Saranathan, Manojkumar; Worters, Pauline W; Rettmann, Dan W; Winegar, Blair; Becker, Jennifer
2017-12-01
A pedagogical review of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and double inversion recovery (DIR) imaging is conducted in this article. The basics of the two pulse sequences are first described, including the details of the inversion preparation and imaging sequences with accompanying mathematical formulae for choosing the inversion time in a variety of scenarios for use on clinical MRI scanners. Magnetization preparation (or T2prep), a strategy for improving image signal-to-noise ratio and contrast and reducing T1 weighting at high field strengths, is also described. Lastly, image artifacts commonly associated with FLAIR and DIR are described with clinical examples, to help avoid misdiagnosis. 5 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1590-1600. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
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Wan, Chih-Cheng; Chen, David Yen-Ting; Tseng, Ying-Chi; Lee, Kun-Yu; Chiang, Chen-Hua; Chen, Chi-Jen [Taipei Medical University, Department of Radiology, Shuang-Ho Hospital, New Taipei City (China); Taipei Medical University, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei (China); Yan, Feng-Xian [Taipei Medical University, Department of Radiology, Shuang-Ho Hospital, New Taipei City (China)
2017-08-15
No reliable imaging sign predicting cerebral hyperperfusion after intracranial arterial stenting (IAS) had been described in the literature. This study evaluated the effect of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery vascular hyperintensities (FVHs), also called hyperintense vessel sign on T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (T2-FLAIR) MR images, in predicting significant increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) defined by arterial spin labeling (ASL) after IAS. We reviewed ASL CBF images and T2-FLAIR MR images before (D0), 1 day after (D1), and 3 days after (D3) IAS of 16 patients. T1-weighted MR images were used as cerebral maps for calculating CBF. The changes in CBF values after IAS were calculated in and compared among stenting and nonstenting vascular territories. An increase more than 50% of CBF was considered as hyperperfusion. The effect of FVHs in predicting hyperperfusion was calculated. The D1 CBF value was significantly higher than the D0 CBF value in stenting vascular, contralateral anterior cerebral artery, contralateral middle cerebral artery, and contralateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territories (all P <.05). The D1 and D3 CBF values were significantly higher than the D0 CBF value in overall vascular (P <.001), overall nonstenting vascular (P <.001), and ipsilateral PCA (P <.05) territories. The rate of more than 50% increases in CBF was significantly higher in patients who exhibited asymmetric FVHs than in those who did not exhibit these findings. FVHs could be a critical predictor of a significant increase in CBF after IAS. (orig.)
MR fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging as routine brain T2-weighted imaging
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Arakia, Yutaka; Ashikaga, Ryuichiro; Fujii, Koichi; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Ueda, Jun; Fujita, Norihiko
1999-11-01
We tried to investigate if magnetic resonance (MR) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging can be used as a routine brain screening examination instead of spin-echo T2-weighted imaging. Three hundred and ninety-four patients with clinically suspected brain diseases were randomly selected and examined with both brain MR FLAIR and T2-weighted imaging on the axial plane. These two imaging techniques were evaluated by two neuroradiologists as to which imaging was better for routine brain T2-weighted imaging. In 123 of 394 cases (31%), FLAIR imaging was superior to spin-echo T2-weighted imaging. Especially in cases with inflammatory diseases, traumatic diseases and demyelinating diseases, FLAIR imaging was particularly useful. Small lesions bordering cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are often detected only by FLAIR imaging. In 259 cases (66%), including 147 normal cases (37%), they were equally evaluated. Only in 12 cases (3%) was conventional T2-weighted imaging superior to FLAIR imaging. Cerebrovascular lesions like cerebral aneurysm and Moyamoya disease could not be detected on FLAIR images because these structures were obscured by a low signal from the CSF. Also, because old infarctions tend to appear as low signal intensity on FLAIR images, the condition was sometimes hard to detect. Finally, FLAIR imaging could be used as routine brain T2-weighted imaging instead of conventional spin-echo T2-weighted imaging if these vascular lesions were watched.
Seo, Kwon-Duk; Suh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Yong Bae; Kim, Ji Hwa; Ahn, Sung Jun; Kim, Dong-Seok; Lee, Kyung-Yul
2015-01-01
Purpose Leptomeningeal collateral, in moyamoya disease (MMD), appears as an ivy sign on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images. There has been little investigation into the relationship between presentation of ivy signs and old brain lesions. We aimed to evaluate clinical significance of ivy signs and whether they correlate with old brain lesions and the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with MMD. Materials and Methods FLAIR images of 83 patients were reviewed. Each cerebr...
Campbell, Bruce C V; Costello, Craig; Christensen, Søren; Ebinger, Martin; Parsons, Mark W; Desmond, Patricia M; Barber, P Alan; Butcher, Kenneth S; Levi, Christopher R; De Silva, Deidre A; Lansberg, Maarten G; Mlynash, Michael; Olivot, Jean-Marc; Straka, Matus; Bammer, Roland; Albers, Gregory W; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Davis, Stephen M
2011-01-01
Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensity within an acute cerebral infarct may reflect delayed onset time and increased risk of hemorrhage after thrombolysis. Given the important implications for clinical practice, we examined the prevalence of FLAIR hyperintensity in patients 3-6 h from stroke onset and its relationship to parenchymal hematoma (PH). Baseline DWI and FLAIR imaging with subsequent hemorrhage detection (ECASS criteria) were prospectively obtained in patients 3-6 h after stroke onset from the pooled EPITHET and DEFUSE trials. FLAIR hyperintensity within the region of the acute DWI lesion was rated qualitatively (dichotomized as visually obvious or subtle (i.e. only visible after careful windowing)) and quantitatively (using relative signal intensity (RSI)). The association of FLAIR hyperintensity with hemorrhage was then tested alongside established predictors (very low cerebral blood volume (VLCBV) and diffusion (DWI) lesion volume) in logistic regression analysis. There were 49 patients with pre-treatment FLAIR imaging (38 received tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), 5 developed PH). FLAIR hyperintensity within the region of acute DWI lesion occurred in 48/49 (98%) patients, was obvious in 18/49 (37%) and subtle in 30/49 (61%). Inter-rater agreement was 92% (κ = 0.82). The prevalence of obvious FLAIR hyperintensity did not differ between studies obtained in the 3-4.5 h and 4.5-6 h time periods (40% vs. 33%, p = 0.77). PH was poorly predicted by obvious FLAIR hyperintensity (sensitivity 40%, specificity 64%, positive predictive value 11%). In univariate logistic regression, VLCBV (p = 0.02) and DWI lesion volume (p = 0.03) predicted PH but FLAIR lesion volume (p = 0.87) and RSI (p = 0.11) did not. In ordinal logistic regression for hemorrhage grade adjusted for age and baseline stroke severity (NIHSS), increased VLCBV (p = 0.002) and DWI lesion volume (p = 0.003) were associated with hemorrhage but FLAIR lesion volume (p = 0.66) and
Kuroda, Migiwa; Otonari-Yamamoto, Mika; Sano, Tsukasa; Fujikura, Mamiko; Wakoh, Mamoru
2015-10-01
The purpose of the present study is to analyze the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal intensity of the retrodiscal tissue in a painful temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and to develop a diagnostic system based on FLAIR data. The study was based on 33 joints of 17 patients referred for MR imaging of the TMJ. Regions of interest were placed over retrodiscal tissue and gray matter (GM) on FLAIR images. Using signal intensities of GM as reference points, signal intensity ratios (SIR) of retrodiscal tissue were calculated. SIRs in painful TMJ were compared with those in painless TMJ. Wilcoxon's Rank Sum Test was used to analyze the difference in SIRs between the painful and painless groups (Ppainful joints than in painless joints. FLAIR sequences provide a high signal in patients having painful TMJ, and it suggests that retrodiscal tissue in painful TMJ contains elements such as protein.
Lee, Hyukjoon; Kim, Eunhee; Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Bae, Yun Jung; Choi, Byoung Se; Jung, Cheolkyu
2015-01-01
Hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) without diffusion abnormalities is occasionally found in patients with an acute stroke. This study was to determine the prevalence and clinical implications of HARM without diffusion abnormalities. There was a retrospective review of magnetic resonance images 578 patients with acute strokes and identified those who did not have acute infarction lesions, as mapped by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). These patients were classified into an imaging-negative stroke and HARM without diffusion abnormalities groups, based on the DWI findings and postcontrast fluid attenuated inversion recovery images. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at admission, 1 day, and 7 days after the event, as well as clinical data and risk factors, were compared between the imaging-negative stroke and HARM without diffusion abnormalities groups. Seventy-seven acute stroke patients without any DWI abnormalities were found. There were 63 patients with an imaging-negative stroke (accounting for 10.9% of 578) and 13 patients with HARM without diffusion abnormalities (accounting for 2.4% of 578). The NIHSS scores at admission were higher in HARM without diffusion abnormalities group than in the imaging-negative stroke group (median, 4.5 vs. 1.0; p imaging-negative stroke (mean, 73.1 years vs. 55.9 years; p imaging-negative stroke.
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Yoo, Byung Il; Han, Ji Won; Oh, San Yeo Wool; Kim, Tae Hui [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Eun Young [Kyungbook National University Chilgok Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Buk-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); MacFall, James R. [Duke University Medical Center, Neuropsychiatric Imaging Research Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Payne, Martha E. [Duke University Medical Center, Neuropsychiatric Imaging Research Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Durham, NC (United States); Kim, Jae Hyoung [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Woong [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Natural Sciences, Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-04-15
White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are regions of abnormally high intensity on T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Accurate and reproducible automatic segmentation of WMHs is important since WMHs are often seen in the elderly and are associated with various geriatric and psychiatric disorders. We developed a fully automated monospectral segmentation method for WMHs using FLAIR MRIs. Through this method, we introduce an optimal threshold intensity (I{sub O}) for segmenting WMHs, which varies with WMHs volume (V{sub WMH}), and we establish the I{sub O} -V{sub WMH} relationship. Our method showed accurate validations in volumetric and spatial agreements of automatically segmented WMHs compared with manually segmented WMHs for 32 confirmatory images. Bland-Altman values of volumetric agreement were 0.96 ± 8.311 ml (bias and 95 % confidence interval), and the similarity index of spatial agreement was 0.762 ± 0.127 (mean ± standard deviation). Furthermore, similar validation accuracies were obtained in the images acquired from different scanners. The proposed segmentation method uses only FLAIR MRIs, has the potential to be accurate with images obtained from different scanners, and can be implemented with a fully automated procedure. In our study, validation results were obtained with FLAIR MRIs from only two scanner types. The design of the method may allow its use in large multicenter studies with correct efficiency. (orig.)
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Kwag, Eujean; Lim, Soo Mee; Park, Ji Eun; Chae, In Hye [Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Mokdong Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-09-15
To evaluate the utility of BLADE fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging compared to conventional FLAIR for the detection of arterial hyperintensity (AH) in hyperacute territorial infarction. We retrospectively analysed MR images of patients with hyperacute (<6 h) territorial infarction over a 9-month study period. Special attention was paid to the presence or absence of AH in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes and the number of AHs in the sylvian fissure. We also evaluated the presence of three kinds of artefacts on BLADE FLAIR and conventional FLAIR images. AH was seen in 41 (91 %) patients with conventional FLAIR and 45 (100 %) patients with BLADE FLAIR images. More instances of AH were detected in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes and within the sylvian fissure using BLADE FLAIR. Motion artefacts, pulsation artefacts from the sigmoid sinus and incomplete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) nulling that reduced image quality were observed more frequently on conventional FLAIR images than on BLADE FLAIR images. BLADE FLAIR sequences are more sensitive than conventional FLAIR for the detection of AH in hyperacute territorial infarctions and provide better image quality by reducing artefacts. They may be used in place of conventional FLAIR for patients with hyperacute stroke. (orig.)
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Hwang, Asiry; Seo, Jeong-Jin; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Chung, Tae Woong; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Kook, Hoon; Woo, Young Jong; Hwang, Tai Joo [Chonnam Univ. Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
1999-03-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of FLAIR(Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery) MR imaging in childhood adrenoleukodystrophy by comparing with those of T2-weighted FSE imaging, and to correlate MRI findings with clinical manifestations. Axial FLAIR images(TR/TE/TI=10004/123/2200) and T2-weighted FSE images(TR/TE=4000/104) of brain in six male patients(age range : 6-17 years, mean age : 10.2 years) with biochemically confirmed adrenoleukodystrophy were compared visually by two radiologists for detection, conspicuity, and the extent of lesion. Quantitatively, we compared lesion/CSF contrast, lesion/CSF contrast to noise ratio(CNR), lesion/white matter(WM) contrast, and lesion/WM CNR between FLAIR and T2 weighted image. We correlated MR findings with clinical manifestations of neurologic symptoms and evaluated whether MRI could detect white matter lesions in neurologically asymptomatic patients. Visual detection of lesions was better with FLAIR images in 2 of the 6 cases and it was equal in the remainders. Visual conspicuity and detection of the extent of lesion were superior on FLAIR images than T2-weighted images in all 6 cases. In the quantitative assessment of lesions, FLAIR was superior to T2-weighted image for lesion/CSF contrast and lesion/CSF CNR, but was inferior to T2 weighted image for lesion/WM contrast and lesion/WM CNR. In one case, FLAIR images distinguished the portion of encephalomalacic change from lesions. MR findings of adrenoleukodystrophy were correlated with clinical manifestations in symptomatic 4 cases, and also detected white matter lesions in asymptomatic 2 cases. MR imaging with FLAIR sequence provided images that were equal or superior to T2-weighted images in the evaluation of childhood adrenoleukodystrophy. MRI findings were well correlated with clinical manifestations and could detect white matter lesions in neurologically asymptomatic adrenoleukodystrophy patients.
Seo, Kwon-Duk; Suh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Yong Bae; Kim, Ji Hwa; Ahn, Sung Jun; Kim, Dong-Seok; Lee, Kyung-Yul
2015-09-01
Leptomeningeal collateral, in moyamoya disease (MMD), appears as an ivy sign on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images. There has been little investigation into the relationship between presentation of ivy signs and old brain lesions. We aimed to evaluate clinical significance of ivy signs and whether they correlate with old brain lesions and the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with MMD. FLAIR images of 83 patients were reviewed. Each cerebral hemisphere was divided into 4 regions and each region was scored based on the prominence of the ivy sign. Total ivy score (TIS) was defined as the sum of the scores from the eight regions and dominant hemispheric ivy sign (DHI) was determined by comparing the ivy scores from each hemisphere. According to the degree of ischemic symptoms, patients were classified into four subgroups: 1) nonspecific symptoms without motor weakness, 2) single transient ischemic attack (TIA), 3) recurrent TIA, or 4) complete stroke. TIS was significantly different as follows: 4.86±2.55 in patients with nonspecific symptoms, 5.89±3.10 in patients with single TIA, 9.60±3.98 in patients with recurrent TIA and 8.37±3.39 in patients with complete stroke (p=0.003). TIS associated with old lesions was significantly higher than those not associated with old lesions (9.35±4.22 vs. 7.49±3.37, p=0.032). We found a significant correlation between DHI and motor symptoms (p=0.001). Because TIS has a strong tendency with severity of ischemic motor symptom and the presence of old lesions, the ivy sign may be useful in predicting severity of disease progression.
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Fujiwara, Hirokazu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 1608582 (Japan)]. E-mail: hirokazu_fujiwara@ybb.ne.jp; Momoshima, Suketaka [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 1608582 (Japan); Kuribayashi, Sachio [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 1608582 (Japan)
2005-08-01
Purpose: There are a few reports on leptomeningeal high signal intensity (LMHI: ivy sign) on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images in moyamoya disease, but the feature of this finding has not been completely understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize LMHI on FLAIR images in moyamoya disease and to assess usefulness of this finding in the diagnosis of moyamoya disease in conventional MR imaging. Material and methods: MR imaging of 28 patients with moyamoya disease was retrospectively reviewed. The grade of LMHI on FLAIR images was classified as 'absent,' 'minimal,' 'moderate' and 'marked.' Fifty-four hemispheres of 28 patients (2 patients had unilateral disease) were assessed for the frequency of visualization and distribution of LMHI. The correlations between LMHI on FLAIR images, moyamoya vessels on T1- and T2-weighted images and MR angiography findings were also analyzed. Results: Moderate and marked LMHI was seen in 31 out of 54 hemispheres (57%). LMHI was seen more prominently in the frontal and parietal lobes than in the temporal and occipital lobes. Although there was a tendency for LMHI on FLAIR images to be prominent in groups with moderate and marked moyamoya vessels on T1- and T2-weighted images, there was no significant correlation. More prominent LMHI was observed in the hemispheres in which cortical branches of the middle cerebral arteries were poorly visualized on MR angiography. Conclusion: Leptomeningeal high signal intensity (ivy sign) on FLAIR images is predominantly seen in the frontal and parietal lobes. Because this sign can be seen in patients with unremarkable moyamoya vessels, LMHI is a useful sign in conventional MR imaging for the diagnosis of moyamoya disease.
Machida, Toshio; Nakano, Shigeki; Ishige, Satoshi; Ono, Junichi; Fujikawa, Atsushi
2017-02-01
Although uncommon, subcortical low-intensity (SCLI) changes on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images are observed in various diseases, including cerebral ischemia. Here, we aimed to clarify the incidence and clinical implications of SCLI changes after revascularization surgery for moyamoya disease, focusing on the correlation with postoperative transient neurologic events (TNEs). In this retrospective case series analysis, we included 10 hemispheres from 9 adults with moyamoya disease who underwent revascularization surgery. Subcortical signal intensity at the 5 gyri around the anastomosis point was quantitatively measured at 1 week and 3 months postoperatively. Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were assessed using single-photon emission computed tomography. Images taken 1 week after surgery showed widespread SCLI changes below the operative fields in all 10 cases, but these changes normalized by 3 months. In addition, the changes in signal intensity at anastomoses negatively correlated with the changes in CBF (R(2) = 0.36; P = 0.039). Postoperative TNEs occurred in 6 cases (60%) but were resolved within 17 days after surgery. Postoperative CBF increased in 9 of the 10 cases, with a median of 23%; however, these increases were not associated with the development of TNEs. The SCLI changes at the anastomosis points did not differ by the experience of TNEs. Early after surgery, SCLI changes are common findings below the operative fields but negatively correlate with increases in CBF. Although no significant association was found between TNEs and the SCLI changes, the synchronized development of these phenomena may suggest a common underlying pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Lee, Hyuk Joon; Kim, Eun Hee; Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Bae, Yun Jung; Choi, Byoung Se; Jung, Cheol Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)
2015-08-15
Hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) without diffusion abnormalities is occasionally found in patients with an acute stroke. This study was to determine the prevalence and clinical implications of HARM without diffusion abnormalities. There was a retrospective review of magnetic resonance images 578 patients with acute strokes and identified those who did not have acute infarction lesions, as mapped by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). These patients were classified into an imaging-negative stroke and HARM without diffusion abnormalities groups, based on the DWI findings and postcontrast fluid attenuated inversion recovery images. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at admission, 1 day, and 7 days after the event, as well as clinical data and risk factors, were compared between the imaging-negative stroke and HARM without diffusion abnormalities groups. Seventy-seven acute stroke patients without any DWI abnormalities were found. There were 63 patients with an imaging-negative stroke (accounting for 10.9% of 578) and 13 patients with HARM without diffusion abnormalities (accounting for 2.4% of 578). The NIHSS scores at admission were higher in HARM without diffusion abnormalities group than in the imaging-negative stroke group (median, 4.5 vs. 1.0; p < 0.001), but the scores at 7 days after the event were not significantly different between the two groups (median, 0 vs. 0; p = 1). The patients with HARM without diffusion abnormalities were significantly older, compared with patients with an imaging-negative stroke (mean, 73.1 years vs. 55.9 years; p < 0.001). Patients with HARM without diffusion abnormalities are older and have similarly favorable short-term neurological outcomes, compared with the patients with imaging-negative stroke.
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Thomalla, Götz; Boutitie, Florent; Fiebach, Jochen B.
2018-01-01
Background Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) mismatch was suggested to identify stroke patients with unknown time of symptom onset likely to be within the time window for thrombolysis. Aims We aimed to study clinical characteristics associated with DWI......-FLAIR mismatch in patients with unknown onset stroke. Methods We analyzed baseline MRI and clinical data from patients with acute ischemic stroke proven by DWI from WAKE-UP, an investigator-initiated, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of MRI-based thrombolysis in stroke patients with unknown time of symptom...... symptom onset stroke patients with and without DWI-FLAIR mismatch. DWI-FLAIR mismatch as an indicator of stroke onset within 4.5 h shows no relevant association with commonly collected clinical characteristics of stroke patients. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique...
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Donmez, F.Y.; Aslan, H.; Coskun, M. (Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent Univ., Ankara (Turkey))
2009-04-15
Background: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) may be a rapidly progressive disease with different clinical outcomes. Purpose: To investigate the radiological findings of fulminant ADEM on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, and to correlate these findings with clinical outcome. Material and Methods: Initial and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in eight patients were retrospectively evaluated for distribution of lesions on FLAIR images and presence of hemorrhage or contrast enhancement. DWI of the patients was evaluated as to cytotoxic versus vasogenic edema. The clinical records were analyzed, and MRI results and clinical outcome were correlated. Results: Four of the eight patients died, three had full recovery, and one had residual cortical blindness. The distribution of the hyperintense lesions on FLAIR sequence was as follows: frontal (37.5%), parietal (50%), temporal (37.5%), occipital (62.5%), basal ganglia (50%), pons (37.5%), mesencephalon (37.5%), and cerebellum (50%). Three of the patients who died had brainstem involvement. Two patients had a cytotoxic edema, one of whom died, and the other developed cortical blindness. Six patients had vasogenic edema: three of these patients had a rapid progression to coma and died; three of them recovered. Conclusion: DWI is not always helpful for evaluating the evolution or predicting the outcome of ADEM. However, extension of the lesions, particularly brainstem involvement, may have an influence on the prognosis.
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Azad, Rajiv; Tayal, Mohit; Azad, Sheenam; Sharma, Garima; Srivastava, Rajendra Kumar [SGRR Institute of Medical and Health Sciences, Patel Nagar, Dehradun (India)
2017-11-15
To compare the contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (CE-FLAIR), the CE T1-weighted (CE-T1W) sequence with fat suppression (FS) and magnetization transfer (MT) for early detection and characterization of infectious meningitis. Fifty patients and 10 control subjects were evaluated with the CE-FLAIR and the CE-T1W sequences with FS and MT. Qualitative assessment was done by two observers for presence and grading of abnormal leptomeningeal enhancement. Quantitative assessment included computation of net meningeal enhancement, using single pixel signal intensity software. A newly devised FLAIR based scoring system, based on certain imaging features including ventricular dilatation, ependymal enhancement, infarcts and subdural effusions was used to indicate the etiology. Data were analysed using the Student's t test, Cohen's Kappa coefficient, Pearson's correlation coefficient, the intraclass correlation coefficient, one way analysis of variance, and Fisher's exact test with Bonferroni correction as the post hoc test. The CE-FLAIR sequence demonstrated a better sensitivity (100%), diagnostic accuracy (95%), and a stronger correlation with the cerebrospinal fluid, total leukocyte count (r = 0.75), protein (r = 0.77), adenosine deaminase (r = 0.81) and blood glucose (r = -0.6) values compared to the CE-T1W sequences. Qualitative grades and quantitative meningeal enhancement on the CE-FLAIR sequence were also significantly greater than those on the other sequences. The FLAIR based scoring system yielded a diagnostic accuracy of 91.6% and a sensitivity of 96%. A strong inverse Pearson's correlation (r = -0.95) was found between the assigned score and patient's Glasgow Coma Scale at the time of admission. The CE-FLAIR sequence is better suited for evaluating infectious meningitis and could be included as a part of the routine MR imaging protocol.
Ogami, Ryo; Nakahara, Toshinori; Hamasaki, Osamu; Araki, Hayato; Kurisu, Kaoru
2011-10-01
A rare complication of carotid artery stenting (CAS), prolonged reversible neurological symptoms with delayed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space enhancement on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, is associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. We prospectively identified patients who showed CSF space enhancement on FLAIR images. Nineteen patients-5 acute-phase and 14 scheduled-underwent 21 CAS procedures. Balloon catheters were navigated across stenoses, angioplasty was performed using a neuroprotective balloon, and stents were placed with after dilation under distal balloon protection. CSF space hyperintensity or obscuration on FLAIR after versus before CAS indicated CSF space enhancement. Correlations with clinical factors were examined. CSF space was enhanced on FLAIR in 12 (57.1%) cases. Postprocedural CSF space enhancement was significantly related to age, stenosis rate, acute-stage procedure, and total occlusion time. All acute-stage CAS patients showed delayed enhancement. Only age was associated with delayed CSF space enhancement in scheduled CAS patients. Ischemic intolerance for severe carotid artery stenosis and temporary neuroprotective balloon occlusion, causing reperfusion injury, seem to be the main factors that underlie BBB disruption with delayed CSF space enhancement shortly after CAS, rather than sudden poststenting hemodynamic change. Our results suggest that factors related to hemodynamic instability or ischemic intolerance seem to be associated with post-CAS BBB vulnerability. Patients at risk for hemodynamic instability or with ischemic intolerance, which decrease BBB integrity, require careful management to prevent intracranial hemorrhagic and other post-CAS complications.
Luby, Marie; Bykowski, Julie L; Schellinger, Peter D; Merino, José G; Warach, Steven
2006-12-01
We investigated the intra- and interrater reliability of ischemic lesion volumes measurements assessed by different MRI sequences at various times from onset. Ischemic lesion volumes were measured for intrarater reliability using diffusion-weighted (DWI), mean transit time (MTT) perfusion and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI at chronic (>3 days from stroke onset) time points. A single intrarater reader, blind to clinical information and time point, repeated the volume measurements on two occasions separated by at least 1 week. Interrater reliability was also obtained in the second set of patients using acute DWI, MTT and chronic FLAIR MRI. Four blinded readers performed these volume measurements. Average deviations across repeat measurements per lesion and differences between sample means between the two measurements were calculated globally, ie, across all sequences and time points, and per reader type for each sequence at each time point. There was good concordance of the mean sample volumes of the 2 intrarater readings (deviations were <4% and 2 mL globally, <2% and 2 mL for DWI, <6% and 7 mL for MTT, and <2% and 1 mL for FLAIR). There was also good concordance of the interrater readings (<5% and 2 mL globally). Repeat measurements of stroke lesion volumes show excellent intra- and interrater concordance for DWI, MTT and FLAIR at acute through chronic time points.
Tanioka, Satoru; Shiba, Masato; Umeda, Yasuyuki; Sano, Takanori; Maeda, Masayuki; Suzuki, Hidenori
2016-04-01
Moyamoya disease often is treated by revascularization surgery. In this report, we are the first to describe a case of moyamoya disease that repeatedly showed a transient subcortical low intensity (SCLI) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance images postoperatively. A 59-year-old woman presenting with repeated transient ischemia underwent right superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery anastomosis with encephalo-duro-myo-synangiosis. After the operation, the patient had a transient neurologic deterioration. Findings on magnetic resonance imaging were not particular apart from SCLI and sulcal hyperintensity on FLAIR images, but no abnormalities in cerebral blood flow on single-photon emission computed tomography with N-isopropyl [123I]-p-iodoamphetamine and no abnormalities on electroencephalogram were found. Symptoms improved in a few days, and SCLI on FLAIR images disappeared in a few months. Thereafter, when the left-sided bypass surgery was performed, similar findings occurred in the left cerebral hemisphere. The mechanisms of transient SCLI on FLAIR images remain unclear, but this finding appears to be associated with a postoperative transient neurologic deterioration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Simon J Schreiner
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Background: Accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ may occur during healthy aging and is a risk factor for Alzheimer Disease (AD. While individual Aβ-accumulation can be measured non-invasively using Pittsburgh compound-B positron-emission-tomography (PiB-PET, Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR is a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI sequence, capable of indicating heterogeneous age-related brain pathologies associated with tissue-edema. In the current study cognitively normal elderly subjects were investigated for regional correlation of PiB- and FLAIR- intensity. Methods: 14 healthy elderly subjects without known history of cognitive impairment received 11C-PiB-PET for estimation of regional Aβ-load. In addition, whole brain T1-MPRAGE and FLAIR-MRI sequences were acquired at high field strength of 7 Tesla (7T. Volume-normalized intensities of brain regions were assessed by applying an automated subcortical segmentation algorithm for spatial definition of brain structures. Statistical dependence between FLAIR- and PiB-PET intensities was tested using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho, followed by Holm-Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Results: Neuropsychological testing revealed normal cognitive performance levels in all participants. Mean regional PiB-PET and FLAIR intensities were normally distributed and independent. Significant correlation between volume-normalized PiB-PET signals and FLAIR intensities resulted for Hippocampus (right:rho=0.86; left:rho=0.84, Brainstem (rho=0.85 and left Basal Ganglia vessel region (rho=0.82. Conclusions: Our finding of a significant relationship between PiB- and FLAIR-intensity mainly observable in the Hippocampus and Brainstem, indicates regional Aβ associated tissue-edema in cognitively normal elderly subjects. Further studies including clinical populations are necessary to clarify the relevance of our findings for estimating individual risk for age-related neurodegenerative
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Liao, Wen-Huei [School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan (China); Department of Otolaryngology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan (China); Wu, Hsiu-Mei [School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan (China); Wu, Hung-Yi [Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan (China); Tu, Tzong-Yang; Shiao, An-Suey [School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan (China); Department of Otolaryngology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan (China); Castillo, Mauricio [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7510 (United States); Hung, Sheng-Che, E-mail: hsz829@gmail.com [School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan (China)
2016-12-15
Background and purpose: Three-dimensional fluid attenuation inversion recovery (3D FLAIR) may demonstrate high signal in the inner ears of patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL), but the correlations of this finding with outcomes are still controversial. Here we compared 4 3D MRI sequences with the outcomes of patients with ISSNHL. Materials and methods: 77 adult patients with ISSNHL underwent MRI with pre contrast FLAIR, fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition images (FIESTA-C), post contrast T1WI and post contrast FLAIR. The extent and degree of high signal in both cochleas were evaluated in all patients, and asymmetry ratios between the affected ears and the normal ones were calculated. The relationships among MRI findings, including extent and asymmetry of abnormal cochlear high signals, degree of FLAIR enhancement, and clinical information, including age, vestibular symptoms, baseline hearing loss, and final hearing outcomes were analyzed. Results: 54 patients (28 men; age, 52.1 ± 15.5 years) were included in our study. Asymmetric cochlear signal intensities were more frequently observed in pre contrast and post contrast FLAIR (79.6% and 68.5%) than in FIESTA-C (61.1%) and T1WI (51.9%) (p < 0.001). Age, baseline hearing loss, extent of high signal and asymmetry ratios of pre contrast and post contrast FLAIR were all correlated with final hearing outcomes. In multivariate analysis, age and the extent of high signals were the most significant predictors of final hearing outcomes. Conclusion: 3D FLAIR provides a higher sensitivity in detecting the asymmetric cochlear signal abnormality. The more asymmetric FLAIR signals and presence of high signals beyond cochlea indicated a poorer prognosis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juliana Avila Duarte
2016-08-01
Full Text Available A 61-year-old woman arrived at the emergency department of the Hospital Nossa Senhora das Graças, Canoas, southern Brazil, with suspected ischemic stroke. After clinical and laboratory examination, the clinical diagnosis of ischemic stroke was made, without fulfilling criteria for thrombolysis. The patient had no history of renal failure. Three days later, she performed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examination that confirmed the suspected diagnosis. This examination was performed without sedation or supplemental oxygen. Brain MRI was performed after gadolinium injection, using fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR imaging, T1-weighted image, diffusion-weighted imaging, and T2-weighted image sequences that revealed signs of subacute watershed stroke in the left cerebral hemisphere (Figures 1, 2 and 3. There was a hyperintense cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in the subarachnoid space (SAS on FLAIR imaging, a finding that has been reported in many pathologic conditions1 such as superior sagittal thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage², meningitis, meningeal carcinomatosis, next to tumors, status epilepticus and stroke.3-7 It has also been reported in otherwise healthy patients undergoing anesthesia with supplemental oxygen.8 The exact mechanism by which CSF diffuses into the SAS in patients with or without renal insufficiency is not completely explained. Some authores have suggested that in patients with renal failure, the gadolinium may shift across an osmotic gradient at the circumventricular organs in the setting of proctracted elevation of plasma concentrations.9 We believe that the cause of this imaging phenomenon of hyperintense signal of the CSF in the SAS which has already been noted in patients with compromised cerebral perfusion, including cases of acute ischemic stroke, was due to the recent stroke.10-11 Keywords: Flair hyperintensity, MRI, stroke, Gadolinium
Schreiner, Simon J.; Liu, Xinyang; Gietl, Anton F.; Wyss, Michael; Steininger, Stefanie C.; Gruber, Esmeralda; Treyer, Valerie; Meier, Irene B.; Kälin, Andrea M.; Leh, Sandra E.; Buck, Alfred; Nitsch, Roger M.; Pruessmann, Klaas P.; Hock, Christoph; Unschuld, Paul G.
2014-01-01
Background: Accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) may occur during healthy aging and is a risk factor for Alzheimer Disease (AD). While individual Aβ-accumulation can be measured non-invasively using Pittsburgh Compund-B positron emission tomography (PiB-PET), Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) is a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequence, capable of indicating heterogeneous age-related brain pathologies associated with tissue-edema. In the current study cognitively normal elderly subjects were investigated for regional correlation of PiB- and FLAIR intensity. Methods: Fourteen healthy elderly subjects without known history of cognitive impairment received 11C-PiB-PET for estimation of regional Aβ-load. In addition, whole brain T1-MPRAGE and FLAIR-MRI sequences were acquired at high field strength of 7 Tesla (7T). Volume-normalized intensities of brain regions were assessed by applying an automated subcortical segmentation algorithm for spatial definition of brain structures. Statistical dependence between FLAIR- and PiB-PET intensities was tested using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho), followed by Holm–Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Results: Neuropsychological testing revealed normal cognitive performance levels in all participants. Mean regional PiB-PET and FLAIR intensities were normally distributed and independent. Significant correlation between volume-normalized PiB-PET signals and FLAIR intensities resulted for Hippocampus (right: rho = 0.86; left: rho = 0.84), Brainstem (rho = 0.85) and left Basal Ganglia vessel region (rho = 0.82). Conclusions: Our finding of a significant relationship between PiB- and FLAIR intensity mainly observable in the Hippocampus and Brainstem, indicates regional Aβ associated tissue-edema in cognitively normal elderly subjects. Further studies including clinical populations are necessary to clarify the relevance of our findings for estimating individual risk for age-related neurodegenerative
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Heo, Young Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Inje University, Department of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Jung, Seung Chai [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Kyo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chong Sik; Chung, Sun J. [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, So Hyun [Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyoung Ro [Philips HealthCare Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-09-15
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an accepted treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, targeting the STN is difficult due to its relatively small size and variable location. The purpose of this study was to assess which of the following sequences obtained with the 3.0 T MR system can accurately delineate the STN: coronal 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), 2D T2*-weighted fast-field echo (T2*-FFE) and 2D T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences. We included 20 consecutive patients with PD who underwent 3.0 T MR for DBS targeting. 3D FLAIR, 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images were obtained for all study patients. Image quality and demarcation of the STN were analysed using 4-point scales, and contrast ratio (CR) of the STN and normal white matter was calculated. The Friedman test was used to compare the three sequences. In qualitative analysis, the 2D T2*-FFE image showed more artefacts than 3D FLAIR or 2D T2-TSE, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. 3D FLAIR images showed significantly superior demarcation of the STN compared with 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images (P < 0.001, respectively). The CR of 3D FLAIR was significantly higher than that of 2D T2*-FFE or T2-TSE images in multiple comparison correction (P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference in the CR between 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images. Coronal 3D FLAIR images showed the most accurate demarcation of the STN for DBS targeting among coronal 3D FLAIR, 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images. (orig.)
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Moon, Won Jin; Roh, Hong Gee; Choi, Jin Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Jin [Dept. of Neurology, Hanyang University Medical Center, Hanyang University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seol Heui [Center for Geriatric Neuroscience Research, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2012-11-15
We hypothesized that prominent pulvinar hypointensity in brain MRI represents the disease process due to iron accumulation in Alzheimer disease (AD). We aimed to determine whether or not the pulvinar signal intensity (SI) on the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences at 3.0T MRI differs between AD patients and normal subjects, and also whether the pulvinar SI is correlated with the T2 map, an imaging marker for tissue iron, and a cognitive scale. Twenty one consecutive patients with AD and 21 age-matched control subjects were prospectively included in this study. The pulvinar SI was assessed on the FLAIR image. We measured the relative SI ratio of the pulvinar to the corpus callosum. The T2 values were calculated from the T2 relaxometry map. The differences between the two groups were analyzed, by using a Student t test. The correlation between the measurements was assessed by the Pearson's correlation test. As compared to the normal white matter, the FLAIR signal intensity of the pulvinar nucleus was significantly more hypointense in the AD patients than in the control subjects (p < 0.01). The pulvinar T2 was shorter in the AD patients than in the control subjects (51.5 {+-} 4.95 ms vs. 56.5 {+-} 5.49 ms, respectively, p = 0.003). The pulvinar SI ratio was strongly correlated with the pulvinar T2 (r = 0.745, p < 0.001). When controlling for age, only the pulvinar-to-CC SI ratio was positively correlated with that of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score (r = 0.303, p < 0.050). Conversely, the pulvinar T2 was not correlated with the MMSE score (r = 0.277, p = 0.080). The FLAIR hypointensity of the pulvinar nucleus represents an abnormal iron accumulation in AD and may be used as an adjunctive finding for evaluating AD.
Thomalla, Götz; Boutitie, Florent; Fiebach, Jochen B; Simonsen, Claus Z; Pedraza, Salvador; Lemmens, Robin; Nighoghossian, Norbert; Roy, Pascal; Muir, Keith W; Ebinger, Martin; Ford, Ian; Cheng, Bastian; Galinovic, Ivana; Cho, Tae-Hee; Puig, Josep; Thijs, Vincent; Endres, Matthias; Fiehler, Jens; Gerloff, Christian
2018-01-01
Background Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) mismatch was suggested to identify stroke patients with unknown time of symptom onset likely to be within the time window for thrombolysis. Aims We aimed to study clinical characteristics associated with DWI-FLAIR mismatch in patients with unknown onset stroke. Methods We analyzed baseline MRI and clinical data from patients with acute ischemic stroke proven by DWI from WAKE-UP, an investigator-initiated, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of MRI-based thrombolysis in stroke patients with unknown time of symptom onset. Clinical characteristics were compared between patients with and without DWI-FLAIR mismatch. Results Of 699 patients included, 418 (59.8%) presented with DWI-FLAIR mismatch. A shorter delay between last seen well and symptom recognition (p = 0.0063), a shorter delay between symptom recognition and arrival at hospital (p = 0.0025), and history of atrial fibrillation (p = 0.19) were predictors of DWI-FLAIR mismatch in multivariate analysis. All other characteristics were comparable between groups. Conclusions There are only minor differences in measured clinical characteristics between unknown symptom onset stroke patients with and without DWI-FLAIR mismatch. DWI-FLAIR mismatch as an indicator of stroke onset within 4.5 h shows no relevant association with commonly collected clinical characteristics of stroke patients. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01525290; URL: https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu . Unique identifier: 2011-005906-32.
An Inversion Recovery NMR Kinetics Experiment
Williams, Travis J.; Kershaw, Allan D.; Li, Vincent; Wu, Xinping
2011-01-01
A convenient laboratory experiment is described in which NMR magnetization transfer by inversion recovery is used to measure the kinetics and thermochemistry of amide bond rotation. The experiment utilizes Varian spectrometers with the VNMRJ 2.3 software, but can be easily adapted to any NMR platform. The procedures and sample data sets in this article will enable instructors to use inversion recovery as a laboratory activity in applied NMR classes and provide research students with a conveni...
Zerroug, A; Gabrillargues, J; Coll, G; Vassal, F; Jean, B; Chabert, E; Claise, B; Khalil, T; Sakka, L; Feschet, F; Durif, F; Boyer, L; Coste, J; Lemaire, J-J
2016-08-01
Deep brain mapping has been proposed for direct targeting in stereotactic functional surgery, aiming to personalize electrode implantation according to individual MRI anatomy without atlas or statistical template. We report our clinical experience of direct targeting in a series of 156 patients operated on using a dedicated Inversion Recovery Turbo Spin Echo sequence at 1.5-tesla, called White Matter Attenuated Inversion Recovery (WAIR). After manual contouring of all pertinent structures and 3D planning of trajectories, 312 DBS electrodes were implanted. Detailed anatomy of close neighbouring structures, whether gray nuclei or white matter regions, was identified during each planning procedure. We gathered the experience of these 312 deep brain mappings and elaborated consistent procedures of anatomical MRI mapping for pallidal, subthalamic and ventral thalamic regions. We studied the number of times the central track anatomically optimized was selected for implantation of definitive electrodes. WAIR sequence provided high-quality images of most common functional targets, successfully used for pure direct stereotactic targeting: the central track corresponding to the optimized primary anatomical trajectory was chosen for implantation of definitive electrodes in 90.38%. WAIR sequence is anatomically reliable, enabling precise deep brain mapping and direct stereotactic targeting under routine clinical conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
An Inversion Recovery NMR Kinetics Experiment
Williams, Travis J.; Kershaw, Allan D.; Li, Vincent; Wu, Xinping
2011-01-01
A convenient laboratory experiment is described in which NMR magnetization transfer by inversion recovery is used to measure the kinetics and thermochemistry of amide bond rotation. The experiment utilizes Varian spectrometers with the VNMRJ 2.3 software, but can be easily adapted to any NMR platform. The procedures and sample data sets in this…
Alibek, Sedat; Adamietz, Boris; Cavallaro, Alexander; Stemmer, Alto; Anders, Katharina; Kramer, Manuel; Bautz, Werner; Staatz, Gundula
2008-08-01
We compared contrast-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain using different types of data acquisition techniques: periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER, BLADE) imaging versus standard k-space sampling (conventional spin-echo pulse sequence) in the unsedated pediatric patient with focus on artifact reduction, overall image quality, and lesion detectability. Forty-eight pediatric patients (aged 3 months to 18 years) were scanned with a clinical 1.5-T whole body MR scanner. Cross-sectional contrast-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo sequence was compared to a T1-weighted dark-fluid fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) BLADE sequence for qualitative and quantitative criteria (image artifacts, image quality, lesion detectability) by two experienced radiologists. Imaging protocols were matched for imaging parameters. Reader agreement was assessed using the exact Bowker test. BLADE images showed significantly less pulsation and motion artifacts than the standard T1-weighted spin-echo sequence scan. BLADE images showed statistically significant lower signal-to-noise ratio but higher contrast-to-noise ratios with superior gray-white matter contrast. All lesions were demonstrated on FLAIR BLADE imaging, and one false-positive lesion was visible in spin-echo sequence images. BLADE MR imaging at 1.5 T is applicable for central nervous system imaging of the unsedated pediatric patient, reduces motion and pulsation artifacts, and minimizes the need for sedation or general anesthesia without loss of relevant diagnostic information.
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Lee, In Ho; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Eunhee; Moon, Jung Won; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Keon Ha; Jeon, Pyoung; Byun, Hong Sik [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Chung, Won Ho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)
2010-04-15
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the signal intensity (SI) change of the labyrinth in patients with vestibular schwannoma on isotropic 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging at 3 T. Thirty-four patients with surgically confirmed or radiologically diagnosed vestibular schwannoma were included in this study. Retrospectively, we visually and quantitatively compared the SIs of the cochlea and vestibule on the affected side with those on the unaffected side. We also investigated whether there was correlation between the SI ratios (SIRs) of the labyrinth and the audiometric findings. On 3D FLAIR images, the SI of the cochlea and vestibule on the affected side was significantly increased in 97% (33/34) and 91% (31/34), respectively. While the SI of the cochlea was diffusely increased, that of the vestibule was only partially increased. Quantitative study also revealed statistically significantly higher SIRs of the cochlea (0.99 {+-} 0.29) and vestibule (0.73 {+-} 0.31) on the affected side, compared with the cochlea (0.47 {+-} 0.20) and vestibule (0.19 {+-} 0.10) on the unaffected side. There was no significant correlation of the SIRs of the labyrinth with the degree of hearing loss. In patients with vestibular schwannoma, isotropic 3D FLAIR imaging is a useful method for the evaluation of the SI changes of the labyrinth. (orig.)
Seismic Attenuation Inversion with t* Using tstarTomog.
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Preston, Leiph
2014-09-01
Seismic attenuation is defined as the loss of the seismic wave amplitude as the wave propagates excluding losses strictly due to geometric spreading. Information gleaned from seismic waves can be utilized to solve for the attenuation properties of the earth. One method of solving for earth attenuation properties is called t*. This report will start by introducing the basic theory behind t* and delve into inverse theory as it pertains to how the algorithm called tstarTomog inverts for attenuation properties using t* observations. This report also describes how to use the tstarTomog package to go from observed data to a 3-D model of attenuation structure in the earth.
Inversion of acoustic waveforms for velocity and attenuation
Sun, Xinhua
In this dissertation, I present some new schemes and techniques for processing of acoustic waveform data. New objective functions are developed for waveform inversion. I use synthetic acoustic borehole waveform data to demonstrate their novel features. These schemes require neither prior deconvolution nor knowledge of the source- receiver wavelet. The most powerful of them is the fourwise processor, which is applicable to data sets from multiple shots and receivers even when each shot has a different unknown signature and each receiver has a different unknown impulse response. I apply this scheme to inversion for shear wave velocity from the ODP sonic data measured by an LSS tool, containing two uncalibrated transmitters and receivers. A 3-D search of waveform inversion gives stable results of formation S-wave velocity inverted from the monopole sonic data in a slow formation. In addition, I develop new techniques to extract P- and S-wave attenuation from sonic logging data. The success of the techniques lies in the separation of attenuation-related wave attributes from other effects unrelated to attenuation. The wave attributes related to borehole diameter, formation density, and velocity changes are removed by use of synthetic sonograms. The novelty of the techniques is first to use a single receiver data set to extract a relative attenuation profile, then to correct it to absolute attenuation using multiple receiver data sets. The techniques are applicable to both monopole and dipole waveform log data for either P- or S-wave attenuation.
Multi-resolution inversion algorithm for the attenuated radon transform
Barbano, Paolo Emilio
2011-09-01
We present a FAST implementation of the Inverse Attenuated Radon Transform which incorporates accurate collimator response, as well as artifact rejection due to statistical noise and data corruption. This new reconstruction procedure is performed by combining a memory-efficient implementation of the analytical inversion formula (AIF [1], [2]) with a wavelet-based version of a recently discovered regularization technique [3]. The paper introduces all the main aspects of the new AIF, as well numerical experiments on real and simulated data. Those display a substantial improvement in reconstruction quality when compared to linear or iterative algorithms. © 2011 IEEE.
[MR characterization of breast pathology using inversion recovery sequence].
Testa, A; Patrizio, G; Beomonte Zobel, B; Masciocchi, C; Gallucci, M; Cardone, G; Ciccozzi, A; Ventura, T; Passariello, R
1989-10-01
As yet, a valid tissue characterization of human breast diseases has not been possible with conventional MR techniques. On the basis of the experimental thesis according to which fibroadenomas and carcinomas have a slight, though significant, difference in T1 relaxation times, we employed specific inversion recovery sequences at the T null of the breast glandular and adipose tissues, to enhance the differences in the signal intensities of the various pathologies. We examined 16 (6 cystic dysplasias, 5 fibroadenomas, 3 carcinomas, and 1 phylloid fibroadenoma) selected patients with the above-mentioned sequences in addition to the routine T1- and T2-weighted spin echo sequences. The following conclusions were reached by evaluating the characteristic signal intensities: MR spin echo sequences allow solid lesions to be distinguished from cystic ones; MR inversion recovery sequences allow fibroadenomas to be distinguished from carcinomas with 88% accuracy.
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Carrete Junior, Henrique; Abdala, Nitamar; Szjenfeld, Jacob; Nogueira, Roberto Gomes [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Lin, Katia; Caboclo, Luis Otavio; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Sakamoto, Americo Ceiki; Yacubian, Elza Marcia Targas [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Neurologia e Neurocirurgia
2007-09-15
Objective: To determine the frequency and regional involvement of temporal pole signal abnormality (TPA) in patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) using fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging, and to correlate this feature with history. Method: Coronal FLAIR images of the temporal pole were assessed in 120 patients with HS and in 30 normal subjects, to evaluate gray-white matter demarcation. Results: Ninety (75%) of 120 patients had associated TPA. The HS side made difference regarding the presence of TPA, with a left side prevalence (p=0.04, {chi}{sup 2} test). The anteromedial zone of temporal pole was affected in 27 (30%) out of 90 patients. In 63 (70%) patients the lateral zone were also affected. Patients with TPA were younger at seizure onset (p=0.018), but without association with duration of epilepsy. Conclusion: Our FLAIR study show temporal pole signal abnormality in 3/4 of patients with HS, mainly seen on the anteromedial region, with a larger prevalence when the left hippocampus was involved. (author)
Unusual Attenuation Recovery Process After Fiber Optic Cable Irradiation
Konečná, Z.; Plaček, V.; Havránek, P.
2017-11-01
At present, the number of optical cables in nuclear power plants has been increasing. Fiber optic cables are commonly used at nuclear power plants in instrumentation and control systems but they are usually used in environments without radiation. Nevertheless, currently, the number of applications in NPP containment with radiation is increasing. One of the most prevalent effects of radiation exposure is an increase of signal attenuation (signal loss). This is the result of fiber darkening due to radiation exposure and it is the main limitation factor in application of fiber optics in radiation environment. However, after the irradiation, the fiber optics go through a “recovery process” during which the optical properties improve again; i.e. attenuation decreases. However, we have found cable, where the expected healing process after few days changed its trend and the attenuation increased again to a value well above the attenuation just after the irradiation. This paper describes experiments that were carried out to explain this unusual recovery behaviour.
Varga-Szemes, Akos; van der Geest, Rob J; Schoepf, U Joseph; Spottiswoode, Bruce S; De Cecco, Carlo N; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; Wichmann, Julian L; Mangold, Stefanie; Fuller, Stephen R; Maurovich-Horvat, Pal; Merkely, Bela; Litwin, Sheldon E; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Suranyi, Pal
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of inversion time (TI) on the precision of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) quantification using synthetic inversion recovery (IR) imaging in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: Fifty-three patients with suspected prior MI underwent
Regional Attenuation of Southern Nevada Using Multiphase Inversion
Pyle, M. L.; Walter, W. R.; Pasyanos, M.
2014-12-01
Seismic event amplitude estimation plays an important role in a range of endeavors including the discrimination between earthquakes and explosions and seismic hazard estimation. Reasonable amplitude estimation requires knowledge of the attenuation experienced by seismic waves as they travel through the earth. In this study, we investigate the attenuation structure in the region of Southern Nevada as part of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE). The SPE consists of a series of chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) designed to improve our understanding of explosion physics and enable better modeling of explosion sources. Phase I of the SPE is currently being conducted in the Climax Stock Granite and Phase II will move to a contrasting dry alluvium geology. Phase III is planned to be a direct earthquake-to-explosion comparison in Rock Valley at the southern end of NNSS. For the Rock Valley experiment, a chemical explosion would be placed at the hypocenter of a small shallow earthquake and recorded at a common set of receivers. A sequence of unusually shallow events along the Rock Valley Fault Zone in May of 1993 was recorded by a network of stations operated by the University of Nevada-Reno (UNR) and makes this novel experiment possible. As part of a feasibility study for this phase of the SPE, LLNL, UNR and NSTec are working to improve our understanding of the region and the propagation of energy from sources in the area to local and regional stations in the western U.S. Eight new seismic stations, including two borehole sensors, located at the original 1993 sites and additional sites, have been installed and ongoing seismicity along the fault is currently being recorded. Examination of the local attenuation structure is an important part of our site characterization. We wish to ensure that an explosion generated at a Rock Valley site will be large enough to be recorded at regional distances, and a well-constrained attenuation study will aid
Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Yunting; Zhang, Jing; Li, Qiong
2011-01-01
We report 2 cases of subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) with emphasis on double inversion recovery (DIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The heterotopic gray matter demonstrated homogeneous high signal intensity and the delineation between the SBH and white matter was distinctly depicted on DIR MRI. Double inversion recovery is a useful adjunct to conventional MRI for the diagnosis of SBH.
Visco-acoustic wave-equation traveltime inversion and its sensitivity to attenuation errors
Yu, Han
2018-02-23
A visco-acoustic wave-equation traveltime inversion method is presented that inverts for the shallow subsurface velocity distribution. Similar to the classical wave equation traveltime inversion, this method finds the velocity model that minimizes the squared sum of the traveltime residuals. Even though, wave-equation traveltime inversion can partly avoid the cycle skipping problem, a good initial velocity model is required for the inversion to converge to a reasonable tomogram with different attenuation profiles. When Q model is far away from the real model, the final tomogram is very sensitive to the starting velocity model. Nevertheless, a minor or moderate perturbation of the Q model from the true one does not strongly affect the inversion if the low wavenumber information of the initial velocity model is mostly correct. These claims are validated with numerical tests on both the synthetic and field data sets.
Viscoacoustic wave-equation traveltime inversion with correct and incorrect attenuation profiles
Yu, Han
2017-08-17
A visco-acoustic wave-equation traveltime inversion method is presented that inverts for a shallow subsurface velocity distribution with correct and incorrect attenuation profiles. Similar to the classical wave equation traveltime inversion, this method applies the misfit functional that minimizes the first break differences between the observed and predicted data. Although, WT can partly avoid the cycle skipping problem, an initial velocity model approaches to the right or wrong velocity models under different setups of the attenuation profiles. However, with a Q model far away from the real model, the inverted tomogram is obviously different from the true velocity model while a small change of the Q model does not improve the inversion quality in a strong manner if low frequency information is not lost.
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Lee, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Eun Ja; Kim, Sung Won; Lee, Yong Seok [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang(Korea, Republic of)
2016-02-15
Intracranial lesions may show contrast enhancement through various mechanisms that are closely associated with the disease process. The preferred magnetic resonance sequence in contrast imaging is T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) at most institutions. However, lesion enhancement is occasionally inconspicuous on T1WI. Although fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences are commonly considered as T2-weighted imaging with dark cerebrospinal fluid, they also show mild T1-weighted contrast, which is responsible for the contrast enhancement. For several years, FLAIR imaging has been successfully incorporated as a routine sequence at our institution for contrast-enhanced (CE) brain imaging in detecting various intracranial diseases. In this pictorial essay, we describe and illustrate the diagnostic importance of CE-FLAIR imaging in various intracranial pathologic conditions.
Detection and characterization with short TI inversion recovery MR imaging
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Komata, Kaori (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan))
1994-10-01
Short TI inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (STIR-MRI) with spin echo (SE) T1- and T2-weighted images of the pelvis was investigated to evaluate its usefulness in detecting and characterizing endometriosis. Thirty-one women suspected of having the disease were studied in detail. MR findings with and without STIR-MRI were correlated with the results of laparotomy (27 women) and laparoscopy (4 women). Surgery revealed endometriosis in 29 women (17 ovarian chocolate cysts, 22 intestinal adhesions, 14 cul-de-sac obliterations and 12 adenomyosis). The other two women did not have endometriosis (uterine prolapse in one and submucosal leiomyoma in one). An ovarian chocolate cyst was diagnosed when a T1-elongated lesion showed shading, loculus or a low intensity rim on SE MR images, and a low intensity rim on STIR-MRI. Only 12 of the 17 chocolate cysts and neither of the two hemorrhagic corpus lutein cysts were correctly diagnosed on SE MR images, whereas 18 of these 19 cysts were correctly diagnosed because of the low intensity rim on STIR-MRI. In the pathological analysis, the rim was found to be a fibrous capsule and there were many macrophages which phagocytized hemosiderin. For the assessment of ovarian chocolate cysts, accuracy improved from 63.2% to 94.7%. As for the adhesion between the intestine and the uterus, specificity improved from 61.9% to 90.5% and accuracy improved from 67.7% to 93.5% when STRI-MRI was used. For the assessment of the cul-de-sac obliteration, accuracy improved from 67.7% to 83.8% although [chi][sup 2] analysis showed no significance. The major factors for the improved accuracy with STIR-MRI are the decrease of the motion artifact owing to the suppression of the fat signal, decreased chemical shift artifact and accurate differentiation of fat from hemorrhagic component. Therefore, STIR-MRI is a useful and reliable procedure and should be used together with SE T1-, T2-weighted images for the assessment of endometriosis. (author).
Inversion-based data-driven time-space domain random noise attenuation method
Zhao, Yu-Min; Li, Guo-Fa; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Zhen-Xiao; Tang, Bo-Wen; Zhang, Wen-Bo
2017-12-01
Conventional time-space domain and frequency-space domain prediction filtering methods assume that seismic data consists of two parts, signal and random noise. That is, the so-called additive noise model. However, when estimating random noise, it is assumed that random noise can be predicted from the seismic data by convolving with a prediction error filter. That is, the source-noise model. Model inconsistencies, before and after denoising, compromise the noise attenuation and signal-preservation performances of prediction filtering methods. Therefore, this study presents an inversion-based time-space domain random noise attenuation method to overcome the model inconsistencies. In this method, a prediction error filter (PEF), is first estimated from seismic data; the filter characterizes the predictability of the seismic data and adaptively describes the seismic data's space structure. After calculating PEF, it can be applied as a regularized constraint in the inversion process for seismic signal from noisy data. Unlike conventional random noise attenuation methods, the proposed method solves a seismic data inversion problem using regularization constraint; this overcomes the model inconsistency of the prediction filtering method. The proposed method was tested on both synthetic and real seismic data, and results from the prediction filtering method and the proposed method are compared. The testing demonstrated that the proposed method suppresses noise effectively and provides better signal-preservation performance.
Malezan, A.; Tomal, A.; Antoniassi, M.; Watanabe, P. C. A.; Albino, L. D.; Poletti, M. E.
2015-11-01
In this work, a spectral reconstruction methodology for diagnostic X-ray, using Laplace inverse transform of the attenuation, was successfully applied to dental X-ray equipments. The attenuation curves of 8 commercially available dental X-ray equipment, from 3 different manufactures (Siemens, Gnatus and Dabi Atlante), were obtained by using an ionization chamber and high purity aluminium filters, while the kVp was obtained with a specific meter. A computational routine was implemented in order to adjust a model function, whose inverse Laplace transform is analytically known, to the attenuation curve. This methodology was validated by comparing the reconstructed and the measured (using semiconductor detector of cadmium telluride) spectra of a given dental X-ray unit. The spectral reconstruction showed the Dabi Atlante equipments generating similar shape spectra. This is a desirable feature from clinic standpoint because it produces similar levels of image quality and dose. We observed that equipments from Siemens and Gnatus generate significantly different spectra, suggesting that, for a given operating protocol, these units will present different levels of image quality and dose. This fact claims for the necessity of individualized operating protocols that maximize image quality and dose. The proposed methodology is suitable to perform a spectral reconstruction of dental X-ray equipments from the simple measurements of attenuation curve and kVp. The simplified experimental apparatus and the low level of technical difficulty make this methodology accessible to a broad range of users. The knowledge of the spectral distribution can help in the development of operating protocols that maximize image quality and dose.
High Resolution Regional Attenuation for the Source Physics Experiment Using Multiphase Inversion
Pyle, M. L.; Walter, W. R.; Pasyanos, M.
2015-12-01
Seismic event amplitude measurement plays a critical role in the discrimination between earthquakes and explosions. An accurate 2D model of the attenuation experienced by seismic waves traveling through the earth is especially important for reasonable amplitude estimation at small event-to-station distances. In this study, we investigate the detailed attenuation structure in the region around southern Nevada as part of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE). The SPE consists of a series of chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) designed to improve our understanding of explosion physics and enable better modeling of explosion sources. Phase I of the SPE is currently being conducted in the Climax Stock Granite and Phase II will move to a contrasting dry alluvium geology. A high-resolution attenuation model will aid in the modeling efforts of these experiments. To improve our understanding of the propagation of energy from sources in the area to local and regional stations in the western U.S., we invert regional phases Pn, Pg, and Lg to examine the crust and upper mantle attenuation structure of southern Nevada and the surrounding region. We consider observed amplitudes as the frequency-domain product of a source term, a site term, a geometrical spreading term, and an attenuation (Q) term (e.g. Walter and Taylor, 2001). Initially we take a staged approach to first determine the best 1D Q values; next we calculate source terms using the 1D model, and finally we solve for the best 2D Q parameters and site terms considering all frequencies simultaneously. Our preliminary results agree generally with those from the continent-wide study by Pasyanos (2013). With additional data we are working to develop a more detailed and higher frequency model of the region as well as move toward a fully non-linear inversion.
Goncharsky, Alexander V.; Romanov, Sergey Y.
2017-02-01
We develop efficient iterative methods for solving inverse problems of wave tomography in models incorporating both diffraction effects and attenuation. In the inverse problem the aim is to reconstruct the velocity structure and the function that characterizes the distribution of attenuation properties in the object studied. We prove mathematically and rigorously the differentiability of the residual functional in normed spaces, and derive the corresponding formula for the Fréchet derivative. The computation of the Fréchet derivative includes solving both the direct problem with the Neumann boundary condition and the reversed-time conjugate problem. We develop efficient methods for numerical computations where the approximate solution is found using the detector measurements of the wave field and its normal derivative. The wave field derivative values at detector locations are found by solving the exterior boundary value problem with the Dirichlet boundary conditions. We illustrate the efficiency of this approach by applying it to model problems. The algorithms developed are highly parallelizable and designed to be run on supercomputers. Among the most promising medical applications of our results is the development of ultrasonic tomographs for differential diagnosis of breast cancer.
Pseudo 2D elastic waveform inversion for attenuation in the near surface
Wang, Yue; Zhang, Jie
2017-08-01
Seismic waveform propagation could be significantly affected by heterogeneities in the near surface zone (0 m-500 m depth). As a result, it is important to obtain as much near surface information as possible. Seismic attenuation, characterized by QP and QS factors, may affect seismic waveform in both phase and amplitude; however, it is rarely estimated and applied to the near surface zone for seismic data processing. Applying a 1D elastic full waveform modelling program, we demonstrate that such effects cannot be overlooked in the waveform computation if the value of the Q factor is lower than approximately 100. Further, we develop a pseudo 2D elastic waveform inversion method in the common midpoint (CMP) domain that jointly inverts early arrivals for QP and surface waves for QS. In this method, although the forward problem is in 1D, by applying 2D model regularization, we obtain 2D QP and QS models through simultaneous inversion. A cross-gradient constraint between the QP and Qs models is applied to ensure structural consistency of the 2D inversion results. We present synthetic examples and a real case study from an oil field in China.
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Simon, Birgit; Traeber, Frank; Willinek, Winfried A.; Schild, Hans H. [University Hospital of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Schmidt, Stephan [Neurologische Gemeinschaftspraxis Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Lukas, Carsten [University of Bochum, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, St. Josef Hospital, Bochum (Germany); VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gieseke, Juergen [University Hospital of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Philips Medical Systems, Hamburg (Germany); Knol, Dirk L. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Geurts, Jeroen J.G. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barkhof, Frederik; Wattjes, Mike P. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2010-07-15
To investigate the impact of a higher magnetic field strength of 3 Tesla (T) on the detection rate of cortical lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, in particular using a dedicated double inversion recovery (DIR) pulse sequence. Thirty-four patients with clinically isolated syndromes or definite MS were included. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.5 T and 3 T, including T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and DIR sequences. All images were analysed for focal lesions categorised according to their anatomical location. The total number of detected lesions was higher at 3 T across all pulse sequences. We observed significantly higher numbers of lesions involving the cortex at 3 T using a DIR sequence. DIR at 3 T showed 192% more pure intracortical (p < 0.001) and 30% more mixed grey matter-white matter lesions (p = 0.008). No significant increase in cortical lesions could be detected on the FLAIR and T2-weighted images. Using the T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences, significantly more lesions could be detected at 3 T in the infratentorial, periventricular and juxtacortical white matter. DIR brain MR imaging at 3 T substantially improves the sensitivity of the detection of cortical lesions compared with the standard magnetic field strength of 1.5 T. (orig.)
Varga-Szemes, Akos; van der Geest, Rob J.; Spottiswoode, Bruce S.; Suranyi, Pal; Ruzsics, Balazs; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; Cannao, Paola M.; Fox, Mary A.; Wichmann, Julian L.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Schoepf, U. Joseph
Purpose: To compare the accuracy of detection and quantification of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) with a synthetic inversion-recovery (IR) approach with that of conventional IR techniques. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and
Consensus recommendations for MS cortical lesion scoring using double inversion recovery MRI
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geurts, J J G; Roosendaal, S D; Calabrese, M
2011-01-01
Different double inversion recovery (DIR) sequences are currently used in multiple sclerosis (MS) research centers to visualize cortical lesions, making it difficult to compare published data. This study aimed to formulate consensus recommendations for scoring cortical lesions in patients with MS...
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Hodel, Jerome; Bocher, Anne-Laure; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre; Leclerc, Xavier [Hopital Roger Salengro, Department of Neuroradiology, Lille (France); Outteryck, Olivier; Zephir, Helene; Vermersch, Patrick [Hopital Roger Salengro, Department of Neurology, Lille (France); Lambert, Oriane [Fondation Ophtalmologique Rothschild, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Benadjaoud, Mohamed Amine [Radiation Epidemiology Team, Inserm, CESP Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, U1018, Villejuif (France); Chechin, David [Philips Medical Systems, Suresnes (France)
2014-12-15
We compared the three-dimensional (3D) double inversion recovery (DIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence with the coronal two-dimensional (2D) short tau inversion recovery (STIR) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) for the detection of optic nerve signal abnormality in patients with optic neuritis (ON). The study group consisted of 31 patients with ON (44 pathological nerves) confirmed by visual-evoked potentials used as the reference. MRI examinations included 2D coronal STIR FLAIR and 3D DIR with 3-mm coronal reformats to match with STIR FLAIR. Image artefacts were graded for each portion of the optic nerves. Each set of MR images (2D STIR FLAIR, DIR reformats and multiplanar 3D DIR) was examined independently and separately for the detection of signal abnormality. Cisternal portion of optic nerves was better delineated with DIR (p < 0.001), while artefacts impaired analysis in four patients with STIR FLAIR. Inter-observer agreement was significantly improved (p < 0.001) on 3D DIR (κ = 0.96) compared with STIR FLAIR images (κ = 0.60). Multiplanar DIR images reached the best performance for the diagnosis of ON (95 % sensitive and 94 % specific). Our study showed a high sensitivity and specificity of 3D DIR compared with STIR FLAIR for the detection of ON. These findings suggest that the 3D DIR sequence may be more useful in patients suspected of ON. (orig.)
Brown, Malcolm
2009-01-01
Inversions are fascinating phenomena. They are reversals of the normal or expected order. They occur across a wide variety of contexts. What do inversions have to do with learning spaces? The author suggests that they are a useful metaphor for the process that is unfolding in higher education with respect to education. On the basis of…
Varga-Szemes, Akos; van der Geest, Rob J; Schoepf, U Joseph; Spottiswoode, Bruce S; De Cecco, Carlo N; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; Wichmann, Julian L; Mangold, Stefanie; Fuller, Stephen R; Maurovich-Horvat, Pal; Merkely, Bela; Litwin, Sheldon E; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Suranyi, Pal
2017-08-01
To evaluate the influence of inversion time (TI) on the precision of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) quantification using synthetic inversion recovery (IR) imaging in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Fifty-three patients with suspected prior MI underwent 1.5-T cardiac MRI with conventional magnitude (MagIR) and phase-sensitive IR (PSIR) LGE imaging and T1 mapping at 15 min post-contrast. T1-based synthetic MagIR and PSIR images were calculated with a TI ranging from -100 to +150 ms at 5-ms intervals relative to the optimal TI (TI0). LGE was quantified using a five standard deviation (5SD) and full width at half-maximum (FWHM) thresholds. Measurements were compared using one-way analysis of variance. The MagIRsy technique provided precise assessment of LGE area at TIs ≥ TI0, while precision was decreased below TI0. The LGE area showed significant differences at ≤ -25 ms compared to TI0 using 5SD (P T1 map-based PSIRsy images provide precise quantification of MI independent of TI at the investigated time point post-contrast. MagIRsy-based MI quantification is precise at TI0 and at longer TIs while showing decreased precision at TI values below TI0. • Synthetic IR imaging retrospectively generates LGE images at any theoretical TI • Synthetic IR imaging can simulate the effect of TI on LGE quantification • Fifteen minutes post-contrast MagIR sy accurately quantifies infarcts from TI 0 to TI 0 + 150 ms • Fifteen minutes post-contrast PSIR sy provides precise infarct size independent of TI • Synthetic IR imaging has further advantages in reducing operator dependence.
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Varga-Szemes, Akos; Schoepf, U.J.; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Fuller, Stephen R.; Suranyi, Pal [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Geest, Rob J. van der [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Spottiswoode, Bruce S. [Siemens Medical Solutions, Chicago, IL (United States); Muscogiuri, Giuseppe [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital IRCCS, Department of Imaging, Rome (Italy); Wichmann, Julian L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Mangold, Stefanie [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Maurovich-Horvat, Pal; Merkely, Bela [Semmelweis University, MTA-SE Cardiovascular Imaging Research Group, Heart and Vascular Center, Budapest (Hungary); Litwin, Sheldon E. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands)
2017-08-15
To evaluate the influence of inversion time (TI) on the precision of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) quantification using synthetic inversion recovery (IR) imaging in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Fifty-three patients with suspected prior MI underwent 1.5-T cardiac MRI with conventional magnitude (MagIR) and phase-sensitive IR (PSIR) LGE imaging and T1 mapping at 15 min post-contrast. T1-based synthetic MagIR and PSIR images were calculated with a TI ranging from -100 to +150 ms at 5-ms intervals relative to the optimal TI (TI{sub 0}). LGE was quantified using a five standard deviation (5SD) and full width at half-maximum (FWHM) thresholds. Measurements were compared using one-way analysis of variance. The MagIR{sub sy} technique provided precise assessment of LGE area at TIs ≥ TI{sub 0}, while precision was decreased below TI{sub 0}. The LGE area showed significant differences at ≤ -25 ms compared to TI{sub 0} using 5SD (P < 0.001) and at ≤ -65 ms using the FWHM approach (P < 0.001). LGE measurements did not show significant difference over the analysed TI range in the PSIR{sub sy} images using either of the quantification methods. T1 map-based PSIR{sub sy} images provide precise quantification of MI independent of TI at the investigated time point post-contrast. MagIR{sub sy}-based MI quantification is precise at TI{sub 0} and at longer TIs while showing decreased precision at TI values below TI{sub 0}. (orig.)
Takenaka, Daisuke; Puderbach, Michael; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Risse, Frank; Ley, Sebastian; Sugimura, Kazuro; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich
2011-05-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo the influence of inversion pulse slice selectivity on oxygen-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirteen healthy volunteers were studied with a two-dimensional cardiac- and respiratory-gated adiabatic inversion-recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) sequence with either slice-selective or non-slice-selective inversion recovery (IR) pulse at inversion times increasing from 300 to 1400 ms. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at every inversion time (TI), real signal difference (ΔSI), and relative enhancement ratio of lung parenchyma at TI ≥ 800 ms were statistically compared for oxygen-enhanced and non-oxygen-enhanced MR images with slice-selective or non-slice-selective IR pulses. The SNRs of acquisitions with slice-selective IR pulses were significantly higher than those of non-slice-selective IR pulses (P < 0.05). At TI 800 ms, the ΔSI of lung parenchyma on IR-HASTE images with slice-selective inversion pulse type was significantly higher than on that with the non-slice-selective type (P < 0.05). Relative enhancement ratios of the slice-selective IR pulses were significantly lower than those of non-slice-selective IR pulses at TIs between 800 and 1400 ms (P < 0.05). Slice selectivity of inversion pulse type affects oxygen-enhanced MRI in vivo.
Foo, T K; Sawyer, A M; Faulkner, W H; Mills, D G
1994-04-01
To evaluate the differences in contrast between 1-second delay and zero delay (for magnetization recovery) before the preparation radio-frequency pulse in three-dimensional, inversion-recovery (IR) fast gradient-echo (GRE) acquisitions. Mathematical simulations and measurements of brain image contrast were performed with healthy volunteers and 10 patients. The zero-delay sequence generated T1-weighted contrast similar to that obtained with 1-second delay but was accompanied by a substantial reduction in imaging time. However, the zero delay prohibits full recovery of the longitudinal magnetization. Hence, the signal null characteristic of IR experiments is not easily observed, since it occurs (as a function of tissue T1) at very short inversion times (prepared rapid GRE sequences with a 1-second delay and preparation time (TP) of 600-700 msec can be achieved in less time by using a zero delay and a shorter TP (400-500 msec).
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Saberi Fathi, S M, E-mail: majid.saberi@u-cergy.f [Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modelisation, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France)
2010-08-20
In this paper, we present a new derivation of the inverse of the non-uniformly attenuated x-ray transform in three dimensions, based on quaternion analysis. An explicit formula is obtained using a set of three-dimensional x-ray projection data. The result without attenuation is recovered as a special case.
Gradient echo single scan inversion recovery: application to proton and fluorine relaxation studies.
Pavuluri, KowsalyaDevi; Ramanathan, K V
2016-02-01
Single scan longitudinal relaxation measurement experiments enable rapid estimation of the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1 ) as the time series of spin relaxation is encoded spatially in the sample at different slices resulting in an order of magnitude saving in time. We consider here a single scan inversion recovery pulse sequence that incorporates a gradient echo sequence. The proposed pulse sequence provides spectra with significantly enhanced signal to noise ratio leading to an accurate estimation of T1 values. The method is applicable for measuring a range of T1 values, thus indicating the possibility of routine use of the method for several systems. A comparative study of different single scan methods currently available is presented, and the advantage of the proposed sequence is highlighted. The possibility of the use of the method for the study of cross-correlation effects for the case of fluorine in a single shot is also demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tissue Border Enhancement by inversion recovery MRI at 7.0 Tesla
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Costagli, Mauro; Tiberi, Gianluigi [Imago7 Foundation, Pisa (Italy); IRCCS Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Kelley, Douglas A.C. [GE Healthcare Technologies, San Francisco, CA (United States); Symms, Mark R. [GE Applied Science Laboratory, Pisa (Italy); Biagi, Laura; Tosetti, Michela [IRCCS Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Stara, Riccardo; Cosottini, Mirco [Imago7 Foundation, Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Maggioni, Eleonora [IRCCS Scientific Institute E. Medea, Bosisio Parini, Lecco (Italy); Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Barba, Carmen [Children' s Hospital A. Meyer - University of Florence, Neuroscience Department, Florence (Italy); Guerrini, Renzo [IRCCS Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Children' s Hospital A. Meyer - University of Florence, Neuroscience Department, Florence (Italy)
2014-07-15
This contribution presents a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition technique named Tissue Border Enhancement (TBE), whose purpose is to produce images with enhanced visualization of borders between two tissues of interest without any post-processing. The technique is based on an inversion recovery sequence that employs an appropriate inversion time to produce images where the interface between two tissues of interest is hypo-intense; therefore, tissue borders are clearly represented by dark lines. This effect is achieved by setting imaging parameters such that two neighboring tissues of interest have magnetization with equal magnitude but opposite sign; therefore, the voxels containing a mixture of each tissue (that is, the tissue interface) possess minimal net signal. The technique was implemented on a 7.0 T MRI system. This approach can assist the definition of tissue borders, such as that between cortical gray matter and white matter; therefore, it could facilitate segmentation procedures, which are often challenging on ultra-high-field systems due to inhomogeneous radiofrequency distribution. TBE allows delineating the contours of structural abnormalities, and its capabilities were demonstrated with patients with focal cortical dysplasia, gray matter heterotopia, and polymicrogyria. This technique provides a new type of image contrast and has several possible applications in basic neuroscience, neurogenetic research, and clinical practice, as it could improve the detection power of MRI in the characterization of cortical malformations, enhance the contour of small anatomical structures of interest, and facilitate cortical segmentation. (orig.)
Kellman, Peter; Bandettini, W Patricia; Mancini, Christine; Hammer-Hansen, Sophia; Hansen, Michael S; Arai, Andrew E
2015-05-10
Quantitative measurement of T1 in the myocardium may be used to detect both focal and diffuse disease processes such as interstitial fibrosis or edema. A partial volume problem exists when a voxel in the myocardium also contains fat. Partial volume with fat occurs at tissue boundaries or within the myocardium in the case of lipomatous metaplasia of replacement fibrosis, which is commonly seen in chronic myocardial infarction. The presence of fat leads to a bias in T1 measurement. The mechanism for this artifact for widely used T1 mapping protocols using balanced steady state free precession readout and the dependence on off-resonance frequency are described in this paper. Simulations were performed to illustrate the behavior of mono-exponential fitting to bi-exponential mixtures of myocardium and fat with varying fat fractions. Both inversion recovery and saturation recovery imaging protocols using balanced steady state free precession are considered. In-vivo imaging with T1-mapping, water/fat separated imaging, and late enhancement imaging was performed on subjects with chronic myocardial infarction. In n = 17 subjects with chronic myocardial infarction, lipomatous metaplasia is evident in 8 patients (47%). Fat fractions as low as 5% caused approximately 6% T1 elevation for the out-of-phase condition, and approximately 5% reduction of T1 for the in-phase condition. T1 bias in excess of 1000 ms was observed in lipomatous metaplasia with fat fraction of 38% in close agreement with simulation of the specific imaging protocols. Measurement of the myocardial T1 by widely used balanced steady state free precession mapping methods is subject to bias when there is a mixture of water and fat in the myocardium. Intramyocardial fat is frequently present in myocardial scar tissue due lipomatous metaplasia, a process affecting myocardial infarction and some non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. In cases of lipomatous metaplasia, the T1 biases will be additive or subtractive
T1 mapping in the rat myocardium at 7 Tesla using a modified CINE inversion recovery sequence
H.A. Smit (Henk); R.P. Guridi (Ruben Pellicer); J. Guenoun (Jamal); D.H.J. Poot; R.Q. Doeswijk (Ronald); M. Milanesi (Matteo); M.R. Bernsen (Monique); G.P. Krestin (Gabriel); S. Klein (Stefan); G. Kotek (Gyula)
2014-01-01
textabstractPurpose To evaluate the reproducibility and sensitivity of the modified CINE inversion recovery (mCINE-IR) acquisition on rats for measuring the myocardial T1 at 7 Tesla. Materials and Methods The recently published mCINE-IR acquisition on humans was applied on rats for the first time,
Rapid T1 quantification based on 3D phase sensitive inversion recovery.
Warntjes, Marcel J B; Kihlberg, Johan; Engvall, Jan
2010-08-17
In Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging fibrotic myocardium can be distinguished from healthy tissue using the difference in the longitudinal T1 relaxation after administration of Gadolinium, the so-called Late Gd Enhancement. The purpose of this work was to measure the myocardial absolute T1 post-Gd from a single breath-hold 3D Phase Sensitivity Inversion Recovery sequence (PSIR). Equations were derived to take the acquisition and saturation effects on the magnetization into account. The accuracy of the method was investigated on phantoms and using simulations. The method was applied to a group of patients with suspected myocardial infarction where the absolute difference in relaxation of healthy and fibrotic myocardium was measured at about 15 minutes post-contrast. The evolution of the absolute R1 relaxation rate (1/T1) over time after contrast injection was followed for one patient and compared to T1 mapping using Look-Locker. Based on the T1 maps synthetic LGE images were reconstructed and compared to the conventional LGE images. The fitting algorithm is robust against variation in acquisition flip angle, the inversion delay time and cardiac arrhythmia. The observed relaxation rate of the myocardium is 1.2 s-1, increasing to 6 - 7 s-1 after contrast injection and decreasing to 2 - 2.5 s-1 for healthy myocardium and to 3.5 - 4 s-1 for fibrotic myocardium. Synthesized images based on the T1 maps correspond very well to actual LGE images. The method provides a robust quantification of post-Gd T1 relaxation for a complete cardiac volume within a single breath-hold.
Improved segmented modified Look-Locker inversion recovery T1 mapping sequence in mice.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maryam Nezafat
Full Text Available To develop and evaluate a 2D modified Look-Locker (MOLLI for high-resolution T1 mapping in mice using a 3T MRI scanner.To allow high-resolution T1 mapping in mice at high heart rates a multi-shot ECG-triggered 2D MOLLI sequence was developed. In the proposed T1 mapping sequence the optimal number of sampling points and pause cardiac cycles following an initial adiabatic inversion pulse was investigated in a phantom. Seven native control and eight mice, 3 days post myocardial infarction (MI after administration of gadolinium were scanned. Two experienced readers graded the visual T1 map quality.In T1 phantoms, there were no significant differences (<0.4% error between 12, 15 and 20 pause cardiac cycles (p = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.6 respectively for 8 acquisition cardiac cycles for 600bpm in comparison to the conventional inversion recovery spin echo T1 mapping sequence for short T1's (<600 ms. Subsequently, all in-vivo scans were performed with 8 data acquisitions and 12 pause cardiac cycles to minimize scan time. The mean native T1 value of myocardium in control animal was 820.5±52 ms. The post-contrast T1 measured 3 days after MI in scar was 264±59 ms and in healthy myocardium was 512±62 ms. The Bland-Altman analysis revealed mean difference of only -1.06% of infarct size percentage between T1 maps and LGE.A multi-shot 2D MOLLI sequence has been presented that allows reliable measurement of high spatial resolution T1 maps in mice for heart rates up to 600bpm.
Mahdjoub, E; Turc, G; Legrand, L; Benzakoun, J; Edjlali, M; Seners, P; Charron, S; Hassen, W Ben; Naggara, O; Meder, J-F; Mas, J-L; Baron, J-C; Oppenheim, C
2017-10-26
In acute ischemic stroke, whether FLAIR vascular hyperintensities represent good or poor collaterals remains controversial. We hypothesized that extensive FLAIR vascular hyperintensities correspond to good collaterals, as indirectly assessed by the hypoperfusion intensity ratio. We included 244 consecutive patients eligible for reperfusion therapy with MCA stroke and pretreatment MR imaging with both FLAIR and PWI. The FLAIR vascular hyperintensity score was based on ASPECTS, ranging from 0 (no FLAIR vascular hyperintensity) to 7 (FLAIR vascular hyperintensities abutting all ASPECTS cortical areas). The hypoperfusion intensity ratio was defined as the ratio of the time-to-maximum >10-second over time-to-maximum >6-second lesion volumes. The median hypoperfusion intensity ratio was used to dichotomize good (low hypoperfusion intensity ratio) versus poor (high hypoperfusion intensity ratio) collaterals. We then studied the association between FLAIR vascular hyperintensity extent and hypoperfusion intensity ratio. Hypoperfusion was present in all patients, with a median hypoperfusion intensity ratio of 0.35 (interquartile range, 0.19-0.48). The median FLAIR vascular hyperintensity score was 4 (interquartile range, 3-5). The FLAIR vascular hyperintensities were more extensive in patients with good collaterals (hypoperfusion intensity ratio ≤0.35) than with poor collaterals (hypoperfusion intensity ratio >0.35; P for Trend = .016). The FLAIR vascular hyperintensity score was independently associated with good collaterals (P for Trend = .002). In patients eligible for reperfusion therapy, FLAIR vascular hyperintensity extent was associated with good collaterals, as assessed by the pretreatment hypoperfusion intensity ratio. The ASPECTS assessment of FLAIR vascular hyperintensities could be used to rapidly identify patients more likely to benefit from reperfusion therapy. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Abidi, Zahra; Faeghi, Fariborz; Mardanshahi, Zahra; Mortazavi, Hasan
2017-04-01
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. MRI has an important role in early diagnosis of MS within diagnostic criteria. To determine the diagnostic value of the double inversion recovery (DIR) sequence in detection of brain MS lesions. In this cross-sectional study, 55 patients were admitted to the MRI department in Vali-E-Asr Hospital in Qaemshahr, Iran, from May 2016 to February 2016. Imaging was performed on a 1.5T Philips MR system using DIR, fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and T2-weighted turbo spin echo (T2W_TSE) sequences with the same parameters, including field of view (FOV), matrix, slice thickness, voxel size, and number of signal averaging (NSA). The DIR sequence has two different time inversions (TI1=3400, TI2=325ms): suppressing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and white matter signal. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS version 20, and p-value was gained from the patient-wise analysis by Wilcoxon analysis and paired samples t-test for matched pairs. More lesions in number and size were depicted on the DIR sequence compared with FLAIR (p=0.000 with a relative ratio of 6) and T2W_TSE (p=0.000 with a relative ratio of 10). DIR demonstrated significantly more intracortical lesions compared with FLAIR (p=0.000 with a relative ratio of 2.53) and T2W_TSE (p=0.000 and relative ratio of 8.87). There was significantly higher contrast ratio between the white matter lesions and the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) in all anatomical regions especially in deep white matter (p=0.001). An increasing total number of MS lesions can be detected by DIR sequence; thus, we recommend adding DIR sequence in routine MR protocols for MS patients.
Effect of inversion recovery fat suppression on hepatic R2* quantitation in transfusional siderosis.
Meloni, Antonella; Tyszka, J Michael; Pepe, Alessia; Wood, John C
2015-03-01
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the application of spectral pre-saturation inversion recovery (SPIR) fat suppression in standard multiecho gradient-echo sequences has a significant effect on hepatic R2* quantitation in patients with iron overload syndromes. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Eighty patients were scanned with a multiecho gradient-echo sequence without and with the application of SPIR. Six different postprocessing approaches were used to extract R2* values for maximum generality. RESULTS. SPIR fat suppression lowered R2* values by 3.9-7.0% (p exponential-plus-constant fitting model yielded the lowest coefficients of variation (4.5% and 5.1%), whereas truncated exponential fits of the averaged signals produced the highest coefficients of variation (7.8% and 10%). For R2* values exceeding 200 Hz, a Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias that grew linearly for all postprocessing methods. CONCLUSION. SPIR fat suppression resulted in systematically lower hepatic R2* estimates. Because calibration curves were derived using images without fat suppression, these biases should be corrected when reporting liver iron concentrations estimated from fat-suppressed multiecho T2*-weighted images.
Sarkar, Subhendra N; Sarkar, Pooja R; Papavassiliou, Efstathios
2015-01-01
MRI appearance of subthalamic nucleus (STN) boundaries in Parkinson's patients is often unreliable and not well understood. An objective comparison between FSE T2 and inversion recovery (FSTIR) sequences for stereotactic placement of deep brain stimulators is presented to advance current understanding of STN tissue contrast for refractory Parkinson's disease (PD). We imaged 12 PD (age 53-82) and 12 control patients (age 48-77) using T2 and FSTIR sequences at 1.5 T. To avoid MR contrast variation from hardware and patient dependent sources we used an internal thalamic tissue standard to normalize STN signal intensity and correlated it with patient age for these two groups. Normalized FSTIR-weighted STN contrast decreased with increasing age for PD patients (Spearman Rank correlation = -.5) while remained virtually unchanged for controls with age (Spearman Rank coefficient ≈ 0). T2-weighted STN contrast did not show appreciable changes with age for both the groups (Spearman correlation ≈ -.1). STN, a common stimulation target, shows an age dependent trend for normalized FSTIR MRI contrast. Although larger patient pools are needed, our work points to tissue relaxation-based changes in STN that may provide insight in early stages of brain pathology involving DBS targets in medically refractory Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Panara, V.; Navarra, R; Caulo, M. [University ' ' G. d' Annunzio' ' , Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, Chieti (Italy); University ' ' G. d' Annunzio' ' , ITAB Institute of Advanced Biomedical Technologies, Chieti (Italy); Mattei, P.A. [University ' ' G. d' Annunzio' ' , ITAB Institute of Advanced Biomedical Technologies, Chieti (Italy); University ' ' G. d' Annunzio' ' , Department of Medicine and Science of Aging, Ophthalmology Clinic, Chieti (Italy); Piccirilli, E. [University ' ' G. d' Annunzio' ' , ITAB Institute of Advanced Biomedical Technologies, Chieti (Italy); Cotroneo, A.R.; Uncini, A. [University ' ' G. d' Annunzio' ' , Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, Chieti (Italy); Papinutto, N.; Henry, R.G. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Neurology, San Francisco, CA (United States)
2017-08-15
The aim of this prospective study was to determine the feasibility in terms of repeatability and reproducibility of diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) for microstructural assessment of the normal cervical spinal cord (cSC) using a phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) sequence as the anatomical reference for accurately defining white-matter (WM) and gray-matter (GM) regions of interests (ROIs). Thirteen young healthy subjects were enrolled to undergo DKI and PSIR sequences in the cSC. The repeatability and reproducibility of kurtosis metrics and fractional anisotropy (FA) were calculated in GM, WM, and cerebral-spinal-fluid (CSF) ROIs drawn by two independent readers on PSIR images of three different levels (C1-C4). The presence of statistically significant differences in DKI metrics for levels, ROIs (GM, WM, and CSF) repeatability, reproducibility, and inter-reader agreement was evaluated. Intra-class correlation coefficients between the two readers ranged from good to excellent (0.75 to 0.90). The inferior level consistently had the highest concordance. The lower values of scan-rescan variability for all DKI parameters were found for the inferior level. Statistically significant differences in kurtosis values were not found in the lateral white-matter bundles of the spinal cord. The integration of DKI and PSIR sequences in a clinical MR acquisition to explore the regional microstructure of the cSC in healthy subjects is feasible, and the results obtainable are reproducible. Further investigation will be required to verify the possibility to translate this method to a clinical setting to study patients with SC involvement especially in the absence of MRI abnormalities on standard sequences. (orig.)
Evaluation of chondromalacia of the patella with axial inversion recovery-fast spin-echo imaging.
Lee, S H; Suh, J S; Cho, J; Kim, S J; Kim, S J
2001-03-01
The purpose of our study was to assess the accuracy of inversion recovery-fast spin-echo (IR-FSE) imaging for the evaluation of chondromalacia of the patella. Eighty-six patients were included, they underwent magnetic resonance (MR) examination and subsequent knee arthroscopy. Medial and lateral facets of the patella were evaluated separately. Axial images were obtained by using IR-FSE (TR/TE/TI = 3000/25/150 msec; echo train length, 8; 4-mm thickness; 12-cm field of view; 512 x 256 matrix; two, number of excitations) with a 1.5-T MR machine. MR interpretation of chondromalacia was made on the basis of the arthroscopic grading system. Of a total of 172 facets graded, arthroscopy revealed chondromalacia in 14 facets with various grades (G0, 158; G1, 1; G2, 3; G3, 6; G4, 4). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in the chondromalacia grades were 57.1%, 93.0%, and 90.1%, respectively. There was one false-negative case (G4) and 11 false-positive cases (G1, eight; G2, two; G3, one). Sensitivity and specificity corrected by one grade difference were improved to 85.7% and 98.1%, respectively. When cartilage changes were grouped into early (corresponding to grade 1 and 2) and advanced (grade 3 and 4) diseases, sensitivity and specificity of the early and advanced diseases were 75% and 94% and 80% and 99%, respectively. IR-FSE imaging of the knee revealed high specificity but low sensitivity for the evaluation of chondromalacia of the patella.
Varga-Szemes, Akos; van der Geest, Rob J; Spottiswoode, Bruce S; Suranyi, Pal; Ruzsics, Balazs; De Cecco, Carlo N; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; Cannaò, Paola M; Fox, Mary A; Wichmann, Julian L; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Schoepf, U Joseph
2016-02-01
To compare the accuracy of detection and quantification of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) with a synthetic inversion-recovery (IR) approach with that of conventional IR techniques. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and compliant with HIPAA. All patients gave written informed consent. Between June and November 2014, 43 patients (25 men; mean age, 54 years ± 16) suspected of having previous myocardial infarction underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, including contrast material-enhanced LGE imaging and T1 mapping. Synthetic magnitude and phase-sensitive IR images were generated on the basis of T1 maps. Images were assessed by two readers. Differences in the per-patient and per-segment LGE detection rates between the synthetic and conventional techniques were analyzed with the McNemar test, and the accuracy of LGE quantification was calculated with the paired t test and Bland-Altman statistics. Interreader agreement for the detection and quantification of LGE was analyzed with κ and Bland-Altman statistics, respectively. Seventeen of the 43 patients (39%) had LGE patterns consistent with myocardial infarction. The sensitivity and specificity of synthetic magnitude and phase-sensitive IR techniques in the detection of LGE were 90% and 95%, respectively, with patient-based analysis and 94% and 99%, respectively, with segment-based analysis. The area of LGE measured with synthetic IR techniques showed excellent agreement with that of conventional techniques (4.35 cm(2) ± 1.88 and 4.14 cm(2)± 1.62 for synthetic magnitude and phase-sensitive IR, respectively, compared with 4.25 cm(2) ± 1.92 and 4.22 cm(2) ± 1.86 for conventional magnitude and phase-sensitive IR, respectively; P > .05). Interreader agreement was excellent for the detection (κ > 0.81) and quantification (bias range, -0.34 to 0.40; P > .05) of LGE. The accuracy of the T1 map-based synthetic IR approach in the detection and quantification of
Modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) for high-resolution T1 mapping of the heart.
Messroghli, Daniel R; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Kozerke, Sebastian; Higgins, David M; Sivananthan, Mohan U; Ridgway, John P
2004-07-01
A novel pulse sequence scheme is presented that allows the measurement and mapping of myocardial T1 in vivo on a 1.5 Tesla MR system within a single breath-hold. Two major modifications of conventional Look-Locker (LL) imaging are introduced: 1) selective data acquisition, and 2) merging of data from multiple LL experiments into one data set. Each modified LL inversion recovery (MOLLI) study consisted of three successive LL inversion recovery (IR) experiments with different inversion times. We acquired images in late diastole using a single-shot steady-state free-precession (SSFP) technique, combined with sensitivity encoding to achieve a data acquisition window of T1 using signal intensities from regions of interest and pixel by pixel. T1 accuracy at different heart rates derived from simulated ECG signals was tested in phantoms. T1 estimates showed small systematic error for T1 values from 191 to 1196 ms. In vivo T1 mapping was performed in two healthy volunteers and in one patient with acute myocardial infarction before and after administration of Gd-DTPA. T1 values for myocardium and noncardiac structures were in good agreement with values available from the literature. The region of infarction was clearly visualized. MOLLI provides high-resolution T1 maps of human myocardium in native and post-contrast situations within a single breath-hold. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Takezako, Takanobu; Unal, Hamiyet; Karnik, Sadashiva S; Node, Koichi
2015-09-01
Ligand-independent signaling by the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) can be activated in clinical settings by mechanical stretch and autoantibodies as well as receptor mutations. Transition of the AT1R to the activated state is known to lower inverse agonistic efficacy of clinically used AT1R blockers (ARBs). The structure-function basis for reduced efficacy of inverse agonists is a fundamental aspect that has been understudied not only in relation to the AT1R but also regarding other homologous receptors. Here, we demonstrate that the active-state transition in the AT1R indeed attenuates an inverse agonistic effect of four biphenyl-tetrazole ARBs through changes in specific ligand-receptor interactions. In the ground state, tight interactions of four ARBs with a set of residues (Ser109(TM3), Phe182(ECL2), Gln257(TM6), Tyr292(TM7), and Asn295(TM7)) results in potent inverse agonism. In the activated state, the ARB-AT1R interactions shift to a different set of residues (Val108(TM3), Ser109(TM3), Ala163(TM4), Phe182(ECL2), Lys199(TM5), Tyr292(TM7), and Asn295(TM7)), resulting in attenuated inverse agonism. Interestingly, V108I, A163T, N295A, and F182A mutations in the activated state of the AT1R shift the functional response to the ARB binding toward agonism, but in the ground state the same mutations cause inverse agonism. Our data show that the second extracellular loop is an important regulator of the functional states of the AT1R. Our findings suggest that the quest for discovering novel ARBs, and improving current ARBs, fundamentally depends on the knowledge of the unique sets of residues that mediate inverse agonistic potency in the two states of the AT1R. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Bhattacharya, Jishnu; Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Birch, Aaron C.; Gizon, Laurent
2017-11-01
Aims: We develop a helioseismic inversion algorithm that can be used to recover subsurface vertical profiles of two-dimensional supergranular flows from surface measurements of synthetic wave travel times. Methods: We carried out seismic wave-propagation simulations with a two-dimensional section of a flow profile that resembles an average supergranule and a starting model that only has flows at the surface. We assumed that the wave measurements are entirely without realization noise for the purpose of our test. We expanded the vertical profile of the supergranule stream function on a basis of B-splines. We iteratively updated the B-spline coefficients of the supergranule model to reduce the travel-time differences observed between the two simulations. We performed the exercise for four different vertical profiles peaking at different depths below the solar surface. Results: We are able to accurately recover depth profiles of four supergranule models at depths up to 8-10 Mm below the solar surface using f-p4 modes under the assumption that there is no realization noise. We are able to obtain the peak depth and the depth of the return flow for each model. Conclusions: A basis-resolved inversion performs significantly better than an inversion in which the flow field is inverted at each point in the radial grid. This is an encouraging result and might act as a guide in developing more realistic inversion strategies that can be applied to supergranular flows in the Sun.
Terekhov, Maxim; Krummenacker, Jan; Denysenkov, Vasyl; Gerz, Kathrin; Prisner, Thomas; Schreiber, Laura Maria
2016-03-01
Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) allows the production of liquid hyperpolarized substrate inside the MRI magnet bore as well as its administration in continuous flow mode to acquire MR images with enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. We implemented inversion recovery preparation in order to improve contrast-to-noise ratio and to quantify the overall imaging performance of Overhauser DNP-enhanced MRI. The negative enhancement created by DNP in combination with inversion recovery (IR) preparation allows canceling selectively the signal originated from Boltzmann magnetization and visualizing only hyperpolarized fluid. The theoretical model describing gain of MR image intensity produced by steady-state continuous flow DNP hyperpolarized magnetization was established and proved experimentally. A precise quantification of signal originated purely from DNP hyperpolarization was achieved. A temperature effect on longitudinal relaxation had to be taken into account to fit experimental results with numerical prediction. Using properly adjusted IR preparation, the complete zeroing of thermal background magnetization was achieved, providing an essential increase of contrast-to-noise ratio of DNP-hyperpolarized water images. To quantify and optimize the steady-state conditions for MRI with continuous flow DNP, an approach similar to that incorporating transient-state thermal magnetization equilibrium in spoiled fast field echo imaging sequences can be used. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Recovery of material parameters of soft hyperelastic tissue by an inverse spectral technique
Gou, Kun
2012-07-01
An inverse spectral method is developed for recovering a spatially inhomogeneous shear modulus for soft tissue. The study is motivated by a novel use of the intravascular ultrasound technique to image arteries. The arterial wall is idealized as a nonlinear isotropic cylindrical hyperelastic body. A boundary value problem is formulated for the response of the arterial wall within a specific class of quasistatic deformations reflective of the response due to imposed blood pressure. Subsequently, a boundary value problem is developed via an asymptotic construction modeling intravascular ultrasound interrogation which generates small amplitude, high frequency time harmonic vibrations superimposed on the static finite deformation. This leads to a system of second order ordinary Sturm-Liouville boundary value problems that are then employed to reconstruct the shear modulus through a nonlinear inverse spectral technique. Numerical examples are demonstrated to show the viability of the method. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
2012-01-01
Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any oenalty for failing to comply with...MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ARO 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER Michael Klibanov 704-687...Report Number Quantitative image recovery from measured blin Block 13: Supplementary Note © 2012 . Published in IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND
On an inverse source problem for enhanced oil recovery by wave motion maximization in reservoirs
Karve, Pranav M.
2014-12-28
© 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. We discuss an optimization methodology for focusing wave energy to subterranean formations using strong motion actuators placed on the ground surface. The motivation stems from the desire to increase the mobility of otherwise entrapped oil. The goal is to arrive at the spatial and temporal description of surface sources that are capable of maximizing mobility in the target reservoir. The focusing problem is posed as an inverse source problem. The underlying wave propagation problems are abstracted in two spatial dimensions, and the semi-infinite extent of the physical domain is negotiated by a buffer of perfectly-matched-layers (PMLs) placed at the domain’s truncation boundary. We discuss two possible numerical implementations: Their utility for deciding the tempo-spatial characteristics of optimal wave sources is shown via numerical experiments. Overall, the simulations demonstrate the inverse source method’s ability to simultaneously optimize load locations and time signals leading to the maximization of energy delivery to a target formation.
Reich, C A; Hudgins, P A; Sheppard, S K; Starr, P A; Bakay, R A
2000-05-01
A fast spin-echo inversion-recovery (FSE-IR) sequence is described for its utility regarding surgical planning for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who are undergoing microelectrode-guided internal globus pallidus (GPi) ablation. Images from thirty-seven adult patients with PD were reviewed and visualization of the GPi, globus pallidus externa (GPe), and the intervening lamina was noted. High-resolution images were acquired from all patients despite the external hardware and the patients' movement disorder. In all cases, the conventional surgical trajectory, determined indirectly by a fixed measurement from the anteroposterior commissure line, was modified by the ability to visualize the GPi and optic tract directly. This sequence facilitated accurate stereotactic targeting.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ruscher, Karsten; Kuric, Enida; Liu, Yawei
2013-01-01
cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12). To mimic beneficial effects of EE, we studied the impact of inhibiting CXCL12 action on functional recovery after transient MCAO (tMCAO). Rats treated with the specific CXCL12 receptor antagonist 1-[4-(1,4,8,11-tetrazacyclotetradec-1-ylmethyl)phenyl]methyl]-1......After stroke, brain inflammation in the ischemic hemisphere hampers brain tissue reorganization and functional recovery. Housing rats in an enriched environment (EE) dramatically improves recovery of lost neurologic functions after experimental stroke. We show here that rats housed in EE after......,4,8,11-tetrazacyclo-tetradecan (AMD3100) showed improved recovery compared with saline-treated rats after tMCAO, without a concomitant reduction in infarct size. This was accompanied by a reduction of infiltrating immune cells in the ischemic hemisphere, particularly cluster of differentiation 3-positive (CD3...
High intensity and reduced volume training attenuates stress and recovery levels in elite swimmers.
Elbe, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Camilla P; Nielsen, Glen; Nordsborg, Nikolai B
2016-01-01
This study investigated the effect of increased high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume on the stress and recovery levels of elite swimmers. Forty-one elite swimmers participated in the study and were randomly assigned to either a HIT or a control group (CON). Eleven swimmers did not complete the questionnaires. For 12 weeks both groups trained ~12 h per week. The amount of HIT was ~5 h vs. 1 h, and total distance was ~17 km vs. ~35 km per week for HIT and CON, respectively. HIT was performed as 6-10 × 10-30 s maximal effort interspersed by 2-4 min of rest. The Recovery Stress Questionnaire - Sport was used to measure the swimmers' stress and recovery levels. After the 12 week intervention, the general stress level was 16.6% (2.6-30.7%; mean and 95% CI) lower and the general recovery level was 6.5% (0.7-12.4%) higher in HIT compared to the CON, after adjusting for baseline values. No significant effects could be observed in sports-specific stress or sports-specific recovery. The results indicate that increasing training intensity and reducing training volume for 12 weeks can reduce general stress and increase general recovery levels in competitive swimmers.
Improved segmented modified Look-Locker inversion recovery T1 mapping sequence in mice.
Nezafat, Maryam; Ramos, Isabel T; Henningsson, Markus; Protti, Andrea; Basha, Tamer; Botnar, René M
2017-01-01
To develop and evaluate a 2D modified Look-Locker (MOLLI) for high-resolution T1 mapping in mice using a 3T MRI scanner. To allow high-resolution T1 mapping in mice at high heart rates a multi-shot ECG-triggered 2D MOLLI sequence was developed. In the proposed T1 mapping sequence the optimal number of sampling points and pause cardiac cycles following an initial adiabatic inversion pulse was investigated in a phantom. Seven native control and eight mice, 3 days post myocardial infarction (MI) after administration of gadolinium were scanned. Two experienced readers graded the visual T1 map quality. In T1 phantoms, there were no significant differences (T1 mapping sequence for short T1's (T1 value of myocardium in control animal was 820.5±52 ms. The post-contrast T1 measured 3 days after MI in scar was 264±59 ms and in healthy myocardium was 512±62 ms. The Bland-Altman analysis revealed mean difference of only -1.06% of infarct size percentage between T1 maps and LGE. A multi-shot 2D MOLLI sequence has been presented that allows reliable measurement of high spatial resolution T1 maps in mice for heart rates up to 600bpm.
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Morimoto, Emiko; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Mori, Nobuyuki [Tenri Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tenri, Nara (Japan); Matsumoto, Riki; Ikeda, Akio; Takahashi, Ryosuke [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Kyoto (Japan); Mikuni, Nobuhiro [Sapporo Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kunieda, Takeharu; Miyamoto, Susumu [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto (Japan); Paul, Dominik [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany)
2013-01-15
To investigate the diagnostic capability of anterior temporal lobe white matter abnormal signal (ATLAS) for determining seizure focus laterality in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) by comparing different MR sequences. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and written informed consent was obtained. Three 3D sequences (double inversion recovery (DIR), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI)) and two 2D sequences (FLAIR and T2WI) were acquired at 3 T. Signal changes in the anterior temporal white matter of 21 normal volunteers were evaluated. ATLAS laterality was evaluated in 21 TLE patients. Agreement of independent evaluations by two neuroradiologists was assessed using {kappa} statistics. Differences in concordance between ATLAS laterality and clinically defined seizure focus laterality were analysed using McNemar's test with multiple comparisons. Pre-amygdala high signals (PAHS) were detected in all volunteers only on 3D-DIR. Inter-evaluator agreement was moderate to almost perfect for each sequence. Correct diagnosis of seizure laterality was significantly more frequent on 3D-DIR than on any other sequences (P {<=} 0.031 for each evaluator). The most sensitive sequence for detecting ATLAS laterality was 3D-DIR. ATLAS laterality on 3D-DIR can be a good indicator for determining seizure focus localization in TLE. (orig.)
High intensity and reduced volume training attenuates stress and recovery levels in elite swimmers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elbe, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Camilla P; Nielsen, Glen
2016-01-01
This study investigated the effect of increased high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume on the stress and recovery levels of elite swimmers. Forty-one elite swimmers participated in the study and were randomly assigned to either a HIT or a control group (CON...... for baseline values. No significant effects could be observed in sports-specific stress or sports-specific recovery. The results indicate that increasing training intensity and reducing training volume for 12 weeks can reduce general stress and increase general recovery levels in competitive swimmers.......). Eleven swimmers did not complete the questionnaires. For 12 weeks both groups trained ~12 h per week. The amount of HIT was ~5 h vs. 1 h, and total distance was ~17 km vs. ~35 km per week for HIT and CON, respectively. HIT was performed as 6-10 × 10-30 s maximal effort interspersed by 2-4 min of rest...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kido, Tomoyuki, E-mail: tomozo0421@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Kido, Teruhito; Nakamura, Masashi; Kawaguchi, Naoto; Nishiyama, Yoshiko [Department of Radiology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Ogimoto, Akiyoshi [Department of Cardiovascular Internal Medicine, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Miyagawa, Masao; Mochizuki, Teruhito [Department of Radiology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)
2014-12-15
Highlights: • We evaluate 3D PSIR compared with 3D IR for the detection of myocardial scars. • In image quality, there was no significant difference between IR and PSIR. • A quantitative analysis of LGE volume shows a strong correlation between PSIR and IR. • PSIR detected greater LGE volume in non-ischemic cardiomyopathy patients than IR. • PSIR may have a specific role in scar evaluation of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. - Abstract: Background: Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful technique for detecting myocardial fibrosis. LGE images are typically acquired using the inversion recovery (IR) method. Recently, phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) technology has been developed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate free-breathing 3D PSIR sequencing in comparison with breath-held 3D IR sequencing for the detection of myocardial fibrosis. Methods: One hundred twenty-three patients with suspected ischemic cardiac disease (n = 27) or non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, n = 29; dilated cardiomyopathy, n = 22; sarcoidosis, n = 21; arrhythmia, n = 9; myocarditis, n = 4; amyloidosis, n = 3; and others, n = 8) were evaluated by LGE–MRI, which was performed first with the IR sequence and then with the PSIR sequence, using a 3 T MRI scanner. Image quality was scored by two independent readers using a four-point scale. The 3D LGE volume was analyzed quantitatively and compared between both sequencing methods. Results: There was no significant difference in overall image quality (p = 0.19). LGE was detected in 73 patients, who were evaluated visually. Ultimately, 58 patients with acceptable image quality were enrolled in further quantitative analyses (volume assessment). Although quantification of LGE volume revealed a strong correlation between both methods, larger LGE volumes were detected with PSIR compared to IR in patients suspected of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (39.5 ± 25.9 cm{sup 3} for
Coebergh, J.A.F.; Roosendaal, S.D.; Polman, C.H.; Geurts, J.J.G.; van Woerkom, T.C.A.M.
2010-01-01
We present the case of a 21-year-old woman with acute memory impairment. It was initially not recognized as organic in nature. Repeated neuropsychological testing confirmed severely disturbed encoding and recall. Three-dimensional double inversion recovery (3D-DIR) MRI confirmed hippocampal and
Model-based T1mapping with sparsity constraints using single-shot inversion-recovery radial FLASH.
Wang, Xiaoqing; Roeloffs, Volkert; Klosowski, Jakob; Tan, Zhengguo; Voit, Dirk; Uecker, Martin; Frahm, Jens
2018-02-01
To develop a model-based reconstruction technique for single-shot T 1 mapping with high spatial resolution, accuracy, and precision using an inversion-recovery (IR) fast low-angle shot (FLASH) acquisition with radial encoding. The proposed model-based reconstruction jointly estimates all model parameters, that is, the equilibrium magnetization, steady-state magnetization, 1/ T1*, and all coil sensitivities from the data of a single-shot IR FLASH acquisition with a small golden-angle radial trajectory. Joint sparsity constraints on the parameter maps are exploited to improve the performance of the iteratively regularized Gauss-Newton method chosen for solving the nonlinear inverse problem. Validations include both a numerical and experimental T 1 phantom, as well as in vivo studies of the human brain and liver at 3 T. In comparison to previous reconstruction methods for single-shot T 1 mapping, which are based on real-time MRI with pixel-wise fitting and a model-based approach with a predetermination of coil sensitivities, the proposed method presents with improved robustness against phase errors and numerical precision in both phantom and in vivo studies. The comprehensive model-based reconstruction with L1 regularization offers rapid and robust T 1 mapping with high accuracy and precision. The method warrants accelerated computing and online implementation for extended clinical trials. Magn Reson Med 79:730-740, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Mild hypercapnia with hyperventilation attenuates recovery from anesthesia in elderly patients.
Nakai, Kishiko; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Kushikata, Tetsuya; Kimura, Futoshi; Kitayama, Masatou; Ishihara, Hironori; Hirota, Kazuyoshi
2013-10-01
Mild hypercapnia with hyperventilation has been reported to significantly decrease recovery time from inhaled anesthesia in young and middle-aged patients. However, its efficacy has not yet been clarified in elderly patients, although delayed emergence can deteriorate their quality of recovery. We enrolled 30 elderly patients (≥65 years) and 30 middle-aged patients (45-64 years) who were scheduled for ophthalmic surgery and allocated them to the control or the device group. Anesthesia was maintained with 1.5% sevoflurane. Mild hypercapnic hyperventilation was induced by the ANEclear anesthesia recovery device. The primary outcome was the time from vaporizer shut-off to initial response (eye or mouth opening, nodding, or grasping hand) in elderly patients. The secondary outcomes were the time to extubation and leaving the operating room (OR), the time to reach 50% of the difference between BIS at extubation and vaporizer shut-off (BIS ET50), and interaction between the recovery measures and patient age. The ANEclear significantly reduced the time to initial response, extubation, leaving the OR, and BIS ET50 in both age groups: their means and 95% CI of the ratio of two means (Mean(ANEclear)/Mean(control)) were 0.576 (0.500, 0.660), 0.595 (0.523, 0.673), 0.713 (0.622, 0.812), and 0.547 (0.444, 0.663), respectively, in the elderly group, and 0.717 (0.591, 0.849), 0.723 (0.609, 0.842), 0.855 (0.736, 0.982), and 0.631 (0.463, 0.813), respectively, in the middle-aged group. The recovery measures were shortened equally in both age groups: P values for the interaction were 0.060679, 0.062534, 0.069215, and 0.420061, respectively. Recovery time was significantly decreased by the ANEclear in the elderly group. This reduction was comparable to the time for middle-aged patients.
T1 mapping in the rat myocardium at 7 tesla using a modified CINE inversion recovery sequence.
Smit, Henk; Guridi, Ruben Pellicer; Guenoun, Jamal; Poot, Dirk H J; Doeswijk, Gabriela N; Milanesi, Matteo; Bernsen, Monique R; Krestin, Gabriel P; Klein, Stefan; Kotek, Gyula
2014-04-01
To evaluate the reproducibility and sensitivity of the modified CINE inversion recovery (mCINE-IR) acquisition on rats for measuring the myocardial T1 at 7 Tesla. The recently published mCINE-IR acquisition on humans was applied on rats for the first time, enabling the possibility of translational studies with an identical sequence. Simulations were used to study signal evolution and heart rate dependency. Gadolinium phantoms, a heart specimen and a healthy rat were used to study reproducibility. Two cryo-infarcted rats were scanned to measure late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). In the phantom reproducibility studies the T1 measurements had a maximum coefficient of variation (COV) of 1.3%. For the in vivo reproducibility the COV was below 5% in the anterior cardiac segments. In simulations with phantoms and specimens, a heart rate dependency of approximately 0.5 ms/bpm was present. The T1 maps of the cryo-infarcted rats showed a clear lowering of T1 in de LGE region. The results show that mCINE-IR is highly reproducible and that the sensitivity allows detecting T1 changes in the rat myocardium. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Bandai, Hideki; Tsunoda, Akira; Mitsuoka, Hideyuki; Arai, Hajime; Sato, Kiyoshi [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Makita, Junichi
2002-01-01
The fast inversion recovery (IR) technique was evaluated for the localization of gliomas. Fast IR imaging with real reconstruction and T{sub 1}-weighted spin echo (SE) imaging before and after contrast administration were performed in 20 patients with gliomas. The tumor-to-white matter contrast ratio (TWCR), tumor-to-gray matter contrast ratio (TGCR), tumor-to-white matter contrast-to-noise ratio (TWCNR), and tumor-to-gray matter contrast-to-noise ratio (TGCNR) were calculated and compared. Fast IR imaging visualized tumors with significantly higher TWCR, TGCR, TWCNR, and TGCNR values (p<0.01) than those for T{sub 1}-weighted SE imaging. In particular, fast IR imaging clearly revealed seven non-enhanced tumors that were poorly visualized on T{sub 1}-weighted SE imaging. Fast IR imaging showed a similar TGCR and significantly higher TWCR (p<0.01) compared to T{sub 1}-weighted SE imaging with contrast medium in 13 enhanced tumors. However, fast IR imaging showed similar TWCNR and lower TGCNR compared to T{sub 1}-weighted SE imaging with contrast medium. The fast IR technique can discriminate tumors from normal cerebral tissues with high contrast and without the use of contrast medium. This technique is extremely useful for the localization of non-enhanced tumors. (author)
Xu, Xueqin; Lin, Xiaozhu; Huang, Juan; Pan, Zhaocheng; Zhu, Xiaolei; Chen, Kemin; Zee, Chi-Shing; Yan, Fuhua
2017-10-01
To assess the capability of inflow inversion recovery (IFIR) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), compared with contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) as reference standard, in evaluating renal artery stenosis (RAS). Seventy-two subjects were examined by IFIR MRA with respiratory-gated, prior to CE-MRA with a 1.5-T scanner. Two readers evaluated the quality of IFIR MRA images and renal artery depiction on artery-by-artery basis. The agreement of two methods to assess RAS was analyzed using the Kappa test. The relationship between image quality of IFIR MRA and respiratory rate was analyzed by ANOVA test. The visibility of renal artery branch vessels was significantly higher using IFIR MRA than CE-MRA (p < 0.05). A good agreement of two methods in evaluating stenosis grade, and a near-perfect inter-observer agreement for IFIR MRA (Kappa value 0.98) and CE-MRA (Kappa value 0.93), were demonstrated. As RAS ≥50%, the sensitivity and specificity of IFIR MRA were 92 and 98% in reader 1, 93 and 98% in reader 2, respectively. The image quality was significantly better in patients with stable respiration (p < 0.01). IFIR MRA in patients with stable respiration has higher visibility of renal artery branch vessels than CE-MRA, and a good agreement with CE-MRA in evaluating stenosis grade. It could be used to evaluate RAS for screening, and monitoring treatment.
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Tortora, Fabio; Belfiore, Maria Paola; Romano, Francesco; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Cirillo, Sossio [' ' F. Magrassi-A. Lanzara' ' Second University, Naples (Italy). Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Surgery; Prudente, Mariaevelina [Second University, Naples (Italy). Medicine Dept.; Vita Salute San Raffaele Univ., Milan (Italy). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Cirillo, Mario [Second University, Naples (Italy). Neuroradiological Services; Elefante, Andrea [Federic II Univ., Naples (Italy). Neuroradilogical Dept.; Carella, Carlo [Polidiagnostic Center Check-Up, Salerno (Italy)
2014-05-15
In Graves' Ophthalmopathy, it is important to distinguish active inflammatory phase, responsive to immunosuppressive treatment, from fibrotic unresponsive inactive one. The purpose of this study is, first, to identify the relevant orbital magnetic resonance imaging signal intensities before treatment, so to classify patients according to their clinical activity score (CAS), discriminating inactive (CAS < 3) from active Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO) (CAS > 3) subjects and, second, to follow post-steroid treatment disease. An observational study was executed on 32 GO consecutive patients in different phases of disease, based on clinical and orbital Magnetic Resonance Imaging parameters, compared to 32 healthy volunteers. Orbital Magnetic Resonance Imaging was performed on a 1.5 tesla Magnetic Resonance Unit by an experienced neuroradiologist blinded to the clinical examinations. In pre-therapy patients, compared to controls, a medial rectus muscle statistically significant signal intensity ratio (SIR) in short-time inversion recovery (STIR) (long TR/TE) sequence was found, as well as when comparing patients before and after treatment, both medial and inferior rectus muscle SIR resulted significantly statistically different in STIR. These increased outcomes explain the inflammation oedematous phase of disease, moreover after steroid administration, compared to controls; patients presented lack of that statistically significant difference, thus suggesting treatment effectiveness. In our study, we proved STIR signal intensities increase in inflammation oedematous phase, confirming STIR sequence to define active phase of disease with more sensibility and reproducibility than CAS alone and to evaluate post-therapy involvement. (orig.)
Yasokawa, Kazuya; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Akira; Hayashida, Minoru; Tanimoto, Daigo; Higaki, Atsushi; Noda, Yasufumi; Kido, Ayumu
2015-11-01
To investigate the feasibility of noncontrast-enhanced cine dynamic magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) with a spatially selective inversion-recovery (IR) pulse for evaluating exocrine pancreatic function in comparison with the N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid (BT-PABA) test as a pancreatic exocrine function test. Twenty subjects with or without chronic pancreatitis were included. MRCP with a spatially selective IR pulse was repeated every 15 seconds for 5 minutes to acquire a total of 20 images (cine-dynamic MRCP). The median and mean frequency of the observation (the number of times) and the moving distance (mean secretion grading scores) of pancreatic juice inflow on cine-dynamic MRCP were compared with a BT-PABA test. The urinary PABA excretion rate (%) had significant positive correlations with both the mean secretion grade (r = 0.66, P = 0.002) and frequency of secretory inflow (r = 0.62, P = 0.004) in cine dynamic MRCP. Both the mean frequency of observations of pancreatic secretory inflow (1.4 ± 1.6 times vs. 14.3 ± 4.2 times, P Cine dynamic MRCP with a spatially selective IR pulse may have potential for estimating the pancreatic exocrine function noninvasively as a substitute for the BT-PABA test. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tortora, Fabio; Prudente, Mariaevelina; Cirillo, Mario; Elefante, Andrea; Belfiore, Maria Paola; Romano, Francesco; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Carella, Carlo; Cirillo, Sossio
2014-05-01
In Graves' Ophthalmopathy, it is important to distinguish active inflammatory phase, responsive to immunosuppressive treatment, from fibrotic unresponsive inactive one. The purpose of this study is, first, to identify the relevant orbital magnetic resonance imaging signal intensities before treatment, so to classify patients according to their clinical activity score (CAS), discriminating inactive (CAS 3) subjects and, second, to follow post-steroid treatment disease. An observational study was executed on 32 GO consecutive patients in different phases of disease, based on clinical and orbital Magnetic Resonance Imaging parameters, compared to 32 healthy volunteers. Orbital Magnetic Resonance Imaging was performed on a 1.5 tesla Magnetic Resonance Unit by an experienced neuroradiologist blinded to the clinical examinations. In pre-therapy patients, compared to controls, a medial rectus muscle statistically significant signal intensity ratio (SIR) in short-time inversion recovery (STIR) (long TR/TE) sequence was found, as well as when comparing patients before and after treatment, both medial and inferior rectus muscle SIR resulted significantly statistically different in STIR. These increased outcomes explain the inflammation oedematous phase of disease, moreover after steroid administration, compared to controls; patients presented lack of that statistically significant difference, thus suggesting treatment effectiveness. In our study, we proved STIR signal intensities increase in inflammation oedematous phase, confirming STIR sequence to define active phase of disease with more sensibility and reproducibility than CAS alone and to evaluate post-therapy involvement.
Shonai, Takaharu; Takahashi, Tadashi; Ikeguchi, Hiroaki; Miyazaki, Mitsue; Amano, Kiyoka; Yui, Masao
2009-06-01
To evaluate whether short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) fat suppression is worthwhile in non-contrast-enhanced respiration-triggered free-breathing time-spatial labeling inversion pulse (Time-SLIP) renal magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) compared with chemical shift selective (CHESS) fat suppression. Simulation-based analyses of inversion time (TI) for spatial-selective inversion-recovery (ssIR) pulse and breathing rate were performed, and confirmed on a phantom and in human subjects using a three-dimensional (3D) coherent steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequence on a 1.5T Toshiba scanner. The STIR fat suppression successfully suppressed signals from the intestines and parenchymous organs and provided better contrast between the arteries and the background, although an extension of TI was required for the ssIR pulse when a patient's respiration was extremely slow. STIR fat suppression provides better renal artery contrast than CHESS fat suppression in non-contrast free-breathing Time-SLIP MRA; it is also an effective screening tool for renal artery stenosis because of the lack of interference from intestinal signals. However, close attention is needed if the patient has slow respiration. As the TI for the ssIR pulse decreases, the STIR method requires faster-paced respiration.
Manzanero, Silvia; Erion, Joanna R; Santro, Tomislav; Steyn, Frederik J; Chen, Chen; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Stranahan, Alexis M
2014-05-01
Intermittent fasting (IF) is neuroprotective across a range of insults, but the question of whether extending the interval between meals alters neurogenesis after ischemia remains unexplored. We therefore measured cell proliferation, cell death, and neurogenesis after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or sham surgery (SHAM) in mice fed ad libitum (AL) or maintained on IF for 3 months. IF was associated with twofold reductions in circulating levels of the adipocyte cytokine leptin in intact mice, but also prevented further reductions in leptin after MCAO. IF/MCAO mice also exhibit infarct volumes that were less than half those of AL/MCAO mice. We observed a 30% increase in basal cell proliferation in the hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVZ) in IF/SHAM, relative to AL/SHAM mice. However, cell proliferation after MCAO was limited in IF mice, which showed twofold increases in cell proliferation relative to IF/SHAM, whereas AL/MCAO mice exhibit fivefold increases relative to AL/SHAM. Attenuation of stroke-induced neurogenesis was correlated with reductions in cell death, with AL/MCAO mice exhibiting twice the number of dying cells relative to IF/MCAO mice. These observations indicate that IF protects against neurological damage in ischemic stroke, with circulating leptin as one possible mediator.
Zábranová, Eliška; Matyska, Ctirad
2014-10-01
After the 2010 Maule and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes the spheroidal modes up to 1 mHz were clearly registered by the Global Geodynamic Project (GGP) network of superconducting gravimeters (SG). Fundamental parameters in synthetic calculations of the signals are the quality factors of the modes. We study the role of their uncertainties in the centroid-moment-tensor (CMT) inversions. First, we have inverted the SG data from selected GGP stations to jointly determine the quality factors of these normal modes and the three low-frequency CMT components, Mrr,(Mϑϑ-Mφφ)/2 and Mϑφ, that generate the observed SG signal. We have used several-days-long records to minimize the trade-off between the quality factors and the CMT but it was not eliminated completely. We have also inverted each record separately to get error estimates of the obtained parameters. Consequently, we have employed the GGP records of 60-h lengths for several published modal-quality-factor sets and inverted only the same three CMT components. The obtained CMT tensors are close to the solution from the joint Q-CMT inversion of longer records and resulting variability of the CMT components is smaller than differences among routine agency solutions. Reliable low-frequency CMT components can thus be obtained for any quality factors from the studied sets.
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Maha K. Abdel Ghaffar
2014-09-01
Conclusion: FLAIR MRI was more sensitive and more accurate in the diagnosis of acute SAH than CT scan, having a much higher negative predictive value to exclude acute SAH, however its positive predictive value was slightly lower than CT, but there was no statistically significant difference statistically between the two in diagnosis of SAH.
Freeze, W M; Schnerr, R S; Palm, W M; Jansen, J F; Jacobs, H I; Hoff, E I; Verhey, F R; Backes, W H
2017-09-01
Breakdown of BBB integrity occurs in dementia and may lead to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. We assessed whether extravasation of gadolinium chelate could be visualized on delayed postcontrast FLAIR images in older individuals with and without cognitive impairment. Seventy-four individuals participated in this study (15 with Alzheimer disease, 33 with mild cognitive impairment, and 26 with normal cognition). We assessed the appearance of pericortical enhancement after contrast administration, MR imaging markers of cerebrovascular damage, and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Three participants who were positive for pericortical enhancement (1 with normal cognition and 2 with mild cognitive impairment) were followed up for approximately 2 years. In vitro experiments with a range of gadolinium concentrations served to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the postcontrast FLAIR signals. Postcontrast pericortical enhancement was observed in 21 participants (28%), including 6 individuals with Alzheimer disease (40%), 10 with mild cognitive impairment (30%), and 5 with normal cognition (19%). Pericortical enhancement was positively associated with age (P enhanced signal remained stable across time in all follow-up cases. The in vitro measurements confirmed that FLAIR imaging is highly sensitive for the detection of low gadolinium concentrations in CSF, but not in cerebral tissue. Postcontrast pericortical enhancement on FLAIR images occurs in older individuals with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia. It may represent chronic focal superficial BBB leakage. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine its clinical significance. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Castro, Marcelo A.; Williford, Joshua P.; Cota, Martin R.; MacLaren, Judy M.; Dardzinski, Bernard J.; Latour, Lawrence L.; Pham, Dzung L.; Butman, John A.
2016-03-01
Traumatic meningeal injury is a novel imaging marker of traumatic brain injury, which appears as enhancement of the dura on post-contrast T2-weighted FLAIR images, and is likely associated with inflammation of the meninges. Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI provides a better discrimination of abnormally perfused regions. A method to properly identify those regions is presented. Images of seventeen patients scanned within 96 hours of head injury with positive traumatic meningeal injury were normalized and aligned. The difference between the pre- and last post-contrast acquisitions was segmented and voxels in the higher class were spatially clustered. Spatial and morphological descriptors were used to identify the regions of enhancement: a) centroid; b) distance to the brain mask from external voxels; c) distance from internal voxels; d) size; e) shape. The method properly identified thirteen regions among all patients. The method failed in one case due to the presence of a large brain lesion that altered the mask boundaries. Most false detections were correctly rejected resulting in a sensitivity and specificity of 92.9% and 93.6%, respectively.
Older Age as a Prognostic Factor of Attenuated Pain Recovery after Shoulder Arthroscopy
Simon, Corey B.; Riley, Joseph L.; Coronado, Rogelio A.; Valencia, Carolina; Wright, Thomas W.; Moser, Michael W.; Farmer, Kevin W.; George, Steven Z.
2015-01-01
Background Shoulder pain and surgery are common among older adults. However, the extent to which older age affects recovery after shoulder surgery is not well understood. Objective To assess influence of older age on post-operative recovery factors three and six months after shoulder arthroscopy. Design Prospective Cohort Study Setting Institutional Patients Convenience sample of 139 individuals between 20 and 79 years of age who experienced shoulder pain, musculoskeletal dysfunction based on imaging and physician assessment, and were scheduled for an arthroscopic shoulder procedure. Main Outcome Measures Post-operative outcomes were compared among younger, middle-aged and older adults at pre-surgery, 3 months and 6 months after surgery using ANOVA modeling. Movement-evoked pain and an experimental laboratory correlate of pain processing were assessed at each time point. Older age influence on three and six month pain outcomes were determined via multivariate regression analyses after accounting for pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative prognostic factors. Results Older adults had higher movement-evoked pain intensity (F2,108 = 5.18, p=.007) and experimental pain response (F2,111 = 7.24, p=.001) at three months compared to young and middle-aged adults. After controlling for key prognostic factors, older age remained a positive predictor of three-month movement-evoked pain (R2=.05; St. Beta=.263, p=.031) and experimental pain response (R2=.07; St. Beta=.295, p=.014). Further, older age remained a positive predictor of movement-evoked pain at six months (R2=.04; St. Beta=.231, p=.004), despite no age group differences in outcome. Older age was found to be the strongest predictor of three and six month movement-evoked pain. Conclusion Older adults may experience more pain related to movement as well as endogenous pain excitation in the first few months after shoulder arthroscopy. Future age-related research should consider use of movement-evoked pain
Gensler, Daniel; Mörchel, Philipp; Fidler, Florian; Ritter, Oliver; Quick, Harald H; Ladd, Mark E; Bauer, Wolfgang R; Ertl, Georg; Jakob, Peter M; Nordbeck, Peter
2015-03-01
To develop and validate a fast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging T1 mapping technique with high spatial resolution based on a radial inversion-recovery (IR) spoiled gradient-echo acquisition. Approval for the study was granted by the local institutional review board, and all subjects gave written informed consent. An electrocardiographically triggered radial single-shot IR (TRASSI) sequence was developed in conjunction with a custom-written fitting algorithm. The proposed imaging technique was validated in phantom measurements and then used for cardiac T1 mapping in 62 subjects with or without cardiac disease. The study population included 51 healthy subjects, three patients with arrhythmia, and eight patients with myocardial infarction. The potential heart rate dependency of the TRASSI method was tested by using linear regression analysis. Statistically significant differences between the sexes and various section orientations were analyzed with a Student t test for independent groups and a repeated-measures analysis of variance for dependent groups. High-spatial-resolution T1 maps (1.17 × 1.17 mm) without motion artifacts and without heart rate dependency (slope = -0.0303, R(2) = 0.0000887, P = .899) were acquired with an acquisition time of less than 6 seconds in all subjects. The mean T1 of healthy left ventricular myocardium across all examined subjects was 1031 msec ± 33 (standard deviation). Testing for reproducibility in three individuals with 34 repetitive measurements revealed a mean standard deviation of 4.1 msec (0.412%). Subacute and chronic myocardial infarction could be detected in all eight patients. T1 disturbances due to arrhythmia proved to be minimal in three patients (standard deviation, T1 mapping is feasible within a single-shot IR experiment.
Cameron, Donnie; Higgins, David M; Stehning, Christian; Kouwenhoven, Marc; Bouhrara, Mustapha; Frenneaux, Michael P; Dawson, Dana K; Redpath, Thomas W
2015-05-01
The purpose of this work was to evaluate different magnetization preparation and readout sequences for modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) toward improved T1 mapping in the heart. Elements investigated include: catalyzation sequences to prepare the magnetization before readout, alternate k-space trajectories, a spoiled gradient recalled echo readout, and a 5b(3b)3b MOLLI sampling scheme ('b' denoting beats). Conventional 3b(3b)3b(3b)5b MOLLI with a linear k-space trajectory was compared to four variants in simulations, in vitro and in vivo (at 3T). Variants were centric conventional MOLLI, centric-paired conventional MOLLI, linear 5b(3b)3b MOLLI and spoiled gradient recalled echo MOLLI. Each of these was applied with three magnetization catalyzation methods, and T1 measurement accuracy and precision were evaluated in simulations via a Monte Carlo algorithm, in a set of calibrated phantoms, and in ten healthy volunteers. Contrast-to-noise, heart rate dependence and B1+ dependence were also evaluated. A linear k-space trajectory was superior in vitro to centric and centric-paired trajectories. Of the catalyzation methods, preparation of transverse magnetization only-using a linearly increasing flip angle catalyzation-improved MOLLI T1 measurement accuracy, precision, and map quality versus methods that include catalyzation of the longitudinal magnetization. The 5b(3b)3b MOLLI scheme offered comparable native T1 measurement accuracy and precision to conventional MOLLI, despite its shortened acquisition. MOLLI T1 measurement accuracy, precision, and map quality depend on the method of catalyzation of magnetization prior to image acquisition, as well as on the readout method and MOLLI sampling scheme used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Domiziana Santucci
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare two short-tau inversion recovery (STIR sequences, Cartesian and radial (BLADE acquisitions, for breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examinations. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six women underwent 1.5 T breast MRI exam (48 Cartesian and 48 BLADE. Qualitative analysis including image artifacts, image quality, fat-suppression, chest-wall depiction, lesion detection, lymph node depiction and overall impression were evaluated by three blinded readers. Signal to noise ratios (SNRs were calculated. Cronbach's alpha test was used to assess inter-observer agreement. Subanalyses of image quality, chest-wall depiction and overall impression in 15 patients with implants and image quality in 31 patients with clips were correlated using Pearson test. Wilcoxon rank sum test and t-test were performed. Results: Motion artifacts were present in 100% and in 0% of the Cartesian and the BLADE exams, respectively. Chemical-shift artifacts were present in 8% of the Cartesian exams. Flow artifacts were more frequent on BLADE. BLADE sequence was statistically superior to Cartesian for all qualitative features (p < 0.05 except for fat-suppression (p = 0.054. In the subanalysis, BLADE was superior for implants and clips (p < 0.05. SNR was statistically greater for BLADE (48.35 vs. 16.17. Cronbach ranged from 0.502 to 0.813. Conclusion: BLADE appears to be superior to Cartesian acquisition of STIR imaging as measured by improved image quality, fewer artifacts, and improved chest wall and lymph node depiction.
Assimaki, D.; Tsuda, K.; Oakes, J.; Steidl, J.
2004-12-01
A seismic waveform inversion algorithm is demonstrated for the estimation of elastic soil properties from one-dimensional downhole array recordings. For a given bedrock motion, scarcity of near-surface geotechnical information, error propagation and limited resolution of the continuum usually result in predictions of surface ground motion that poorly compare with low amplitude observations. This discrepancy is further aggravated for strong ground motion, associated with hysteretic, nonlinear, and potentially irreversible material deformations. Seismogram inversion is a nonlinear multi-parameter optimization problem. Traditional search techniques that use characteristics of the problem to determine the next sampling point (e.g. gradients, Hessians, linearity and continuity) are computationally efficient, yet limited to convex regular functions. As a result, they fail to identify the best fit solution in seismogram inversion problems, when the starting model is too far from the global optimal solution. On the other hand, stochastic search techniques (e.g. genetic algorithms, simulated annealing) have been shown to efficiently identify promising regions in the search space, but perform very poorly in a localized search. The proposed inversion technique is a two-step process, namely a genetic algorithm in the wavelet domain in series with a nonlinear least-square fit in the frequency domain; we thus improve the computational efficiency of the former, while avoiding the pitfalls of using local linearization techniques such as the latter for the optimization of multi-modal, discontinuous and non-differentiable functions. The parameters to be estimated are stepwise variations of the shear modulus, attenuation and density with depth, for horizontally layered media with refined near-surface discretization. Equality constrains are imposed on the vector of unknowns to bound the search space, based on the available soil investigation. For the genetic algorithm, the objective
Harel, F; Génin, R; Daou, D; Lebtahi, R; Delahaye, N; Helal, B O; Le Guludec, D; Faraggi, M
2001-10-01
A lack of specificity for myocardial perfusion imaging has been widely reported, mostly related to false-positive defects on the inferior wall. The application of depth-dependent resolution recovery (RR), attenuation correction (AC) using external source devices, and scatter correction has been proposed to resolve this pitfall. We studied the clinical benefit of depth-dependent RR, nonuniform AC using a scanning line source, and scatter correction (photon energy recovery [PER]) compared with filtered backprojection alone. Eighty-two patients were included: 40 healthy volunteers with a low likelihood of coronary artery disease (control group) and 42 patients with proven right or circumflex coronary artery disease but without involvement of the left anterior descending artery. Among these 82 patients, the images of 33 were also processed with PER. RR did not alter the performance of filtered backprojection alone. AC + RR greatly improved specificity and the rate of normal (201)Tl SPECT findings in the control population (from 56% to 95% and from 53% to 100%, respectively) but significantly decreased sensitivity (from 92% to 54%). AC + RR generated a false anteroapical defect in 21% of patients and reverse redistribution of the apex in 23%. AC + RR significantly decreased the extent of the stress defect (from 4.09 to 3.21 segments, P anteroapical false-positives or the number of apical reverse distribution cases. AC + RR improved the specificity and normalcy rate of (201)Tl SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging but generated overcorrection on the inferior wall, leading to low sensitivity and to false evaluation of myocardial viability in 73% of the patients with inferior infarction. AC + RR also generated anteroapical artifacts. The addition of scatter correction did not significantly reduce these drawbacks.
Hamcan, Salih; Battal, Bilal; Akgun, Veysel; Oz, Oguzhan; Bozkurt, Yalcin; Tasdemir, Serdar; Sari, Sebahattin; Tasar, Mustafa
2017-02-01
To assess the usefulness of the visual assessment and to determine diagnostic value of the lesion-to-cerebral cortex signal ratio (LCSR) measurement in the differentiation of demyelinating plaques and non-specific T2 hyperintensities on double inversion recovery (DIR) sequence. DIR and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences of 25 clinically diagnosed multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and 25 non-MS patients with non-specific T2-hyperintense lesions were evaluated visually and LCSRs were measured by two observers independently. On DIR sequence, the calculated mean LCSR ± SD for demyelinating plaques and non-specific T2-hyperintense lesions were 1.60 ± 0.26 and 0.75 ± 0.19 for observer1, and 1.61 ± 0.27 and 0.74 ± 0.19 for observer2. LCSRs of demyelinating plaques were significantly higher than other non-specific T2-hyperintense lesions on DIR sequence. By using the visual assessment demyelinating plaques were differentiated from non-specific T2-hyperintensities with 92.8 % sensitivity, 97.5 % specificity and 95.1 % accuracy for observer1 and 92.8 % sensitivity, 95 % specificity and 93.9 % accuracy for observer2. Visual assessment and LCSR measurement on DIR sequence seems to be useful for differentiating demyelinating MS plaques from supratentorial non-specific T2 hyperintensities. This feature can be used for diagnosis of MS particularly in patients with only supratentorial T2-hyperintense lesions who are categorized as radiologically possible MS. • Demyelinating plaques and non-specific T2-hyperintensities have different SI on DIR images. • These differences can be assessed by LCSR measurement or visual assessment. • There is an excellent inter-observer agreement for both methods. • This feature can be used in radiologically possible MS cases.
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Hamcan, Salih; Battal, Bilal; Akgun, Veysel; Sari, Sebahattin; Tasar, Mustafa [Gulhane Military Medical School, Department of Radiology, Etlik, Ankara (Turkey); Oz, Oguzhan; Tasdemir, Serdar [Gulhane Military Medical School, Department of Neurology, Ankara (Turkey); Bozkurt, Yalcin [Golcuk Military Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kocaeli (Turkey)
2017-02-15
To assess the usefulness of the visual assessment and to determine diagnostic value of the lesion-to-cerebral cortex signal ratio (LCSR) measurement in the differentiation of demyelinating plaques and non-specific T2 hyperintensities on double inversion recovery (DIR) sequence. DIR and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences of 25 clinically diagnosed multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and 25 non-MS patients with non-specific T2-hyperintense lesions were evaluated visually and LCSRs were measured by two observers independently. On DIR sequence, the calculated mean LCSR ± SD for demyelinating plaques and non-specific T2-hyperintense lesions were 1.60 ± 0.26 and 0.75 ± 0.19 for observer1, and 1.61 ± 0.27 and 0.74 ± 0.19 for observer2. LCSRs of demyelinating plaques were significantly higher than other non-specific T2-hyperintense lesions on DIR sequence. By using the visual assessment demyelinating plaques were differentiated from non-specific T2-hyperintensities with 92.8 % sensitivity, 97.5 % specificity and 95.1 % accuracy for observer1 and 92.8 % sensitivity, 95 % specificity and 93.9 % accuracy for observer2. Visual assessment and LCSR measurement on DIR sequence seems to be useful for differentiating demyelinating MS plaques from supratentorial non-specific T2 hyperintensities. This feature can be used for diagnosis of MS particularly in patients with only supratentorial T2-hyperintense lesions who are categorized as radiologically possible MS. (orig.)
Raman, Fabio S; Kawel-Boehm, Nadine; Gai, Neville; Freed, Melanie; Han, Jing; Liu, Chia-Ying; Lima, Joao A C; Bluemke, David A; Liu, Songtao
2013-07-26
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 mapping indices, such as T1 time and partition coefficient (λ), have shown potential to assess diffuse myocardial fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate how scanner and field strength variation affect the accuracy and precision/reproducibility of T1 mapping indices. CMR studies were performed on two 1.5T and three 3T scanners. Eight phantoms were made to mimic the T1/T2 of pre- and post-contrast myocardium and blood at 1.5T and 3T. T1 mapping using MOLLI was performed with simulated heart rate of 40-100 bpm. Inversion recovery spin echo (IR-SE) was the reference standard for T1 determination. Accuracy was defined as the percent error between MOLLI and IR-SE, and scan/re-scan reproducibility was defined as the relative percent mean difference between repeat MOLLI scans. Partition coefficient was estimated by ΔR1myocardium phantom/ΔR1blood phantom. Generalized linear mixed model was used to compare the accuracy and precision/reproducibility of T1 and λ across field strength, scanners, and protocols. Field strength significantly affected MOLLI T1 accuracy (6.3% error for 1.5T vs. 10.8% error for 3T, p3T, p=0.11). Partition coefficients of MOLLI were not different between two 1.5T scanners (47.2% vs. 47.9%, p=0.13), and showed only slight variation across three 3T scanners (49.2% vs. 49.8% vs. 49.9%, p=0.016). Partition coefficient also had significantly lower percent error for precision (better scan/re-scan reproducibility) than measurement of individual T1 values (3.6% for λ vs. 4.3%-4.8% for T1 values, approximately, for pre/post blood and myocardium values). Based on phantom studies, T1 errors using MOLLI ranged from 6-14% across various MR scanners while errors for partition coefficient were less (6-10%). Compared with absolute T1 times, partition coefficient showed less variability across platforms and field strengths as well as higher precision.
Ratchatasettakul, Kanittha; Rattanasiri, Sasivimol; Promson, Kwannapa; Sringam, Pranee; Sobhonslidsuk, Abhasnee
2017-04-13
Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and liver stiffness (LS) measured by transient elastography (TE, Fibroscan®) have been used for steatosis and fibrosis assessment. We evaluated the effect of meal intake on CAP and LS values. Forty patients who had had a liver biopsy within the previous month were recruited. The biopsy was graded for fibrosis (F) and steatosis (S) stagings. TE was performed after overnight fasting (baseline values) and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min following the intake of a standard commercial formula meal, and every 30 min until LS and CAP values returned to baseline. The effect of meal intake on CAP and LS values was analyzed with a multilevel mixed model approach. The mean age was 53.1 ± 11.2 years old. The mean (SD) BMI was 25.6 ± 4.5 kg/m(2). F0, F1, F2, F3 and F4 fibrosis stages were found in 17 (42.5%), 9 (22.5%), 4 (10.0%), 8 (20.0%) and 2 (5.0%), respectively. S0, S1, S2 and S3 steatosis stages were seen in 22 (55.0%), 11 (27.5%), 4 (10.0%) and 3 (7.5%), respectively. The mean (SD) CAP and median (IQR) LS values at baseline were 249.7 ± 58.1 dB/m and 11.9 (6-18.1) kPa. A significant decrease in CAP values was observed in all patients 15 to 120 min after meals, with the CAP peak value at 60 min and the mean post-meal delta reduction of 18.1 dB/min. CAP values declined after meals at early fibrosis stages and across all stages of steatosis. A significant increase in LS values after meal intake was observed within 15 to 120 min, with the LS peak value at 15 min and the mean post-meal delta increase of 2.4 kPa. Post-meal CAP and LS values returned to baseline within 150 min following meals. Following a meal, patients' CAP values declined with the peak value at 60 min, contrasting with the rising of LS values with the peak value at 15 min. The post-meal CAP and LS values returned to baseline by 150 min. A fasting period of more than 150 min after a meal is recommended for patients undergoing TE.
Ao, Lihua; Zhai, Yufeng; Jin, Chunhua; Cleveland, Joseph C; Fullerton, David A; Meng, Xianzhong
2016-12-19
While cardiac functional recovery is attenuated in the elderly following cardiac surgery with obligatory global myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), the underlying mechanism remains incompletely understood. We observed previously that human and mouse myocardium releases heat shock protein (HSP) 27 during global I/R. Extracellular HSP27 induces myocardial inflammatory response and plays a role in post-ischemic cardiac dysfunction in adult mouse hearts. This study was to determine the role of extracellular HSP27 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the attenuated functional recovery in aging mouse hearts following global I/R. Hearts isolated from aging (18-24 months) and adult (4-6 months) mice were subjected to ex vivo global I/R. Augmented release of HSP27 in aging hearts is associated with greater production of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and worse functional recovery. Anti-HSP27 suppressed the inflammatory response and markedly improved functional recovery in aging hearts. Perfusion of recombinant HSP27 to aging hearts resulted in greater cytokine production and more severe contractile depression in comparison to adult hearts. TLR4 deficiency abolished cytokine production and functional injury in aging hearts exposed to recombinant HSP27. Interestingly, aging hearts had higher TLR4 protein levels and displayed enhanced TLR4-mediated NF-κB activation following HSP27 stimulation or I/R. Extracellular HSP27 and TLR4 jointly enhance the inflammatory response and hamper functional recovery following I/R in aging hearts. The enhanced inflammatory response to global I/R and attenuated post-ischemic functional recovery in aging hearts is due, at least in part, to augmented myocardial release of HSP27 and elevated myocardial TLR4 levels.
Ye, Fan; Mathur, Sunita; Liu, Min; Borst, Stephen E.; Walter, Glenn A.; Sweeney, H. Lee; Vandenborne, Krista
2014-01-01
Skeletal muscle is a highly dynamic tissue that responds to endogenous and external stimuli, including alterations in mechanical loading and growth factors. In particular, the antigravity soleus muscle experiences significant muscle atrophy during disuse and extensive muscle damage upon reloading. Since insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been implicated as a central regulator of muscle repair and modulation of muscle size, we examined the effect of viral mediated overexpression of IGF-1 on the soleus muscle following hindlimb cast immobilization and upon reloading. Recombinant IGF-1 cDNA virus was injected into one of the posterior hindlimbs of the mice, while the contralateral limb was injected with saline (control). At 20 weeks of age, both hindlimbs were immobilized for two weeks to induce muscle atrophy in the soleus and ankle plantar flexor muscle group. Subsequently, the mice were allowed to reambulate and muscle damage and recovery was monitored over a period of 2 to 21 days. The primary finding of this study was that IGF-1 overexpression attenuated reloading-induced muscle damage in the soleus muscle, and accelerated muscle regeneration and force recovery. Muscle T2 assessed by MRI, a nonspecific marker of muscle damage, was significantly lower in IGF-1 injected, compared to contralateral soleus muscles at 2 and 5 days reambulation (P<0.05). The reduced prevalence of muscle damage in IGF-1 injected soleus muscles was confirmed on histology, with a lower fraction area of abnormal muscle tissue in IGF-I injected muscles at 2 days reambulation (33.2±3.3%vs 54.1±3.6%, P<0.05). Evidence of the effect of IGF-1 on muscle regeneration included timely increases in the number of central nuclei (21% at 5 days reambulation), paired-box transcription factor 7 (36% at 5 days), embryonic myosin (37% at 10 days), and elevated MyoD mRNA (7-fold at 2 days) in IGF-1 injected limbs (P<0.05). These findings demonstrate a potential role of IGF-1 in protecting unloaded
Liu, Qing; Yan, Bryan P; Yu, Cheuk-Man; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Poon, Carmen C Y
2014-02-01
Pulse transit time (PTT) is a cardiovascular parameter of emerging interest due to its potential to estimate blood pressure (BP) continuously and without a cuff. Both linear and nonlinear equations have been used in the estimation of BP based on PTT. This study, however, demonstrates that there is a hysteresis phenomenon between BP and PTT during and after dynamic exercise. A total of 46 subjects including 16 healthy subjects, 13 subjects with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, and 17 patients with cardiovascular disease underwent graded exercise stress test. PTT was measured from electrocardiogram and photoplethysmogram of the left index finger of the subject, i.e., a pathway that includes predominately aorta, brachial, and radial arteries. The results of this study showed that, for the same systolic BP (SBP), PTT measured during exercise was significantly larger than PTT measured during recovery for all subject groups. This hysteresis was further quantified as both normalized area bounded by the SBP-PTT relationship (AreaN) and SBP difference at PTT during peak exercise plus 20 ms (ΔSBP20). Significant attenuation of both AreaN (p cardiovascular patients compared with healthy subjects, independent of resting BP. Since the SBP-PTT relationship are determined by the mechanical properties of arterial wall, which is predominately mediated by the sympathetic nervous system through altered vascular smooth muscle (VSM) tone during exercise, results of this study are consistent with the previous findings of autonomic nervous dysfunction in cardiovascular patients. We further conclude that VSM tone has a nonnegligible influence on the BP-PTT relationship and thus should be considered in the PTT-based BP estimation.
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Hausenloy Derek J
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial infarction (MI can be readily assessed using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Inversion recovery (IR sequences provide the highest contrast between enhanced infarct areas and healthy myocardium. Applying such methods to small animals is challenging due to rapid respiratory and cardiac rates relative to T1 relaxation. Methods Here we present a fast and robust protocol for assessing LGE in small animals using a multi-slice IR gradient echo sequence for efficient assessment of LGE. An additional Look-Locker sequence was used to assess the optimum inversion point on an individual basis and to determine most appropriate gating points for both rat and mouse. The technique was applied to two preclinical scenarios: i an acute (2 hour reperfused model of MI in rats and ii mice 2 days following non-reperfused MI. Results LGE images from all animals revealed clear areas of enhancement allowing for easy volume segmentation. Typical inversion times required to null healthy myocardium in rats were between 300-450 ms equivalent to 2-3 R-waves and ~330 ms in mice, typically 3 R-waves following inversion. Data from rats was also validated against triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and revealed close agreement for infarct size. Conclusion The LGE protocol presented provides a reliable method for acquiring images of high contrast and quality without excessive scan times, enabling higher throughput in experimental studies requiring reliable assessment of MI.
Estingoy, Pierrette; Gilliot, Élodie; Parisot, Clément
2015-01-01
The historical fatalism of the impossibility of recovering from psychosis eased from the 1970s with the shaping of the idea of a possible recovery. Recovery is today the objective for the patient and caregivers. The key to achieving this lies in the encounter with Others. A collective approach, on the level of the institution, must be established. The aim is to create opportunities for the patient to express their doubts and feelings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Hsu, Che-Chia; Huang, Hui-Cheng; Wu, Po-Ting; Tai, Ta-Wei; Jou, I-Ming
2016-12-01
Peripheral nervous injury (PNI) is a common form of trauma in modern society, especially in sport players. Despite the advance of therapy for PNI, the recovery of function can never reach the preinjury level after treatments. Recently, inhibiting neural oxidative stress shows a beneficial effect in improving functional recovery after PNI. In addition, sesame oil has been reported to possess the excellent antioxidative properties. However, whether sesame oil can improve the functional recovery after PNI by its antioxidative effect has never been investigated. Thirty mice were randomly divided into five groups of six: group I mice received sham operation; group II mice received sciatic nerve crush; and groups III-V mice daily ingested 0.5, 1 and 2 ml/kg of sesame oil for 6 days, respectively, after sciatic nerve crush. Oxidative stress, GAP43 and nuclear Nrf2 levels as well as spinal somatosensory evoked potentials were assessed on day 6, while paw withdrawal latency and sciatic function index were assessed on days 0, 3, and 6. Sesame oil significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and increased nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and GAP43 expression in sciatic nerve. Furthermore, sesame oil improved electrophysiological and functional assessments in mice with sciatic nerve crush. In conclusion, sesame oil may improve nerve functional recovery by attenuating nerve oxidative stress in mouse acute peripheral nerve injury. Further, application of natural product sesame oil may be an alternative approach for improving nerve functional recovery in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Piechnik, Stefan K; Ferreira, Vanessa M; Dall'Armellina, Erica; Cochlin, Lowri E; Greiser, Andreas; Neubauer, Stefan; Robson, Matthew D
2010-11-19
T1 mapping allows direct in-vivo quantitation of microscopic changes in the myocardium, providing new diagnostic insights into cardiac disease. Existing methods require long breath holds that are demanding for many cardiac patients. In this work we propose and validate a novel, clinically applicable, pulse sequence for myocardial T1-mapping that is compatible with typical limits for end-expiration breath-holding in patients. The Shortened MOdified Look-Locker Inversion recovery (ShMOLLI) method uses sequential inversion recovery measurements within a single short breath-hold. Full recovery of the longitudinal magnetisation between sequential inversion pulses is not achieved, but conditional interpretation of samples for reconstruction of T1-maps is used to yield accurate measurements, and this algorithm is implemented directly on the scanner. We performed computer simulations for 100 msT1 3T. In-vivo myocardial T1-mapping using this method and the previous gold-standard (MOLLI) was performed in 10 healthy volunteers at 1.5T and 3T, 4 volunteers with contrast injection at 1.5T, and 4 patients with recent myocardial infarction (MI) at 3T. We found good agreement between the average ShMOLLI and MOLLI estimates for T1 T1 values, with estimates characterized by a constant 4% underestimation for T1 = 800-2700 ms. In-vivo, ShMOLLI measurements required 9.0 ± 1.1 s (MOLLI = 17.6 ± 2.9 s). Average healthy myocardial T1 s by ShMOLLI at 1.5T were 966 ± 48 ms (mean ± SD) and 1166 ± 60 ms at 3T. In MI patients, the T1 in unaffected myocardium (1216 ± 42 ms) was similar to controls at 3T. Ischemically injured myocardium showed increased T1 = 1432 ± 33 ms (p T1. The in-vivo variability within ShMOLLI T1-maps was only 14% (1.5T) or 18% (3T) higher than the MOLLI maps, but the MOLLI acquisitions were twice longer than ShMOLLI acquisitions. ShMOLLI is an efficient method that generates immediate, high-resolution myocardial T1-maps in a short breath-hold with high precision
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Greiser Andreas
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background T1 mapping allows direct in-vivo quantitation of microscopic changes in the myocardium, providing new diagnostic insights into cardiac disease. Existing methods require long breath holds that are demanding for many cardiac patients. In this work we propose and validate a novel, clinically applicable, pulse sequence for myocardial T1-mapping that is compatible with typical limits for end-expiration breath-holding in patients. Materials and methods The Shortened MOdified Look-Locker Inversion recovery (ShMOLLI method uses sequential inversion recovery measurements within a single short breath-hold. Full recovery of the longitudinal magnetisation between sequential inversion pulses is not achieved, but conditional interpretation of samples for reconstruction of T1-maps is used to yield accurate measurements, and this algorithm is implemented directly on the scanner. We performed computer simulations for 100 msIn-vivo myocardial T1-mapping using this method and the previous gold-standard (MOLLI was performed in 10 healthy volunteers at 1.5T and 3T, 4 volunteers with contrast injection at 1.5T, and 4 patients with recent myocardial infarction (MI at 3T. Results We found good agreement between the average ShMOLLI and MOLLI estimates for T1 In-vivo, ShMOLLI measurements required 9.0 ± 1.1 s (MOLLI = 17.6 ± 2.9 s. Average healthy myocardial T1 s by ShMOLLI at 1.5T were 966 ± 48 ms (mean ± SD and 1166 ± 60 ms at 3T. In MI patients, the T1 in unaffected myocardium (1216 ± 42 ms was similar to controls at 3T. Ischemically injured myocardium showed increased T1 = 1432 ± 33 ms (p in-vivo variability within ShMOLLI T1-maps was only 14% (1.5T or 18% (3T higher than the MOLLI maps, but the MOLLI acquisitions were twice longer than ShMOLLI acquisitions. Conclusion ShMOLLI is an efficient method that generates immediate, high-resolution myocardial T1-maps in a short breath-hold with high precision. This technique provides a valuable
Bennett, Brian T.; Wilson, Joseph C.; Sperringer, Justin; Mohamed, Junaith S.; Edens, Neile K.; Pereira, Suzette L.
2014-01-01
In this study we tested the hypothesis that green tea extract (GTE) would improve muscle recovery after reloading following disuse. Aged (32 mo) Fischer 344 Brown Norway rats were randomly assigned to receive either 14 days of hindlimb suspension (HLS) or 14 days of HLS followed by normal ambulatory function for 14 days (recovery). Additional animals served as cage controls. The rats were given GTE (50 mg/kg body wt) or water (vehicle) by gavage 7 days before and throughout the experimental periods. Compared with vehicle treatment, GTE significantly attenuated the loss of hindlimb plantaris muscle mass (−24.8% vs. −10.7%, P muscle function or mass compared with vehicle treatment, animals given green tea via gavage maintained the lower losses of muscle mass that were found during HLS (−25.2% vs. −16.0%, P muscle fiber cross-sectional area loss in both plantaris (−39.9% vs. −23.9%, P muscles after HLS. This green tea-induced difference was not transient but was maintained over the reloading period for plantaris (−45.6% vs. −21.5%, P muscle fiber cross-sectional area (−38.7% vs. −10.9%, P muscles during recovery from HLS compared with vehicle-treated muscles and decreased oxidative stress and abundance of the Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), yet this did not further improve muscle recovery in reloaded muscles. These data suggest that muscle recovery following disuse in aging is complex. Although satellite cell proliferation and differentiation are critical for muscle repair to occur, green tea-induced changes in satellite cell number is by itself insufficient to improve muscle recovery following a period of atrophy in old rats. PMID:25414242
Yu, Seung-Man; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Lee, Suk-Jun; Choe, Bo-Young
2014-10-01
A T1 mapping calculation error may occur in a physicochemical environment with large relaxivity. We evaluated through a simulated electrocardiogram (ECG) the administration of a contrast with high relaxivity and its effect on the heart rate by using a modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) pulse sequence. The agarose 2% phantom of high relaxivity environment was developed by diluting gadoxetic acid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1 contrast media. The gold standard T1 determination was based on coronal single section imaging with a 2D inversion-recovery turbo spin echo sequence (2D-IRTSE) in a 3T MR unit. Using the identical 3T MR scanner, we acquired T1 mapping for the MOLLI pulse sequence with various virtual heart rates. T1 mapping data of the two different pulse sequences ( i.e., 2D-IRTSE and MOLLI) were measured to investigate the accuracy and the specificity. An in vivo study was conducted in the same manner as the phantom experiments for liver T1 mapping imaging in three healthy volunteers. The MOLLI pulse sequence showed an error rate of less than 10% at a contrast agent concentration of 0.4 mmol/L, and significant error, compared with the reference value, was observed at 0.6 mmol/L or higher. The percentage error of the T1 value did not correlated with the RR ( i.e., the time between heart beats) change that was observed (P =.270). Based on the in-vivo liver test, T1 mapping imaging of an abdominal organ as the liver can be successfully achieved using the applied virtual ECG gating on the MOLLI sequence.
Chen, Haihong; Ji, Hao; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Zude; Lao, Lifeng; Deng, Chao; Chen, Jianwei; Zhong, Guibin
2017-03-15
Targeting posttraumatic inflammation is crucial for improving locomotor function. SIRT1 has been shown to play a critical role in disease processes such as hepatic inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, and acute lung inflammation by regulating inflammation. However, the role of SIRT1 in spinal cord injury (SCI) is unknown. We hypothesized that SIRT1 plays an important role in improving locomotor function after SCI by regulating neuroinflammation. In this study, we investigate the effect of SIRT1 in SCI using pharmacological intervention (SRT1720) and the Mx1-Cre/loxP recombination system to knock out target genes. First, we found that SIRT1 expression at the injured lesion site of wild-type (WT) mice (C57BL/6) decreased 4 h after SCI and lasted for 3 d. Moreover, administration of SRT1720, an agonist of SIRT1, to WT mice significantly improved functional recovery for up to 28 d after injury by reducing the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, the number of M1 macrophages, the number of macrophages/microglia, and the accumulation of perivascular macrophages. In contrast, administration of SRT1720 to SIRT1 knock-out (KO) mice did not improve locomotor recovery or attenuate inflammation. Furthermore, SIRT1 KO mice exhibited worse locomotor recovery, increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, and more M1 macrophages and perivascular macrophages than those of WT mice after SCI. Together, these findings indicate that SRT1720, an SIRT1 agonist, can improve functional recovery by attenuating inflammation after SCI. Therefore, SIRT1 is not only a protective factor but also an anti-inflammatory molecule that exerts beneficial effects on locomotor function after SCI. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Posttraumatic inflammation plays a central role in regulating the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, new data show that administration of SRT1720, an SIRT1 agonist, to wild-type (WT) mice significantly improved outcomes after SCI, most likely by reducing the levels of
Nakamura, Hisao; Yamada, Kei; Kizu, Osamu; Ito, Hirotoshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko
2003-01-01
The authors' purpose was to search the inversion time (TI) values that enable the best differentiation of fine structures in gray matter (gray-gray differentiation). Seven healthy adult volunteers with no history of neurologic disease or head trauma were recruited and gave their informed consent. The subjects consisted of two men and five women ranging in age from 25 to 38 years, with a mean age of 28 years +/- 5. The subjects were imaged with a turbo spin-echo inversion-recovery sequence. This sequence was performed in the axial plane at the level of the basal ganglia with the following parameters: repetition time, 3,200 msec; echo time, 15 msec; three signals acquired; echo train, seven; section thickness, 3 mm; matrix size, 256 x 256; and field of view, 180 mm. The tested values were TI = 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 msec. Region-of interest measurements were performed at the following anatomic structures and represent gray-gray and white-white differentiations, respectively: globus pallidus externa versus globus pallidus interna, and optic radiation versus surrounding white matter. The maximum contrast index value occurred at TI = 400 msec for globus pallidus externa versus globus pallidus interna (P < .05) With the contrast-to-noise ratio, no significant difference in gray-gray differentiation was observed among the various TIs. The minimum signal-to-noise ratio of the gray matter occurred at TI = 400 msec (P < .05). A subjective evaluation revealed an overall superiority of gray-matter differentiation with TI = 400 msec. A TI of 400 msec was the most suitable for this purpose.
Shen, Yelong; Zhao, Bin; Yan, Lirong; Jann, Kay; Wang, Guangbin; Wang, Junli; Wang, Bao; Pfeuffer, Josef; Qian, Tianyi; Wang, Danny J J
2017-01-01
Diabetes has been reported to affect the microvasculature and lead to cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). Past studies using arterial spin labeling (ASL) at single post-labeling delay reported reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to characterize cerebral hemodynamic changes of type 2 diabetes using a multi-inversion-time 3D GRASE pulsed ASL (PASL) sequence to simultaneously measure CBF and bolus arrival time (BAT). Thirty-six patients with type 2 diabetes (43-71 years, 17 male) and 36 gender- and age-matched control subjects underwent MRI scans at 3 T. Mean CBF/BAT values were computed for gray and white matter (GM and WM) of each subject, while a voxel-wise analysis was performed for comparison of regional CBF and BAT between the two groups. In addition, white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) were detected by a double inversion recovery (DIR) sequence with relatively high sensitivity and spatial resolution. Mean CBF of the WM, but not GM, of the diabetes group was significantly lower than that of the control group ( p BAT increases were observed in the right calcarine fissure ( p BAT in the right middle occipital gyrus was positively correlated with the disease duration ( r = 0.501, p = 0.002), BAT in the left middle occipital gyrus was negatively correlated with the binocular visual acuity ( r = -0.408, p = 0.014). Diabetic patients also had more WMHs than the control group ( p = 0.0039). Significant differences in CBF, BAT, and more WMHs were observed in patients with diabetes, which may be related to impaired vision and risk of SVD of type 2 diabetes.
1985-05-01
L’-(Pl’ Ing k eriiel for pr,,-fdi 7-1J41 .) 1 ~ Figure 7-30: fEC’.NL Ir. k crud L’ fr pr’cifl T-1.4 (c) P-7 Figure 7-31: L-- 1PH I :r,. - I. ’.1 7-14...Further, the data in the low frequency range are spread over a wide range of values of attenuation and there is no consistent pattern to justify a...studying the peak to null difference in the measured interference pattern . 4 3.2 Determination of the attenuation profile from the plane-wave
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Yasokawa, Kazuya; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Akira; Hayashida, Minoru; Torigoe, Teruyuki; Tanimoto, Daigo; Higaki, Atsushi; Noda, Yasufumi; Kido, Ayumu [Kawasaki Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)
2016-12-15
To evaluate the influence of oral ingestion on the secretory flow dynamics of physiological pancreatic juice within the main pancreatic duct in healthy subjects by using cine-dynamic MRCP with spatially-selective inversion-recovery (IR) pulse non-invasively. Thirty-eight healthy subjects were investigated. MRCP with spatially-selective IR pulse was repeated every 15 s for 5 min to acquire a total of 20 images (cine-dynamic MRCP). A set of 20 MRCP images was repeatedly obtained before and after liquid oral ingestion every 7 min (including 2-min interval) for 40 min (a total of seven sets). Secretion grade of pancreatic juice on cine-dynamic MRCP was compared before and after oral ingestion using the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Median secretion grades of pancreatic juice at 5 min (score = 2.15), 12 min (score = 1.95) and 19 min (score = 2.05) after ingestion were significantly higher than that before ingestion (score = 1.40) (P = 0.004, P = 0.032, P = 0.045, respectively). Secretion grade of pancreatic juice showed a maximum peak of 2.15 at 5 min after ingestion. Thereafter, the secretion grade of pancreatic juice tended to gradually decline. Non-invasive cine-dynamic MRCP using spatially-selective IR pulse showed potential for evaluating postprandial changes in the secretory flow dynamics of pancreatic juice as a physiological reaction. (orig.)
Lee, Jung Keun; Yoon, Byul Hee; Chung, Seung Young; Park, Moon Sun; Kim, Seong Min; Lee, Do Sung
2013-10-01
MR perfusion and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) are well known imaging studies to evaluate hemodynamic change between prior to and following superficial temporal artery (STA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis in moyamoya disease. But their side effects and invasiveness make discomfort to patients. We evaluated the ivy sign on MR fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images in adult patients with moyamoya disease and compared it with result of SPECT and MR perfusion images. We enrolled twelve patients (thirteen cases) who were diagnosed with moyamoya disease and underwent STA-MCA anastomosis at our medical institution during a period ranging from September of 2010 to December of 2012. The presence of the ivy sign on MR FLAIR images was classified as Negative (0), Minimal (1), and Positive (2). Regions were classified into four territories: the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), the anterior MCA, the posterior MCA and the posterior cerebral artery. Ivy signs on preoperative and postoperative MR FLAIR were improved (8 and 4 in the ACA regions, 13 and 4 in the anterior MCA regions and 19 and 9 in the posterior MCA regions). Like this result, the cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) on SPECT was significantly increased in the sum of CVR in same regions after STA-MCA anastomosis. After STA-MCA anastomosis, ivy signs were decreased in the cerebral hemisphere. As compared with conventional diagnostic modalities such as SPECT and MR perfusion images, the ivy sign on MR FLAIR is considered as a useful indicator in detecting brain hemodynamic changes between preoperatively and postoperatively in adult moyamoya patients.
Shao, Jiaxin; Liu, Dapeng; Sung, Kyunghyun; Nguyen, Kim-Lien; Hu, Peng
2017-11-01
To compare the accuracy and precision of four different T1 estimation algorithms for modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI). Four T1 estimation algorithms, including the original fit, inversion group (IG) fit, instantaneous signal loss simulation (InSiL), and Bloch equation simulation with slice profile correction (BLESSPC) were studied. T1 estimation accuracy, precision, reproducibility, and sensitivity to heart rate (HR), flip angle (FA), and acquisition scheme (AcS) variations were compared in simulation, phantom, and volunteer studies. T1 estimation accuracy of IG (-2.4% ± 3.9%) and original fit (-3.2% ± 1.4%) were worse than BLESSPC (0.2% ± 1.5%) and InSiL (-0.7% ± 2.1%). The original fit had the best precision for T1 from 409-1884 ms for the same FA (0.67% ± 0.16% versus 0.90% ± 0.23% using IG, 0.78% ± 0.11% using InSiL, 0.77% ± 0.12% using BLESSPC). BLESSPC generated the most consistent in vivo T1 values over different FAs and AcS, and the T1 estimation reproducibility was similar (P > 0.3) among the four methods when FA = 35°. When using FA = 50°, the reproducibility was significantly improved only when using BLESSPC (1.6% ± 0.9 versus 2.6% ± 1.9%, P T1 estimation using BLESSPC and FA = 50° is superior to conventional MOLLI with FA = 35° in accuracy and precision. Further clinical studies in varying pathological conditions are warranted to confirm our findings. Magn Reson Med 78:1746-1756, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Guo, Yang; Zhang, Yue; Nijm, Grace M.; Sahakian, Alan V.; Yang, Guang-Yu; Omary, Reed A.
2011-01-01
Purpose: To evaluate the use of contrast material–enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with conventional T1-weighted gradient-recalled echo (GRE) and inversion-recovery (IR)-prepared GRE methods to quantitatively measure the size of irreversible electroporation (IRE) ablation zones in the liver in a rat model. Materials and Methods: All studies were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee and were performed in accordance with institutional guidelines. Seventeen adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Rats in groups 1–3 (n = 15 total) underwent IRE performed by using different IRE parameters after gadopentetate dimeglumine administration. Rats in group 4 (n = 2) underwent IRE ablation without prior gadopentetate dimeglumine injection to serve as control animals. MR imaging measurements (with conventional T1-weighted GRE and IR-prepared GRE methods) were performed 2 hours after IRE to predict the IRE ablation zones, which were correlated with pathology-confirmed necrosis areas 24 hours after IRE by using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Bland-Altman plots were also generated to investigate the agreement between MR imaging–measured ablation zones and reference standard histologic measurements of corresponding ablation zones. Results: The necrotic areas measured on the pathology images were well correlated with the hyperintense regions measured on T1-weighted GRE images (r = 0.891, P < .001) and normal tissue–nulled IR images (r = 0.874, P < .001); pathology measurements were also well correlated with the smaller hyperintense regions measured on those IR images with inversion times specifically selected to null signal from the peripheral penumbra surrounding the ablation zone (r = 0.939, P < .001). Bland-Altman plots indicated that these penumbra-nulled IR images provided more accurate predictions of IRE ablation zones, with T1-weighted GRE measurements tending to overestimate ablation zone sizes. Conclusion
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Yelong Shen
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Diabetes has been reported to affect the microvasculature and lead to cerebral small vessel disease (SVD. Past studies using arterial spin labeling (ASL at single post-labeling delay reported reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF in patients with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to characterize cerebral hemodynamic changes of type 2 diabetes using a multi-inversion-time 3D GRASE pulsed ASL (PASL sequence to simultaneously measure CBF and bolus arrival time (BAT. Thirty-six patients with type 2 diabetes (43–71 years, 17 male and 36 gender- and age-matched control subjects underwent MRI scans at 3 T. Mean CBF/BAT values were computed for gray and white matter (GM and WM of each subject, while a voxel-wise analysis was performed for comparison of regional CBF and BAT between the two groups. In addition, white matter hyperintensities (WMHs were detected by a double inversion recovery (DIR sequence with relatively high sensitivity and spatial resolution. Mean CBF of the WM, but not GM, of the diabetes group was significantly lower than that of the control group (p < 0.0001. Regional CBF decreases were detected in the left middle occipital gyrus (p = 0.0075, but failed to reach significance after correction of partial volume effects. BAT increases were observed in the right calcarine fissure (p < 0.0001, left middle occipital gyrus (p < 0.0001, and right middle occipital gyrus (p = 0.0011. Within the group of diabetic patients, BAT in the right middle occipital gyrus was positively correlated with the disease duration (r = 0.501, p = 0.002, BAT in the left middle occipital gyrus was negatively correlated with the binocular visual acuity (r = −0.408, p = 0.014. Diabetic patients also had more WMHs than the control group (p = 0.0039. Significant differences in CBF, BAT, and more WMHs were observed in patients with diabetes, which may be related to impaired vision and risk of SVD of type 2 diabetes.
Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Maruyama, Hirotoshi; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Ishimori, Yoshiyuki
2017-08-01
Background Tumor-to-liver contrast is low in images of chronically diseased livers because gadolinium-based hepatocyte-specific contrast agents (Gd-EOB-DTPA) accumulate less to hepatocytes. Purpose To determine whether phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) could improve the T1 contrasts of Gd-based contrast agents and liver parenchyma and simultaneously provide accurate T1 values for abdominal organs. Material and Methods The image contrasts of phantoms with different Gd concentrations that were obtained using PSIR were compared to conventional turbo field echo (TFE) results. T1 value was estimated using PSIR by performing iterations to investigate the two IR magnetization evolutions. The estimated T1 values were validated using IR-spin echo (IR-SE) and Look-Locker (L-L) sequences. In an in vivo study, the liver-to-spleen and liver-to-muscle contrasts of the PSIR and TFE images of seven volunteers were compared, as were the T1 values of liver parenchyma, spleen, and muscle obtained using PSIR and L-L sequences. Results The PSIR images showed T1 contrasts higher than those in the TFE results. The PSIR and IR-SE T1 values were linearly correlated. Additionally, the R1 estimated using PSIR were correlated with those measured using IR-SE and L-L. In the in vivo study, the liver-to-spleen and liver-to-muscle contrasts of PSIR were significantly higher than those obtained using TFE. T1 values of abdominal organs obtained using PSIR and L-L were clearly correlated. Conclusion PSIR may be capable of improving liver image T1 contrasts when Gd-based contrast agents are employed and simultaneously yielding accurate T1 values of abdominal organs.
Kim, Seong-Eun; Roberts, John A; Eisenmenger, Laura B; Aldred, Booth W; Jamil, Osama; Bolster, Bradley D; Bi, Xiaoming; Parker, Dennis L; Treiman, Gerald S; McNally, J Scott
2017-02-01
Carotid artery imaging is important in the clinical management of patients at risk for stroke. Carotid intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) presents an important diagnostic challenge. 3D magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (MPRAGE) has been shown to accurately image carotid IPH; however, this sequence can be limited due to motion- and flow-related artifact. The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate an improved 3D carotid MPRAGE sequence for IPH detection. We hypothesized that a radial-based k-space trajectory sequence such as "Stack of Stars" (SOS) incorporated with inversion recovery preparation would offer reduced motion sensitivity and more robust flow suppression by oversampling of central k-space. A total of 31 patients with carotid disease (62 carotid arteries) were imaged at 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with 3D IR-prep Cartesian and SOS sequences. Image quality was determined between SOS and Cartesian MPRAGE in 62 carotid arteries using t-tests and multivariable linear regression. Kappa analysis was used to determine interrater reliability. In all, 25 among 62 carotid plaques had carotid IPH by consensus from the reviewers on SOS compared to 24 on Cartesian sequence. Image quality was significantly higher with SOS compared to Cartesian (mean 3.74 vs. 3.11, P < 0.001). SOS acquisition yielded sharper image features with less motion (19.4% vs. 45.2%, P < 0.002) and flow artifact (27.4% vs. 41.9%, P < 0.089). There was also excellent interrater reliability with SOS (kappa = 0.89), higher than that of Cartesian (kappa = 0.84). By minimizing flow and motion artifacts and retaining high interrater reliability, the SOS MPRAGE has important advantages over Cartesian MPRAGE in carotid IPH detection. 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:410-417. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Ito, Katsuyoshi; Torigoe, Teruyuki; Tamada, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Koji; Murakami, Koichi; Yoshimura, Mayumi
2011-11-01
To assess the feasibility of visualizing noninvasively the physiologic flow of pancreatic juice by using serial magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) with a spatially selective inversion-recovery (IR) pulse in volunteers and patients with pancreatic disease. The study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained. Twelve healthy volunteers and three patients with acute pancreatitis were included. MRCP with a spatially selective IR pulse was repeatedly performed every 15 seconds during a total of 10 minutes (total of 40 images). MRCP images were evaluated for the presence, frequency, and magnitude of pancreatic juice inflow within the tagged area. The two groups were compared by using the Mann-Whitney test. Pancreatic juice inflow was observed in all healthy volunteers and in two of three patients with acute pancreatitis. The pancreatic fluid inflow was observed 25-37 times (median, 32 times; mean, 31.4 times; range, 25-37 times) in a series of 40 images in 12 healthy volunteers, while it was seen 0-11 times (median, 2 times; mean, 4.3 times; range, 0-11 times) in a series of 40 images in the three patients with acute pancreatitis (P = .009). No regularity in the timing of the pancreatic fluid inflow was noted. The distance that the pancreatic fluid moved in the pancreatic duct within the tagged area was significantly longer in healthy volunteers (median grade, 2.46; mean grade, 2.41; range, 1.6-3.3) than in patients with acute pancreatitis (median grade, 0.05; mean grade, 0.13; range, 0-0.35) (P = .009). The physiologic flow of the pancreatic juice can be visualized noninvasively with serial MRCP by using a spatially selective IR pulse. RSNA, 2011
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Bao, Yi-Fang; Tang, Wei-Jun; Li, Yu-Xin; Geng, Dao-Ying [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Dong-Qing; Chen, Xiang-Jun [Fudan University, Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Zee, Chi-Shing [University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
2013-01-15
Sensory neuronopathy (SNN) is a distinctive subtype of peripheral neuropathies, specifically targeting dorsal root ganglion (DRG). We utilized MRI to demonstrate the imaging characteristics of DRG, spinal cord (SC), and brachial plexus at C7 level in SNN. We attempted multiple-echo data image combination (MEDIC) and turbo inversion recovery magnitude (TIRM) methods in nine patients with sensory neuronopathy and compared with those in 16 disease controls and 20 healthy volunteers. All participants underwent MRI for the measurement of DRG, posterior column (PC), lateral column, and spinal cord area (SCA) at C7 level. DRG diameters were obtained through its largest cross section, standardized by dividing sagittal diameter of mid-C7 vertebral canal. We also made comparisons of standardized anteroposterior diameter (APD) and left-right diameters of SC and PC in these groups. Signal intensity and diameter of C7 spinal nerve were assessed on TIRM. Compared to control groups, signal intensities of DRG and PC were higher in SNN patients when using MEDIC, but the standardized diameters were shorter in either DRG or PC. Abnormal PC signal intensities were identified in eight out of nine SNN patients (89 %) with MEDIC and five out of nine (56 %) with T2-weighted images. SCA, assessed with MEDIC, was smaller in SNN patients than in the other groups, with significant reduction of its standardized APD. C7 nerve root diameters, assessed with TIRM, were decreased in SNN patients. MEDIC and TIRM sequences demonstrate increased signal intensities and decreased area of DRG and PC, and decreased diameter of nerve roots in patients with SNN, which can play a significant role in early diagnosis. (orig.)
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Yoon, Jeong Hee [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Munyoung [Siemens Healthcare, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2016-06-15
To determine whether multislice T1 mapping of the liver using a modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as a quantitative tool to estimate liver function and predict the presence of oesophageal or gastric varices. Phantoms filled with gadoxetic acid were scanned three times using MOLLI sequence to test repeatability. Patients with chronic liver disease or liver cirrhosis who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI including MOLLI sequence at 3 T were included (n = 343). Pre- and postcontrast T1 relaxation times of the liver (T1liver), changes between pre- and postcontrast T1liver (ΔT1liver), and adjusted postcontrast T1liver (postcontrast T1liver-T1spleen/T1spleen) were compared among Child-Pugh classes. In 62 patients who underwent endoscopy, all T1 parameters and spleen sizes were correlated with varices. Phantom study showed excellent repeatability of MOLLI sequence. As Child-Pugh scores increased, pre- and postcontrast T1liver were significantly prolonged (P < 0.001), and ΔT1liver and adjusted postcontrast T1liver decreased (P< 0.001). Adjusted postcontrast T1liver and spleen size were independently associated with varices (R{sup 2} = 0.29, P < 0.001). T1 mapping of the liver using MOLLI sequence on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI demonstrated potential in quantitatively estimating liver function, and adjusted postcontrast T1liver was significantly associated with varices. (orig.)
Yasokawa, Kazuya; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Akira; Hayashida, Minoru; Torigoe, Teruyuki; Tanimoto, Daigo; Higaki, Atsushi; Noda, Yasufumi; Kido, Ayumu
2016-12-01
To evaluate the influence of oral ingestion on the secretory flow dynamics of physiological pancreatic juice within the main pancreatic duct in healthy subjects by using cine-dynamic MRCP with spatially-selective inversion-recovery (IR) pulse non-invasively. Thirty-eight healthy subjects were investigated. MRCP with spatially-selective IR pulse was repeated every 15 s for 5 min to acquire a total of 20 images (cine-dynamic MRCP). A set of 20 MRCP images was repeatedly obtained before and after liquid oral ingestion every 7 min (including 2-min interval) for 40 min (a total of seven sets). Secretion grade of pancreatic juice on cine-dynamic MRCP was compared before and after oral ingestion using the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Median secretion grades of pancreatic juice at 5 min (score = 2.15), 12 min (score = 1.95) and 19 min (score = 2.05) after ingestion were significantly higher than that before ingestion (score = 1.40) (P = 0.004, P = 0.032, P = 0.045, respectively). Secretion grade of pancreatic juice showed a maximum peak of 2.15 at 5 min after ingestion. Thereafter, the secretion grade of pancreatic juice tended to gradually decline. Non-invasive cine-dynamic MRCP using spatially-selective IR pulse showed potential for evaluating postprandial changes in the secretory flow dynamics of pancreatic juice as a physiological reaction. • Secretion grade of pancreatic juice at cine-dynamic MRCP after ingestion was evaluated. • Secretion grade was significantly increased within 19 min after liquid meal ingestion. • Secretion grade showed maximum peak of 2.15 at 5 min after ingestion. • Postprandial changes in pancreatic juice flow can be assessed by cine-dynamic MRCP.
Ye, Fan; Mathur, Sunita; Liu, Min; Borst, Stephen E; Walter, Glenn A; Sweeney, H Lee; Vandenborne, Krista
2013-05-01
Skeletal muscle is a highly dynamic tissue that responds to endogenous and external stimuli, including alterations in mechanical loading and growth factors. In particular, the antigravity soleus muscle experiences significant muscle atrophy during disuse and extensive muscle damage upon reloading. Given that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been implicated as a central regulator of muscle repair and modulation of muscle size, we examined the effect of virally mediated overexpression of IGF-1 on the soleus muscle following hindlimb cast immobilization and upon reloading. Recombinant IGF-1 cDNA virus was injected into one of the posterior hindlimbs of the mice, while the contralateral limb was injected with saline (control). At 20 weeks of age, both hindlimbs were immobilized for 2 weeks to induce muscle atrophy in the soleus and ankle plantarflexor muscle group. Subsequently, the mice were allowed to reambulate, and muscle damage and recovery were monitored over a period of 2-21 days. The primary finding of this study was that IGF-1 overexpression attenuated reloading-induced muscle damage in the soleus muscle, and accelerated muscle regeneration and force recovery. Muscle T2 assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, a non-specific marker of muscle damage, was significantly lower in IGF-1-injected compared with contralateral soleus muscles at 2 and 5 days reambulation (Pmuscle damage in IGF-1-injected soleus muscles was confirmed on histology, with a lower fractional area of abnormal muscle tissue in IGF-1-injected muscles at 2 days reambulation (33.2±3.3 versus 54.1±3.6%, Pmuscle regeneration included timely increases in the number of central nuclei (21% at 5 days reambulation), paired-box transcription factor 7 (36% at 5 days), embryonic myosin (37% at 10 days) and elevated MyoD mRNA (7-fold at 2 days) in IGF-1-injected limbs (Pmuscles from damage and accelerating muscle repair and regeneration.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nordlund, David; Heiberg, Einar; Carlsson, Marcus
2016-01-01
Background - Contrast-enhanced steady state free precession (CE-SSFP) and T2-weighted short tau inversion recovery (T2-STIR) have been clinically validated to estimate myocardium at risk (MaR) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance while using myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed to...... and at a group level. Clinical Trial Registration - URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT01379261 and NCT01374321....
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Witkowski, Grzegorz; Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, Halina [Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, 1st Department of Neurology, Warsaw (Poland); Piliszek, Agnieszka; Ryglewicz, Danuta [Central Clinical Hospital of the Ministry of Interior, Department of Radiology, Warsaw (Poland); Skierczynska, Agnieszka; Poniatowska, Renata [Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Department of Radiology, Warsaw (Poland); Dorobek, Malgorzata; Filipek-Gliszczynska, Anna [Central Clinical Hospital of the Ministry of Interior, Department of Neurology, Warsaw (Poland); Walecki, Jerzy [Polish Academy of Science, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Warsaw (Poland)
2014-10-15
The DWI/FLAIR mismatch is a potential radiological marker for the timing of stroke onset. The aim of the study was to assess if the DWI/FLAIR mismatch can help to identify patients with both lacunar and nonlacunar acute ischemic stroke within 4.5 h of onset. A retrospective study was performed in which the authors analysed data from 86 ischemic lacunar and nonlacunar stroke patients with a known time of symptom onset, imaged within the first 24 h from stroke onset (36 patients <4.5 h, 14 patients 4.5-6 h, 15 patients 6-12 h, and 21 patients 12-24 h). Patients underwent the admission CT and MR scan. The presence of lesions was assessed in correlation with the duration of the stroke. The time from stroke onset to neuroimaging was significantly shorter in patients with an ischemic lesion visible only in the DWI (mean 2.78 h, n = 24) as compared to patients with signs of ischemia also in other modalities (mean 8.6 h, n = 62) (p = 0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA). The DWI/FLAIR mismatch was characterised by a global sensitivity of 58 %, specificity 94 %, PPV 87.5 %, and NPV 76 % in identifying patients in the 4.5 h thrombolysis time window. For lacunar strokes (n = 20), these parameters were as follows: sensitivity 50 %, specificity 92.8 %, PPV 75 %, and NPV 81.2 %. The presence of acute ischemic lesions only in DWI can help to identify both lacunar and nonlacunar stroke patients who are in the 4.5 h time window for intravenous thrombolysis with high specificity. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tobias Djamsched Faizy
Full Text Available In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, Double Inversion Recovery (DIR magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can be used to identify cortical lesions (CL. We sought to evaluate the reliability of CL detection on DIR longitudinally at multiple subsequent time-points applying the MAGNIMs scoring criteria for CLs.26 MS patients received a 3T-MRI (Siemens, Skyra with DIR at 12 time-points (TP within a 16 months period. Scans were assessed in random order by two different raters. Both raters separately marked all CLs on each scan and total lesion numbers were obtained for each scan-TP and patient. After a retrospective re-evaluation, the number of consensus CLs (conL was defined as the total number of CLs, which both raters finally agreed on. CLs volumes, relative signal intensities and CLs localizations were determined. Both ratings (conL vs. non-consensus scoring were compared for further analysis.A total number of n = 334 CLs were identified by both raters in 26 MS patients with a first agreement of both raters on 160 out of 334 of the CLs found (κ = 0.48. After the retrospective re-evaluation, consensus agreement increased to 233 out of 334 CL (κ = 0.69. 93.8% of conL were visible in at least 2 consecutive TP. 74.7% of the conL were visible in all 12 consecutive TP. ConL had greater mean lesion volumes and higher mean signal intensities compared to lesions that were only detected by one of the raters (p<0.05. A higher number of CLs in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobe were identified by both raters than the number of those only identified by one of the raters (p<0.05.After a first assessment, slightly less than a half of the CL were considered as reliably detectable on longitudinal DIR images. A retrospective re-evaluation notably increased the consensus agreement. However, this finding is narrowed, considering the fact that retrospective evaluation steps might not be practicable in clinical routine. Lesions that were not reliably
Raff, Ulrich; Hutchinson, Michael; Rojas, Gonzalo M; Huete, Isidro
2006-06-01
Segmented inversion recovery (IR) ratio imaging (SIRRIM) has been established as a sensitive tool to assess neurodegeneration of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN(C)) in patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD). The obtained results suggest the possibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a biological marker for IPD. The strength and a parsimonious analysis of the technique are discussed to assess the potential of using MRI as a biological marker for IPD and improve the differential diagnosis of sporadic Parkinson disease. Our hypothesis states that the magnetic resonance SIRRIM technique allows direct visualization and quantitation of neural cell loss in the SN(C) and therefore could become a reliable biological marker for Parkinson disease. To achieve this goal, some key aspects of data acquisition and data analysis need to be addressed. The clinical impact of the SIRRIM technique could be considerable, considering that it might become a viable surrogate to other techniques. Twelve patients with IPD and 12 age-matched control subjects were imaged by using the SIRRIM technique based on two IR imaging sequences that were designed to suppress white and gray matter to assess loss of neural cells in situ by means of a ratio image (white matter suppressed image to gray matter suppressed image). The radiological index was correlated with the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) for patients with IPD. All patients with IPD were identified correctly, and full dichotomization between healthy volunteers and patients was obtained with our database. Our SIRRIM technique shows that it can be used to rule out Parkinson disease from essential tremor and other forms of Parkinsonism, such as progressive supranuclear palsy and multisystem atrophy. In addition, it is sensitive enough to identify patients with early-stage IPD. The hypothesis of using SIRRIM as a biological marker to assess IPD is supported by excellent correlation with clinical UPDRS
Issan, Yossi; Hochhauser, Edith; Kornowski, Ran; Leshem-Lev, Dorit; Lev, Eli; Sharoni, Ram; Vanella, Luca; Puri, Nitin; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal; Abraham, Nader G.; Porat, Eyal
2017-01-01
Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are attenuated, both in number and functionality, in animal models of chronic cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. This effect has subsequently been linked to the aggravation of long-term morbidity and mortality associated with such disorders. The objective was to examine EPC number and survival in chronic diabetic vs nondiabetic patients in conjunction with the examination of their redox, inflammatory, and antioxidant defense system (Nrf2 genes) status in serum and visceral fat. Methods Visceral adipose tissue from diabetic and nondiabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery was analyzed for Nrf2-dependent genes. Oxidative stress was evaluated using thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance assay (TBARS). Peripheral blood, collected 1 day prior to surgery, was evaluated for inflammatory cytokines and EPCs. Results When compared with controls (P < 0.05), results of the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance assay were higher in diabetic patients. Although Nrf2-dependent antioxidant proteins (thioredoxin-1 [Trx-1], nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NAD(P)H] qui-none oxidoreductase [NQO1], glutathione S-transferase [GST]) were upregulated, heme oxygenase (HO-1) and adiponectin protein expression were lower in the diabetic group (P < 0.05). Serum levels of bilirubin were lower (P < 0.005) while the levels of inflammatory cytokines were higher in diabetic patients (P < 0.05). EPC levels and their colony forming units were significantly lower (P < 0.05) with reduced viability in diabetic patients as compared with nondiabetic patients. Conclusions These results demonstrate for the first time that in diabetic patients, there is an inadequate heme oxygenase-adiponectin axis response, which could compromise the compensatory antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects consequently contributing toward EPC dysfunction in these patients. PMID:22445099
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Ponsin, Violaine [Aix-Marseille Université-CNRS, Laboratoire Chimie Environnement FRE, 3416 Marseille (France); French Environment and Energy Management Agency, 20 avenue de Grésillé, BP 90406 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Maier, Joachim; Guelorget, Yves [ICF Environnement, 14/30 rue Alexandre Bâtiment C F, 92635 Gennevilliers (France); Hunkeler, Daniel; Bouchard, Daniel; Villavicencio, Hakeline [Centre for Hydrogeology, University of Neuchâtel, Rue Emile-Argand 11, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Höhener, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.hohener@univ-amu.fr [Aix-Marseille Université-CNRS, Laboratoire Chimie Environnement FRE, 3416 Marseille (France)
2015-04-15
A pipeline transporting crude-oil broke in a nature reserve in 2009 and spilled 5100 m{sup 3} of oil that partly reached the aquifer and formed progressively a floating oil lens. Groundwater monitoring started immediately after the spill and crude-oil recovery by dual pump-and-skim technology was operated after oil lens formation. This study aimed at documenting the implementation of redox-specific natural attenuation processes in the saturated zone and at assessing whether dissolved compounds were degraded. Seven targeted water sampling campaigns were done during four years in addition to a routine monitoring of hydrocarbon concentrations. Liquid oil reached the aquifer within 2.5 months, and anaerobic processes, from denitrification to reduction of sulfate, were observable after 8 months. Methanogenesis appeared on site after 28 months. Stable carbon isotope analyses after 16 months showed maximum shifts in δ{sup 13}C of + 4.9 ± 0.22‰ for toluene, + 2.4 ± 0.19‰ for benzene and + 0.9 ± 0.51‰ for ethylbenzene, suggesting anaerobic degradation of these compounds in the source zone. Estimations of fluxes of inorganic carbon produced by biodegradation revealed that, in average, 60% of inorganic carbon production was attributable to sulfate reduction. This percentage tended to decrease with time while the production of carbon attributable to methanogenesis was increasing. Within the investigation time frame, mass balance estimations showed that biodegradation is a more efficient process for control of dissolved concentrations compared to pumping and filtration on an activated charcoal filter. - Highlights: • One of the world largest terrestrial oil spills is studied for 4 years. • Initially pristine aerobic groundwater turns anoxic in 8 months. • Sulfate reduction is the most important redox process thereafter. • Biologically enhanced dissolution of toluene and benzene is evidenced. • Stable carbon isotopes prove the degradation of benzene and
te Boekhorst, B C M; Bovens, S M; van de Kolk, C W A; Cramer, M J M; Doevendans, P A F M; ten Hove, M; van der Weerd, L; Poelmann, R; Strijkers, G J; Pasterkamp, G; van Echteld, C J A
2010-10-01
Single fast spin echo scans covering limited time frames are mostly used for contrast-enhanced MRI of atherosclerotic plaque biomarkers. Knowledge on inter-scan variability of the normalized enhancement ratio of plaque (NER(plaque)) and relation between NER(plaque) and gadolinium content for inversion-recovery fast spin echo is limited. Study aims were: evaluation of (1) timing of MRI after intravenous injection of cannabinoid-2 receptor (CB2-R) (expressed by human and mouse plaque macrophages) targeted micelles; (2) inter-scan variability of inversion-recovery fast spin echo and fast spin echo; (3) relation between NER(plaque) and gadolinium content for inversion-recovery fast spin echo and fast spin echo. Inversion-recovery fast spin echo/fast spin echo imaging was performed before and every 15 min up to 48 h after injection of CB2-R targeted or control micelles using several groups of mice measured in an interleaved fashion. NER(plaque) (determined on inversion-recovery fast spin echo images) remained high (∼2) until 48 h after injection of CB2-R targeted micelles, whereas NER(plaque) decreased after 36 h in the control group. The inter-scan variability and relation between NER(plaque) and gadolinium (assessed with inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry) were compared between inversion-recovery fast spin echo and fast spin echo. Inter-scan variability was higher for inversion-recovery fast spin echo than for fast spin echo. Although gadolinium and NER(plaque) correlated well for both techniques, the NER of plaque was higher for inversion-recovery fast spin echo than for fast spin echo. In mice injected with CB2-R targeted micelles, NER(plaque) can be best evaluated at 36-48 h post-injection. Because NER(plaque) was higher for inversion-recovery fast spin echo than for fast spin echo, but with high inter-scan variability, repeated inversion-recovery fast spin echo imaging and averaging of the obtained NER(plaque) values is recommended
Bienias, P; Ciurzyński, M; Chrzanowska, A; Dudzik-Niewiadomska, I; Irzyk, K; Oleszek, K; Kalińska-Bienias, A; Kisiel, B; Tłustochowicz, W; Pruszczyk, P
2018-02-01
Objective Sinus tachycardia is frequently reported in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), while there are limited data on post-exercise ability to slow heart rate (i.e. heart rate recovery, HRR) in this group of patients. Methods We studied consecutive 70 patients with SLE and 30 healthy controls. All examined individuals underwent detailed clinical examination, echocardiography, Holter monitoring with heart rate variability and treadmill stress test using Bruce's protocol. HRR values were calculated as the difference between maximum HR during exercise and HR at the first (HRR1) and third (HRR3) minute of rest. Individuals with coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus and suspected pulmonary hypertension were excluded from further analysis ( n = 15). Results Fifty-five SLE patients were eligible for this study: aged 41.5 ± 12.4 years, 87.3% women, SLICC/ACR-DI score 3.58 ± 1.85. In the SLE group 36.4% patients received beta-blockers, usually for previously detected sinus tachycardia and/or arterial hypertension. Mean HRR1 (36.9 ± 12.6 vs 49.5 ± 18.6, p = 0.0004) and HRR3 (55.5 ± 14.3 vs 69.2 ± 16.4, p = 0.0001) were significantly lower in SLE than in healthy individuals. Significantly negative correlations between SLICC/ACR-DI score and HRR1 ( r = -0.299, p = 0.01), HRR3 ( r = -0.361, p = 0.001) and exercise capacity ( r = -0.422, p exercise capacity in SLE. Conclusion Patients with SLE are characterized by attenuated HRR after exercise. In our study impaired HRR was associated with disease severity and beta-blocker treatment and probably with disease duration. The use of HRR assessment in SLE can be used as an additional marker of cardiac autonomic nervous system dysfunction.
Shen, Yelong; Zhao, Bin; Yan, Lirong; Jann, Kay; Wang, Guangbin; Wang, Junli; Wang, Bao; Pfeuffer, Josef; Qian, Tianyi; Wang, Danny J. J.
2017-01-01
Diabetes has been reported to affect the microvasculature and lead to cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). Past studies using arterial spin labeling (ASL) at single post-labeling delay reported reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to characterize cerebral hemodynamic changes of type 2 diabetes using a multi-inversion-time 3D GRASE pulsed ASL (PASL) sequence to simultaneously measure CBF and bolus arrival time (BAT). Thirty-six patie...
Ingram, WT
2012-01-01
Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen
Lindholm, Harri; Sinisalo, Juha; Ahlberg, Jari; Hirvonen, Ari; Hublin, Christer; Partinen, Markku; Savolainen, Aslak
2012-07-01
Media work is characterized by information flow, deadlines, and 24/7 alertness. Good recovery prevents stress-related disorders. The standardized questionnaire included items about health, health habits, sleep, work conditions, and work stress. Recordings of 24-hr heart rate variability (HRV) and four salivary samples for cortisol and melatonin levels were analyzed from 70 randomly selected workers with irregular shift work, and 70 workers with normal daytime work. Irregular shift work increased the risk of insufficient recovery when compared to normal daytime work (OR 2.0; P cortisol/melatonin ratio was decreased (P cortisol and melatonin hormones might be involved in the development of chronic exhaustion. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wang, Yuanyi; Gao, Zhongwen; Zhang, Yiping; Feng, Shi-Qing; Liu, Yulong; Shields, Lisa B E; Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Zhu, Qingsan; Gozal, David; Shields, Christopher B; Cai, Jun
2016-07-01
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a unique phosphoglycerine that mediates the biological functions of both immune and nervous systems. Excessive PAF plays an important role in neural injury via its specific receptor (PAFR). In this study, we hypothesized that PAF signaling activates reactive gliosis after spinal cord injury (SCI), and blocking the PAF pathway would modify the glia scar formation and promote functional recovery. PAF microinjected into the normal wild-type spinal cord induced a dose-dependent activation of microglia and astrocytes. In the SCI mice, PAFR null mutant mice showed a better functional recovery in grip and rotarod performances than wild-type mice. Although both microglia and astrocytes were activated after SCI in wild-type and PAFR null mutant mice, expressions of IL-6, vimentin, nestin, and GFAP were not significantly elevated in PAFR null mutants. Disruption of PAF signaling inhibited the expressions of proteoglycan CS56 and neurocan (CSPG3). Intriguingly, compared to the wild-type SCI mice, less axonal retraction/dieback at 7 dpi but more NFH-labeled axons at 28 dpi was found in the area adjacent to the epicenter in PAFR null mutant SCI mice. Moreover, treatment with PAFR antagonist Ginkgolide B (GB) at the chronic phase rather than acute phase enhanced the functional recovery in the wild-type SCI mice. These findings suggest that PAF signaling participates in reactive gliosis after SCI, and blocking of this signaling enhances functional recovery and to some extent may promote axon regrowth.
Barry, Melissa D; Boddington, Laura J; Igelström, Kajsa M; Gray, Jason P; Shemmell, Jon; Tseng, Kuei Y; Oorschot, Dorothy E; Reynolds, John N J
2014-11-01
Following a cerebral cortex injury such as stroke, excessive inhibition around the core of the injury is thought to reduce the potential for new motor learning. In part, this may be caused by an imbalance of interhemispheric inhibition (IHI); therefore, treatments that relieve the inhibitory drive from the healthy hemisphere to the peri-lesional area may enhance motor recovery. Theta burst stimulation delivered by transcranial magnetic stimulation has been tested as a means of normalizing IHI, but clinical results have been variable. Here we use a new rat model of synaptic IHI to demonstrate that electrical intracranial theta burst stimulation causes long-lasting changes in motor cortex excitability. Further, we show that contralateral intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) blocks IHI via a mechanism involving cannabinoid receptors. Finally, we show that contralesional iTBS applied during recovery from cortical injury in rats improves the recovery of motor function. These findings suggest that theta burst stimulation delivered through implanted electrodes may be a promising avenue to explore for augmenting rehabilitation from brain injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin
2002-04-01
Wave-induced variations of pore pressure in a partially-saturated reservoir result in oscillatory liquid flow. The viscous losses during this flow are responsible for wave attenuation. The same viscous effects determine the changes in the dynamic bulk modulus of the system versus frequency. These changes are necessarily linked to attenuation via the causality condition. We analytically quantify the frequency dependence of the bulk modulus of a partially saturated rock by assuming that saturation is patchy and then link these changes to the inverse quality factor. As a result, the P-wave attenuation is quantitatively linked to saturation and thus can serve as a saturation indicator.
Kampf, Thomas; Reiter, Theresa; Bauer, Wolfgang Rudolf
2017-08-09
Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shifts more and more into the focus of clinical research. Especially determination of relaxation times without/and with contrast agents becomes the foundation of tissue characterization, e.g. in cardiac MRI for myocardial fibrosis. Techniques which assess longitudinal relaxation times rely on repetitive application of readout modules, which are interrupted by free relaxation periods, e.g. the Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery = MOLLI sequence. These discontinuous sequences reveal an apparent relaxation time, and, by techniques extrapolated from continuous readout sequences, a putative real T 1 is determined. What is missing is a rigorous analysis of the dependence of the apparent relaxation time on its real partner, readout sequence parameters and biological parameters as heart rate. This is provided in this paper for the discontinuous balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) and spoiled gradient echo readouts. It turns out that the apparent longitudinal relaxation rate is the time average of the relaxation rates during the readout module, and free relaxation period. Knowing the heart rate our results vice versa allow to determine the real T 1 from its measured apparent partner. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Rutz, Tobias; Piccini, Davide; Coppo, Simone; Chaptinel, Jerome; Ginami, Giulia; Vincenti, Gabriella; Stuber, Matthias; Schwitter, Juerg
2016-12-01
The border zone of post-infarction myocardial scar as identified by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) has been identified as a substrate for arrhythmias and consequently, high-resolution 3D scar information is potentially useful for planning of electrophysiological interventions. This study evaluates the performance of a novel high-resolution 3D self-navigated free-breathing inversion recovery magnetic resonance pulse sequence (3D-SN-LGE) vs. conventional 2D breath-hold LGE (2D-LGE) with regard to sharpness of borders (SBorder) of post-infarction scar. Patients with post-infarction scar underwent two magnetic resonance examinations for conventional 2D-LGE and high-resolution 3D-SN-LGE acquisitions (both 15 min after 0.2 mmol/kg Gadobutrol IV) at 1.5T. In the prototype 3D-SN-LGE sequence, each ECG-triggered radial steady-state-free-precession read-out segment is preceded by a non-slice-selective inversion pulse. Scar volume and SBorder were assessed on 2D-LGE and matching reconstructed high-resolution 3D-SN-LGE short-axis slices. In 16 patients (four females, 58 ± 10y) all scars visualized by 2D-LGE could be identified on 3D-SN-LGE (time between 2D-LGE and 3D-SN-LGE 48 ± 53 days). A good agreement of scar volume by 3D-SN-LGE vs. 2D-LGE was found (Bland-Altman: -3.7 ± 3.4 ml, correlation: r = 0.987, p scar volume (20.5 (15.8, 35.2) ml vs. 24.5 (20.0, 41.9)) ml, respectively, p = 0.002] and a good intra- and interobserver variability (1.1 ± 4.1 and -1.1 ± 11.9 ml, respectively). SBorder of border "scar to non-infarcted myocardium" was superior on 3D-SN-LGE vs. 2D-LGE: 0.180 ± 0.044 vs. 0.083 ± 0.038, p scar by 3D-SN-LGE is feasible and accurate in comparison to 2D-LGE. The high spatial resolution of the 3D sequence improves delineation of scar borders.
Noiseless attenuation using an optical parametric amplifier
Brewster, R. A.; Nodurft, I. C.; Pittman, T. B.; Franson, J. D.
2017-10-01
The process of heralded noiseless amplification, and the inverse process of heralded noiseless attenuation, have potential applications in the context of quantum communications. Although several different physical implementations of heralded noiseless amplifiers have now been demonstrated, the research on heralded noiseless attenuators has been largely confined to a beam-splitter based approach. Here we show that an optical parametric amplifier (OPA), combined with appropriate heralding, can also serve as a heralded noiseless attenuator. The counterintuitive use of an optical amplifier as an attenuator is only possible due to the probabilistic nature of the device.
Gitsioudis, Gitsios; Stuber, Matthias; Arend, Ingolf; Thomas, Moritz; Yu, Jing; Hilbel, Thomas; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A.; Korosoglou, Grigorios
2012-01-01
Objectives To investigate the ability of inversion recovery ON-resonant water suppression (IRON) in conjunction with P904 (superparamagnetic nanoparticles which consisting of a maghemite core coated with a low-molecular-weight amino-alcohol derivative of glucose) to perform steady-state equilibrium phase magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) over a wide dose range. Materials and Methods Experiments were approved by the institutional animal care committee. Rabbits (n=12) were imaged at baseline and serially after the administration of 10 incremental dosages of 0.57–5.7 mgFe/Kg P904. Conventional T1-weighted and IRON MRA were obtained on a clinical 1.5-T scanner to image the thoracic and abdominal aorta, and peripheral vessels. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and vessel sharpness were quantified. Results Using IRON MRA, CNR and vessel sharpness progressively increased with incremental dosages of the contrast agent P904, exhibiting constantly higher contrast values than T1-weighted MRA over a very wide range of contrast agent doses (CNR of 18.8±5.6 for IRON versus 11.1±2.8 for T1-weighted MRA at 1.71 mgFe/kg, p=0.02 and 19.8±5.9 for IRON versus −0.8±1.4 for T1-weighted MRA at 3.99 mgFe/kg, p=0.0002). Similar results were obtained for vessel sharpness in peripheral vessels, (Vessel sharpness of 46.76±6.48% for IRON versus 33.20±3.53% for T1-weighted MRA at 1.71 mgFe/Kg, p=0.002, and of 48.66±5.50% for IRON versus 19.00±7.41% for T1-weighted MRA at 3.99 mgFe/Kg, p=0.003). Conclusion Our study suggests that quantitative CNR and vessel sharpness after the injection of P904 are consistently higher for IRON MRA when compared to conventional T1-weighted MRA. These findings apply for a wide range of contrast agent dosages. PMID:23418107
Zhang, Dongliang
2013-01-01
To increase the illumination of the subsurface and to eliminate the dependency of FWI on the source wavelet, we propose multiples waveform inversion (MWI) that transforms each hydrophone into a virtual point source with a time history equal to that of the recorded data. These virtual sources are used to numerically generate downgoing wavefields that are correlated with the backprojected surface-related multiples to give the migration image. Since the recorded data are treated as the virtual sources, knowledge of the source wavelet is not required, and the subsurface illumination is greatly enhanced because the entire free surface acts as an extended source compared to the radiation pattern of a traditional point source. Numerical tests on the Marmousi2 model show that the convergence rate and the spatial resolution of MWI is, respectively, faster and more accurate then FWI. The potential pitfall with this method is that the multiples undergo more than one roundtrip to the surface, which increases attenuation and reduces spatial resolution. This can lead to less resolved tomograms compared to conventional FWI. The possible solution is to combine both FWI and MWI in inverting for the subsurface velocity distribution.
Enhancing comprehensive inversions using the Swarm constellation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sabaka, T.J.; Olsen, Nils
2006-01-01
signals, as well as information about mantle conductivity structure, can be met. The recovery method used in this paper is known as comprehensive inversion (CI) and involves the parameterization of all major fields followed by a co-estimation of these parameters in a least-squares sense in order...
Meerschaert, Mark M; Straka, Peter
2013-01-01
The inverse stable subordinator provides a probability model for time-fractional differential equations, and leads to explicit solution formulae. This paper reviews properties of the inverse stable subordinator, and applications to a variety of problems in mathematics and physics. Several different governing equations for the inverse stable subordinator have been proposed in the literature. This paper also shows how these equations can be reconciled.
MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; STRAKA, PETER
2013-01-01
The inverse stable subordinator provides a probability model for time-fractional differential equations, and leads to explicit solution formulae. This paper reviews properties of the inverse stable subordinator, and applications to a variety of problems in mathematics and physics. Several different governing equations for the inverse stable subordinator have been proposed in the literature. This paper also shows how these equations can be reconciled. PMID:25045216
Inverse boundary spectral problems
Kachalov, Alexander; Lassas, Matti
2001-01-01
Inverse boundary problems are a rapidly developing area of applied mathematics with applications throughout physics and the engineering sciences. However, the mathematical theory of inverse problems remains incomplete and needs further development to aid in the solution of many important practical problems.Inverse Boundary Spectral Problems develop a rigorous theory for solving several types of inverse problems exactly. In it, the authors consider the following: ""Can the unknown coefficients of an elliptic partial differential equation be determined from the eigenvalues and the boundary value
Inverse Kinematics using Quaternions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Knud; Erleben, Kenny; Engell-Nørregård, Morten
In this project I describe the status of inverse kinematics research, with the focus firmly on the methods that solve the core problem. An overview of the different methods are presented Three common methods used in inverse kinematics computation have been chosen as subject for closer inspection....
Inverse logarithmic potential problem
Cherednichenko, V G
1996-01-01
The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.
Inverse agonism and its therapeutic significance.
Khilnani, Gurudas; Khilnani, Ajeet Kumar
2011-09-01
) inverse agonist, attenuates psychosis in patients with Parkinson's disease with psychosis and is devoid of extrapyramidal side effects. This dissociation is also evident from the development of anxioselective benzodiazepines devoid of habit-forming potential. Hemopressin is a peptide ligand that acts as an antagonist as well as inverse agonist. This agent acts as an antinociceptive agent in different in vivo models of pain. Treatment of obesity by drugs having inverse agonist activity at CB(1/2) receptors is also underway. An exciting development is evaluation of β-blockers in chronic bronchial asthma-a condition akin to congestive heart failure where β-blockade has become the standard mode of therapy. Synthesis and evaluation of selective agents is underway. Therefore, inverse agonism is an important aspect of drug-receptor interaction and has immense untapped therapeutic potential.
Christie, Alan M.; Snyder, Kurt I.
1985-01-01
A pressure surge attenuation system for pipes having a fluted region opposite crushable metal foam. As adapted for nuclear reactor vessels and heads, crushable metal foam is disposed to attenuate pressure surges.
Attenuation limits in longitudinal phononic crystals
Luschi, L.; Iannaccone, G.; Pieri, F.
2017-12-01
The acoustic attenuation inside the bandgaps is, together with the bandgap width, a fundamental design parameter for phononic-crystal-based systems. We discuss approximate expressions for the maximum attenuation inside the bandgaps of one-dimensional longitudinal phononic crystals and its dependence on the acoustic contrast and the fractional bandwidth. We provide different approximations at small and large fractional bandwidths, computed from the trace of the transmission matrix of the crystal elementary cell. We show that, for relatively small gaps, the attenuation is roughly proportional to the fractional bandwidth, in analogy with the flexural case. For larger gaps, a large attenuation can be obtained only for high (and possibly impractical) acoustic contrasts. Approximate expressions are validated through comparison with FEM results. We also derive asymptotic upper limits for the bandgap borders and show that high contrasts do not necessarily lead to wide bandgaps, a fact connected to geometrical phase inversion for the acoustic wave in the crystal. We finally compare the attenuation of flexural and longitudinal waves at a fixed fractional bandwidth and derive regions of optimum attenuation for the two propagation modes.
Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...
Attenuated radon transform: theory and application in medicine and biology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gullberg, G.T.
1979-06-01
A detailed analysis is given of the properties of the attenuated Radon transform and of how increases in photon attenuation influence the numerical accuracy and computation efficiency of iterative and convolution algorithms used to determine its inversion. The practical applications for this work involve quantitative assessment of the distribution of injected radiopharmaceuticals and radionuclides in man and animals for basic physiological and biochemical studies as well as clinical studies in nuclear medicine. A mathematical structure is developed using function theory and the theory of linear operators on Hilbert spaces which lends itself to better understanding the spectral properties of the attenuated Radon transform. The continuous attenuated Radon transform reduces to a matrix operator for discrete angular and lateral sampling, and the reconstruction problem reduces to a system of linear equations. For the situation of variable attenuation coefficient frequently found in nuclear medicine applications of imaging the heart and chest, the procedure developed in this thesis involves iterative techniques of performing the generalized inverse. For constant attenuation coefficient less than 0.15 cm/sup -1/, convolution methods can reliably reconstruct a 30 cm object with 0.5 cm resolution. However, for high attenuation coefficients or for the situation where there is variable attenuation such as reconstruction of distribution of isotopes in the heart, iterative techniques developed in this thesis give the best results. (ERB)
Sharp spatially constrained inversion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vignoli, Giulio G.; Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.
2013-01-01
We present sharp reconstruction of multi-layer models using a spatially constrained inversion with minimum gradient support regularization. In particular, its application to airborne electromagnetic data is discussed. Airborne surveys produce extremely large datasets, traditionally inverted...... by using smoothly varying 1D models. Smoothness is a result of the regularization constraints applied to address the inversion ill-posedness. The standard Occam-type regularized multi-layer inversion produces results where boundaries between layers are smeared. The sharp regularization overcomes...... inversions are compared against classical smooth results and available boreholes. With the focusing approach, the obtained blocky results agree with the underlying geology and allow for easier interpretation by the end-user....
A quaternionic approach to x-ray transform inversion in R{sup 3}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fathi, S M Saberi; Truong, T T [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modelisation, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Nguyen, M K [Equipes Traitement de l' Image et Systemes, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France)], E-mail: majid.saberi@u-cergy.fr, E-mail: truong@u-cergy.fr, E-mail: nguyen@ensea.fr
2009-10-16
A new derivation of the inverse of the x-ray transform is presented based on quaternion analysis. As pointed out by practitioners, a direct inversion formula offers more efficient reconstruction algorithms than tomographic inversion. It is shown that the new inverse formula is equivalent to the existing one. The advantage of this approach is that it paves the way for a potential inversion of the x-ray transform with a non-uniform attenuation map in three dimensions, which models single photon emission imaging in nuclear medicine.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Wcislo, Milosz; Eisner, Leo
2016-01-01
Roč. 60, č. 3 (2016), 547-564 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : attenuation * inversion * microseismicity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.764, year: 2016
Preston, W
2009-01-01
Packed with practical, freely available backup and recovery solutions for Unix, Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X systems -- as well as various databases -- this new guide is a complete overhaul of Unix Backup & Recovery by the same author, now revised and expanded with over 75% new material.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje
of Ross (2015). Our characterization is simple and intuitive, linking recovery to the relation between the number of time periods on the number of states. When recovery is feasible, our model is easy to implement, allowing a closed-form linearized solution. We implement our model empirically, testing...... the predictive power of the recovered expected return, crash risk, and other recovered statistics....
Inversion assuming weak scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus
2013-01-01
due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mosegaard, Klaus
2012-01-01
For non-linear inverse problems, the mathematical structure of the mapping from model parameters to data is usually unknown or partly unknown. Absence of information about the mathematical structure of this function prevents us from presenting an analytical solution, so our solution depends on ou...
Calculation of the inverse data space via sparse inversion
Saragiotis, Christos
2011-01-01
The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from trivial as theory requires infinite time and offset recording. Furthermore regularization issues arise during inversion. We perform the inversion by minimizing the least-squares norm of the misfit function by constraining the $ell_1$ norm of the solution, being the inverse data space. In this way a sparse inversion approach is obtained. We show results on field data with an application to surface multiple removal.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Verscheure M.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available For oil recovery or CO2 storage, “reservoirs” are commonly used to designate geological structures where oil can be found or CO2 can be stored. All reservoirs present a heterogeneity in terms of rock type and properties (such as porosity and permeability. In addition, some of these reservoirs present fractures and faults. Fractured reservoirs are an important part of the oil reserves in the world (Middle East, Gulf of Mexico, etc. and some of them are important reservoirs in terms of oil volume and productivity in spite of the fractures. In addition, studies of reservoirs for geologic storage of CO2 have shown the existence of diffuse fractures and faults and their strong impacts on flow. A key point in fractured reservoirs is to understand the geometry and hydraulic conductivity of the network formed by the fractures. This requires the construction of a reservoir model that integrates all available conceptual knowledge and quantitative data. The topic of the present paper deals with a new methodology able to perform the history matching of a fractured reservoir model by adapting the sub-seismic fault properties and positions. The main difficulty of this work is to generate a sub-seismic fault network whose fault positions can be easily modified while respecting the statistical fault model. The sub-seismic fault model we have chosen allows us to obtain a sub-seismic fault network that is consistent with the seismic fault network and that succeeds in capturing the specific spatial organization of the faults. In a first step, the geometry of the seismic fault network is characterized using fractal methods. Sub-seismic faults are then generated according to a stochastic algorithm. Finally, the geometry of this discrete fracture network is optimized in order to match the hydrodynamic data about the reservoir. The optimization algorithm modifies the sub-seismic fault positions, leading to the history matching of the reservoir model. Fractal
Karaoǧlu, Haydar; Romanowicz, Barbara
2018-01-01
We present a global upper-mantle shear wave attenuation model that is built through a hybrid full-waveform inversion algorithm applied to long-period waveforms, using the Spectral Element Method for wavefield computations. Our inversion strategy is based on an iterative approach that involves the inversion for successive updates in the attenuation parameter (δ Q^{-1}_μ) and elastic parameters (isotropic velocity VS, and radial anisotropy parameter ξ) through a Gauss-Newton type optimization scheme that employs envelope- and waveform-type misfit functionals for the two steps, respectively. We also include source and receiver terms in the inversion steps for attenuation structure. We conducted a total of 8 iterations (6 for attenuation and 2 for elastic structure), and one inversion for updates to source parameters. The starting model included the elastic part of the relatively high resolution 3-D whole mantle seismic velocity model, SEMUCB-WM1, which served to account for elastic focusing effects. The data set is a subset of the three component surface waveform data set, filtered between 400 and 60 s, that contributed to the construction of the whole-mantle tomographic model SEMUCB-WM1. We applied strict selection criteria to this data set for the attenuation iteration steps, and investigated the effect of attenuation crustal structure on the retrieved mantle attenuation structure. While a constant 1-D Qμ model with a constant value of 165 throughout the upper-mantle was used as starting model for attenuation inversion, we were able to recover, in depth extent and strength, the high attenuation zone present in the depth range 80-200 km. The final three-dimensional model, SEMUCB-UMQ, shows strong correlation with tectonic features down to 200˜250 km depth, with low attenuation beneath the cratons, stable parts of continents and regions of old oceanic crust, and high attenuation along mid-ocean ridges and back-arcs. Below 250 km, we observe strong attenuation in
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gale, A.S.; Surlyk, Finn; Anderskouv, Kresten
2013-01-01
Evidence from regional stratigraphical patterns in Santonian−Campanian chalk is used to infer the presence of a very broad channel system (5 km across) with a depth of at least 50 m, running NNW−SSE across the eastern Isle of Wight; only the western part of the channel wall and fill is exposed. W......−Campanian chalks in the eastern Isle of Wight, involving penecontemporaneous tectonic inversion of the underlying basement structure, are rejected....
Landing gear noise attenuation
Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.
Backus and Wyllie Averages for Seismic Attenuation
Qadrouh, Ayman N.; Carcione, José M.; Ba, Jing; Gei, Davide; Salim, Ahmed M.
2017-09-01
Backus and Wyllie equations are used to obtain average seismic velocities at zero and infinite frequencies, respectively. Here, these equations are generalized to obtain averages of the seismic quality factor (inversely proportional to attenuation). The results indicate that the Wyllie velocity is higher than the corresponding Backus quantity, as expected, since the ray velocity is a high-frequency limit. On the other hand, the Wyllie quality factor is higher than the Backus one, following the velocity trend, i.e., the higher the velocity (the stiffer the medium), the higher the attenuation. Since the quality factor can be related to properties such as porosity, permeability, and fluid viscosity, these averages can be useful for evaluating reservoir properties.
Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations,...
Functional Recovery After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hart, Tessa; Kozlowski, Allan; Whyte, John
2014-01-01
functional levels received more treatment and more treatment was associated with slower recovery, presumably because treatment was allocated according to need. Thus, effects of treatment on outcome could not be disentangled from effects of case mix factors. CONCLUSIONS: FIM gain during inpatient recovery......OBJECTIVE: To examine person, injury, and treatment characteristics associated with recovery trajectories of people with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) during inpatient rehabilitation. DESIGN: Observational prospective longitudinal study. SETTING: Two specialized inpatient TBI rehabilitation...... recovery was best modeled with linear, cubic, and quadratic components: relatively steep recovery was followed by deceleration of improvement, which attenuated prior to discharge. Slower recovery was associated with older age, longer coma, and interruptions to rehabilitation. Patients admitted at lower...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ernest Kurtz
2015-01-01
Full Text Available There is growing interest in Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A. and other secular, spiritual, and religious frameworks of long-term addiction recovery. The present paper explores the varieties of spiritual experience within A.A., with particular reference to the growth of a wing of recovery spirituality promoted within A.A. It is suggested that the essence of secular spirituality is reflected in the experience of beyond (horizontal and vertical transcendence and between (connection and mutuality and in six facets of spirituality (Release, Gratitude, Humility, Tolerance, Forgiveness, and a Sense of Being-at-home shared across religious, spiritual, and secular pathways of addiction recovery. The growing varieties of A.A. spirituality (spanning the “Christianizers” and “Seculizers” reflect A.A.’s adaptation to the larger diversification of religious experience and the growing secularization of spirituality across the cultural contexts within which A.A. is nested.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Medical Journal of Zambia, Volume 36 Number 3 (2009). 132. Department of Anaesthesia, University Teaching Hospital ... nursing shortage, stimulated widespread development of recovery rooms. This article summarizes .... Singapore Med J.1997; 38(5): 200-204. 11. Feeley TW, Macario A. Chapter 71: The postanesthesia ...
The 20-s Rayleigh wave attenuation tomography for central and southeastern Asia
Yang, Xiaoning; Taylor, Steven R.; Patton, Howard J.
2004-12-01
We conducted a tomographic inversion of 20-s Rayleigh wave spectral amplitudes to obtain a two-dimensional (2-D) attenuation model for central and southeastern Asia. We designed an amplitude-measuring procedure, making use of the phase match filtering technique and available source and path information, to minimize the measurement error. The resulting amplitude measurements showed much reduced scatter with consistent average attenuation estimates. The average quality factor Q from the measurements is about 220, lower than most global estimates. We took a two-step approach in our tomographic inversion. We first inverted the two-station amplitude ratios for a coarse-grid attenuation model. We then used this model as the a priori model and inverted the single-station spectral amplitudes to obtain the final attenuation model along with source and site response terms. The attenuation model from the inversion has a broad correlation with the geology and tectonics of the region. Low attenuation is seen in stable cratonic regions. High attenuation correlates with tectonically active regions. Compared with 1-D distance corrections, the use of 2-D attenuation model for path correction in Ms calculations reduced the station magnitude scatter by 16-18% on the average.
Frequency-domain waveform inversion using the phase derivative
Choi, Yun Seok
2013-09-26
Phase wrapping in the frequency domain or cycle skipping in the time domain is the major cause of the local minima problem in the waveform inversion when the starting model is far from the true model. Since the phase derivative does not suffer from the wrapping effect, its inversion has the potential of providing a robust and reliable inversion result. We propose a new waveform inversion algorithm using the phase derivative in the frequency domain along with the exponential damping term to attenuate reflections. We estimate the phase derivative, or what we refer to as the instantaneous traveltime, by taking the derivative of the Fourier-transformed wavefield with respect to the angular frequency, dividing it by the wavefield itself and taking the imaginary part. The objective function is constructed using the phase derivative and the gradient of the objective function is computed using the back-propagation algorithm. Numerical examples show that our inversion algorithm with a strong damping generates a tomographic result even for a high ‘single’ frequency, which can be a good initial model for full waveform inversion and migration.
Kummeling, A.
2009-01-01
The general aim of this thesis was to identify factors associated with outcome after surgical attenuation of congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) in dogs and to clarify underlying mechanisms of postoperative recovery in this disease. Two surgical techniques used for CPSS attenuation, ligation and
Applications of elliptic Carleman inequalities to Cauchy and inverse problems
Choulli, Mourad
2016-01-01
This book presents a unified approach to studying the stability of both elliptic Cauchy problems and selected inverse problems. Based on elementary Carleman inequalities, it establishes three-ball inequalities, which are the key to deriving logarithmic stability estimates for elliptic Cauchy problems and are also useful in proving stability estimates for certain elliptic inverse problems. The book presents three inverse problems, the first of which consists in determining the surface impedance of an obstacle from the far field pattern. The second problem investigates the detection of corrosion by electric measurement, while the third concerns the determination of an attenuation coefficient from internal data, which is motivated by a problem encountered in biomedical imaging.
Optimization based inversion method for the inverse heat conduction problems
Mu, Huaiping; Li, Jingtao; Wang, Xueyao; Liu, Shi
2017-05-01
Precise estimation of the thermal physical properties of materials, boundary conditions, heat flux distributions, heat sources and initial conditions is highly desired for real-world applications. The inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP) analysis method provides an alternative approach for acquiring such parameters. The effectiveness of the inversion algorithm plays an important role in practical applications of the IHCP method. Different from traditional inversion models, in this paper a new inversion model that simultaneously highlights the measurement errors and the inaccurate properties of the forward problem is proposed to improve the inversion accuracy and robustness. A generalized cost function is constructed to convert the original IHCP into an optimization problem. An iterative scheme that splits a complicated optimization problem into several simpler sub-problems and integrates the superiorities of the alternative optimization method and the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) algorithm is developed for solving the proposed cost function. Numerical experiment results validate the effectiveness of the proposed inversion method.
Statistical Inversion of Seismic Noise Inversion statistique du bruit sismique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adler P. M.
2006-11-01
Full Text Available A systematic investigation of wave propagation in random media is presented. Spectral analysis, inversion of codas and attenuation of the direct wave front are studied for synthetic data obtained in isotropic or anisotropic, 2D or 3D media. A coda inversion process is developed and checked on two sets of real data. In both cases, it is possible to compare the correlation lengths obtained by inversion to characteristic lengths measured on seismic logs, for the full scale seismic survey, or on a thin section, for the laboratory experiment. These two experiments prove the feasibility and the efficiency of the statistical inversion of codas. Correct characteristic lengths can be obtained which cannot be determined by another method. Le problème de la géophysique est la recherche d'informations concernant le sous-sol, dans des signaux sismiques enregistrés en surface ou dans des puits. Ces informations sont habituellement recherchées sous forme déterministe, c'est-à-dire sous la forme de la donnée en chaque point d'une valeur du paramètre étudié. Notre point de vue est différent puisque notre objectif est de déduire certaines propriétés statistiques du milieu, supposé hétérogène, à partir des sismogrammes enregistrés après propagation. Il apparaît alors deux moyens de remplir l'objectif fixé. Le premier est l'analyse spectrale des codas ; cette analyse permet de déterminer les tailles moyennes des hétérogénéités du sous-sol. La deuxième possibilité est l'étude de l'atténuation du front direct de l'onde, qui conduit aussi à la connaissance des longueurs caractéristiques du sous-sol ; contrairement à la première méthode, elle ne semble pas pouvoir être transposée efficacement à des cas réels. Dans la première partie, on teste numériquement la proportionnalité entre le facteur de rétrodiffraction, relié aux propriétés statistiques du milieu, et le spectre des codas. Les distributions de vitesse, à valeur
Radiofrequency attenuator and method
Warner, Benjamin P [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM; Burrell, Anthony K [Los Alamos, NM; Agrawal, Anoop [Tucson, AZ; Hall, Simon B [Palmerston North, NZ
2009-01-20
Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Markus Spiliotis
Full Text Available Inverse fusion PCR cloning (IFPC is an easy, PCR based three-step cloning method that allows the seamless and directional insertion of PCR products into virtually all plasmids, this with a free choice of the insertion site. The PCR-derived inserts contain a vector-complementary 5'-end that allows a fusion with the vector by an overlap extension PCR, and the resulting amplified insert-vector fusions are then circularized by ligation prior transformation. A minimal amount of starting material is needed and experimental steps are reduced. Untreated circular plasmid, or alternatively bacteria containing the plasmid, can be used as templates for the insertion, and clean-up of the insert fragment is not urgently required. The whole cloning procedure can be performed within a minimal hands-on time and results in the generation of hundreds to ten-thousands of positive colonies, with a minimal background.
A passive inverse filter for Green's function retrieval.
Gallot, Thomas; Catheline, Stefan; Roux, Philippe; Campillo, Michel
2012-01-01
Passive methods for the recovery of Green's functions from ambient noise require strong hypotheses, including isotropic distribution of the noise sources. Very often, this distribution is nonisotropic, which introduces bias in the Green's function reconstruction. To minimize this bias, a spatiotemporal inverse filter is proposed. The method is tested on a directive noise field computed from an experimental active seismic data set. The results indicate that the passive inverse filter allows the manipulation of the spatiotemporal degrees of freedom of a complex wave field, and it can efficiently compensate for the noise wavefield directivity. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.
Natural attenuation of herbicides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tuxen, Nina; Højberg, Anker Lajer; Broholm, Mette Martina
2002-01-01
A field injection experiment in a sandy, aerobic aquifer showed that two phenoxy acids MCPP (mecoprop) and dichlorprop were degraded within I in downgradient of the injection wells after an apparent lag period. The plume development and microbial measurements indicated that microbial growth....... The observations may be important for application of natural attenuation as a remedy in field scale systems....
Inverse problem in hydrogeology
Carrera, Jesús; Alcolea, Andrés; Medina, Agustín; Hidalgo, Juan; Slooten, Luit J.
2005-03-01
The state of the groundwater inverse problem is synthesized. Emphasis is placed on aquifer characterization, where modelers have to deal with conceptual model uncertainty (notably spatial and temporal variability), scale dependence, many types of unknown parameters (transmissivity, recharge, boundary conditions, etc.), nonlinearity, and often low sensitivity of state variables (typically heads and concentrations) to aquifer properties. Because of these difficulties, calibration cannot be separated from the modeling process, as it is sometimes done in other fields. Instead, it should be viewed as one step in the process of understanding aquifer behavior. In fact, it is shown that actual parameter estimation methods do not differ from each other in the essence, though they may differ in the computational details. It is argued that there is ample room for improvement in groundwater inversion: development of user-friendly codes, accommodation of variability through geostatistics, incorporation of geological information and different types of data (temperature, occurrence and concentration of isotopes, age, etc.), proper accounting of uncertainty, etc. Despite this, even with existing codes, automatic calibration facilitates enormously the task of modeling. Therefore, it is contended that its use should become standard practice. L'état du problème inverse des eaux souterraines est synthétisé. L'accent est placé sur la caractérisation de l'aquifère, où les modélisateurs doivent jouer avec l'incertitude des modèles conceptuels (notamment la variabilité spatiale et temporelle), les facteurs d'échelle, plusieurs inconnues sur différents paramètres (transmissivité, recharge, conditions aux limites, etc.), la non linéarité, et souvent la sensibilité de plusieurs variables d'état (charges hydrauliques, concentrations) des propriétés de l'aquifère. A cause de ces difficultés, le calibrage ne peut êtreséparé du processus de modélisation, comme c'est le
Modular theory of inverse systems
1979-01-01
The relationship between multivariable zeros and inverse systems was explored. A definition of zero module is given in such a way that it is basis independent. The existence of essential right and left inverses were established. The way in which the abstract zero module captured previous definitions of multivariable zeros is explained and examples are presented.
Inverse problems for Maxwell's equations
Romanov, V G
1994-01-01
The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.
Inverse comorbidity in multiple sclerosis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thormann, Anja; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Laursen, Bjarne
2016-01-01
Background Inverse comorbidity is disease occurring at lower rates than expected among persons with a given index disease. The objective was to identify inverse comorbidity in MS. Methods We performed a combined case-control and cohort study in a total nationwide cohort of cases with clinical ons...
Information fusion in regularized inversion of tomographic pumping tests
Bohling, G.C.; ,
2008-01-01
In this chapter we investigate a simple approach to incorporating geophysical information into the analysis of tomographic pumping tests for characterization of the hydraulic conductivity (K) field in an aquifer. A number of authors have suggested a tomographic approach to the analysis of hydraulic tests in aquifers - essentially simultaneous analysis of multiple tests or stresses on the flow system - in order to improve the resolution of the estimated parameter fields. However, even with a large amount of hydraulic data in hand, the inverse problem is still plagued by non-uniqueness and ill-conditioning and the parameter space for the inversion needs to be constrained in some sensible fashion in order to obtain plausible estimates of aquifer properties. For seismic and radar tomography problems, the parameter space is often constrained through the application of regularization terms that impose penalties on deviations of the estimated parameters from a prior or background model, with the tradeoff between data fit and model norm explored through systematic analysis of results for different levels of weighting on the regularization terms. In this study we apply systematic regularized inversion to analysis of tomographic pumping tests in an alluvial aquifer, taking advantage of the steady-shape flow regime exhibited in these tests to expedite the inversion process. In addition, we explore the possibility of incorporating geophysical information into the inversion through a regularization term relating the estimated K distribution to ground penetrating radar velocity and attenuation distributions through a smoothing spline model. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
The Seismic Attenuation Structure of the East Pacific Rise
1992-02-27
Clawson, S. R., R. B. Smith, and H. M. Benz, P wave attenuation of the Yellowstone caldera from three-dimensional inversion of spectral decay using...measurements obtained at high temperatures are presented by Jackson et al. [19921 for a dunite sample from the same formation as that used by Berckhemer et al...manifested by small offsets of the axial summit caldera and changes in orientation of the rise axis [e.g., Macdonald et al., 1992]. To the extent that
Algebraic properties of generalized inverses
Cvetković‐Ilić, Dragana S
2017-01-01
This book addresses selected topics in the theory of generalized inverses. Following a discussion of the “reverse order law” problem and certain problems involving completions of operator matrices, it subsequently presents a specific approach to solving the problem of the reverse order law for {1} -generalized inverses. Particular emphasis is placed on the existence of Drazin invertible completions of an upper triangular operator matrix; on the invertibility and different types of generalized invertibility of a linear combination of operators on Hilbert spaces and Banach algebra elements; on the problem of finding representations of the Drazin inverse of a 2x2 block matrix; and on selected additive results and algebraic properties for the Drazin inverse. In addition to the clarity of its content, the book discusses the relevant open problems for each topic discussed. Comments on the latest references on generalized inverses are also included. Accordingly, the book will be useful for graduate students, Ph...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Calvez V.
2010-12-01
Full Text Available We consider the radiative transfer equation (RTE with reflection in a three-dimensional domain, infinite in two dimensions, and prove an existence result. Then, we study the inverse problem of retrieving the optical parameters from boundary measurements, with help of existing results by Choulli and Stefanov. This theoretical analysis is the framework of an attempt to model the color of the skin. For this purpose, a code has been developed to solve the RTE and to study the sensitivity of the measurements made by biophysicists with respect to the physiological parameters responsible for the optical properties of this complex, multi-layered material. On étudie l’équation du transfert radiatif (ETR dans un domaine tridimensionnel infini dans deux directions, et on prouve un résultat d’existence. On s’intéresse ensuite à la reconstruction des paramètres optiques à partir de mesures faites au bord, en s’appuyant sur des résultats de Choulli et Stefanov. Cette analyse sert de cadre théorique à un travail de modélisation de la couleur de la peau. Dans cette perspective, un code à été développé pour résoudre l’ETR et étudier la sensibilité des mesures effectuées par les biophysiciens par rapport aux paramètres physiologiques tenus pour responsables des propriétés optiques de ce complexe matériau multicouche.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pelle, L.
2003-12-01
The removal of multiple reflections remains a real problem in seismic imaging. Many preprocessing methods have been developed to attenuate multiples in seismic data but none of them is satisfactory in 3D. The objective of this thesis is to develop a new method to remove multiples, extensible in 3D. Contrary to the existing methods, our approach is not a preprocessing step: we directly include the multiple removal in the imaging process by means of a simultaneous inversion of primaries and multiples. We then propose to improve the standard linearized inversion so as to make it insensitive to the presence of multiples in the data. We exploit kinematics differences between primaries and multiples. We propose to pick in the data the kinematics of the multiples we want to remove. The wave field is decomposed into primaries and multiples. Primaries are modeled by the Ray+Born operator from perturbations of the logarithm of impedance, given the velocity field. Multiples are modeled by the Transport operator from an initial trace, given the picking. The inverse problem simultaneously fits primaries and multiples to the data. To solve this problem with two unknowns, we take advantage of the isometric nature of the Transport operator, which allows to drastically reduce the CPU time: this simultaneous inversion is this almost as fast as the standard linearized inversion. This gain of time opens the way to different applications to multiple removal and in particular, allows to foresee the straightforward 3D extension. (author)
Fluid dynamic bowtie attenuators
Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Hermus, James
2015-03-01
Fluence field modulated CT allows for improvements in image quality and dose reduction. To date, only 1-D modulators have been proposed, the extension to 2-D modulation is difficult with solid-metal attenuation-based modulators. This work proposes to use liquids and gas to attenuate the x-ray beam which can be arrayed allowing for 2-D fluence modulation. The thickness of liquid and the pressure for a given path length of gas were determined that provided the same attenuation as 30 cm of soft tissue at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV. Gaseous Xenon and liquid Iodine, Zinc Chloride, and Cerium Chloride were studied. Additionally, we performed some proof-of-concept experiments in which (1) a single cell of liquid was connected to a reservoir which allowed the liquid thickness to be modulated and (2) a 96 cell array was constructed in which the liquid thickness in each cell was adjusted manually. Liquid thickness varied as a function of kV and chemical composition, with Zinc Chloride allowing for the smallest thickness; 1.8, 2.25, 3, and 3.6 cm compensated for 30 cm of soft tissue at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV respectively. The 96 cell Iodine attenuator allowed for a reduction in both dynamic range to the detector and scatter to primary ratio. Successful modulation of a single cell was performed at 0, 90, and 130 degrees using a simple piston/actuator. The thickness of liquids and the Xenon gas pressure seem logistically implementable within the constraints of CBCT and diagnostic CT systems.
Iterative methods for photoacoustic tomography in attenuating acoustic media
Haltmeier, Markus; Kowar, Richard; Nguyen, Linh V.
2017-11-01
The development of efficient and accurate reconstruction methods is an important aspect of tomographic imaging. In this article, we address this issue for photoacoustic tomography. To this aim, we use models for acoustic wave propagation accounting for frequency dependent attenuation according to a wide class of attenuation laws that may include memory. We formulate the inverse problem of photoacoustic tomography in attenuating medium as an ill-posed operator equation in a Hilbert space framework that is tackled by iterative regularization methods. Our approach comes with a clear convergence analysis. For that purpose we derive explicit expressions for the adjoint problem that can efficiently be implemented. In contrast to time reversal, the employed adjoint wave equation is again damping and, thus has a stable solution. This stability property can be clearly seen in our numerical results. Moreover, the presented numerical results clearly demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the derived iterative reconstruction algorithms in various situations including the limited view case.
A Generalization of the Spherical Inversion
Ramírez, José L.; Rubiano, Gustavo N.
2017-01-01
In the present article, we introduce a generalization of the spherical inversion. In particular, we define an inversion with respect to an ellipsoid, and prove several properties of this new transformation. The inversion in an ellipsoid is the generalization of the elliptic inversion to the three-dimensional space. We also study the inverse images…
Inverse Doppler Effects in Flute
Zhao, Xiao P; Liu, Song; Shen, Fang L; Li, Lin L; Luo, Chun R
2015-01-01
Here we report the observation of the inverse Doppler effects in a flute. It is experimentally verified that, when there is a relative movement between the source and the observer, the inverse Doppler effect could be detected for all seven pitches of a musical scale produced by a flute. Higher tone is associated with a greater shift in frequency. The effect of the inverse frequency shift may provide new insights into why the flute, with its euphonious tone, has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.
The distribution of seismic velocities and attenuation in the earth. Ph.D. Thesis
Hart, R. S.
1977-01-01
Estimates of the radial distribution of seismic velocities and density and of seismic attenuation within the earth are obtained through inversion of body wave, surface wave, and normal mode data. The effect of attenuation related dispersion on gross earth structure, and on the reliability of eigenperiod identifications is discussed. The travel time baseline discrepancies between body waves and free oscillation models are examined and largely resolved.
Adaptive attenuation of aliased ground roll using the shearlet transform
Hosseini, Seyed Abolfazl; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Hassani, Hossien; Torabi, Siyavash; Sadri, Maryam
2015-01-01
Attenuation of ground roll is an essential step in seismic data processing. Spatial aliasing of the ground roll may cause the overlap of the ground roll with reflections in the f-k domain. The shearlet transform is a directional and multidimensional transform that separates the events with different dips and generates subimages in different scales and directions. In this study, the shearlet transform was used adaptively to attenuate aliased and non-aliased ground roll. After defining a filtering zone, an input shot record is divided into segments. Each segment overlaps adjacent segments. To apply the shearlet transform on each segment, the subimages containing aliased and non-aliased ground roll, the locations of these events on each subimage are selected adaptively. Based on these locations, mute is applied on the selected subimages. The filtered segments are merged together, using the Hanning function, after applying the inverse shearlet transform. This adaptive process of ground roll attenuation was tested on synthetic data, and field shot records from west of Iran. Analysis of the results using the f-k spectra revealed that the non-aliased and most of the aliased ground roll were attenuated using the proposed adaptive attenuation procedure. Also, we applied this method on shot records of a 2D land survey, and the data sets before and after ground roll attenuation were stacked and compared. The stacked section after ground roll attenuation contained less linear ground roll noise and more continuous reflections in comparison with the stacked section before the ground roll attenuation. The proposed method has some drawbacks such as more run time in comparison with traditional methods such as f-k filtering and reduced performance when the dip and frequency content of aliased ground roll are the same as those of the reflections.
The R{sup 3} exponential x-ray transform inversion in quaternion analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fathi, S M Saberi, E-mail: majid.saberi@u-cergy.f [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modelisation, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France)
2010-07-23
In this paper, we present a new derivation of the inverse of the exponential x-ray transform in the three dimensions, based on quaternion analysis. An explicit formula is obtained using a set of three-dimensional x-ray projection data. The result without attenuation is recovered as a special case.
Bayesian inversion of free oscillations for Earth's radial (an)elastic structure
de Wit, R. W L; Käufl, P.J.; Valentine, A. P.; Trampert, J.
2014-01-01
We perform a Bayesian inversion of degree-zero spheroidal mode splitting function measurements for radial (1-D) Earth structure, in terms of the Voigt averages of P-wave (VP) and S-wave (VS) velocities, density, bulk and shear attenuation, using neural networks. The method is flexible and allows us
Time-Lapse Joint Inversion of Cross-Well DC Resistivity and Seismic Data: A Numerical Investigation
Time-lapse joint inversion of geophysical data is required to image the evolution of oil reservoirs during production and enhanced oil recovery, CO2 sequestration, geothermal fields during production, and to monitor the evolution of contaminant plumes. Joint inversion schemes red...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Syracuse, Ellen Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Phillips, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Begnaud, Michael Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nippress, Stuart [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) Blacknest, Brimpton (United Kingdom); Bergman, Eric [Global Seismological Services (GSS), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Haijiang [Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China)
2016-07-19
These are slides which show many graphs and datasets for the above-mentioned topic and then concludes with the following: Joint inversion of multiple geophysical datasets improves recovery of velocity structures, particularly in Vs and in shallow parts of the model, in comparison to travel-time only models. Resulting fits to travel time data are minimally degraded by joint inversions. Correspondingly, fits to independent estimates of ground-truth locations are minimally affected by joint inversions.
Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies
Page, Morgan T.
2011-01-01
Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data and the complex rupture process at depth. The resulting earthquake source models quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of ruptures. They are also used to provide a rapid assessment of the severity of an earthquake and to estimate losses. However, because of uncertainties in the data, assumed fault geometry and velocity structure, and chosen rupture parameterization, it is not clear which features of these source models are robust. Improved understanding of the uncertainty and reliability of earthquake source inversions will allow the scientific community to use the robust features of kinematic inversions to more thoroughly investigate the complexity of the rupture process and to better constrain other earthquakerelated computations, such as ground motion simulations and static stress change calculations.
Statistical perspectives on inverse problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Kim Emil
of the interior of an object from electrical boundary measurements. One part of this thesis concerns statistical approaches for solving, possibly non-linear, inverse problems. Thus inverse problems are recasted in a form suitable for statistical inference. In particular, a Bayesian approach for regularisation...... is obtained by assuming that the a priori beliefs about the solution before having observed any data can be described by a prior distribution. The solution to the statistical inverse problem is then given by the posterior distribution obtained by Bayes' formula. Hence the solution of an ill-posed inverse...... problem is given in terms of probability distributions. Posterior inference is obtained by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods and new, powerful simulation techniques based on e.g. coupled Markov chains and simulated tempering is developed to improve the computational efficiency of the overall simulation...
Parameter estimation and inverse problems
Aster, Richard C; Thurber, Clifford H
2005-01-01
Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems primarily serves as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and introductory graduate courses. Class notes have been developed and reside on the World Wide Web for faciliting use and feedback by teaching colleagues. The authors'' treatment promotes an understanding of fundamental and practical issus associated with parameter fitting and inverse problems including basic theory of inverse problems, statistical issues, computational issues, and an understanding of how to analyze the success and limitations of solutions to these probles. The text is also a practical resource for general students and professional researchers, where techniques and concepts can be readily picked up on a chapter-by-chapter basis.Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems is structured around a course at New Mexico Tech and is designed to be accessible to typical graduate students in the physical sciences who may not have an extensive mathematical background. It is accompanied by a Web site that...
Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery
The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.
Three-dimensional attenuation and velocity structure of the Cocos subduction zone in Mexico
Chen, T.; Clayton, R. W.
2010-12-01
The 3D P-wave attenuation and velocity structure of the Cocos subduction zone in Mexico is imaged using about 700 local events recorded by the MASE (100 seismometers running across central Mexico, 2005-2007) and VEOX (47 seismometers running across southern Mexico, 2007-2009) arrays, supplemented by stations from the National Seismic Network in Mexico (SSN). Using a spectral-decay method, we obtain a path attenuation operator t* for each seismogram in the frequency band 1 to 30 Hz, depending on the signal quality. These measurements are then inverted for 3D spatial variations in attenuation. Direct P wave arrivals are used for velocity inversion. Inversion results show low attenuation associated with the Cocos slab, and show the slab dip angle increases from central to southern Mexico. High attenuation is imaged in the mantle wedge and the crust above. The highest attenuation is found in the crust near the active Los Tuxtlas volcanic field, probably related to the dehydration and melting process. Cocos slab is also traced as high-velocity strucuture from velocity inversion. Low velocity is imaged in the mantle wedge and crust above. Anomalous high velocity structure is found near the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in southern Mexico dipping south from the Gulf of Mexico. This structure is also seen in receiver function images, and may be related to the collision between the Yucatan Block and Mexico in the Miocene.
Coin tossing and Laplace inversion
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
of a probability measure " on Е0Y 1К via the obvious change of variables e└t И xX An inversion formula for " in terms of its moments yields an inversion formula for # in terms of the values of its Laplace transform at n И 0Y 1Y 2Y ... and vice versa. In our discussion we allow " (respectively #) to have positive mass at 0 ...
Thermal measurements and inverse techniques
Orlande, Helcio RB; Maillet, Denis; Cotta, Renato M
2011-01-01
With its uncommon presentation of instructional material regarding mathematical modeling, measurements, and solution of inverse problems, Thermal Measurements and Inverse Techniques is a one-stop reference for those dealing with various aspects of heat transfer. Progress in mathematical modeling of complex industrial and environmental systems has enabled numerical simulations of most physical phenomena. In addition, recent advances in thermal instrumentation and heat transfer modeling have improved experimental procedures and indirect measurements for heat transfer research of both natural phe
Towards full waveform ambient noise inversion
Sager, Korbinian; Ermert, Laura; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas
2018-01-01
In this work we investigate fundamentals of a method—referred to as full waveform ambient noise inversion—that improves the resolution of tomographic images by extracting waveform information from interstation correlation functions that cannot be used without knowing the distribution of noise sources. The fundamental idea is to drop the principle of Green function retrieval and to establish correlation functions as self-consistent observables in seismology. This involves the following steps: (1) We introduce an operator-based formulation of the forward problem of computing correlation functions. It is valid for arbitrary distributions of noise sources in both space and frequency, and for any type of medium, including 3-D elastic, heterogeneous and attenuating media. In addition, the formulation allows us to keep the derivations independent of time and frequency domain and it facilitates the application of adjoint techniques, which we use to derive efficient expressions to compute first and also second derivatives. The latter are essential for a resolution analysis that accounts for intra- and interparameter trade-offs. (2) In a forward modelling study we investigate the effect of noise sources and structure on different observables. Traveltimes are hardly affected by heterogeneous noise source distributions. On the other hand, the amplitude asymmetry of correlations is at least to first order insensitive to unmodelled Earth structure. Energy and waveform differences are sensitive to both structure and the distribution of noise sources. (3) We design and implement an appropriate inversion scheme, where the extraction of waveform information is successively increased. We demonstrate that full waveform ambient noise inversion has the potential to go beyond ambient noise tomography based on Green function retrieval and to refine noise source location, which is essential for a better understanding of noise generation. Inherent trade-offs between source and structure
Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions) have profound genetic...
Methods and Applications of Inversion
Johnson, Lane
In considering Methods and Applications of Inversions, it is important to realize that the study of inverse problems is not a well-posed endeavor. To begin with, the variety of such problems is extremely broad; any systematic attempt to use observational data to make inferences about a model of the underlying physical processes qualifies as an inverse method. And then, the methods of analysis can branch off in innumerable directions. Many choices must be made in formulating the problem, determining the type and amount of regularization, selecting a solution algorithm, and in representing the results. Finally there is the peculiar process of appraisal, which is often treated as optional, in which one attempts to determine whether a solution was actually obtained and whether it contains any new information. What this means is that when a group gets together to discuss inverse problems, one should not be surprised to encounter a broad variety of problems and approaches. Such is the case with Methods and Applications of Inversions.
Apparent Attenuation at High Frequencies in Southern California
Lin, Y. P.; Jordan, T. H.
2016-12-01
Accurately simulating strong motions for seismic hazard analysis requires accurate 3D models of crustal structure. At low frequencies (job of accounting 3D elastic scattering on wavefield amplitudes. At higher frequencies, however, anelastic attenuation becomes more important, and the elastic scattering depends on unresolved small-scale heterogeneities, giving rise to a complex apparent attenuation structure that depends on both position and frequency. We place constraints on this structure in the band 1-10 Hz through the analysis of earthquake waveforms recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN). We localize signals in frequency and time using wavelet transforms, and we account for source structure and geometrical spreading by referencing the spectral amplitudes to values computed from synthetic seismograms. Inversions of large datasets recover an attenuation structure that, when averaged laterally and over frequency, is generally consistent with the tomographic study of Hauksson & Shearer (2006). In particular, we find that the apparent quality factor for P waves (QP) is less than the apparent quality factor for S waves (QS), in contradiction with the classical relation QP 2QS that has been used for most wavefield modeling at low frequencies. The data are consistent with QP anomalies being strongest in the low-Q, near-surface waveguide, suggesting that strong scattering from small-scale heterogeneities may play a role in explaining this discrepancy. The data also require that the apparent attenuation be strongly frequency dependent across the 1-10 Hz band. We use 3D tomographic inversions conditioned on the 3D velocity models to test the hypothesis that the lateral variations in apparent attenuation structure are strongly correlated with velocity variations.
Optimization and geophysical inverse problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barhen, J.; Berryman, J.G.; Borcea, L.; Dennis, J.; de Groot-Hedlin, C.; Gilbert, F.; Gill, P.; Heinkenschloss, M.; Johnson, L.; McEvilly, T.; More, J.; Newman, G.; Oldenburg, D.; Parker, P.; Porto, B.; Sen, M.; Torczon, V.; Vasco, D.; Woodward, N.B.
2000-10-01
A fundamental part of geophysics is to make inferences about the interior of the earth on the basis of data collected at or near the surface of the earth. In almost all cases these measured data are only indirectly related to the properties of the earth that are of interest, so an inverse problem must be solved in order to obtain estimates of the physical properties within the earth. In February of 1999 the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a workshop that was intended to examine the methods currently being used to solve geophysical inverse problems and to consider what new approaches should be explored in the future. The interdisciplinary area between inverse problems in geophysics and optimization methods in mathematics was specifically targeted as one where an interchange of ideas was likely to be fruitful. Thus about half of the participants were actively involved in solving geophysical inverse problems and about half were actively involved in research on general optimization methods. This report presents some of the topics that were explored at the workshop and the conclusions that were reached. In general, the objective of a geophysical inverse problem is to find an earth model, described by a set of physical parameters, that is consistent with the observational data. It is usually assumed that the forward problem, that of calculating simulated data for an earth model, is well enough understood so that reasonably accurate synthetic data can be generated for an arbitrary model. The inverse problem is then posed as an optimization problem, where the function to be optimized is variously called the objective function, misfit function, or fitness function. The objective function is typically some measure of the difference between observational data and synthetic data calculated for a trial model. However, because of incomplete and inaccurate data, the objective function often incorporates some additional form of regularization, such as a measure of smoothness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frank Joseph
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background and Purpose Both endothelial progenitor cells (EPC and markers of neuroinflammation are candidate biomarkers for stroke severity and outcome prediction. A relationship between EPC and neuroinflammatory markers in early stroke is not fully elucidated. The objectives were to investigate correlations between EPC and neuroinflammation markers (adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, endothelin (ET-1, markers of tissue injury (matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 in early stroke patients. Methods We prospectively recruited symptomatic patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. We assessed stroke severity by using of acute (diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI and final lesion volumes (fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR. We measured serum soluble ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and plasma TNF-α, IL-6, ET-1 by ELISA, and quantified EPC in mononuclear fraction of peripheral blood on days 1 and 3 in 17 patients (mean(SD age 62(14, with admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS 10(8 selected from 175 patients with imaging confirmed ischemic stroke. Non-parametric statistics, univariate and multivariate analysis were used. Results Only ICAM-1 inversely correlated with EPC subset CD133+CD34+ on day 1 (Spearman r = -0.6, p Conclusion Our study showed that high ICAM-1 is associated with low CD133+CD34+subset of EPC. Biomarkers of neuroinflammation may predict tissue injury and stroke severity in early ischemia.
Subadditive functions and their (pseudo-)inverses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østerdal, Lars Peter
2006-01-01
The paper considers non-negative increasing functions on intervals with left endpoint closed at zero and investigates the duality between subadditivity and superadditivity via the inverse function and pseudo-inverses......The paper considers non-negative increasing functions on intervals with left endpoint closed at zero and investigates the duality between subadditivity and superadditivity via the inverse function and pseudo-inverses...
Some Phenomena on Negative Inversion Constructions
Sung, Tae-Soo
2013-01-01
We examine the characteristics of NDI (negative degree inversion) and its relation with other inversion phenomena such as SVI (subject-verb inversion) and SAI (subject-auxiliary inversion). The negative element in the NDI construction may be" not," a negative adverbial, or a negative verb. In this respect, NDI has similar licensing…
Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A strongly polynomial time algorithm to solve the inverse maximum flow problem under l1 norm (denoted ... IMF can not be solved using weakly polynomial algorithms (although sometimes they can be preferred) because ..... in the network ˜G. We shall sort descending the arcs of ˜G by their capacities˜c1. After sorting, the.
Size Estimates in Inverse Problems
Di Cristo, Michele
2014-01-06
Detection of inclusions or obstacles inside a body by boundary measurements is an inverse problems very useful in practical applications. When only finite numbers of measurements are available, we try to detect some information on the embedded object such as its size. In this talk we review some recent results on several inverse problems. The idea is to provide constructive upper and lower estimates of the area/volume of the unknown defect in terms of a quantity related to the work that can be expressed with the available boundary data.
-Dimensional Fractional Lagrange's Inversion Theorem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. A. Abd El-Salam
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Using Riemann-Liouville fractional differential operator, a fractional extension of the Lagrange inversion theorem and related formulas are developed. The required basic definitions, lemmas, and theorems in the fractional calculus are presented. A fractional form of Lagrange's expansion for one implicitly defined independent variable is obtained. Then, a fractional version of Lagrange's expansion in more than one unknown function is generalized. For extending the treatment in higher dimensions, some relevant vectors and tensors definitions and notations are presented. A fractional Taylor expansion of a function of -dimensional polyadics is derived. A fractional -dimensional Lagrange inversion theorem is proved.
Attenuation effect on seasonal basin-scale water storage changes from GRACE time-variable gravity
Chen, JL; Wilson, CR; Famiglietti, JS; Rodell, M.
2007-01-01
In order to effectively recover surface mass or geoid height changes from the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) time-variable gravity models, spatial smoothing is required to minimize errors from noise. Spatial smoothing, such as Gaussian smoothing, not only reduces the noise but also attenuates the real signals. Here we investigate possible amplitude attenuations and phase changes of seasonal water storage variations in four drainage basins (Amazon, Mississippi, Ganges and Zamb...
Bilinear Inverse Problems: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications
Ling, Shuyang
We will discuss how several important real-world signal processing problems, such as self-calibration and blind deconvolution, can be modeled as bilinear inverse problems and solved by convex and nonconvex optimization approaches. In Chapter 2, we bring together three seemingly unrelated concepts, self-calibration, compressive sensing and biconvex optimization. We show how several self-calibration problems can be treated efficiently within the framework of biconvex compressive sensing via a new method called SparseLift. More specifically, we consider a linear system of equations y = DAx, where the diagonal matrix D (which models the calibration error) is unknown and x is an unknown sparse signal. By "lifting" this biconvex inverse problem and exploiting sparsity in this model, we derive explicit theoretical guarantees under which both x and D can be recovered exactly, robustly, and numerically efficiently. In Chapter 3, we study the question of the joint blind deconvolution and blind demixing, i.e., extracting a sequence of functions [special characters omitted] from observing only the sum of their convolutions [special characters omitted]. In particular, for the special case s = 1, it becomes the well-known blind deconvolution problem. We present a non-convex algorithm which guarantees exact recovery under conditions that are competitive with convex optimization methods, with the additional advantage of being computationally much more efficient. We discuss several applications of the proposed framework in image processing and wireless communications in connection with the Internet-of-Things. In Chapter 4, we consider three different self-calibration models of practical relevance. We show how their corresponding bilinear inverse problems can be solved by both the simple linear least squares approach and the SVD-based approach. As a consequence, the proposed algorithms are numerically extremely efficient, thus allowing for real-time deployment. Explicit theoretical
Houweling, Sander; Bergamaschi, Peter; Chevallier, Frederic; Heimann, Martin; Kaminski, Thomas; Krol, Maarten; Michalak, Anna M.; Patra, Prabir
2017-01-01
The aim of this paper is to present an overview of inverse modeling methods that have been developed over the years for estimating the global sources and sinks of CH_{4}. It provides insight into how techniques and estimates have evolved over time and what the remaining shortcomings are.
Wave-equation dispersion inversion
Li, Jing
2016-12-08
We present the theory for wave-equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. The dispersion curves are obtained from Rayleigh waves recorded by vertical-component geophones. Similar to wave-equation traveltime tomography, the complicated surface wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the phase-velocity and frequency domains. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2-D or 3-D S-wave velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is significantly less prone to the cycle-skipping problems of full waveform inversion. The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can approximately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distributions in laterally heterogeneous media if the dispersion curves can be identified and picked. The WD method is easily extended to anisotropic data and the inversion of dispersion curves associated with Love waves.
Inverse problem in transformation optics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Novitsky, Andrey
2011-01-01
. We offer the solution of some sort of inverse problem: starting from the fields in the invisibility cloak we directly derive the permittivity and permeability tensors of the cloaking shell. This approach can be useful for finding material parameters for the specified electromagnetic fields...
Inversion of the perturbation series
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Division Quimica Teorica, Diag 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)
2008-01-18
We investigate the inversion of the perturbation series and its resummation, and prove that it is related to a recently developed parametric perturbation theory. Results for some illustrative examples show that in some cases series reversion may improve the accuracy of the results.
Coin tossing and Laplace inversion
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
An analysis of exchangeable sequences of coin tossings leads to inversion formulae for Laplace transforms of probability measures. Author Affiliations. J C Gupta1 2. Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi 110 016, India; 32, Mirdha Tola, Budaun 243 601, India. Dates. Manuscript received: 5 May 1999; Manuscript revised: 3 ...
Action Understanding as Inverse Planning
Baker, Chris L.; Saxe, Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.
2009-01-01
Humans are adept at inferring the mental states underlying other agents' actions, such as goals, beliefs, desires, emotions and other thoughts. We propose a computational framework based on Bayesian inverse planning for modeling human action understanding. The framework represents an intuitive theory of intentional agents' behavior based on the…
Applications of inverse pattern projection
Li, Wansong; Bothe, Thorsten; Kalms, Michael K.; von Kopylow, Christoph; Jueptner, Werner P. O.
2003-05-01
Fast and robust 3D quality control as well as fast deformation measurement is of particular importance for industrial inspection. Additionally a direct response about measured properties is desired. Therefore, robust optical techniques are needed which use as few images as possible for measurement and visualize results in an efficient way. One promising technique for this aim is the inverse pattern projection which has the following advantages: The technique codes the information of a preceding measurement into the projected inverse pattern. Thus, it is possible to do differential measurements using only one camera frame for each state. Additionally, the results are optimized straight fringes for sampling which are independent of the object curvature. The hardware needs are low as just a programmable projector and a standard camera are necessary. The basic idea of inverse pattern projection, necessary algorithms and found optimizations are demonstrated, roughly. Evaluation techniques were found to preserve a high quality phase measurement under imperfect conditions. The different application fields can be sorted out by the type of pattern used for inverse projection. We select two main topics for presentation. One is the incremental (one image per state) deformation measurement which is a promising technique for high speed deformation measurements. A video series of a wavering flag with projected inverse pattern was evaluated to show the complete deformation series. The other application is the optical feature marking (augmented reality) that allows to map any measured result directly onto the object under investigation. Any properties can be visualized directly on the object"s surface which makes inspections easier than with use of a separated indicating device. The general ability to straighten any kind of information on 3D surfaces is shown while preserving an exact mapping of camera image and object parts. In many cases this supersedes an additional monitor to
Workflows for Full Waveform Inversions
Boehm, Christian; Krischer, Lion; Afanasiev, Michael; van Driel, Martin; May, Dave A.; Rietmann, Max; Fichtner, Andreas
2017-04-01
Despite many theoretical advances and the increasing availability of high-performance computing clusters, full seismic waveform inversions still face considerable challenges regarding data and workflow management. While the community has access to solvers which can harness modern heterogeneous computing architectures, the computational bottleneck has fallen to these often manpower-bounded issues that need to be overcome to facilitate further progress. Modern inversions involve huge amounts of data and require a tight integration between numerical PDE solvers, data acquisition and processing systems, nonlinear optimization libraries, and job orchestration frameworks. To this end we created a set of libraries and applications revolving around Salvus (http://salvus.io), a novel software package designed to solve large-scale full waveform inverse problems. This presentation focuses on solving passive source seismic full waveform inversions from local to global scales with Salvus. We discuss (i) design choices for the aforementioned components required for full waveform modeling and inversion, (ii) their implementation in the Salvus framework, and (iii) how it is all tied together by a usable workflow system. We combine state-of-the-art algorithms ranging from high-order finite-element solutions of the wave equation to quasi-Newton optimization algorithms using trust-region methods that can handle inexact derivatives. All is steered by an automated interactive graph-based workflow framework capable of orchestrating all necessary pieces. This naturally facilitates the creation of new Earth models and hopefully sparks new scientific insights. Additionally, and even more importantly, it enhances reproducibility and reliability of the final results.
Reconstruction from Uniformly Attenuated SPECT Projection Data Using the DBH Method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Qiu; You, Jiangsheng; Zeng, Gengsheng L.; Gullberg, Grant T.
2008-03-20
An algorithm was developed for the two-dimensional (2D) reconstruction of truncated and non-truncated uniformly attenuated data acquired from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The algorithm is able to reconstruct data from half-scan (180o) and short-scan (180?+fan angle) acquisitions for parallel- and fan-beam geometries, respectively, as well as data from full-scan (360o) acquisitions. The algorithm is a derivative, backprojection, and Hilbert transform (DBH) method, which involves the backprojection of differentiated projection data followed by an inversion of the finite weighted Hilbert transform. The kernel of the inverse weighted Hilbert transform is solved numerically using matrix inversion. Numerical simulations confirm that the DBH method provides accurate reconstructions from half-scan and short-scan data, even when there is truncation. However, as the attenuation increases, finer data sampling is required.
Multidimensional NMR Inversion without Kronecker Products: Multilinear Inversion
Medellín, David; Ravi, Vivek R.; Torres-Verdín, Carlos
2016-01-01
Multidimensional NMR inversion using Kronecker products poses several challenges. First, kernel compression is only possible when the kernel matrices are separable, and in recent years, there has been an increasing interest in NMR sequences with non-separable kernels. Second, in three or more dimensions, the singular value decomposition is not unique; therefore kernel compression is not well-defined for higher dimensions. Without kernel compression, the Kronecker product yields matrices that ...
Amplification and Attenuation across USArray using Ambient Noise Wavefront Tracking
Bowden, Daniel C.
2017-11-15
As seismic travel-time tomography continues to be refined using data from the vast USArray dataset, it is advantageous to also exploit the amplitude information carried by seismic waves. We use ambient noise cross correlation to make observations of surface-wave amplification and attenuation at shorter periods (8 – 32 seconds) than can be observed with only traditional teleseismic earthquake sources. We show that the wavefront tracking approach of [Lin et al., 2012a] can be successfully applied to ambient noise correlations, yielding results quite similar to those from earthquake observations at periods of overlap. This consistency indicates that the wavefront tracking approach is viable for use with ambient noise correlations, despite concerns of the inhomogeneous and unknown distribution of noise sources. The resulting amplification and attenuation maps correlate well with known tectonic and crustal structure; at the shortest periods, our amplification and attenuation maps correlate well with surface geology and known sedimentary basins, while our longest period amplitudes are controlled by crustal thickness and begin to probe upper mantle materials. These amplification and attenuation observations are sensitive to crustal materials in different ways than travel-time observations and may be used to better constrain temperature or density variations. We also value them as an independent means of describing the lateral variability of observed Rayleigh-wave amplitudes without the need for 3D tomographic inversions.
Centroid–moment tensor inversions using high-rate GPS waveforms
O'Toole, T.B.; Valentine, A.P.; Woodhouse, J.H.
2012-01-01
Displacement time-series recorded by Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are a new type of near-field waveformobservation of the seismic source.We have developed an inversion method which enables the recovery of an earthquake’s mechanism and centroid coordinates from such data. Our approach
Inverse statistics and information content
Ebadi, H.; Bolgorian, Meysam; Jafari, G. R.
2010-12-01
Inverse statistics analysis studies the distribution of investment horizons to achieve a predefined level of return. This distribution provides a maximum investment horizon which determines the most likely horizon for gaining a specific return. There exists a significant difference between inverse statistics of financial market data and a fractional Brownian motion (fBm) as an uncorrelated time-series, which is a suitable criteria to measure information content in financial data. In this paper we perform this analysis for the DJIA and S&P500 as two developed markets and Tehran price index (TEPIX) as an emerging market. We also compare these probability distributions with fBm probability, to detect when the behavior of the stocks are the same as fBm.
Inverse imbalance reconstruction in rotordynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramlau, R. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Linz (Austria). Johann Radon Inst. for Computational and Applied Mathematics; Dicken, V. [MeVis GmbH, Bremen (Germany); Maass, P. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Technomathematik; Streller, C. [Rolls-Royce Germany GmbH, Dahlewitz (Germany); Rienaecker, A. [MTU Aero Engines GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)
2006-05-15
The goal of this work is to establish and compare algorithms for inverse imbalance reconstruction in aircraft turbines. Such algorithms are based on a validated whole engine model of a turbo engine under consideration. Base on the model, the impact of an imbalance distribution on the vibration behaviour of the turbine can be described as a matrix-vector multiplication Af = g, where f is the imbalance distribution and g the vibration response. It turns out that the matrix A is very ill-conditioned. As the measured data is highly affected with noise, we have to use regularization methods in order to stabilize the inversion. Our main interest was in the use of nonlinear regularization methods, in particular nonlinear filtered singular value decomposition and conjugate gradient regularization. (orig.)
Validation of OSIRIS Ozone Inversions
Gudnason, P.; Evans, W. F.; von Savigny, C.; Sioris, C.; Halley, C.; Degenstein, D.; Llewellyn, E. J.; Petelina, S.; Gattinger, R. L.; Odin Team
2002-12-01
The OSIRIS instrument onboard the Odin satellite, that was launched on February 20, 2001, is a combined optical spectrograph and infrared imager that obtains profil sets of atmospheric spectra from 280 to 800 nm when Odin scans the terrestrial limb. It has been possible to make a preliminary analysis of the ozone profiles using the Chappuis absorption feature. Three algorithms have been developed for ozone profile inversions from these limb spectra sets. We have dubbed these the Gattinger, Von Savigny-Flittner and DOAS methods. These are being evaluated against POAM and other satellite data. Based on performance, one of these will be selected for the operational algorithm. The infrared imager data have been used by Degenstein with the tomographic inversion procedure to derive ozone concentrations above 60 km. This paper will present some of these initial observations and indicate the best algorithm potential of OSIRIS to make spectacular advances in the study of terrestrial ozone.
Fourier reconstruction with sparse inversions
Zwartjes, P.M.
2005-01-01
In seismic exploration an image of the subsurface is generated from seismic data through various data processing algorithms. When the data is not acquired on an equidistantly spaced grid, artifacts may result in the final image. Fourier reconstruction is an interpolation technique that can reduce these artifacts by generating uniformly sampled data from such non-uniformly sampled data. The method works by estimating via least-squares inversion the Fourier coefficients that describe the non-un...
The Inverse of Banded Matrices
2013-01-01
for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite ...numbers of summed or subtracted terms in computing the inverse of a term of an upper (lower) triangular matrix are the generalized order-k Fibonacci ... Fibonacci numbers are the usual Fibonacci numbers, that is, f 2m = Fm (mth Fibonacci number). When also k = 3, c1 = c2 = c3 = 1, then the generalized order-3
Integrated Microfluidic Variable Optical Attenuator
2005-11-28
indices , the optical output power is gradually attenuated. We obtain a maximum attenuation of 28 dB when the fluid refractive index changes from 1.557 to...Electron. 23, pp. 1348-1354 (2005). 14. J. M. Ruano, V. Benoit, J. S. Aitchison , and J. M. Cooper, “Flame hydrolysis deposition of glass on silicon for...different refractive indices flowing in a microfluidic channel as the cladding for a segment of straight optical waveguide. Recently, the integration of
Genetic reproductive risk in inversion carriers.
Anton, Ester; Vidal, Francesca; Egozcue, Josep; Blanco, Joan
2006-03-01
To evaluate the risk of four inversion carriers for producing unbalanced gametes. Prospective analysis of sperm nuclei by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Four inversion carriers. A semen sample from each patient was collected and prepared for FISH. The segregation outcome of each inversion was analyzed. The presence of interchromosomal effects (ICE) on chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y was also evaluated. A variable production of unbalanced gametes, which implies a heterogeneous behavior of the inversions, was detected. This variability seems to be directly related to the size of the inversion, indicating that the production of recombinant gametes in inversion carriers would not be relevant when the inverted segment is smaller than 100 Mbp. Inversions have a well-defined reproductive effect on carriers. Carriers of inversions up to 100 Mbp have a low [corrected] reproductive risk and would not usually benefit from preimplantation genetic diagnosis.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Recovery Mapper is an Internet interactive mapping application that allows users to discover information about every American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...
... I Deal With Depression? Learning Principles to Aid Recovery The Memory Book Support Search Support Groups Coping with Loss ... I Deal With Depression? Learning Principles to Aid Recovery The Memory Book Support Search Support Groups Coping with Loss ...
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Jaiswal, P.; Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.; Zelt, C.A.
(P)) and attenuation (Q sub(P) sup(-1)) character of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). In this paper, we apply frequency domain full-waveform inversion (FWI) to surface-towed 2D multichannel seismic data from the Krishna-Godavari (KG) Basin, India, to image...
Zoethout, R.W.; Iannone, R.; Bloem, B.R.; Palcza, J.; Murphy, G.; Chodakewitz, J.; Buntinx, A.; Gottesdiener, K.; Marsilio, S.; Rosen, L.; Dyck, K. van; Louis, E.D.; Cohen, A.F.; Schoemaker, R.C.; Tokita, S.; Sato, N.; Koblan, K.S.; Hargreaves, R.H.; Renger, J.; Gerven, J.M. van
2012-01-01
Essential tremor (ET) is a common movement disorder. Animal studies show that histaminergic modulation may affect the pathological processes involved in the generation of ET. Histamine-3 receptor inverse agonists (H3RIA) have demonstrated attenuating effects on ET in the harmaline rat model. In this
The seismic attenuation structure of a fast-spreading mid-ocean ridge.
Wilcock, W S; Solomon, S C; Purdy, G M; Toomey, D R
1992-11-27
The two-dimensional P-wave attenuation structure of the axial crust of the East Pacific Rise was obtained from an inversion of waveform spectra collected during an active-source seismic tomography experiment. The structure shows that attenuation near the surface is high everywhere but decreases markedly within 1 to 3 kilometers of the rise axis. The near-axis variation is attributed to the thickening of the surface basalt layer and possibly to in situ changes in porosity related to hydrothermal circulation. High attenuation is also observed beneath the rise axis at depths ranging from about 2 kilometers (less than 1 kilometer beneath the axial magma lens) to the base of the crust. The levels of attenuation in this deeper region require at most only a small fraction of partial melt.
Relationship between comfort and attenuation measurements for two types of earplugs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David C Byrne
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss is almost always preventable if properly fitted hearing protectors are worn to reduce exposure. Many individuals choose not to wear hearing protection because it may interfere with effective communication in the workplace or it may be uncomfortable. Hearing protector comfort has not received the same amount of attention as noise reduction capability. The present study was conducted to evaluate the comfort level of two different types of insert earplugs as well as the attenuation levels achieved by the earplugs. Attenuation levels were obtained with a commercially available earplug fit-test system, and the comfort ratings were obtained by questionnaire. The primary research objective was to determine whether hearing protector comfort was related to measured attenuation values. A linear mixed effects model provided evidence for an inverse relationship between comfort and attenuation.
INVERSE FILTERING TECHNIQUES IN SPEECH ANALYSIS
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Dr Obe
particular system filter being inverted and in the manner of realisation. provide a basis for the classification adopted in the paper which is as follows: (1) inverse vocal tract analogue filtering. (2) inverse vocal tract digital filtering. (3) direct inverse glottal filtering. (4) linear predictive coding. An assessment of the comparative ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Friis, Vivi Soegaard; Haxholm, Birthe Lodahl
2015-01-01
Mental health services strive to implement a recovery-oriented approach to rehabilitation. Little is known about service users' perception of the recovery approach. The aim is to explore the service user's perspectives on facilitators and barriers associated with recovery. Twelve residents living...
Inversion of GPS meteorology data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Hocke
Full Text Available The GPS meteorology (GPS/MET experiment, led by the Universities Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR, consists of a GPS receiver aboard a low earth orbit (LEO satellite which was launched on 3 April 1995. During a radio occultation the LEO satellite rises or sets relative to one of the 24 GPS satellites at the Earth's horizon. Thereby the atmospheric layers are successively sounded by radio waves which propagate from the GPS satellite to the LEO satellite. From the observed phase path increases, which are due to refraction of the radio waves by the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere, the atmospheric parameter refractivity, density, pressure and temperature are calculated with high accuracy and resolution (0.5–1.5 km. In the present study, practical aspects of the GPS/MET data analysis are discussed. The retrieval is based on the Abelian integral inversion of the atmospheric bending angle profile into the refractivity index profile. The problem of the upper boundary condition of the Abelian integral is described by examples. The statistical optimization approach which is applied to the data above 40 km and the use of topside bending angle profiles from model atmospheres stabilize the inversion. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared with corresponding profiles which have already been calculated by scientists of UCAR and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, using Abelian integral inversion too. The comparison shows that in some cases large differences occur (5 K and more. This is probably due to different treatment of the upper boundary condition, data runaways and noise. Several temperature profiles with wavelike structures at tropospheric and stratospheric heights are shown. While the periodic structures at upper stratospheric heights could be caused by residual errors of the ionospheric correction method, the periodic temperature fluctuations at heights below 30 km are most likely caused by atmospheric waves (vertically
The continuation inverse problem revisited
Huestis, Stephen P.
1998-06-01
The non-uniqueness of the continuation of a finite collection of harmonic potential field data to a level surface in the source-free region forces its treatment as an inverse problem. A formalism is proposed for the construction of continuation functions which are extremal by various measures. The problem is cast in such a form that the inverse problem solution is the potential function on the lowest horizontal surface above all sources, serving as the boundary function for the Dirichlet problem in the upper half-plane. The desired continuation, at the higher level of interest, must then be in the range of the upward continuation operator acting on this boundary function, rather than being allowed the full freedom of itself being part of a Dirichlet problem boundary function. Extremal solutions minimize non-linear functionals of the continuation function, which are re-expressed as different functionals of the boundary function. A crux of the method is that there is no essential distinction between the upward and downward continuation inverse problems to levels above or below data locations. Casting the optimization as a Lagrange multiplier problem leads to an integral equation for the boundary function, which is readily solved in the Fourier domain for a certain class of functionals. The desired extremal continuation is then given by upward continuation. It is found that for some functionals, application of the Lagrange multiplier theorem requires a further restriction on the set of allowable boundary functions: bandlimitedness is a natural choice for the continuation problem. With this imposition, the theory is developed in detail for semi-norm functionals penalizing departure from a constant potential, in the 2-norm and Sobelev norm senses, and illustrated by application for a small synthetic Deep Tow magnetic field data set.
Iterative optimization in inverse problems
Byrne, Charles L
2014-01-01
Iterative Optimization in Inverse Problems brings together a number of important iterative algorithms for medical imaging, optimization, and statistical estimation. It incorporates recent work that has not appeared in other books and draws on the author's considerable research in the field, including his recently developed class of SUMMA algorithms. Related to sequential unconstrained minimization methods, the SUMMA class includes a wide range of iterative algorithms well known to researchers in various areas, such as statistics and image processing. Organizing the topics from general to more
Reverse Universal Resolving Algorithm and inverse driving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, Thomas
2012-01-01
Inverse interpretation is a semantics based, non-standard interpretation of programs. Given a program and a value, an inverse interpreter finds all or one of the inputs, that would yield the given value as output with normal forward evaluation. The Reverse Universal Resolving Algorithm is a new...... variant of the Universal Resolving Algorithm for inverse interpretation. The new variant outperforms the original algorithm in several cases, e.g., when unpacking a list using inverse interpretation of a pack program. It uses inverse driving as its main technique, which has not been described in detail...
Dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators
Ratajczak, Joanna; Tchoń, Krzysztof
2016-06-01
By analogy to the definition of the dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for robotic manipulators, we have designed a dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators built of a non-holonomic mobile platform and a holonomic on-board manipulator. The endogenous configuration space approach has been exploited as a source of conceptual guidelines. The new inverse guarantees a decoupling of the motion in the operational space from the forces exerted in the endogenous configuration space and annihilated by the dual Jacobian inverse. A performance study of the new Jacobian inverse as a tool for motion planning is presented.
Attenuation in Superconducting Circular Waveguides
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. H. Yeap
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We present an analysis on wave propagation in superconducting circular waveguides. In order to account for the presence of quasiparticles in the intragap states of a superconductor, we employ the characteristic equation derived from the extended Mattis-Bardeen theory to compute the values of the complex conductivity. To calculate the attenuation in a circular waveguide, the tangential fields at the boundary of the wall are first matched with the electrical properties (which includes the complex conductivity of the wall material. The matching of fields with the electrical properties results in a set of transcendental equations which is able to accurately describe the propagation constant of the fields. Our results show that although the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide above cutoff (but below the gap frequency is finite, it is considerably lower than that in a normal waveguide. Above the gap frequency, however, the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide increases sharply. The attenuation eventually surpasses that in a normal waveguide. As frequency increases above the gap frequency, Cooper pairs break into quasiparticles. Hence, we attribute the sharp rise in attenuation to the increase in random collision of the quasiparticles with the lattice structure.
Multidimensional guided wave dispersion recovery for locating defects in composite materials
Harley, Joel B.; De Marchi, Luca
2016-02-01
This paper provides a framework for characterizing anisotropic guided waves to locate damage in composite structures. Composite guided wave structural health monitoring is a significant challenge due to anisotropy. Wave velocities and attenuation vary as a function of propagation direction. Traditional localization algorithms, such as triangulation and delay-and-sum beamforming, fail for composite monitoring because they rely on isotropic velocity assumptions. Estimating the anisotropic velocities is also challenging because the inverse problem is inherently ill-posed. We cannot solve for an infinite number of directions with a finite number of measurements. This paper addresses these challenges by deriving a physics-based model for unidirectional anisotropy and integrating it with sparse recovery tools and matched field processing to characterize composite guided waves and locate an acoustic source. We validate our approach with experimental laser doppler vibrometry measurements from a glass fiber reinforced composite panel. We achieve localization accuracies of more than 290 and 49 times better, respectively, than delay-and-sum and matched field processing with isotropic assumptions.
Battleground Energy Recovery Project
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bullock, Daniel [USDOE Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)
2011-12-31
In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. M. Warwick
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Striatal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging of the dopaminergic system is becoming increasingly used for clinical and research studies. The question about the value of nonuniform attenuation correction has become more relevant with the increasing availability of hybrid SPECT-CT scanners. In this study, the value of nonuniform attenuation correction and correction for collimator blurring were determined using both phantom data and patient data. Methods. SPECT imaging was performed using 7 anthropomorphic phantom measurements, and 14 patient studies using [I-123]-FP-CIT (DATSCAN. SPECT reconstruction was performed using uniform and nonuniform attenuation correction and collimator blurring corrections. Recovery values (phantom data or average-specific uptake ratios (patient data for the different reconstructions were compared at similar noise levels. Results. For the phantom data, improved recovery was found with nonuniform attenuation correction and collimator blurring corrections, with further improvement when performed together. However, for patient data the highest average specific uptake ratio was obtained using collimator blurring correction without nonuniform attenuation correction, probably due to subtle SPECT-CT misregistration. Conclusions. This study suggests that an optimal brain SPECT reconstruction (in terms of the lowest bias in patients would include a correction for collimator blurring and uniform attenuation correction.
LHC Report: 2 inverse femtobarns!
Mike Lamont for the LHC Team
2011-01-01
The LHC is enjoying a confluence of twos. This morning (Friday 5 August) we passed 2 inverse femtobarns delivered in 2011; the peak luminosity is now just over 2 x1033 cm-2s-1; and recently fill 2000 was in for nearly 22 hours and delivered around 90 inverse picobarns, almost twice 2010's total. In order to increase the luminosity we can increase of number of bunches, increase the number of particles per bunch, or decrease the transverse beam size at the interaction point. The beam size can be tackled in two ways: either reduce the size of the injected bunches or squeeze harder with the quadrupole magnets situated on either side of the experiments. Having increased the number of bunches to 1380, the maximum possible with a 50 ns bunch spacing, a one day meeting in Crozet decided to explore the other possibilities. The size of the beams coming from the injectors has been reduced to the minimum possible. This has brought an increase in the peak luminosity of about 50% and the 2 x 1033 cm...
Inverse problems and inverse scattering of plane waves
Ghosh Roy, Dilip N
2001-01-01
The purpose of this text is to present the theory and mathematics of inverse scattering, in a simple way, to the many researchers and professionals who use it in their everyday research. While applications range across a broad spectrum of disciplines, examples in this text will focus primarly, but not exclusively, on acoustics. The text will be especially valuable for those applied workers who would like to delve more deeply into the fundamentally mathematical character of the subject matter.Practitioners in this field comprise applied physicists, engineers, and technologists, whereas the theory is almost entirely in the domain of abstract mathematics. This gulf between the two, if bridged, can only lead to improvement in the level of scholarship in this highly important discipline. This is the book''s primary focus.
Early arrival waveform inversion of shallow seismic land data
Hanafy, Sherif M.
2013-09-22
We estimate the near-surface velocity distribution over Wadi Qudaid in Saudi Arabia by applying early arrival waveform inversion (EWI) to shallow seismic land data collected with source-receiver offsets no longer than 232 m. The main purpose is to characterize the shallow subsurface for its water storage and reuse potential. To enhance the accuracy of EWI, we extracted a natural source wavelet from the data, and also corrected for the attenuation effects with an estimated factor Q. Results suggest that, compared to traveltime tomography, EWI can generate a highly resolved velocity tomogram from shallow seismic data. The more accurate EWI tomogram can make an economically important difference in assessing the storage potential of this wadi; in this case we find an increase of 18% of storage potential in the EWI tomogram relative to the traveltime tomogram. This approach suggests that FWI might be a more accurate means for economically characterizing the water storage potential for wadis’ throughout the world.
A technique for measuring velocity and attenuation of ultrasound in liquid foams.
Pierre, J; Elias, F; Leroy, V
2013-02-01
We describe an experimental setup specifically designed for measuring the ultrasonic transmission through liquid foams, over a broad range of frequencies (60-600kHz). The question of determining the ultrasonic properties of the foam (density, phase velocity and attenuation) from the transmission measurements is addressed. An inversion method is proposed, tested on synthetic data, and applied to a liquid foam at different times during the coarsening. The ultrasonic velocity and attenuation are found to be very sensitive to the foam bubble sizes, suggesting that a spectroscopy technique could be developed for liquid foams. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Attenuation in silica-based optical fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wandel, Marie Emilie
2006-01-01
In this thesis on attenuation in silica based optical fibers results within three main topics are reported. Spectral attenuation measurements on transmission fibers are performed in the wide wavelength range 290 nm – 1700 nm. The measured spectral attenuation is analyzed with special emphasis...... on absorption peaks in order to investigate the cause of an unusual high attenuation in a series of transmission fibers. Strong indications point to Ni2+ in octahedral coordination as being the cause of the high attenuation. The attenuation of fibers having a high core refractive index is analyzed and the cause...... of the high attenuation measured in such fibers is described as being due to scattering of light on fluctuations of the core diameter. A novel semi-empirical model for predicting the attenuation of high index fibers is presented. The model is shown to be able to predict the attenuation of high index fibers...
Econometric Information Recovery in Behavioral Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George Judge
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest an approach to recovering behavior-related, preference-choice network information from observational data. We model the process as a self-organized behavior based random exponential network-graph system. To address the unknown nature of the sampling model in recovering behavior related network information, we use the Cressie-Read (CR family of divergence measures and the corresponding information theoretic entropy basis, for estimation, inference, model evaluation, and prediction. Examples are included to clarify how entropy based information theoretic methods are directly applicable to recovering the behavioral network probabilities in this fundamentally underdetermined ill posed inverse recovery problem.
Frequency-dependent attenuation of Love waves and its estimation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiao-Ping Li [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany)
1995-12-31
Absorption analysis of Love channel waves plays an important role in in-seam seismic exploration, because the usefulness of this method in a particular locality depends on the rate at which Love-type channel waves are attenuated during the passage through the coal seam. In the absence of any evidence of reflections, it is always important to know at what range such features would have been detected in case of their presence. Obviously this is determined by the number of factor, for example, the distance and especially the absorption. By introducing the complex propagation functions into the known dispersion relation of Love waves for a simple symmetric homogeneous three-layered linear elastic model, the frequency-dependent attenuation relation can be explicitly given assuming that the quality factor of the coal (Q{sub {beta}1}) and the country rock (Q{sub {beta}2}) is constant, The attenuation coefficient of the Love waves becomes a non-linear function of the frequency because of the velocity dispersion. In this case the spectral ratio method can not be applied since it can only estimate the frequency-independent component Q. Therefore, a modification of the spectral ratio method is presented to inverse the frequency-dependent Q of Love-waves. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs
Recovery and money management.
Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L; Ablondi, Karen; Wilber, Charles; Rosen, Marc I
2013-06-01
Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Out of 49 total qualitative interviews, 25 transcripts with persons receiving Social Security insurance or Social Security disability insurance who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Money management interventions should incorporate peoples' recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one's finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client's recovery-related goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L.; Ablondi, Karen; Wilbur, Charles; Rosen, Marc I.
2014-01-01
Objective Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Methods Twenty-five transcripts out of forty-nine total qualitative interviews with persons receiving SSI or SSDI who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. Results The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Money management interventions should incorporate peoples’ recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one’s finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client’s recovery-related goals. PMID:23750764
Solution for Ill-Posed Inverse Kinematics of Robot Arm by Network Inversion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takehiko Ogawa
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In the context of controlling a robot arm with multiple joints, the method of estimating the joint angles from the given end-effector coordinates is called inverse kinematics, which is a type of inverse problems. Network inversion has been proposed as a method for solving inverse problems by using a multilayer neural network. In this paper, network inversion is introduced as a method to solve the inverse kinematics problem of a robot arm with multiple joints, where the joint angles are estimated from the given end-effector coordinates. In general, inverse problems are affected by ill-posedness, which implies that the existence, uniqueness, and stability of their solutions are not guaranteed. In this paper, we show the effectiveness of applying network inversion with regularization, by which ill-posedness can be reduced, to the ill-posed inverse kinematics of an actual robot arm with multiple joints.
Seismic attenuation imaging with causality
Hak, B.; Mulder, W.A.
2010-01-01
Seismic data enable imaging of the Earth, not only of velocity and density but also of attenuation contrasts. Unfortunately, the Born approximation of the constant-density visco-acoustic wave equation, which can serve as a forward modelling operator related to seismic migration, exhibits an
Josephson tunnel junction microwave attenuator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Shchukin, A. V.
1993-01-01
A new element for superconducting electronic circuitry-a variable attenuator-has been proposed, designed, and successfully tested. The principle of operation is based on the change in the microwave impedance of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junction when dc bias...
Compact plasmonic variable optical attenuator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leosson, Kristjan; Rosenzveig, Tiberiu; Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon
2008-01-01
We demonstrate plasmonic nanowire-based thermo-optic variable optical attenuators operating in the 1525-1625 nm wavelength range. The devices have a footprint as low as 1 mm, extinction ratio exceeding 40 dB, driving voltage below 3 V, and full modulation bandwidth of 1 kHz. The polarization...
Flagella overexpression attenuates Salmonella pathogenesis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinghong Yang
Full Text Available Flagella are cell surface appendages involved in a number of bacterial behaviors, such as motility, biofilm formation, and chemotaxis. Despite these important functions, flagella can pose a liability to a bacterium when serving as potent immunogens resulting in the stimulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Previous work showing appendage overexpression, referred to as attenuating gene expression (AGE, was found to enfeeble wild-type Salmonella. Thus, this approach was adapted to discern whether flagella overexpression could induce similar attenuation. To test its feasibility, flagellar filament subunit FliC and flagellar regulon master regulator FlhDC were overexpressed in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium wild-type strain H71. The results show that the expression of either FliC or FlhDC alone, and co-expression of the two, significantly attenuates Salmonella. The flagellated bacilli were unable to replicate within macrophages and thus were not lethal to mice. In-depth investigation suggests that flagellum-mediated AGE was due to the disruptive effects of flagella on the bacterial membrane, resulting in heightened susceptibilities to hydrogen peroxide and bile. Furthermore, flagellum-attenuated Salmonella elicited elevated immune responses to Salmonella presumably via FliC's adjuvant effect and conferred robust protection against wild-type Salmonella challenge.
Flagella Overexpression Attenuates Salmonella Pathogenesis
Yang, Xinghong; Thornburg, Theresa; Suo, Zhiyong; Jun, SangMu; Robison, Amanda; Li, Jinquan; Lim, Timothy; Cao, Ling; Hoyt, Teri; Avci, Recep; Pascual, David W.
2012-01-01
Flagella are cell surface appendages involved in a number of bacterial behaviors, such as motility, biofilm formation, and chemotaxis. Despite these important functions, flagella can pose a liability to a bacterium when serving as potent immunogens resulting in the stimulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Previous work showing appendage overexpression, referred to as attenuating gene expression (AGE), was found to enfeeble wild-type Salmonella. Thus, this approach was adapted to discern whether flagella overexpression could induce similar attenuation. To test its feasibility, flagellar filament subunit FliC and flagellar regulon master regulator FlhDC were overexpressed in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium wild-type strain H71. The results show that the expression of either FliC or FlhDC alone, and co-expression of the two, significantly attenuates Salmonella. The flagellated bacilli were unable to replicate within macrophages and thus were not lethal to mice. In-depth investigation suggests that flagellum-mediated AGE was due to the disruptive effects of flagella on the bacterial membrane, resulting in heightened susceptibilities to hydrogen peroxide and bile. Furthermore, flagellum-attenuated Salmonella elicited elevated immune responses to Salmonella presumably via FliC’s adjuvant effect and conferred robust protection against wild-type Salmonella challenge. PMID:23056473
Wake Vortex Inverse Model User's Guide
Lai, David; Delisi, Donald
2008-01-01
NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an inverse model for inverting landing aircraft vortex data. The data used for the inversion are the time evolution of the lateral transport position and vertical position of both the port and starboard vortices. The inverse model performs iterative forward model runs using various estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Forward model predictions of lateral transport and altitude are then compared with the observed data. Differences between the data and model predictions guide the choice of vortex parameter values, crosswind profile and circulation evolution in the next iteration. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Currently, the inverse model is set to stop when the improvement in the rms deviation between the data and model predictions is less than 1 percent for two consecutive iterations. The forward model used in this inverse model is a modified version of the Shear-APA model. A detailed description of this forward model, the inverse model, and its validation are presented in a different report (Lai, Mellman, Robins, and Delisi, 2007). This document is a User's Guide for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model. Section 2 presents an overview of the inverse model program. Execution of the inverse model is described in Section 3. When executing the inverse model, a user is requested to provide the name of an input file which contains the inverse model parameters, the various datasets, and directories needed for the inversion. A detailed description of the list of parameters in the inversion input file is presented in Section 4. A user has an option to save the inversion results of each lidar track in a mat-file (a condensed data file in Matlab format). These saved mat-files can be used for post-inversion analysis. A description of the contents of the saved files is given in Section 5. An example of an inversion input
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erlangga, Mokhammad Puput [Geophysical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Ganesha Street no.10 Basic Science B Buliding fl.2-3 Bandung, 40132, West Java Indonesia puput.erlangga@gmail.com (Indonesia)
2015-04-16
Separation between signal and noise, incoherent or coherent, is important in seismic data processing. Although we have processed the seismic data, the coherent noise is still mixing with the primary signal. Multiple reflections are a kind of coherent noise. In this research, we processed seismic data to attenuate multiple reflections in the both synthetic and real seismic data of Mentawai. There are several methods to attenuate multiple reflection, one of them is Radon filter method that discriminates between primary reflection and multiple reflection in the τ-p domain based on move out difference between primary reflection and multiple reflection. However, in case where the move out difference is too small, the Radon filter method is not enough to attenuate the multiple reflections. The Radon filter also produces the artifacts on the gathers data. Except the Radon filter method, we also use the Wave Equation Multiple Elimination (WEMR) method to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. The WEMR method can attenuate the long period multiple reflection based on wave equation inversion. Refer to the inversion of wave equation and the magnitude of the seismic wave amplitude that observed on the free surface, we get the water bottom reflectivity which is used to eliminate the multiple reflections. The WEMR method does not depend on the move out difference to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. Therefore, the WEMR method can be applied to the seismic data which has small move out difference as the Mentawai seismic data. The small move out difference on the Mentawai seismic data is caused by the restrictiveness of far offset, which is only 705 meter. We compared the real free multiple stacking data after processing with Radon filter and WEMR process. The conclusion is the WEMR method can more attenuate the long period multiple reflection than the Radon filter method on the real (Mentawai) seismic data.
Optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism
Wiak, Sławomir
2003-01-01
From 12 to 14 September 2002, the Academy of Humanities and Economics (AHE) hosted the workshop "Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism". After this bi-annual event, a large number of papers were assembled and combined in this book. During the workshop recent developments and applications in optimization and inverse methodologies for electromagnetic fields were discussed. The contributions selected for the present volume cover a wide spectrum of inverse and optimal electromagnetic methodologies, ranging from theoretical to practical applications. A number of new optimal and inverse methodologies were proposed. There are contributions related to dedicated software. Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism consists of three thematic chapters, covering: -General papers (survey of specific aspects of optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism), -Methodologies, -Industrial Applications. The book can be useful to students of electrical and electronics engineering, computer sci...
Spatially Dispersed Employee Recovery
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvass, Kristian Anders; Torfadóttir, Embla
2014-01-01
Employee recovery addresses either employee well-being or management's practices in aiding employees in recovering themselves following a service failure. This paper surveys the cabin crew at a small, European, low-cost carrier and investigates employees' perceptions of management practices to aid...... personnel achieve service recovery. Employee recovery within service research often focuses on front-line employees that work in a fixed location, however a contribution to the field is made by investigating the recovery of spatially dispersed personnel, such as operational personnel in the transport sector...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoji Liu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Representations of 1,2,3-inverses, 1,2,4-inverses, and Drazin inverse of a partitioned matrix M=ABCD related to the generalized Schur complement are studied. First, we give the necessary and sufficient conditions under which 1,2,3-inverses, 1,2,4-inverses, and group inverse of a 2×2 block matrix can be represented in the Banachiewicz-Schur forms. Some results from the paper of Cvetković-Ilić, 2009, are generalized. Also, we expressed the quotient property and the first Sylvester identity in terms of the generalized Schur complement.
Systolic MVDR beamforming with inverse updating
Moonen, M.
1993-06-01
A stable alternative is described for the 'standard' systolic MVDR (minimum variance distortionless response) beamforming algorithm of McWhirter and Shepherd (1986), which is shown to be numerically unstable. This alternative algorithm is similar to covariance-type recursive least squares algorithms that employ 'inverse updating'. Required a posteriori residuals for updating are computed from the stored inverse matrix together with the Kalman gain vector. The beamforming problem is shown to fit on a systolic array for inverse updating.
Inverse Kinematic Analysis Of A Quadruped Robot
Muhammed Arif Sen; Veli Bakircioglu; Mete Kalyoncu
2017-01-01
This paper presents an inverse kinematics program of a quadruped robot. The kinematics analysis is main problem in the manipulators and robots. Dynamic and kinematic structures of quadruped robots are very complex compared to industrial and wheeled robots. In this study inverse kinematics solutions for a quadruped robot with 3 degrees of freedom on each leg are presented. Denavit-Hartenberg D-H method are used for the forward kinematic. The inverse kinematic equations obtained by the geometri...
Postretrieval Extinction Attenuates Alcohol Cue Reactivity in Rats.
Cofresí, Roberto U; Lewis, Suzanne M; Chaudhri, Nadia; Lee, Hongjoo J; Monfils, Marie-H; Gonzales, Rueben A
2017-03-01
Conditioned responses to alcohol-associated cues can hinder recovery from alcohol use disorder (AUD). Cue exposure (extinction) therapy (CET) can reduce reactivity to alcohol cues, but its efficacy is limited by phenomena such as spontaneous recovery and reinstatement that can cause a return of conditioned responding after extinction. Using a preclinical model of alcohol cue reactivity in rats, we evaluated whether the efficacy of alcohol CET could be improved by conducting CET during the memory reconsolidation window after retrieval of cue-alcohol associations. Rats were provided with intermittent access to unsweetened alcohol. Rats were then trained to predict alcohol access based on a visual cue. Next, rats were treated with either standard extinction (n = 14) or postretrieval extinction (n = 13). Rats were then tested for long-term memory of extinction and susceptibility to spontaneous recovery and reinstatement. Despite equivalent extinction, rats treated with postretrieval extinction exhibited reduced spontaneous recovery and reinstatement relative to rats treated with standard extinction. Postretrieval CET shows promise for persistently attenuating the risk to relapse posed by alcohol cues in individuals with AUD. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Time-reversal and Bayesian inversion
Debski, Wojciech
2017-04-01
Probabilistic inversion technique is superior to the classical optimization-based approach in all but one aspects. It requires quite exhaustive computations which prohibit its use in huge size inverse problems like global seismic tomography or waveform inversion to name a few. The advantages of the approach are, however, so appealing that there is an ongoing continuous afford to make the large inverse task as mentioned above manageable with the probabilistic inverse approach. One of the perspective possibility to achieve this goal relays on exploring the internal symmetry of the seismological modeling problems in hand - a time reversal and reciprocity invariance. This two basic properties of the elastic wave equation when incorporating into the probabilistic inversion schemata open a new horizons for Bayesian inversion. In this presentation we discuss the time reversal symmetry property, its mathematical aspects and propose how to combine it with the probabilistic inverse theory into a compact, fast inversion algorithm. We illustrate the proposed idea with the newly developed location algorithm TRMLOC and discuss its efficiency when applied to mining induced seismic data.
Interactive inverse kinematics for human motion estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Hauberg, Søren; Lapuyade, Jerome
2009-01-01
We present an application of a fast interactive inverse kinematics method as a dimensionality reduction for monocular human motion estimation. The inverse kinematics solver deals efficiently and robustly with box constraints and does not suffer from shaking artifacts. The presented motion...... estimation system uses a single camera to estimate the motion of a human. The results show that inverse kinematics can significantly speed up the estimation process, while retaining a quality comparable to a full pose motion estimation system. Our novelty lies primarily in use of inverse kinematics...
Inverse Kinematics of a Serial Robot
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amici Cinzia
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This work describes a technique to treat the inverse kinematics of a serial manipulator. The inverse kinematics is obtained through the numerical inversion of the Jacobian matrix, that represents the equation of motion of the manipulator. The inversion is affected by numerical errors and, in different conditions, due to the numerical nature of the solver, it does not converge to a reasonable solution. Thus a soft computing approach is adopted to mix different traditional methods to obtain an increment of algorithmic convergence.
Bayesian approach to inverse statistical mechanics
Habeck, Michael
2014-05-01
Inverse statistical mechanics aims to determine particle interactions from ensemble properties. This article looks at this inverse problem from a Bayesian perspective and discusses several statistical estimators to solve it. In addition, a sequential Monte Carlo algorithm is proposed that draws the interaction parameters from their posterior probability distribution. The posterior probability involves an intractable partition function that is estimated along with the interactions. The method is illustrated for inverse problems of varying complexity, including the estimation of a temperature, the inverse Ising problem, maximum entropy fitting, and the reconstruction of molecular interaction potentials.
Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the continued development of a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and...
Theory of generalized inverses over commutative rings
Bhaskara Rao, KPS
2003-01-01
The theory of generalized inverses of real or complex matrices has been expertly developed and documented. But the generalized inverses of matrices over rings have received comprehensive treatment only recently. In this book, the author, who contributed to the research and development of the theory, explains his results. He explores regular elements in a ring, regular matrices over principal ideal rings, and regular matrices over commutative rings. Students, mathematicians working in g-inverses of matrices, along with algebraists, and control theorists will find new and indispensable data, presented with clarity and insight. This book is also well suited to graduate courses on g-inverses in algebra.
Inverse Problem;Litho_Inversion; Geology and Geophysics
Antonio, Guillen; Gabriel, Courrioux; Bernard, Bourgine
2015-04-01
Subsurface modeling is a key tool to describe, understand and quantify geological processes. As the subsurface is inaccessible and its observation is limited by acquisition methods, 3D models of the subsurface are usually built from the interpretation of sparse data with limited resolution. Therefore, uncertainties occur during the model building process, due to possible cognitive human biais, natural variability of geological objects and intrinsic uncertainties of data. In such context, the predictibility of models is limited by uncertainties, which must be assessed in order to reduce economical and human risks linked to the use of models. This work focuses more specifically on uncertainties about geological structures. In this context, a stochastic method is developed for generating structural models with various fault and horizon geometries as well as fault connections. Realistic geological objects are obtained using implicit modeling that represents a surface by an equipotential of a volumetric scalar field. Faults have also been described by a reduced set of uncertain parameters, which opens the way to the inversion of structural objects using geophysical data by baysian methods.
Lung attenuation measurements in healthy young adults.
Smit, H.J.M.; Golding, R.P.; Schramel, F.M.N.H.; Devillé, W.L.; Manoliu, R.A.; Postmus, P.E.
2003-01-01
Background: High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) attenuation measurements may be more sensitive in finding early emphysematous changes in relatively young subjects than lung function measurements. Objectives: To define lung attenuation parameters in smokers and never-smokers. Methods: A
Inner Core Anisotropy in Attenuation
Yu, W.; Wen, L.
2004-12-01
It is now well established that the compressional velocity in the Earth's inner core varies in both direction and geographic location. The compressional waves travel faster along the polar directions than along the equatorial directions. Such polar-equatorial difference is interpreted as a result of inner core anisotropy in velocity (with a magnitude of about 3%) and such anisotropy appears to be stronger in the ``western hemisphere" (180oW -40oE) than in the ``eastern hemisphere" (40oE-180oE). Along the equatorial paths, the compressional velocity also exhibits a hemispheric pattern with the eastern hemisphere being about 1% higher than the western hemisphere. Possible explanations for the causes of the velocity in anisotropy and the hemispheric difference in velocity along the equatorial paths include different geometric inclusions of melt or different alignments of iron crystals which are known to be anisotropic in velocities. Here, we report an observation of ubiquitous correlation between small (large) amplitude and fast (slow) travel time of the PKIKP waves sampling the top 300 km of the inner core. We study this correlation by jointly analyzing the differential travel times and amplitude ratios of the PKiKP-PKIKP and the PKPbc-PKIKP phases recorded by the Global Seismographic Network (1990-2001), various regional seismic networks (BANJO, BLSP, FREESIA, GEOFON, GEOSCOPE, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz, MEDNET, and OHP), and several PASSCAL Networks deployed in Alaska and Antarctica (XE: 1999-2001, XF: 1995-1996, and YI: 1998-1999). Our dataset consists of 310 PKiKP-PKIKP and 240 PKPbc-PKIKP phases, selected from a total of more than 16,000 observations. PKIKP waves exhibit relatively smaller amplitudes for those sampling the eastern hemisphere along the equatorial paths and even smaller amplitudes for those sampling the polar paths in the western hemisphere. One simple explanation for the velocity-attenuation relation is that the inner core is anisotropic in attenuation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tromba, F.G.
1978-08-01
Pigs fed Ascaris suum eggs attenuated by short-wave ultraviolet radiation developed a resistance to challenge infections that varied according to the protocols used. An analysis of the lengths of worms recovered showed that in controls fed varying doses of eggs, worm sizes were inversely related to the number of eggs in the challenge dose. A ratio of 18 female to 5 male worms indicated that males are more susceptible to ultraviolet radiation than females.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Volkov, V.; Petrov, V.M. [BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Atkinson, T.; Matveenko, A. [HZB, Berlin (Germany)
2016-10-21
This article presents a novel design for a superconducting rf electron injector that incorporates energy recovery. This concept relaxes the demands of high power input couplers, improves essential beam parameters and energy efficiency and reduces the overall cost of a compact energy recovery linac machine.
Chocolate milk: a post-exercise recovery beverage for endurance sports.
Pritchett, Kelly; Pritchett, Robert
2012-01-01
An optimal post-exercise nutrition regimen is fundamental for ensuring recovery. Therefore, research has aimed to examine post-exercise nutritional strategies for enhanced training stimuli. Chocolate milk has become an affordable recovery beverage for many athletes, taking the place of more expensive commercially available recovery beverages. Low-fat chocolate milk consists of a 4:1 carbohydrate:protein ratio (similar to many commercial recovery beverages) and provides fluids and sodium to aid in post-workout recovery. Consuming chocolate milk (1.0-1.5•g•kg(-1) h(-1)) immediately after exercise and again at 2 h post-exercise appears to be optimal for exercise recovery and may attenuate indices of muscle damage. Future research should examine the optimal amount, timing, and frequency of ingestion of chocolate milk on post-exercise recovery measures including performance, indices of muscle damage, and muscle glycogen resynthesis. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
ENHANCEMENTS TO NATURAL ATTENUATION: SELECTED CASE STUDIES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vangelas, K; W. H. Albright, W; E. S. Becvar, E; C. H. Benson, C; T. O. Early, T; E. Hood, E; P. M. Jardine, P; M. Lorah, M; E. Majche, E; D. Major, D; W. J. Waugh, W; G. Wein, G; O. R. West, O
2007-05-15
In 2003 the US Department of Energy (DOE) embarked on a project to explore an innovative approach to remediation of subsurface contaminant plumes that focused on introducing mechanisms for augmenting natural attenuation to achieve site closure. Termed enhanced attenuation (EA), this approach has drawn its inspiration from the concept of monitored natural attenuation (MNA).
Dutta, Gaurav
2014-10-01
Strong subsurface attenuation leads to distortion of amplitudes and phases of seismic waves propagating inside the earth. Conventional acoustic reverse time migration (RTM) and least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) do not account for this distortion, which can lead to defocusing of migration images in highly attenuative geologic environments. To correct for this distortion, we used a linearized inversion method, denoted as Qp-LSRTM. During the leastsquares iterations, we used a linearized viscoacoustic modeling operator for forward modeling. The adjoint equations were derived using the adjoint-state method for back propagating the residual wavefields. The merit of this approach compared with conventional RTM and LSRTM was that Qp-LSRTM compensated for the amplitude loss due to attenuation and could produce images with better balanced amplitudes and more resolution below highly attenuative layers. Numerical tests on synthetic and field data illustrated the advantages of Qp-LSRTM over RTM and LSRTM when the recorded data had strong attenuation effects. Similar to standard LSRTM, the sensitivity tests for background velocity and Qp errors revealed that the liability of this method is the requirement for smooth and accurate migration velocity and attenuation models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. Elshafey
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a method of error-correcting coding of digital information. Feature of this method is the treatment of cases of inversion and skip bits caused by a violation of the synchronization of the receiving and transmitting device or other factors. The article gives a brief overview of the features, characteristics, and modern methods of construction LDPC and convolutional codes, as well as considers a general model of the communication channel, taking into account the probability of bits inversion, deletion and insertion. The proposed coding scheme is based on a combination of LDPC coding and convolution coding. A comparative analysis of the proposed combined coding scheme and a coding scheme containing only LDPC coder is performed. Both of the two schemes have the same coding rate. Experiments were carried out on two models of communication channels at different probability values of bit inversion and deletion. The first model allows only random bit inversion, while the other allows both random bit inversion and deletion. In the experiments research and analysis of the delay decoding of convolutional coder is performed and the results of these experimental studies demonstrate the feasibility of planted coding scheme to improve the efficiency of data recovery that is transmitted over a communication channel with noises which allow random bit inversion and deletion without decreasing the coding rate.
A fully integrated optofluidic attenuator
Müller, Philipp; Kloss, Anton; Liebetraut, Peter; Mönch, Wolfgang; Zappe, Hans
2011-12-01
A fast and reliable, fully integrated optofluidic optical attenuator is demonstrated. The concept employs only liquid and thus has no mechanically moving parts. Transparent and opaque aqueous liquid droplets are displaced using an on-chip electrowetting actuator and, due to the flexibility in the choice of liquids, various transmission spectra can be defined. The microfluidic attenuator system is fabricated using wafer-level bonding and dry film resists resulting in an ultra-compact (11×23×1.6 mm3) device requiring no external components for operation. The measured dynamic range of optical transmission is up to 47 dB, while the response times are below 100 ms for a 2 mm input beam. Using a novel double-actuator configuration, actuation speeds of the liquids of up to 39 mm s-1 were measured.
SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin
2002-01-01
In Section 1 of this first report we will describe the work we are doing to collect and analyze rock physics data for the purpose of modeling seismic attenuation from other measurable quantities such as porosity, water saturation, clay content and net stress. This work and other empirical methods to be presented later, will form the basis for ''Q pseudo-well modeling'' that is a key part of this project. In Section 2 of this report, we will show the fundamentals of a new method to extract Q, dispersion, and attenuation from field seismic data. The method is called Gabor-Morlet time-frequency decomposition. This technique has a number of advantages including greater stability and better time resolution than spectral ratio methods.
Inverse Problems and Uncertainty Quantification
Litvinenko, Alexander
2014-01-06
In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ) - the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) modelare strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.
Inverse problem in Parker's dynamo
Reshetnyak, M Yu
2015-01-01
The inverse solution of the 1D Parker dynamo equations is considered. The method is based on minimization of the cost-function, which characterize deviation of the model solution properties from the desired ones. The output is the latitude distribution of the magnetic field generation sources: the $\\alpha$- and $\\omega$-effects. Minimization is made using the Monte-Carlo method. The details of the method, as well as some applications, which can be interesting for the broad dynamo community, are considered: conditions when the invisible for the observer at the surface of the planet toroidal part of the magnetic field is much larger than the poloidal counterpart. It is shown that at some particular distributions of $\\alpha$ and $\\omega$ the well-known thesis that sign of the dynamo-number defines equatorial symmetry of the magnetic field to the equator plane, is violated. It is also demonstrated in what circumstances magnetic field in the both hemispheres have different properties, and simple physical explanati...
Package inspection using inverse diffraction
McAulay, Alastair D.
2008-08-01
More efficient cost-effective hand-held methods of inspecting packages without opening them are in demand for security. Recent new work in TeraHertz sources,1 millimeter waves, presents new possibilities. Millimeter waves pass through cardboard and styrofoam, common packing materials, and also pass through most materials except those with high conductivity like metals which block light and are easily spotted. Estimating refractive index along the path of the beam through the package from observations of the beam passing out of the package provides the necessary information to inspect the package and is a nonlinear problem. So we use a generalized linear inverse technique that we first developed for finding oil by reflection in geophysics.2 The computation assumes parallel slices in the packet of homogeneous material for which the refractive index is estimated. A beam is propagated through this model in a forward computation. The output is compared with the actual observations for the package and an update computed for the refractive indices. The loop is repeated until convergence. The approach can be modified for a reflection system or to include estimation of absorption.
Inverse magnetic/shear catalysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brett McInnes
2016-05-01
Full Text Available It is well known that very large magnetic fields are generated when the Quark–Gluon Plasma is formed during peripheral heavy-ion collisions. Lattice, holographic, and other studies strongly suggest that these fields may, for observationally relevant field values, induce “inverse magnetic catalysis”, signalled by a lowering of the critical temperature for the chiral/deconfinement transition. The theoretical basis of this effect has recently attracted much attention; yet so far these investigations have not included another, equally dramatic consequence of the peripheral collision geometry: the QGP acquires a large angular momentum vector, parallel to the magnetic field. Here we use holographic techniques to argue that the angular momentum can also, independently, have an effect on transition temperatures, and we obtain a rough estimate of the relative effects of the presence of both a magnetic field and an angular momentum density. We find that the shearing angular momentum reinforces the effect of the magnetic field at low values of the baryonic chemical potential, but that it can actually decrease that effect at high chemical potentials.
Inverse problems and uncertainty quantification
Litvinenko, Alexander
2013-12-18
In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ)— the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) model—are strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.
SOUND ATTENUATION IN FERROELECTRIC SOLIDS
Naithani, U.; Semwal, B.
1981-01-01
An expression for the sound-attenuation constant in doped displacive ferroelectrics, in the presence of an external electric field, is obtained by using the double-time thermal- Green's -functions technique. The mass and force constant changes between the impurity and the host lattice atoms are taken into account in the Silverman Hamiltonian augmented with higher -order anharmonic and electric-moment terms. The defect-dependent, electric- field-dependent, and anharmonic contributions to the a...
Flagella Overexpression Attenuates Salmonella Pathogenesis
Xinghong Yang; Theresa Thornburg; Zhiyong Suo; SangMu Jun; Amanda Robison; Jinquan Li; Timothy Lim; Ling Cao; Teri Hoyt; Recep Avci; Pascual, David W.
2012-01-01
Flagella are cell surface appendages involved in a number of bacterial behaviors, such as motility, biofilm formation, and chemotaxis. Despite these important functions, flagella can pose a liability to a bacterium when serving as potent immunogens resulting in the stimulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Previous work showing appendage overexpression, referred to as attenuating gene expression (AGE), was found to enfeeble wild-type Salmonella. Thus, this approach was adapted to...
Parithusta, R.; Matsumoto, S.; Shimizu, H.
2007-12-01
Examining the anelastic structure in the uppermost mantle and the crust continues to be a significant problem in seismology. In particular, the observation of attenuation heterogeneities around subduction zones and active fault has implication for the dynamic oceanic lithosphere and asthenosphere. Seismic attenuation can be estimated by extracting the amplitude-frequency information contained in seismic waveforms and it provides an important insight into the nature of heterogeneities structure and composition of the earth's interior. The study area at Kyushu Island, in South Part of Japan is characterized by subduction from Philippine Sea Slab and Eurasian Plate; volcanic front seen in islands arcs runs through the central part of Kyushu Island. Futagawa- Hinagu Fault zone, which is one of the active faults in Japan, lies in the middle of Kyushu, in which the seismic activity of shallow earthquakes is high. The fault is furrow from southwest of Aso volcano until Yatsushiro city, with the type of right-lateral strike slip. For investigating the 3D wave attenuation Q structure of the crust and the upper mantle in Kyushu Island, we examined the seismic wave spectra for micro earthquakes (Magnitude 2.5 - 4.5) observed at seismic stations by Kyushu Univ., JMA, and Hi-net. In this study selected waveform were used for spectral analysis concerning strong lateral heterogeneities, to estimate Q values by the spectral decay of the spectrum. Used for estimating path attenuation, we obtained the best result with amplitude spectra determined for a 128 - sample window around seismic-wave arrivals and having signal-to-noise ratio greater than 2 over the continuous frequency range. Solving for Q structure, an inversion program were developed with referring Tsumura, 2000.,by given a set of path attenuation, source parameter, site response and velocity model, the Q structure can be distinguished the difference between fore-arc zone and back arc zone around Kyushu Island, especially
Metaheuristic optimization of acoustic inverse problems.
van Leijen, A.V.; Rothkrantz, L.; Groen, F.
2011-01-01
Swift solving of geoacoustic inverse problems strongly depends on the application of a global optimization scheme. Given a particular inverse problem, this work aims to answer the questions how to select an appropriate metaheuristic search strategy, and how to configure it for optimal performance.
INVERSE FILTERING TECHNIQUES IN SPEECH ANALYSIS
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Dr Obe
ABSTRACT. This paper reviews certain speech analytical techniques to which the label 'inverse filtering' has been applied. The unifying features of these techniques are presented, namely: 1. a basis in the source-filter theory of speech production,. 2. the use of a network whose transfer function is the inverse of the transfer ...
Third Harmonic Imaging using a Pulse Inversion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Joachim; Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2011-01-01
The pulse inversion (PI) technique can be utilized to separate and enhance harmonic components of a waveform for tissue harmonic imaging. While most ultrasound systems can perform pulse inversion, only few image the 3rd harmonic component. PI pulse subtraction can isolate and enhance the 3rd...
Inversion and approximation of Laplace transforms
Lear, W. M.
1980-01-01
A method of inverting Laplace transforms by using a set of orthonormal functions is reported. As a byproduct of the inversion, approximation of complicated Laplace transforms by a transform with a series of simple poles along the left half plane real axis is shown. The inversion and approximation process is simple enough to be put on a programmable hand calculator.
Inverse Nonlinear Programming Problem and its Application
Kotkin, G.G.
1990-01-01
Inverse nonlinear programming problems for a new class of optimization problems relevant for game theory, system optimization, multicriteria optimization, etc. are considered by the author. This paper deals with problem definitions, numerical methods and applications of the inverse nonlinear programming problem in multicriteria optimization. Some associated properties of related parametric optimization problems and software implementations are also considered.
Choi, Yun Seok
2012-05-02
Conventional multi-source waveform inversion using an objective function based on the least-square misfit cannot be applied to marine streamer acquisition data because of inconsistent acquisition geometries between observed and modelled data. To apply the multi-source waveform inversion to marine streamer data, we use the global correlation between observed and modelled data as an alternative objective function. The new residual seismogram derived from the global correlation norm attenuates modelled data not supported by the configuration of observed data and thus, can be applied to multi-source waveform inversion of marine streamer data. We also show that the global correlation norm is theoretically the same as the least-square norm of the normalized wavefield. To efficiently calculate the gradient, our method employs a back-propagation algorithm similar to reverse-time migration based on the adjoint-state of the wave equation. In numerical examples, the multi-source waveform inversion using the global correlation norm results in better inversion results for marine streamer acquisition data than the conventional approach. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
Inverse m-matrices and ultrametric matrices
Dellacherie, Claude; San Martin, Jaime
2014-01-01
The study of M-matrices, their inverses and discrete potential theory is now a well-established part of linear algebra and the theory of Markov chains. The main focus of this monograph is the so-called inverse M-matrix problem, which asks for a characterization of nonnegative matrices whose inverses are M-matrices. We present an answer in terms of discrete potential theory based on the Choquet-Deny Theorem. A distinguished subclass of inverse M-matrices is ultrametric matrices, which are important in applications such as taxonomy. Ultrametricity is revealed to be a relevant concept in linear algebra and discrete potential theory because of its relation with trees in graph theory and mean expected value matrices in probability theory. Remarkable properties of Hadamard functions and products for the class of inverse M-matrices are developed and probabilistic insights are provided throughout the monograph.
Stochastic Gabor reflectivity and acoustic impedance inversion
Hariri Naghadeh, Diako; Morley, Christopher Keith; Ferguson, Angus John
2018-02-01
To delineate subsurface lithology to estimate petrophysical properties of a reservoir, it is possible to use acoustic impedance (AI) which is the result of seismic inversion. To change amplitude to AI, removal of wavelet effects from the seismic signal in order to get a reflection series, and subsequently transforming those reflections to AI, is vital. To carry out seismic inversion correctly it is important to not assume that the seismic signal is stationary. However, all stationary deconvolution methods are designed following that assumption. To increase temporal resolution and interpretation ability, amplitude compensation and phase correction are inevitable. Those are pitfalls of stationary reflectivity inversion. Although stationary reflectivity inversion methods are trying to estimate reflectivity series, because of incorrect assumptions their estimations will not be correct, but may be useful. Trying to convert those reflection series to AI, also merging with the low frequency initial model, can help us. The aim of this study was to apply non-stationary deconvolution to eliminate time variant wavelet effects from the signal and to convert the estimated reflection series to the absolute AI by getting bias from well logs. To carry out this aim, stochastic Gabor inversion in the time domain was used. The Gabor transform derived the signal’s time–frequency analysis and estimated wavelet properties from different windows. Dealing with different time windows gave an ability to create a time-variant kernel matrix, which was used to remove matrix effects from seismic data. The result was a reflection series that does not follow the stationary assumption. The subsequent step was to convert those reflections to AI using well information. Synthetic and real data sets were used to show the ability of the introduced method. The results highlight that the time cost to get seismic inversion is negligible related to general Gabor inversion in the frequency domain. Also
Forward modeling. Route to electromagnetic inversion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Groom, R.; Walker, P. [PetRos EiKon Incorporated, Ontario (Canada)
1996-05-01
Inversion of electromagnetic data is a topical subject in the literature, and much time has been devoted to understanding the convergence properties of various inverse methods. The relative lack of success of electromagnetic inversion techniques is partly attributable to the difficulties in the kernel forward modeling software. These difficulties come in two broad classes: (1) Completeness and robustness, and (2) convergence, execution time and model simplicity. If such problems exist in the forward modeling kernel, it was demonstrated that inversion can fail to generate reasonable results. It was suggested that classical inversion techniques, which are based on minimizing a norm of the error between data and the simulated data, will only be successful when these difficulties in forward modeling kernels are properly dealt with. 4 refs., 5 figs.
Fast wavelet based sparse approximate inverse preconditioner
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wan, W.L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
1996-12-31
Incomplete LU factorization is a robust preconditioner for both general and PDE problems but unfortunately not easy to parallelize. Recent study of Huckle and Grote and Chow and Saad showed that sparse approximate inverse could be a potential alternative while readily parallelizable. However, for special class of matrix A that comes from elliptic PDE problems, their preconditioners are not optimal in the sense that independent of mesh size. A reason may be that no good sparse approximate inverse exists for the dense inverse matrix. Our observation is that for this kind of matrices, its inverse entries typically have piecewise smooth changes. We can take advantage of this fact and use wavelet compression techniques to construct a better sparse approximate inverse preconditioner. We shall show numerically that our approach is effective for this kind of matrices.
Evaluating grain size in polycrystals with rough surfaces by corrected ultrasonic attenuation.
Li, Xiongbing; Han, Xiaoqin; Arguelles, Andrea P; Song, Yongfeng; Hu, Hongwei
2017-07-01
Surface roughness of a sample has a great effect on the calculated grain size when measurements are based on ultrasonic attenuation. Combining modified transmission and reflection coefficients at the rough interface with a Multi-Gaussian beam model of the transducer, a comprehensive correction scheme for the attenuation coefficient is developed. An approximate inverse model of the calculated attenuation, based on Weaver's diffuse scattering theory, is established to evaluate grain size in polycrystals. The experimental results showed that for samples with varying surface roughness and matching microstructures, the fluctuation of evaluated average grain size was ±1.17μm. For polished samples with different microstructures, the relative errors to optical microscopy were no more than ±3.61%. The presented method provides an effective nondestructive tool for evaluating the grain size in metals with rough surfaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Physical characteristics and attenuation of foam earplugs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, C.R.; Broughton, R.M.; Wilmoth, J.N.; Borton, T.E.; Mozo, B.T.
1982-01-01
The purpose of this investigation was twofold: (1) to determine the physical characteristics of five types of foam earplugs; and (2) to relate their physical characteristics to attenuation of noise. The results indicate that: (1) all commercial polymer foam earplugs have similar physical properties, (2) frequency is the single most important variable in determining attenuation of commercial foam earplugs, (3) all earplugs evaluated provided essentially the same attenuation at frequencies >500 Hz. One non-commercial earplug provided significantly more attenuation at 125 Hz than the other earplugs. This non-commercial experimental plug has significantly different physical and chemical properties. No other consistent effects of physical properties on attenuation were found.
Pawlicki, Alexander D.; O'Brien, William D.
2013-01-01
Estimating total ultrasound attenuation from backscatter data is essential in the field of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) because of the need to compensate for attenuation when estimating the backscatter coefficient and QUS parameters. This work uses a reference phantom method of attenuation estimation to create a spatial map of attenuation slope (AS) from backscatter radio-frequency (RF) data of three phantoms and a rat mammary adenocarcinoma tumor (MAT). The attenuation maps show changes in ...
Local Bayesian inversion: theoretical developments
Moraes, Fernando S.; Scales, John A.
2000-06-01
We derive a new Bayesian formulation for the discrete geophysical inverse problem that can significantly reduce the cost of the computations. The Bayesian approach focuses on obtaining a probability distribution (the posterior distribution), assimilating three kinds of information: physical theories (data modelling), observations (data measurements) and prior information on models. Once this goal is achieved, all inferences can be obtained from the posterior by computing statistics relative to individual parameters (e.g. marginal distributions), a daunting computational problem in high dimensions. Our formulation is developed from the working hypothesis that the local (subsurface) prior information on model parameters supercedes any additional information from other parts of the model. Based on this hypothesis, we propose an approximation that permits a reduction of the dimensionality involved in the calculations via marginalization of the probability distributions. The marginalization facilitates the tasks of incorporating diverse prior information and conducting inferences on individual parameters, because the final result is a collection of 1-D posterior distributions. Parameters are considered individually, one at a time. The approximation involves throwing away, at each step, cross-moment information of order higher than two, while preserving all marginal information about the parameter being estimated. The main advantage of the method is allowing for systematic integration of prior information while maintaining practical feasibility. This is achieved by combining (1) probability density estimation methods to derive marginal prior distributions from available local information, and (2) the use of multidimensional Gaussian distributions, which can be marginalized in closed form. Using a six-parameter problem, we illustrate how the proposed methodology works. In the example, the marginal prior distributions are derived from the application of the principle of
Antagonism of methoxyflurane-induced anesthesia in rats by benzodiazepine inverse agonists.
Miller, D W; Yourick, D L; Tessel, R E
1989-11-28
Injection of the partial benzodiazepine inverse agonist Ro15-4513 (1-32 mg/kg i.p.) or nonconvulsant i.v. doses of the full benzodiazepine inverse agonist beta-CCE immediately following cessation of exposure of rats to an anesthetic concentration of methoxyflurane significantly antagonized the duration of methoxyflurane anesthesia as measured by recovery of the righting reflex and/or pain sensitivity. This antagonism was inhibited by the benzodiazepine antagonist Ro15-1788 at doses which alone did not alter the duration of methoxyflurane anesthesia. In addition, high-dose Ro15-4513 pretreatment (32 mg/kg) antagonized the induction and duration of methoxyflurane anesthesia but was unable to prevent methoxyflurane anesthesia or affect the induction or duration of anesthesia induced by the dissociative anesthetic ketamine (100 mg/kg). These findings indicate that methoxyflurane anesthesia can be selectively antagonized by the inverse agonistic action of Ro15-4513 and beta-CCE.
Mercury's Internal Magnetic Field: Modeling Core Fields with Smooth Inversions
Uno, H.; Johnson, C. L.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Purucker, M. E.; Solomon, S. C.
2008-12-01
MESSENGER's second flyby (M2) of Mercury on 6 October 2008 will provide significantly improved geographical sampling of the planet's internal magnetic field over previous measurements. Latitudinal coverage and spacecraft altitudes will be similar to those during MESSENGER's first encounter (M1), but the spacecraft trajectory will be displaced by about 180° in longitude, yielding the first magnetic measurements in the western hemisphere. We investigate spatial structure in Mercury's internal magnetic field by applying methods from inverse theory to construct low-degree-and-order spherical harmonic models. External fields predicted by a parameterized magnetospheric model are subtracted from the vector field observations. The approach takes into account noise contributions from long-wavelength uncertainties in the external field models, unexplained short-wavelength features, and spacecraft attitude errors. We investigate the effect of different regularization (smoothness) constraints on our inversions. Analyses of data from M1 and the two Mariner 10 flybys that penetrated the magnetosphere yield a preferred spherical harmonic solution to degree and order eight with the centered, axial dipole term g10 dominating. The model shows structure at low and mid-latitude regions near the flybys. Terms predicted by an analytical model for long- wavelength crustal fields - namely g10, g30 and g32 - are present, but their relative amplitudes are not consistent with such a field. We conclude that structure in our models is dominated by core, rather than by crustal, fields. We also investigate, through simulations, field morphologies that are recoverable while the spacecraft is in orbit about Mercury, under the assumption that the long-wavelength contributions from external sources can be accurately modeled and removed. Although the elliptical orbit of MESSENGER will impede the recovery of southern hemisphere structure, we obtain excellent recovery of the dipole field and of
Identification of polymorphic inversions from genotypes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cáceres Alejandro
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphic inversions are a source of genetic variability with a direct impact on recombination frequencies. Given the difficulty of their experimental study, computational methods have been developed to infer their existence in a large number of individuals using genome-wide data of nucleotide variation. Methods based on haplotype tagging of known inversions attempt to classify individuals as having a normal or inverted allele. Other methods that measure differences between linkage disequilibrium attempt to identify regions with inversions but unable to classify subjects accurately, an essential requirement for association studies. Results We present a novel method to both identify polymorphic inversions from genome-wide genotype data and classify individuals as containing a normal or inverted allele. Our method, a generalization of a published method for haplotype data 1, utilizes linkage between groups of SNPs to partition a set of individuals into normal and inverted subpopulations. We employ a sliding window scan to identify regions likely to have an inversion, and accumulation of evidence from neighboring SNPs is used to accurately determine the inversion status of each subject. Further, our approach detects inversions directly from genotype data, thus increasing its usability to current genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Conclusions We demonstrate the accuracy of our method to detect inversions and classify individuals on principled-simulated genotypes, produced by the evolution of an inversion event within a coalescent model 2. We applied our method to real genotype data from HapMap Phase III to characterize the inversion status of two known inversions within the regions 17q21 and 8p23 across 1184 individuals. Finally, we scan the full genomes of the European Origin (CEU and Yoruba (YRI HapMap samples. We find population-based evidence for 9 out of 15 well-established autosomic inversions, and for 52 regions
Synthetic inversions for density in the Earth's interior from seismic waveform and geodetic data
Blom, N.; Boehm, C.; Fichtner, A.
2015-12-01
Density plays an important role in the Earth's interior. On one hand, it is the driving force behind convection; on the other, in imaging efforts, it serves to discriminate between thermal and compositional heterogeneities. Despite its importance, the Earth's 3D density structure remains difficult to infer from surface observations. Gravity measurements, for instance, are sensitive to density but suffer from inherent and strong non-uniqueness. The travel times of seismic body and surface waves are only weakly sensitive to density, and trade-offs with velocity structure are often large. New opportunities for the recovery of density in the Earth may arise from recently developed full-waveform inversion methods that go beyond traditional traveltime tomography. In this study, we assess to which extent, and in which way, full-waveform inversion can be combined with gravity and other geodetic measurements to better constrain global-scale density structure. To this end, we perform synthetic tests in 2D in which we systematically assess the effect on density recovery of different (joint) inversion schemes, types of data used and constraints applied. Our synthetic inversions are based on numerical wave propagation and adjoint techniques to compute seismic Fréchet sensitivity kernels, which are combined with synthetic gravity data to drive gradient-based optimisation schemes. Additional constraints such as a predefined velocity structure, or Earth's mass and inertia tensor, may be imposed using a projected descent scheme.
Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Ryff, Carol D.
2013-01-01
Objective To examine multiple aspects of anger experience and expression (frequency, outward expression, suppression, control) as moderators of the association of social inequality as measured by educational status with inflammation and coagulation markers. Methods Following survey assessments via telephone and mail, MIDUS (Midlife in the U.S.) respondents (N = 1,054) participated in an overnight clinic visit, where they completed anger questionnaires and provided a fasting blood sample to measure IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen. Results Educational status was linked to higher anger-control among men (B = .14, p = .001). Significant inverse correlations emerged between education and IL-6, CRP, and fibrinogen (r's ≥ -.09, p's education and anger measures were significant for education and trait anger as related to fibrinogen (p = .023), education and anger-out as related to IL-6 (p = 0.05) and fibrinogen (p = .05). As predicted, the inverse relationships between education and IL-6 and fibrinogen were stronger among individuals reporting high anger. Anger-control also moderated the association of education with IL-6 in women (p = .026), such that the link between education and IL-6 was attenuated among women with high anger-control. Conclusion Varieties of anger moderated educational gradients in inflammation: The inverse relationships between education and inflammation markers were strongest among individuals with high anger, and were attenuated among those with high anger control. PMID:23766379
Synthetic inversions for density using seismic and gravity data
Blom, Nienke; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas
2017-05-01
Density variations drive mass transport in the Earth from plate tectonics to convection in the mantle and core. Nevertheless, density remains poorly known because most geophysical measurements used to probe the Earth's interior either have little sensitivity to density, suffer from trade-offs or from non-uniqueness. With the ongoing expansion of computational power, it has become possible to accurately model complete seismic wavefields in a 3-D heterogeneous Earth, and to develop waveform inversion techniques that account for complicated wavefield effects. This may help to improve resolution of density. Here, we present a pilot study where we explore the extent to which waveform inversion may be used to better recover density as a separate, independent parameter. We perform numerical simulations in 2-D to investigate under which conditions, and to what extent density anomalies may be recovered in the Earth's mantle. We conclude that density can indeed be constrained by seismic waveforms, mainly as a result of scattering effects at density contrasts. As a consequence, the low-frequency part of the wavefield is the most important for constraining the actual extent of anomalies. While the impact of density heterogeneities on the wavefield is small compared to the effects of velocity variations, it is likely to be detectable in modern regional- to global-scale measurements. We also conclude that the use of gravity data as additional information does not help to further improve the recovery of density anomalies unless strong a priori constraints on the geometry of density variations are applied. This is a result of the inherent physical non-uniqueness of potential-field inverse problems. Finally, in the limited numerical setup that we employ, we find that the initially supplied anomalies in S- and P-velocity models are of minor importance.
FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers
Department of Homeland Security — This is a search site for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Dihoff, Debra G; Weaver, Michael
2012-01-01
North Carolina has new opportunities for orienting its mental health care system toward client recovery as the system shifts to managed care with the possibility of offering more innovative services...
Does mindfulness attenuate thoughts emphasizing negativity, but not positivity?
Kiken, Laura G.; Shook, Natalie J.
2014-01-01
The current research investigated whether mindfulness is differentially associated with thoughts that emphasize positive or negative valence. In Study 1, trait mindfulness was inversely associated with negative rumination but unassociated with positive rumination, controlling for state affect. In Study 2, participants completed either a mindful breathing meditation or a comparable control exercise, followed by a thought listing while viewing affective images. Compared to the control condition, the mindfulness condition listed proportionately fewer negative thoughts, particularly in response to negative images, and more non-valenced thoughts. The conditions did not differ in their proportions of positive thoughts. These results suggest that mindfulness may attenuate thoughts that emphasize negativity but not those that emphasize positivity. PMID:25284906
Does mindfulness attenuate thoughts emphasizing negativity, but not positivity?
Kiken, Laura G; Shook, Natalie J
2014-12-01
The current research investigated whether mindfulness is differentially associated with thoughts that emphasize positive or negative valence. In Study 1, trait mindfulness was inversely associated with negative rumination but unassociated with positive rumination, controlling for state affect. In Study 2, participants completed either a mindful breathing meditation or a comparable control exercise, followed by a thought listing while viewing affective images. Compared to the control condition, the mindfulness condition listed proportionately fewer negative thoughts, particularly in response to negative images, and more non-valenced thoughts. The conditions did not differ in their proportions of positive thoughts. These results suggest that mindfulness may attenuate thoughts that emphasize negativity but not those that emphasize positivity.
Sparse CSEM inversion driven by seismic coherence
Guo, Zhenwei; Dong, Hefeng; Kristensen, Åge
2016-12-01
Marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data inversion for hydrocarbon exploration is often challenging due to high computational cost, physical memory requirement and low resolution of the obtained resistivity map. This paper aims to enhance both the speed and resolution of CSEM inversion by introducing structural geological information in the inversion algorithm. A coarse mesh is generated for Occam’s inversion, where the parameters are fewer than in the fine regular mesh. This sparse mesh is defined as a coherence-based irregular (IC) sparse mesh, which is based on vertices extracted from available geological information. Inversion results on synthetic data illustrate that the IC sparse mesh has a smaller inversion computational cost compared to the regular dense (RD) mesh. It also has a higher resolution than with a regular sparse (RS) mesh for the same number of estimated parameters. In order to study how the IC sparse mesh reduces the computational time, four different meshes are generated for Occam’s inversion. As a result, an IC sparse mesh can reduce the computational cost while it keeps the resolution as good as a fine regular mesh. The IC sparse mesh reduces the computational cost of the matrix operation for model updates. When the number of estimated parameters reduces to a limited value, the computational cost is independent of the number of parameters. For a testing model with two resistive layers, the inversion result using an IC sparse mesh has higher resolution in both horizontal and vertical directions. Overall, the model representing significant geological information in the IC mesh can improve the resolution of the resistivity models obtained from inversion of CSEM data.
On the inversion-indel distance.
Willing, Eyla; Zaccaria, Simone; Braga, Marília D V; Stoye, Jens
2013-01-01
The inversion distance, that is the distance between two unichromosomal genomes with the same content allowing only inversions of DNA segments, can be computed thanks to a pioneering approach of Hannenhalli and Pevzner in 1995. In 2000, El-Mabrouk extended the inversion model to allow the comparison of unichromosomal genomes with unequal contents, thus insertions and deletions of DNA segments besides inversions. However, an exact algorithm was presented only for the case in which we have insertions alone and no deletion (or vice versa), while a heuristic was provided for the symmetric case, that allows both insertions and deletions and is called the inversion-indel distance. In 2005, Yancopoulos, Attie and Friedberg started a new branch of research by introducing the generic double cut and join (DCJ) operation, that can represent several genome rearrangements (including inversions). Among others, the DCJ model gave rise to two important results. First, it has been shown that the inversion distance can be computed in a simpler way with the help of the DCJ operation. Second, the DCJ operation originated the DCJ-indel distance, that allows the comparison of genomes with unequal contents, considering DCJ, insertions and deletions, and can be computed in linear time. In the present work we put these two results together to solve an open problem, showing that, when the graph that represents the relation between the two compared genomes has no bad components, the inversion-indel distance is equal to the DCJ-indel distance. We also give a lower and an upper bound for the inversion-indel distance in the presence of bad components.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sheyde, V.P.; Remizov, V.V.; Serov, N.N.
1982-07-07
The proposed method of peat recovery includes cutting bricks from the bed, and lifting and storing them in drying platforms. In order to increase efficiency of the recovery process, the peat is excavated from longitudinal parallel strips located between peat brick cutting strips at the same time as bricks are cut from the bed. The deep-slit method is used. The depth of excavation strips is greater than the depth of the strips that are cut.
Barker, Tyler; Henriksen, Vanessa T.; Martins, Thomas B.; Hill, Harry R.; Kjeldsberg, Carl R.; Schneider, Erik D.; Dixon, Brian M.; Weaver, Lindell K.
2013-01-01
The primary purpose of this study was to identify if serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations predict muscular weakness after intense exercise. We hypothesized that pre-exercise serum 25(OH)D concentrations inversely predict exercise-induced muscular weakness. Fourteen recreationally active adults participated in this study. Each subject had one leg randomly assigned as a control. The other leg performed an intense exercise protocol. Single-leg peak isometric force and blood 25(OH)D, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin-4 were measured prior to and following intense exercise. Following exercise, serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased (p < 0.05) immediately, but within minutes, subsequently decreased (p < 0.05). Circulating albumin increases predicted (p < 0.005) serum 25(OH)D increases, while IFN-γ increases predicted (p < 0.001) serum 25(OH)D decreases. Muscular weakness persisted within the exercise leg (p < 0.05) and compared to the control leg (p < 0.05) after the exercise protocol. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations inversely predicted (p < 0.05) muscular weakness (i.e., control leg vs. exercise leg peak isometric force) immediately and days (i.e., 48-h and 72-h) after exercise, suggesting the attenuation of exercise-induced muscular weakness with increasing serum 25(OH)D prior to exercise. Based on these data, we conclude that pre-exercise serum 25(OH)D concentrations could influence the recovery of skeletal muscle strength after an acute bout of intense exercise. PMID:23595134
The factorization method for inverse problems
Kirsch, Andreas
2008-01-01
The factorization method is a relatively new method for solving certain types of inverse scattering problems and problems in tomography. Aimed at students and researchers in Applied Mathematics, Physics and Engineering, this text introduces the reader to this promising approach for solving important classes of inverse problems. The wide applicability of this method is discussed by choosing typical examples, such as inverse scattering problems for the scalar Helmholtz equation, ascattering problem for Maxwell's equation, and a problem in impedance and optical tomography. The last section of the
3rd Annual Workshop on Inverse Problem
2015-01-01
This proceeding volume is based on papers presented on the Third Annual Workshop on Inverse Problems which was organized by the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, and took place in May 2013 in Stockholm. The purpose of this workshop was to present new analytical developments and numerical techniques for solution of inverse problems for a wide range of applications in acoustics, electromagnetics, optical fibers, medical imaging, geophysics, etc. The contributions in this volume reflect these themes and will be beneficial to researchers who are working in the area of applied inverse problems.
Inverse Raman effect: applications and detection techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, L.J. Jr.
1980-08-01
The processes underlying the inverse Raman effect are qualitatively described by comparing it to the more familiar phenomena of conventional and stimulated Raman scattering. An experession is derived for the inverse Raman absorption coefficient, and its relationship to the stimulated Raman gain is obtained. The power requirements of the two fields are examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The assumption that the inverse Raman absorption coefficient is constant over the interaction length is examined. Advantages of the technique are discussed and a brief survey of reported studies is presented.
Geoacoustic inversion using combustive sound source signals.
Potty, Gopu R; Miller, James H; Wilson, Preston S; Lynch, James F; Newhall, Arthur
2008-09-01
Combustive sound source (CSS) data collected on single hydrophone receiving units, in water depths ranging from 65 to 110 m, during the Shallow Water 2006 experiment clearly show modal dispersion effects and are suitable for modal geoacoustic inversions. CSS shots were set off at 26 m depth in 100 m of water. The inversions performed are based on an iterative scheme using dispersion-based short time Fourier transform in which each time-frequency tiling is adaptively rotated in the time-frequency plane, depending on the local wave dispersion. Results of the inversions are found to compare favorably to local core data.
BOOK REVIEW: Inverse Problems. Activities for Undergraduates
Yamamoto, Masahiro
2003-06-01
This book is a valuable introduction to inverse problems. In particular, from the educational point of view, the author addresses the questions of what constitutes an inverse problem and how and why we should study them. Such an approach has been eagerly awaited for a long time. Professor Groetsch, of the University of Cincinnati, is a world-renowned specialist in inverse problems, in particular the theory of regularization. Moreover, he has made a remarkable contribution to educational activities in the field of inverse problems, which was the subject of his previous book (Groetsch C W 1993 Inverse Problems in the Mathematical Sciences (Braunschweig: Vieweg)). For this reason, he is one of the most qualified to write an introductory book on inverse problems. Without question, inverse problems are important, necessary and appear in various aspects. So it is crucial to introduce students to exercises in inverse problems. However, there are not many introductory books which are directly accessible by students in the first two undergraduate years. As a consequence, students often encounter diverse concrete inverse problems before becoming aware of their general principles. The main purpose of this book is to present activities to allow first-year undergraduates to learn inverse theory. To my knowledge, this book is a rare attempt to do this and, in my opinion, a great success. The author emphasizes that it is very important to teach inverse theory in the early years. He writes; `If students consider only the direct problem, they are not looking at the problem from all sides .... The habit of always looking at problems from the direct point of view is intellectually limiting ...' (page 21). The book is very carefully organized so that teachers will be able to use it as a textbook. After an introduction in chapter 1, sucessive chapters deal with inverse problems in precalculus, calculus, differential equations and linear algebra. In order to let one gain some insight
Pawlicki, Alexander D; O'Brien, William D
2013-04-01
Estimating total ultrasound attenuation from backscatter data is essential in the field of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) because of the need to compensate for attenuation when estimating the backscatter coefficient and QUS parameters. This work uses a reference phantom method of attenuation estimation to create a spatial map of attenuation slope (AS) from backscatter radio-frequency (RF) data of three phantoms and a rat mammary adenocarcinoma tumor (MAT). The attenuation maps show changes in attenuation between different regions of the phantoms and the MAT tumor. Analyses of the attenuation maps of the phantoms suggest that the AS estimates are in good quantitative agreement with the known values for the phantoms. Furthermore, estimates of total attenuation from the attenuation maps are likewise in good quantitative agreement with known values.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kellman, Peter; Bandettini, W Patricia; Mancini, Christine
2015-01-01
metaplasia is evident in 8 patients (47%). Fat fractions as low as 5% caused approximately 6% T1 elevation for the out-of-phase condition, and approximately 5% reduction of T1 for the in-phase condition. T1 bias in excess of 1000 ms was observed in lipomatous metaplasia with fat fraction of 38% in close...... or within the myocardium in the case of lipomatous metaplasia of replacement fibrosis, which is commonly seen in chronic myocardial infarction. The presence of fat leads to a bias in T1 measurement. The mechanism for this artifact for widely used T1 mapping protocols using balanced steady state free...... agreement with simulation of the specific imaging protocols. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of the myocardial T1 by widely used balanced steady state free precession mapping methods is subject to bias when there is a mixture of water and fat in the myocardium. Intramyocardial fat is frequently present...
Sequential Geoacoustic Filtering and Geoacoustic Inversion
2015-09-30
directions of the angular spectrum . Grid refinement alleviates basis mismatch at the expense of increased computational complexity, especially in large...two-dimensional or three-dimensional geoacoustic inversion problems such as seismic imaging. Importantly, grid refinement causes increased coherence
Self-Inverse Interleavers for Turbo Codes
Sakzad, Amin; Panario, Daniel; Eshghi, Nasim
2010-01-01
In this work we introduce and study a set of new interleavers based on permutation polynomials and functions with known inverses over a finite field $\\mathbb{F}_q$ for using in turbo code structures. We use Monomial, Dickson, M\\"{o}bius and R\\'edei functions in order to get new interleavers. In addition we employ Skolem sequences in order to find new interleavers with known cycle structure. As a byproduct we give an exact formula for the inverse of every R\\'edei function. The cycle structure of R\\'edei functions are also investigated. Finally, self-inverse versions of permutation functions are used to construct interleavers. These interleavers are their own de-interleavers and are useful for turbo coding and turbo decoding. Experiments carried out for self-inverse interleavers constructed using these kind of permutation polynomials and functions show excellent agreement with our theoretical results.
Homogeneity of common cosmopolitan inversion frequencies in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Keywords. Drosophila melanogaster; inversion polymorphism; Southeast Asia; genetic homogeneity; balancing selection. Abstract. East Asian Drosophila melanogaster are known for great variation in morphological and physiological characters among populations, variation that is believed to be maintained by genetic drift.
Full traveltime inversion in source domain
Liu, Lu
2017-06-01
This paper presents a new method of source-domain full traveltime inversion (FTI). The objective of this study is automatically building near-surface velocity using the early arrivals of seismic data. This method can generate the inverted velocity that can kinetically best match the reconstructed plane-wave source of early arrivals with true source in source domain. It does not require picking first arrivals for tomography, which is one of the most challenging aspects of ray-based tomographic inversion. Besides, this method does not need estimate the source wavelet, which is a necessity for receiver-domain wave-equation velocity inversion. Furthermore, we applied our method on one synthetic dataset; the results show our method could generate a reasonable background velocity even when shingling first arrivals exist and could provide a good initial velocity for the conventional full waveform inversion (FWI).
Deep controls on intraplate basin inversion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, S.B.; Stephenson, Randell Alexander; Schiffer, Christian
2014-01-01
Basin inversion is an intermediate-scale manifestation of continental intraplate deformation, which produces earthquake activity in the interior of continents. The sedimentary basins of central Europe, inverted in the Late Cretaceous– Paleocene, represent a classic example of this phenomenon....... It is known that inversion of these basins occurred in two phases: an initial one of transpressional shortening involving reverse activation of former normal faults and a subsequent one of uplift of the earlier developed inversion axis and a shift of sedimentary depocentres, and that this is a response...... to changes in the regional intraplate stress field. This European intraplate deformation is considered in thecontext of a new model of the present-day stress field of Europe (and the North Atlantic) caused by lithospheric potential energy variations. Stresses causingbasin inversion of Europe must have been...
Voxel inversion of airborne EM data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.
2013-01-01
We present a geophysical inversion algorithm working directly in a voxel grid disconnected from the actual measuring points, which allows for straightforward integration of different data types in joint inversion, for informing geological/hydrogeological models directly and for easier incorporation...... of prior information. Inversion of geophysical data usually refers to a model space being linked to the actual observation points. For airborne surveys the spatial discretization of the model space reflects the flight lines. Often airborne surveys are carried out in areas where other ground......-based geophysical data are available. The model space of geophysical inversions is usually referred to the positions of the measurements, and ground-based model positions do not generally coincide with the airborne model positions. Consequently, a model space based on the measuring points is not well suited...
Parametric optimization of inverse trapezoid oleophobic surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavalli, Andrea; Bøggild, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin
2012-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a comprehensive and versatile approach to the parametric shape optimization of oleophobic surfaces. We evaluate the performance of inverse trapezoid microstructures in terms of three objective parameters: apparent contact angle, maximum sustainable hydrostatic pressure...
Case of paracentric inversion 19p
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bettio, D.; Rizzi, N.; Giardino, D. [Centro Auxologico Italiano, Milan (Italy)
1995-09-25
Paracentric inversions have been described less frequently than pericentric ones. It is not known whether this is due to their rarity or rather to difficulty in detecting intra-arm rearrangements. Paracentric inversions have been noted in all chromosomes except chromosome 19; the short arm was involved in 21 cases and the long arm in 87. We describe the first case of paracentric inversion in chromosome 19. The patient, a 29-year-old man, was referred for cytogenetic investigation because his wife had had 3 spontaneous abortions. No history of subfertility was recorded. Chromosome studies on peripheral blood lymphocytes demonstrated an abnormal QFQ banding pattern in the short arm of one chromosome 19. The comparison between QFQ, GTG and RBA banding led us to suspect a paracentric inversion involving the chromosome 19 short arm. CBG banding resulted in an apparently normal position of the centromere. Parental chromosome studies showed the same anomaly in the patient`s mother. 4 refs.
Rg propagation: Scatter versus Attenuation
Cleveland, M.; Phillips, W. S.; MacCarthy, J.
2016-12-01
At near local distances, the Rg seismic phase is often the largest seismic arrival for shallow sources. While Rg is classically defined for the period range of 8-12 s, we use the term generically to refer to short-period observations of Rayleigh waves from shallow sources [e.g. Langston, 1987; Bonner and Russell, 2013]. There is significant interest in using Rg as a basis for seismic discrimination and magnitude (e.g. Bonner and Russell, 2013). However, the propagation of this phase is poorly understood. At Nevada National Security Site, while Rg is well observed near the source, it quickly disappears at greater distances. This observation raises the fundamental question of how much of the Rg energy is simply attenuating versus scattering into other seismic phases. Understanding this is critical to interpreting not only the observed Rg seismic energy, but also the possible enrichment of other seismic phases resulting from Rg scattering. In this study, we use waveform data from the Bighorn Arch Seismic Experiment (BASE) and Source Physics Experiment (SPE) to investigate Rg propagation, looking to identify how much energy from the phase attenuates with distance and how much scatters into other seismic phases.
Chlorine signal attenuation in concrete.
Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; ur-Rehman, Khateeb; Al-Amoudi, O S B
2015-11-01
The intensity of prompt gamma-ray was measured at various depths from chlorine-contaminated silica fume (SF) concrete slab concrete specimens using portable neutron generator-based prompt gamma-ray setup. The intensity of 6.11MeV chloride gamma-rays was measured from the chloride contaminated slab at distance of 15.25, 20.25, 25.25, 30.25 and 35.25cm from neutron target in a SF cement concrete slab specimens. Due to attenuation of thermal neutron flux and emitted gamma-ray intensity in SF cement concrete at various depths, the measured intensity of chlorine gamma-rays decreases non-linearly with increasing depth in concrete. A good agreement was noted between the experimental results and the results of Monte Carlo simulation. This study has provided useful experimental data for evaluating the chloride contamination in the SF concrete utilizing gamma-ray attenuation method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin
2003-12-01
We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.
Inverse semigroups the theory of partial symmetries
Lawson, Mark V
1998-01-01
Symmetry is one of the most important organising principles in the natural sciences. The mathematical theory of symmetry has long been associated with group theory, but it is a basic premise of this book that there are aspects of symmetry which are more faithfully represented by a generalization of groups called inverse semigroups. The theory of inverse semigroups is described from its origins in the foundations of differential geometry through to its most recent applications in combinatorial group theory, and the theory tilings.
The inverse scattering problem for transmission lines
Kay, I.
1972-01-01
A number of exact and approximate methods for solving the inverse scattering problem for transmission lines are reviewed. In particular, the application to transmission lines of Marcenko's version of the Gelfand-Levitan exact method for the quantum mechanical problem is compared with a more direct approach based on a different version of the Gelfand-Levitan method. In addition, some aspects of the lack of uniqueness of solutions are discussed, and some open questions related to the inverse scattering problem are suggested.
Bayesian inversion of refraction seismic traveltime data
Ryberg, T.; Haberland, Ch
2018-03-01
We apply a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) formalism to the inversion of refraction seismic, traveltime data sets to derive 2-D velocity models below linear arrays (i.e. profiles) of sources and seismic receivers. Typical refraction data sets, especially when using the far-offset observations, are known as having experimental geometries which are very poor, highly ill-posed and far from being ideal. As a consequence, the structural resolution quickly degrades with depth. Conventional inversion techniques, based on regularization, potentially suffer from the choice of appropriate inversion parameters (i.e. number and distribution of cells, starting velocity models, damping and smoothing constraints, data noise level, etc.) and only local model space exploration. McMC techniques are used for exhaustive sampling of the model space without the need of prior knowledge (or assumptions) of inversion parameters, resulting in a large number of models fitting the observations. Statistical analysis of these models allows to derive an average (reference) solution and its standard deviation, thus providing uncertainty estimates of the inversion result. The highly non-linear character of the inversion problem, mainly caused by the experiment geometry, does not allow to derive a reference solution and error map by a simply averaging procedure. We present a modified averaging technique, which excludes parts of the prior distribution in the posterior values due to poor ray coverage, thus providing reliable estimates of inversion model properties even in those parts of the models. The model is discretized by a set of Voronoi polygons (with constant slowness cells) or a triangulated mesh (with interpolation within the triangles). Forward traveltime calculations are performed by a fast, finite-difference-based eikonal solver. The method is applied to a data set from a refraction seismic survey from Northern Namibia and compared to conventional tomography. An inversion test
Lg-wave attenuation in the Australian crust
Wei, Zhi; Kennett, Brian L. N.; Zhao, Lian-Feng
2017-10-01
We estimate the Lg-wave quality factor (Q) across the Australian continent from vertical-component Lg waveforms. A tomographic inversion is performed to construct an Lg attenuation model for 58 frequencies between 0.05 and 10.0 Hz. The available spatial resolution is approximately 1.5° × 1.5° for the 0.5-2.0 Hz band. At 1.0 Hz, the Lg-wave Q over the whole island continent varies from 50 to 1250 with an average value of 850. Significant regional variations in the Lg-wave Q images tie well with many geological features and boundaries in Australia. The cratons in western, northern and southern parts of Australia usually have higher Q values (700-1250), while the volcanic regions, sedimentary basins and orogenic areas in eastern Australia are characterized by increased attenuation (lower Q values, 50-650). We determine the frequency-dependent Q of Lg waves for different blocks across Australia, and find the frequency dependence of Q is much more complex than the traditional single power law representation. When combined with the assumed geometrical spreading relation, the Lg Q maps provide a new way of assessing potential ground motion across the continent for any event location.
Breast imaging using waveform attenuation tomography
Li, Cuiping; Sandhu, Gursharan Y.; Boone, Michael; Duric, Neb
2017-03-01
Ex vivo studies using our ultrasound waveform attenuation algorithm have shown promising results for detection and characterization of lesions of different types. Our preliminary in vivo study shows that the waveform attenuation image has much higher resolution and can better delineate breast lesions boundaries than the corresponding ray-based attenuation image. In this study, we preprocessed our time domain waveforms acquired with a ring array and explored the directional transducer beam pattern to better match calculated wave fields with respect to the acquired wave fields. We have applied waveform attenuation to in vivo data and compared the resulting waveform attenuation images with the ray-based counterparts to assess the resolution and accuracy of the waveform attenuation reconstruction.
Image Fusion for Travel Time Tomography Inversion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Linan
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The travel time tomography technology had achieved wide application, the hinge of tomography was inversion algorithm, the ray path tracing technology had a great impact on the inversion results. In order to improve the SNR of inversion image, comprehensive utilization of inversion results with different ray tracing can be used. We presented an imaging fusion method based on improved Wilkinson iteration method. Firstly, the shortest path method and the linear travel time interpolation were used for forward calculation; then combined the improved Wilkinson iteration method with super relaxation precondition method to reduce the condition number of matrix and accelerate iterative speed, the precise integration method was used to solve the inverse matrix more precisely in tomography inversion process; finally, use wavelet transform for image fusion, obtain the final image. Therefore, the ill-conditioned linear equations were changed into iterative normal system through two times of treatment and using images with different forward algorithms for image fusion, it reduced the influence effect of measurement error on imaging. Simulation results showed that, this method can eliminate the artifacts in images effectively, it had extensive practical significance.
Atmospheric inverse modeling via sparse reconstruction
Hase, Nils; Miller, Scot M.; Maaß, Peter; Notholt, Justus; Palm, Mathias; Warneke, Thorsten
2017-10-01
Many applications in atmospheric science involve ill-posed inverse problems. A crucial component of many inverse problems is the proper formulation of a priori knowledge about the unknown parameters. In most cases, this knowledge is expressed as a Gaussian prior. This formulation often performs well at capturing smoothed, large-scale processes but is often ill equipped to capture localized structures like large point sources or localized hot spots. Over the last decade, scientists from a diverse array of applied mathematics and engineering fields have developed sparse reconstruction techniques to identify localized structures. In this study, we present a new regularization approach for ill-posed inverse problems in atmospheric science. It is based on Tikhonov regularization with sparsity constraint and allows bounds on the parameters. We enforce sparsity using a dictionary representation system. We analyze its performance in an atmospheric inverse modeling scenario by estimating anthropogenic US methane (CH4) emissions from simulated atmospheric measurements. Different measures indicate that our sparse reconstruction approach is better able to capture large point sources or localized hot spots than other methods commonly used in atmospheric inversions. It captures the overall signal equally well but adds details on the grid scale. This feature can be of value for any inverse problem with point or spatially discrete sources. We show an example for source estimation of synthetic methane emissions from the Barnett shale formation.
Atmospheric inverse modeling via sparse reconstruction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Hase
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Many applications in atmospheric science involve ill-posed inverse problems. A crucial component of many inverse problems is the proper formulation of a priori knowledge about the unknown parameters. In most cases, this knowledge is expressed as a Gaussian prior. This formulation often performs well at capturing smoothed, large-scale processes but is often ill equipped to capture localized structures like large point sources or localized hot spots. Over the last decade, scientists from a diverse array of applied mathematics and engineering fields have developed sparse reconstruction techniques to identify localized structures. In this study, we present a new regularization approach for ill-posed inverse problems in atmospheric science. It is based on Tikhonov regularization with sparsity constraint and allows bounds on the parameters. We enforce sparsity using a dictionary representation system. We analyze its performance in an atmospheric inverse modeling scenario by estimating anthropogenic US methane (CH4 emissions from simulated atmospheric measurements. Different measures indicate that our sparse reconstruction approach is better able to capture large point sources or localized hot spots than other methods commonly used in atmospheric inversions. It captures the overall signal equally well but adds details on the grid scale. This feature can be of value for any inverse problem with point or spatially discrete sources. We show an example for source estimation of synthetic methane emissions from the Barnett shale formation.
Porosity Estimation By Artificial Neural Networks Inversion . Application to Algerian South Field
Eladj, Said; Aliouane, Leila; Ouadfeul, Sid-Ali
2017-04-01
One of the main geophysicist's current challenge is the discovery and the study of stratigraphic traps, this last is a difficult task and requires a very fine analysis of the seismic data. The seismic data inversion allows obtaining lithological and stratigraphic information for the reservoir characterization . However, when solving the inverse problem we encounter difficult problems such as: Non-existence and non-uniqueness of the solution add to this the instability of the processing algorithm. Therefore, uncertainties in the data and the non-linearity of the relationship between the data and the parameters must be taken seriously. In this case, the artificial intelligence techniques such as Artificial Neural Networks(ANN) is used to resolve this ambiguity, this can be done by integrating different physical properties data which requires a supervised learning methods. In this work, we invert the acoustic impedance 3D seismic cube using the colored inversion method, then, the introduction of the acoustic impedance volume resulting from the first step as an input of based model inversion method allows to calculate the Porosity volume using the Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Network. Application to an Algerian South hydrocarbon field clearly demonstrate the power of the proposed processing technique to predict the porosity for seismic data, obtained results can be used for reserves estimation, permeability prediction, recovery factor and reservoir monitoring. Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, inversion, non-uniqueness , nonlinear, 3D porosity volume, reservoir characterization .
Wave attenuation charcteristics of tethered float system
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Vethamony, P.
parameters. The effect of drag on wave attenuation is studied for varying drag coefficient values. Theoretical results are compared with experimental values and it is found that theory overestimates wave attenuation which may probably be due to various... 15 and 16, respectively. These figures show that theory overestimates the wave attenuation and this may probably be due to various linearisations involved in the theoretical formulation. Experimental results are also not very accurate because...
Lung attenuation measurements in healthy young adults.
Smit, H.J.M.; Golding, R.P.; Schramel, F.M.N.H.; Devillé, W.L.; Manoliu, R.A.; Postmus, P. E.
2003-01-01
Background: High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) attenuation measurements may be more sensitive in finding early emphysematous changes in relatively young subjects than lung function measurements. Objectives: To define lung attenuation parameters in smokers and never-smokers. Methods: A prospective comparative study in a university hospital setting was designed with 20 healthy smoking and 20 nonsmoking volunteers. Attenuation measurements on spirometrically controlled HRCT at three leve...
An application of sparse inversion on the calculation of the inverse data space of geophysical data
Saragiotis, Christos
2011-07-01
Multiple reflections as observed in seismic reflection measurements often hide arrivals from the deeper target reflectors and need to be removed. The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from trivial as theory requires infinite time and offset recording. Furthermore regularization issues arise during inversion. We perform the inversion by minimizing the least-squares norm of the misfit function and by constraining the 1 norm of the solution, being the inverse data space. In this way a sparse inversion approach is obtained. We show results on field data with an application to surface multiple removal. © 2011 IEEE.
Electromagnetic source localization in shallow waters using Bayesian matched-field inversion
Birsan, Marius
2006-02-01
The propagation of an electromagnetic signal in a marine environment cannot be modelled as a plane wave due to the high attenuation in seawater and the interactions with the ocean boundaries. Consequently, conventional beamforming techniques are not applicable for electromagnetic source localization. In this work, the Bayesian approach to matched-field processing is used to localize an electromagnetic source and estimate the environmental parameters. In this formulation, the solution to the inverse problem is given by the a posteriori probability distribution calculated here using the Gibbs sampling method. Bayesian inversion theory provides the formalism for estimating parameters, their uncertainties and verification of the estimates convergence. Two situations were investigated for the case where the single frequency measurements represent the magnitudes of two orthogonal horizontal electric field components: (1) all environmental parameters known and (2) unknown seabed conductivity. The objective function that relates the array data to the propagation model and environment parameters was chosen for the practical situation considered.
The effect of face inversion on the detection of emotional faces in visual search.
Savage, Ruth A; Lipp, Ottmar V
2015-01-01
Past literature has indicated that face inversion either attenuates emotion detection advantages in visual search, implying that detection of emotional expressions requires holistic face processing, or has no effect, implying that expression detection is feature based. Across six experiments that utilised different task designs, ranging from simple (single poser, single set size) to complex (multiple posers, multiple set sizes), and stimuli drawn from different databases, significant emotion detection advantages were found for both upright and inverted faces. Consistent with past research, the nature of the expression detection advantage, anger superiority (Experiments 1, 2 and 6) or happiness superiority (Experiments 3, 4 and 5), differed across stimulus sets. However both patterns were evident for upright and inverted faces. These results indicate that face inversion does not interfere with visual search for emotional expressions, and suggest that expression detection in visual search may rely on feature-based mechanisms.
Inverse problem of the vibrational band gap of periodically supported beam
Shi, Xiaona; Shu, Haisheng; Dong, Fuzhen; Zhao, Lei
2017-04-01
The researches of periodic structures have a long history with the main contents confined in the field of forward problem. In this paper, the inverse problem is considered and an overall frame is proposed which includes two main stages, i.e., the band gap criterion and its optimization. As a preliminary investigation, the inverse problem of the flexural vibrational band gap of a periodically supported beam is analyzed. According to existing knowledge of its forward problem, the band gap criterion is given in implicit form. Then, two cases with three independent parameters, namely the double supported case and the triple one, are studied in detail and the explicit expressions of the feasible domain are constructed by numerical fitting. Finally, the parameter optimization of the double supported case with three variables is conducted using genetic algorithm aiming for the best mean attenuation within specified frequency band.
Closed-loop SRME based on 3D L1-norm sparse inversion
Wang, Tiexing; Wang, Deli; Sun, Jing; Hu, Bin; Liu, Chengming
2017-11-01
In many situations, the quality of seismic imaging is largely determined by a proper multiple attenuation as preprocessing step. Despite the widespread application of surface-related multiple elimination (SRME) and estimation of primaries by sparse inversion (EPSI) for the removal of multiples, there still exist some limitations in the process of prediction and subtraction (SRME) or inversion (EPSI), which make the efficiency of multiple attenuation less satisfactory. To solve these problems, a new fully data-driven method called closed-loop SRME was proposed, which combines the robustness of SRME and the multi-dimensional inversion strategy of EPSI. Due to the selection of inversion approach and constraint, primary estimation by closed-loop SRME may fall into a local optimum during the solving process, which lowers the accuracy of deep information and weakens the continuity of seismic events. To avoid these shortcomings, we first modified the solving method for closed-loop SRME to an L1 norm-based bi-convex optimization method, which stabilizes the solution. Meanwhile, in the L1 norm constraint-based optimization process, the 3D sparsifying transform, being a 2D Curvelet-1D wavelet transform, is brought in as a 3D sparse constraint. In the 3D sparsifying domain, the data become sparser, thus making the result of optimization more accurate, the information of seismic events more continuous and the resolution higher. Examples on both synthetic and field data demonstrate that the method proposed in this paper, compared with the traditional SRME and closed-loop SRME, have an excellent effect on primary estimation and suppress multiples effectively.
Closed-loop SRME based on 3D L1-norm sparse inversion
Wang, Tiexing; Wang, Deli; Sun, Jing; Hu, Bin; Liu, Chengming
2017-12-01
In many situations, the quality of seismic imaging is largely determined by a proper multiple attenuation as preprocessing step. Despite the widespread application of surface-related multiple elimination (SRME) and estimation of primaries by sparse inversion (EPSI) for the removal of multiples, there still exist some limitations in the process of prediction and subtraction (SRME) or inversion (EPSI), which make the efficiency of multiple attenuation less satisfactory. To solve these problems, a new fully data-driven method called closed-loop SRME was proposed, which combines the robustness of SRME and the multi-dimensional inversion strategy of EPSI. Due to the selection of inversion approach and constraint, primary estimation by closed-loop SRME may fall into a local optimum during the solving process, which lowers the accuracy of deep information and weakens the continuity of seismic events. To avoid these shortcomings, we first modified the solving method for closed-loop SRME to an L1 norm-based bi-convex optimization method, which stabilizes the solution. Meanwhile, in the L1 norm constraint-based optimization process, the 3D sparsifying transform, being a 2D Curvelet-1D wavelet transform, is brought in as a 3D sparse constraint. In the 3D sparsifying domain, the data become sparser, thus making the result of optimization more accurate, the information of seismic events more continuous and the resolution higher. Examples on both synthetic and field data demonstrate that the method proposed in this paper, compared with the traditional SRME and closed-loop SRME, have an excellent effect on primary estimation and suppress multiples effectively.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fritz-Hansen, T; Rostrup, Egill; Ring, P B
1998-01-01
The purpose of this study was to optimize an inversion-recovery (IR) turbo fast low-angle shot (FLASH) for multislice imaging by evaluating the accuracy of calculated the relaxation-rate (R1) for different inversion times (TI). This is important for tracer kinetic modeling because it requires...... the arterial input function and the tissue response and the second slice in another position for assessment of the tissue response alone....
Surface Wave Constraints on Q in the Upper Mantle: Isolating the Signal of Attenuation
Dalton, C.; Ekström, G.
2003-12-01
We use more than 60,000 surface wave amplitude measurements in the period range 150-300 seconds (Ekström et al., 1997) to construct maps of attenuation, or 1/Q, in the upper mantle. We initially calculate Q by constructing a datum that uses four consecutive wave trains to desensitize the amplitudes to effects from the source, instrument, and elastic structure. These Q measurements are inverted for maps of even-degree attenuation structure, and the results show variations of approximately 50% from PREM. When the Q measurements are averaged for nearly coincident great-circle paths, the resulting attenuation maps are nearly identical to the original ones, confirming that, despite extraneous effects, there is a robust signal in the amplitudes. Using the method of Selby and Woodhouse (2002), we invert minor- and major-arc Rayleigh and Love wave amplitudes for even- and odd-degree Q structure. When we assume that the amplitude anomaly is due entirely to intrinsic attenuation, the ability of the models obtained through this process to fit the data is poor. We next include terms in the inversion that allow the source moment and instrument gain to be corrected. These corrections greatly improve the fit of the data by the models. The path integral approximation to the amplitude anomaly (Woodhouse and Wong, 1986) is used both to predict the effect of focusing from existing phase velocity maps and to jointly invert for attenuation and phase velocity. We also perform a pure-path regionalized inversion using a six-tectonic-region model of the Earth, GTR1 (Jordan, 1981). On the most simplistic level, the results show that oceans are more strongly attenuating than continents at all periods, and that the surface wave attenuation values of PREM fall in between those of continents and oceans. The results using the great-circle Q measurements show many familiar patterns, in particular that young oceans are more highly attenuating than older oceans. Although the data set of minor- and
Ventilation with heat recovery
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend
2005-01-01
This paper presents the experiences from the use of ventilation with heat recovery in several experimental single-family houses developed and built within the last four years to meet the new Danish energy requirements of 2005. Included are descriptions of the ventilation system components...... and the main functional demands as well as measurements of the thermal efficiency, electricity consumptions and building air tightness. The paper addresses the aspects of minimizing the heat loss from the duct system and the heat recovery unit (when placed in an unheated attic space) in order to obtain...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
EFSA Scientific Committee (Scientific Committee); Topping, Christopher John
2016-01-01
EFSA performs environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for single potential stressors such as plant protection products, genetically modified organisms and feed additives and for invasive alien species that are harmful for plant health. In this risk assessment domain, the EFSA Scientific Committee...... ecological recovery for any assessed products, and invasive alien species that are harmful for plant health. This framework proposes an integrative approach based on well-defined specific protection goals, scientific knowledge derived by means of experimentation, modelling and monitoring, and the selection...... of focal taxa, communities, processes and landscapes to develop environmental scenarios to allow the assessment of recovery of organisms and ecological processes at relevant spatial and temporal scales....
Towards adjoint-based inversion of time-dependent mantle convection with nonlinear viscosity
Li, Dunzhu; Gurnis, Michael; Stadler, Georg
2017-04-01
We develop and study an adjoint-based inversion method for the simultaneous recovery of initial temperature conditions and viscosity parameters in time-dependent mantle convection from the current mantle temperature and historic plate motion. Based on a realistic rheological model with temperature-dependent and strain-rate-dependent viscosity, we formulate the inversion as a PDE-constrained optimization problem. The objective functional includes the misfit of surface velocity (plate motion) history, the misfit of the current mantle temperature, and a regularization for the uncertain initial condition. The gradient of this functional with respect to the initial temperature and the uncertain viscosity parameters is computed by solving the adjoint of the mantle convection equations. This gradient is used in a pre-conditioned quasi-Newton minimization algorithm. We study the prospects and limitations of the inversion, as well as the computational performance of the method using two synthetic problems, a sinking cylinder and a realistic subduction model. The subduction model is characterized by the migration of a ridge toward a trench whereby both plate motions and subduction evolve. The results demonstrate: (1) for known viscosity parameters, the initial temperature can be well recovered, as in previous initial condition-only inversions where the effective viscosity was given; (2) for known initial temperature, viscosity parameters can be recovered accurately, despite the existence of trade-offs due to ill-conditioning; (3) for the joint inversion of initial condition and viscosity parameters, initial condition and effective viscosity can be reasonably recovered, but the high dimension of the parameter space and the resulting ill-posedness may limit recovery of viscosity parameters.
Li, Q.; Wilcock, W.S.D.; Pratt, T.L.; Snelson, C.M.; Brocher, T.M.
2006-01-01
We used waveform data from the 1999 SHIPS (Seismic Hazard Investigation of Puget Sound) seismic refraction experiment to constrain the attenuation structure of the Seattle basin, Washington State. We inverted the spectral amplitudes of compressional- and shear-wave arrivals for source spectra, site responses, and one- and two-dimensional Q-1 models at frequencies between 1 and 40 Hz for P waves and 1 and 10 Hz for S waves. We also obtained Q-1 models from t* values calculated from the spectral slopes of P waves between 10 and 40 Hz. One-dimensional inversions show that Qp at the surface is 22 at 1 Hz, 130 at 5 Hz, and 390 at 20 Hz. The corresponding values at 18 km depth are 100, 440, and 1900. Qs at the surface is 16 and 160 at 1 Hz and 8 Hz, respectively, increasing to 80 and 500 at 18 km depth. The t* inversion yields a Qp model that is consistent with the amplitude inversions at 20 and 30 Hz. The basin geometry is clearly resolved in the t* inversion, but the amplitude inversions only imaged the basin structure after removing anomalously high-amplitude shots near Seattle. When these shots are removed, we infer that Q-1 values may be ???30% higher in the center of the basin than the one-dimensional models predict. We infer that seismic attenuation in the Seattle basin will significantly reduce ground motions at frequencies at and above 1 Hz, partially countering amplification effects within the basin.
Alternating minimisation for glottal inverse filtering
Rodrigo Bleyer, Ismael; Lybeck, Lasse; Auvinen, Harri; Airaksinen, Manu; Alku, Paavo; Siltanen, Samuli
2017-06-01
A new method is proposed for solving the glottal inverse filtering (GIF) problem. The goal of GIF is to separate an acoustical speech signal into two parts: the glottal airflow excitation and the vocal tract filter. To recover such information one has to deal with a blind deconvolution problem. This ill-posed inverse problem is solved under a deterministic setting, considering unknowns on both sides of the underlying operator equation. A stable reconstruction is obtained using a double regularization strategy, alternating between fixing either the glottal source signal or the vocal tract filter. This enables not only splitting the nonlinear and nonconvex problem into two linear and convex problems, but also allows the use of the best parameters and constraints to recover each variable at a time. This new technique, called alternating minimization glottal inverse filtering (AM-GIF), is compared with two other approaches: Markov chain Monte Carlo glottal inverse filtering (MCMC-GIF), and iterative adaptive inverse filtering (IAIF), using synthetic speech signals. The recent MCMC-GIF has good reconstruction quality but high computational cost. The state-of-the-art IAIF method is computationally fast but its accuracy deteriorates, particularly for speech signals of high fundamental frequency (F0). The results show the competitive performance of the new method: With high F0, the reconstruction quality is better than that of IAIF and close to MCMC-GIF while reducing the computational complexity by two orders of magnitude.
Inverse kinematic-based robot control
Wolovich, W. A.; Flueckiger, K. F.
1987-01-01
A fundamental problem which must be resolved in virtually all non-trivial robotic operations is the well-known inverse kinematic question. More specifically, most of the tasks which robots are called upon to perform are specified in Cartesian (x,y,z) space, such as simple tracking along one or more straight line paths or following a specified surfacer with compliant force sensors and/or visual feedback. In all cases, control is actually implemented through coordinated motion of the various links which comprise the manipulator; i.e., in link space. As a consequence, the control computer of every sophisticated anthropomorphic robot must contain provisions for solving the inverse kinematic problem which, in the case of simple, non-redundant position control, involves the determination of the first three link angles, theta sub 1, theta sub 2, and theta sub 3, which produce a desired wrist origin position P sub xw, P sub yw, and P sub zw at the end of link 3 relative to some fixed base frame. Researchers outline a new inverse kinematic solution and demonstrate its potential via some recent computer simulations. They also compare it to current inverse kinematic methods and outline some of the remaining problems which will be addressed in order to render it fully operational. Also discussed are a number of practical consequences of this technique beyond its obvious use in solving the inverse kinematic question.
Unwrapped phase inversion with an exponential damping
Choi, Yun Seok
2015-07-28
Full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the phase wrapping (cycle skipping) problem when the frequency of data is not low enough. Unless we obtain a good initial velocity model, the phase wrapping problem in FWI causes a result corresponding to a local minimum, usually far away from the true solution, especially at depth. Thus, we have developed an inversion algorithm based on a space-domain unwrapped phase, and we also used exponential damping to mitigate the nonlinearity associated with the reflections. We construct the 2D phase residual map, which usually contains the wrapping discontinuities, especially if the model is complex and the frequency is high. We then unwrap the phase map and remove these cycle-based jumps. However, if the phase map has several residues, the unwrapping process becomes very complicated. We apply a strong exponential damping to the wavefield to eliminate much of the residues in the phase map, thus making the unwrapping process simple. We finally invert the unwrapped phases using the back-propagation algorithm to calculate the gradient. We progressively reduce the damping factor to obtain a high-resolution image. Numerical examples determined that the unwrapped phase inversion with a strong exponential damping generated convergent long-wavelength updates without low-frequency information. This model can be used as a good starting model for a subsequent inversion with a reduced damping, eventually leading to conventional waveform inversion.
Multiscattering inversion for low-model wavenumbers
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2016-09-21
A successful full-waveform inversion implementation updates the low-wavenumber model components first for a proper description of the wavefield propagation and slowly adds the high wavenumber potentially scattering parts of the model. The low-wavenumber components can be extracted from the transmission parts of the recorded wavefield emanating directly from the source or the transmission parts from the single- or double-scattered wavefield computed from a predicted scatter field acting as secondary sources.We use a combined inversion of data modeled from the source and those corresponding to single and double scattering to update the velocity model and the component of the velocity (perturbation) responsible for the single and double scattering. The combined inversion helps us access most of the potential model wavenumber information that may be embedded in the data. A scattering-angle filter is used to divide the gradient of the combined inversion, so initially the high-wavenumber (low-scattering-angle) components of the gradient are directed to the perturbation model and the low-wavenumber (highscattering- angle) components are directed to the velocity model. As our background velocity matures, the scatteringangle divide is slowly lowered to allow for more of the higher wavenumbers to contribute the velocity model. Synthetic examples including the Marmousi model are used to demonstrate the additional illumination and improved velocity inversion obtained when including multiscattered energy. © 2016 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
QCD-instantons and conformal inversion symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klammer, D.
2006-07-15
Instantons are an essential and non-perturbative part of Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of strong interactions. One of the most relevant quantities in the instanton calculus is the instanton-size distribution, which can be described on the one hand within the framework of instanton perturbation theory and on the other hand investigated numerically by means of lattice computations. A rapid onset of a drastic discrepancy between these respective results indicates that the underlying physics is not yet well understood. In this work we investigate the appealing possibility of a symmetry under conformal inversion of space-time leading to this deviation. The motivation being that the lattice data seem to be invariant under an inversion of the instanton size. Since the instanton solution of a given size turns into an anti-instanton solution having an inverted size under conformal inversion of space-time, we ask in a first investigation, whether this property is transferred to the quantum level. In order to introduce a new scale, which is indicated by the lattice data and corresponds to the average instanton size as inversion radius, we project the instanton calculus onto the four-dimensional surface of a five-dimensional sphere via stereographic projection. The radius of this sphere is associated with the average instanton size. The result for the instanton size-distribution projected onto the sphere agrees surprisingly well with the lattice data at qualitative level. The resulting symmetry under an inversion of the instanton size is almost perfect. (orig.)
Inversion concept of the origin of life.
Kompanichenko, V N
2012-06-01
The essence of the inversion concept of the origin of life can be narrowed down to the following theses: 1) thermodynamic inversion is the key transformation of prebiotic microsystems leading to their transition into primary forms of life; 2) this transformation might occur only in the microsystems oscillating around the bifurcation point under far-from-equilibrium conditions. The transformation consists in the inversion of the balance "free energy contribution / entropy contribution", from negative to positive values. At the inversion moment the microsystem radically reorganizes in accordance with the new negentropy (i.e. biological) way of organization. According to this approach, the origin-of-life process on the early Earth took place in the fluctuating hydrothermal medium. The process occurred in two successive stages: a) spontaneous self-assembly of initial three-dimensional prebiotic microsystems composed mainly of hydrocarbons, lipids and simple amino acids, or their precursors, within the temperature interval of 100-300°C (prebiotic stage); b) non-spontaneous synthesis of sugars, ATP and nucleic acids started at the inversion moment under the temperature 70-100°C (biotic stage). Macro- and microfluctuations of thermodynamic and physico-chemical parameters able to sustain this way of chemical conversion have been detected in several contemporary hydrothermal systems. A minimal self-sufficient unit of life on the early Earth was a community of simplest microorganisms (not a separate microorganism).
Speaker independent acoustic-to-articulatory inversion
Ji, An
Acoustic-to-articulatory inversion, the determination of articulatory parameters from acoustic signals, is a difficult but important problem for many speech processing applications, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) and computer aided pronunciation training (CAPT). In recent years, several approaches have been successfully implemented for speaker dependent models with parallel acoustic and kinematic training data. However, in many practical applications inversion is needed for new speakers for whom no articulatory data is available. In order to address this problem, this dissertation introduces a novel speaker adaptation approach called Parallel Reference Speaker Weighting (PRSW), based on parallel acoustic and articulatory Hidden Markov Models (HMM). This approach uses a robust normalized articulatory space and palate referenced articulatory features combined with speaker-weighted adaptation to form an inversion mapping for new speakers that can accurately estimate articulatory trajectories. The proposed PRSW method is evaluated on the newly collected Marquette electromagnetic articulography -- Mandarin Accented English (EMA-MAE) corpus using 20 native English speakers. Cross-speaker inversion results show that given a good selection of reference speakers with consistent acoustic and articulatory patterns, the PRSW approach gives good speaker independent inversion performance even without kinematic training data.
Multiple attenuation using eigenvalue decomposition | Aigbedion ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Multiple reflections constitute one of the most troublesome forms of coherent noise in seismic exploration, especially in marine surveys. There are many approaches to attenuating or suppressing multiples, but none can remove all multiple reflections under all conditions. We have eveloped two new methods to attenuate ...
ATTENUATION AND FLANKING TRANSMISSION IN LIGHTWEIGHT STRUCTURES
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brunskog, Jonas; Lhomond, Alice; Ohlrich, Mogens
2007-01-01
In this paper the attenuation and flanking transmissions of impact noise in lightweight building structures is studied using a modal approach. The structural field is mainly analysed, putting the main attention to the parts being important in the modelling. The amount of attenuation produced...
Precision Model for Microwave Rotary Vane Attenuator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guldbrandsen, Tom
1979-01-01
A model for a rotary vane attenuator is developed to describe the attenuator reflection and transmission coefficients in detail. All the parameters of the model can be measured in situ, i.e., without diassembling any part. The tranmission errors caused by internal reflections are calculated from...
Attenuation coefficients for water quality trading.
Keller, Arturo A; Chen, Xiaoli; Fox, Jessica; Fulda, Matt; Dorsey, Rebecca; Seapy, Briana; Glenday, Julia; Bray, Erin
2014-06-17
Water quality trading has been proposed as a cost-effective approach for reducing nutrient loads through credit generation from agricultural or point source reductions sold to buyers facing costly options. We present a systematic approach to determine attenuation coefficients and their uncertainty. Using a process-based model, we determine attenuation with safety margins at many watersheds for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads as they transport from point of load reduction to the credit buyer. TN and TP in-stream attenuation generally increases with decreasing mean river flow; smaller rivers in the modeled region of the Ohio River Basin had TN attenuation factors per km, including safety margins, of 0.19-1.6%, medium rivers of 0.14-1.2%, large rivers of 0.13-1.1%, and very large rivers of 0.04-0.42%. Attenuation in ditches transporting nutrients from farms to receiving rivers is 0.4%/km for TN, while for TP attenuation in ditches can be up to 2%/km. A 95 percentile safety margin of 30-40% for TN and 6-10% for TP, applied to the attenuation per km factors, was determined from the in-stream sensitivity of load reductions to watershed model parameters. For perspective, over 50 km a 1% per km factor would result in 50% attenuation = 2:1 trading ratio.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Kehlet, Henrik
2014-01-01
We read with great interest the special article by Smart and Daniels discussing several important topics of perioperative care, especially regarding lack of consensus on the definition of "postoperative recovery", and need for further understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms. However, we disagree...
This study evaluated the product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic aspects of three technologies for onsite solvent recovery. The technologies were (1) atmospheric batch distillation, (2) vacuum heat-pump distillation, and (3) low-emission vapor degreas...
Cost Recovery Through Depreciation.
Forrester, Robert T.; Wesolowski, Leonard V.
1983-01-01
The approach of adopting depreciation rather than use allowance in order to recover more accurately the cost of college buildings and equipment used on federal projects is considered. It is suggested that depreciation will offer most colleges and universities a higher annual recovery rate, and an opportunity for better facilities planning. For…
Observation of redshifting and harmonic radiation in inverse Compton scattering
Sakai, Y.; Pogorelsky, I.; Williams, O.; O'Shea, F.; Barber, S.; Gadjev, I.; Duris, J.; Musumeci, P.; Fedurin, M.; Korostyshevsky, A.; Malone, B.; Swinson, C.; Stenby, G.; Kusche, K.; Babzien, M.; Montemagno, M.; Jacob, P.; Zhong, Z.; Polyanskiy, M.; Yakimenko, V.; Rosenzweig, J.
2015-06-01
Inverse Compton scattering of laser photons by ultrarelativistic electron beam provides polarized x- to γ -ray pulses due to the Doppler blueshifting. Nonlinear electrodynamics in the relativistically intense linearly polarized laser field changes the radiation kinetics established during the Compton interaction. These are due to the induced figure-8 motion, which introduces an overall redshift in the radiation spectrum, with the concomitant emission of higher order harmonics. To experimentally analyze the strong field physics associated with the nonlinear electron-laser interaction, clear modifications to the angular and wavelength distributions of x rays are observed. The relativistic photon wave field is provided by the ps CO2 laser of peak normalized vector potential of 0.5 laser [M. Babzien et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 054802 (2006)]. The angular spectral characteristics are revealed using K -, L -edge, and high energy attenuation filters. The observation indicates existence of the electrons' longitudinal motion through frequency redshifting understood as the mass shift effect. Thus, the 3rd harmonic radiation has been observed containing on-axis x-ray component that is directly associated with the induced figure-8 motion. These are further supported by an initial evidence of off-axis 2nd harmonic radiation produced in a circularly polarized laser wave field. Total x-ray photon number per pulse, scattered by 65 MeV electron beam of 0.3 nC, at the interaction point is measured to be approximately 109 .
Recovery of discarded sulfated lead-acid batteries
Karami, Hassan; Asadi, Raziyeh
The aim of this research is to recover discarded sulfated lead-acid batteries. In this work, the effect of two methods (inverse charge and chemical charge) on the reactivation of sulfated active materials was investigated. At the inverse charge, the battery is deeply discharged and the electrolyte of battery is replaced with a new sulfuric acid solution of 1.28 g cm -3. Then, the battery is inversely charged with constant current method (2 A for the battery with the nominal capacity of 40 Ah) for 24 h. At the final stage, the inversely charged battery is directly charged for 48 h. Through these processes, a discarded battery can recover its capacity to more than 80% of a similar fresh and non-sulfated battery. At the chemical charge method, there are some effective parameters that including ammonium persulfate [(NH 4) 2S 2O 8] concentration, recovery temperature and recovery time. The effect of all parameters was optimized by one at a time method. The sulfated battery is deeply discharged and then, its electrolyte was replaced by a 40% ammonium persulfate solution (as oxidant) at temperature of 50 °C. By adding of oxidant solution, the chemical charging of positive and negative plates was performed for optimum time of 1 h. The chemically charged batteries were charged with constant voltage method (2.66 V for the battery with nominal voltage and nominal capacity of 2 V and 10 Ah, respectively) for 24 h. By performing of these processes, a discarded battery can recovers its capacity to more than 84% of the similar fresh and non-sulfated battery. Discharge and cyclelife behaviors of the recovered batteries were investigated and compared with similar healthy battery. The morphology and structure of plates was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after recovery.
Kuo, Hsu-Ko; Gore, Joel M
2015-09-01
Insulin resistance (IR) and chronic inflammation are inversely related to heart rate recovery (HRR), a marker of cardiac autonomic function. Little is known, however, about the joint effects of IR and inflammation on HRR. The study sample consisted of 2649 healthy individuals aged 12-49 years with measures of submaximal cardiopulmonary fitness testing from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. HRR 1-min (HRR1) and 2-min (HRR2) after recovery were recorded (bpm). IR was defined if homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was ≥ 2.73. C-reactive protein (CRP) was quantified by latex-enhanced nephelometry. In the fully adjusted model, participants with IR had attenuated HRR compared to those without (mean HRR1 11.8 vs. 12.7, p = 0.011; mean HRR2 31.2 vs. 33.4, p 0.3 mg/dL, CRP 0.1-0.3 mg/dL, and CRP 0.3 mg/dL to those with no IR/CRP healthy adolescents and adults. Participants with IR and elevated CRP had the worst HRR. Our findings suggest a joint effect of IR and inflammation on cardiac autonomic dysfunction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yao, Jie, E-mail: yjie2@uh.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Lesage, Anne-Cécile; Hussain, Fazle [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Bodmann, Bernhard G. [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Kouri, Donald J. [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)
2014-12-15
The reversion of the Born-Neumann series of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation is one of the standard ways to solve the inverse acoustic scattering problem. One limitation of the current inversion methods based on the reversion of the Born-Neumann series is that the velocity potential should have compact support. However, this assumption cannot be satisfied in certain cases, especially in seismic inversion. Based on the idea of distorted wave scattering, we explore an inverse scattering method for velocity potentials without compact support. The strategy is to decompose the actual medium as a known single interface reference medium, which has the same asymptotic form as the actual medium and a perturbative scattering potential with compact support. After introducing the method to calculate the Green’s function for the known reference potential, the inverse scattering series and Volterra inverse scattering series are derived for the perturbative potential. Analytical and numerical examples demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of this method. Besides, to ensure stability of the numerical computation, the Lanczos averaging method is employed as a filter to reduce the Gibbs oscillations for the truncated discrete inverse Fourier transform of each order. Our method provides a rigorous mathematical framework for inverse acoustic scattering with a non-compact support velocity potential.
Ultrasound fields in an attenuating medium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gandhi,, D; O'Brien,, W.D., Jr.
1993-01-01
of the rectangles and sums all contributions to arrive at the spatial impulse response for the aperture and field point. This approach makes it possible to model all transducer apertures, and the program can readily calculate the emitted, pulse-echo and continuous wave field. Attenuation is included by splitting...... it into a frequency dependent part and frequency independent part. The latter results in an attenuation factor that is multiplied onto the responses from the individual elements, and the frequency dependent part is handled by attenuating the basic one-dimensional pulse. The influence on ultrasound fields from......Ultrasound fields propagating in tissue will undergo changes in shape not only due to diffraction, but also due to the frequency dependent attenuation. Linear fields can be fairly well predicted for a non-attenuating medium like water by using the Tupholme-Stepanishen method for calculating...
Inverse Scattering Approach to Improving Pattern Recognition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chapline, G; Fu, C
2005-02-15
The Helmholtz machine provides what may be the best existing model for how the mammalian brain recognizes patterns. Based on the observation that the ''wake-sleep'' algorithm for training a Helmholtz machine is similar to the problem of finding the potential for a multi-channel Schrodinger equation, we propose that the construction of a Schrodinger potential using inverse scattering methods can serve as a model for how the mammalian brain learns to extract essential information from sensory data. In particular, inverse scattering theory provides a conceptual framework for imagining how one might use EEG and MEG observations of brain-waves together with sensory feedback to improve human learning and pattern recognition. Longer term, implementation of inverse scattering algorithms on a digital or optical computer could be a step towards mimicking the seamless information fusion of the mammalian brain.
Inverse Kinematic Analysis Of A Quadruped Robot
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammed Arif Sen
2017-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an inverse kinematics program of a quadruped robot. The kinematics analysis is main problem in the manipulators and robots. Dynamic and kinematic structures of quadruped robots are very complex compared to industrial and wheeled robots. In this study inverse kinematics solutions for a quadruped robot with 3 degrees of freedom on each leg are presented. Denavit-Hartenberg D-H method are used for the forward kinematic. The inverse kinematic equations obtained by the geometrical and mathematical methods are coded in MATLAB. And thus a program is obtained that calculate the legs joint angles corresponding to desired various orientations of robot and endpoints of legs. Also the program provides the body orientations of robot in graphical form. The angular positions of joints obtained corresponding to desired different orientations of robot and endpoints of legs are given in this study.
Oil core microcapsules by inverse gelation technique.
Martins, Evandro; Renard, Denis; Davy, Joëlle; Marquis, Mélanie; Poncelet, Denis
2015-01-01
A promising technique for oil encapsulation in Ca-alginate capsules by inverse gelation was proposed by Abang et al. This method consists of emulsifying calcium chloride solution in oil and then adding it dropwise in an alginate solution to produce Ca-alginate capsules. Spherical capsules with diameters around 3 mm were produced by this technique, however the production of smaller capsules was not demonstrated. The objective of this study is to propose a new method of oil encapsulation in a Ca-alginate membrane by inverse gelation. The optimisation of the method leads to microcapsules with diameters around 500 μm. In a search of microcapsules with improved diffusion characteristics, the size reduction is an essential factor to broaden the applications in food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals areas. This work contributes to a better understanding of the inverse gelation technique and allows the production of microcapsules with a well-defined shell-core structure.
Probabilistic inversion for chicken processing lines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cooke, Roger M. [Department of Mathematics, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: r.m.cooke@ewi.tudelft.nl; Nauta, Maarten [Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Havelaar, Arie H. [Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Fels, Ine van der [Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)
2006-10-15
We discuss an application of probabilistic inversion techniques to a model of campylobacter transmission in chicken processing lines. Such techniques are indicated when we wish to quantify a model which is new and perhaps unfamiliar to the expert community. In this case there are no measurements for estimating model parameters, and experts are typically unable to give a considered judgment. In such cases, experts are asked to quantify their uncertainty regarding variables which can be predicted by the model. The experts' distributions (after combination) are then pulled back onto the parameter space of the model, a process termed 'probabilistic inversion'. This study illustrates two such techniques, iterative proportional fitting (IPF) and PARmeter fitting for uncertain models (PARFUM). In addition, we illustrate how expert judgement on predicted observable quantities in combination with probabilistic inversion may be used for model validation and/or model criticism.
Generalized inverse beamforming with optimized regularization strategy
Zavala, P. A. G.; De Roeck, W.; Janssens, K.; Arruda, J. R. F.; Sas, P.; Desmet, W.
2011-04-01
A promising recent development on acoustic source localization and source strength estimation is the generalized inverse beamforming, which is based on the microphone array cross-spectral matrix eigenstructure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional beamforming, including a higher accuracy on the source center localization and strength estimation even with distributed coherent sources. This paper aims to improve the strength estimation of the generalized inverse beamforming method with an automated regularization factor definition. Also in this work, a virtual target grid is introduced, and source mapping and strength estimation are obtained disregarding, as much as possible, the reflections influence. Two simple problems are used to compare the generalized inverse performance with fixed regularization factor to performance obtained using the optimized regularization strategy. Numerical and experimental data are used, and two other strength estimation methods are also evaluated for reference.
Surface Vibration Reconstruction using Inverse Numerical Acoustics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Martinus
2003-05-01
Full Text Available This paper explores the use of inverse numerical acoustics to reconstruct the surface vibration of a noise source. Inverse numerical acoustics is mainly used for source identification. This approach uses the measured sound pressure at a set of field points and the Helmholtz integral equation to reconstruct the normal surface velocity. The number of sound pressure measurements is considerably less than the number of surface vibration nodes. An overview of inverse numerical acoustics is presented and compared with other holography techniques such as nearfield acoustical holography and the Helmholtz equation least squares method. In order to obtain an acceptable reproduction of the surface vibration, several critical factors such as the field point selection and the effect of experimental errors have to be handled properly. Other practical considerations such as the use of few measured velocities and regularization techniques will also be presented. Examples will include a diesel engine, a transmission housing and an engine cover.
Error handling strategies in multiphase inverse modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Finsterle, S.; Zhang, Y.
2010-12-01
Parameter estimation by inverse modeling involves the repeated evaluation of a function of residuals. These residuals represent both errors in the model and errors in the data. In practical applications of inverse modeling of multiphase flow and transport, the error structure of the final residuals often significantly deviates from the statistical assumptions that underlie standard maximum likelihood estimation using the least-squares method. Large random or systematic errors are likely to lead to convergence problems, biased parameter estimates, misleading uncertainty measures, or poor predictive capabilities of the calibrated model. The multiphase inverse modeling code iTOUGH2 supports strategies that identify and mitigate the impact of systematic or non-normal error structures. We discuss these approaches and provide an overview of the error handling features implemented in iTOUGH2.
An AVAF inversion method for detecting hydrocarbons
Luo, Chunmei; Sen, Mrinal K.; Wang, Shangxu; Yuan, Sanyi
2017-10-01
Rock physics studies have shown that velocity dispersion is often associated with hydrocarbon deposit, which results in P-wave reflection coefficients varying with frequency. This effect is often neglected in the conventional amplitude versus angle or offset inversion, and thus error is introduced. Here we propose a method for inverting for dispersive velocity from the frequency-dependent P-wave reflection coefficients; the method is called amplitude variation with angle and frequency AVAF inversion. We employ forward modeling based on propagator matrices that include frequency-dependent elastic coefficients and a variant of the simulated annealing method called the heat-bath algorithm for inversion of layer parameters. In our application, the thickness of the dispersive layer is inverted for simultaneously. Synthetic and field data examples demonstrate the ability and usefulness of this method for detecting hydrocarbon bearing formations.
Inverse scattering approach to improving pattern recognition
Chapline, George; Fu, Chi-Yung
2005-05-01
The Helmholtz machine provides what may be the best existing model for how the mammalian brain recognizes patterns. Based on the observation that the "wake-sleep" algorithm for training a Helmholtz machine is similar to the problem of finding the potential for a multi-channel Schrodinger equation, we propose that the construction of a Schrodinger potential using inverse scattering methods can serve as a model for how the mammalian brain learns to extract essential information from sensory data. In particular, inverse scattering theory provides a conceptual framework for imagining how one might use EEG and MEG observations of brain-waves together with sensory feedback to improve human learning and pattern recognition. Longer term, implementation of inverse scattering algorithms on a digital or optical computer could be a step towards mimicking the seamless information fusion of the mammalian brain.
Heriyanto, M.; Srigutomo, W.
2017-07-01
Exploration of natural or energy resources requires geophysical survey to determine the subsurface structure, such as DC resistivity method. In this research, field and synthetic data were used using Schlumberger configuration. One-dimensional (1-D) DC resistivity inversion was carried out using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) techniques to obtain layered resistivity structure. We have developed software to perform both inversion methods accompanied by a user-friendly interface. Both of the methods were compared one another to determine the number of iteration, robust to noise, elapsed time of computation, and inversion results. SVD inversion generated faster process and better results than LM did. The inversion showed both of these methods were appropriate to interpret subsurface resistivity structure.
The Physics Analysis of a Gas Attenuator with Argon as a Working Gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ryutov, D D; Bionta, R M; McKernan, M A; Shen, S; Trent, J W
2005-12-19
A gas attenuator is an important element of the LCLS facility. The attenuator has to operate in a broad range of x-ray energies, provide attenuation coefficient between 1 and 10{sup 4} with the accuracy of 1% and, at the same time, be reliable and allow for many months of un-interrupted operation. A detailed design study of the attenuator based on the use of nitrogen as a working gas has been recently carried out by S. Shen et al [1]. In this note we assess the features of the attenuator based on the use of argon. We concentrate on the physics issues; the design features will probably be not that different from the aforementioned nitrogen attenuator. Although specific results obtained in our note pertain to argon, the general framework (and many equations obtained) are applicable also to the nitrogen attenuator. In the past, an analysis of the attenuator based on the use of a noble gas has already been carried out [2]. This analysis was performed for an extremely stringent set of specifications. In particular, a very large diameter for the unobstructed x-ray beam was set (1 cm) to accommodate the spontaneous radiation; the attenuator was supposed to cover the whole range of energies of the coherent radiation, from 800 eV to 8000 eV; the maximum attenuation was set at the level of 10{sup 4}; the use of solid attenuators was not allowed, as well as the use of rotating shutters. The need to reach a sufficient absorption at the high-energy end of the spectrum predetermined the choice of Xe as the working gas (in order to have a reasonable absorption at a not-too-high pressure). A sophisticated differential pumping system that included a Penning-type ion pump was suggested in order to minimize the gas leak into the undulator/accelerator part of the facility. A high cost of xenon meant also that an efficient (and expensive) gas-recovery system would have to be installed. The main parameter that determined the high cost and the complexity of the system was a large radius
Trimming and procrastination as inversion techniques
Backus, George E.
1996-12-01
By examining the processes of truncating and approximating the model space (trimming it), and by committing to neither the objectivist nor the subjectivist interpretation of probability (procrastinating), we construct a formal scheme for solving linear and non-linear geophysical inverse problems. The necessary prior information about the correct model xE can be either a collection of inequalities or a probability measure describing where xE was likely to be in the model space X before the data vector y0 was measured. The results of the inversion are (1) a vector z0 that estimates some numerical properties zE of xE; (2) an estimate of the error δz = z0 - zE. As y0 is finite dimensional, so is z0, and hence in principle inversion cannot describe all of xE. The error δz is studied under successively more specialized assumptions about the inverse problem, culminating in a complete analysis of the linear inverse problem with a prior quadratic bound on xE. Our formalism appears to encompass and provide error estimates for many of the inversion schemes current in geomagnetism, and would be equally applicable in geodesy and seismology if adequate prior information were available there. As an idealized example we study the magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary, using satellite measurements of field elements at sites assumed to be almost uniformly distributed on a single spherical surface. Magnetospheric currents are neglected and the crustal field is idealized as a random process with rotationally invariant statistics. We find that an appropriate data compression diagonalizes the variance matrix of the crustal signal and permits an analytic trimming of the idealized problem.
Akagi, Kie; Yamada, Misa; Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Oka, Jun-Ichiro; Yamada, Mitsuhiko
2018-03-15
Recently, we demonstrated that riluzole, which has been shown to block the glutamatergic system, facilitates fear extinction in rats. Here, we undertook experiments on contextual fear conditioning to clarify the actions of riluzole on the reconsolidation of fear memory in rats. We used the fast-acting benzodiazepine midazolam as a reconsolidation-inhibiting control drug. We demonstrated that riluzole (3 mg/kg) and midazolam (1 mg/kg) impaired the reconsolidation of contextual fear memory. Results from spontaneous recovery experiments also suggested that riluzole attenuated reconsolidation. Indeed, conditioned fear did not recover spontaneously 4 weeks after a short (3 min) reexposure and riluzole administration, whereas it recovered after a long (10 min) reexposure. Using western blotting, we demonstrated that a short reexposure increased the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein significantly in the dorsal part of hippocampus, but not in the medial prefrontal cortex. Interestingly, this phosphorylation was attenuated by riluzole with short reexposure. In addition, bilateral microinjection of riluzole (2 μM/0.2 μl/side) directly into the dorsal hippocampus clearly attenuated the reconsolidation. These findings suggested that the attenuating effect of riluzole on the reconsolidation of fear memory involves, at least in part, the dorsal part of the hippocampus. In conclusion, we demonstrated that riluzole attenuates the reconsolidation of fear memory in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Linear inverse problem of the reactor dynamics
Volkov, N. P.
2017-01-01
The aim of this work is the study transient processes in nuclear reactors. The mathematical model of the reactor dynamics excluding reverse thermal coupling is investigated. This model is described by a system of integral-differential equations, consisting of a non-stationary anisotropic multispeed kinetic transport equation and a delayed neutron balance equation. An inverse problem was formulated to determine the stationary part of the function source along with the solution of the direct problem. The author obtained sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of a generalized solution of this inverse problem.
Molecular seismology: an inverse problem in nanobiology.
Hinow, Peter; Boczko, Erik M
2007-05-07
The density profile of an elastic fiber like DNA will change in space and time as ligands associate with it. This observation affords a new direction in single molecule studies provided that density profiles can be measured in space and time. In fact, this is precisely the objective of seismology, where the mathematics of inverse problems have been employed with success. We argue that inverse problems in elastic media can be directly applied to biophysical problems of fiber-ligand association, and demonstrate that robust algorithms exist to perform density reconstruction in the condensed phase.
Direct and Inverse problems in Electrocardiography
Boulakia, M.; Fernández, M. A.; Gerbeau, J. F.; Zemzemi, N.
2008-09-01
We present numerical results related to the direct and the inverse problems in electrocardiography. The electrical activity of the heart is described by the bidomain equations. The electrocardiograms (ECGs) recorded in different points on the body surface are obtained by coupling the bidomain equation to a Laplace equation in the torso. The simulated ECGs are quite satisfactory. As regards the inverse problem, our goal is to estimate the parameters of the bidomain-torso model. Here we present some preliminary results of a parameter estimation for the torso model.
Immature uterine teratoma associated with uterine inversion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karla Teixeira Souza
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Teratomas are the most commonly diagnosed germ cell tumors and occur primarily in testes and ovaries. Platinum-based therapy followed by surgical resection of the residual lesion is generally the recommended treatment. In contrast, immature uterine teratomas are rare, with few cases reported in the literature. Moreover, there is no standard treatment for these tumors. Non-puerperal uterine inversion is also rare in women younger than 45 years of age, and neoplastic lesions are responsible for this condition. Here, we report a case of an immature uterine teratoma associated with uterine inversion. The patient underwent surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and continues to be monitored.
Probabilistic Geoacoustic Inversion in Complex Environments
2015-09-30
Tel: (250) 472-4341 email: sdosso@uvic.ca Grant Number: N000141512019 LONG-TERM GOALS Propagation and reverberation of acoustic fields in shallow...reduced and less uncertain in the ENOS case (Fig. 5). This reduction lead to ∼30% less computer time required for the inversion. 4 Figure 2: The...Dettmer, S. E. Dosso, T. Bodin, J. Stip ̌ c, and P. R. Cummins. Direct-seismogram inversion cevi´ for receiver-side structure with uncertain source- time
Recovery of Phenotypes Obtained by Adaptive Evolution through Inverse Metabolic Engineering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hong, Kuk-Ki; Nielsen, Jens
2012-01-01
In a previous study, system level analysis of adaptively evolved yeast mutants showing improved galactose utilization revealed relevant mutations. The governing mutations were suggested to be in the Ras/PKA signaling pathway and ergosterol metabolism. Here, site-directed mutants having one...... of the mutations RAS2Lys77, RAS2Tyr112, and ERG5Pro370 were constructed and evaluated. The mutants were also combined with overexpression of PGM2, earlier proved as a beneficial target for galactose utilization. The constructed strains were analyzed for their gross phenotype, transcriptome and targeted metabolites......, and the results were compared to those obtained from reference strains and the evolved strains. The RAS2Lys77 mutation resulted in the highest specific galactose uptake rate among all of the strains with an increased maximum specific growth rate on galactose. The RAS2Tyr112 mutation also improved the specific...
Ionospheric radio occultation inversion constrained with the data assimillation
Wu, X.; Hu, X.; Zhang, Y.
2015-12-01
Ionospheric radio occultation inversion constrained with the data assimillation Wu Xiaocheng, Hu Xiong, Zhang Yanan National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences The assumption that electron density distribution is spherically symmetric, is usually used in the traditional ionospheric radio occultation (IRO) inversion, and it is the main error source of IRO inversion. In order to improve the IRO inversion, many methods were studied. One of them uses known ionosphere background to constrain the inversion of IRO, but it has not been used in the routine processing of observation data, due to that it is difficult to get the proper ionosphere background. Data assimilation can provide accurate electron density on the three dimensional grid, which may be used to constrain the IRO inversion and improve the inversion result. This article assimilates the TEC of ground GPS and IRO observation, and the constrains the IRO inversion. The inversion result is greatly improved. Key Words: Ionospheric radio occultation, Data assimilation, Inversion, GPS
Transport and attenuation of radiations
Nimal, J C
2003-01-01
This article treats of the calculation methods used for the dimensioning of the protections against radiations. The method consists in determining for a given point the flux of particles coming from a source at a given time. A strong attenuation (of about some few mu Sv.h sup - sup 1) is in general expected between the source and the areas accessible to the personnel or the public. The calculation has to take into account a huge number of radiation-matter interactions and to solve the integral-differential transport equation which links the particles flux to the source. Several methods exist from the simplified physical model with numerical developments to the more or less precise resolution of the transport equation. These methods allows also the calculation of the uncertainties of equivalent dose rates, heat sources, structure damages using the data covariances (efficient cross-sections, modeling, etc..): 1 - transport equation; 2 - Monte-Carlo method; 3 - semi-numerical methods S sub N; 4 - methods based o...
Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...
Enhanced recovery under constrained conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mungan, N. (AEC Oil and Gas Co. (US))
1990-08-01
This article discusses conditions favorable for the application of enhanced recovery activities in the energy industry. The author focuses on the enhanced recovery of oil. The estimated worldwide in-place gas and oil volumes by geographic areas are estimated.
Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This recovery plan has been prepared by the Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Team under the leadership of Dr. David Andow, University of Minnesota-St. Paul. Dr. John...
Inverse Kinematics With Closed Form Solution For Denso Robot Manipulator
Ikhsan Eka Prasetia; Trihastuti Agustinah
2015-01-01
In this paper, the forward kinematics and inverse kinematics used on the Denso robot manipulator which has a 6-DOF. The forward kinematics will result in the desired position by end-effector, while inverse kinematics produce angel on each joint. Inverse kinematics problem are very difficult, therefor to obtain the solution of inverse kinematics using closed form solution with geometry approach. The simulation result obtained from forward kinematics and inverse kinematics is determining desire...
Inverse Kinematics with Closed Form Solution for Denso Robot Manipulator
Prasetia, Ikhsan Eka; Agustinah, Trihastuti
2015-01-01
In this paper, the forward kinematics and inverse kinematics used on the Denso robot manipulator which has a 6-DOF. The forward kinematics will result in the desired position by end-effector, while inverse kinematics produce angel on each joint. Inverse kinematics problem are very difficult, therefor to obtain the solution of inverse kinematics using closed form solution with geometry approach. The simulation result obtained from forward kinematics and inverse kinematics is determining desire...
Inverse and Ill-posed Problems Theory and Applications
Kabanikhin, S I
2011-01-01
The text demonstrates the methods for proving the existence (if et all) and finding of inverse and ill-posed problems solutions in linear algebra, integral and operator equations, integral geometry, spectral inverse problems, and inverse scattering problems. It is given comprehensive background material for linear ill-posed problems and for coefficient inverse problems for hyperbolic, parabolic, and elliptic equations. A lot of examples for inverse problems from physics, geophysics, biology, medicine, and other areas of application of mathematics are included.
Anisotropic wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion
Feng, Shihang
2016-09-06
The wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion (WTW) methodology is developed to invert for anisotropic parameters in a vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) meidum. The simultaneous inversion of anisotropic parameters v0, ε and δ is initially performed using the wave-equation traveltime inversion (WT) method. The WT tomograms are then used as starting background models for VTI full waveform inversion. Preliminary numerical tests on synthetic data demonstrate the feasibility of this method for multi-parameter inversion.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsbad, S; Hilsted, J; Krarup, T
1985-01-01
stop of insulin and throughout the study. This may be explained by a 3-fold greater amount of insulin binding antibodies in this group compared to the group with fast recovery from hypoglycaemia. An inverse significant correlation was demonstrated between the rates of recovery and the amounts...
Spontaneous recovery from acalculia.
Basso, Anna; Caporali, Alessandra; Faglioni, Pietro
2005-01-01
A topic much considered in research on acalculia was its relationship with aphasia. Far less attention has been given to the natural course of acalculia. In this retrospective study, we examined the relationship between aphasia and acalculia in an unselected series of 98 left-brain-damaged patients and the spontaneous recovery from acalculia in 92 acalculic patients with follow-up. There was a significant association between aphasia and acalculia although 19 participants exhibited aphasia with no acalculia and six acalculia with no aphasia. We observed significant improvement between a first examination carried out between 1 and 5 months post-onset and a second examination carried out between 3 and 11 months later (mean: 5 months). The mechanisms of spontaneous recovery are discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gundlach, Carsten
2006-01-01
In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X...... by the combined use of X-ray micro focusing optics, new scanning algorithms and the use of foils. The ratio of foil thickness to crystallite size should be at least 10 such that the central ones are situated in a bulk environment. To avoid thermal drifts, gold reference markers are deposited onto the sample...... are represented as strings. To identify the strings a combination of a 5D connected component type algorithm and multi-peak fitting was found to be superior. The first use of the method was a study of recovery of a deformed aluminium alloy (AA1050). The aluminium alloy was deformed by cold rolling to a thickness...
Boutin, Robert D; Kaptuch, Justin M; Bateni, Cyrus P; Chalfant, James S; Yao, Lawrence
2016-11-01
The objective of our study was to characterize enhancement of muscle and bone that occurs on standardized four-phase contrast-enhanced CT. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed standardized four-phase abdominal CT scans obtained with IV contrast material. The psoas area was measured, and the mean attenuation (in Hounsfield units) was recorded for the aorta, psoas muscles, posterior paraspinal muscles, and L4 vertebral body. CT attenuation measures were compared between anatomic regions and imaging phases with the paired t test; associations between measures were examined with the Pearson correlation coefficient (R). The study included 201 patients (97 men, 104 women; mean age, 57.7 ± 12.5 [SD] years). Subject age was inversely correlated with unenhanced attenuation in the psoas muscles, posterior paraspinal muscles, and L4 (p muscles, posterior paraspinal muscles, and L4 enhanced significantly (p muscle enhancement was observed on delayed phase scans, whereas the greatest enhancement in L4 was seen on portal phase imaging. The unenhanced attenuation of the psoas muscles was significantly and negatively correlated with enhancement of the psoas muscles at the portal and delayed phases (p muscles. Age was positively correlated with posterior paraspinal muscle enhancement at the portal and delayed phases in men (p muscle and bone regions is routinely observed and should be considered when using CT attenuation values as biomarkers of sarcopenia and osteoporosis. Furthermore, CT enhancement may be significantly influenced by age, sex, and unenhanced tissue attenuation.
Sampling of finite elements for sparse recovery in large scale 3D electrical impedance tomography.
Javaherian, Ashkan; Soleimani, Manuchehr; Moeller, Knut
2015-01-01
This study proposes a method to improve performance of sparse recovery inverse solvers in 3D electrical impedance tomography (3D EIT), especially when the volume under study contains small-sized inclusions, e.g. 3D imaging of breast tumours. Initially, a quadratic regularized inverse solver is applied in a fast manner with a stopping threshold much greater than the optimum. Based on assuming a fixed level of sparsity for the conductivity field, finite elements are then sampled via applying a compressive sensing (CS) algorithm to the rough blurred estimation previously made by the quadratic solver. Finally, a sparse inverse solver is applied solely to the sampled finite elements, with the solution to the CS as its initial guess. The results show the great potential of the proposed CS-based sparse recovery in improving accuracy of sparse solution to the large-size 3D EIT.
IL-6 RESPONSES TO GLYCAEMIC INDEX DURING RECOVERY FROM EXERCISE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.H. Hasani
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Purpose: This study examined the effect of meal with different glycaemic index (GI on plasma IL-6 concentration and glucose metabolism after maximal lengthening contractions of the knee extensors. Using a cross-over design, Material : 10 healthy males completed 5 sets of 10 lengthening (eccentric contractions at 120% 1 repetition-maximum. Subjects were randomized to consume the GI beverage (high-GI, low-GI (15% weight per volume; 3 g/kg BM or placebo in three times within 10 min following exercise, and again at 50 and 110 min during recovery time. Blood samples were collected before exercise and after 0.60, 180 min and 24 h of recovery. Results: Concentration of plasma IL-6 in HGI group was less than LGI and Pla groups. IL-6 tended to significantly increase after exercise in recovery time in 3 groups (all P < 0.05, except for 24 hours (P = 1.00, furthermore there was significant difference for IL-6 between placebo and high glycemic groups in 3hours after exercise (P=.016. Concentration of serum CK in HGI group was less than LGI and Pla groups, CK was significantly elevated at all times points during recovery in 3 groups (all P < 0.05, except for 1 hour after exercise in HGI group (P = 0.31, but there was no significant difference for CK between groups. Conclusion: In summary, consuming HGI carbohydrate during recovery from exercise attenuate plasma IL-6 concentration.
Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries,.. II: Inverse estimates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten
In this paper we study inverse estimates of the Bernstein type for nonlinear approximation with structured redundant dictionaries in a Banach space. The main results are for separated decomposable dictionaries in Hilbert spaces, which generalize the notion of joint block-diagonal mutually...
Frame approximation of pseudo-inverse operators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Ole
2001-01-01
Let T denote an operator on a Hilbert space (H, [.,.]), and let {f(i)}(i=1)(infinity) be a frame for the orthogonal complement of the kernel NT. We construct a sequence of operators {Phi (n)} of the form Phi (n) (.) = Sigma (n)(i=1) [., g(t)(n)]f(i) which converges to the psuedo-inverse T+ of T...
Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries. II. Inverse Estimates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten
2006-01-01
In this paper, which is the sequel to [16], we study inverse estimates of the Bernstein type for nonlinear approximation with structured redundant dictionaries in a Banach space. The main results are for blockwise incoherent dictionaries in Hilbert spaces, which generalize the notion of joint block...
Swarm Level 2 Comprehensive Inversion, 2016 Production
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Sabaka, Terence; Olsen, Nils
In the framework of the ESA Earth Observation Magnetic Mapping Mission Swarm, the Expert Support Laboratories (ESL) provides high quality Level 2 Products describing a.o. the magnetic fields of the Earth. This poster provides details of the Level 2 Products from the Comprehensive Inversion chain...
Modeling and Inversion of Scattered Surface waves
Riyanti, C.D.
2005-01-01
In this thesis, we present a modeling method based on a domain-type integral representation for waves propagating along the surface of the Earth which have been scattered in the vicinity of the source or the receivers. Using this model as starting point, we formulate an inversion scheme to estimate
An "Inverse" Validation of Holland's Theory
Cowger, Ernest, Jr.; Chauvin, Ida; Miller, Mark J.
2009-01-01
This article used an "inverse" approach to assess the validity of Holland's theory; that is, it examined the degree of congruency between participant's least-characteristic Holland types and their least desirable occupational choice. Implications for career counselors are briefly outlined.
ILIGRA : An Efficient Inverse Line Graph Algorithm
Liu, D.; Trajanovski, S.; Van Mieghem, P.
2014-01-01
This paper presents a new and efficient algorithm, ILIGRA, for inverse line graph construction. Given a line graph H, ILIGRA constructs its root graph G with the time complexity being linear in the number of nodes in H. If ILIGRA does not know whether the given graph H is a line graph, it firstly
Uterine inversion complicating traditional termination of pregnancy ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Abortion services remain cladenstine and unsafe in most parts of Africa. This is a case of a mid-trimester abortion induced by traditional methods which resulted in uterine inversion, a previously unreported complication of induced abortion. Until abortion services are accessible and safe on the continent, morbidity and ...
Tectonic inversion in the Wandel Sea Basin
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svennevig, Kristian; Guarnieri, Pierpaolo; Stemmerik, Lars
2016-01-01
Sheet and an upper Hondal Elv Thrust Sheet separated by a subhorizontal fault: the Central Detachment. The style of deformation and the structures described are interpreted as the result of Paleocene-Eocene N-S directed compression resulting in basin inversion with strike-slip faults only having minor...
Laplace's 1774 Memoir on Inverse Probability
Stigler, Stephen M.
1986-01-01
Laplace's first major article on mathematical statistics was published in 1774. It is arguably the most influential article in this field to appear before 1800, being the first widely read presentation of inverse probability and its application to both binomial and location parameter estimation. After a brief introduction, and English translation of this epochal memoir is given.
Inverse Bremsstrahlung in Astrophysical Plasmas: The Absorption ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The electron–ion inverse Bremsstrahlung is considered here as a factor of the influence on the opacity of the different stellar atmospheres and other astrophysical plasmas. It is shown that this process can be successfully described in the frames of cut-off Coulomb potential model within the regions of the electron densities ...
Introduction to inverse problems for differential equations
Hasanov Hasanoğlu, Alemdar
2017-01-01
This book presents a systematic exposition of the main ideas and methods in treating inverse problems for PDEs arising in basic mathematical models, though it makes no claim to being exhaustive. Mathematical models of most physical phenomena are governed by initial and boundary value problems for PDEs, and inverse problems governed by these equations arise naturally in nearly all branches of science and engineering. The book’s content, especially in the Introduction and Part I, is self-contained and is intended to also be accessible for beginning graduate students, whose mathematical background includes only basic courses in advanced calculus, PDEs and functional analysis. Further, the book can be used as the backbone for a lecture course on inverse and ill-posed problems for partial differential equations. In turn, the second part of the book consists of six nearly-independent chapters. The choice of these chapters was motivated by the fact that the inverse coefficient and source problems considered here a...
Inverse adverse selection: the market for gems
Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Onderstal, S.; Parisi, F.
2011-01-01
This paper studies markets plagued with asymmetric information on the quality of the goods traded. In Akerlof’s setting, sellers are better informed than buyers. In contrast, we examine cases where buyers are better informed than sellers. This creates an inverse adverse-selection problem: The market
Inverse adverse selection: the market for gems
Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Onderstal, S.; Parisi, F.
2011-01-01
This paper studies markets plagued with asymmetric information on the quality of traded goods. In Akerlof’s setting, sellers are better informed than buyers. In contrast, we examine cases where buyers are better informed than sellers. This creates an inverse adverse selection problem: The market
Neglected puerperal inversion of the uterus
African Journals Online (AJOL)
abp
2012-07-27
Jul 27, 2012 ... which was also unsuccessful. Finally, abdominal reposition was planned. On opening the abdomen classic flowerpot appearance was visible with cupping of uterus with the tubes and ovaries inside the cupped uterus. After unsuccessful attempt via Huntington's procedure, the posterior ring of inversion was ...
Inverse Problem for a Curved Quantum Guide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laure Cardoulis
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the Dirichlet Laplacian operator −Δ on a curved quantum guide in ℝ n(n=2,3 with an asymptotically straight reference curve. We give uniqueness results for the inverse problem associated to the reconstruction of the curvature by using either observations of spectral data or a boot-strapping method.
Rapid probabilistic source inversion using pattern recognition
Käufl, Paul J.
2015-01-01
Numerous problems in the field of seismology require the determination of parameters of a physical model that are compatible with a set of observations and prior assumptions. This type of problem is generally termed inverse problem. While, in many cases, we are able to predict observations, given a
Inversion of radiation data in biophysics
Twersky, V.
1972-01-01
Topics in biophysics are summarized in which radiation data inversion problems occur. The topics fall into two main categories. The first relates to information acquired about the distance environment through seeing, hearing, etc. The second relates to the use of electromagnetic, acoustic, or other radiation for diagnostic purposes, either at a bulk or a molecular level.
n-Colour self-inverse compositions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Two new binomial identities with combinatorial meaning are also given. Keywords. Compositions; n-colour compositions; self-inverse compositions; seq- uences; recurrence formulas; generating functions; binomial identities. 1. ...... [5] Carlson B C, Special function of applied mathematics (1977) (New York: Academic Press).
Numerical pole assignment by eigenvalue Jacobian inversion
Sevaston, George E.
1986-01-01
A numerical procedure for solving the linear pole placement problem is developed which operates by the inversion of an analytically determined eigenvalue Jacobian matrix. Attention is given to convergence characteristics and pathological situations. It is not concluded that the algorithm developed is suitable for computer-aided control system design with particular reference to the scan platform pointing control system for the Galileo spacecraft.
A Face Inversion Effect without a Face
Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit
2012-01-01
Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…
Inverse-Square Orbits: A Geometric Approach.
Rainwater, James C.; Weinstock, Robert
1979-01-01
Presents a derivation of Kepler's first law of planetary motion from Newtonian principles. Analogus derivations of the hyperbolic and parabolic orbits of nonreturning comets and the hyperbolic orbit for a particle in a repulsive inverse-square field are also presented. (HM)
Inverse folding of RNA pseudoknot structures.
Gao, James Zm; Li, Linda Ym; Reidys, Christian M
2010-06-23
RNA exhibits a variety of structural configurations. Here we consider a structure to be tantamount to the noncrossing Watson-Crick and G-U-base pairings (secondary structure) and additional cross-serial base pairs. These interactions are called pseudoknots and are observed across the whole spectrum of RNA functionalities. In the context of studying natural RNA structures, searching for new ribozymes and designing artificial RNA, it is of interest to find RNA sequences folding into a specific structure and to analyze their induced neutral networks. Since the established inverse folding algorithms, RNAinverse, RNA-SSD as well as INFO-RNA are limited to RNA secondary structures, we present in this paper the inverse folding algorithm Inv which can deal with 3-noncrossing, canonical pseudoknot structures. In this paper we present the inverse folding algorithm Inv. We give a detailed analysis of Inv, including pseudocodes. We show that Inv allows to design in particular 3-noncrossing nonplanar RNA pseudoknot 3-noncrossing RNA structures-a class which is difficult to construct via dynamic programming routines. Inv is freely available at http://www.combinatorics.cn/cbpc/inv.html. The algorithm Inv extends inverse folding capabilities to RNA pseudoknot structures. In comparison with RNAinverse it uses new ideas, for instance by considering sets of competing structures. As a result, Inv is not only able to find novel sequences even for RNA secondary structures, it does so in the context of competing structures that potentially exhibit cross-serial interactions.
Multiscale Phase Inversion of Seismic Data
Fu, Lei
2017-12-02
We present a scheme for multiscale phase inversion (MPI) of seismic data that is less sensitive to the unmodeled physics of wave propagation and a poor starting model than standard full waveform inversion (FWI). To avoid cycle-skipping, the multiscale strategy temporally integrates the traces several times, i.e. high-order integration, to produce low-boost seismograms that are used as input data for the initial iterations of MPI. As the iterations proceed, higher frequencies in the data are boosted by using integrated traces of lower order as the input data. The input data are also filtered into different narrow frequency bands for the MPI implementation. At low frequencies, we show that MPI with windowed reflections approximates wave equation inversion of the reflection traveltimes, except no traveltime picking is needed. Numerical results with synthetic acoustic data show that MPI is more robust than conventional multiscale FWI when the initial model is far from the true model. Results from synthetic viscoacoustic and elastic data show that MPI is less sensitive than FWI to some of the unmodeled physics. Inversion of marine data shows that MPI is more robust and produces modestly more accurate results than FWI for this data set.
Inverse acoustic problem of N homogeneous scatterers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berntsen, Svend
2002-01-01
The three-dimensional inverse acoustic medium problem of N homogeneous objects with known geometry and location is considered. It is proven that one scattering experiment is sufficient for the unique determination of the complex wavenumbers of the objects. The mapping from the scattered fields...
Seismic processing in the inverse data space
Berkhout, A.J.
2006-01-01
Until now, seismic processing has been carried out by applying inverse filters in the forward data space. Because the acquired data of a seismic survey is always discrete, seismic measurements in the forward data space can be arranged conveniently in a data matrix (P). Each column in the data matrix
Anatomically Correct Surface Recovery
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Larsen, Rasmus
2015-01-01
We present a method for 3D surface recovery in partial surface scans. The method is based on an Active Shape Model, which is used to predict missing data. The model is constructed using a bootstrap framework, where an initially small collection of hand-annotated samples is used to fit......-of-the-art surface reconstruction algorithm, the presented method gives matching prediction results for the synthetic evaluation samples and superior results for the direct scanner data....
Crustal Seismic Attenuation in Germany Measured with Acoustic Radiative Transfer Theory
Gaebler, Peter J.; Eulenfeld, Tom; Wegler, Ulrich
2017-04-01
This work is carried out in the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). As part of this treaty a verification regime was introduced to detect, locate and characterize nuclear explosion testings. The study of seismology can provide essential information in the form of broadband waveform recordings for the identification and verification of these critical events. A profound knowledge of the Earth's subsurface between source and receiver is required for a detailed description of the seismic wave field. In addition to underground parameters such as seismic velocity or anisotropy, information about seismic attenuation values of the medium are required. Goal of this study is the creation of a comprehensive model of crustal seismic attenuation in Germany and adjacent areas. Over 20 years of earthquake data from the German Central Seismological Observatory data archive is used to estimate the spatial dependent distribution of seismic intrinsic and scattering attenuation of S-waves for frequencies between 0.5 and 20 Hz. The attenuation models are estimated by fitting synthetic seismogram envelopes calculated with acoustic radiative transfer theory to observed seismogram envelopes. This theory describes the propagation of seismic S-energy under the assumption of multiple isotropic scattering, the crustal structure of the scattering medium is hereby represented by a half-space model. We present preliminary results of the spatial distribution of intrinsic attenuation represented by the absorption path length, as well as of scattering attenuation in terms of the mean free path and compare the outcomes to results from previous studies. Furthermore catalog magnitudes are compared to moment magnitudes estimated during the inversion process. Additionally site amplification factors of the stations are presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mathew Carter
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Comorbidity among mood, anxiety, and alcohol disorders is common and burdensome, affecting individuals, families, and public health. A systematic and integrative review of the literature across disciplines and research methodologies was performed. Supradisciplinary approaches were applied to the review and the ensuing critical appraisal. Definitions, measurement, and estimation are controversial and inconstant. Recovery from comorbidity cannot be easily extricated from a sociocultural milieu. Methodological challenges in quantitative and qualitative research and across disciplines are many and are discussed. The evidence supporting current treatments is sparse and short-term, and modalities operating in isolation typically fail. People easily fall into the cracks between mental health and addiction services. Clinicians feel untrained and consumers bear the brunt of this: Judgmental and moralistic interactions persist and comorbidity is unrecognized in high-risk populations. Competing historical paradigms of mental illness and addiction present a barrier to progress and reductionism is an impediment to care and an obstacle to the integration and interpretation of research. What matters to consumers is challenging to quantify but worth considering: Finding employment, safe housing, and meaning are crucial to recovery. Complex social networks and peer support in recovery are important but poorly understood. The focus on modalities of limited evidence or generalizability persists in literature and practice. We need to consider different combinations of comorbidity, transitions as opposed to dichotomies of use or illness, and explore the long-term view and emic perspectives.
A Stochastic Inversion Method for Potential Field Data: Ant Colony Optimization
Liu, Shuang; Hu, Xiangyun; Liu, Tianyou
2014-07-01
Simulating natural ants' foraging behavior, the ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm performs excellently in combinational optimization problems, for example the traveling salesman problem and the quadratic assignment problem. However, the ACO is seldom used to inverted for gravitational and magnetic data. On the basis of the continuous and multi-dimensional objective function for potential field data optimization inversion, we present the node partition strategy ACO (NP-ACO) algorithm for inversion of model variables of fixed shape and recovery of physical property distributions of complicated shape models. We divide the continuous variables into discrete nodes and ants directionally tour the nodes by use of transition probabilities. We update the pheromone trails by use of Gaussian mapping between the objective function value and the quantity of pheromone. It can analyze the search results in real time and promote the rate of convergence and precision of inversion. Traditional mapping, including the ant-cycle system, weaken the differences between ant individuals and lead to premature convergence. We tested our method by use of synthetic data and real data from scenarios involving gravity and magnetic anomalies. The inverted model variables and recovered physical property distributions were in good agreement with the true values. The ACO algorithm for binary representation imaging and full imaging can recover sharper physical property distributions than traditional linear inversion methods. The ACO has good optimization capability and some excellent characteristics, for example robustness, parallel implementation, and portability, compared with other stochastic metaheuristics.
Preliminary result of 3-D attenuation tomography beneath Sunda Strait and western part of Java
Anshori, Muhajir; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Puspito, Nanang T.
2017-07-01
Sunda strait lies in the transition zone of two different subduction system that is almost perpendicular to the subduction in southern Java and oblique subduction in western Sumatra. The series of major disasters such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions is a manifestation of its tectonic setting complexity. We used selected waveform data from724 earthquakes that occurred around the Sunda strait and western part of Java from 2009 - 2015 recorded by 21 MCGA network stations to construct three dimensional image of seismic attenuation. Frequency independent attenuation operators (t*) was determined using spectral fitting method for P and S wave arrivals, respectively. The inversion was performed using simul2000 algorithm to image the lateral and vertical variations of Qp and Qs value in the Sunda Strait and western part of Java. Some interesting features such as subducting slab, mantle wedge, magma chamber under volcanos and fault zones can be imaged well.
Fleming, H. E.
1977-01-01
Linear numerical inversion methods applied to atmospheric remote sounding generally can be categorized in two ways: (1) iterative, and (2) inverse matrix methods. However, these two categories are not unrelated; a duality exists between them. In other words, given an iterative scheme, a corresponding inverse matrix method exists, and conversely. This duality concept is developed for the more familiar linear methods. The iterative duals are compared with the classical linear iterative approaches and their differences analyzed. The importance of the initial profile in all methods is stressed. Calculations using simulated data are made to compare accuracies and to examine the dependence of the solution on the initial profile.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ratajczak Joanna
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the approximation problem of the inverse kinematics algorithms for the redundant manipulators. We introduce the approximation of the dynamically consistent Jacobian by the extended Jacobian. In order to do that, we formulate the approximation problem and suitably defined approximation error. By the minimization of this error over a certain region we can design an extended Jacobian inverse which will be close to the dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse. To solve the approximation problem we use the Cholesky decomposition and the Ritz method. The computational example illustrates the theory.
Estimating uncertainties in complex joint inverse problems
Afonso, Juan Carlos
2016-04-01
Sources of uncertainty affecting geophysical inversions can be classified either as reflective (i.e. the practitioner is aware of her/his ignorance) or non-reflective (i.e. the practitioner does not know that she/he does not know!). Although we should be always conscious of the latter, the former are the ones that, in principle, can be estimated either empirically (by making measurements or collecting data) or subjectively (based on the experience of the researchers). For complex parameter estimation problems in geophysics, subjective estimation of uncertainty is the most common type. In this context, probabilistic (aka Bayesian) methods are commonly claimed to offer a natural and realistic platform from which to estimate model uncertainties. This is because in the Bayesian approach, errors (whatever their nature) can be naturally included as part of the global statistical model, the solution of which represents the actual solution to the inverse problem. However, although we agree that probabilistic inversion methods are the most powerful tool for uncertainty estimation, the common claim that they produce "realistic" or "representative" uncertainties is not always justified. Typically, ALL UNCERTAINTY ESTIMATES ARE MODEL DEPENDENT, and therefore, besides a thorough characterization of experimental uncertainties, particular care must be paid to the uncertainty arising from model errors and input uncertainties. We recall here two quotes by G. Box and M. Gunzburger, respectively, of special significance for inversion practitioners and for this session: "…all models are wrong, but some are useful" and "computational results are believed by no one, except the person who wrote the code". In this presentation I will discuss and present examples of some problems associated with the estimation and quantification of uncertainties in complex multi-observable probabilistic inversions, and how to address them. Although the emphasis will be on sources of uncertainty related
Improved misfit function for attenuation and speed reconstruction in ultrasound computed tomography
Pérez-Liva, M.; Udías, J. M.; Herraiz, J. L.
2017-03-01
The reconstruction of acoustic attenuation maps for transmission Ultrasound Computed Tomography (USCT) based on the standard least-squares full wave inversion method requires the accurate knowledge of the sound speed map in the region under study. Any deviation in the reconstructed speed maps creates a very significant bias in the attenuation map, as the standard least-squares misfit function is more sensitive to time misalignments than to amplitude differences of the signals. In this work, we propose a generalized misfit function which includes an additional term that accounts for the amplitude differences between the measured and the estimated signals. The functional gradients used to minimize the proposed misfit function were obtained using an adjoint field formulation and the fractional Laplacian wave equation. The forward and backward wave propagation was obtained with the parallelized GPU version of the software k-Wave and the optimization was performed with a line search method. A numerical phantom simulating breast tissue and synthetic noisy data were used to test the performance of the proposed misfit function. The attenuation was reconstructed based on a converged speed map. An edge-preserving regularization method based on total variation was also implemented. To quantify the quality of the results, the mean values and their standard deviations in several regions of interest were analyzed and compared to the reference values. The proposed generalized misfit function decreases considerably the bias in the attenuation map caused by the deviations in the speed map in all the regions of interest analyzed.
Bezada, Maximiliano J.
2017-11-01
The long and often complicated tectonic history of continental lithosphere results in lateral strength heterogeneities which in turn affect the style and localization of deformation. In this study, we produce a model for the attenuation structure of Iberia and northern Morocco using a waveform-matching approach on P-wave data from teleseismic deep-focus earthquakes. We find that attenuation is correlated with zones of intraplate deformation and seismicity, but do not find a consistent relationship between attenuation and recent volcanism. The main features of our model are low to moderate Δt* in the undeformed Tertiary basins of Spain and high Δt* in areas deformed by the Alpine orogeny. Additionally, low Δt* is found in areas where the Alboran slab is thought to be attached to the Iberian and African lithosphere, and high Δt* where it has detached. These features are robust with respect to inversion parameters, and are consistent with independent data. Very mild backazimuthal dependence of the measurements and comparison with previous results suggest that the source of the attenuation is sub-crustal. In line with other recent studies, the range of Δt* we observe is much larger than can be expected from lithospheric thickness or temperature variations.
Attenuation caused by infrequently updated covariates in survival analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Per Kragh; Liestøl, Knut
2003-01-01
Attenuation; Cox regression model; Measurement errors; Survival analysis; Time-dependent covariates......Attenuation; Cox regression model; Measurement errors; Survival analysis; Time-dependent covariates...
Predicting functional recovery after acute ankle sprain.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sean R O'Connor
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Ankle sprains are among the most common acute musculoskeletal conditions presenting to primary care. Their clinical course is variable but there are limited recommendations on prognostic factors. Our primary aim was to identify clinical predictors of short and medium term functional recovery after ankle sprain. METHODS: A secondary analysis of data from adult participants (N = 85 with an acute ankle sprain, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial was undertaken. The predictive value of variables (age, BMI, gender, injury mechanism, previous injury, weight-bearing status, medial joint line pain, pain during weight-bearing dorsiflexion and lateral hop test recorded at baseline and at 4 weeks post injury were investigated for their prognostic ability. Recovery was determined from measures of subjective ankle function at short (4 weeks and medium term (4 months follow ups. Multivariate stepwise linear regression analyses were undertaken to evaluate the association between the aforementioned variables and functional recovery. RESULTS: Greater age, greater injury grade and weight-bearing status at baseline were associated with lower function at 4 weeks post injury (p<0.01; adjusted R square=0.34. Greater age, weight-bearing status at baseline and non-inversion injury mechanisms were associated with lower function at 4 months (p<0.01; adjusted R square=0.20. Pain on medial palpation and pain on dorsiflexion at 4 weeks were the most valuable prognostic indicators of function at 4 months (p< 0.01; adjusted R square=0.49. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study provide further evidence that ankle sprains have a variable clinical course. Age, injury grade, mechanism and weight-bearing status at baseline provide some prognostic information for short and medium term recovery. Clinical assessment variables at 4 weeks were the strongest predictors of recovery, explaining 50% of the variance in ankle function at 4 months. Further
Seismic attenuation system for a nuclear reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liszkai, Tamas; Cadell, Seth
2018-01-30
A system for attenuating seismic forces includes a reactor pressure vessel containing nuclear fuel and a containment vessel that houses the reactor pressure vessel. Both the reactor pressure vessel and the containment vessel include a bottom head. Additionally, the system includes a base support to contact a support surface on which the containment vessel is positioned in a substantially vertical orientation. An attenuation device is located between the bottom head of the reactor pressure vessel and the bottom head of the containment vessel. Seismic forces that travel from the base support to the reactor pressure vessel via the containment vessel are attenuated by the attenuation device in a direction that is substantially lateral to the vertical orientation of the containment vessel.
SISYPHUS: A high performance seismic inversion factory
Gokhberg, Alexey; Simutė, Saulė; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas
2016-04-01
In the recent years the massively parallel high performance computers became the standard instruments for solving the forward and inverse problems in seismology. The respective software packages dedicated to forward and inverse waveform modelling specially designed for such computers (SPECFEM3D, SES3D) became mature and widely available. These packages achieve significant computational performance and provide researchers with an opportunity to solve problems of bigger size at higher resolution within a shorter time. However, a typical seismic inversion process contains various activities that are beyond the common solver functionality. They include management of information on seismic events and stations, 3D models, observed and synthetic seismograms, pre-processing of the observed signals, computation of misfits and adjoint sources, minimization of misfits, and process workflow management. These activities are time consuming, seldom sufficiently automated, and therefore represent a bottleneck that can substantially offset performance benefits provided by even the most powerful modern supercomputers. Furthermore, a typical system architecture of modern supercomputing platforms is oriented towards the maximum computational performance and provides limited standard facilities for automation of the supporting activities. We present a prototype solution that automates all aspects of the seismic inversion process and is tuned for the modern massively parallel high performance computing systems. We address several major aspects of the solution architecture, which include (1) design of an inversion state database for tracing all relevant aspects of the entire solution process, (2) design of an extensible workflow management framework, (3) integration with wave propagation solvers, (4) integration with optimization packages, (5) computation of misfits and adjoint sources, and (6) process monitoring. The inversion state database represents a hierarchical structure with
Sinha Roy, Abhijit; Rocha, Karol M; Randleman, J Bradley; Stulting, R Doyle; Dupps, William J
2013-08-01
Corneal collagen crosslinking with riboflavin photosensitization and ultraviolet irradiation is a novel approach to limiting the progression of keratoconus in patients by increasing the elastic modulus of the degenerate cornea. Beneficial reductions in corneal steepness and aberrations after crosslinking also frequently occur. In a previous study, we described a computational modeling approach to simulating topographic progression in keratoconus and regression of disease with corneal collagen crosslinking. In the current study, this model has been expanded and applied to the inverse problem of estimating longitudinal time-dependent changes in the corneal elastic modulus after crosslinking using in vivo measurements from 16 human eyes. Topography measured before crosslinking was used to construct a patient-specific finite element model with assumed hyperelastic properties. Then the properties of the cornea were altered using an inverse optimization method to minimize the difference between the model-predicted and in vivo corneal shape after crosslinking. Effects of assumptions regarding sclera-to-cornea elastic modulus ratio and spatial attenuation of treatment effect due to ultraviolet beam characteristics on the predicted change in elastic modulus were also investigated. Corneal property changes computed by inverse finite element analysis provided excellent geometric agreement with clinical topography measurements in patient eyes post-crosslinking. Over all post-treatment time points, the estimated increase in corneal elastic modulus was 110.8 ± 48.1%, and slightly less stiffening was required to produce the same amount of corneal topographic regression of disease when the sclera-to-cornea modulus ratio was increased. Including the effect of beam attenuation resulted in greater estimates of stiffening in the anterior cornea. Corneal shape responses to crosslinking varied considerably and emphasize the importance of a patient-specific approach. Copyright © 2013
Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database
SRD 82 NIST Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database (PC database, no charge) This database provides values of electron effective attenuation lengths (EALs) in solid elements and compounds at selected electron energies between 50 eV and 2,000 eV. The database was designed mainly to provide EALs (to account for effects of elastic-eletron scattering) for applications in surface analysis by Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).
Post-Retrieval Extinction Attenuates Cocaine Memories
Sartor, Gregory C.; Aston-Jones, Gary
2013-01-01
Recent studies have shown that post-retrieval extinction training attenuates fear and reward-related memories in both humans and rodents. This noninvasive, behavioral approach has the potential to be used in clinical settings to treat maladaptive memories that underlie several psychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. However, few studies to date have used a post-retrieval extinction approach to attenuate addiction-related memories. In the current study, we attempted to disrupt cocaine...
Attenuation of Shock Waves using Perforated Plates
Pavan Kumar, CH V. L. C. S.; Hitesh Reddy, C.; Rahul Sai, L.; Dharani Kumar, K. S. S.; Nagaraja, S. R.
2017-08-01
The shock/blast waves generated due to explosions cause wide spread damage to the objects in its path. Different techniques have been used to attenuate shock wave over pressure, to reduce the catastrophic effects. Perforated plates can be used effectively to attenuate the shock wave pressure. In this paper shock wave interaction with perforated plates is simulated using COMSOL multiphysics software. The pressure drop varied from 43.75% to 26% for porosity varying from 10% to 40.
Attenuation coefficients for water quality trading
Keller, AA; Chen, X.; Fox, J; Fulda, M; Dorsey, R.; Seapy, B; Glenday, J; E Bray
2014-01-01
Water quality trading has been proposed as a cost-effective approach for reducing nutrient loads through credit generation from agricultural or point source reductions sold to buyers facing costly options. We present a systematic approach to determine attenuation coefficients and their uncertainty. Using a process-based model, we determine attenuation with safety margins at many watersheds for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads as they transport from point of load reduction t...
Spheroidal Integral Equations for Geodetic Inversion of Geopotential Gradients
Novák, Pavel; Šprlák, Michal
2017-12-01
The static Earth's gravitational field has traditionally been described in geodesy and geophysics by the gravitational potential (geopotential for short), a scalar function of 3-D position. Although not directly observable, geopotential functionals such as its first- and second-order gradients are routinely measured by ground, airborne and/or satellite sensors. In geodesy, these observables are often used for recovery of the static geopotential at some simple reference surface approximating the actual Earth's surface. A generalized mathematical model is represented by a surface integral equation which originates in solving Dirichlet's boundary-value problem of the potential theory defined for the harmonic geopotential, spheroidal boundary and globally distributed gradient data. The mathematical model can be used for combining various geopotential gradients without necessity of their re-sampling or prior continuation in space. The model extends the apparatus of integral equations which results from solving boundary-value problems of the potential theory to all geopotential gradients observed by current ground, airborne and satellite sensors. Differences between spherical and spheroidal formulations of integral kernel functions of Green's kind are investigated. Estimated differences reach relative values at the level of 3% which demonstrates the significance of spheroidal approximation for flattened bodies such as the Earth. The observation model can be used for combined inversion of currently available geopotential gradients while exploring their spectral and stochastic characteristics. The model would be even more relevant to gravitational field modelling of other bodies in space with more pronounced spheroidal geometry than that of the Earth.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agullo, Y.
2005-09-15
This thesis present the extension of mono-component seismic pre-stack data stratigraphical inversion method to multicomponent data, with the objective of improving the determination of reservoir elastic parameters. In addiction to the PP pressure waves, the PS converted waves proved their interest for imaging under gas clouds; and their potential is highly significant for the characterization of lithologies, fluids, fractures... Nevertheless the simultaneous use ol PP and PS data remains problematic because of their different the time scales. To jointly use the information contained in PP and PS data, we propose a method in three steps first, mono-component stratigraphic inversions of PP then PS data; second, estimation of the PP to PS time conversion law; third, multicomponent stratigraphic inversion. For the second point, the estimation of the PP to PS conversion law is based on minimizing the difference between the S impedances obtained from PP and PS mono-component stratigraphic inversion. The pre-stack mono-component stratigraphic inversions was adapted to the case of multicomponent data by leaving each type of data in its own time scale in order to avoid the distortion of the seismic wavelet. The results obtained on a realistic synthetic PP-PS case show on one hand that determining PP to PS conversion law (from the mono-component inversion results) is feasible, and on the other hand that the joint inversion of PP and PS data with this conversion law improves the results compared to the mono-component inversion ones. Although this is presented within the framework of the PP and PS multi-component data, the developed methodology adapts directly to PP and SS data for example. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lisin, E. A.; Lisina, I. I.; Vaulina, O. S.; Petrov, O. F. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 13 bd.2 Izhorskaya St., Moscow 125412, Russia and Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutskiy Per., Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation)
2015-03-15
Solution of the inverse Langevin problem is presented for open dissipative systems with anisotropic interparticle interaction. Possibility of applying this solution for experimental determining the anisotropic interaction forces between dust particles in complex plasmas with ion flow is considered. For this purpose, we have tested the method on the results of numerical simulation of chain structures of particles with quasidipole-dipole interaction, similar to the one occurring due to effects of ion focusing in gas discharges. Influence of charge spatial inhomogeneity and fluctuations on the results of recovery is also discussed.
Mechanisms of geometrical seismic attenuation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igor B. Morozov
2011-07-01
Full Text Available In several recent reports, we have explained the frequency dependence of the apparent seismic quality-factor (Q observed in many studies according to the effects of geometrical attenuation, which was defined as the zero-frequency limit of the temporal attenuation coefficient. In particular, geometrical attenuation was found to be positive for most waves traveling within the lithosphere. Here, we present three theoretical models that illustrate the origin of this geometrical attenuation, and we investigate the causes of its preferential positive values. In addition, we discuss the physical basis and limitations of both the conventional and new attenuation models. For waves in media with slowly varying properties, geometrical attenuation is caused by variations in the wavefront curvature, which can be both positive (for defocusing and negative (for focusing. In media with velocity/density contrasts, incoherent reflectivity leads to geometrical-attenuation coefficients which are proportional to the mean squared reflectivity and are always positive. For «coherent» reflectivity, the geometrical attenuation is approximately zero, and the attenuation process can be described according to the concept of «scattering Q». However, the true meaning of this parameter is in describing the mean reflectivity within the medium, and not that of the traditional resonator quality factor known in mechanics. The general conclusion from these models is that non-zero and often positive levels of geometrical attenuation are common in realistic, heterogeneous media, both observationally and theoretically. When transformed into the conventional Q-factor form, this positive geometrical attenuation leads to Q values that quickly increase with frequency. These predictions show that the positive frequency-dependent Q observed in many datasets might represent artifacts of the transformations of the attenuation coefficients into Q.