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis is high among such patients. On imaging, tuberculosis has various presentations. Greater understanding of those presentations could reduce the impact of the disease by facilitating early diagnosis. Therefore, we attempted to describe the HRCT patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis in lung transplant recipients. Methods: From two hospitals in southern Brazil, we collected the following data on lung transplant recipients who developed pulmonary tuberculosis: gender; age; symptoms; the lung disease that led to transplantation; HRCT pattern; distribution of findings; time from transplantation to pulmonary tuberculosis; and mortality rate. The HRCT findings were classified as miliary nodules; cavitation and centrilobular nodules with a tree-in-bud pattern; ground-glass attenuation with consolidation; mediastinal lymph node enlargement; or pleural effusion. Results: We evaluated 402 lung transplant recipients, 19 of whom developed pulmonary tuberculosis after transplantation. Among those 19 patients, the most common HRCT patterns were ground-glass attenuation with consolidation (in 42%); cavitation and centrilobular nodules with a tree-in-bud pattern (in 31.5%); and mediastinal lymph node enlargement (in 15.7%). Among the patients with cavitation and centrilobular nodules with a tree-in-bud pattern, the distribution was within the upper lobes in 66.6%. No pleural effusion was observed. Despite treatment, one-year mortality was 47.3%. Conclusions: The predominant HRCT pattern was ground-glass attenuation with consolidation, followed by cavitation and centrilobular nodules with a tree-in-bud pattern. These findings are similar to those reported for immunocompetent patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and considerably different from those reported for AIDS patients with the same disease. (author)

  5. High-resolution computed tomography findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in lung transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, Irai Luis; Schuhmacher Neto, Roberto; Nin, Carlos Schuller; Cassano, Priscilla de Souza; Pereira, Marisa; Moreira, José da Silva; Nascimento, Douglas Zaione; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory infections constitute a major cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. The incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis is high among such patients. On imaging, tuberculosis has various presentations. Greater understanding of those presentations could reduce the impact of the disease by facilitating early diagnosis. Therefore, we attempted to describe the HRCT patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis in lung transplant recipients. From two hospitals in southern Brazil, we collected the following data on lung transplant recipients who developed pulmonary tuberculosis: gender; age; symptoms; the lung disease that led to transplantation; HRCT pattern; distribution of findings; time from transplantation to pulmonary tuberculosis; and mortality rate. The HRCT findings were classified as miliary nodules; cavitation and centrilobular nodules with a tree-in-bud pattern; ground-glass attenuation with consolidation; mediastinal lymph node enlargement; or pleural effusion. We evaluated 402 lung transplant recipients, 19 of whom developed pulmonary tuberculosis after transplantation. Among those 19 patients, the most common HRCT patterns were ground-glass attenuation with consolidation (in 42%); cavitation and centrilobular nodules with a tree-in-bud pattern (in 31.5%); and mediastinal lymph node enlargement (in 15.7%). Among the patients with cavitation and centrilobular nodules with a tree-in-bud pattern, the distribution was within the upper lobes in 66.6%. No pleural effusion was observed. Despite treatment, one-year mortality was 47.3%. The predominant HRCT pattern was ground-glass attenuation with consolidation, followed by cavitation and centrilobular nodules with a tree-in-bud pattern. These findings are similar to those reported for immunocompetent patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and considerably different from those reported for AIDS patients with the same disease.

  6. HRCT of the lung in collagen vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederich, S.; Roos, N.; Schmitz-Linneweber, B.; Gaubitz, M.; Peters, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    Collagen vascular diseases, representing systemic soft tissue disorders, may cause a broad spectrum of pathologic changes of the respiratory tract. The type and extent of manifestations can vary considerably among individuals and entities. This survey describes the chest radiographic and, in particular, high-resolution computed tomographic and, in particular, high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings of individual lesions of the respiratory tract. It includes fibrosing alveolitis (alveolitis, interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis) and bronchial (bronchitis/bronchiolitis, bronchiectasis), pleural and vascular manifestations, as well as lymphadenopathy and abnormalities related to therapy. We present typical patterns of changes in progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS, scleroderma), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD, Sharp syndrome), Sjoegren syndrome, overlap syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Furthermore, we describe findings which are specific for individual entities such as esophageal involvement in PSS, acute pneumonitis and pulmonary hemorrhage in SLE, lymphoproliferative disease in Sjoegren syndrome and necrobiotic nodules in RA. (orig.) [de

  7. Pulmonary artery sarcoma with angiosarcoma phenotype mimicking pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Primary sarcomas of the major blood vessels can be classified based on location in relationship to the wall or by histologic type. Angiosarcomas are malignant neoplasms that arise from the endothelial lining of the blood vessels; those arising in the intimal compartment of pulmonary artery are rare. We report a case of pulmonary artery angiosarcoma in a 36-year old female with pulmonary masses. The patient had no other primary malignant neoplasm, thus excluding a metastatic lesion. Gross examination revealed a thickened right pulmonary artery and a necrotic and hemorrhagic tumor, filling and occluding the vascular lumen. The mass extended distally, within the pulmonary vasculature of the right lung. Microscopically, an intravascular undifferentiated tumor was identified. The tumor cells showed expression for vascular markers VEGFR, VEGFR3, PDGFRa, FGF, Ulex europaeus, FVIII, FLI-1, CD31 and CD34; p53 was overexpressed and Ki67 proliferative rate was increased. Intravascular angiosarcomas are aggressive neoplasms, often associated with poor outcome. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2315906377648045. PMID:23134683

  8. Saudi Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension: Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart disease (CHD with intracardiac/extracardiac shunts is an important etiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. The majority of children with congenital cardiac shunts do not develop advanced pulmonary vasculopathy, as surgical repair of the anomalies is now performed early in life. However, if not repaired early, some defects will inevitably lead to pulmonary vascular disease (truncus arteriosus, transposition of the great arteries associated with a ventricular septal defect (VSD, atrioventricular septal defects remarkably in Down syndrome, large, nonrestrictive VSDs, patent ductus arteriosus and related anomalies. The majority of patients are now assigned to surgery based on noninvasive evaluation only. PAH becomes a concern (requiring advanced diagnostic procedures in about 2-10% of them. In adults with CHD, the prevalence of advanced pulmonary vasculopathy (Eisenmenger syndrome is around 4-12%. [1] This article will discuss the diagnostic and management approach for PAH associated with CHD (PAH-CHD.

  9. Hemodynamic Characteristics Including Pulmonary Hypertension at Rest and During Exercise Before and After Heart Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Jakob; Rådegran, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the hemodynamic response to exercise in heart failure patients at various ages before and after heart transplantation (HT). This information is important because postoperative hemodynamics may be a predictor of survival. To investigate the hemodynamic response to HT and exercise, we grouped our patients based on preoperative age and examined their hemodynamics at rest and during exercise before and after HT. Methods and Results Ninety-four patients were evaluated at rest prior to HT with right heart catheterization at our laboratory. Of these patients, 32 were evaluated during slight supine exercise before and 1 year after HT. Postoperative evaluations were performed at rest 1 week after HT and at rest and during exercise at 4 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after HT. The exercise patients were divided into 2 groups based on preoperative age of ≤50 or >50 years. There were no age-dependent differences in the preoperative hemodynamic exercise responses. Hemodynamics markedly improved at rest and during exercise at 1 and 4 weeks, respectively, after HT; however, pulmonary and, in particular, ventricular filling pressures remained high during exercise at 1 year after HT, resulting in normalized pulmonary vascular resistance response but deranged total pulmonary vascular resistance response. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, (1) in patients with heart failure age ≤50 or >50 years may not affect the hemodynamic response to exercise to the same extent as in healthy persons, and (2) total pulmonary vascular resistance may be more adequate than pulmonary vascular resistance for evaluating the exercise response after HT. PMID:26199230

  10. Assessment of pulmonary emphysema on CT teleradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Katashi; Kato, Koji; Mitani, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    The present study assessed the current wave of using CT for the diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema using teleradiology. Thirty patients were examined. CT images were transmitted by Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) to an image viewer and displayed in 4-image and 1-image arrays for reading. Pulmonary emphysema was found in 7 of the 30 patients. On both displays, the same diagnosis was obtained in 5 cases. In the remaining 2 cases, the low attenuation areas (LAAs) of mild centrilobular emphysema could be recognized only on the 1-image display. The diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema can be made by CT examination using teleradiology even in cases with mild lesions. (author)

  11. Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele D'Alto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a common complication of congenital heart disease (CHD, with most cases occurring in patients with congenital cardiac shunts. In patients with an uncorrected left-to-right shunt, increased pulmonary pressure leads to vascular remodelling and dysfunction, resulting in a progressive rise in pulmonary vascular resistance and increased pressures in the right heart. Eventually, reversal of the shunt may arise, with the development of Eisenmenger's syndrome, the most advanced form of PAH-CHD. The prevalence of PAH-CHD has fallen in developed countries over recent years and the number of patients surviving into adulthood has increased markedly. Today, the majority of PAH-CHD patients seen in clinical practice are adults, and many of these individuals have complex disease or received a late diagnosis of their defect. While there have been advances in the management and therapy in recent years, PAH-CHD is a heterogeneous condition and some subgroups, such as those with Down's syndrome, present particular challenges. This article gives an overview of the demographics, pathophysiology and treatment of PAH-CHD and focuses on individuals with Down's syndrome as an important and challenging patient group.

  12. Echocardiographic and Hemodynamic Predictors of Survival in Precapillary Pulmonary Hypertension: Seven-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapsa, Julia; Pereira Nunes, Maria Carmo; Tan, Timothy C; Cabrita, Ines Zimbarra; Coulter, Taryn; Smith, Benjamin C F; Dawson, David; Gibbs, J Simon R; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we looked at the prognostic value of echocardiographic and hemodynamic measures in a large cohort of patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension before and after initiation of treatment. Data were collected prospectively in a cohort of consecutive patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension referred between 2002 and 2011. A range of clinical and echocardiographic variables were collected and stored on a database to assess predictors of survival. Invasive hemodynamic data including pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, capillary wedge pressure, and cardiac index were also obtained at baseline in all patients. Outcome was defined as mortality because of cardiovascular-related death. The study cohort comprised 777 patients (514 women) with precapillary pulmonary hypertension. A total of 195 (25%) died. In multivariable analysis, moderate or severe tricuspid regurgitation (hazard ratio [HR], 26.537; 95% confidence interval, 11.536-61.044; P<0.001), right ventricular myocardial performance index (HR, 3.421; 95% confidence interval, 1.777-6.584; P<0.001), and the presence of pericardial effusion (HR, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.023-1.862; P=0.035) were independent predictors