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Sample records for attenuate gastrointestinal motility

  1. Schistosoma mansoni proteins attenuate gastrointestinal motility disturbances during experimental colitis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nathalie; E; Ruyssers; Benedicte; Y; De; Winter; Joris; G; De; Man; Natacha; D; Ruyssers; Ann; J; Van; Gils; Alex; Loukas; Mark; S; Pearson; Joel; V; Weinstock; Paul; A; Pelckmans; Tom; G; Moreels

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the therapeutic effect of Schistosoma mansoni(S.mansoni) soluble worm proteins on gastrointestinal motility disturbances during experimental colitis in mice. METHODS:Colitis was induced by intrarectal injection of trinitrobenzene sulphate(TNBS) and 6 h later,mice were treated ip with S.mansoni proteins.Experiments were performed 5 d after TNBS injection.Inflammationwas quantified using validated inflammation parameters. Gastric emptying and geometric center were measured to assess in vivo...

  2. [Obesity and gastrointestinal motility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Seong

    2006-08-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) motility has a crucial role in the food consumption, digestion and absorption, and also controls the appetite and satiety. In obese patients, various alterations of GI motility have been investigated. The prevalence of GERD and esophageal motor disorders in obese patients are higher than those of general population. Gastric emptying of solid food is generally accelerated and fasting gastric volume especially in distal stomach is larger in obese patients without change in accommodation. Contractile activity of small intestine in fasting period is more prominent, but orocecal transit is delayed. Autonomic dysfunction is frequently demonstrated in obese patients. These findings correspond with increased appetite and delayed satiety in obese patients, but causes or results have not been confirmed. Therapeutic interventions of these altered GI motility have been developed using botulinum toxin, gastric electrical stimulation in obese patients. Novel agents targeted for GI hormone modulation (such as ghrelin and leptin) need to be developed in the near future. PMID:16929152

  3. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastrointestinal motility disorders

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    Choe, Jae Gol [College of Medicine, Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-02-01

    Current scintigraphic tests of gastrointestinal motor function provides relevant pathophysiologic information, but their clinical utility is controversial. Many scintigraphic methods are developed to investigate gastrointestinal motility from oral cavity to colon. These are esophageal transit scintigraphy, oropharyngeal transit study, gastric emptying test, small bowel transit time measurement, colon transit study and gastroesopahgeal reflux scintigraphy. Scintigraphy of gastrointestinal tract is the most physiologic and noninvasive method to evaluate gastrointestinal motility disorders. Stomach emptying test is regarded as a gold standard in motility study. Gastrointestinal transit scintigraphy also has a certain role in assessment of drug effect to GI motility and changes after theraphy of motility disorders. Scintigraphy provides noninvasive and quantitative assessment of physiological transit throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and it is extremely useful for diagnosing gastrointestinal motor dysfunction. This article reviews the current procedures, indications, significance and guidelines for gastrointestinal motility measurements by scintigraphy.

  4. Gastrointestinal motility and functional gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Motoyasu; Hosaka, Hiroko; Kawada, Akiyo; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Zai, Hiroaki; Kawamura, Osamu; Yamada, Masanobu

    2014-01-01

    Digestive tract motility patterns are closely related to the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGID), and these patterns differ markedly between the interdigestive period and the postprandial period. The characteristic motility pattern in the interdigestive period is so-called interdigestive migrating contraction (IMC). IMCs have a housekeeping role in the intestinal tract, and could also be related to FGID. IMCs arising from the stomach are called gastrointestinal IMCs (GI-IMC), while IMCs arising from the duodenum without associated gastric contractions are called intestinal IMCs (I-IMC). It is thought that I-IMCs are abnormal in FGID. Transport of food residue to the duodenum via gastric emptying is one of the most important postprandial functions of the stomach. In patients with functional dyspepsia (FD), abnormal gastric emptying is a possible mechanism of gastric dysfunction. Accordingly, delayed gastric emptying has attracted attention, with prokinetic agents and herbal medicines often being administered in Japan to accelerate gastric emptying in patients who have anorexia associated with dyspepsia. Recently, we found that addition of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) to a high-calorie liquid diet rich in casein promoted gastric emptying in healthy men. Therefore, another potential method of improving delayed gastric emptying could be activation of chemosensors that stimulate the autonomic nervous system of the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting a role for MSG in the management of delayed gastric emptying in patients with FD.

  5. Does Hypothyroidism Affect Gastrointestinal Motility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yaylali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastrointestinal motility and serum thyroid hormone levels are closely related. Our aim was to analyze whether there is a disorder in esophagogastric motor functions as a result of hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods. The study group included 30 females (mean age ± SE 45.17 ± 2.07 years with primary hypothyroidism and 10 healthy females (mean age ± SE 39.40 ± 3.95 years. All cases underwent esophagogastric endoscopy and scintigraphy. For esophageal scintigraphy, dynamic imaging of esophagus motility protocol, and for gastric emptying scintigraphy, anterior static gastric images were acquired. Results. The mean esophageal transit time (52.56 ± 4.07 sec for patients; 24.30 ± 5.88 sec for controls; P=.02 and gastric emptying time (49.06 ± 4.29 min for the hypothyroid group; 30.4 ± 4.74 min for the control group; P=.01 were markedly increased in cases of hypothyroidism. Conclusion. Hypothyroidism prominently reduces esophageal and gastric motor activity and can cause gastrointestinal dysfunction.

  6. New advances in gastrointestinal motility research

    CERN Document Server

    Pullan, A; Farrugia, G

    2013-01-01

    Research into gastrointestinal motility has received renewed interest in part due to recent advances in the techniques for measuring the structure and function of gastrointestinal cells, tissue and organs. The integration of this wealth of data into biophysically based computation models can aid in interpretation of experimental and clinical measurements and the refinement of measurement techniques. The contents of this book span multiple scales - from cell, tissue, organ, to whole body and is divided into four broad sections covering: i) gastrointestinal cellular activity and tissue structure; (ii) techniques for measuring, analyzing and visualizing high-resolution extra-cellular recordings; (iii) methods for sensing gastroelectrical activity using non-invasive bio-electro-magnetic fields and for modulating the underlying gastric electrical activity, and finally; (iv) methods for assessing manometric and videographic motility patterns and the application of these data for predicting the flow and mixing behav...

  7. 21 CFR 876.1725 - Gastrointestinal motility monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastrointestinal motility monitoring system. 876... Gastrointestinal motility monitoring system. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal motility monitoring system is a... include signal conditioning, amplifying, and recording equipment. This generic type of device includes...

  8. Effects of radiation upon gastrointestinal motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mary F Otterson

    2007-01-01

    Whether due to therapeutic or belligerent exposure, the gastrointestinal effects of irradiation produce symptoms dreaded by a majority of the population. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramping are hallmarks of the prodromal phase of radiation sickness, occurring hours to days following radiation exposure. The prodromal phase is distinct from acute radiation sickness in that the absorptive, secretory and anatomic changes associated with radiation damage are not easily identifiable. It is during this phase of radiation sickness that gastrointestinal motility significantly changes. In addition, there is evidence that motor activity of the gut contributes to some of the acute and chronic effects of radiation.

  9. Gastrointestinal motility during cardiopulmonary bypass : A sonomicrometric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, YJ; de Kroon, TL; Elstrodt, JM; Rakhorst, G

    2006-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is known to impair the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract. However, little is known about the movement behavior of the gastrointestinal tract during CPB. This study was aimed to assess the gastrointestinal motility with sonomicrometry, a distance measurement using u

  10. Gastrointestinal transit times and motility in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedsund, Caroline; Gregersen, Tine; Jønsson, Iben;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) often suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction including obstructive symptoms, malabsorption and pain, but the underlying pathophysiology remains obscure. AIM: To compare GI motility and transit times in CF patients and healthy controls. MATERIAL...

  11. Targeting ion channels for the treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Beyder, Arthur; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) functional and motility disorders are highly prevalent and responsible for long-term morbidity and sometimes mortality in the affected patients. It is estimated that one in three persons has a GI functional or motility disorder. However, diagnosis and treatment of these widespread conditions remains challenging. This partly stems from the multisystem pathophysiology, including processing abnormalities in the central and peripheral (enteric) nervous systems and motor dysf...

  12. Development of Gastrointestinal Motility and Feeding Techniques in Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Ahmet; Çam, Halit; Fıçıcıoğlu, Can; Mıkla, Şerare

    1994-01-01

    Premature infants have high energy and nutrient requirements for their rapid growth On the other hand they have many feeding problems caused by motility immaturities such as poor sucking and swallow reflexes a small stomach capacity and a weak gag reflex The purpose of this review is to discuss the enteral feeding techniques and the feeding schedule in premature infants Key words: Premature Infant Development Of Gastrointestinal Motility Feeding Techniques

  13. Tibetan herbal formula Padma Digestin modulates gastrointestinal motility in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bruno; M; Balsiger; Magali; Krayer; Andreas; Rickenbacher; Beatrice; Flogerzi; Cecile; Vennos; Juergen; M; Gschossmann

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To examine the effects of Padma Digestin on the smooth muscle motility of different gastrointestinal segments in vitro . METHODS:The effects of the ethanolic extract of Padma Digestin (at 8.16 mg/mL or 81.6mg/mL) on the contractility and susceptibility to acetylcholine (ACh) of muscle strips from the cardia, antrum, pylorus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon of male Wistar rats were analyzed.RESULTS:Compared with the control treatment, the Padma Digestin extract had a procontractile effect on the antral smooth muscle strips. Padma Digestin decreased ACh sensitivity in cardia muscle strips and increased it in those from the antrum and pylorus. In the intestinal segments, spontaneous contractility was inhibited in both the duodenal and jejunal strips, whereas reactivity to ACh was inhibited in the jejunal strips only. In the colonic samples, Padma Digestin inhibited spontaneous and ACh-stimulated contractility at a low dose but seems to have increasing effects at a high dose. CONCLUSION:Padma Digestin extract has regionspecific effects on the contractility and excitability of gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Our results support the traditional use of Padma Digestin for maldigestion and functional gastrointestinal disorders.

  14. Psychoactive cannabinoids reduce gastrointestinal propulsion and motility in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, J E; Burks, T F

    1989-05-01

    Marijuana has been reported to be an effective antinauseant and antiemetic in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Whether this is due to psychological changes, central antiemetic properties and/or direct effects on gastrointestinal (GI) function is not known. The purpose of these investigations was to determine whether the major constituents of marijuana and the synthetic cannabinoid nabilone have any effects on GI function which can be detected in rodent models of GI transit and motility. Intravenous delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC) slowed the rate of gastric emptying and small intestinal transit in mice and in rats. Delta 9,11-THC, cannabinol and nabilone given i.v. also inhibited small intestinal transit in mice, but were less effective in reducing gastric emptying. Cannabidiol given i.v. had no effect on gastric emptying or intestinal transit. Those cannabinoids which inhibited GI transit did so at doses equal to, or lower, than those reported to produce central nervous system activity. In rats, delta 9-THC produced greater inhibition of gastric emptying and small intestinal transit than large bowel transit, indicating a selectivity for the more proximal sections of the gut. In addition, i.v. delta 9-THC decreased the frequency of both gastric and intestinal contractions without altering intraluminal pressure. Such changes probably reflect a decrease in propulsive activity, without change in basal tone. These data indicate that delta 9-THC, delta 9,11-THC, cannabinol and nabilone (but not cannabidiol) exert an inhibitory effect on GI transit and motility in rats. PMID:2542532

  15. Ursodeoxycholic acid improves gastrointestinal motility defects in gallstone patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Colecchia; G Mazzella; L Sandri; F Azzaroli; M Magliuolo; P Simoni; ML Bacchi-Reggiani; E Roda; D Festi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To simultaneously evaluate the presence of defects in gallbladder and gastric emptying, as well as in intestinal transit in gallstone patients (GS) and the effect of chronic ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) administration on these parameters and on serum bile acids and clinical outcome in GS and controls (CTR).METHODS: After a standard liquid test meal, gallbladder and gastric emptying (by ultrasound), oroileal transit time (OI∏) (by an immunoenzymatic technique)and serum bile acids (by HPLC) were evaluated before and after 3 mo of UDCA (12 mg/kg bw/d) or placebo administration in 10 symptomatic GS and 10 matched healthy CTR.RESULTS: OI∏ was longer in GS than in CTR (P <0.0001); UDCA significantly reduced OI∏ in GS (P <0.0001), but not in CTR. GS had longer gastric halfemptying time (t1/2) than CTR (P < 0.0044) at baseline;after UDCA, t1/2 significantly decreased (P < 0.006) in GS but not in CTR. Placebo administration had no effect on gastric emptying and intestinal transit in both GS and CTR.CONCLUSION: The gallstone patient has simultaneous multiple impairments of gallbladder and gastric emptying, as well as of intestinal transit. UDCA administration restores these defects in GS, without any effect in CTR. These results confirm the pathogenetic role of gastrointestinal motility in gallstone disease and suggest an additional mechanism of action for UDCA in reducing bile cholesterol supersaturation.

  16. New Telemetry Device for the Measurement of Gastrointestinal Motility in Rats and Comparison With Standard Equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Meile, Tobias; Zieker, Derek; Königsrainer, Alfred; Glatzle, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    To perform stress-free recording of gastrointestinal motility in rats with strain gauge transducers, telemetry equipment had to be developed. We developed, programmed, and tested a new telemetry device that records gastrointestinal motility in freely moving rats using strain gauge transducers. The device can collect and transmit data in freely moving rats. Data are received and stored for later analysis with a regular PC. Linear calibration curves were obtained for the strain gauge transducer...

  17. A computational model of gastro-intestinal motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K. F.; Goossens, D. J.

    2001-12-01

    A simulated neural network model of a section of enteric nervous system is presented. The network is a layered feed-forward network consisting of integrate and fire units. The network shows the basic form of intestinal motility; a descending wave of relaxation followed by a wave of contraction. It also shows interesting (but not biologically realistic) spontaneous behaviours when no stimulus is present.

  18. Screening and identification of proteins mediating senna induced gastrointestinal motility enhancement in mouse colon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Wang; Bo-Rong Pan; Dai-Min Fan; Yue-Xia Zhong; Mei Lan; Zong-You Zhang; Yong-Quan Shi; Ju Lu; Jie Ding; Kai-Cun Wu; Jian-Ping Jin

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To isolate the proteins involved in pharmacologicaction of senna extract (SE) from mouse gastrointestinaltract and to explore the molecular mechanism ofgastrointestinal motility change induced by SE.METHODS: SE was administrated to mice by differentroutes. Gastrointestinal motility of mice wes observed usingcathartic, gastrointestinal propellant movement experimentsand X-ray analysis. Mouse model for gastrointestinal motilityenhancement was established through continuous gastricadministration of SE with at progressively increased close.At 3 h and week-3, 4, 6 and 10, morphological changes ofgastrointestinal tissues were found under light microscope.Ultrastructural changes of intestinal and colonic tissues atweek 6 were observed under transmission electronmicroscope. The colonic proteomic changes in model micewere examined by two-dimension polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis with immobilized pH gradient isoelectricfocusing to screen the differentially expressed proteins, andtheir molecular masses and isoelectric points weredetermined. Two N-terminal sequences of the samples werealso determined by mass spectrometry.RESULTS: SE ( 0.3g ) caused diarrhea after gastricadministration in 1-6h and enhanced gastrointestinalpropellant (65.1 ± 7.5%; 45.8 ± 14.6%, P < 0.01 ) in mice,but intramuscular and hypodermic injection had no catharticeffect. X-ray analysis of gastrointestinal motilitydemonstrated that gastric administration of SE enhancedgastric evacuation and gastrointestinal transferring function.At 3 h and week 3 and 4 after gastric administration of SE,light microscopic examination revealed no apparent changein gastrointestinal mucosal tissues, but transmissionelectron microscopic examination revealed inflammatorychanges in whole layer of intestinal and colonic wall.Twenty differential proteins were detected in the colonictissues of the model mice by two-dimensionaleiectrophoresis, and the N-terminal amino acid sequencesof two proteins were determined

  19. Opiate Modulation of Gastrointestinal Motility and the Actions of Trimebutine

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Stephen M.; Daniel, Edwin E.

    1991-01-01

    Trimebutine is an opiate ligand that interacts with the μ, σ and κ receptor subclasses with approximately equal affinity. Since opiate receptors are widely distributed in the gut, and because opiate receptor subtypes may be involved in excitatory or inhibitory control mechanisms, trimebutine has an unusual profile of action that cannot be predicted on the basis of experience with other synthetic opiates such as codeine, morphine or loperamide. Trimebutine influences motility throughout the ga...

  20. Analysis of the characteristics of gastrointestinal motility based on Hilbert-Huang transform method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Biao; Yan Guozheng

    2008-01-01

    Pressure activity data as an important index of gastrointestinal (GI) motility can be obtained from the wireless radiotelemetry capsule. The Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method, which is more effective to process non-stationary signal, is proposed to identify the characteristics of GI motility. We decompose the pressure activity data into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs),calculate the Hilbert marginal spectrum and attain the peristalsis characteristics of GI tract. The IMFs represent the peristalses modes of GI tract activity embedded in the pressure data. The time-varying characteristic of the method suggests that the HHT is suitable to accommodate other non-stationary biomedical data analysis.

  1. STUDY ON GASTROINTESTINAL MOTILITY IN SLOW TRANSIT CONSTIPATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate motor activity of gastrointestinal tract in patients with slow transit constipation(STC). Methods 42 patients with STC and 20 healthy controls were included in the study. Each subject underwent colonic transit test, gastric emptying, orocecal transit time, electromyography and anorectal manometry. Results According to transit index, 42 STC patients were divided into 3 types: ①0.5

  2. Flexible gastrointestinal motility pressure sensors based on aluminum thin-film strain-gauge arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Luís Rebelo; Sousa, Paulo J.; L.M. Gonçalves; Minas, Graça

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an innovative approach to measuring intraluminal pressure in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, especially monitoring GI motility and peristaltic movements. The proposed approach relies on thin-film aluminum strain gauges deposited on top of a Kapton membrane, which in turn lies on top of an SU-8 diaphragm-like structure. This structure enables the Kapton membrane to bend when pressure is applied, thereby affecting the strain gauges and effectively cha...

  3. Effect of L-NAME on nitric oxide and gastrointestinal motility alterations in cirrhotic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Wang; Jie Ding; Kai-Cun Wu; Bo-Rong Pan; Dai-Ming Fan; Yue-Xia Zhong; Zong-You Zhang; Ju Lu; Mei Lan; Ji-Yan Miao; Xue-Gang Guo; Yong-Quan Shi; Yan-Qiu Zhao

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To invsstigare the effect of L-NAME on nitric oxide andgastriubtestubal motility alterations in cirrhotic ratsMETHODS: Rats with cirrhosis induced by carbontetrachloride were randomly divided into two groups, one( n= 13) receiving 0. 5 mg@ kg-1 per clay of NG-nitro-L-argininemethyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor,for 10 days, whereas the other group ( n = 13) and control( n = 10) rats were administrated the same volume of 9 g@ L-1saline.Half gastric emptying time and 2 h residual rate weremeasured by SPECT, using 99m Tc-DTPA-labeled bariumsuifate as test meal. Gastrointestinal transition time wasrecorded simultaneously. Serum concentration of nitrcoxide (NO) was determined by the kinetic cadmiunreduction and colorimetric methods. ImmunohistochemicalSABC method was used to observe the expression anddistribution of three types of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)isoforms in the mt gastrointestinal tract. Western blot wasused to detect expression of gastrointestinal NOS isoforms.RESULTS: Half gastric emptying time and trans-gastrointestinal time were significantly prolonged( 124.0 ± 26.4min; 33.7± 8.9min;72.1 ± 15.3 min; P<0.01), (12.4±0.5h; 9.5±0.3 h; 8.2±0.8 h; P<0.01), 2h residual rate wasraised in cirrhotic rots than in controls and cirrhotic ratstreated with L-NAME(54.9± 7.6 % ,13.7 ± 3.2 %, 34.9± 10.3%, P< 0.01). Serum concentration of NO was significantlyincreased in cirrhotic rots than in the other groups (8.20 ± 2.48)μmol@L-1, (5.94± 1.07) μmol@L-1 ,and control (5.66± 1.60) tμmol@L-1, P< 0.01. NOS staining intensities which weremainly located in the gastrointestinal tissues were markedlylower in cirrhotic rats than in the controls and cirrhotic ratsafter treated with L- NAME.CONCLUSION: Gastrointestinal motility was remarkablyinhibited in cirrhotic rats, which could he alleviated by L-NAME. Nitric oxide may play an important role in theinhibition of gastrointestinal motility in cirrhotic rats.

  4. Glucagon-like peptide-1 gastrointestinal regulatory role in metabolism and motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Per M

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) motility, primarily gastric emptying, balances the hormonal output that takes place after food intake in order to maintain stable blood sugar. The incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), work together to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia by glucose-dependent insulin secretion and inhibition of glucagon release, as well as inhibition of GI motility and gastric emptying. GLP-1 is considered the more effective of the two incretins due to its additional inhibitory effects on GI motility. It is observed that patients on treatment with GLP-1 analogues or exenatide achieve a considerable weight loss during treatment. This is of benefit to improve insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, weight loss per se is of considerable benefit in an even longer health perspective. The weight loss is considered to be due to the inhibition of GI motility. This effect has been studied in animal experimentation, and from there taken to involve studies on GI motility in healthy volunteers and patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Evolving to a phase II study in IBS, the GLP-1 analogue (ROSE-010) was recently shown to be effective for treatment of acute pain attacks in IBS. Taken together, data speak in favor of GI motility as a central component not only in metabolic disorders but also in IBS, be it due to a direct relaxing effect on GI smooth muscle or a slow emptying of gastric contents resulting in a less outspoken nutritional demand on hormonal regulatory functions in the GI tract. PMID:21094906

  5. PillCam(TradeMark), a Noninvasive Endoscopic Device for the Measurement of Gastrointestinal Motility Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaksman, Zahman; Crady, Camille; Raju, G. S.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Bioavailability and effectiveness of drugs given by mouth are governed in part by gastrointestinal (GI) motility and function. Microgravity has been shown to decrease GI motility as indicated by a 3 fold increase in gastrointestinal transit time (GITT). The PillCam(TradeMark), an endoscopic camera embedded in a capsule, is a novel noninvasive and unobtrusive device that is used for the diagnosis of GI pathology. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of PillCam(TradeMark) as an alternative to the Lactulose Breath Hydrogen Test (LBHT) for estimating GI motility. The sensitivity and applicability of this device for detection and estimation of the effect of promethazine, a deterrent, and caffeine, a prokinetic, on GI motility were also examined. Method: In this semi-randomized cross-over design study, six male and six female subjects were administered the following 4 treatments: PillCam(TradeMark) alone, PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose (10g), PillCam(TradeMark)+caffeine (200mg), and PillCam(TradeMark)+Promethazine (50mg). Results: GITT ranged between 1:24 and 7:52 hr:min. Lactulose did not alter GITT. A significant increase in GITT was noticed after administration of PMZ when compared to values from PillCam(TradeMark) treatment alone or PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose treatment. No difference in GITT after caffeine treatment was noticed. While there were no gender related differences in GITT after administration of PillCam(TradeMark) or with lactulose, a significant difference (pgenders was observed after promethazine administration with mean GITT higher in males (5:50 hr:min) than females (4:15 hr:min). Conclusion: The PillCam(TradeMark) capsule is applicable for the determination of GITT using time stamped GI images. It can be successfully used for the assessment of drug induced changes in GI motility and therefore, may be applicable for microgravity and analog environment studies on GI motility and function.

  6. THE EFFECT AND MECHANISM OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF BUPLEURUM AND CITRUS ON GASTRO-INTESTINAL MOTILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝庆; 李岩

    2001-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficiency of the different varieties of Bupleurum and Citrus for chinical application and to investigate their mechanisms for clinical application.Methods With oral Blue Dextran 2000 as a marker, mice gastro-intestinal motility was studied with two varieties of Bupleurm and Citrus separately, viz: BcDC, BsW, Ca, and Cs. Gastric emptying time(GET) was evaluated and plasma motilin level was detected in 15 healthy volunteers who had taken daily the mixture of BcDC and Ca for 7 days.Results BcDC and Ca had obvious enhancing effects on gastric emptying and small intestinal propulsive function, while the effect of BsW and Cs showed no difference in negative control group (P>0.05). The GET of 15 healthy persons was shortened and their plasma motilin level was increased after they had taken the mixture for 7 days successively.Conclusion Decoctum of BcDC, Ca, and BcDC with Ca together proved to be strong promoters on gastrointestinal motility and their mechanism was probably by increasing the endogenous plasma motilin level.

  7. Simotang enhances gastrointestinal motility, motilin and cholecystokinin expression in chronically stressed mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Xian Cai; Bai-Yan Liu; Jian Yi; Xue-Mei Chen; Fu-Ling Liu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Simotang (Decoction of Four Powered Drugs) on gastrointestinal motility, motilin and cholecystokinin expression in chronically stressed mice. METHODS: Forty mice were randomly divided into control group, stress group (model group), mosapride group and Simotang group, 10 in each group. A variety of unpredictable stimulations were used to induce chronic stress in mice. Then, the mice were treated with distilled water, mosapride or Simotang for 7 d. Gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion function were detected. Serum level of motilin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of cholecystokinin (CCK) in intestine, spinal cord and brain of mice was detected by immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. RESULTS: Simotang improved the gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion in chronically stressed mice. Furthermore, the serum motilin level was significantly higher and the expression levels of CCK-positive cells and genes were significantly lower in intestine, spinal cord and brain of Simotang group than in those of model group (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found in serum motilin level and expression levels of CCK-positive cells and genes between the mosapride and Simotang groups. CONCLUSION: Simotang enhances the gastrointestinal motility in chronically stressed mice by regulating the serum motilin level and the expression of cholecystokinin.

  8. Leptin and gastrointestinal motility%瘦素与胃肠运动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斐; 陈亚军

    2009-01-01

    瘦素是由肥胖基因编码、脂肪细胞分泌的一种蛋白质类激素,在调节摄食、体重、能量消耗和神经内分泌方面发挥着重要的作用.研究证实,瘦素可以改变胃肠神经肌肉的反应性,从而调节胃排空及肠动力.表明瘦素是与胃肠的生理功能及胃肠疾病密切相关的一种新的胃肠激素.本文就瘦素与胃肠运动的关系进行简要综述.%Leptin,a peptide encoded by the obese gene,is primarily secreted by adipocytes,which is a critical hormone controlling food intake, body weight, energy expenditure and neuroendocrine function. Leptin can alter the reactivity of the gastrointestinal neuromuscular, thereby to regulate the gastric emptying and bow-el movement. Leptin seems to be a new gut hormone that has a close relationship with the function and dis-ease of gastrointestinal tract. This article reviews the relationship of leptin and gastrointestinal motility.

  9. Action of pinaverium bromide, a calcium-antagonist, on gastrointestinal motility disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, M O

    1990-01-01

    1. The evidence reviewed here indicates that pinaverium bromide (Dicetel) relaxes gastrointestinal (GI) structures primarily by inhibiting Ca2+ influx through potential-dependent channels of surface membranes of smooth muscle cells. 2. The in vivo selectivity of pinaverium bromide for the GI tract appears to be due mainly to its pharmacokinetic properties. Because of its low absorption (typical for quaternary ammonium compounds) and marked hepatobiliary excretion, most of the orally-administered dose of pinaverium bromide remains in the GI tract. 3. Orally-administered pinaverium bromide does not elicit adverse cardiovascular side-effects at doses that effectively relieve GI spasm, pain, transit disturbances and other symptoms related to motility disorders. 4. Pinaverium bromide is the only Ca2(+)-antagonist with known therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and certain other functional intestinal disorders. PMID:2177709

  10. Internal radiation dosimetry of orally administered radiotracers for the assessment of gastrointestinal motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide imaging using 111In, 99mTc and 153Sm is commonly undertaken for the clinical investigation of gastric emptying, intestinal motility and whole gut transit. However the documented evidence concerning internal radiation dosimetry for such studies is not readily available. This communication documents the internal radiation dosimetry for whole gastrointestinal transit studies using 111In, 99mTc and 153Sm labeled formulations. The findings were compared to the diagnostic reference levels recommended by the United Kingdom Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee, for gastrointestinal transit studies. - Highlights: • Internal radiation dose estimates for radionuclide GI transit were calculated. • The ICRP 30 GI tract model, MIRDOSE 3.1 and OLINDA/EXM 1.0 software applications were used. • The calculated equivalent dose and effective dose for organs were reported. • The radiation doses among 153Sm, 111In and 99mTc formulations were compared. • The calculated doses were in good agreement with the ARSAC published values

  11. Effect of ω-3 Fatty Acid on Gastrointestinal Motility after Abdominal Operation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate whether ω-3 fatty acid could stimulate gastrointestinal motility after abdominal operation. Method. Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 group (normal saline group, intralipid group, and ω-3 fatty acid group, n=18/group after partial caecectomy and gastrostomosis, each group was divided into 3 groups (POD1, POD3, and POD6, n=6/group. Serum gastrin (GAS, motilin (MTL, interleukin-1 (IL-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tissue necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, gastric emptying rate, and small bowel propulsion rate were measured. Results. On POD 3, gastric emptying rate and small bowel propulsion rate in ω-3 fatty acid group were higher than those in normal saline group and intralipid group. Serum GAS and MTL levels in ω-3 fatty acid group were higher than those in normal saline group, but serum IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and COX-2 levels were lower than those in normal saline group and intralipid group. Conclusion. ω-3 fatty acid could accelerate the recovery of gastrointestinal mobility after abdominal operation in rats, mainly by relieving postoperative inflammation.

  12. Ghrelin attenuates gastrointestinal epithelial damage induced by doxorubicin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed A Fahim; Hazem Kataya; Rkia El-Kharrag; Dena AM Amer; Basel al-Ramadi; Sherif M Karam

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine the influence of ghrelin on the regenerative potential of gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium.METHODS: Damage to GI epithelium was induced in mice by two intravenous injections of doxorubicin (10 and 6 mg/kg). Some of the doxorubicin-treated mice received a continuous subcutaneous infusion of ghrelin (1.25 μg/h) for 10 d via implanted mini-osmotic pumps. To label dividing stem cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle, all mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) one hour before sacrifice. The stomach along with the duodenum were then removed and processed for histological examination and immunohistochemistry using anti-BrdU antibody. RESULTS: The results showed dramatic damage to the GI epithelium 3 d after administration of chemotherapy which began to recover by day 10. In ghrelin-treated mice, attenuation of GI mucosal damage was evident in the tissues examined post-chemotherapy. Immunohistochemical analysis showed an increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells and an alteration in their distribution along the epithelial lining in response to damage by doxorubicin. In mice treated with both doxorubicin and ghrelin, the number of BrdU-labeled cells was reduced when compared with mice treated with doxorubicin alone. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that ghrelin enhances the regenerative potential of the GI epithelium in doxorubicin-treated mice, at least in part, by modulating cell proliferation.

  13. Molecular cloning of motilin and mechanism of motilin-induced gastrointestinal motility in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apu, Auvijit Saha; Mondal, Anupom; Kitazawa, Takio; Takemi, Shota; Sakai, Takafumi; Sakata, Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Motilin, a peptide hormone produced in the upper intestinal mucosa, plays an important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal (GI) motility. In the present study, we first determined the cDNA and amino acid sequences of motilin in the Japanese quail and studied the distribution of motilin-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract. We also examined the motilin-induced contractile properties of quail GI tracts using an in vitro organ bath, and then elucidated the mechanisms of motilin-induced contraction in the proventriculus and duodenum of the quail. Mature quail motilin was composed of 22 amino acid residues, which showed high homology with chicken (95.4%), human (72.7%), and dog (72.7%) motilin. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that motilin-immunopositive cells were present in the mucosal layer of the duodenum (23.4±4.6cells/mm(2)), jejunum (15.2±0.8cells/mm(2)), and ileum (2.5±0.7cells/mm(2)), but were not observed in the crop, proventriculus, and colon. In the organ bath study, chicken motilin induced dose-dependent contraction in the proventriculus and small intestine. On the other hand, chicken ghrelin had no effect on contraction in the GI tract. Motilin-induced contraction in the duodenum was not inhibited by atropine, hexamethonium, ritanserin, ondansetron, or tetrodotoxin. However, motilin-induced contractions in the proventriculus were significantly inhibited by atropine and tetrodotoxin. These results suggest that motilin is the major stimulant of GI contraction in quail, as it is in mammals and the site of action of motilin is different between small intestine and proventriculus. PMID:27179882

  14. Molecular cloning of motilin and mechanism of motilin-induced gastrointestinal motility in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apu, Auvijit Saha; Mondal, Anupom; Kitazawa, Takio; Takemi, Shota; Sakai, Takafumi; Sakata, Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Motilin, a peptide hormone produced in the upper intestinal mucosa, plays an important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal (GI) motility. In the present study, we first determined the cDNA and amino acid sequences of motilin in the Japanese quail and studied the distribution of motilin-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract. We also examined the motilin-induced contractile properties of quail GI tracts using an in vitro organ bath, and then elucidated the mechanisms of motilin-induced contraction in the proventriculus and duodenum of the quail. Mature quail motilin was composed of 22 amino acid residues, which showed high homology with chicken (95.4%), human (72.7%), and dog (72.7%) motilin. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that motilin-immunopositive cells were present in the mucosal layer of the duodenum (23.4±4.6cells/mm(2)), jejunum (15.2±0.8cells/mm(2)), and ileum (2.5±0.7cells/mm(2)), but were not observed in the crop, proventriculus, and colon. In the organ bath study, chicken motilin induced dose-dependent contraction in the proventriculus and small intestine. On the other hand, chicken ghrelin had no effect on contraction in the GI tract. Motilin-induced contraction in the duodenum was not inhibited by atropine, hexamethonium, ritanserin, ondansetron, or tetrodotoxin. However, motilin-induced contractions in the proventriculus were significantly inhibited by atropine and tetrodotoxin. These results suggest that motilin is the major stimulant of GI contraction in quail, as it is in mammals and the site of action of motilin is different between small intestine and proventriculus.

  15. Flexible gastrointestinal motility pressure sensors based on aluminum thin-film strain-gauge arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on an innovative approach to measuring intraluminal pressure in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, especially monitoring GI motility and peristaltic movements. The proposed approach relies on thin-film aluminum strain gauges deposited on top of a Kapton membrane, which in turn lies on top of an SU-8 diaphragm-like structure. This structure enables the Kapton membrane to bend when pressure is applied, thereby affecting the strain gauges and effectively changing their electrical resistance. The sensor, with an area of 3.4 mm2, is fabricated using photolithography and standard microfabrication techniques (wet etching). It features a linear response (R2 = 0.9987) and an overall sensitivity of 2.6 mV mmHg−1. Additionally, its topology allows a high integration capability. The strain gauges’ responses to pressure were studied and the fabrication process optimized to achieve high sensitivity, linearity, and reproducibility. The sequential acquisition of the different signals is carried out by a microcontroller, with a 10-bit ADC and a sample rate of 250 Hz. The pressure signals are then presented in a user-friendly interface, developed using the Integrated Development Environment software, QtCreator IDE, for better visualization by physicians. (paper)

  16. Effects of Afferent Stimulation of the Lingual Nerve on Gastrointestinal Motility in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugimoto,Masaharu

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of afferent stimulation of the lingual nerve (LNAS on gastrointestinal motility and the reflex pathways which mediate the response to LNAS were investigated in rats. LNAS induced excitatory, inhibitory or biphasic responses in the stomach, duodenum and proximal colon. These responses continued after bilateral vagotomy, but were abolished after additional bilateral splanchnicotomy or transection of the spinal cord between Th4 and Th5. The inhibitory, excitatory and biphasic responses induced by LNAS were not affected by decerebration. Both after administration of atropine (0.2 mg/kg, i.v. and guanethidine (3-5 mg/kg, i.v., LNAS-induced excitatory and inhibitory responses were abolished in most cases, but the slight inhibitory response in the stomach and duodenum to LNAS remained in a few cases. These results suggest that the reflex centers which cause LNAS-induced excitatory and inhibitory responses are located in the dorsal nucleus of vagus and that the reflex pathways include the vagus and splanchnic nerves.

  17. Effect of antiorthostatic BedRest (BR) on GastroIntestinal Motility (GIM) of normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, L.; Hunter, R. P.; Tietze, K. J.; Cintron, N. M.

    1992-01-01

    The combined effects of postural changes, fluid shifts and diuresis associated with the absence of the gravity vector may decrease gastrointestinal motility (GIM) during space flight. GIM can be estimated from the mouth to cecum transit time (MCTT) of orally administered lactulose (LAC); this test is used to assess changes in GIM in normal subjects and in patients with GI pathology and related disease conditions. Since bedrest (BR) mimics some of the physiological changes that occur during space flight, the effect of ten days of BR on GIM was evaluated from the MCTT of LAC. Methods: Subjects were 12 nonsmoking males between the ages of 35 and 50. After an 8-10 hour fast, subjects ingested Cephulac (registered) (20 g solution) with a low-fiber breakfast on four different days (45, 30, 25, and 20) before BR and on three separate days (4, 7, and 10) during BR. Breath-H2 concentrations were measured before and at 10 minute intervals for 4 hours after breakfast using a Quintron breathalyzer and MCTT was determined from these data. Results: MCTT ranged between 10 and 122 minutes during ambulation and 80 to 120 minutes during BR with means of 79 minutes and 122 minutes respectively. Conclusion: Mean MCTT during BR was 54 percent longer than during ambulation, suggesting that absorption and availability of orally administered medications and nutrients may be delayed or impaired as a result of decreased GIM during bedrest.

  18. Essential Roles of Enteric Neuronal Serotonin in Gastrointestinal Motility and the Development/Survival of Enteric Dopaminergic Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhishan; Chalazonitis, Alcmène; Huang, Yung-Yu; Mann, J. John; Margolis, Kara Gross; Yang, Qi Melissa; Kim, Dolly O.; Côté, Francine; Mallet, Jacques; Gershon, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The gut contains a large 5-HT pool in enterochromaffin (EC) cells and a smaller 5-HT pool in the enteric nervous system (ENS). During development, enteric neurons are generated asynchronously. We tested hypotheses that serotonergic neurons, which arise early, affect development/survival of later-born dopaminergic, GABAergic, nitrergic, and calcitonin gene-related peptide-expressing neurons and are essential for gastrointestinal motility. 5-HT biosynthesis depends on tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (...

  19. The Progress in Clinical and Basic Research of the Effect ofAcupuncture in Treating Disorders of Gastrointestinal Motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Though the function of “spleen” in TCM refers to a lot of systems, it is mainly related to digestive system, reflecting changes of physiology and pathology of gastrointestinal tract. The deficiency of Spleen Qi is correlated to the disorders of gastrointestinal motility.(19) In recent years the research has been developed in adjustment of Spleen and Stomach function and the improvement of gastrointestinal motility by acupuncturing mainly Zusanli, which formed a theoretic base for acupuncture therapy of disorders of gastrointestinal motility.Effect of Acupuncture on Gastric Peristalsis  Observation by gastroendoscopy and B-ultrasonography showed that, acupuncture at Zusanli could decrease gastric tension and resolve spasm of cardia, gastric body and pylorus, and improve delayed opening of pylorus, so as to make gastric hyperperistalsis tend to go placid and normalize retarding. It is demonstrated that acupuncture at Zusanli could adjust the function of gastric peristalsis bi-directionally.(20,21) In healthy volunteers after acupuncture at Zusanli the frequency and the amplititude of gastric peristalsis both increased. In patients whose pylorus ring could not open during the operation of gastroscopy, acupuncture at Zusanli could relax and open it. Acupuncture at Neiguan could produce either opening or closing the bi-directional effect of pylorus.(22) In patients with disorders of gastrointestinal motility it was observed that the amplititude and frequency of constriction of sphincter pylori increased and the strength and frequency of stomach improved after acupuncture at Zusanli according to the measurement of gastroscopic manometry.(23) Acupuncture may accelerate or reduce the speed of gastric evacuation.(24,25) In addition, acupuncture can increase the volume of gastric antrum. Observed by B-ultrasonography, acupuncture Zusanli, Shangjuxu (ST37), Chongyang (ST42) and Neiting (ST44) in the lower extremity section of the Yangming meridian of the foot could

  20. Small gastrointestinal stromal tumours with focal areas of low attenuation on CT: pathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To describe the pathology of focal areas of low attenuation in small gastrointestinal stromal tumours on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), and to investigate the association of these areas as predictors of malignant potential. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Contrast-enhanced helical CT images were obtained of 39 small (up to 5 cm) gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Focal areas of low attenuation were retrospectively evaluated and correlated with histopathological findings. The relation between the mitotic rate of and the presence of focal areas of low attenuation in the tumours was analyzed using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Of the 39 small gastrointestinal stromal tumours, 15 contained focal areas of low attenuation on CT. These were found to be due to solid tumour (n=5), haemorrhage (n=3), haemorrhage with necrosis (n=2), cystic degeneration (n=2), fluid in ulcer (n=2), and fibrous septum (n=1); they were not found to be associated with a high mitotic rate (p=0.45). CONCLUSION: Focal areas of low attenuation on CT in small gastrointestinal stromal tumours represent varying pathological conditions and do not predict malignant potential

  1. Production and first use of 153SmCl3-ion exchange resin capsule formulation for assessing gastrointestinal motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We produced an enteric-coated gelatine capsule containing neutron-activated 153Sm-labelled resin beads for use in gastrointestinal motility studies. In vitro test in simulated gastrointestinal environment and in vivo study on volunteers were performed. Scintigraphic images were acquired from ten volunteers over 24 h while blood and urine samples were collected to monitor the presence of 153Sm. All the capsules remained intact in stomach. This proved to be a safe and practical oral capsule formulation for whole gut transit scintigraphy. - Highlights: ► Enteric-coated gelatin capsule containing 153Sm-labelled resin was manufactured. ► In vitro disintegration test ensured targeted release properties of the formulation. ► In vivo volunteers study confirmed safeness and practical use of the formulation. ► 153Sm can be used as an alternative nuclide to 111In in GI transit scintigraphy.

  2. Rikkunshi-to attenuates adverse gastrointestinal symptoms induced by fluvoxamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodama Naoki

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper gastrointestinal (GI symptoms such as nausea and vomiting are common adverse events associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, and may result in discontinuation of drug therapy in patients with depressive disorder. Rikkunshi-to (formulation TJ-43, a traditional herbal medicine, has been reported to improve upper GI symptoms and comorbid depressive symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia. The aim of the present study was to determine if TJ-43 reduces GI symptoms and potentiates an antidepressant effect in a randomized controlled study of depressed patients treated with fluvoxamine (FLV. Methods Fifty patients with depressive disorder (19–78 years, mean age 40.2 years were treated with FLV (n = 25 or FLV in combination with TJ-43 (FLV+TJ-43 (n = 25 for eight weeks. The following parameters of the two groups were compared: The number of patients who complained of adverse events and their symptoms; GI symptoms quality of life (QOL score, assessed by the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS, Japanese edition, before and two weeks after beginning treatment; and depressive symptoms assessed by the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, before and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after beginning treatment. Results The number of patients who complained of adverse events in the FLV+TJ-43 group (n = 6 was significantly lower than the number complaining in the FLV group (n = 13 (P P Conclusion This study suggests that Rikkunshi-to reduces FLV-induced adverse events, especially nausea, and improves QOL related to GI symptoms without affecting the antidepressant effect of FLV.

  3. Interplay between inflammation,immune system and neuronal pathways:Effect on gastrointestinal motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benedicte; Y; De; Winter; Joris; G; De; Man

    2010-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response representing the leading cause of death in critically ill patients,mostly due to multiple organ failure.The gastrointestinal tract plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of sepsisinduced multiple organ failure through intestinal barrier dysfunction,bacterial translocation and ileus.In this review we address the role of the gastrointestinal tract,the mediators,cell types and transduction pathways involved,based on experimental data obtained from models of inflamma...

  4. Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Motility in Awake Rats: A Learning Exercise for Undergraduate Biomedical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, M. A. N.; Souza, M. H. L. P.; Palheta, R. C., Jr.; Cruz, P. R. M.; Medeiros, B. A.; Rola, F. H.; Magalhaes, P. J. C.; Troncon, L. E. A.; Santos, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    Current medical curricula devote scarce time for practical activities on digestive physiology, despite frequent misconceptions about dyspepsia and dysmotility phenomena. Thus, we designed a hands-on activity followed by a small-group discussion on gut motility. Male awake rats were randomly submitted to insulin, control, or hypertonic protocols.…

  5. Effects of probiotic bacteria on gastrointestinal motility in guinea-pig isolated tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matteo Massi; Patrizia Brigidi; Pierfranco Ioan; Roberta Budriesi; Alberto Chiarini; Beatrice Vitali; Karen M Lammers; Paolo Gionchetti; Massimo Campieri; Anthony Lembo

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the intestinal motility changes evoked by 8 bacterial strains belonging to Bifidobacterium,Lactobacillus and Streptococcus genera within the probiotic preparation VSL#3.METHODS: Ileum and proximal colon segments isolated from guinea-pigs were used as a study model.Entire cells and cell fractions (cell debris, cell wall fraction, cytoplasmatic fraction, proteinaceous and nonproteinaceous cytoplasmatic components) of VSL#3strains and, as controls, Escherichia coli, Salmonella aboni and Bacillus licheniforrnis were tested in this in vitro model.RESULTS: Among the bacterial cell fractions tested,only the cytoplasmatic fraction modified intestinal motility. Lactobacillus strains stimulated the contraction of ileum segment, whereas all probiotic strains tested induced proximal colon relaxation response. The non-proteinaceous cytoplasmatic components were responsible for the colon relaxation.CONCLUSION: The results obtained in this study suggest that the proximal colon relaxation activity showed by the probiotic bacteria could be one of the possible mechanisms of action by which probiotics exert their positive effects in regulating intestinal motility.

  6. Nutritional aspects in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders and motor dysfunction in the gut. Working team report of the Swedish Motility Group (SMoG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simrén, M; Abrahamsson, H; Bosaeus, I; Brummer, R J; Dolk, A; Lindberg, G; Nyhlin, H; Ohlsson, B; Sjölund, K; Törnblom, H

    2007-05-01

    In reviews regarding the management of patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders and motility disturbances within the gut nutritional aspects and dietary advice is often put forward as being of great importance. However, there are relatively few high-quality, interventional studies in the literature supporting an important role for general dietary advice to improve symptoms in these patients. Nutritional supplementation to patients with malnutrition due to severe dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract is of course less controversial, even though different views on how this should be performed exist. The content of this article is based on presentations given by the authors during the second meeting of the Swedish Motility Group held in Gothenburg in March 2005, and aims to give an overview on the role of dietary advice and nutritional supplementation to patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction of different severity. PMID:17368120

  7. Therapy-refractory gastrointestinal motility disorder in a child with c-kit mutations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian; Breuer; Jun; Oh; Gerhard; J; Molderings; Michael; Schemann; Birgit; Kuch; Ertan; Mayatepek; Rüdiger; Adam

    2010-01-01

    Constipation and fecal impaction are frequent and distressing complaints in pediatric gastroenterology. Especially in neurologically handicapped children, treatment of severe forms of slow-transit constipation (STC) can be difficult. In the majority of cases, STC is of unknown etiology. However, in recent years, there is growing evidence that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs), which serve as electrical pacemakers and generate spontaneous electrical slow waves in the gastrointestinal tract, might play an im...

  8. [Effects of dicetel on gastrointestinal motility and vegetative dysfunction in patients with duodenal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovanova, E S; Kravtsova, T Iu; Vysokova, O L

    2003-01-01

    The great majority of patients with duodenal ulcer (DU) given a single oral dose (50 mg) of dicetel (pinaverium bromide)--a selective blocker of calcium channels--showed optimization of vegetative reactivity and vegetative support of physical and mental activities. This contributes to relief of psychovegetative syndrome of the modulation of dysfunctions of proximal gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The addition of dicetel to combined treatment of PH shortened healing of DU, relieved pain, stopped gastric and intestinal dyspepsia, corrected motor-tonic defects of the proximal GIT caused by dysfunction of different links of the regulatory-adaptive system. PMID:14520942

  9. Gastrointestinal symptoms, motility, and transit after the Roux-en-Y operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perino, L.E.; Adcock, K.A.; Goff, J.S.

    1988-04-01

    Roux-en-Y patients have symptoms that vary from almost none to inability to tolerate oral feedings. This study was designed to determine whether there is a relationship between a patient's symptoms and the function of the gastric remnant or the Roux-limb. Gastric remnant and Roux-limb emptying were studied in eight patients with technetium-99m-labeled oatmeal and Roux-limb motor activity was measured with a water-perfused manometry system. We found that gastric emptying was rarely significantly slowed, but emptying of the Roux-limb was delayed in several patients. We also found that there was a rough correlation between the patient's symptoms and the degree of abnormal motility found in the Roux-limb. There is no known reason for these abnormalities in Roux-limb function in some patients after a Roux-en-Y, but our finding of worse abnormalities in those who had multiple previous gastric surgeries suggests that the symptoms and dysfunction may be related to the number of surgeries, as well as to the type of surgery.

  10. In vitro and in vivo effects of ferulic acid on gastrointestinal motility: Inhibition of cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osama A Badary; Azza S Awad; Mohey A Sherief; Farid MA Hamada

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of ferulic acid on gastrointestinal motility both in vitro and in vivo.METHODS: Ferulic acid induced concentrationdependent stimulation of the basal tone of isolated guinea pig ileum (2-20 μmol/L) and isolated rat fundus (0.05-0.4 mmol/L).RESULTS: Ferulic acid significantly accelerated the gastrointestinal transit and gastric emptying in rats in a dose-dependent manner (50-200 mg/kg, po). Cisplatin (2.5-20 mg/kg, ip) induced a dose-dependent delay in gastric emptying in rats. Pretreatment with ferulic acid dose-dependently, significantly reversed the cisplatininduced delay in gastric emptying.CONCLUSION: The endogenous prostaglandins (PGs)are involved in mediating the stimulant effects of ferulic acid. This effect of dietary ferulic acid may help improve other accompanying gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal discomfort and also may protect against emesis induced by cytotoxic drugs.

  11. GLP-1 suppresses gastrointestinal motility and inhibits the migrating motor complex in healthy subjects and patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, P M; Näslund, E; Edholm, T;

    2008-01-01

    from 2 (1.5-3) to 1 (0.5-1.5), and motility index from 5.2 +/- 0.2 to 4.0 +/- 0.5. Motility responses to GLP-1 were similar in antrum and duodenum. Presence of the GLP-1 receptor in the gut was verified by reverse transcriptase PCR. In conclusion, the gut peptide GLP-1 decreases motility in the antro...

  12. Computed-tomography attenuation values of the peritoneum reflect the severity of peritonitis due to upper gastrointestinal perforations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate computed tomography (CT) attenuation values of the peritoneum and to relate these values to the severity of peritonitis in patients with upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI) perforations. A total of 27 consecutive patients with UGI perforations who underwent CT and emergency laparotomy in our hospital were enrolled in this study. The CT attenuation values of the peritoneum were measured at a workstation by 2 independent investigators, and these values were analyzed in relation to the severity of illness. There were significant negative correlations between the peritoneal CT attenuation values and the sequential organ failure assessment score, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score, and the Mannheim peritonitis index. There was a significant negative correlation between the peritoneal CT attenuation values and the length of stay in the intensive care unit. Furthermore, patients with dysfunctions in ≥3 organs had significantly lower peritoneal CT attenuation values than those with dysfunction in ≤2 organs. In conclusion, evaluation of peritoneal CT attenuation values in peritonitis patients is simple and can be employed for objective assessment of the severity of peritonitis. (author)

  13. Reduced accuracy of 14C-D-xylose breath test for detecting bacterial overgrowth in gastrointestinal motility disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of the 14C-D-xylose breath test in the diagnosis of small-bowel bacterial overgrowth was prospectively evaluated in 10 patients with motility disorders: 6 myopathic, 3 neuropathic, and 1 mechanical obstruction. 6 of 10 patients had small-bowel bacterial overgrowth on culture of small-bowel aspirate. Increased breath 14CO2 levels were documented in 3 of 6 patients with positive cultures and in 2 of 4 with negative cultures. 2 patients with positive results by both methods and 1 of 2 with positive breath 14CO2 but negative cultures had previously undergone gastric surgery. 3 patients with myopathic dysmotility had positive cultures but negative breath tests. Cultures of duodenal aspirates and the D-xylose test had sensitivities of 80% and 40%, respectively, for the finding of hypoalbuminemia. Compared with cultures, the sensitivity and specificity of the breath test were 60% and 40%, respectively. Impaired delivery of 14C-D-xylose for bacterial metabolism may result from postprandial antral hypomotility or low amplitude small-bowel motility, contributing to the false-negative breath tests. Thus, cultures is the optimal method to detect small-bowel bacterial overgrowth in patients with motility disorders. 25 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  14. Production and first use of {sup 153}SmCl{sub 3}-ion exchange resin capsule formulation for assessing gastrointestinal motility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeong, Chai-Hong; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet; Ng, Kwan-Hoong [University of Malaya Research Imaging Centre, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chung, Lip-Yong [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Goh, Khean-Lee [Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sarji, Sazilah Ahmad [University of Malaya Research Imaging Centre, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Perkins, Alan Christopher, E-mail: alan.perkins@nottingham.ac.uk [Radiological and Imaging Sciences and Nottingham Digestive Diseases Biomedical Research Unit, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    We produced an enteric-coated gelatine capsule containing neutron-activated {sup 153}Sm-labelled resin beads for use in gastrointestinal motility studies. In vitro test in simulated gastrointestinal environment and in vivo study on volunteers were performed. Scintigraphic images were acquired from ten volunteers over 24 h while blood and urine samples were collected to monitor the presence of {sup 153}Sm. All the capsules remained intact in stomach. This proved to be a safe and practical oral capsule formulation for whole gut transit scintigraphy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enteric-coated gelatin capsule containing {sup 153}Sm-labelled resin was manufactured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vitro disintegration test ensured targeted release properties of the formulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vivo volunteers study confirmed safeness and practical use of the formulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 153}Sm can be used as an alternative nuclide to {sup 111}In in GI transit scintigraphy.

  15. X-ray analysis of the effect of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron on gastrointestinal motility in rats repeatedly treated with the antitumoral drug cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Gema; López-Pérez, Ana Esther; Martínez-Villaluenga, María; Cabezos, Pablo Antonio; Abalo, Raquel

    2014-08-01

    Cancer chemotherapy is associated with the development of numerous adverse effects, including nausea, emesis and other alterations in gastrointestinal (GI) motility. The administration of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists has provided a clinical advance in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced vomiting but these drugs lose efficacy throughout chronic treatment. The effects of these drugs in experimental animals under chronic administration are not well known. Our aim was to study, using radiographic methods, the effect of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron on GI dysmotility induced in the rat by repeated cisplatin administration. First, invasive methods were used to select a dose of granisetron capable of reducing increased stomach weight due to acute cisplatin administration (6 mg/kg, ip). Second, rats received two intraperitoneal (ip) injections once a week for 4 weeks: granisetron (1 mg/kg, ip) or saline and, thirty min later, saline or cisplatin (2 mg/kg, ip). Body weight gain was measured throughout treatment. Radiological techniques were used to determine the acute (after first dose) and chronic (after last dose) effects of cisplatin and/or granisetron on GI motility. Repeated cisplatin-induced weight loss which granisetron did not prevent. Gastric emptying was delayed after the first cisplatin administration. Granisetron completely prevented this effect. After weekly administration, cisplatin-induced gastric dysmotility was enhanced and granisetron was not capable of completely preventing this effect. Granisetron prevents gastric emptying alterations, but its efficacy decreases throughout antineoplastic treatment. This might be due to the enhanced effect of cisplatin. PMID:24798399

  16. Psyllium fiber-enriched meal strongly attenuates postprandial gastrointestinal peptide release in healthy young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karhunen, Leila J.; Juvonen, Kristiina R.; Flander, Sanna M.;

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) and protein are essential constituents of a healthy diet and are well known for their high satiety impact. However, little is known about their influence on postprandial gastrointestinal (GI) peptide release. Our aim in this single-blind, randomized, cross-over study was to inv...

  17. 小茴香提取物对胃肠动力障碍小鼠胃肠运动的影响%Efects of fennel extracts on gastrointestinal movement of atropine-induced gastrointestinal motility disorder in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕光寿; 秦明; 毛峰峰; 张琰; 刘兴友; 贺建荣; 杨鹏; 刘曼玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察小茴香精油及水提物(去油)对阿托品致胃肠动力障碍小鼠胃肠运动的影响.方法 选择昆明种小鼠随机分为空白对照组、阿托品模型组、小茴香水提物组、小茴香精油组、莫沙必利组.空白对照组、阿托品模型组均给予0.2 ml/10 g生理盐水灌胃;小茴香水提物组给予去油小茴香水提物(含小茴香75 mg/ml)0.2 ml/10 g灌胃;小茴香精油组以300 mg/kg精油灌胃,莫沙必利组给莫沙必利混悬液(含莫沙必利15 mg/ml)灌胃.连续3 d,禁食18 h后,于第4天空白对照组腹腔注射生理盐水,其他组腹腔注射硫酸阿托品注射液,以葡聚糖蓝(BD)2000为标记物,观察胃排空率和肠推进率.结果 小茴香精油组、莫沙必利组、小茴香水提物组处理后小鼠的胃排空率分别为(91.97±4.42)%、(90.26±5.81)%、(80.01±6.27)%、(72.88±9.13)%;肠推进率分别为(53.32±7.49)%、(53.02±9.13)%、(44.16±7.68)%、(37.52±6.19)%.小茴香精油组、莫沙必利组、小茴香水提物组对阿托品所致胃肠动力障碍小鼠的胃排空(P值分别为0.004、0.001、0.004)和肠推进(P值分别0.003、0.025、0.015)均有拮抗作用;小茴香精油组促进胃排空作用(P值分别为0.000、0.002)、肠推进作用优于小茴香水提物组(P值分别为0.001、0.001).结论 小茴香提取物可拮抗小鼠的胃肠动力障碍,小茴香精油是主要活性成分.%Objective To observe the effects of fennel essential oil and water extracts (distilled oil is not included) on gastrointestinal motility disorder caused by atropine in mice.Methods Kunming mice were randomly divided into blank control group, model group atropine, water extracts group, fennel essential oil group, mosapride group. Blank control group and model group atropine were orally administered with normal saline of 0.2 ml/10 g. Water extracts group was orally administered with Water extracts (75 mg/ml) of 0.2 ml/10 g. Fennel essential oil group was orally

  18. Beneficial Effects of Anti-Interleukin-6 Antibodies on Impaired Gastrointestinal Motility, Inflammation and Increased Colonic Permeability in a Murine Model of Sepsis Are Most Pronounced When Administered in a Preventive Setup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nullens

    Full Text Available During sepsis, gastrointestinal ileus, mucosal barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation are accepted to be important triggers that can maintain or exacerbate the septic state. In the caecal ligation and puncture animal model of sepsis, we demonstrated that systemic and colonic interleukin-6 levels are significantly increased coinciding with an impaired colonic barrier function. We therefore aimed to study the effect of therapeutic or curative administration of anti-IL6 antibodies on overall GI motility, colonic permeability and translocation of intestinal bacteria in blood and mesenteric lymph nodes in the mouse caecal ligation and puncture model.OF-1 mice were randomized to either the preventive or curative protocol, in which they received 1 mg/kg of antibodies to interleukin-6, or its IgG isotype control solution. They subsequently underwent either the caecal ligation and puncture procedure, or sham-surgery. GI motility was assessed 48 h following the procedure, as well as colonic permeability, serum and colon cytokines, colonic tight junction proteins at the mRNA level; cultures of blood and mesenteric lymph nodes were performed.Preventive administration of anti-interleukin-6 antibodies successfully counteracted the gastrointestinal motility disturbances and impaired colonic barrier function that could be observed in vehicle-treated septic animals. Serum and colonic levels of proinflammatory cytokines were significantly lower when animals were preventively treated with anti-interleukin-6 antibodies. A repetitive injection 24 h later resulted in the most pronounced effects. Curative treatment significantly lowered systemic and colonic inflammation markers while the effects on transit and permeability were unfortunately no longer significant.Caecal ligation and puncture resulted in septic ileus with an increased colonic permeability. Antibodies to interleukin-6 were able to ameliorate gastro-intestinal motility, suppress inflammation and

  19. Magnolol attenuates sepsis-induced gastrointestinal dysmotility in rats by modulating inflammatory mediators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tie-Cheng Yang; Shu-Wen Zhang; Li-Na Sun; Hong Wang; Ai-Min Ren

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the protective effects of magnolol on sepsis-induced inflammation and intestinal dysmotility.METHODS:Sepsis was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS).Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups:magnolol prior to LPS injection (LPS/Mag group);vehicle prior to LPS injection (LPS/Veh group);vehicle prior to injection of saline (Control/Veh).Intestinal transit and circular muscle mechanical activity were assessed 12 h after LPS injection.Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α),interleukin-10 (IL-10),monoo/te chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in rat ileum were studied by RT-PCR 2 h after LPS injection.Nuclear factor-KB (NF-Kβ) activity in the intestine was also investigated at this time using electrophoretic mobility shift assay.In addition,antioxidant activity was determined by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the intestine 2 h after LPS injection.RESULTS:Magnolol significantly increased intestinal transit and circular muscle mechanical activity in LPS-treated animals.TNF-α,MCP-1 and iNOS mRNA expression in the small intestine were significantly reduced after magnolol treatment in LPS-induced septic animals,compared with untreated septic animals.Additionally,magnolol significantly increased IL-10 mRNA expression in septic rat ileum.Magnolol also significantly suppressed NF-kβ activity in septic rat intestine.In addition,magnolol significantly decreased MDA concentration and increased SOD activity in rat ileum.CONCLUSION:Magnolol prevents sepsis-induced suppression of intestinal motility in rats.The potential mechanism of this benefit of magnolol appears to be modulation of self-amplified inflammatory events and block of oxidative stress in the intestine.

  20. Live Probiotic Cultures and the Gastrointestinal Tract: Symbiotic Preservation of Tolerance Whilst Attenuating Pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eVitetta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria comprise the earliest form of independent life on this planet. Bacterial development has included co–operative symbiosis with plants (e.g., Leguminosae family and nitrogen fixing bacteria in soil and animals (e.g., the gut microbiome. A fusion event of two prokaryotes evolutionarily gave rise to the eukaryote cell in which mitochondria may be envisaged as a genetically functional mosaic, a relic from one of the prokaryote cells. The discovery of bacterial inhibitors such chloramphenicol and others has been exploited to highlight mitochondria as arising from a bacterial progenitor. As such the evolution of human life has been complexly connected to bacterial activity. This is embodied, by the appearance of mitochondria in eukaryotes (alphaproteobacteria contribution, a significant endosymbiotic evolutionary event. During the twentieth century there was an increasing dependency on anti–microbials as mainline therapy against bacterial infections. It is only comparatively recently that the essential roles played by the gastrointestinal tract (GIT microbiome in animal health and development has been recognized as opposed to the GIT microbiome being a toxic collection of micro–organisms. It is now well documented that t

  1. Methanogens, Methane and Gastrointestinal Motility

    OpenAIRE

    Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Chang, Christopher; Pimentel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic fermentation of the undigested polysaccharide fraction of carbohydrates produces hydrogen in the intestine which is the substrate for methane production by intestinal methanogens. Hydrogen and methane are excreted in the flatus and in breath giving the opportunity to indirectly measure their production using breath testing. Although methane is detected in 30%-50% of the healthy adult population worldwide, its production has been epidemiologically and clinically associated with const...

  2. 大麻素受体和配体对胃肠运动及分泌的影响%Effects of cannabinoid receptors and their ligands on gastrointestinal motility and secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹明华; 李永渝

    2011-01-01

    Endocannabinoid system has several kinds of receptors, all of which have correspondence ligands and pathways of synthesis and degradation, and they belong to G-protein coupled receptors family. Recently studies show that stimulation of cannabinoid receptors has inhibitory effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion. In this article, we introduce the compositions of the cannabinoid family members, includingtheir receptors, ligands, and antagonists, and their effects on the gastrointestinal motility and secretion. Useful information can be provided for the further study on the effects of endocannabinoid system on gastrointestinal motility and secretion, providing theoretic evidences for clinical use of cannabinoid.%内源性大麻素系统有几种受体,在体内均存在相应的配体和特定的合成及代谢通路,均属G蛋白耦联超家族成员.近来的一些研究显示,大麻素受体激活后可影响胃肠运动及分泌.本文介绍大麻素的种类,其受体、配体、拮抗剂以及它们对胃肠运动和胃肠分泌的影响,为进一步研究内源性大麻素系统对胃肠运动及分泌的作用机制提供资料,并为临床应用该类药物提供理论依据.

  3. A psyllium fiber-enriched meal strongly attenuates postprandial gastrointestinal peptide release in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhunen, Leila J; Juvonen, Kristiina R; Flander, Sanna M; Liukkonen, Kirsi-Helena; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Siloaho, Maritta; Laaksonen, David E; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Uusitupa, Matti I; Poutanen, Kaisa S

    2010-04-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) and protein are essential constituents of a healthy diet and are well known for their high satiety impact. However, little is known about their influence on postprandial gastrointestinal (GI) peptide release. Our aim in this single-blind, randomized, cross-over study was to investigate the effects of DF and/or protein enrichments on satiety-related metabolic and hormonal responses. Sixteen healthy, nonobese volunteers participated in the study and ingested 1 of 5 isoenergetic test meals in a randomized order on separate days. The test meals were as follows: 1) low in protein (2.8 g) and fiber (7.6 g); 2) low in protein (2.6 g) and high in soluble fiber (psyllium, 23.0 g); 3) high in protein (soy, 19.7 g) and low in fiber (6.2 g); 4) high in protein (18.4 g) and fiber (23.0 g); and 5) white wheat bread. Serum insulin and plasma glucose, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations were determined for 2 h following the meals. In addition, hunger and satiety ratings were collected. Postprandial glucose, insulin, ghrelin, GLP-1, and PYY responses all differed among the meals (P

  4. In vitro development of resistance to arsenite and chromium-VI in Lactobacilli strains as perspective attenuation of gastrointestinal disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, Raj K; Sinha, Vartika; Mishra, Ritesh; Kannan, Ambrose

    2011-05-01

    Inadvertent intake of inorganic arsenic and chromium through drinking water and food causing their toxic insults is a major health problem. Intestinal bacteria including Lactobacilli play important regulatory roles on intestinal homeostasis, and their loss is known to cause gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Probiotic Lactobacilli resistance to arsenite and chromium-VI could be an importantfactorfor the perspective attenuation of Gl-disorders caused by these toxic metals/metalloid. In the present study resistance of arsenite (up to 32 ppm), Cr-VI (up to 64 ppm), and arsenite plus Cr-VI (32 ppm each) were developed under in vitro condition following chronological chronic exposures in Lactobacilli strains. Comparative study of biochemical parameters such as membrane transport enzymes and structural constituents; dehydrogenase and esterase activity tests, which are respective indicators for respiratory and energy producing processes, and the general heterotrophic activity of cells, of resistant strains showed similarities with their respective normal parent strains. The resistant strains were also found to be sensitive to antibiotics. Findings indicate that these resistant probiotic Lactobacilli would be useful in the prophylactic interventions of arsenic and chromium GI-toxicity.

  5. Inhibitory effects of zingerone, a pungent component of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, on colonic motility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Momoe; Shiina, Takahiko; Hirayama, Haruko; Shima, Takeshi; Takewaki, Tadashi; Shimizu, Yasutake

    2011-01-01

    Ginger (rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is an herbal medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders including constipation and diarrhea. Zingerone is a likely active constituent responsible for the antidiarrheal activity of ginger. The current study was designed to characterize pharmacological actions of zingerone on colonic motility. To evaluate pharmacological effects of zingerone on colonic motility, we used isolated colonic segments from rats, in which mechanical responses were recorded in the longitudinal direction. In addition, we evaluated the effects on colonic motility in vivo by measuring intraluminal pressure changes and expelled fluid volume from the colon in anesthetized rats. Zingerone was applied to the lumen of the colon to allow the drug to access from the mucosal side. Zingerone inhibited spontaneous contractile movements in the isolated colonic segments in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of zingerone on colonic movements were not affected by pretreatment with capsazepine, a typical antagonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1. In addition, tetrodotoxin, a blocker of voltage-dependent sodium channels on neurons, did not affect the suppression of colonic movements by zingerone, suggesting that zingerone acts on the smooth muscles directly. Zingerone also attenuated colonic motility in vivo without affecting blood pressure and heart rate. The effects were reversible and reproducible. Our findings suggest that zingerone can inhibit colonic motility via direct action on smooth muscles. Zingerone might exert beneficial therapeutic effects on hypermotility-induced diarrhea by abrogating excessive gastrointestinal motility. PMID:20799069

  6. Gastrointestinal hormones regulating appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhri, Owais; Small, Caroline; Bloom, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The role of gastrointestinal hormones in the regulation of appetite is reviewed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones function to optimize the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients by the gut. In this capacity, their local effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion have been well characterized. By altering the rate at which nutrients are delivered to compartments of the alimentary canal, the control of food intake arguably cons...

  7. 清胰汤改善重症急性胰腺炎大鼠胃肠动力的机制研究%Qingyi decoction to improve gastrointestinal motility in rats with severe acute pancreatitis and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 唐才喜; 王湘英; 冯斌; 杨凯庆; 贺明连; 赵志坚

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of gastrointestinal motility disorders in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and the related effects of Qingyi decoction administration.Methods: Forty-eight SD rats were randomized into sham operation group, SAP model group (model group) and SAP model with Qingyi decoction treatment group (Qingyi decoction treatment group). The SAP model was created by multi-point uniform injection of S% sodium taurocholate beneath the pancreatic capsule, and rats in Qingyi decoction treatment group were given Qingyi decoction by gavage, while rats in sham operation group and model group were treated with normal saline of the same volume instead. Twenty-four hours after operation, the interdigestive myoelectric complex (IMC) of the gastric antrum of rats was recorded by using bipolar silver electrodes, the serum concentration of motilin (MTL) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were measureed by ELISA assay, and the pathological observation and scoring of the pancreatic tissues were performed. Results: Compared with sham operation group, both model group and Qingyi decoction treatment group presented with decreased MTL level and increased VIP level (all P<0.05), but the degrees of MTL reduction and VIP elevation in Qingyi decoction treatment group were lower than those in model group, and the pathological score of Qingyi decoction treatment group was also lower than that of model group (all P<0.05). The time periods of IMC cycle and phase Ⅰ and Ⅱ were prolonged but those of IMC phase Ⅲ were shortened, and the amplitude and frequency of phase Ⅲ peak potential in both model group and Qingyi decotion treatment group decreased in comparison with sham operation group (all P<0.05), but all these IMC indices in Qingyi decoction treatment group altered less than those in model group (all P<0.05). Correlation analysis showed that the IMC phase Ⅲ time in SAP rat was positively correlated with MTL concentration (r=0.967, P<0.05), while

  8. Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Cell motility is a fascinating example of cell behavior which is fundamentally important to a number of biological and pathological processes. It is based on a complex self-organized mechano-chemical machine consisting of cytoskeletal filaments and molecular motors. In general, the cytoskeleton is responsible for the movement of the entire cell and for movements within the cell. The main challenge in the field of cell motility is to develop a complete physical description on how and why cells move. For this purpose new ways of modeling the properties of biological cells have to be found. This long term goal can only be achieved if new experimental techniques are developed to extract physical information from these living systems and if theoretical models are found which bridge the gap between molecular and mesoscopic length scales. Cell Motility gives an authoritative overview of the fundamental biological facts, theoretical models, and current experimental developments in this fascinating area.

  9. Study on the Promoting of Animal Gastrointestinal Motility by “Qingpi San” Emulsion%“青皮散”乳液促实验动物胃肠动力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景怡; 胡天惠

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To inspect the effect of "Qingpi San" emulsion on the gastrointestinal motility of animals with gastroparesis, and discuss its action mechanism. [Method] The gastroparesis model was constructed and the animals in this model were ad ministrated orally with "Qingpi San" emulsion, then the residual of the gastric contents and the propulsion distance of the mixed gum arabic and activated carbon powder in the small intestine of mice in this model were detected. The MTL level in the gastric and intestinal homogenate as well as the MTL distribution change in the sinuses ventriculi and jejunum of rats was deter mined. [ Result] "Qingpi San" emulsion could accelerate the gastric emptying rate of the animals in gastroparesis model, reduce the residual of their gastric contents, improve the propulsion percentage of their small intestine, and significantly improve the MTL level in their gastric and intestinal homogenate as well as the expression of MTL positive material in their sinuses ventriculi and jejunum. [Conclusion] The promoting of gastrointestinal motility of the tested animal by "Qingpi San" emulsion was related to the increase of MTL level in their plasma, gastric and intestinal homogenate as well as the distribution change of MTL cells in their gastrointestinal tract.%[目的]考察“青皮散”乳液对胃轻瘫模型动物胃肠动力的影响,探讨其作用机制.[方法]建立胃肠动力障碍模型动物,测定灌服“青皮散”乳液后模型小鼠胃内容物残留率、小肠中阿拉伯胶活性炭粉混合物的推进距离;测定灌服“青皮散”乳液后模型大鼠血浆及胃、肠组织匀浆中胃动素(MTL)水平及其在胃窦和空肠中MTL的分布变化.[结果]“青皮散”乳液能明显加快胃肠动力障碍模型动物胃排空速率,降低胃内容物残留率,增加小肠推进百分比,显著升高胃肠动力障碍模型动物血浆及胃、肠组织匀浆中MTL水平,明显增加胃窦及空肠MTL阳性物

  10. Aging and intestinal motility: a review of factors that affect intestinal motility in the aged.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, Denis

    2012-02-03

    Normal aging is associated with significant changes in the function of most organs and tissues. In this regard, the gastrointestinal tract is no exception. The purpose of this review is to detail the important age-related changes in motor function of the various parts of the gastrointestinal tract and to highlight some of the important motility changes that may occur, either in relation to common age-related disorders, or as a result of certain drugs commonly prescribed in the aged. A major confounding factor in the interpretation of motor phenomena throughout the gastrointestinal tract in this age group is the frequent coexistence of neurological, endocrinological and other disease states, which may be independently associated with dysmotility. Overall, current data are insufficient to implicate normal aging as a cause of dysmotility in the elderly. Normal aging is associated with various changes in gastrointestinal motility, but the clinical significance of such changes remains unclear. More important is the impact of various age-related diseases on gastrointestinal motility in the elderly: for example, long-standing diabetes mellitus may reduce gastric emptying in up to 50% of patients; depression significantly prolongs whole-gut transit time; hypothyroidism may prolong oro-caecal transit time; and chronic renal failure is associated with impaired gastric emptying. In addition, various, frequently used drugs in the elderly cause disordered gastrointestinal motility. These drugs include anticholinergics, especially antidepressants with an anticholinergic effect, opioid analgesics and calcium antagonists.

  11. Effects of ketamine on the gastrointestinal motility of mice%氯胺酮对小鼠胃肠道蠕动功能的影响及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴奎霖; 李瑶函; 孙锶琦; 郭小玮; 邹逸帆; 张鑫磊; 仝坤; 秦霞

    2016-01-01

    Object ive To investigate the effects of ketamine on the gastrointestinal mobility of mice and M -R in the small intestine .Methods A total of 40 mice were divided into four groups according to their routes of administra-tion:a normal saline lavage group , a ketamine lavage group , a normal saline group by intraperitoneal injection , and a ketamine group by intraperitoneal injection. After administration of2 min, 0.2 ml methylene blue solution was followed by oral administration.30 min later, mice were sacrificed and their abdominal cavity was opened to measure the move-ment of methylene blue in the bowel and the full length of the intestinal , and to calculate the movement rate of methylene blue .Meanwhile , another 40 mice were divided into a normal saline group , an atropine group , a ketamine group ,and an atropine and ketamine group .They were intraperitoneal injected with corresponding agents to measure the movement rate of methylene blue .Results The ketamine lavage group showed remarkably lower movement rate than the normal saline groups by lavage and intraperitoneal injection ( P<0.05 ) .The ketamine group by intraperitoneal injection showed re -markably lower movement rate than the normal saline group by intraperitoneal injection and the ketamine lavage group ( P<0.05).Meanwhile, compared with the atropine group , the movement rate was markedly reduced in the ketamine group and the atropine and ketamine group (P<0.05).Compared with the ketamine group, no significant change was found in the atropine and ketamine group .Conclusion Ketamine has inhibitory effects on the gastrointestinal motility in mice , without association with M -R.%目的:观察氯胺酮对小鼠胃肠道蠕动功能的影响及对小肠M受体的作用。方法将40只小鼠按给药方式分为生理盐水灌胃组、氯胺酮灌胃组、生理盐水腹腔注射组、氯胺酮腹腔注射组。给药2 min后,经口灌入亚甲蓝溶液0.2 ml。30 min后将小鼠处死,测量

  12. Elenoside increases intestinal motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E Navarro; SJ Alonso; R Navarro; J Trujillo; E Jorge

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of elenoside, an arylnaphthalene lignan from Justicia hyssopifolia, on gastrointestinal motility in vivo and in vitro in rats.METHODS: Routine in vivo experimental assessments were catharsis index, water percentage of boluses,intestinal transit, and codeine antagonism. The groups included were vehicle control (propylene glycol-ethanolplant oil-tween 80), elenoside (i.p. 25 and 50 mg/kg),cisapride (i.p. 10 mg/kg), and codeine phosphate (intragastric route, 50 mg/kg). In vitro approaches used isolated rat intestinal tissues (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). The effects of elenoside at concentrations of 3.2× 10-4, 6.4 × 10-4 and 1.2 × 10-3 mol/L, and cisapride at 10-6 mol/L were investigated.RESULTS: Elenoside in vivo produced an increase in the catharsis index and water percentage of boluses and in the percentage of distance traveled by a suspension of activated charcoal. Codeine phosphate antagonized the effect of 25 mg/kg of elenoside. In vitro, elenoside in duodenum, jejunum and ileum produced an initial decrease in the contraction force followed by an increase.Elenoside resulted in decreased intestinal frequency in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The in vitro and in vivo effects of elenoside were similar to those produced by cisapride.CONCLUSION: Elenoside is a lignan with an action similar to that of purgative and prokinetics drugs.Elenoside, could be an alternative to cisapride in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases as well as a preventive therapy for the undesirable gastrointestinal effects produced by opioids used for mild to moderate pain.

  13. Effect of different-intensity exercise training on neurotransmitters of gastrointestinal motility in rats%不同运动训练强度对大鼠胃肠道神经递质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭雅; 王轲; 温晓妮

    2012-01-01

    Aim To study the effect of different-intensity exercise on neurotransmitters of gastrointestinal motility in rats. Methods 48 SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group, low-intensity exercise group, high-intensity exercise group. Each group as given different intensity exercises, the concentration of each group gastric emptying rate, intestinal advance rate, gastric and duodenal tissues tissue AchE, NOS positive area ratio were measured. Results The low-intensity exercise group rats' emptying rate, intestinal advance rate, gastric and duodenal tissue organization by AchE were significantly higher than the control group ( P < 0. 05) , but NOS showed no significant difference; the high-intensity exercise group rats, gastric emptying rate, the rate of promoting intestinal, gastric and duodenal tissues AchE and NOS were significantly lower than the control group and the low intensity exercise group ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion Low intensity exercise increases gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion, high-intensity exercise inhibits the gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion in rats, Ach and NO neurotransmitters play an important role.%目的 探讨不同强度运动对大鼠胃肠道神经递质的影响.方法 选取成年雄性SD大鼠48只,随机分成3组,即安静对照组、低强度运动组、高强度运动组.各组给予8周不同强度的运动后,测定各组大鼠胃排空率、肠推进率、胃窦组织和十二指肠组织AChE、NOS阳性面积率.结果 低强度运动组的胃排空率、肠推进率、胃窦组织和十二指肠组织AChE与安静对照组比较有显著性升高趋势(P<0.05),NOS与安静对照组比较无显著性差异;高强度运动组胃排空率、肠推进率、胃窦组织和十二指肠组织AChE和NOS与安静对照组比较显著性降低(P<0.05),与低强度运动组相比明显下降(P<0.05).结论 低强度运动使大鼠胃排空和肠推进增强,高强度运动对使大鼠胃排空和

  14. The Nervous System and Gastrointestinal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Muhammad A.; Sood, Manu R.

    2008-01-01

    The enteric nervous system is an integrative brain with collection of neurons in the gastrointestinal tract which is capable of functioning independently of the central nervous system (CNS). The enteric nervous system modulates motility, secretions, microcirculation, immune and inflammatory responses of the gastrointestinal tract. Dysphagia,…

  15. Effects of aqueous extraction from pomegranate peel on gastrointestinal motility function in restraint and water-immersion stress rat%石榴皮水提物对束缚浸水应激大鼠胃肠运动机能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘姗姗; 崔希云; 艾洪滨

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of aqueous extraction from pomegranate peel (AEPP) on the gastrointestinal motility function in re-straint and water - immersion stress ( RWIS) rats. Method Male Wist-ar rats were randomly divided into blank group, control I group ( double distilled water, DDW), control Ⅱ group (DDW + RWIS), control Ⅲ group (5000 mg·kg-1 except polyphenols of AEEP + RWIS ) and test Ⅰ , Ⅱ , Ⅲ groups (50, 500, 5000 mg·kg-1 AEPP + RWIS). The rats of each group were given drug by intragastric administration, and then treated with RWIS. The gastric ulcer index and gastrointestinal motility were observed. Results Compared with control group Ⅱ , the gastric ul-cer index and intestinal propulsive rate in test Ⅱ , Ⅲ groups decreased significantly , and the gastric remnant rate, the time of defecation signifi-cantly increased ( P < 0. 05 , P < 0. 01). However, the Control Ⅲ group had no such phenomenon. Conclusion The AEPP could be a prodrug with preventive effect to stress gastric mucosal lesion and gastrointestinal motility disorder.%目的 研究石榴皮水提物(AEPP)对束缚-浸水应激(简称应激)大鼠胃肠运动的影响.方法 Wistar雄性大鼠随机分为空白对照组、对照Ⅰ组(三蒸水)、对照Ⅱ组(三蒸水+应激)、对照Ⅲ组(5000mg·kg-1除多酚AEPP+应激)和实验Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ(50,500,5000 mg·kg-AEPP+应激)组,观察其胃溃疡指数和胃肠的运动.结果 与对照Ⅱ组比较,实验Ⅱ、Ⅲ组的胃黏膜损伤指数明显减少,胃内残留率明显增多,小肠推进率明显降低,排便时间明显延长(均P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 石榴皮多酚对应激性胃黏膜损伤、胃肠道运动机能紊乱有良好的预防作用.

  16. Asian Motility Studies in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Oh Young

    2010-01-01

    Altered motility remains one of the important pathophysiologic factors in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who commonly complain of abdominal pain and stool changes such as diarrhea and constipation. The prevalence of IBS has increased among Asian populations these days. Gastrointestinal (GI) physiology may vary between Asian and Western populations because of differences in diets, socio-cultural backgrounds, and genetic factors. The characteristics and differences of GI dysmotili...

  17. Cytoskeleton and Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Risler, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The present article is an invited contribution to the Encyclopedia of Complexity and System Science, Robert A. Meyers Ed., Springer New York (2009). It is a review of the biophysical mechanisms that underly cell motility. It mainly focuses on the eukaryotic cytoskeleton and cell-motility mechanisms. Bacterial motility as well as the composition of the prokaryotic cytoskeleton is only briefly mentioned. The article is organized as follows. In Section III, I first present an overview of the diversity of cellular motility mechanisms, which might at first glance be categorized into two different types of behaviors, namely "swimming" and "crawling". Intracellular transport, mitosis - or cell division - as well as other extensions of cell motility that rely on the same essential machinery are briefly sketched. In Section IV, I introduce the molecular machinery that underlies cell motility - the cytoskeleton - as well as its interactions with the external environment of the cell and its main regulatory pathways. Sec...

  18. A型肉毒毒素治疗消化道动力性疾病的新进展%The new progress of botulinum toxin A in the therapy of gastrointestinal motility disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英; 刘庆森; 杨云生; 杨春敏; 郭明洲

    2011-01-01

    自上世纪八十年代以来,A型肉毒毒素(BTX-A)已广泛应用于肌肉痉挛性疾病的治疗,主要是神经病学、眼科学、美容医学、疼痛学等领域.近来,越来越多的实验表明,BTX-A 用于消化道平滑肌运动障碍性疾病的治疗是有效的,尤其是治疗贲门失迟缓症和肛裂的研究开展得最为广泛.而将BTX-A应用于病态肥胖领域的新研究,近年来也取得了初步成效.本文描述了BTX-A应用于消化道平滑肌功能失调方面的作用原理、使用方法、适应证、副反应等,同时也比较了BTX-A与其他方法的不同.%Since 1980's, botulinum toxin has been employed for the treatment of various voluntary muscle spastic disorders. Botulinum toxin has been proved to be effective in the therapy of dyskinetic smooth muscle disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Achalasia and anal fissure are the gastrointestinal disorders in which botulinum toxin therapy has been most extensively investigated. More recently, the new research in the therapy of pathologic pathosis obesity is beginning. This article described the mechanism of action, rationale of employment, indications and side-effects of botulinum toxin application in smooth muscle disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and compared the results of different techniques of botulinum toxin therapeutic application.

  19. 生长抑素对急性胰腺炎患者血小板相关指标与胃肠动力的影响%Effect of somatostatin on the platelet-related indicators and gastrointestinal motility of patients with acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢明; 彭小刚

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨生长抑素对急性胰腺炎( acute pancreatitis ,AP)患者血小板相关指标及胃肠动力的影响。方法将106例AP患者随机分为治疗组和对照组各53例。所有患者均给予胃肠减压、禁食、抗感染、补液等支持治疗,治疗组于发病24 h内给予6 mg/d生长抑素,连用7 d。检测两组患者血小板相关指标的变化,记录两组患者的胃肠动力及预后情况。结果与对照组比较,治疗组治疗后3 d、7 d血小板分布宽度( platelet distribution width ,PDW)显著降低,血小板计数(platelets,PLT)、血小板容积比(PCT)均显著升高(P<0.05);治疗组恶心呕吐缓解时间、腹胀缓解时间、血淀粉酶恢复时间均显著缩短,胃管日均引流量显著减少,平均住院时间显著缩短,中转手术率显著下降(均P<0.05)。与死亡组比较,存活组患者平均血小板体积(mean platelet volume,MPV)和PDW显著降低, PLT、PCT均显著升高( P<0.05)。结论 AP患者早期应用生长抑素,可有效调节血小板活性,改善胰腺微循环与胃肠动力,改善预后。%Objective To explore the effect of somatostatin on platelet-related indicators and gastrointestinal motility of patients with acute pancreatitis (AP).Method 106 cases of APwere randomly divided into two groups.All patients were firstly treated with gastrointestinal decompression , fasting, fight infection, and rehydration support treatment . The experimental group was the given somatostatin 6 mg/d for 7 days in a row .The change in platelet-related indicators of the two groups was monitored and the gastrointestinal dysmotility and prognosis of both groups were recorded .Findings Compared with the control group, the experimental group at 3rd, 7th day after treatment had significantly lowered platelet distribution width (PDW) and higher platelets (PLT) and PCT (P<0.05).The ease time of nausea and vomiting

  20. Gastric antrectomy with selective gastric vagotomy does not influence gallbladder motility during interdigestive and postprandial periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Pedersen, S A;

    1996-01-01

    Fasting gastrointestinal motility and gallbladder motility during the interdigestive state and in the postprandial period was studied in eight patients who were operated for ulcer disease with an antrectomy and selective gastric vagotomy. Nocturnal motility recording revealed all three phases.......77%/min (0.33-0.86%/min). The values in the control group were 0 min (-9 to 13.5 min) and 0.76%/min (0.54-2.25%/min), respectively. These differences between the patients and controls were not significant. In conclusion, antrectomy and selective gastric vagotomy do not influence fasting gastrointestinal...

  1. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Gfroerer, Stefan; Rolle, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric intestinal motility disorders affect many children and thus not only impose a significant impact on pediatric health care in general but also on the quality of life of the affected patient. Furthermore, some of these conditions might also have implications for adulthood. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders frequently present as chronic constipation in toddler age children. Most of these conditions are functional, meaning that constipation does not have an organic etiology, but i...

  2. [Gastrointestinal bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanas, Ángel

    2015-09-01

    In the Digestive Disease Week in 2015 there have been some new contributions in the field of gastrointestinal bleeding that deserve to be highlighted. Treatment of celecoxib with a proton pump inhibitor is safer than treatment with nonselective NSAID and a proton pump inhibitor in high risk gastrointestinal and cardiovascular patients who mostly also take acetylsalicylic acid. Several studies confirm the need to restart the antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy at an early stage after a gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The need for urgent endoscopy before 6-12 h after the onset of upper gastrointestinal bleeding episode may be beneficial in patients with hemodynamic instability and high risk for comorbidity. It is confirmed that in Western but not in Japanese populations, gastrointestinal bleeding episodes admitted to hospital during weekend days are associated with a worse prognosis associated with delays in the clinical management of the events. The strategy of a restrictive policy on blood transfusions during an upper GI bleeding event has been challenged. Several studies have shown the benefit of identifying the bleeding vessel in non varicose underlying gastric lesions by Doppler ultrasound which allows direct endoscopic therapy in the patient with upper GI bleeding. Finally, it has been reported that lower gastrointestinal bleeding diverticula band ligation or hemoclipping are both safe and have the same long-term outcomes. PMID:26520197

  3. NCAM regulates cell motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Søren; Lepekhin, Eugene A; Kolkova, Kateryna;

    2002-01-01

    Cell migration is required during development of the nervous system. The regulatory mechanisms for this process, however, are poorly elucidated. We show here that expression of or exposure to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) strongly affected the motile behaviour of glioma cells...... independently of homophilic NCAM interactions. Expression of the transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (NCAM-140) caused a significant reduction in cellular motility, probably through interference with factors regulating cellular attachment, as NCAM-140-expressing cells exhibited a decreased attachment...... to a fibronectin substratum compared with NCAM-negative cells. Ectopic expression of the cytoplasmic part of NCAM-140 also inhibited cell motility, presumably via the non-receptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn) with which NCAM-140 interacts. Furthermore, we showed that the extracellular part of NCAM acted as a paracrine...

  4. 胃穿孔腹腔镜修补术与开腹修补术术后胃肠动力恢复的观察%The Clinical Observation of Laparoscopic Repair of Perforated Peptic Ulcer and Open Operation in the Postoperative Recovery of Gastrointestinal Motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关思源; 万贵章

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcer and open operation in the postopera-tive recovery of gastrointestinal motility. Methods 128 patients with gastric perforation treated from December 2013 to December 2014 in our hospital were selected. All the patients were divided into two groups according to their hospitalization order, 64 cases in each group. The observation group was treated with laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcer, while the control group was treated with open operation. The operation condition, gastric hormone and complications of the two groups were observed. Results The operation time, bleeding amount, appeared time of bowel sound, anal exhaust time and hospitalization time of observation group were better than those of control group (P<0. 05). After 1, 12, 24 h and 48h of operation, GAS level of observation group was higher than that of control group (P<0. 05), the incidence rate of complications of observation group (3. 1%) was significantly lower than that of con-trol group (12. 5%, P<0. 05). Conclusion For patients with gastric perforation, the laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcer has less impact on the gastric hormone and lower incidence rate of complications, and promotes the recovery of gastrointestinal motility. It is worthy of clinical application and promotion.%目的:研究胃穿孔患者行腹腔镜修补术及开腹修补术对术后胃肠动力恢复的影响。方法临床纳入128例我院2013年12月至2014年12月期间收治的胃穿孔患者,所有患者按入院顺序分为两组各64例。其中64例患者行腹腔镜修补术治疗作为观察组,另64例患者行开腹修补术治疗作为对照组。观察两组患者手术情况、胃内激素情况以及并发症情况等。结果观察组手术时间、出血量、肠鸣音出现时间、肛门排气时间以及住院时间均优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组术后1、12、24 h

  5. 氯波必利生物黏附型缓释片对实验性胃溃疡和胃肠动力障碍的作用研究%Study on Effects of Clebopride Bioadhesive Sustained-release Tablets on Experimental Gastric Ulcer and Gastrointestinal Motility Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾春莲; 徐雄波; 张青松; 刘鹰; 刘卫平; 马宁

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To study the effects of Clebopride(CBP)bioadhensive sustained-release tablets on experimental gas-tric ulcer and gastrointestinal motility disorder. METHODS:Gastric ulcer rat model was induced by ethanol and aspirin,and then divided into model group (normal saline),common tablet (CBP tablet 0.072 mg/kg) and sustained-release tablet high-dose and low-dose groups (CBP bioadhensive sustained-release tablet 0.072,0.036 mg/kg);normal rats were included in normal control group (normal saline);they were given relevant medicine intragastrically,twice a day for sustained-release tablet,three times a day for other. Ulcer area were observed 2 and 4 days after medication to calculate healing rate of ulcer(n=6). Gastrointestinal mo-tility disorder mice model was induced by atropine,and then divided into model group (normal saline),common tablet group (CBP tablet 0.1 mg/kg)and sustained-release tablet high-dose,medium-dose and low-dose groups(CBP bioadhensive sustained-re-lease tablet 0.1,0.05,0.025 mg/kg);normal mice were included in normal control group(normal saline);they were given rele-vant medicine intragastrically,once a day,for consecutive 3 days. The rate of gastric emptying and small intestinal propulsion were detected (n=6). RESULTS:Compared with normal control group,ulcer area of rats increased in model group;compared with model group,that of rats decreased in common tablet group and sustained-release tablet high-dose,low-dose groups,with statisti-cal significance (P<0.01);healing rates of gastric ulcer were 32.35%-48.24% 2 days after medication,and those were above 70% 4 days after medication. Compared with normal control group,the rate of gastric emptying and small intestinal propulsion in mice decreased in model group;compared with model group,those of mice increased in common tablet group and sustained-re-lease tablet high-dose,medium-dose,low-dose groups. The effects of sustained-release tablet high-dose and medium-dose groups were better than that of

  6. Stress, Anxiety and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress has major role in functional gastrointestinal system disorders. The most typical example of this situation is Irritable bowel syndrome. Gastrointestinal system’s response to acute or short-term of stress is delay of gastric emptying and stimulation of colonic transition. While CRF2 receptors are mediate the upper section inhibition, CRF1 is responsible for the lower part colonic and anxiogenic response. Visceral hypersensitivity is managed by the emotional motor system, the amygdala plays a significant role and mucosal mast cells arise. But in people with symptoms of functional gastrointestinal, how is differ motility response in healthy individuals, this situation is due to lack of autonomous nervous system or an increased sensitivity of stress is not adequately understood. The brain-gastrointestinal axis frequency and severity of symptoms associated with negative emotions. American Gastroenterology Association is closely associated with the quality of life and is very difficult to treat the symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders, re-interpreted under the heading of 'Gastrointestinal Distress'. This review is defined as gastrointestinal distresses, physical, emotional, and behavioral components as a disorder in which, almost like an anxiety disorder are discussed. Physical component is pain, gas, and defecation problems, cognitive component is external foci control, catastrophization and anticipatory anxiety, the emotional component is somatic anxiety, hypervigilance, and avoidance of gastrointestinal stimuli as defined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(2.000: 122-133

  7. Characterization of pro-inflammatory flagellin proteins produced by Lactobacillus ruminis and related motile Lactobacilli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Anne Neville

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus ruminis is one of at least twelve motile but poorly characterized species found in the genus Lactobacillus. Of these, only L. ruminis has been isolated from mammals, and this species may be considered as an autochthonous member of the gastrointestinal microbiota of humans, pigs and cows. Nine L. ruminis strains were investigated here to elucidate the biochemistry and genetics of Lactobacillus motility. Six strains isolated from humans were non-motile while three bovine isolates were motile. A complete set of flagellum biogenesis genes was annotated in the sequenced genomes of two strains, ATCC25644 (human isolate and ATCC27782 (bovine isolate, but only the latter strain produced flagella. Comparison of the L. ruminis and L. mali DSM20444(T motility loci showed that their genetic content and gene-order were broadly similar, although the L. mali motility locus was interrupted by an 11.8 Kb region encoding rhamnose utilization genes that is absent from the L. ruminis motility locus. Phylogenetic analysis of 39 motile bacteria indicated that Lactobacillus motility genes were most closely related to those of motile carnobacteria and enterococci. Transcriptome analysis revealed that motility genes were transcribed at a significantly higher level in motile L. ruminis ATCC27782 than in non-motile ATCC25644. Flagellin proteins were isolated from L. ruminis ATCC27782 and from three other Lactobacillus species, while recombinant flagellin of aflagellate L. ruminis ATCC25644 was expressed and purified from E. coli. These native and recombinant Lactobacillus flagellins, and also flagellate L. ruminis cells, triggered interleukin-8 production in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells in a manner suppressed by short interfering RNA directed against Toll-Like Receptor 5. This study provides genetic, transcriptomic, phylogenetic and immunological insights into the trait of flagellum-mediated motility in the lactobacilli.

  8. Central oxytocin is involved in restoring impaired gastric motility following chronic repeated stress in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Babygirija, Reji; Zheng, Jun; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku

    2009-01-01

    Accumulation of continuous life stress (chronic stress) often causes gastric symptoms. The development of gastric symptoms may depend on how humans adapt to the stressful events in their daily lives. Although acute stress delays gastric emptying and alters upper gastrointestinal motility in rodents, the effects of chronic stress on gastric motility and its adaptation mechanism remains unclear. Central oxytocin has been shown to have antistress effects. We studied whether central oxytocin is i...

  9. Disorders of gastrointestinal hypomotility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielefeldt, Klaus; Tuteja, Ashok; Nusrat, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Ingestion and digestion of food as well as expulsion of residual material from our gastrointestinal tract requires normal propulsive, i.e. motor, function. Hypomotility refers to inherited or acquired changes that come with decreased contractile forces or slower transit. It not only often causes symptoms but also may compromise nutritional status or lead to other complications. While severe forms, such as pseudo-obstruction or ileus, may have a tremendous functional impact, the less severe forms of hypomotility may well be more relevant, as they contribute to common disorders, such as functional dyspepsia, gastroparesis, chronic constipation, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Clinical testing can identify changes in contractile activity, defined by lower amplitudes or abnormal patterns, and the related effects on transit. However, such biomarkers show a limited correlation with overall symptom severity as experienced by patients. Similarly, targeting hypomotility with pharmacological interventions often alters gut motor function but does not consistently improve symptoms. Novel diagnostic approaches may change this apparent paradox and enable us to obtain more comprehensive information by integrating data on electrical activity, mechanical forces, patterns, wall stiffness, and motions with information of the flow of luminal contents. New drugs with more selective effects or more specific delivery may improve benefits and limit adverse effects. Lastly, the complex regulation of gastrointestinal motility involves the brain-gut axis as a reciprocal pathway for afferent and efferent signaling. Considering the role of visceral input in emotion and the effects of emotion on visceral activity, understanding and managing hypomotility disorders requires an integrative approach based on the mind-body continuum or biopsychosocial model of diseases. PMID:27583135

  10. Small intestine motility development in newborn mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woliński, Jarosław; Słupecka-Ziemilska, Monika; Boryczka, Maria; Grzesiak, Paulina; Kwiatkowski, Jakub; Kotarba, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, researchers have been working to improve the understanding of gastrointestinal motility. The first major discovery was the observation of a migrating myoelectric complex that turned out to be a universal occurrence among vertebrates. Further inquires resulted in a detailed description of its development during different stages of ontogeny. Some time before that, a cornerstone had been laid for a breakthrough that would come years later. That cornerstone came in the form of interstitial cells of Cajal whose true role could not be discerned until the discovery of a CD117 receptor - their main marker. With the ability to precisely mark interstitial cells of Cajal, a wave of subsequent new experiments and observations connected them to the occurrence of slow waves and allowed an understanding of the mechanism responsible for their generation. Some of these findings suggested that Cajal cells might have a role in the development of several motility disorders thus opening an avenue of research that requires the usage of both traditional and advanced diagnostic methods.

  11. Ghrelin Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Sakata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is 28-amino-acid peptide that was discovered from the rat and human stomach in 1999. Since the discovery of ghrelin, various functions of ghrelin, including growth hormone release, feeding behavior, glucose metabolism, memory, and also antidepressant effects, have been studied. It has also been reported that ghrelin in the gastrointestinal tract has an important physiological effect on gastric acid secretion and gastrointestinal motility. Ghrelin has a unique structure that is modified by O-acylation with n-octanoic acid at third serine residues, and this modification enzyme has recently been identified and named ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT. Ghrelin is considered to be a gut-brain peptide and is abundantly produced from endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa. In the gastrointestinal tract, ghrelin cells are most abundant in the stomach and are localized in gastric mucosal layers. Ghrelin cells are also widely distributed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, abundance of ghrelin cells in the gastric mucosa is evolutionally conserved from mammals to lower vertebrates, indicating that gastric ghrelin plays important roles for fundamental physiological functions. Ghrelin cells in the gastrointestinal tract are a major source of circulating plasma ghrelin, and thus understanding the physiology of these cells would reveal the biological significance of ghrelin.

  12. Gastrointestinal manifestations in myotonic muscular dystrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Massimo Bellini; Sonia Biagi; Cristina Stasi; Francesco Costa; Maria Gloria Mumolo; Angelo Ricchiuti; Santino Marchi

    2006-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (MD) is characterized by myotonic phenomena and progressive muscular weakness.Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is frequent and may occur at any level. The clinical manifestations have previously been attributed to motility disorders caused by smooth muscle damage, but histologic evidence of alterations has been scarce and conflicting.A neural factor has also been hypothesized. In the upper digestive tract, dysphagia, heartburn, regurgitation and dyspepsia are the most common complaints, while in the lower tract, abdominal pain, bloating and changes in bowel habits are often reported. Digestive symptoms may be the first sign of dystrophic disease and may precede the musculo-skeletal features. The impairment of gastrointestinal function may be sometimes so gradual that the patients adapt to it with little awareness of symptoms. In such cases routine endoscopic and ultrasonographic evaluations are not sufficient and targeted techniques (electrogastrography, manometry,electromyography, functional ultrasonography,scintigraphy, etc.) are needed. There is a low correlation between the degree of skeletal muscle involvement and the presence and severity of gastrointestinal disturbances whereas a positive correlation with the duration of the skeletal muscle disease has been reported.The drugs recommended for treating the gastrointestinal complaints such as prokinetic, antidyspeptic drugs and laxatives, are mainly aimed at correcting the motility disorders.Gastrointestinal involvement in MD remains a complex and intriguing condition since many important problems are still unsolved. Further studies concentrating on genetic aspects, early diagnostic techniques and the development of new therapeutic strategies are needed to improve our management of the gastrointestinal manifestations of MD.

  13. 脑源性神经营养因子在小鼠肠神经-平滑肌重构中的作用及其对肠动力的影响%Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the plasticity of enteric nervous-smooth muscle and its effects on gastrointestinal motility in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞雪; 于岩波; 王鹏; 左秀丽; 李延青

    2016-01-01

    接头和平滑肌存在显著的超微结构改变.结论 BDNF可引起小鼠肠神经-平滑肌形态及功能重构,此重构作用在影响小鼠肠动力过程中发挥重要作用.%Objective To observe the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the plasticity of enteric nervous-smooth muscle system,and to investigate the effects of BDNF induced plasticity on gastrointestinal motility in mice.Methods Male hybrid BDNF knockout (BDNF+/) mice and wild type (BDNF+/+) mice were selected,eight in each group.Gastrointestinal motility of BDNF+/+ mice and BDNF+/ mice were tested and compared.Longitudinal muscle strips of mice colon smooth muscle were prepared.The effects of carbachol (1 × 10 5 mol/L) and BDNF (1 × 10 7 mol/L) on contractile function of muscle strips were observed.And the effects of tetrodotoxin (TTX,1 × 10-6 mol/L) on BDNF induced contractile function of muscle strips were also studied.The changes of the density of mice intestinal myenteric plexus and the expression of smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) in colon smooth muscle were detected by immunohistochemical techniqne.The ultrastruetural alterations of myenteric plexus,neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and smooth muscle cells were detected by transmission electron microscope (TEM).T-test or Rank sum test was performed for comparison between groups.Results Number of feces particles and water content in feces of BDNF+/-mice ((3.80±0.75) and (39.60±1.47)%) were both lower than those of BDNF+/+ mice ((6.30± 1.03) and (51.00± 1.61) %),and the differences were statistically significant (t=4.792,12.827;both P<0.05).Carbachol (1 × 10-5 mol/L) could significantly increase contraction activity of smooth muscle of BDNF+/+ mice (R =3.26 ± 0.43) and BDNF+/-mice (R=2.15 ± 0.36),and the difference was statistically significant (t=15.754,9.632;both P<0.05).The effects on contraction exciting of smooth muscle strips of BDNF+/+ mice were more significant than BDNF+/ mice,and the difference was

  14. Contrastive analysis on gastrointestinal motility after laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcer and open operation%胃穿孔腹腔镜修补术与开腹修补术术后胃肠动力恢复对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡生之; 张永振; 管小青

    2014-01-01

    Objective To contrastively analyze the gastrointestinal motility after laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcer and open operation. Method 51 patients with gastric perforation in our hospital from March 2012 to May 2013 were selected as control group and treated by laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcer while other 50 patients treated by open operation were selected as experimental group. GAS, peristaltic sound recovery time (PSRT), anorectum exhaust time (AET) and the mean postoperavtive hospitalization on repair of gastric perforation were compared between control group and experimental group. Result Compared with the experimental group, GAS better, PSRT, AET and the mean postoperative hospitalization on repair of gastric perforation were much better of patients in control group. And the differences were signiifcant (P<0.05). Conclusion Laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcer can help improve GAS and shorten PSRT, AET and the mean postoperative hospitalization on repair of gastric perforation which can be promoted and applied as an effective therapeutic regimen. However, indications should be taken into consideration and appropriate surgical procedure should be adopted according to different patients.%目的:对比分析胃穿孔腹腔镜修补术与开腹修补术术后患者胃肠动力恢复的具体情况。方法将2010年3月至2013年5月在本院治疗的胃穿孔患者51例纳入试验组,采用腹腔镜修补术治疗,以同期采用开腹修补术治疗的胃穿孔患者50例作为对照组,比较两组患者在血清胃泌素(GAS)水平、术后肠鸣音恢复时间、肛门排气时间、术后平均住院时间等方面的差异。结果试验组患者GAS、术后肠鸣音恢复时间、肛门排气时间、术后平均住院时间明显优于对照组,差异具有显著性(P<0.05)。结论采用腹腔镜修补术治疗胃穿孔,有利于改善GAS水平、缩短术后肠鸣音恢

  15. Neuropathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jackie D Wood

    2007-01-01

    The investigative evidence and emerging concepts in neurogastroenterology implicate dysfunctions at the levels of the enteric and central nervous systems as underlying causes of the prominent symptoms of many of the functional gastrointestinal disorders.Neurogastroenterological research aims for improved understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of the digestive subsystems from which the arrays of functional symptoms emerge. The key subsystems for defecation-related symptoms and visceral hypersensitivity are the intestinal secretory glands, the musculature and the nervous system that controls and integrates their activity. Abdominal pain and discomfort arising from these systems adds the dimension of sensory neurophysiology. This review details current concepts for the underlying pathophysiology in terms of the physiology of intestinal secretion, motility, nervous control, sensing function, immuno-neural communication and the brain-gut axis.

  16. Inhibitory neurotransmission regulates vagal efferent activity and gastric motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, Caitlin A; Travagli, R Alberto; Browning, Kirsteen N

    2016-06-01

    The gastrointestinal tract receives extrinsic innervation from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, which regulate and modulate the function of the intrinsic (enteric) nervous system. The stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract in particular are heavily influenced by the parasympathetic nervous system, supplied by the vagus nerve, and disruption of vagal sensory or motor functions results in disorganized motility patterns, disrupted receptive relaxation and accommodation, and delayed gastric emptying, amongst others. Studies from several laboratories have shown that the activity of vagal efferent motoneurons innervating the upper GI tract is inhibited tonically by GABAergic synaptic inputs from the adjacent nucleus tractus solitarius. Disruption of this influential central GABA input impacts vagal efferent output, hence gastric functions, significantly. The purpose of this review is to describe the development, physiology, and pathophysiology of this functionally dominant inhibitory synapse and its role in regulating vagally determined gastric functions. PMID:27302177

  17. Gastrointestinal events with clopidogrel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Würtz, Morten; Schwarz, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events.......Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events....

  18. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonja; Skrovanek; Katherine; DiGuilio; Robert; Bailey; William; Huntington; Ryan; Urbas; Barani; Mayilvaganan; Giancarlo; Mercogliano; James; M; Mullin

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases.

  19. Stochastic models of cell motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradinaru, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    Cell motility and migration are central to the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms, and errors during this process can lead to major diseases. Consequently, the mechanisms and phenomenology of cell motility are currently under intense study. In recent years, a new...... interdisciplinary field focusing on the study of biological processes at the nanoscale level, with a range of technological applications in medicine and biological research, has emerged. The work presented in this thesis is at the interface of cell biology, image processing, and stochastic modeling. The stochastic...... models introduced here are based on persistent random motion, which I apply to real-life studies of cell motility on flat and nanostructured surfaces. These models aim to predict the time-dependent position of cell centroids in a stochastic manner, and conversely determine directly from experimental...

  20. Prokinetic Effect of Polyherbal Formulation on Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Srinivasan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PHF, a polyherbal formulation, consist of seven known herbs namely, Aegle marmelos, Elettaria cardamomum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Citrus aurantifolia, Rosa damascene, Cissus quadrangularis and Saccharum officinarum. The PHF was evaluated for acute toxicity, gastrointestinal motility and gastric emptying rate in mice and rats. Based on acute toxicity study, the PHF was considered as safe and 3 dose (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg levels were employed for further pharmacological studies. The gastrointestinal prokinetics effect of PHF in various dose levels (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg., p.o was studied by charcoal meal gastrointestinal transit and laxative effect in mice. The gastric emptying rate of PHF in rat was studied by disappearance of phenol red from stomach. The results illustrate that PHF at 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly (p< 0.001 enhanced the gastrointestinal transit. PHF at 400 mg/kg (p< 0.01 significantly enhanced the purging index, which is the measure of laxative activity. PHF at 200 mg/kg (p< 0.05 less significantly enhanced the purging index. In gastric emptying rate, PHF dose dependently increased the gastric emptying. From the above findings, PHF may be used as gastrointestinal prokinetics and to improve the intestinal motility.

  1. Flagellar motility is necessary for Aeromonas hydrophila adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yingxue; Lin, Guifang; Chen, Wenbo; Xu, Xiaojin; Yan, Qingpi

    2016-09-01

    Adhesion to host surface or cells is the initial step in bacterial pathogenesis, and the adhesion mechanisms of the fish pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila were investigated in this study. First, a mutagenesis library of A. hydrophila that contained 332 random insertion mutants was constructed via mini-Tn10 Km mutagenesis. Four mutants displayed the most attenuated adhesion. Sequence analysis revealed that the mini-Tn10 insertion sites in the four mutant strains were flgC(GenBank accession numbers KX261880), cytb4(GenBank accession numbers JN133621), rbsR(GenBank accession numbers KX261881) and flgE(GenBank accession numbers JQ974982). To further study the roles of flgC and flgE in the adhesion of A. hydrophila, some biological characteristics of the wild-type strain B11, the mutants M121 and M240, and the complemented strains C121 and C240 were investigated. The results showed that the mutation in flgC or flgE led to the flagellar motility of A. hydrophila significant reduction or abolishment. flgC was not necessary for flagellar biosynthesis but was necessary for the full motility of A. hydrophila, flgE was involved in both flagellar biosynthesis and motility. The flagellar motility is necessary for A. hydrophila to adhere to the host mucus, which suggests flagellar motility plays crucial roles in the early infection process of this bacterium. PMID:27432325

  2. Disturbances of motility and visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome: biological markers or epiphenomenon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2012-02-03

    Motility and visceral hypersentitivity are regarded as the primary mechanisms of symptom development in irritable bowel syndrome(IBS). While a variety of motor abnormalities have been described throughout the gastrointestinal tract in IBS, their specificity and relationship to symptoms remain unclear. Visceral hypersensitivity is ubiquitous in functional gastrointestinal disease and is especially common in IBS. Again, however, its specificity for IBS has been questioned. Many factors, including stress and psychopathology,complicate the interpretation of these phenomena and new re-search suggests that mucosal inflammation and luminal factors may be more fundamental to the etiology of this common disorder.

  3. Barriers to bacterial motility on unsaturated surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Smets, Barth F.

    2013-01-01

    and their isogenic mutants unable to express various type of motility we aimed to quantify the physical limits of bacterial motility. Our results demonstrate how hydration controls bacterial motility under unsaturated conditions. They can form the base of improved biodegradation models that include microbial...

  4. Rapamycin inhibits IGF-1 stimulated cell motility through PP2A pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    Full Text Available Serine/threonine (Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A has been implicated as a novel component of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway. Recently we have demonstrated that mTOR regulates cell motility in part through p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1 pathways. Little is known about the role of PP2A in the mTOR-mediated cell motility. Here we show that rapamycin inhibited the basal or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1-induced motility of human Ewing sarcoma (Rh1 and rhabdomyosarcoma (Rh30 cells. Treatment of the cells with rapamycin activated PP2A activity, and concurrently inhibited IGF-1 stimulated phosphorylation of Erk1/2. Inhibition of Erk1/2 with PD98059 did not significantly affect the basal mobility of the cells, but dramatically inhibited IGF-1-induced cell motility. Furthermore, inhibition of PP2A with okadaic acid significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of rapamycin on IGF-1-stimulated phosphorylation of Erk1/2 as well as cell motility. Consistently, expression of dominant negative PP2A conferred resistance to IGF-1-stimulated phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and cell motility. Expression of constitutively active MKK1 also attenuated rapamycin inhibition of IGF-1-stimulated phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and cell motility. The results suggest that rapamycin inhibits cell motility, in part by targeting PP2A-Erk1/2 pathway.

  5. Development of Gastrointestinal Function: Risk Factors for Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, David A.; Mitchell, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    The intestinal tract of the fetus matures rapidly in the third trimester of the pregnancy. The premature infant has decreased intestinal motility, limited digestion, absorption and excretion, and poor intestinal barrier defense. These limitations place the infant at high risk for acute intestinal injury, necrotizing enterocolitis. This article reviews the development of the gastrointestinal tract in the fetus, the barriers to feeding the high risk, premature infant, and the most serious intes...

  6. Pathophysiological aspects of diverticular disease of colon and role of large bowel motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabrio Bassotti; Fabio Chistolini; Antonio Morelli

    2003-01-01

    Colonic diverticular disease (diverticulosis) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders in Western countries. This disorder is strictly related to aging and fibre intake, and still bears a discrete amount of morbidity. Numerous etiological co-factors have to date been implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease, yet the supporting evidence is still far from absolute. The present review considers the pathophysiology of colonic diverticular disease, with a special emphasis on factors related to abnormal colonic motility.

  7. Inhibition of human pancreatic and biliary output but not intestinal motility by physiological intraileal lipid loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Jutta; Holst, Jens Juul; Layer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    . Physiological postprandial ileal lipid concentrations dose dependently inhibited human digestive pancreatic protease and bile acid output, but not intestinal motor activity. Thus physiological postprandial ileal nutrient exposure may be of importance for the termination of digestive secretory responses......Lipid perfusion into the distal ileal lumen at supraphysiological loads inhibits pancreatic exocrine secretion and gastrointestinal motility in humans. In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of physiological postprandial intraileal lipid concentrations on endogenously stimulated...

  8. Effect of cannabidiol on sepsis-induced motility disturbances in mice: involvement of CB receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Filippis, D; Iuvone, T; d'amico, A; Esposito, G; Steardo, L; Herman, A G; Pelckmans, P A; de Winter, B Y; de Man, J G

    2008-08-01

    Sepsis is an inflammatory condition that is associated with reduced propulsive gastrointestinal motility (ileus). A therapeutic option to treat sepsis is to promote intestinal propulsion preventing bacterial stasis, overgrowth and translocation. Recent evidence suggests that anti-oxidants improve sepsis-induced ileus. Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa, exerts strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects without binding to cannabinoid CB(1) or CB(2) receptors. Cannabidiol also regulates the activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) which is the main enzyme involved in endocannabinoid breakdown and which modulates gastrointestinal motility. Because of the therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in several pathologies, we investigated its effect on sepsis-induced ileus and on cannabinoid receptor and FAAH expression in the mouse intestine. Sepsis was induced by treating mice with lipopolysaccharides for 18 h. Sepsis led to a decrease in gastric emptying and intestinal transit. Cannabidiol further reduced gastrointestinal motility in septic mice but did not affect gastrointestinal motility in control mice. A low concentration of the CB(1) antagonist AM251 did not affect gastrointestinal motility in control mice but reversed the effect of cannabidiol in septic mice. Sepsis was associated with a selective upregulation of intestinal CB(1) receptors without affecting CB(2) receptor expression and with increased FAAH expression. The increase in FAAH expression was completely reversed by cannabidiol but not affected by AM251. Our results show that sepsis leads to an imbalance of the endocannabinoid system in the mouse intestine. Despite its proven anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, cannabidiol may be of limited use for the treatment of sepsis-induced ileus. PMID:18373655

  9. Physical models of cell motility

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book surveys the most recent advances in physics-inspired cell movement models. This synergetic, cross-disciplinary effort to increase the fidelity of computational algorithms will lead to a better understanding of the complex biomechanics of cell movement, and stimulate progress in research on related active matter systems, from suspensions of bacteria and synthetic swimmers to cell tissues and cytoskeleton.Cell motility and collective motion are among the most important themes in biology and statistical physics of out-of-equilibrium systems, and crucial for morphogenesis, wound healing, and immune response in eukaryotic organisms. It is also relevant for the development of effective treatment strategies for diseases such as cancer, and for the design of bioactive surfaces for cell sorting and manipulation. Substrate-based cell motility is, however, a very complex process as regulatory pathways and physical force generation mechanisms are intertwined. To understand the interplay between adhesion, force ...

  10. Gender effects on esophageal motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas R.O.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that there are no gender effects on esophageal motility. However, in previous studies the subjects did not perform multiple swallows and the quantitative features of esophageal contractions were not evaluated. In order to investigate the gender effects on esophageal motility we studied 40 healthy normal volunteers, 20 men aged 37 ± 15 years (mean ± SD, and 20 women aged 38 ± 14 years. We used the manometric method with an eight-lumen polyvinyl catheter and continuous perfusion. The upper and lower esophageal sphincter pressures were measured by the rapid pull-through method. With the catheter positioned with one lumen opening in the lower esophageal sphincter, and the others at 5, 10 and 15 cm above the sphincter, ten swallows of a 5-ml water bolus alternated with ten dry swallows were performed. Statistical analysis was done by the Student t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Gender differences (P<0.05 were observed for wet swallows in the duration of contractions 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter (men: 3.7 ± 0.2 s, women: 4.5 ± 0.3 s, mean ± SEM, and in the velocity of contractions from 15 to 10 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter (men: 4.7 ± 0.3 cm/s, women: 3.5 ± 0.2 cm/s. There was no difference (P>0.05 in sphincter pressure, duration and percentage of complete lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, amplitude of contractions, or in the number of failed, multipeaked and synchronous contractions. We conclude that gender may cause some differences in esophageal motility which, though of no clinical significance, should be taken into consideration when interpreting esophageal motility tests.

  11. Common basis for cellular motility

    OpenAIRE

    Zot, Henry G.; Javier E Hasbun; Minh, Nguyen Van

    2015-01-01

    Motility is characteristic of life, but a common basis for movement has remained to be identified. Diverse systems in motion shift between two states depending on interactions that turnover at the rate of an applied cycle of force. Although one phase of the force cycle terminates the decay of the most recent state, continuation of the cycle of force regenerates the original decay process in a recursive cycle. By completing a cycle, kinetic energy is transformed into probability of sustaining ...

  12. Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prasanna Ghimire; Guang-Yao Wu; Ling Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract is the most common extranodal site involved by lymphoma with the majority being non-Hodgkin type. Although lymphoma can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, the most frequent sites in order of its occurrence are the stomach followed by small intestine and ileocecal region. Gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is usually secondary to the widespread nodal diseases and primary gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is relatively rare. Gastrointestinal lymphomas are usually not clinically specific and indistinguishable from other benign and malignant conditions. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common pathological type of gastrointestinal lymphoma in essentially all sites of the gastrointestinal tract, although recently the frequency of other forms has also increased in certain regions of the world. Although some radiological features such as bulky lymph nodes and maintenance of fat plane are more suggestive of lymphoma, they are not specific,thus mandating histopathological analysis for its definitive diagnosis. There has been a tremendous leap in the diagnosis, staging and management of gastrointestinal lymphoma in the last two decades attributed to a better insight into its etiology and molecular aspect as well as the knowledge about its critical signaling pathways.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers of gastrointestinal motor function and fluid distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asseel; Khalaf; Caroline; L; Hoad; Robin; C; Spiller; Penny; A; Gowland; Gordon; W; Moran; Luca; Marciani

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) is a well established technique that has revolutionized diagnostic radiology. Until recently, the impact that MRI has had in the assessment of gastrointestinal motor function and bowel fluid distribution in health and in disease has been more limited, despite the novel insights that MRI can provide along the entire gastrointestinal tract. MRI biomarkers include intestinal motility indices, small bowel water content and whole gut transit time. The present review discusses new developments and applications of MRI in the upper gastrointestinal tract, the small bowel and the colon reported in the literature in the last 5 years.

  14. Actions of prolonged ghrelin infusion on gastrointestinal transit and glucose homeostasis in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkén, Y; Hellström, P M; Sanger, G J;

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin is produced by enteroendocrine cells in the gastric mucosa and stimulates gastric emptying in healthy volunteers and patients with gastroparesis in short-term studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of intravenous ghrelin on gastrointestinal motility and glucose homeostasis...... during a 6-h infusion in humans....

  15. Regional Gastrointestinal Transit Times in Patients With Carcinoid Diarrhea: Assessment With the Novel 3D-Transit System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Tine; Haase, Anne-Mette; Schlageter, Vincent;

    2015-01-01

    not yet been evaluated in any group of patients. We aimed to test the performance of 3D-Transit in patients with carcinoid diarrhea and to compare the patients' regional gastrointestinal transit times (GITT) and colonic motility patterns with those of healthy subjects. METHODS: Fifteen healthy volunteers......BACKGROUND/AIMS: The paucity of knowledge regarding gastrointestinal motility in patients with neuroendocrine tumors and carcinoid diarrhea re-stricts targeted treatment. 3D-Transit is a novel, minimally invasive, ambulatory method for description of gastrointestinal motility. The system has.......5 (range: 8.5-47.2) hours in patients versus 25.1 (range: 13.1-142.3) hours in healthy (P = 0.007). There was no difference in gastric emptying (P = 0.778). Median small intestinal transit time was 3.8 (range: 1.4-5.5) hours in patients versus 4.4 (range: 1.8-7.2) hours in healthy subjects (P = 0...

  16. LBP based detection of intestinal motility in WCE images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Giovanni; Granata, Eliana

    2011-03-01

    In this research study, a system to support medical analysis of intestinal contractions by processing WCE images is presented. Small intestine contractions are among the motility patterns which reveal many gastrointestinal disorders, such as functional dyspepsia, paralytic ileus, irritable bowel syndrome, bacterial overgrowth. The images have been obtained using the Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) technique, a patented, video colorimaging disposable capsule. Manual annotation of contractions is an elaborating task, since the recording device of the capsule stores about 50,000 images and contractions might represent only the 1% of the whole video. In this paper we propose the use of Local Binary Pattern (LBP) combined with the powerful textons statistics to find the frames of the video related to contractions. We achieve a sensitivity of about 80% and a specificity of about 99%. The achieved high detection accuracy of the proposed system has provided thus an indication that such intelligent schemes could be used as a supplementary diagnostic tool in endoscopy.

  17. Neural network for automatic analysis of motility data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Kruse-Andersen, S; Kolberg, Jens Godsk

    1994-01-01

    events. Due to great variation in events, this method often fails to detect biologically relevant pressure variations. We have tried to develop a new concept for recognition of pressure events based on a neural network. Pressures were recorded for over 23 hours in 29 normal volunteers by means...... comparable. However, the neural network recognized pressure peaks clearly generated by muscular activity that had escaped detection by the conventional program. In conclusion, we believe that neurocomputing has potential advantages for automatic analysis of gastrointestinal motility data....... of a portable data recording system. A number of pressure events and non-events were selected from 9 recordings and used for training the network. The performance of the trained network was then verified on recordings from the remaining 20 volunteers. The accuracy and sensitivity of the two systems were...

  18. ARMA-based spectral bandwidth for evaluation of bowel motility by the analysis of bowel sounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 10%–20% of adults and adolescents suffer from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) worldwide. IBS is characterized by chronic gastrointestinal dysfunction which may reflect in altered motility. Currently, the diagnosis of IBS is made through expensive invasive radiographic and endoscopic examinations. However these are inconvenient and unsuited for community screening. Bowel sounds (BSs) can be easily recorded with non-invasive and low-cost equipment. Recently, several researchers have pointed out changes in features obtained from BS according to the pathological condition of bowel motility. However a widely accepted, simple automatic BS detection algorithm still has to be found, and the appropriate recording period needs to be investigated for further evaluation of bowel motility. In this study we propose a novel simple automatic method to detect the BSs based on the 3 dB bandwidth of the frequency peaks in the autoregressive moving average spectrum. We use the measure, sound-to-sound interval (SSI) obtained by the proposed method, to capture bowel motility. In this paper, we show that the proposed method for automatic detection could achieve a sensitivity of 87.8±5.88%, specificity of 91.7±4.33% and area under the curve of 0.923 when working on 16 healthy volunteers during mosapride administrations. Furthermore, we show that the measured SSI averaged over a period of 30 min can clearly capture bowel motility. Our findings should have the potential to contribute toward developing automated BS-based diagnosis of IBS. (paper)

  19. Different effects of ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and obestatin on gastroduodenal motility in conscious rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mineko Fujimiya; Aldhiro Asakawa; Koji Ataka; Ikuo Kato; Akio Inui

    2008-01-01

    Three peptides, ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and obestatin are derived from a common prohormone, preproghre-lin by posttranslational processing, originating from endocrine cells in the stomach. To examine the effects of these peptides, we applied the manometric mea-surement of gastrointestinal motility in freely moving conscious rat models. Ghrelin exerts stimulatory ef-fects on the motility of antrum and duodenum in both fed and fasted state of animals. Des-acyl ghrelin exerts inhibitory effects on the motility of antrum, but not on the motility of duodenum in the fasted state of ani-mals. Obestatin exerts inhibitory effects on the motility of antrum and duodenum in the fed state, but not in the fasted state of animals. NPY Y2 or Y4 receptors in the brain may mediate the action of ghrelin, CRF type 2 receptors in the brain mediate the action of des-acyl ghrelin, whereas CRF type 1 and type 2 receptors in the brain mediate the action of obestatin. Vagal affer-ent pathways might be involved in the action of ghre-lin, but not involved in the action of des-acyl ghrelin, whereas vagal afferent pathways might be partially involved in the action of obestatin.

  20. Does laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery for gastric submucosal tumors preserve residual gastric motility? Results of a retrospective single-center study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Waseda

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS is a minimally invasive surgical technique used to resect gastric submucosal tumors with intraluminal growth. Endoscopic submucosal dissection is used to determine the appropriate resection line from within the stomach lumen as it minimizes the stomach wall resection area and prevents postoperative stomach deformity. Although LECS is intended to preserve gastric function, few reports have evaluated postoperative residual gastric motility. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent LECS to determine the effects of LECS on residual gastric motility.Twenty-two patients underwent endoscopy 3 to 12 months after LECS. Patients were evaluated for endoscopic evidence of gastric motility disorder, namely food residue and occurrence/exacerbation of reflux esophagitis. We considered patients with new onset of gastric symptoms and endoscopic evidence of gastric motility disorder to have clinically relevant gastric motility disorder. We described patient characteristics, tumor location, and surgical findings.Two of 22 patients developed clinically relevant gastric motility disorder after LECS. In one of these patients, the symptoms were not severe; only one had reduced dietary intake and had lost weight. We identified clinically relevant gastric motility disorder in two patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors located in the lesser curvature of the stomach. The major axis of these two tumors was 34 mm and 38 mm.Many patients did not have clinically relevant gastric motility disorder after LECS. Further investigation is required to identify predisposing factors for gastric motility disorder.

  1. Endoscopic Gastrointestinal Laser Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Buchi, Kenneth N.

    1985-01-01

    The development of flexible fibers for the delivery of laser energy led to the first endoscopic laser applications in humans in the early 1970s. Since that time, much has been learned about applications throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The risks appear to be minimal. The coagulative effect of laser energy is used to treat gastrointestinal hemorrhage and small, benign mucosal lesions. The ablative effect of the Nd:YAG laser on tissue is used for palliative therapy for malignant gastroint...

  2. Recent insights into digestive motility in functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Yohei; Shikuwa, Saburo; Isomoto, Hajime; Mishima, Ryosuke; Akazawa, Yuko; Masuda, Jun-ichi; Omagari, Katsuhisa; Takeshima, Fuminao; Kohno, Shigeru

    2006-11-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders, such as functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome, are common pathologies of the gut. FD is a clinical syndrome defined as chronic or recurrent pain or discomfort of unknown origin in the upper abdomen. The pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for FD have not been fully elucidated, but new ideas regarding its pathophysiology and the significance of the pathophysiology with respect to the symptom pattern of FD have emerged. In particular, there is growing interest in alterations in gastric motility, such as accommodation to a meal or gastric emptying, and visceral sensation in FD. The mechanisms underlying impaired gastroduodenal motor function are unclear, but possible factors include abnormal neurohormonal function, autonomic dysfunction, visceral hypersensitivity to acid or mechanical distention, Helicobacter pylori infection, acute gastrointestinal infection, psychosocial comorbidity, and stress. Although the optimum treatment for FD is not yet clearly established, acid-suppressive drugs, prokinetic agents, eradication of H. pylori, and antidepressants have been widely used in the management of patients with FD. The therapeutic efficacy of prokinetics such as itopride hydrochloride and mosapride citrate in the treatment of FD is supported by the results of relatively large and well-controlled studies. In addition, recent research has yielded new therapeutic agents and modalities for dysmotility in FD, including agonists/antagonists of various sensorimotor receptors, activation of the nitrergic pathway, kampo medicine, acupuncture, and gastric electric stimulation. This review discusses recent research on the pathophysiology of and treatment options for FD, with special attention given to digestive dysmotility. PMID:17160514

  3. Vagal tone: effects on sensitivity, motility, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaz, B; Sinniger, V; Pellissier, S

    2016-04-01

    The vagus nerve (VN) is a key element of the autonomic nervous system. As a mixed nerve, the VN contributes to the bidirectional interactions between the brain and the gut, i.e., the brain-gut axis. In particular, after integration in the central autonomic network of peripheral sensations such as inflammation and pain via vagal and spinal afferents, an efferent response through modulation of preganglionic parasympathetic neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and/or preganglionic sympathetic neurons of the spinal cord is able to modulate gastrointestinal nociception, motility, and inflammation. A low vagal tone, as assessed by heart rate variability, a marker of the sympatho-vagal balance, is observed in functional digestive disorders and inflammatory bowel diseases. To restore a normal vagal tone appears as a goal in such diseases. Among the therapeutic tools, such as drugs targeting the cholinergic system and/or complementary medicine (hypnosis, meditation…), deep breathing, physical exercise, VN stimulation (VNS), either invasive or non-invasive, appears as innovative. There is new evidence in the current issue of this Journal supporting the role of VNS in the modulation of gastrointestinal functions. PMID:27010234

  4. Gaslike model of social motility

    CERN Document Server

    Parravano, A; 10.1103/PhysRevE.78.026120

    2009-01-01

    We propose a model to represent the motility of social elements. The model is completely deterministic, possesses a small number of parameters, and exhibits a series of properties that are reminiscent of the behavior of comunities in social-ecological competition; these are: (i) similar individuals attract each other; (ii) individuals can form stable groups; (iii) a group of similar individuals breaks into subgroups if it reaches a critical size; (iv) interaction between groups can modify the distribution of the elements as a result of fusion, fission, or pursuit; (v) individuals can change their internal state by interaction with their neighbors. The simplicity of the model and its richness of emergent behaviors, such as, for example, pursuit between groups, make it a useful toy model to explore a diversity of situations by changing the rule by which the internal state of individuals is modified by the interactions with the environment.

  5. Gastrointestinal tract volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Yamada, Kenji; Watabe, Kenji; Kido, Michiko; Nagakura, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Hideya; Nishida, Tsutomu; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takehara, Tetsuo; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    We propose an intestine volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope. This method aims at assessment of the gastrointestinal function. Gastrointestinal diseases are mainly based on morphological abnormalities. However, gastrointestinal symptoms are sometimes apparent without visible abnormalities. Such diseases are called functional gastrointestinal disorder, for example, functional dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome. One of the major factors for these diseases is abnormal gastrointestinal motility. For the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract, both aspects of organic and functional assessment is important. While endoscopic diagnosis is essential for assessment of organic abnormalities, three-dimensional information is required for assessment of the functional abnormalities. Thus, we proposed the three dimensional endoscope system using compound eye. In this study, we forces on the volume of gastrointestinal tract. The volume of the gastrointestinal tract is thought to related its function. In our system, we use a compound eye type endoscope system to obtain three-dimensional information of the tract. The volume can be calculated by integrating the slice data of the intestine tract shape using the obtained three-dimensional information. First, we evaluate the proposed method by known-shape tube. Then, we confirm that the proposed method can measure the tract volume using the tract simulated model. Our system can assess the wall of gastrointestinal tract directly in a three-dimensional manner. Our system can be used for examination of gastric morphological and functional abnormalities.

  6. Active Gel Model of Amoeboid Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Callan-Jones, A C

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model of amoeboid cell motility based on active gel theory. Modeling the motile apparatus of a eukaryotic cell as a confined layer of finite length of poroelastic active gel permeated by a solvent, we first show that, due to active stress and gel turnover, an initially static and homogeneous layer can undergo a contractile-type instability to a polarized moving state in which the rear is enriched in gel polymer. This agrees qualitatively with motile cells containing an actomyosin-rich uropod at their rear. We find that the gel layer settles into a steadily moving, inhomogeneous state at long times, sustained by a balance between contractility and filament turnover. In addition, our model predicts an optimal value of the gel-susbstrate adhesion leading to maximum layer speed, in agreement with cell motility assays. The model may be relevant to motility of cells translocating in complex, confining environments that can be mimicked experimentally by cell migration through microchannels.

  7. Influence of ionizing radiation on gastrointestinal peptide levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of the gut to ionising radiation may induce gastrointestinal damage and dysfunction. Early effects such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, anorexia may be observed within the first 24 h after irradiation. Such symptoms are seen even with doses as low as 1 Gy. later effects and the onset of the gastrointestinal syndrome are seen at higher doses (10 Gy) and include gastric emptying inhibition, intestinal hemorrhages, disturbances in water and electrolytes balance and septicemia. The severity of which depends on the nature, dose and dose rate received. The mechanism underlying these changes was unclear; it has long been known that exposure to ionising radiation affects intestinal morphology usually because of inhibition of mitotic activity at the level of the crypt enterocyst. The various physiological functions of the gastrointestinal tract are controlled by a wide variety of agents as neurotransmitters, neuropeptides. Radiation induces alterations in hormonal release and response. The present study carried out in the rat focuses on Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP), a gastrointestinal neuropeptide present in the central nervous system and in the gut endocrine cells were released into blood. The GRP controls food intake, pancreatic enzyme secretions, gastric emptying, intestinal motility and cellular proliferation. The aim was to investigate the effects of gamma and neutron/gamma on plasma and gastrointestinal tissue levels of GRP

  8. Influence of ionizing radiation on gastrointestinal peptide levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysocki, J.; Esposito, V.; Linard, C. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1997-03-01

    Exposure of the gut to ionising radiation may induce gastrointestinal damage and dysfunction. Early effects such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, anorexia may be observed within the first 24 h after irradiation. Such symptoms are seen even with doses as low as 1 Gy. later effects and the onset of the gastrointestinal syndrome are seen at higher doses (10 Gy) and include gastric emptying inhibition, intestinal hemorrhages, disturbances in water and electrolytes balance and septicemia. The severity of which depends on the nature, dose and dose rate received. The mechanism underlying these changes was unclear; it has long been known that exposure to ionising radiation affects intestinal morphology usually because of inhibition of mitotic activity at the level of the crypt enterocyst. The various physiological functions of the gastrointestinal tract are controlled by a wide variety of agents as neurotransmitters, neuropeptides. Radiation induces alterations in hormonal release and response. The present study carried out in the rat focuses on Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP), a gastrointestinal neuropeptide present in the central nervous system and in the gut endocrine cells were released into blood. The GRP controls food intake, pancreatic enzyme secretions, gastric emptying, intestinal motility and cellular proliferation. The aim was to investigate the effects of gamma and neutron/gamma on plasma and gastrointestinal tissue levels of GRP

  9. Gastrointestinal parasites and the neural control of gut functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Christiane Halliez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal motility and transport of water and electrolytes play key roles in the pathophysiology of diarrhea upon exposure to enteric parasites. These processes are actively modulated by the enteric nervous system (ENS, which includes efferent, and afferent neurons, as well as interneurons. ENS integrity is essential to the maintenance of homeostatic gut responses. A number of gastrointestinal parasites are known to cause disease by altering the enteric nervous system. The mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia, Trypanosoma cruzi, Schistosoma sp and others alter gastrointestinal motility, absorption, or secretion at least in part via effects on the ENS. Recent findings also implicate enteric parasites such as Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis in the development of post-infectious complications such as irritable bowel syndrome, which further underscores their effects on the gut-brain axis. This article critically reviews recent advances and the current state of knowledge on the impact of enteric parasitism on the neural control of gut functions, and provides insights into mechanisms underlying these abnormalities.

  10. Effect of ginger on gastric motility and symptoms of functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Luen Hu; Christophan K Rayner; Keng-Liang Wu; Seng-Kee Chuah; Wei-Chen Tai; Yeh-Pin Chou; Yi-Chun Chiu; King-Wah Chiu; Tsung-Hui Hu

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the effects of ginger on gastric motility and emptying,abdominal symptoms,and hormones that influence motility in dyspepsia.METHODS:Eleven patients with functional dyspepsia were studied twice in a randomized double-blind manner.After an 8-h fast,the patients ingested three capsules that contained ginger(total 1.2 g)or placebo,followed after 1 h by 500 mL low-nutrient soup.Antral area,fundus area and diameter,and the frequency of antral contractions were measured using ultrasound at frequent intervals,and the gastric half-emptying time was calculated from the change in antral area.Gastrointestinal sensations and appetite were scored using visual analog questionnaires,and blood was taken for measurement of plasma glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1),motilin and ghrelin concentrations,at intervals throughout the study.RESULTS:Gastric emptying was more rapid after ginger than placebo [median(range)half-emptying time 12.3(8.5-17.0)min after ginger,16.1(8.3-22.6)min after placebo,P ≤ 0.05].There was a trend for more antral contractions(P = 0.06),but fundus dimensions and gastrointestinal symptoms did not differ,nor did serum concentrations of GLP-1,motilin and ghrelin.CONCLUSION:Ginger stimulated gastric emptying and antral contractions in patients with functional dyspepsia,but had no impact on gastrointestinal symptoms or gut peptides.

  11. Obesity and gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Binkowska-Borgosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is a significant public health problem in the 21st century due to its scale, common existence and its cause-effect association with multiple diseases. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in humans is regarded as a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. However, data from recent years have revealed that obesity is also strongly associated with increased risk of the majority of cancers in humans, including those originating from the gastrointestinal tract. During the last few year this association has been thoroughly proven and supported by several epidemiological analyses. The authors present i the current state of knowledge regarding key (pathomechanisms that link metabolism of human adipose tissue to development/progression of neoplasms (especially in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as ii the results of selected clinical studies in which the influence of obesity on risk of gastrointestinal cancer development has been addressed.

  12. Plankton motility patterns and encounter rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    measure of run length to reaction distance determines whether the underlying encounter is ballistic or diffusive. Since ballistic interactions are intrinsically more efficient than diffusive, we predict that organisms will display motility with long correlation run lengths compared to their reaction...... distances to their prey, but short compared to the reaction distances of their predators. We show motility data for planktonic organisms ranging from bacteria to copepods that support this prediction. We also present simple ballistic and diffusive motility models for estimating encounter rates, which lead...

  13. Heritable Gastrointestinal Cancer Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Elena M

    2016-09-01

    Although almost all gastrointestinal cancers develop from sporadic genomic events, approximately 5% arise from germline mutations in genes associated with cancer predisposition. The number of these genes continues to increase. Tumor phenotypes and family history provide the framework for identifying at-risk individuals. The diagnosis of a hereditary cancer syndrome has implications for management of patients and their families. Systematic approaches that integrate family history and molecular characterization of tumors and polyps facilitate identification of individuals with this genetic predisposition. This article summarizes diagnosis and management of hereditary cancer syndromes associated with gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:27546846

  14. A randomised, controlled study of small intestinal motility in patients treated with sacral nerve stimulation for irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Fassov, Janne; Lundby, Lilli; Worsøe, Jonas; Buntzen, Steen; Laurberg, Søren; Krogh, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is among the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. In selected patients with severe diarrhoea-predominant or mixed IBS subtypes sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) alleviates IBS-specific symptoms and improves quality of life. The mode of action, however, remains unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of SNS on small intestinal motility in IBS patients. Methods Twenty patients treated with SNS for severe diarrhoea-predominant o...

  15. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of 3,3′-Diindolylmethane in Gastrointestinal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Mi Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies in humans have shown that 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM, which is found in cruciferous vegetables, such as cabbage and broccoli, is effective in the attenuation of gastrointestinal cancers. This review presents the latest findings on the use, targets, and modes of action of DIM for the treatment of human gastrointestinal cancers. DIM acts upon several cellular and molecular processes in gastrointestinal cancer cells, including apoptosis, autophagy, invasion, cell cycle regulation, metastasis, angiogenesis, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. In addition, DIM increases the efficacy of other drugs or therapeutic chemicals when used in combinatorial treatment for gastrointestinal cancer. The studies to date offer strong evidence to support the use of DIM as an anticancer and therapeutic agent for gastrointestinal cancer. Therefore, this review provides a comprehensive understanding of the preventive and therapeutic properties of DIM in addition to its different perspective on the safety of DIM in clinical applications for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers.

  16. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of 3,3'-Diindolylmethane in Gastrointestinal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Mi

    2016-01-01

    Studies in humans have shown that 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), which is found in cruciferous vegetables, such as cabbage and broccoli, is effective in the attenuation of gastrointestinal cancers. This review presents the latest findings on the use, targets, and modes of action of DIM for the treatment of human gastrointestinal cancers. DIM acts upon several cellular and molecular processes in gastrointestinal cancer cells, including apoptosis, autophagy, invasion, cell cycle regulation, metastasis, angiogenesis, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In addition, DIM increases the efficacy of other drugs or therapeutic chemicals when used in combinatorial treatment for gastrointestinal cancer. The studies to date offer strong evidence to support the use of DIM as an anticancer and therapeutic agent for gastrointestinal cancer. Therefore, this review provides a comprehensive understanding of the preventive and therapeutic properties of DIM in addition to its different perspective on the safety of DIM in clinical applications for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:27447608

  17. Effect of pinaverium bromide on jejunal motility and colonic transit time in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, M; Salles, J P; Fallet, M; Frileux, P; Cugnenc, P H; Barbier, J P

    1992-01-01

    Pinaverium bromide is a specific calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) for its spasmolytic activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of orally administered pinaverium bromide on jejunal motility and total and segmental colonic transit time in control subjects. Gastrointestinal studies were performed in 10 healthy volunteers (30 +/- 3 years), before and after a treatment phase of 14 days (150 mg/d). Jejunal motility was measured by prolonged manometry (14 h) and colonic transit time by a multiple ingestion, single marker technique. No significant modification of phase III of the migrating motor complexes was demonstrated. On the contrary, a significant (p < 0.01) but weak decrease of the frequency of contraction was found. Unlike previous studies, no decrease of total or segmental colonic transit time was demonstrated. PMID:1421047

  18. Mammalian Sperm Motility: Observation and Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Gaffney, E.A.

    2011-01-21

    Mammalian spermatozoa motility is a subject of growing importance because of rising human infertility and the possibility of improving animal breeding. We highlight opportunities for fluid and continuum dynamics to provide novel insights concerning the mechanics of these specialized cells, especially during their remarkable journey to the egg. The biological structure of the motile sperm appendage, the flagellum, is described and placed in the context of the mechanics underlying the migration of mammalian sperm through the numerous environments of the female reproductive tract. This process demands certain specific changes to flagellar movement and motility for which further mechanical insight would be valuable, although this requires improved modeling capabilities, particularly to increase our understanding of sperm progression in vivo. We summarize current theoretical studies, highlighting the synergistic combination of imaging and theory in exploring sperm motility, and discuss the challenges for future observational and theoretical studies in understanding the underlying mechanics. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  19. Mammalian Sperm Motility: Observation and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, E. A.; Gadêlha, H.; Smith, D. J.; Blake, J. R.; Kirkman-Brown, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa motility is a subject of growing importance because of rising human infertility and the possibility of improving animal breeding. We highlight opportunities for fluid and continuum dynamics to provide novel insights concerning the mechanics of these specialized cells, especially during their remarkable journey to the egg. The biological structure of the motile sperm appendage, the flagellum, is described and placed in the context of the mechanics underlying the migration of mammalian sperm through the numerous environments of the female reproductive tract. This process demands certain specific changes to flagellar movement and motility for which further mechanical insight would be valuable, although this requires improved modeling capabilities, particularly to increase our understanding of sperm progression in vivo. We summarize current theoretical studies, highlighting the synergistic combination of imaging and theory in exploring sperm motility, and discuss the challenges for future observational and theoretical studies in understanding the underlying mechanics.

  20. How substrate rigidity regulates the cellular motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvestani, Alireza

    2011-03-01

    Mechanical stiffness of bio-adhesive substrates has been recognized as a major regulator of cell motility. We present a simple physical model to study the crawling locomotion of a contractile cell on a soft elastic substrate. The mechanism of rigidity sensing is accounted for using Schwarz's two spring model (Schwarz et al. (2006) BioSystems 83, 225-232). The predicted dependency between the speed of motility and substrate stiffness is qualitatively consistent with experimental observations. The model demonstrates that the rigidity dependent motility of cells is rooted in the regulation of actomyosin contractile forces by substrate deformation at each anchorage point. On stiffer substrates, the traction forces required for cell translocation acquire larger magnitude but show weaker asymmetry which leads to slower cell motility. On very soft substrates, the model predicts a biphasic relationship between the substrate rigidity and the speed of locomotion, over a narrow stiffness range, which has been observed experimentally for some cell types.

  1. [Gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moctezuma-Velázquez, Carlos; Aguirre-Valadez, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Diet is considered an important triggering factor for gastrointestinal symptoms whose physiopathology includes not only measurable, inflammatory reactions, but also functional disorders, where no organic effects may be measured or demonstrated. Moreover, the prevalence of the perceived intolerance to certain foods ranges from 20-25% (within the general population) to 50-70% in diseases like irritable bowel syndrome. This intolerance has been observed particularly after the consumption of milk and dairy products, which are frequently considered as causative of gastrointestinal symptoms, thus limiting their ingestion. However, this behavior reduces the dietary sources of calcium and consequently may lead to malnutrition and bone decalcification, amongst other complications. The true dairy intolerance (intestinal lactase deficiency) explains most of the symptoms ensuing their consumption, but the frequency of such alteration on the different gastrointestinal diseases has not been determined. This review focuses on the most frequent gastrointestinal diseases and the existing evidence regarding the alterations and symptoms related to the consumption of milk or dairy products. PMID:27603892

  2. Cell motility as random motion: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmeczi, Dávid; Li, Liwen; Pedersen, Leif;

    2008-01-01

    The historical co-evolution of biological motility models with models of Brownian motion is outlined. Recent results for how to derive cell-type-specific motility models from experimental cell trajectories are reviewed. Experimental work in progress, which tests the generality of this...... phenomenological model building is reported. So is theoretical work in progress, which explains the characteristic time scales and correlations of phenomenological models in terms of the dynamics of cytoskeleton, lamellipodia, and pseudopodia....

  3. Haemochromatosis and gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagergren, Katarina; Wahlin, Karl; Mattsson, Fredrik; Alderson, Derek; Lagergren, Jesper

    2016-10-15

    Iron overload in patients with haemochromatosis is a strong risk factor for liver cancer, but its influence on other gastrointestinal cancer risk is unclear. The aim was to assess the relative risk of luminal gastrointestinal cancer among patients diagnosed with haemochromatosis. This population-based, nationwide Swedish cohort study included patients with haemochromatosis in Sweden in 1965-2013. The incidence of gastrointestinal cancers was assessed through the Swedish Cancer Registry. The measure of relative risk was the standardised incidence ratio (SIR) with 95% confidence interval (CI), that is, the ratio of the observed number of gastrointestinal cancers in the haemochromatosis cohort divided by the expected number of such cancers, calculated from the entire corresponding background population of Sweden. Among 6,849 patients in the haemochromatosis cohort with up to 48 years of follow-up, the SIRs were 3-fold increased for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SIR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.3-6.6; n = 7) and 40% increased for colon adenocarcinoma (SIR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.9; n = 54). No associations were found between haemochromatosis and the risk of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus (SIR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.0-2.5; n = 1), stomach (SIR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.3-1.4; n = 8), small bowel (SIR = 1.2, 95% CI 0.0-6.7; n = 1) or rectum (SIR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.6-1.6; n = 21). These findings indicate that haemochromatosis increases the risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma, but might not influence the risk of other types of luminal gastrointestinal cancer. These findings should encourage further research examining the role of iron overload in cancer aetiology. PMID:27300578

  4. Novel mechanisms power bacterial gliding motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Beiyan; Zusman, David R

    2016-07-01

    For many bacteria, motility is essential for survival, growth, virulence, biofilm formation and intra/interspecies interactions. Since natural environments differ, bacteria have evolved remarkable motility systems to adapt, including swimming in aqueous media, and swarming, twitching and gliding on solid and semi-solid surfaces. Although tremendous advances have been achieved in understanding swimming and swarming motilities powered by flagella, and twitching motility powered by Type IV pili, little is known about gliding motility. Bacterial gliders are a heterogeneous group containing diverse bacteria that utilize surface motilities that do not depend on traditional flagella or pili, but are powered by mechanisms that are less well understood. Recently, advances in our understanding of the molecular machineries for several gliding bacteria revealed the roles of modified ion channels, secretion systems and unique machinery for surface movements. These novel mechanisms provide rich source materials for studying the function and evolution of complex microbial nanomachines. In this review, we summarize recent findings made on the gliding mechanisms of the myxobacteria, flavobacteria and mycoplasmas. PMID:27028358

  5. Flagellar motility in eukaryotic human parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Timothy; Engstler, Markus

    2015-10-01

    A huge variety of protists rely on one or more motile flagella to either move themselves or move fluids and substances around them. Many of these flagellates have evolved a symbiotic or parasitic lifestyle. Several of the parasites have adapted to human hosts, and include agents of prevalent and serious diseases. These unicellular parasites have become specialised in colonising a wide range of biological niches within humans. They usually have diverse transmission cycles, and frequently manifest a variety of distinct morphological stages. The motility of the single or multiple flagella plays important but understudied roles in parasite transmission, host invasion, dispersal, survival, proliferation and pathology. In this review we provide an overview of the important human pathogens that possess a motile flagellum for at least part of their life cycle. We highlight recently published studies that aim to elucidate motility mechanisms, and their relevance for human disease. We then bring the physics of swimming at the microscale into context, emphasising the importance of interdisciplinary approaches for a full understanding of flagellate motility - especially in light of the parasites' microenvironments and population dynamics. Finally, we summarise some important technological aspects, describing challenges for the field and possibilities for motility analyses in the future.

  6. Acute syndrome of radiation: injuries to the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute syndrome of radiation: injuries to the gastrointestinal tract. Exposure to ionising radiation at medium to high doses results in the manifestation of mixed pathologies. Following the analysis of several radiation accidents it is clear that intestinal injury influences patient survival. However the appearance of the classically defined gastrointestinal syndrome is not always evident. Nevertheless injury to the gastrointestinal tract, in particular loss of barrier function, seems to play an important role in the development of Multiple Organ Failure such as reported in the recent accident at Tokai Mura. Ionising radiation overexposure results in changes in intestinal motility and nutrient, fluid and electrolyte absorption and secretion all which may contribute to the genesis of diarrhea. In addition to modified cellular transport properties for nutrients or electrolytes, important loss of epithelial cells is also a major contributing factor. Intestinal functions are controlled by many factors such as neurotransmitters, locally released mediators from endocrine cells or immunocompetent cells in addition to luminal agents. To date, treatment of radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury is mainly symptomatic. However treatments such as growth factors, anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as cellular transplantation remain to be validated in the radiation accident situation. (author)

  7. Endocrine orchestration of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and hypothalamic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, T; Quintieri, A M; Amodio, N; Cerra, M C

    2011-01-01

    The richly structured neuroendocrine control of the heart in health and disease requires, in addition to the autonomic nervous outflow, the essential contribute of various and often interacting humoral peptides (e.g. natriuretic peptides, Chromogranin-A-derived fragments, etc). In many cases, these molecules also influence the activity of other organ systems, including the gastrointestinal apparatus, in which they control mucosal function as well as motility and secretion. Interestingly, by acting centrally, some of these peptides also regulate satiety and appetite, thus forming an interesting link between cardiac and gastrointestinal function, and the feeding pattern. Prolonged inhibition and/or activation of these peptide pathways frequently results in severe and long-lasting dysfunctions, including cardiovascular diseases associated to alimentary disorders (e.g. obesity). Notably, their multifarious actions and mutual interactions make them excellent candidates for long-term resetting of both cardiac, gastrointestinal and nutrition homeostasis. Here we will provide only few examples taken from the quickly evolving scenario, with the purpose to provide indications concerning the complex circuits generated by multilevel signalling peptides, which contributes to orchestrate the association between cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and alimentary functions. This will highlight not only the complexity of the cardiovascular and GI regulatory networks, but also aspects of integration between feeding stimulating peptides and the other neuroendocrine systems affecting the heart and the GI tract.

  8. Virtual Reality Simulation of the Effects of Microgravity in Gastrointestinal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compadre, Cesar M.

    1998-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this research is to create an anatomically accurate three-dimensional (3D) simulation model of the effects of microgravity in gastrointestinal physiology and to explore the role that such changes may have in the pharmacokinetics of drugs given to the space crews for prevention or therapy. To accomplish this goal the specific aims of this research are: 1) To generate a complete 3-D reconstructions of the human GastroIntestinal (GI) tract of the male and female Visible Humans. 2) To develop and implement time-dependent computer algorithms to simulate the GI motility using the above 3-D reconstruction.

  9. [Zinc and gastrointestinal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashimura, Yasuki; Takagi, Tomohisa; Naito, Yuji

    2016-07-01

    Zinc, an essential trace element, affects immune responses, skin metabolism, hormone composition, and some sensory function, so that the deficiency presents various symptoms such as immunodeficiency and taste obstacle. Further, the zinc deficiency also considers as a risk of various diseases. Recent reports demonstrated that -20% of the Japanese population was marginally zinc deficiency, and over 25% of the global population is at high risk of zinc deficiency. In gastrointestinal disorders, zinc plays an important role in the healing of mucosal and epithelial damage. In fact, polaprezinc, a chelate compound of zinc and L-carnosine, has been used for the treatment of gastric ulcer and gastritis. We describe here the therapeutic effect of zinc on gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:27455800

  10. GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMOR (GIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eTornillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild-type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other entities, have been discovered (e.g. succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data.

  11. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-02-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  12. Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Aledavood; Mohammad Reza Ghavam Nasiri; Bahram Memar; Soodabeh Shahidsales; Hamid Reza Raziee; Kamran Ghafarzadegan; Samira Mohtashami

    2012-01-01

    Background: Extranodal lymphoma may arise anywhere outside lymph nodes mostly in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as non-Hodgkin′s disease. We reviewed the clinicopathological features and treatment results of patients with primary GI lymphoma. Materials and Methods : A total number of 30 cases with primary GI lymphoma were included in this study. Patients referred to the Radiation Oncology Department of Omid Hospital (Mashhad, Iran) during a 5-year period (2006-11). Clinical, paraclinical, an...

  13. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development.

  14. The gastrointestinal endocrine system

    OpenAIRE

    Track, Norman S.

    1980-01-01

    Gastrointestinal endocrinology is the study of the hormonal regulation of digestion. A number of characterized polypeptide hormones have been localized in specific gastroenteropancreatic endocrine cells. The fact that some of these hormones are also found in nerve and brain cells has given rise to the concept of a gut-brain axis. The functional capacities of these endocrine cells are determined by their anatomic location; the luminal exposure of gastroenteric endocrine cells represents an add...

  15. Lower gastrointestinal endoscopies results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bozdağ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Endoscopic examinations have great potential in early diagnosis of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas with reducing to colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. We aimed to evaluate for diagnostic purposeful lower gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in the second step state hospital retrospectively Methods: Between June 2010 and June 2013, we evaluated 278 patients with rectal bleeding, constipation and abdominal pain detected by lower gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures retrospectively. Results: The mean age of the patients was 54.8 ± 16.8 (15-90 year, respectively. 172 (61.9% of the patients were male and 106 (38.1% of the patients were female. 116 (41.7% of the patients was performed rectosigmoidoscopy and 162 (58.3% of the patients was performed colonoscopy. 51(18.3% of our patients were normal. 10 (3.6% of patients had colorectal cancer, 11(3.9% of patients had inflammatory bowel disease, 8 (2.9% of patients had parasitosis, 31(11.1% of patients had colorectal polyps, 12 (4.3% , in patients had diverticular disease, 2 (0.7% patients had rectal ulcer, 25 (9% patients had anal fissure and 159 (57.2% of the patients had hemorrhoidal disease. Conclusion: Lower gastrointestinal endoscopy is a method been the gold standard with a low complication rate and that can be easily applied in the evaluation to pathology of colorectal and anal canal. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (4: 580-582

  16. Motility modes of the parasite Trypanosoma brucei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Fatma Zeynep; Qu, Zijie; McAllaster, Michael; de Graffenried, Christopher; Breuer, Kenneth

    2015-11-01

    The parasitic single-celled protozoan Trypanosoma brucei causes African Sleeping Sickness, which is a fatal disease in humans and animals that threatens more than 60 million people in 36 African countries. Cell motility plays a critical role in the developmental phases and dissemination of the parasite. Unlike many other motile cells such as bacteria Escherichia coli or Caulobacter crescentus, the flagellum of T. brucei is attached along the length of its awl-like body, producing a unique mode of motility that is not fully understood or characterized. Here, we report on the motility of T. brucei, which swims using its single flagellum employing both rotating and undulating propulsion modes. We tracked cells in real-time in three dimensions using fluorescent microscopy. Data obtained from experiments using both short-term tracking within the field of view and long-term tracking using a tracking microscope were analyzed. Motility modes and swimming speed were analyzed as functions of cell size, rotation rate and undulation pattern. Research supported by NSF.

  17. Targeting motility properties of bacteria in the development of probiotic cultures against Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Vivian F; Donoghue, Ann M; Arsi, Komala; Reyes-Herrera, Ixchel; Metcalf, Joel H; de los Santos, Fausto S; Blore, Pamela J; Donoghue, Dan J

    2013-05-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter is commonly present in the intestinal tract of poultry, and one strategy to reduce enteric colonization is the use of probiotic cultures. This strategy has successfully reduced enteric colonization of Salmonella, but has had limited success against Campylobacter. In an effort to improve the efficacy of probiotic cultures, we developed a novel in vitro screening technique for selecting bacterial isolates with enhanced motility. It is proposed that motility-selected bacteria have the marked ability to reach the same gastrointestinal niche in poultry and competitively reduce C. jejuni. Bacterial isolates were collected from ceca of healthy chickens, and motile isolates were identified and tested for anti-Campylobacter activity. Isolates with these properties were selected for increased motility by passing each isolate 10 times and at each passage selecting bacteria that migrated the farthest during each passage. Three bacterial isolates with the greatest motility (all Bacillus subtilis) were used alone or in combination in two chicken trials. At day of hatch, chicks were administered these isolates alone or in combination (n=10/treatment, two trials), and chicks were orally challenged with a mixture of four different wild-type strains of C. jejuni (∼10(5) CFU/mL) on day 7. Isolate 1 reduced C. jejuni colonization in both of the trials (pCampylobacter colonization was observed in all three trials in the chickens dosed using isolate with enhanced motility compared to the control and unselected isolate. These findings support the theory that the motility enhancement of potential probiotic bacteria may provide a strategy for reduction of C. jejuni in preharvest chickens.

  18. Gastrointestinal Tract Abnormalities Induced by Prenatal Valproic Acid Exposure in Rat Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji-Woon; Choi, Chang Soon; Kim, Ki Chan; Park, Jin Hee; Seung, Hana; Joo, So Hyun; Yang, Sung Min; Shin, Chan Young; Park, Seung Hwa

    2013-01-01

    In-utero exposure to valproic acid (VPA) has been known as a potent inducer of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), not only in humans, but also in animals. In addition to the defects in communication and social interaction as well as repetitive behaviors, ASD patients usually suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) problems. However, the exact mechanism underlying these disorders is not known. In this study, we examined the gross GI tract structure and GI motility in a VPA animal model of ASD. On embry...

  19. The Useage of Opioids and their Adverse Effects in Gastrointestinal Practice: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Khansari, MahmoudReza; Sohrabi, MasourReza; Zamani, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    Opium is one of the oldest herbal medicines currently used as an analgesic, sedative and antidiarrheal treatment. The effects of opium are principally mediated by the μ-, κ- and δ-opioid receptors. Opioid substances consist of all natural and synthetic alkaloids that are derived from opium. Most of their effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion result from suppression of neural activity. Inhibition of gastric emptying, increase in sphincter tone, changes in motor patterns, and block...

  20. Gastrointestinal Physiology During Head Down Tilt Bedrest in Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaksman, Z.; Guthienz, J.; Putcha, L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility plays a key role in the physiology and function of the GI tract. It directly affects absorption of medications and nutrients taken by mouth, in addition to indirectly altering GI physiology by way of changes in the microfloral composition and biochemistry of the GI tract. Astronauts have reported nausea, loss of appetite and constipation during space flight all of which indicate a reduction in GI motility and function similar to the one seen in chronic bed rest patients. The purpose of this study is to determine GI motility and bacterial proliferation during -6 degree head down tilt bed rest (HTD). Methods: Healthy male and female subjects between the ages of 25-40 participated in a 60 day HTD study protocol. GI transit time (GITT) was determined using lactulose breath hydrogen test and bacterial overgrowth was measured using glucose breath hydrogen test. H. Pylori colonization was determined using C13-urea breath test (UBIT#). All three tests were conducted on 9 days before HDT, and repeated on HDT days 2, 28, 58, and again on day 7 after HDT. Results: GITT increased during HTD compared to the respective ambulatory control values; GITT was significantly lower on day 7 after HTD. A concomitant increase in bacterial colonization was also noticed during HDT starting after approximately 28 days of HDT. However, H. Pylori proliferation was not recorded during HDT as indicated by UBIT#. Conclusion: GITT significantly decreased during HDT with a concomitant increase in the proliferation of GI bacterial flora but not H. pylori.

  1. Embolization for gastrointestinal hemorrhages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, S.C.; Goerich, J.; Rilinger, N.; Aschoff, A.J.; Vogel, J.; Brambs, H.J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Ulm (Germany); Siech, M. [Dept. of Abdominal Surgery, University of Ulm (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    Retrospective evaluation of interventional embolization therapy in the treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage over a long-term observation period from 1989 to 1997. Included in the study were 35 patients (age range 18-89 years) with gastrointestinal bleeding (GI) referred for radiological intervention either primarily or following unsuccessful endoscopy or surgery. Sources of GI bleeding included gastric and duodenal ulcers (n = 7), diverticula (n = 3), erosion of the intestinal wall secondary to malignancy (n = 6), vascular malformations (n = 4), and hemorrhoids (n = 2), as well as from postoperative (n = 6), posttraumatic (n = 2), postinflammatory (n = 4) or unknown (n = 1) causes. Ethibloc (12 cases) or metal coils (14 cases) were predominantly used as embolisates. In addition, combinations of tissue adhesive and gelfoam particles and of coils and Ethibloc were used (six cases). Finally, polyvinyl alcohol particles, a coated stent, and an arterial wire dissection were utilized in one case each. Bleeding was stopped completely in 29 of 35 cases (83 %). In one case (3 %) the source of bleeding was recognized but the corresponding vessel could not be catheterized. In five other cases (14 %) there was partial success with reduced, though still persistent, bleeding. The rate of complications was 14 %, including four instances of intestinal ischemia with fatal outcome in the first years, and, later, one partial infarction of the spleen without serious consequences. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage can be controlled in a high percentage of patients, including the seriously ill and those who had previously undergone surgery, with the use of minimally invasive interventional techniques. The availability of minicoils instead of fluid embolization agents has reduced the risk of serious complications. (orig.)

  2. How to interpret a functional or motility test - colon transit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ran; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of colon transit time is the most basic and primary tool in evaluating disorders of colonic motility. In particular, it is helpful in pathologic diagnosis and for planning management in patients with constipation. Several techniques for measuring colon transit time currently exist. The standard measurement of colon transit time has been performed using radioopaque marker test. The radioopaque marker test is the most widely used method; it is simple to perform as well as being cost effective. But, this technique produces radiation exposure. Radionuclide scintigraphy and wireless motility capsules are other techniques used to measure colon transit time. In radionuclide scintigraphy, the transit of radioisotope is viewed by gamma camera; this approach has an advantage in that it uses minimal radiation and it allows a physiological assessment of gastrointestinal transit. Wireless motility capsules have been validated most recently, but this technique is not useful in Korea. This review presents the techniques used to measure colon transit time and the interpretations provided in different colon transit studies. PMID:22323993

  3. The virtual intestine: in silico modeling of small intestinal electrophysiology and motility and the applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Peng; Paskaranandavadivel, Niranchan; Angeli, Timothy R; Cheng, Leo K; O'Grady, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The intestine comprises a long hollow muscular tube organized in anatomically and functionally discrete compartments, which digest and absorb nutrients and water from ingested food. The intestine also plays key roles in the elimination of waste and protection from infection. Critical to all of these functions is the intricate, highly coordinated motion of the intestinal tract, known as motility, which is coregulated by hormonal, neural, electrophysiological and other factors. The Virtual Intestine encapsulates a series of mathematical models of intestinal function in health and disease, with a current focus on motility, and particularly electrophysiology. The Virtual Intestine is being cohesively established across multiple physiological scales, from sub/cellular functions to whole organ levels, facilitating quantitative evaluations that present an integrative in silico framework. The models are also now finding broad physiological applications, including in evaluating hypotheses of slow wave pacemaker mechanisms, smooth muscle electrophysiology, structure-function relationships, and electromechanical coupling. Clinical applications are also beginning to follow, including in the pathophysiology of motility disorders, diagnosing intestinal ischemia, and visualizing colonic dysfunction. These advances illustrate the emerging potential of the Virtual Intestine to effectively address multiscale research challenges in interdisciplinary gastrointestinal sciences.

  4. Flagellar Motility of Trypanosoma cruzi Epimastigotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ballesteros-Rodea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hemoflagellate Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of American trypanosomiasis. Despite the importance of motility in the parasite life cycle, little is known about T. cruzi motility, and there is no quantitative description of its flagellar beating. Using video microscopy and quantitative vectorial analysis of epimastigote trajectories, we find a forward parasite motility defined by tip-to-base symmetrical flagellar beats. This motion is occasionally interrupted by base-to-tip highly asymmetric beats, which represent the ciliary beat of trypanosomatid flagella. The switch between flagellar and ciliary beating facilitates the parasite's reorientation, which produces a large variability of movement and trajectories that results in different distance ranges traveled by the cells. An analysis of the distance, speed, and rotational angle indicates that epimastigote movement is not completely random, and the phenomenon is highly dependent on the parasite behavior and is characterized by directed and tumbling parasite motion as well as their combination, resulting in the alternation of rectilinear and intricate motility paths.

  5. Neonatal gastrointestinal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Padma [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital and University of Melbourne, Flemington Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Vic. 3052 (Australia)]. E-mail: padma.rao@rch.org.au

    2006-11-15

    Radiological imaging is an important part of the evaluation and management of neonates with suspected anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical presentation is often non-specific, commonly with abdominal distension and vomiting for which the underlying cause may or may not be clinically apparent. In a proportion of patients, the clinical assessment alone may suffice in providing the diagnosis and no further imaging is necessary. The reader must have an understanding of the normal radiographic appearances of the gastrointestinal tract in neonates and appreciate normal variants and differences to adults. In certain cases, the abdominal radiograph alone is diagnostic. In others, sonography and contrast studies are useful adjunct investigations and the indications for CT and MRI are few, but specific. Appropriate radiological investigation will help to establish the diagnosis and guide surgical intervention whilst also avoiding unnecessary radiation. Some of the conditions require transfer to specialist paediatric institutions for care. Thus, in some circumstances it is appropriate for imaging to be delayed and performed at the specialist centre with early referral often essential for the continued well being of the child.

  6. ROS accumulation and IGF-IR inhibition contribute to fenofibrate/PPARα -mediated inhibition of Glioma cell motility in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Valle Luis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastomas are characterized by rapid cell growth, aggressive CNS infiltration, and are resistant to all known anticancer regimens. Recent studies indicate that fibrates and statins possess anticancer potential. Fenofibrate is a potent agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα that can switch energy metabolism from glycolysis to fatty acid β-oxidation, and has low systemic toxicity. Fenofibrate also attenuates IGF-I-mediated cellular responses, which could be relevant in the process of glioblastoma cell dispersal. Methods The effects of fenofibrate on Glioma cell motility, IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR signaling, PPARα activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS metabolism, mitochondrial potential, and ATP production were analyzed in human glioma cell lines. Results Fenofibrate treatment attenuated IGF-I signaling responses and repressed cell motility of LN-229 and T98G Glioma cell lines. In the absence of fenofibrate, specific inhibition of the IGF-IR had only modest effects on Glioma cell motility. Further experiments revealed that PPARα-dependent accumulation of ROS is a strong contributing factor in Glioma cell lines responses to fenofibrate. The ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, restored cell motility, improved mitochondrial potential, and increased ATP levels in fenofibrate treated Glioma cell lines. Conclusions Our results indicate that although fenofibrate-mediated inhibition of the IGF-IR may not be sufficient in counteracting Glioma cell dispersal, PPARα-dependent metabolic switch and the resulting ROS accumulation strongly contribute to the inhibition of these devastating brain tumor cells.

  7. Bacteria: a new player in gastrointestinal motility disorders--infections, bacterial overgrowth, and probiotics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2012-02-03

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may result from a dysfunctional interaction between the indigenous flora and the intestinal mucosa, which in turn leads to immune activation in the colonic mucosa. Some propose that bacterial overgrowth is a common causative factor in the pathogenesis of symptoms in IBS; others point to evidence suggesting that the cause stems from more subtle qualitative changes in the colonic flora. Bacterial overgrowth will probably prove not to be a major factor in what will eventually be defined as IBS. Nevertheless, short-term therapy with either antibiotics or probiotics seems to reduce symptoms among IBS patients. However, in the long term, safety issues will favor the probiotic approach; results of long-term studies with these agents are eagerly awaited.

  8. Small bowel Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors can physiologically alter gut motility before causing mechanical obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Kothari, Manish S; Kosmoliaptsis, Vasilis; Meyrick-Thomas, John

    2005-01-01

    Background Gastro Intestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs) are rare stromal neoplasms that represent the most common mesenchymal tumor of the G.I. tract, accounting for 5% of all sarcomas [1,2]. Originating from interstitial cells of Cajal, which are regulators of gut peristalsis, they are preferentially located in the stomach and the small intestine [3] and clinical presentation is variable, ranging from vague complaints to major G.I. bleeding. Surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment for pa...

  9. Nanocrystalline cerium dioxide efficacy for gastrointestinal motility: potential for prokinetic treatment and prevention in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Yefimenko, Olena Yu; Savchenko, Yuliya O; Tetyana M. Falalyeyeva; Beregova, Tetyana V; Zholobak, Nadiya M; Spivak, Mykola Ya; Shcherbakov, Oleksandr B; Bubnov, Rostyslav V

    2015-01-01

    Background Constipation is a common condition, with prevalence after 65 years, is a major colorectal cancer risk factor. Recent works have demonstrated advances in personalized, preventive nanomedicine, leading to the construction of new materials and nanodrugs, in particular, nanocrystalline cerium dioxide (NCD), having strong antioxidative prebiotic effect. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of NCD on motor function of the stomach and colon in vivo and contractive activit...

  10. US of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have used large-aperture, dynamically focused US imaging with the patient in an upright position in a series of cases with symptomatic upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract complaints. They found that the gastric antrum and portions of the bulb and remainder of the duodenum could be seen in each case. Scan planes tangential to the luminal surface show fold patterns, while conventional axial and transverse planes depict specific wall features, such as submucosal elevation with duodenitis, muscle layer fibrosis with chronic peptic ulcer disease, or focal subserosal hematomas. Motility patterns are evaluated with continuous imaging. The disadvantage is in limited or variable sampling. In their direct comparison of upper GI barium studies and US in these patients, there was generally diagnostic concordance, although the authors conclude that the methods are complementary since each detected individual abnormalities. Since US viewing of the upper GI tract requires only a brief increment of scanning time, they recommend that this be added routinely to each upper abdominal US study. They also urge that a US survey be an essential part of any upper GI tract study referred traditionally and selectively for a barium radiographic examination

  11. Real-time gastric motility monitoring using transcutaneous intraluminal impedance measurements (TIIM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poscente, M D; Wang, G; Filip, D; Ninova, P; Yadid-Pecht, O; Andrews, C N; Mintchev, M P

    2014-02-01

    The stomach plays a critical role in digestion, processing ingested food mechanically and breaking it up into particles, which can be effectively and efficiently processed by the intestines. When the motility of the stomach is compromised, digestion is adversely affected. This can lead to a variety of disorders. Current diagnostic techniques for gastric motility disorders are seriously lacking, and are based more on eliminating other possibilities rather than on specific tests. Presently, gastric motility can be assessed by monitoring gastric emptying, food transit, intragastric pressures, etc. The associated tests are usually stationary and of relatively short duration. The present study proposes a new method of measuring gastric motility, utilizing the attenuation of an oscillator-induced electrical signal across the gastric tissue, which is modulated by gastric contractions. The induced high-frequency oscillator signal is generated within the stomach, and is picked up transluminally by cutaneous electrodes positioned on the abdominal area connected to a custom-designed data acquisition instrument. The proposed method was implemented in two different designs: first a transoral catheter was modified to emit the signal inside the stomach; and second, a gastric retentive pill was designed to emit the signal. Both implementations were applied in vivo on two mongrel dogs (25.50 kg and 25.75 kg). Gastric contractions were registered and quantitatively compared to recordings from force transducers sutured onto the serosa of the stomach. Gastric motility indices were calculated for each minute, with transluminal impedance measurements and the measurements from the force transducers showing statistically significant (p impedance measurement has the potential with further research and development to become a useful diagnostic technique. PMID:24398539

  12. Real-time gastric motility monitoring using transcutaneous intraluminal impedance measurements (TIIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stomach plays a critical role in digestion, processing ingested food mechanically and breaking it up into particles, which can be effectively and efficiently processed by the intestines. When the motility of the stomach is compromised, digestion is adversely affected. This can lead to a variety of disorders. Current diagnostic techniques for gastric motility disorders are seriously lacking, and are based more on eliminating other possibilities rather than on specific tests. Presently, gastric motility can be assessed by monitoring gastric emptying, food transit, intragastric pressures, etc. The associated tests are usually stationary and of relatively short duration. The present study proposes a new method of measuring gastric motility, utilizing the attenuation of an oscillator-induced electrical signal across the gastric tissue, which is modulated by gastric contractions. The induced high-frequency oscillator signal is generated within the stomach, and is picked up transluminally by cutaneous electrodes positioned on the abdominal area connected to a custom-designed data acquisition instrument. The proposed method was implemented in two different designs: first a transoral catheter was modified to emit the signal inside the stomach; and second, a gastric retentive pill was designed to emit the signal. Both implementations were applied in vivo on two mongrel dogs (25.50 kg and 25.75 kg). Gastric contractions were registered and quantitatively compared to recordings from force transducers sutured onto the serosa of the stomach. Gastric motility indices were calculated for each minute, with transluminal impedance measurements and the measurements from the force transducers showing statistically significant (p < 0.05) Pearson correlation coefficients (0.65 ± 0.08 for the catheter-based design and 0.77 ± 0.03 for the gastric retentive pill design). These results show that transcutaneous intraluminal impedance measurement has the potential with further research

  13. Colony Expansion of Socially Motile Myxococcus xanthus Cells Is Driven by Growth, Motility, and Exopolysaccharide Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Pintu; Kissoon, Kimberley; Cornejo, Isabel; Kaplan, Heidi B; Igoshin, Oleg A

    2016-06-01

    Myxococcus xanthus, a model organism for studies of multicellular behavior in bacteria, moves exclusively on solid surfaces using two distinct but coordinated motility mechanisms. One of these, social (S) motility is powered by the extension and retraction of type IV pili and requires the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by neighboring cells. As a result, S motility requires close cell-to-cell proximity and isolated cells do not translocate. Previous studies measuring S motility by observing the colony expansion of cells deposited on agar have shown that the expansion rate increases with initial cell density, but the biophysical mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. To understand the dynamics of S motility-driven colony expansion, we developed a reaction-diffusion model describing the effects of cell density, EPS deposition and nutrient exposure on the expansion rate. Our results show that at steady state the population expands as a traveling wave with a speed determined by the interplay of cell motility and growth, a well-known characteristic of Fisher's equation. The model explains the density-dependence of the colony expansion by demonstrating the presence of a lag phase-a transient period of very slow expansion with a duration dependent on the initial cell density. We propose that at a low initial density, more time is required for the cells to accumulate enough EPS to activate S-motility resulting in a longer lag period. Furthermore, our model makes the novel prediction that following the lag phase the population expands at a constant rate independent of the cell density. These predictions were confirmed by S motility experiments capturing long-term expansion dynamics.

  14. A New Strategy Using Rikkunshito to Treat Anorexia and Gastrointestinal Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayoi Saegusa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the clinical condition of gastrointestinal dysfunction, including functional dyspepsia, involves tangled combinations of pathologies, there are some cases of insufficient curative efficacy. Thus, traditional herbal medicines (Kampo medicines uniquely developed in Japan are thought to contribute to medical treatment for upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Rikkunshito is a Kampo medicine often used to treat dyspeptic symptoms. Over the past few years, several studies have investigated the efficacy of rikkunshito for dysmotility, for example, upper abdominal complaints, in animals and humans. Rikkunshito ameliorated the decrease in gastric motility and anorexia in cisplatin-treated rats, stress-loaded mice, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-treated rats by enhancing plasma ghrelin levels via serotonin2B/2C receptor antagonism. In addition, rikkunshito ameliorated the decrease in food intake in aged mice and stress-loaded decreased gastric motility via enhanced ghrelin receptor signaling. Several clinical studies revealed that rikkunshito was effective in ameliorating upper gastrointestinal symptoms, including dyspepsia, epigastric pain, and postprandial fullness. In this review, we discuss these studies and propose additional evidence-based research that may promote the clinical use of Kampo medicines, particularly rikkunshito, for treating anorexia and gastrointestinal dysfunction.

  15. Estrogen and its role in gastrointestinal health and disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: While the concept of a role of estrogen in gastrointestinal (in particular, colonic) malignancy has generated excitement in recent years, no review has examined the role of this potent and omnipresent steroid hormone in physiological states or its contribution to the development of benign pathological processes. Understanding these effects (and mechanisms therein) may provide a platform for a deeper understanding of more complex disease processes. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the PubMed database and the search terms were "estrogen," "estrogen AND gastrointestinal tract," "estrogen AND colon," "estrogen AND esophagus," "estrogen AND small intestine," "estrogen AND stomach," "estrogen AND gallbladder," and "estrogen AND motility." Bibliographies of extracted studies were further cross-referenced. In all, 136 full-text articles were selected for review. A logical organ-based approach was taken to enable extraction of data of clinical relevance and meaningful interpretation thereof. Insight is provided into the hypotheses, theories, controversies, and contradictions generated over the last five decades by extensive investigation of estrogen in human, animal, and cell models using techniques as diverse as autoradiographic studies of baboons to human population analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Effects from esophagus through to the colon and rectum are summarized in this first concise collection of data pertaining to estrogenic actions in gastrointestinal health and disease. Mechanisms of these actions are discussed where possible. Undoubtedly, this hormone exerts many actions yet to be elucidated, and its potential therapeutic applications remain, as yet, largely unexplored.

  16. Feverlike Temperature is a Virulence Regulatory Cue Controlling the Motility and Host Cell Entry of Typhoidal Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Elhadad, Dana; McClelland, Michael; Rahav, Galia; Gal-Mor, Ohad

    2014-01-01

    Human infection with typhoidal Salmonella serovars causes a febrile systemic disease, termed enteric fever. Here we establish that in response to a temperature equivalent to fever (39°C–42°C) Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Sendai significantly attenuate their motility, epithelial cell invasion, and uptake by macrophages. Under these feverlike conditions, the residual epithelial cell invasion of S. Paratyphi A occurs in a type III secretion system (T3SS) 1–independent man...

  17. Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... privileges for flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy. Privileging in flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy should be based on demonstration of competency in these techniques. Surgical Simulation: The Value of Individualization Surgical simulation ...

  18. Estrogen and gastrointestinal malignancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A M

    2012-02-01

    The concept that E2 exerts an effect on the gastrointestinal tract is not new and its actions on intestinal mucosa have been investigated for at least three decades. An attempt to consolidate results of these investigations generates more questions than answers, thus suggesting that many unexplored avenues remain and that the full capabilities of this steroid hormone are far from understood. Evidence of its role in esophageal, gastric and gallbladder cancers is confusing and often equivocal. The most compelling evidence regards the protective role conferred by estrogen (or perhaps ERbeta) against the development and proliferation of colon cancer. Not only has the effect been described but also many mechanisms of action have been explored. It is likely that, along with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, hormonal manipulation will play an integral role in colon cancer management in the very near future.

  19. Gastrointestinal bleeding under dabigatran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Stöllberger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dabigatran-absorption is dependent on the intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp-system, and P-gp activity is modulated by several drugs. We report an 83-old female with atrial fibrillation who developed gastrointestinal bleeding. She was under a therapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID and P-gp-modulating drugs and renal function was impaired. We conclude that NSAID and P-gp-modulating drugs should be avoided in dabigatran-treated patients. If renal function deteriorates the dabigatran-dosage should be reduced or the therapy should be stopped. There is an urgent need to increase knowledge about drug interactions with dabigatran.

  20. Obesity and Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Fujimoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in the Japanese population has been increasing dramatically in step with the Westernization of lifestyles and food ways. Our study demonstrated significant associations between obesity and a number of gastrointestinal disorders in a large sample population in Japan. We demonstrated that reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia were strongly related to obesity (BMI > 25 in the Japanese. In particular, obesity with young male was a high risk for these diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that obesity is also associated with Barrett’s esophagus and colorectal adenoma; however, obesity was not a risk factor for these diseases in our study. The difference of ethnicity of our subjects may partly explain why we found no data to implicate obesity as a risk factor for Barrett’s esophagus. Arterial sclerosis associated with advanced age and hyperglycemia was accompanied by an increased risk of colorectal adenoma.

  1. Relationship of Total Motile Sperm Count and Percentage Motile Sperm to Successful Pregnancy Rates Following Intrauterine Insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqualotto, Eleonora B.; Daitch, James A.; Hendin, Benjamin N.; Falcone, Tommaso; Thomas, Anthony J.; Nelson, David R; Agarwal, Ashok

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:This study sought (i) to investigate the relationship between postwash total motile sperm count and postwash percentage motile sperm in predicting successful intrauterine insemination and (ii) to determine the minimal postwash total motile sperm count required to achieve pregnancy with intrauterine insemination.

  2. 生长抑素对Oddi括约肌功能的影响%Effect of somatostatin on human sphincter of Oddi motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婷; 陈明锴

    2009-01-01

    Native somatostatin is a gut hormone and neuropeptide,widely distributed in the nervous and gastrointestinal system,and has a broad range of biological actions. In gastrointestinal tract (GIT),somatostatin is mainly produced by the delta cells of the pancreas and gastrointestinal mucosal. The inhibitory effects of somatostatin on gastrointestinal motility and hormone secretion are mediated by a family of G protein-coupled receptors: the somatostatin receptors (SSTR1-5). The sphincter of Oddi (SO) located near the duodenum papillae is an anatomically and functionally distinct organ,SO motility is controlled and regulated by nerve,hormone and interstitial cells of Cajal.The effect of somatostatin on SO motility is still controversial. This article reviewed effect of somatostatin on human sphincter of oddi motility.%天然生长抑素(somatostatin,SST)是一种胃肠激素及神经肽,主要分布于神经和消化系统中,具有广泛的生物学效应. 消化系SST大多由胰腺和胃肠黏膜中的D细胞分泌,能抑制胃肠运动及多种激素分泌. SST调节作用由G蛋白偶联受体,即生长抑素受体(somatostatin receptor,SSTR)介导. Oddi括约肌(sphincter of Oddi,SO)位于十二指肠乳头周围,是一结构和功能相对独立的器官,其运动主要受神经、激素、Cajal间质细胞的调节. SST对SO的作用尚存在争议,本文就生长抑素对SO功能的影响进行综述.

  3. Soft micromachines with programmable motility and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hen-Wei; Sakar, Mahmut Selman; Petruska, Andrew J.; Pané, Salvador; Nelson, Bradley J.

    2016-07-01

    Nature provides a wide range of inspiration for building mobile micromachines that can navigate through confined heterogenous environments and perform minimally invasive environmental and biomedical operations. For example, microstructures fabricated in the form of bacterial or eukaryotic flagella can act as artificial microswimmers. Due to limitations in their design and material properties, these simple micromachines lack multifunctionality, effective addressability and manoeuvrability in complex environments. Here we develop an origami-inspired rapid prototyping process for building self-folding, magnetically powered micromachines with complex body plans, reconfigurable shape and controllable motility. Selective reprogramming of the mechanical design and magnetic anisotropy of body parts dynamically modulates the swimming characteristics of the micromachines. We find that tail and body morphologies together determine swimming efficiency and, unlike for rigid swimmers, the choice of magnetic field can subtly change the motility of soft microswimmers.

  4. Symbiosis and the origin of eukaryotic motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.; Hinkle, G.

    1991-01-01

    Ongoing work to test the hypothesis of the origin of eukaryotic cell organelles by microbial symbioses is discussed. Because of the widespread acceptance of the serial endosymbiotic theory (SET) of the origin of plastids and mitochondria, the idea of the symbiotic origin of the centrioles and axonemes for spirochete bacteria motility symbiosis was tested. Intracellular microtubular systems are purported to derive from symbiotic associations between ancestral eukaryotic cells and motile bacteria. Four lines of approach to this problem are being pursued: (1) cloning the gene of a tubulin-like protein discovered in Spirocheata bajacaliforniesis; (2) seeking axoneme proteins in spirochets by antibody cross-reaction; (3) attempting to cultivate larger, free-living spirochetes; and (4) studying in detail spirochetes (e.g., Cristispira) symbiotic with marine animals. Other aspects of the investigation are presented.

  5. Hydrodynamic Contributions to Amoeboid Cell Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Owen; Guy, Robert

    2012-11-01

    Understanding the methods by which cells move is a fundamental problem in modern biology. Recent evidence has shown that the fluid dynamics of cytoplasm can play a vital role in cellular motility. The slime mold Physarum polycephalum provides an excellent model organism for the study of amoeboid motion. In this research, we use a simply analytic model in conjuction with computational experiments to investigate intracellular fluid flow in a simple model of Physarum. Of particlar interest are stresses generated by cytoplasmic flow which may be used to aid in cellular motility. In our numerical model, the Immersed Boundary Method is used to account for such stresses. We investigate the relationship between contraction waves, flow waves, adhesion, and locomotive forces in an attempt to characterize conditions necessary to generate directed motion.

  6. Automated measurement of cell motility and proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goff Julie

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time-lapse microscopic imaging provides a powerful approach for following changes in cell phenotype over time. Visible responses of whole cells can yield insight into functional changes that underlie physiological processes in health and disease. For example, features of cell motility accompany molecular changes that are central to the immune response, to carcinogenesis and metastasis, to wound healing and tissue regeneration, and to the myriad developmental processes that generate an organism. Previously reported image processing methods for motility analysis required custom viewing devices and manual interactions that may introduce bias, that slow throughput, and that constrain the scope of experiments in terms of the number of treatment variables, time period of observation, replication and statistical options. Here we describe a fully automated system in which images are acquired 24/7 from 384 well plates and are automatically processed to yield high-content motility and morphological data. Results We have applied this technology to study the effects of different extracellular matrix compounds on human osteoblast-like cell lines to explore functional changes that may underlie processes involved in bone formation and maintenance. We show dose-response and kinetic data for induction of increased motility by laminin and collagen type I without significant effects on growth rate. Differential motility response was evident within 4 hours of plating cells; long-term responses differed depending upon cell type and surface coating. Average velocities were increased approximately 0.1 um/min by ten-fold increases in laminin coating concentration in some cases. Comparison with manual tracking demonstrated the accuracy of the automated method and highlighted the comparative imprecision of human tracking for analysis of cell motility data. Quality statistics are reported that associate with stage noise, interference by non

  7. Photonic Crystal Fiber Attenuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo Beom Eom; Hokyung Kim; Jinchae Kim; Un-Chul Paek; Byeong Ha Lee

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel fiber attenuator based on photonic crystal fibers. The difference in the modal field diameters of a conventional single mode fiber and a photonic crystal fiber was used. A variable optical attenuator was also achieved by applying macro-bending on the PCF part of the proposed attenuator

  8. Barriers to bacterial motility on unsaturated surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Smets, Barth F

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of the spatial organization and spatial dynamics of microbial populations in soil at a scale close to that of the microorganisms is scarce. While passive dispersal via water ow or soil biota is probably a major dispersal route, it is reasonable to consider that active dispersal also contributes to microbial spatial dynamics. In bacteria, active dispersal is enabled by a diversity of appendages and, in the case of swarming motility, by the secretion of surface active biomolecules...

  9. Effects of Seminal Plasma Relaxin on Human Sperm Motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于宁妮; 陆欣; 徐胜; 冯京生; 吴明章

    1999-01-01

    To clarify the role of endogenous relaxin on sperm motility, relaxin in semen was neutraliged by anti-relaxin antibody in vitro.22 semen samples were collected from infertility clinic and tested with Hamilton-Thorn 2000 Motility Analyzer to detect spermmotility(%),progressive motility(%),path velocity (micro/sec) and velocity(0-4 grade) at the time of 0,15,30 and 60 min respectively.The results showed that sperm motility declined significantly after being incubated with anti-relaxin serum.Sperm progressive motility declined more obviously.This experiment revealed that endogenous relaxin could play an important role in the physiological process of maintaining sperm motility,especially progressive motility.

  10. Swimming Motility Reduces Deposition to Silica Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Nanxi [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Massoudieh, Arash [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Liang, Xiaomeng [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Hu, Dehong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kamai, Tamir [Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan (Israel); Ginn, Timothy R. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Zilles, Julie L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Nguyen, Thanh H. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The role of swimming motility on bacterial transport and fate in porous media was evaluated. We present microscopic evidence showing that strong swimming motility reduces attachment of Azotobacter vinelandii cells to silica surfaces. Applying global and cluster statistical analyses to microscopic videos taken under non-flow conditions, wild type, flagellated A. vinelandii strain DJ showed strong swimming ability with an average speed of 13.1 μm/s, DJ77 showed impaired swimming averaged at 8.7 μm/s, and both the non-flagellated JZ52 and chemically treated DJ cells were non-motile. Quantitative analyses of trajectories observed at different distances above the collector of a radial stagnation point flow cell (RSPF) revealed that both swimming and non-swimming cells moved with the flow when at a distance of at least 20 μm from the collector surface. Near the surface, DJ cells showed both horizontal and vertical movement diverging them from reaching surfaces, while chemically treated DJ cells moved with the flow to reach surfaces, suggesting that strong swimming reduced attachment. In agreement with the RSPF results, the deposition rates obtained for two-dimensional multiple-collector micromodels were also lowest for DJ, while DJ77 and JZ52 showed similar values. Strong swimming specifically reduced deposition on the upstream surfaces of the micromodel collectors.

  11. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irene; Martinucci; Nicola; de; Bortoli; Maria; Giacchino; Giorgia; Bodini; Elisa; Marabotto; Santino; Marchi; Vincenzo; Savarino; Edoardo; Savarino

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophagealmotility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from nonerosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted.

  12. Effects of acepromazine and butorphanol on positive-contrast upper gastrointestinal tract examination in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether acepromazine (ACE) and butorphanol (BUT) combination can be used for restraint of dogs during positive-contrast upper gastrointestinal tract (UGIT) examination. 6 healthy dogs. In a randomized crossover design study, weekly UGIT examinations were performed on each dog for 5 weeks after administration of normal saline solution (0.5 ml), xylazine (1.0 mg/kg of body weight), or a combination of ACE (0.1 mg/kg) and 1 of 3 doses of BUT (0.05, 0.2, 1.0 mg/kg). Gastrointestinal tract emptying time, GI motility, pulse, respiratory rate, and quality of restraint were assessed. Total gastric emptying time was significantly prolonged by use of an ACE and BUT (0.05 mg/kg) combination. Xylazine and higher dosages of BUT significantly prolonged gastric and intestinal emptying times. All anesthetic protocols significantly decreased motility and facilitated nonmanual restraint. Xylazine and BUT (1.0 mg/kg) significantly decreased pulse and respiratory rate. The ACE and BUT combination prolonged GI tract emptying times, decreased GI motility, and facilitated nonmanual restraint for duration of the examination. Although GI motility was decreased and total gastric emptying time was prolonged, administration of ACE (0.1 mg/kg) plus BUT (0.05 mg/kg) allowed morphologic examination of the GI tract within 5 hours. Xylazine prolonged GI tract emptying, decreased GI motility, and provided good to excellent initial restraint. Clinical Relevance-The ACE and BUT combination prohibits functional examination of the GI tract; however, morphologic examination is possible when low dosages of BUT (0.05 mg/kg) are used

  13. Roles of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger isoforms NCX1 and NCX2 in motility in mouse ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Kazuhiro; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Morioka, Ai; Yoshida, Natsuho; Teramoto, Midori; Tanioka, Kohta; Kita, Satomi; Hayashi, Satomi; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2016-10-01

    The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) is a plasma membrane transporter that is involved in regulating intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in various tissues. The physiological roles by which NCX influences gastrointestinal motility are incompletely understood, although its role in the heart, brain, and kidney has been widely investigated. In this study, we focused on the functions of the NCX isoforms, NCX1 and NCX2, in the motility of the ileum in the gastrointestinal tract. We investigated the response to electric field stimulation (EFS) in the longitudinal smooth muscle of the ileum obtained from wild-type mice (WT), NCX1-heterozygote knockout mice (NCX1 HET), NCX2 HET and smooth muscle-specific NCX1.3 transgenic mice (NCX1.3 Tg). EFS induced a phasic contraction that persisted during EFS and a tonic contraction that occurred after the end of EFS. We found that the amplitudes of the phasic and tonic contractions were significantly smaller in NCX2 HET, but not in NCX1 HET, compared to WT. Moreover, the magnitudes of acetylcholine (ACh)- and substance P (SP)-induced contractions of NCX2 HET, but not of NCX1 HET, were smaller compared to WT. In contrast, the amplitudes of the phasic and tonic contractions were greater in NCX1.3 Tg compared to WT. Similar to EFS, the magnitude of ACh-induced contraction was greater in NCX1.3 Tg than in WT. Taken together, our findings indicated that NCX1 and NCX2 play important roles in ileal motility and suggest that NCX1 and NCX2 regulate the motility in the ileum by controlling the sensitivity of smooth muscles to ACh and SP.

  14. Roles of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger isoforms NCX1 and NCX2 in motility in mouse ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Kazuhiro; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Morioka, Ai; Yoshida, Natsuho; Teramoto, Midori; Tanioka, Kohta; Kita, Satomi; Hayashi, Satomi; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2016-10-01

    The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) is a plasma membrane transporter that is involved in regulating intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in various tissues. The physiological roles by which NCX influences gastrointestinal motility are incompletely understood, although its role in the heart, brain, and kidney has been widely investigated. In this study, we focused on the functions of the NCX isoforms, NCX1 and NCX2, in the motility of the ileum in the gastrointestinal tract. We investigated the response to electric field stimulation (EFS) in the longitudinal smooth muscle of the ileum obtained from wild-type mice (WT), NCX1-heterozygote knockout mice (NCX1 HET), NCX2 HET and smooth muscle-specific NCX1.3 transgenic mice (NCX1.3 Tg). EFS induced a phasic contraction that persisted during EFS and a tonic contraction that occurred after the end of EFS. We found that the amplitudes of the phasic and tonic contractions were significantly smaller in NCX2 HET, but not in NCX1 HET, compared to WT. Moreover, the magnitudes of acetylcholine (ACh)- and substance P (SP)-induced contractions of NCX2 HET, but not of NCX1 HET, were smaller compared to WT. In contrast, the amplitudes of the phasic and tonic contractions were greater in NCX1.3 Tg compared to WT. Similar to EFS, the magnitude of ACh-induced contraction was greater in NCX1.3 Tg than in WT. Taken together, our findings indicated that NCX1 and NCX2 play important roles in ileal motility and suggest that NCX1 and NCX2 regulate the motility in the ileum by controlling the sensitivity of smooth muscles to ACh and SP. PMID:27411318

  15. Inhibition of gastric motility by noxious chemical stimulation of interspinous tissues in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budgell, B; Suzuki, A

    2000-05-12

    In urethane anesthetized, adult male Wistar rats, noxious chemical stimulation of the mid to lower thoracic interspinous tissues, in the form of capsaicin injection, was accompanied by a pronounced increase in gastric sympathetic nerve activity and inhibition of gastric motility. Much weaker effects on gastric sympathetic nerve activity and gastric motility were observed with similar stimulation of the lower lumbar interspinous tissues. The inhibitory response of gastric motility to thoracic stimulation was preserved in spinalized animals, somewhat diminished in vagotomized animals and was abolished in most animals from which the coeliac ganglion had been extirpated. In vagotomized animals, treatment with 1 mg/kg propranolol i.v. did not cause any further attenuation of the inhibitory reflex. However, the inhibitory reflex was extinguished in vagotomized animals which received 1 mg/kg propranolol plus 10 mg/kg phentolamine i.v. These results suggest that noxious chemical stimulation of the interspinous tissues elicits a segmentally organized reflex which is mediated principally at the spinal level and which expresses itself principally, but not exclusively via sympathetic efferents traversing the coeliac ganglion. The expression of the reflex response appears to be largely dependent upon the integrity of alpha adrenergic receptors.

  16. Transcutaneous Intraluminal Impedance Measurement for Minimally Invasive Monitoring of Gastric Motility: Validation in Acute Canine Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Poscente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous intraluminal impedance measurement (TIIM is a new method to cutaneously measure gastric contractions by assessing the attenuation dynamics of a small oscillating voltage emitted by a battery-powered ingestible capsule retained in the stomach. In the present study, we investigated whether TIIM can reliably assess gastric motility in acute canine models. Methods. Eight mongrel dogs were randomly divided into 2 groups: half received an active TIIM pill and half received an identically sized sham capsule. After 24-hour fasting and transoral administration of the pill (active or sham, two force transducers (FT were sutured onto the antral serosa at laparotomy. After closure, three standard cutaneous electrodes were placed on the abdomen, registering the transluminally emitted voltage. Thirty-minute baseline recordings were followed by pharmacological induction of gastric contractions using neostigmine IV and another 30-minute recording. Normalized one-minute baseline and post-neostigmine gastric motility indices (GMIs were calculated and Pearson correlation coefficients (PCCs between cutaneous and FT GMIs were obtained. Statistically significant GMI PCCs were seen in both baseline and post-neostigmine states. There were no significant GMI PCCs in the sham capsule test. Further chronic animal studies of this novel long-term gastric motility measurement technique are needed before testing it on humans.

  17. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G;

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  18. Epigenetic mechanisms and gastrointestinal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review considers the hypothesis that nutrition during infancy affects developmental epigenetics in the gut, causing metabolic imprinting of gastrointestinal (GI) structure and function. Fundamentals of epigenetic gene regulation are reviewed, with an emphasis on the epigenetic mechanism of DNA ...

  19. Sleep Dysfunction and Gastrointestinal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanijow, Vikesh; Prakash, Pia; Emsellem, Helene A; Borum, Marie L; Doman, David B

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation and impaired sleep quality have been associated with poor health outcomes. Many patients experience sleep disturbances, which can increase the risk of medical conditions such as hypertension, obesity, stroke, and heart disease as well as increase overall mortality. Recent studies have suggested that there is a strong association between sleep disturbances and gastrointestinal diseases. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6, have been associated with sleep dysfunction. Alterations in these cytokines have been seen in certain gastrointestinal diseases, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disorders, and colorectal cancer. It is important for gastroenterologists to be aware of the relationship between sleep disorders and gastrointestinal illnesses to ensure good care for patients. This article reviews the current research on the interplay between sleep disorders, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:27134599

  20. Primary pediatric gastrointestinal lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Bandyopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL of the gastrointestinal (GI tract is the most common extranodal lymphoma in pediatric age group. Yet, the overall incidence is very low. The rarity of the disease as well as variable clinical presentation prevents early detection when the possibility of cure exists. Materials and Methods: We studied six cases of primary GI NHL in pediatric age group with reference to their clinical presentation, anatomic distribution and histopathologic characteristics. Results: All were males except one. Intestinal obstruction was the presenting feature in 50%. Half the cases showed ileocaecal involvement, while large bowel was involved in 16%. Histology showed four cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, one case of Burkitt lymphoma, and one Burkitt-like lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry for Tdt, CD20, CD3, CD30, bcl2, bcl6 confirmed the morphological diagnosis. Conclusion: Pediatric GI lymphoma commonly involves the ileocaecal region and presents with intestinal obstruction. A higher prevalence of DLBCL is found compared to other series. A high proliferative index is useful in differentiating Burkitt-like lymphoma from DLBCL.

  1. Feline gastrointestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Yasushi; Hooda, Seema; Swanson, Kelly S; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2012-06-01

    The close relationship between gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota and its host has an impact on the health status of an animal that reaches beyond the GI tract. A balanced microbiome stimulates the immune system, aids in the competitive exclusion of transient pathogens and provides nutritional benefits to the host. With recent rapid advances in high-throughput sequencing technology, molecular approaches have become the routinely used tools for ecological studies of the feline microbiome, and have revealed a highly diverse and complex intestinal ecosystem in the feline GI tract. The major bacterial groups are similar to those found in other mammals, with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria constituting more than 99% of intestinal microbiota. Several nutritional studies have demonstrated that the feline microbiota can be modulated by the amount of soluble fibers (i.e., prebiotics) and macronutrients (i.e., protein content) in the diet. Initial clinical studies have suggested the presence of a dysbiosis in feline inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recently, metagenomic approaches have attempted to characterize the microbial gene pool. However, more studies are needed to describe the phylogenetic and functional changes in the intestinal microbiome in disease states and in response to environmental and dietary modulations. This paper reviews recent studies cataloging the microbial phylotypes in the GI tract of cats.

  2. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selikoff, I J

    1974-12-01

    Some 99,000 new cases of cancer of the colon are expected next year, an incidence rate higher than that for both cancer of the lung and cancer of the breast. Evidence from geographic pathology suggests that some environmental factors play a strong role in its etiology. Data obtained in the 1959 survey of one million people by the American Cancer Society and followed since, has failed to show correlation with any of the large number of factors listed. It is suggested that the etiology is one of multiple factors. The synergistic effect of exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking in the production of bronchogenic carcinoma is demonstrated by data on cohorts of insulation workers. There was also a modest increase in the number of deaths from gastrointestinal cancer in asbestos workers, but smoking did not seem to act in synergistic fashion at that site, except perhaps in the esophagus. Deaths from cancer occurred almost entirely after a period of 20 years or more from initial exposure. The death rate from cancer tended to increase with duration of exposure, but a distinct rise over the expected was seen in those who had been exposed less than one year to amosite dust. PMID:4470947

  3. [Acute gastrointestinal bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbach, Robert; Faiss, Siegbert; Cordruwisch, Wolfgang; Schrader, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is a common major emergency (Internal medical or gastroenterological or medical), approximately 85 % of which occur in the upper GI tract. It is estimated that about a half of upper GI bleeds are caused by peptic ulcers. Upper GI bleeds are associated with more severe bleeding and poorer outcomes when compared to middle or lower GI bleeds. Prognostic determinants include bleeding intensity, patient age, comorbid conditions and the concomitant use of anticoagulants. A focused medical history can offer insight into the bleeding intensity, location and potential cause (along with early risk stratification). Initial measures should focus on rapid assessment and resuscitation of unstable patients. The oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) is the gold standard method for localizing the source of bleeding and for interventional therapy. Bleeding as a result of peptic ulcers is treated endoscopically with mechanical and / or thermal techniques in combination with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. When variceal bleeding is suspected, pre-interventional use of vasopressin analogues and antibiotic therapies are recommended. Endoscopically, the first line treatment of esophageal varices is endoscopic ligature therapy, whereas that for gastric varices is the use of Histoacryl injection sclerotherapy. When persistent and continued massive hemorrhage occurs in a patient with known or suspected aortic disease the possibility of an aorto-enteric fistula must be considered. PMID:27078246

  4. Gastrointestinal function development and microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Di Mauro, Antonio; Neu, Josef; Riezzo, Giuseppe; Raimondi, Francesco; Martinelli, Domenico; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Indrio, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development of post-natal gastrointestinal functions of the host. Recent advances in our capability to identify microbes and their function offer exciting opportunities to evaluate the complex cross talk between microbiota, intestinal barrier, immune system and the gut-brain axis. This review summarizes these interactions in the early colonization of gastrointestinal tract with a major focus on the role of intestinal microbiota in the p...

  5. Upper gastrointestinal sensory-motor dysfunction in diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingbo Zhao; Jens Br(φ)ndum Fr(φ)kjaer; Asbj(φ)rn Mohr Drewes; Niels Ejskjaer

    2006-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) sensory-motor abnormalities are common in patients with diabetes mellitus and may involve any part of the GI tract. Abnormalities are frequently sub-clinical, and fortunately only rarely do severe and life-threatening problems occur. The pathogenesis of abnormal upper GI sensory-motor function in diabetes is incompletely understood and is most likely multi-factorial of origin. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy as well as acute suboptimal control of diabetes has been shown to impair GI motor and sensory function. Morphological and biomechanical remodeling of the GI wall develops during the duration of diabetes,and may contribute to motor and sensory dysfunction. In this review sensory and motility disorders of the upper GI tract in diabetes is discussed; and the morphological changes and biomechanical remodeling related to the sensory-motor dysfunction is also addressed.

  6. Foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kefeli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ingested foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract are a common event which can cause serious morbidity and mortality in the children and adult population. For this reason, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing these life threatening complications. In this study, we aimed to analyze the characteristics of the patients with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies that were treated in our department. Methods: Patients diagnosed with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies who were admitted to our hospital between February 2010 and August2013 were evaluated retrospectively. The data regarding their age, gender, clinical profile, type and localization of the esophageal foreign body, performed endoscopic procedure and initial symptoms of the patients were noted and analyzed statistically. Results: Thirty-eight patients with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal foreign body were included in this study. Of these patients, 21 were male and 17 were female. The youngest patient was 17 years old and the oldest patient was 79 years old. Most of the foreign bodies (%55.3 detected in the stomach. Food waste and metallic objects in 21 and 16 patients respectively. The most common complaint was dysphagia (%50. After endoscopic intervention three of the patients were directed to surgery. Conclusion: Early recognition and treatment of gastrointestinal foreign bodies is important as their complications are life threatening. The best method of removal of foreign bodies is controversial. Early management with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the most efficient and safe treatment method in current conditions.

  7. Effects of ghrelin and motilin on smooth muscle contractility of the isolated gastrointestinal tract from the bullfrog and Japanese fire belly newt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Takio; Shimazaki, Misato; Kikuta, Ayumi; Yaosaka, Noriko; Teraoka, Hiroki; Kaiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Ghrelin has been identified in some amphibians and is known to stimulate growth hormone release and food intake as seen in mammals. Ghrelin regulates gastrointestinal motility in mammals and birds. The aim of this study was to determine whether ghrelin affects gastrointestinal smooth muscle contractility in bullfrogs (anuran) and Japanese fire belly newts (urodelian) in vitro. Neither bullfrog ghrelin nor rat ghrelin affected longitudinal smooth muscle contractility of gastrointestinal strips from the bullfrog. Expression of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) mRNA was confirmed in the bullfrog gastrointestinal tract, and the expression level in the gastric mucosa was lower than that in the intestinal mucosa. In contrast, some gastrointestinal peptides, including substance P, neurotensin and motilin, and the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol showed marked contraction, indicating normality of the smooth muscle preparations. Similar results were obtained in another amphibian, the Japanese fire belly newt. Newt ghrelin and rat ghrelin did not cause any contraction in gastrointestinal longitudinal muscle, whereas substance P and carbachol were effective causing contraction. In conclusion, ghrelin does not affect contractility of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle in anuran and urodelian amphibians, similar to results for rainbow trout and goldfish (fish) but different from results for rats and chickens. The results suggest diversity of ghrelin actions on the gastrointestinal tract across animals. This study also showed for the first time that motilin induces gastrointestinal contraction in amphibians. PMID:26704852

  8. Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish K Tiwari; Heather S Laird-Fick; Ramesh K Wali; Hemant K Roy

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms,thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses.Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions,therefore,is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy.In order to efficiently detect these lesions,systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed.However,most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example,serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma,and fecal occult blood test,for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures,such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes.Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool,the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can't be avoided.The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs.Moreover,only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies,and indeed needs surveillance.To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention,it's important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (riskstratification),and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts.We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies,and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them.

  9. Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Aledavood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extranodal lymphoma may arise anywhere outside lymph nodes mostly in the gastrointestinal (GI tract as non-Hodgkin′s disease. We reviewed the clinicopathological features and treatment results of patients with primary GI lymphoma. Materials and Methods : A total number of 30 cases with primary GI lymphoma were included in this study. Patients referred to the Radiation Oncology Department of Omid Hospital (Mashhad, Iran during a 5-year period (2006-11. Clinical, paraclinical, and radiological data was collected from medical records of the patients. Results: Out of the 30 patients with primary GI lymphoma in the study, 12 were female (40% and 18 were male (60% (male to female ratio: 3/2. B symptoms were present in 27 patients (90%. Antidiuretic hormone (LDH levels were elevated in 9 patients (32.1%. The most common primary site was stomach in 14 cases (46.7%. Other common sites included small intestine and colon each in 8 patients (26.7%. All patients had histopathologically proven non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma. The most common histologic subtype was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL in 16 patients (53.3%. In addition, 28 patients (93.3% received chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, prednisolone (CHOP regimen. The median course of chemotherapy was 6 cources. Moreover, 8 patients (26.7% received radiotherapy with cobalt 60. The median follow-up time was 26 months. The overall 5-year survival rate was 53% and the median survival time was 60 months. Conclusion : Primary GI lymphoma is commonly seen in stomach and small intestine and mostly is DLBCL or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma.

  10. Diabetes-related dysfunction of the small intestine and the colon: focus on motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Viktor József; Putz, Zsuzsanna; Izbéki, Ferenc; Körei, Anna Erzsébet; Gerő, László; Lengyel, Csaba; Kempler, Péter; Várkonyi, Tamás

    2015-11-01

    In contrast to gastric dysfunction, diabetes-related functional impairments of the small and large intestine have been studied less intensively. The gastrointestinal tract accomplishes several functions, such as mixing and propulsion of luminal content, absorption and secretion of ions, water, and nutrients, defense against pathogens, and elimination of waste products. Diverse functions of the gut are regulated by complex interactions among its functional elements, including gut microbiota. The network-forming tissues, the enteric nervous system) and the interstitial cells of Cajal, are definitely impaired in diabetic patients, and their loss of function is closely related to the symptoms in diabetes, but changes of other elements could also play a role in the development of diabetes mellitus-related motility disorders. The development of our understanding over the recent years of the diabetes-induced dysfunctions in the small and large intestine are reviewed in this article.

  11. Localization of a Robotic Capsule for GI Motility Inspection with a Portable Ultrasonic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜萍萍; 颜国正

    2004-01-01

    The micro-systems used for in vivo physical inspection have many advantages over traditional methods. In order to aid diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders, a capsule is developed for GI pressure and pH inspection. Localization of the capsule in GI tract with time is a necessary condition for subsequent data analysis and medical diagnosis. It is also a common problem facing all in vivo mobile micro-systems. An approach of segment localization by utilizing some key points along GI tract is proposed. A portable ultrasonic detecting device was designed for this purpose. Experiments under conditions similar to GI tract were carried out and the results proved the effectiveness and reliability of this method and the device.

  12. Heme in intestinal epithelial cell turnover, differentiation,detoxification, inflammation, carcinogenesis, absorption and motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Phillip S Oates; Adrian R West

    2006-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is lined by a simple epithelium that undergoes constant renewal involving cell division,differentiation and cell death. In addition, the epithelial lining separates the hostile processes of digestion and absorption that occur in the intestinal lumen from the aseptic environment of the internal milieu by defensive mechanisms that protect the epithelium from being breached. Central to these defensive processes is the synthesis of heme and its catabolism by heme oxygenase (HO). Dietary heme is also an important source of iron for the body which is taken up intact by the enterocyte.This review describes the recent literature on the diverse properties of heme/HO in the intestine tract.The roles of heme/HO in the regulation of the cell cycle/apoptosis, detoxification of xenobiotics, oxidative stress,inflammation, development of colon cancer, hemeiron absorption and intestinal motility are specifically examined.

  13. Changes of gastrointestinal myoelectric activity and bile acid pool size after cholecystectomy in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Mei Zhang; Lei Dong; Li-Na Liu; Bi-Xia Chang; Qian He; Qian Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the bile acid pool size after cholecystectomy whether or not correlated to the gastrointestinal migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) in guinea pigs.METHODS: Gallbladder motilities were assessed before cholecystectomy. Furthermore, we continuously monitored interdigestive gastrointestinal motilities using bipolar electrodes in conscious guinea pigs before and after surgery at 4 wk in standard diet group and high cholesterol diet (cholesterol gallstone) group. Total bile acid pool sizes were measured by isotope dilution method at meantime.RESULTS: After cholecystectomy, there were parallel falls in duration of phase Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and MMC cycle duration but increase in amplitude in the guinea pigs with normal gallbladder function, and in the guinea pigs with cholesterol stones. However, There were not significantly differences. On the other hand, the bile acid pool was definitely small in the GS guinea pigs compared to normal guinea pigs and became slightly smaller after cholecystectomy. Similarly, bile acid in gallbladder bile, fecal bile acid was slightly increased in GS guinea pigs after cholecystectomy, to the same degree as normal. These differences, however, were not significant.CONCLUSION: It is concluded that in the guinea pigs with normal gallbladder function, and in the guinea pigs with cholesterol stones: (1) Cholecystectomy produce a similar but less marked trend in bile acid pool; and (2) MMC are linked to enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, rather than surgery, which is consistent with changes of the bile acid pool size. As a result, gastrointestinal dyskinesia is not involved in occurrence of postcholecystectomy syndrome.

  14. Variable laser attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprng one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength.

  15. Regulation of thymocyte positive selection and motility by GIT2

    OpenAIRE

    Phee, Hyewon; Dzhagalov, Ivan; Mollenauer, Marianne; Wang, Yana; Irvine, Darrell J.; Robey, Ellen; Weiss, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Thymocytes are highly motile cells that migrate under the influence of chemokines in distinct thymic compartments as they mature. The motility of thymocytes is tightly regulated; however, the molecular mechanisms that control thymocyte motility are not well understood. Here we report that G protein–coupled receptor kinase-interactor 2 (GIT2) was required for efficient positive selection. Notably, Git2−/− double-positive thymocytes showed greater activation of the small GTPase Rac, actin polym...

  16. Flagellar motility confers epiphytic fitness advantages upon Pseudomonas syringae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of flagellar motility in determining the epiphytic fitness of an ice-nucleation-active strain of Pseudomonas syringae was examined. The loss of flagellar motility reduced the epiphytic fitness of a normally motile P. syringae strain as measured by its growth, survival, and competitive ability on bean leaf surfaces. Equal population sizes of motile parental or nonmotile mutant P. syringae strains were maintained on bean plants for at least 5 days following the inoculation of fully expanded primary leaves. However, when bean seedlings were inoculated before the primary leaves had expanded and bacterial populations on these leaves were quantified at full expansion, the population size of the nonmotile derivative strain reached only 0.9% that of either the motile parental or revertant strain. When fully expanded bean primary leaves were coinoculated with equal numbers of motile and nonmotile cells, the population size of a nonmotile derivative strain was one-third of that of the motile parental or revertant strain after 8 days. Motile and nonmotile cells were exposed in vitro and on plants to UV radiation and desiccating conditions. The motile and nonmotile strains exhibited equal resistance to both stresses in vitro. However, the population size of a nonmotile strain on leaves was less than 20% that of a motile revertant strain when sampled immediately after UV irradiation. Epiphytic populations of both motile and nonmotile P. syringae declined under desiccating conditions on plants, and after 8 days, the population size of a nonmotile strain was less than one-third that of the motile parental or revertant strain

  17. Bacterial motility in the sea and its ecological implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Riemann, Lasse; Azam, F.

    2001-01-01

    Motility could be an important adaptation of heterotrophic bacteria and archaea, and it may have ecological and biogeochemical implications. However, the limited observations so far show that only a small fraction (=10%) of bacteria is motile. We report a systematic 10 mo long field study off...... the coast of La Jolla, California, as well as a mesocosm study to examine bacterial motility and its relationship to environmental variables. Dark-field microscopy revealed periods of sustained low (fall and winter, bacteria (% motile......). Bacteria in natural seawater did not swim constantly nor at constant speeds; over 40% swam bacteria...

  18. Motility Evaluation in the Patient with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Sherine M; Kalra, Gorav; Moshiree, Baha

    2016-10-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) suffer frequently from functional bowel diseases (FBD) and motility disorders. Management of FBD and motility disorders in IBD combined with continued treatment of a patient's IBD symptoms will likely lead to better clinical outcomes and improve the patient's quality of life. The goals of this review were to summarize the most recent literature on motility disturbances in patients with IBD and to give a brief overview of the ranges of motility disturbances, from reflux disease to anorectal disorders, and discuss their diagnosis and specific management.

  19. Acute syndrome of radiation: injuries to the gastrointestinal tract; Syndrome aigu d'irradiation: les atteintes du systeme gastro-intestinal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, N.M.; Dublineau, I.; Lebrun, F.; Linard, C.; Monti, P.; Picard, C.; Scanff, P.; Aigueperse, J. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire

    2002-06-01

    Acute syndrome of radiation: injuries to the gastrointestinal tract. Exposure to ionising radiation at medium to high doses results in the manifestation of mixed pathologies. Following the analysis of several radiation accidents it is clear that intestinal injury influences patient survival. However the appearance of the classically defined gastrointestinal syndrome is not always evident. Nevertheless injury to the gastrointestinal tract, in particular loss of barrier function, seems to play an important role in the development of Multiple Organ Failure such as reported in the recent accident at Tokai Mura. Ionising radiation overexposure results in changes in intestinal motility and nutrient, fluid and electrolyte absorption and secretion all which may contribute to the genesis of diarrhea. In addition to modified cellular transport properties for nutrients or electrolytes, important loss of epithelial cells is also a major contributing factor. Intestinal functions are controlled by many factors such as neurotransmitters, locally released mediators from endocrine cells or immunocompetent cells in addition to luminal agents. To date, treatment of radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury is mainly symptomatic. However treatments such as growth factors, anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as cellular transplantation remain to be validated in the radiation accident situation. (author)

  20. Mechanics and polarity in cell motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, D.; Zanzottera, A.

    2016-09-01

    The motility of a fish keratocyte on a flat substrate exhibits two distinct regimes: the non-migrating and the migrating one. In both configurations the shape is fixed in time and, when the cell is moving, the velocity is constant in magnitude and direction. Transition from a stable configuration to the other one can be produced by a mechanical or chemotactic perturbation. In order to point out the mechanical nature of such a bistable behaviour, we focus on the actin dynamics inside the cell using a minimal mathematical model. While the protein diffusion, recruitment and segregation govern the polarization process, we show that the free actin mass balance, driven by diffusion, and the polymerized actin retrograde flow, regulated by the active stress, are sufficient ingredients to account for the motile bistability. The length and velocity of the cell are predicted on the basis of the parameters of the substrate and of the cell itself. The key physical ingredient of the theory is the exchange among actin phases at the edges of the cell, that plays a central role both in kinematics and in dynamics.

  1. Epilepsy-induced motility of differentiated neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xuejun; Münzner, Gert; Zhao, Shanting; Tinnes, Stefanie; Kowalski, Janina; Häussler, Ute; Young, Christina; Haas, Carola A; Frotscher, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Neuronal ectopia, such as granule cell dispersion (GCD) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), has been assumed to result from a migration defect during development. Indeed, recent studies reported that aberrant migration of neonatal-generated dentate granule cells (GCs) increased the risk to develop epilepsy later in life. On the contrary, in the present study, we show that fully differentiated GCs become motile following the induction of epileptiform activity, resulting in GCD. Hippocampal slice cultures from transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein in differentiated, but not in newly generated GCs, were incubated with the glutamate receptor agonist kainate (KA), which induced GC burst activity and GCD. Using real-time microscopy, we observed that KA-exposed, differentiated GCs translocated their cell bodies and changed their dendritic organization. As found in human TLE, KA application was associated with decreased expression of the extracellular matrix protein Reelin, particularly in hilar interneurons. Together these findings suggest that KA-induced motility of differentiated GCs contributes to the development of GCD and establish slice cultures as a model to study neuronal changes induced by epileptiform activity.

  2. Bacterial Motility Reveals Unknown Molecular Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Ismaël; Rainville, Simon; Galstian, Tigran

    2015-11-17

    The water solubility of lyotropic liquid crystals (LCs) makes them very attractive to study the behavior of biological microorganisms in an environment where local symmetry is broken (as often encountered in nature). Several recent studies have shown a dramatic change in the behavior of flagellated bacteria when swimming in solutions of the lyotropic LC disodium cromoglycate (DSCG). In this study, the movements of Escherichia coli bacteria in DSCG-water solutions of different concentrations are observed to improve our understanding of this phenomenon. In addition, the viscosity of DSCG aqueous solutions is measured as a function of concentration at room temperature. We also experimentally identify a previously undescribed isotropic pretransition zone where bacteria start sticking to each other and to surfaces. Simple estimations show that the unbalanced osmotic pressure induced depletion force might be responsible for this sticking phenomenon. An estimate of the bacteria propulsive force and the DSCG aggregates length (versus concentration) are calculated from the measured viscosity of the medium. All these quantities are found to undergo a strong increase in the pretransition zone, starting at a threshold concentration of 6±1 wt % DSCG that is well below the known isotropic-LC transition (∼10 wt %). This study also shines light on the motility of flagellated bacteria in realistic environments, and it opens new avenues for interesting applications such as the use of motile microorganisms to probe the physical properties of their host or smart bandages that could guide bacteria out of wounds. PMID:26588572

  3. Single molecule analysis of cytoplasmic dynein motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ahmet

    2014-03-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a homodimeric AAA + motor that transports a multitude of cargos towards the microtubule (MT) minus end. The mechanism of dynein motility remains unclear, due to its large size (2.6 MDa) and the complexity of its structure. By tracking the stepping motion of both heads at nanometer resolution, we observed that dynein heads move independently along the MT, in contrast to hand over hand movement of kinesins and myosin. Stepping behavior of the heads varies as a function of interhead separation and establishing the basis of high variability in dynein step size. By engineering the mechanical and catalytic properties of the dynein motor domain, we show that a rigid linkage between monomers and dimerization between N-terminal tail domains are not essential for processive movement. Instead, dynein processivity minimally requires the linker domain of one active monomer to be attached to an inert MT tether retaining only the MT-binding domain. The release of a dynein monomer from the MT can be mediated either by nucleotide binding or external load. Nucleotide dependent release is inhibited by the tension on the linker domain at high interhead separations. Tension dependent release is highly asymmetric, with faster release towards the minus-end. Reversing the asymmetry of the MT binding interface results in plus end directed motility, even though the force was generated by the dynein motor activity. On the basis of these measurements, we propose a model that describes the basis of dynein processivity, directionality and force generation.

  4. The ACB technique: a biomagentic tool for monitoring gastrointestinal contraction directly from smooth muscle in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper was to verify whether AC biosusceptometry (ACB) is suitable for monitoring gastrointestinal (GI) contraction directly from smooth muscle in dogs, comparing with electrical recordings simultaneously. All experiments were performed in dogs with magnetic markers implanted under the serosa of the right colon and distal stomach, and their movements were recorded by ACB. Monopolar electrodes were implanted close to the magnetic markers and their electric potentials were recorded by electromyography (EMG). The effects of neostigmine, hyoscine butylbromide and meal on gastric and colonic parameters were studied. The ACB signal from the distal stomach was very similar to EMG; in the colonic recordings, however, within the same low-frequency band, ACB and EMG signals were characterized by simultaneity or a widely changeable frequency profile with time. ACB recordings were capable of demonstrating the changes in gastric and colonic motility determined by pharmacological interventions as well as by feeding. Our results reinforce the importance of evaluating the mechanical and electrical components of motility and show a temporal association between them. ACB and EMG are complementary for studying motility, with special emphasis on the colon. ACB offers an accurate method for monitoring in vivo GI motility

  5. Effects of Prokinetic Agents on Motility of Proximal and Distal Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Şerif Arslan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is known that prokinetic agents increase the motility of stomach and intestine. Although there are many studies on the motility of colon, its mechanism is not well clarified. The aim of this study to investigate the effects of prokinetic agents on proximal and distal colon tissues. Methods: Forty male wistar albino rats were allocated into five groups. Rats divided five group as a control, eryth­romycin, ampicillin, domperidon and metoclopramide. Before taking the tissue samples, this four agents were given by oral gavage, three times a day. The proximal and distal colon tissues were taken after the sacrification of rats, the colonic segments were mounted in 10 ml organ baths in the direction of circular muscles, and the con­tractions were recorded by a polygraph. The changes in the amplitude (% of KCl and frequency (number/min of contractions were analyzed before and after the addition of antagonists. The antagonist responses were taken by L-NNA, indomethacin, nimesulid, hexamethonium and tetradotoxin. Results: While investigating the mechanism of the con­traction changes, L-NNA, indomethacin, nimesulid signifi­cantly increased the amplitude of both proximal and distal colon spontaneous contractions compared with control group but hexamethonium and tetradotoxin did not. Ac­cording to the frequency responses, the erythromycin group responses were significantly higher than control group. Conclusions: Erythromycin, ampicillin, domperidon and metoclopramide may be useful to increase the motility of gastrointestinal system. On the other hand, the use of these agents in combination with nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors may in­crease the effects of these agents.

  6. Motility alterations in celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Sanchez, Maria Ines; Bercik, Premysl; Verdu, Elena F

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of gut motility is complex and involves neuromuscular, immune and environmental mechanisms. It is well established that patients with celiac disease (CD) often display gut dysmotility. Studies have shown the presence of disturbed esophageal motility, altered gastric emptying, and dysmotility of the small intestine, gallbladder and colon in untreated CD. Most of these motor abnormalities resolve after a strict gluten-free diet, suggesting that mechanisms related to the inflammatory condition and disease process are responsible for the motor dysfunction. Motility abnormalities are also a hallmark of functional bowel disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where it has been proposed as underlying mechanism for symptom generation (diarrhea, constipation, bloating). Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a poorly defined entity, mostly self-diagnosed, that presents clinically with IBS symptoms in the absence of specific celiac markers. Patients with NCGS are believed to react symptomatically to wheat components, and some studies have proposed the presence of low-grade inflammation in these patients. There is little information regarding the functional characterization of these patients before and after a gluten-free diet. A study suggested the presence of altered gastrointestinal transit in NCGS patients who also have a high prevalence of nonspecific anti-gliadin antibodies. Results of an ongoing clinical study in NCGS patients with positive anti-gliadin antibodies before and after a gluten-free diet will be discussed. Elucidating the mechanisms for symptom generation in NCGS patients is important to find new therapeutic alternatives to the burden of imposing a strict gluten-free diet in patients who do not have CD. PMID:25925923

  7. Gastrointestinal symptoms and disorders in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yasuhiro; Fukudo, Shin

    2015-10-01

    The two most clinically serious eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. A drive for thinness and fear of fatness lead patients with anorexia nervosa either to restrict their food intake or binge-eat then purge (through self-induced vomiting and/or laxative abuse) to reduce their body weight to much less than the normal range. A drive for thinness leads patients with bulimia nervosa to binge-eat then purge but fail to reduce their body weight. Patients with eating disorders present with various gastrointestinal disturbances such as postprandial fullness, abdominal distention, abdominal pain, gastric distension, and early satiety, with altered esophageal motility sometimes seen in patients with anorexia nervosa. Other common conditions noted in patients with eating disorders are postprandial distress syndrome, superior mesenteric artery syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and functional constipation. Binge eating may cause acute gastric dilatation and gastric perforation, while self-induced vomiting can lead to dental caries, salivary gland enlargement, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and electrolyte imbalance. Laxative abuse can cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Vomiting and/or laxative abuse can cause hypokalemia, which carries a risk of fatal arrhythmia. Careful assessment and intensive treatment of patients with eating disorders is needed because gastrointestinal symptoms/disorders can progress to a critical condition. PMID:26499370

  8. Gastric pH and motility in a porcine model of acute lung injury using a wireless motility capsule

    OpenAIRE

    Rauch, Stefan; Muellenbach, Ralf M.; Johannes, Amélie; Zollhöfer, Bernd; Roewer, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Evaluation of gastric pH and motility in a porcine model of acute lung injury using a novel, wireless motility capsule. Material/Methods A motility capsule was applied into the stomach of 7 Pietrain pigs with acute lung injury induced by high volume saline lavage. Wireless transmission of pH, pressure and temperature data was performed by a recorder attached to the animal’s abdomen. Gastric motility was evaluated using pH and pressure values, and capsule location was confir...

  9. Interventional nutrition for gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, M A

    1998-11-01

    Nutritional intervention plays a key role in the successful management of gastrointestinal disease. This article focuses on several novel areas of nutritional intervention that are becoming increasingly important in gastrointestinal disease, including short-chain fatty acids, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and glutamine. Short-chain fatty acids are the principal end-products of bacterial fermentation of dietary fibers and have profound effects on normal intestinal cell metabolism and proliferation. Short-chain fatty acids have the potential to improve overall intestinal health, stimulate intestinal healing, and decrease intestinal inflammation. Omega-3 fatty acids, from dietary sources or supplements, may also be useful in decreasing intestinal inflammation and in preventing intestinal cancer. Finally, glutamine also may play an important role in the nutritional management of gastrointestinal disease. PMID:9842113

  10. Nutritional support and gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, K

    1989-06-01

    The use of nutritional support in patients with acute gastrointestinal disease requires a thorough knowledge of the pathophysiology and nutritional alterations that are caused by the disease process. Although nutritional therapy of a patient with gastrointestinal disease is not curative of the underlying disease, it does provide essential support to the patient, which improves response to, and eventual recovery from, illness. Special considerations need to be made to avoid complicating the patient's condition by inappropriate use of nutritional support solutions, which can lead to abnormal liver function. PMID:2498848

  11. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC) Ultrastructure and Connexin 43 Protein Expression in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoshan; Xie, Shen; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuer; Liu, Mailan; Liu, Mi; Chang, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal motility disorder is the main clinical manifestation in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Electroacupuncture is effective in improving gastrointestinal motility disorder in FD; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemaker cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and the pacemaker potential is transmitted to nearby cells through gap junctions between ICC or ICC and the smooth muscle. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of electroacupuncture on ICC ultrastructure and expression of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in FD rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS The animals were randomized into 3 groups: control, model, and electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture was applied at Zusanli (ST36) in the electroacupuncture group daily for 10 days, while no electroacupuncture was applied to model group animals. RESULTS Ultrastructure of ICC recovered normally in gastric antrum and small intestine specimens was improved, with Cx43 expression levels in these tissues significantly increased in the electroacupuncture group compared with the model group. CONCLUSIONS These findings indicated that electroacupuncture is effective in alleviating ICC damage and reduces Cx43 levels in FD rats, and suggest that ICC and Cx43 are involved in electroacupuncture treatment in rats with FD to improve gastrointestinal motility disorders.

  12. Activation of serotonin receptors promotes microglial injury-induced motility but attenuates phagocytic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Grietje; Matyash, Vitali; Pannasch, Ulrike; Mamer, Lauren; Boddeke, Hendrikus W. G. M.; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Microglia, the brain immune cell, express several neurotransmitter receptors which modulate microglial functions. In this project we studied the impact of serotonin receptor activation on distinct microglial properties as serotonin deficiency not only has been linked to a number of psychiatric disea

  13. Gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa swarming motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déziel Eric

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of three types of motilities: swimming, twitching and swarming. The latter is characterized by a fast and coordinated group movement over a semi-solid surface resulting from intercellular interactions and morphological differentiation. A striking feature of swarming motility is the complex fractal-like patterns displayed by migrating bacteria while they move away from their inoculation point. This type of group behaviour is still poorly understood and its characterization provides important information on bacterial structured communities such as biofilms. Using GeneChip® Affymetrix microarrays, we obtained the transcriptomic profiles of both bacterial populations located at the tip of migrating tendrils and swarm center of swarming colonies and compared these profiles to that of a bacterial control population grown on the same media but solidified to not allow swarming motility. Results Microarray raw data were corrected for background noise with the RMA algorithm and quantile normalized. Differentially expressed genes between the three conditions were selected using a threshold of 1.5 log2-fold, which gave a total of 378 selected genes (6.3% of the predicted open reading frames of strain PA14. Major shifts in gene expression patterns are observed in each growth conditions, highlighting the presence of distinct bacterial subpopulations within a swarming colony (tendril tips vs. swarm center. Unexpectedly, microarrays expression data reveal that a minority of genes are up-regulated in tendril tip populations. Among them, we found energy metabolism, ribosomal protein and transport of small molecules related genes. On the other hand, many well-known virulence factors genes were globally repressed in tendril tip cells. Swarm center cells are distinct and appear to be under oxidative and copper stress responses. Conclusions Results reported in this study show that, as opposed to

  14. Cell motility as persistent random motion: Theories from experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmeczi, D.; Mosler, S.; Hagedorn, P.H.;

    2005-01-01

    Experimental time series for trajectories of motile cells may contain so much information that a systematic analysis will yield cell-type- specific motility models. Here we demonstrate how, using human keratinocytes and fibroblasts as examples. The two resulting models reflect the cells' differen...

  15. Quantification of motility of carabid beetles in farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allema, A B; van der Werf, W; Groot, J C J; Hemerik, L; Gort, G; Rossing, W A H; van Lenteren, J C

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of the movement of insects at field and landscape levels helps us to understand their ecology and ecological functions. We conducted a meta-analysis on movement of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae), to identify key factors affecting movement and population redistribution. We characterize the rate of redistribution using motility μ (L2 T-1), which is a measure for diffusion of a population in space and time that is consistent with ecological diffusion theory and which can be used for upscaling short-term data to longer time frames. Formulas are provided to calculate motility from literature data on movement distances. A field experiment was conducted to measure the redistribution of mass-released carabid, Pterostichus melanarius in a crop field, and derive motility by fitting a Fokker-Planck diffusion model using inverse modelling. Bias in estimates of motility from literature data is elucidated using the data from the field experiment as a case study. The meta-analysis showed that motility is 5.6 times as high in farmland as in woody habitat. Species associated with forested habitats had greater motility than species associated with open field habitats, both in arable land and woody habitat. The meta-analysis did not identify consistent differences in motility at the species level, or between clusters of larger and smaller beetles. The results presented here provide a basis for calculating time-varying distribution patterns of carabids in farmland and woody habitat. The formulas for calculating motility can be used for other taxa. PMID:25673121

  16. Better living through microbial action: the benefits of the mammalian gastrointestinal microbiota on the host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leser, Thomas D.; Mølbak, Lars

    2009-01-01

    system and motility, hormonal and maturational responses, angiogenesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix, signal transduction, and general cellular functions. Whereas such effects are local at the gut epithelium they may eventually have systemic consequences, e.g. on body weight and composition...... gut microbiota in all mammals, the bacterial genera and species diversity is huge and reflects mammalian phylogeny. The main function of the gastrointestinal epithelium is to absorb nutrients and to retain water and electrolytes, yet at the same time it is an efficient barrier against harmful...

  17. Total bilirubin in nasogastric aspirates: A potential new indicator of postoperative gastrointestinal recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Go Miyano; Hiroki Nakamura; Toshiaki Takahashi; Lane, Geoffrey J.; Atsuyuki Yamataka

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of our study was to investigate if total bilirubin (T-bil), amylase (Amy), and sodium (Na) in nasogastric (NG) aspirates can reflect gastrointestinal motility reliably. Materials and Methods: NG aspirates from all laparotomies lasting more than 150 min in children less than 12 months old were studied for 3 months. Color of aspirates and intensity of bowel sounds were graded every 3 h by nursing staff and aspirate samples for measuring T-bil, Amy, and Na were collected inde...

  18. Gastrointestinal anthrax: clinical experience in 5 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Maddah, Ghodratollah; ABDOLLAHI, ABBAS; Katebi, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bacillus anthracis may usually cause three forms of anthrax: inhalation, gastrointestinal and cutaneous. The gastrointestinal (GI) anthrax develops after eating contaminated meat. Thus, in this paper were report 5 cases of intestinal anthrax.

  19. Method and system for enhancing microbial motility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, T.C.; Lopez-De-Victoria, G.

    1992-12-31

    A method and system for enhancing the motility of microorganisms by placing an effective amount of chlorinated hydrocarbons, preferably chlorinated alkenes, and most preferably trichloroethylene in spaced relation to the microbes so that the surprisingly strong, monomodal, chemotactic response of the chlorinated hydrocarbon on subsurface microbes can draw the microbes away from or towards and into a substance, as desired. In remediation of groundwater pollution, for example, TCE can be injected into the plume to increase the population of microbes at the plume whereby the plume can be more quickly degraded. A TCE-degrading microbe, such as Welchia alkenophilia, can be used to degrade the TCE following the degradation of the original pollutant.

  20. Method and system for enhancing microbial motility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, T.C.; Lopez-De-Victoria, G.

    1990-01-05

    A method and system for enhancing the motility of microorganisms by placing an effective amount of chlorinated hydrocarbons, preferably chlorinated alkenes, and most preferably trichloroethylene in spaced relation to the microbes so that the surprisingly strong, monomodal, chemotactic response of the chlorinated hydrocarbon on subsurface microbes can draw the microbes away from or towards and into a substance, as desired. In remediation of groundwater pollution, for example, TCE can be injected into the plume to increase the population of microbes at the plume whereby the plume can be more quickly degraded. A TCE-degrading microbe, such as Welchia alkenophilia, can be used to degrade the TCE following the degradation of the original pollutant. 5 figs.

  1. Thyroxin Is Useful to Improve Sperm Motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendeluk Gabriela Ruth

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the non-genomic action of thyroxin on sperm kinetic and its probable use to improve sperm recovery after applying an en- richment method like “swim-up” in comparison with the available one, pentoxifylline. Materials and Methods This is an experimental study. A total of 50 patients were re- cruited, followed by infertility consultation. Conventional sperm assays were performed according to World Health Organization criteria-2010 (WHO-2010. A Computer Aided Semen Analysis System was employed to assess kinetic parameters and concentrations. Number of the motile sperm recovered after preparation technique was calculated. Results Addition of T4 (0.002 µg/ml to semen samples increased hypermotility at 20 minutes (control: 14.18 ± 5.1% vs. 17.66 ± 8.88%, P<0.03, data expressed as mean ± SD and remained unchanged after 40 minutes. Significant differences were found in the motile sperm recovered after swim-up (control: 8.93×106 ± 9.52× 06vs. 17.20×106 ± 21.16×106, P<0.03, achieving all of the tested samples a desirable threshold value for artificial insemination outcome, while adding pentoxifylline increased the number of recovered sperm after swim-up in 60% of the studied cases. No synergism between two treatments could be determined. Conclusion We propose a new physiological tool to artificially improve insemination. The discussion opens windows to investigate unknown pathways involved in sperm ca- pacitation and gives innovative arguments to better understand infertility mechanisms.

  2. Evolutionary aspects of collective motility in pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deforet, Maxime; Xavier, Joao

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogenic bacteria that can use its single polar flagellum to swim through liquids. It can move collectively over semisolid surfaces, a behavior called swarming. It can also settle and form surface-attached communities called biofilms that protect them from antibiotics. The transition from single motility (swimming) to collective motility (swarming) is biologically relevant as it enables exploring environments that a single bacterium cannot explore on its own. It is also clinically relevant since swarming and biofilm formation are thought to be antagonistic. We investigate the mechanisms of bacterial collective motility using a multidisciplinary approach that combines mathematical modeling, quantitative experiments, and microbial genetics. We aim to identify how these mechanisms may evolve under the selective pressure of population expansion, and consequently reinforce or hinder collective motility. In particular, we clarify the role of growth rate and motility in invasive populations.

  3. Bacterial signaling and motility: Sure bets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhulin, Igor B [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2008-01-01

    The IX International Conference on Bacterial Locomotion and Signal Transduction (BLAST IX) was held from 14 to 19 January 2007 in Laughlin, NV, a town in the Mojave Desert on the Nevada-Arizona border near old Route 66 and along the banks of the Colorado River. This area is a home to rattlesnakes, sagebrush, abandoned gold mines, and compulsive gamblers. What better venue could scientists possibly dream of for a professional meeting? So there they were, about 190 scientists gathered in the Aquarius Casino Resort, the largest hotel and casino in Laughlin, discussing the latest advances in the field. Aside from a brief excursion to an abandoned gold mine and a dinner cruise on the Colorado River, the scientists focused on nothing but their data and hypotheses, in spirited arguments and rebuttals, and outlined their visions and future plans in a friendly and open environment. The BLAST IX program was dense, with nearly 50 talks and over 90 posters. For that reason, this meeting report will not attempt to be comprehensive; instead it will first provide general background information on the central topics of the meeting and then highlight only a few talks that were of special interest to us and hopefully to the wider scientific community. We will also attempt to articulate some of the future directions or perspectives to the best of our abilities. The best known and understood bacterial motility mechanism is swimming powered by flagella. The rotation of bacterial flagella drives this form of bacterial movement in an aqueous environment. A bacterial flagellum consists of a helical filament attached to the cell body through a complex structure known as the hook-basal body, which drives flagellar rotation. The essential components of the basal body are the MotA-MotB motor-stator proteins bound to the cytoplasmic membrane. These stator proteins interact with proteins that comprise the supramembrane and cytoplasmic rings, which are components of the motor imbedded in the

  4. New technologies in gastrointestinal research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asbjφrn Mohr Drewes; Hans Gregersen

    2009-01-01

    This issue presents different new techniques aiming to increase our understanding of the gastrointestinal system and to improve treatment. The technologies cover selected methods to evoke and assess gut pain, new methods for imaging and physiological measurements, histochemistry, pharmacological modelling etc. There is no doubt that the methods will revolutionize the diagnostic approach in near future.

  5. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  6. Gastric motility measurement and evaluation of functional dyspepsia by a bio-impedance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    method of impedance can be a potential tool for the noninvasive assessment of gastric motility under gastrointestinal physiology and pathology conditions

  7. Electroejaculated Baboon (Papio anubis) Sperm Requires a Higher Dosage of Pentoxifylline to Enhance Motility

    OpenAIRE

    Cseh, Sandor; Chan, Philip J.; Corselli, Johannah; Bailey, Leonard L.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Sperm collected by electroejaculation often showpoor motility. The objective was to determine whether theaddition of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, pentoxifylline,would stimulate electroejaculated baboon sperm motility.

  8. Pattern formation mechanisms in motility mutants of Myxococcus xanthus

    CERN Document Server

    Starruss, Joern; Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Sogaard-Andersen, Lotte; Deutsch, Andreas; Baer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Formation of spatial patterns of cells is a recurring theme in biology and often depends on regulated cell motility. Motility of M. xanthus depends on two motility machineries: the S-engine and A-engine. Moving M. xanthus cells can organize into spreading colonies or spore-filled fruiting bodies depending on their nutritional status. To understand these two pattern formation processes and the contributions by the two motility machineries, as well as cell reversal, we analyze spatial self-organization in 3 strains: i) a mutant that moves unidirectionally without reversing by the A-motility system only, ii) a unidirectional mutant that is also equipped with the S-motility system, and iii) the wild-type that, in addition to the two motility systems, reverses its direction of movement. The mutant moving by the A-engine illustrates that collective motion in the form of large moving clusters can arise in gliding bacteria due to steric interactions of the rod-shaped cells, without the need of invoking any biochemica...

  9. Distinct effects of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 on insulin secretion and gut motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miki, Takashi; Minami, Kohtaro; Shinozaki, Hidehiro;

    2005-01-01

    lacking K(ATP) channels (Kir6.2(-/-) mice), we found that pretreatment with GIP in vivo failed to blunt the rise in blood glucose levels after oral glucose load. In Kir6.2(-/-) mice, potentiation of insulin secretion by GIP in vivo was markedly attenuated, indicating that K(ATP) channels are essential...... in the insulinotropic effect of GIP. In contrast, pretreatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in Kir6.2(-/-) mice potentiated insulin secretion and blunted the rise in blood glucose levels. We also found that GLP-1 inhibited gut motility whereas GIP did not. Perfusion experiments of Kir6.2(-/-) mice revealed...

  10. Exopolysaccharide-independent social motility of Myxococcus xanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    Full Text Available Social motility (S motility, the coordinated movement of large cell groups on agar surfaces, of Myxococcus xanthus requires type IV pili (TFP and exopolysaccharides (EPS. Previous models proposed that this behavior, which only occurred within cell groups, requires cycles of TFP extension and retraction triggered by the close interaction of TFP with EPS. However, the curious observation that M. xanthus can perform TFP-dependent motility at a single-cell level when placed onto polystyrene surfaces in a highly viscous medium containing 1% methylcellulose indicated that "S motility" is not limited to group movements. In an apparent further challenge of the previous findings for S motility, mutants defective in EPS production were found to perform TFP-dependent motility on polystyrene surface in methylcellulose-containing medium. By exploring the interactions between pilin and surface materials, we found that the binding of TFP onto polystyrene surfaces eliminated the requirement for EPS in EPS(- cells and thus enabled TFP-dependent motility on a single cell level. However, the presence of a general anchoring surface in a viscous environment could not substitute for the role of cell surface EPS in group movement. Furthermore, EPS was found to serve as a self-produced anchoring substrate that can be shed onto surfaces to enable cells to conduct TFP-dependent motility regardless of surface properties. These results suggested that in certain environments, such as in methylcellulose solution, the cells could bypass the need for EPS to anchor their TPF and conduct single-cell S motility to promote exploratory movement of colonies over new specific surfaces.

  11. Coordination of glioblastoma cell motility by PKCι

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin R Mitchell

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma is one of the deadliest forms of cancer, in part because of its highly invasive nature. The tumor suppressor PTEN is frequently mutated in glioblastoma and is known to contribute to the invasive phenotype. However the downstream events that promote invasion are not fully understood. PTEN loss leads to activation of the atypical protein kinase C, PKCι. We have previously shown that PKCι is required for glioblastoma cell invasion, primarily by enhancing cell motility. Here we have used time-lapse videomicroscopy to more precisely define the role of PKCι in glioblastoma. Results Glioblastoma cells in which PKCι was either depleted by shRNA or inhibited pharmacologically were unable to coordinate the formation of a single leading edge lamellipod. Instead, some cells generated multiple small, short-lived protrusions while others generated a diffuse leading edge that formed around the entire circumference of the cell. Confocal microscopy showed that this behavior was associated with altered behavior of the cytoskeletal protein Lgl, which is known to be inactivated by PKCι phosphorylation. Lgl in control cells localized to the lamellipod leading edge and did not associate with its binding partner non-muscle myosin II, consistent with it being in an inactive state. In PKCι-depleted cells, Lgl was concentrated at multiple sites at the periphery of the cell and remained in association with non-muscle myosin II. Videomicroscopy also identified a novel role for PKCι in the cell cycle. Cells in which PKCι was either depleted by shRNA or inhibited pharmacologically entered mitosis normally, but showed marked delays in completing mitosis. Conclusions PKCι promotes glioblastoma motility by coordinating the formation of a single leading edge lamellipod and has a role in remodeling the cytoskeleton at the lamellipod leading edge, promoting the dissociation of Lgl from non-muscle myosin II. In addition PKCι is required

  12. The Semen pH Affects Sperm Motility and Capacitation

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Zhou; Li Chen; Jie Li; Hongjun Li; Zhiwei Hong; Min Xie; Shengrong Chen; Bing Yao

    2015-01-01

    As the chemical environment of semen can have a profound effect on sperm quality, we examined the effect of pH on the motility, viability and capacitation of human sperm. The sperm in this study was collected from healthy males to avoid interference from other factors. The spermatozoa cultured in sperm nutrition solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were analyzed for sperm total motility, progressive motility (PR), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) rate, and sperm penetration. Our results showed tha...

  13. Effectiveness of Hair Bundle Motility as the Cochlear Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Sul, Bora; Iwasa, Kuni H.

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of hair bundle motility in mammalian and avian ears is studied by examining energy balance for a small sinusoidal displacement of the hair bundle. The condition that the energy generated by a hair bundle must be greater than energy loss due to the shear in the subtectorial gap per hair bundle leads to a limiting frequency that can be supported by hair-bundle motility. Limiting frequencies are obtained for two motile mechanisms for fast adaptation, the channel re-closure mode...

  14. [Neurological and psychiatric aspects of some gastrointestinal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aszalós, Zsuzsa

    2008-11-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is controlled by the independent enteric nervous system. It is also closely connected to the central nervous system, and bi-directional communication exists between them. The communication involves neural pathways as well as immune and endocrine mechanisms. The brain-gut axis plays a prominent role in the modulation of gut functions. Signals from different sources (e.g. sound, sight, smell, somatic and visceral sensations, pain) reach the brain. These inputs are modified by memory, cognition and affective mechanisms and integrated within the neural circuits of the central nervous system, spinal cord, autonomic and enteral nervous systems. These inputs can have physiologic effects, such as changes in motility, secretion, immune function, and blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract. One of the most important neurotransmitters is serotonin that plays a key role in the pathogenesis of the most common chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder: the irritable bowel syndrome. It is a biopsychosocial disease, resulting from the dysregulation of the brain-gut axis. Endogenous pain facilitation rather than inhibition, pathologic gradation of visceral perception and reduced threshold for pain are all evident in these patients. Abuse history is common in their anamnesis. Exaggerated conscientiousness, perfectionism, oversensitivity, feeling of deficiency in effectiveness, and higher demand for social parity, neuroticism and alexithymia have been detected among their constant personality features. Females are also characterized by gender role conflict and low assertiveness. Antidepressants and psychotherapy have important roles in their treatment. Also patients with inflammatory bowel disease are characterized by neuroticism and alexithymia and altered mother-child attachment is often described in their anamnesis. Autonomic neuropathy is a frequent and early neurological complication. Reflux disease and obstructive sleep apnea mutually generate

  15. Calmodulin-dependent protein kinases mediate calcium-induced slow motility of mammalian outer hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschner, B; Schacht, J

    1997-08-01

    Cochlear outer hair cells in vitro respond to elevation of intracellular calcium with slow shape changes over seconds to minutes ('slow motility'). This process is blocked by general calmodulin antagonists suggesting the participation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent enzymatic reactions. The present study proposes a mechanism for these reactions. Length changes of outer hair cells isolated from the guinea pig cochlea were induced by exposure to the calcium ionophore ionomycin. ATP levels remained unaffected by this treatment ruling out depletion of ATP (by activation of calcium-dependent ATPases) as a cause of the observed shape changes. Involvement of protein kinases was suggested by the inhibition of shape changes by K252a, a broad-spectrum inhibitor of protein kinase activity. Furthermore, the inhibitors ML-7 and ML-9 blocked the shape changes at concentrations compatible with inhibition of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). KN-62, an inhibitor of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), also attenuated the length changes. Inhibitors with selectivity for cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases (H-89, staurosporine) were tested to assess potential additional contributions by such enzymes. The dose dependence of their action supported the notion that the most likely mechanism of slow motility involves phosphorylation reactions catalyzed by MLCK or CaMKII or both. PMID:9282907

  16. Gastrointestinal manifestations of food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jaime Liou; Aceves, Seema S

    2011-04-01

    The rates of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders appear to be increasing. The most common of these is eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) which is a clinicopathologic condition consisting of characteristic symptoms and endoscopic features accompanied by a pan-esophageal, acid resistant epithelial eosinophilia of greater than equal to 15 per high power field. Typical symptoms include dysphagia and abdominal pain. Typical endoscopic features include pallor, plaques, furrows, concentric rings. Complications include food impactions and strictures. EoE resolution with food elimination diets provides evidence that EoE is a food-antigen driven process. In vitro and microarray studies have identified specific immunologic factors underlying EoE pathogenesis. Other gastrointestinal manifestations of food intolerances/allergy include food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome.

  17. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    , paracrine, spermiocrine secretion etc.), so the same peptide may act as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor, or a fertility factor. The molecular targets of each bioactive peptide are specific G-protein coupled receptors expressed in the cell membranes of different target cells......Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization...

  18. Gastrointestinal lesions associated with spondyloarthropathies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ambrogio Orlando; Sara Renna; Giovanni Perricone; Mario Cottone

    2009-01-01

    Subclinical gut inflammation has been described in up to two-thirds of patients with spondyloarthropathies (SpA). Arthritis represents an extra-intestinal manifestation of several gastrointestinal diseases,including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Whipple's disease, Behcet's disease, celiac disease, intestinal bypass surgery, parasitic infections of the gut and pseudomembranous colitis. Moreover about twothirds of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug users demonstrate intestinal inflammation. Arthritis may manifest as a peripheral or axial arthritis. The spondyloarthropathy family consists of the following entities:ankylosing spondylitis, undifferentiated spondyloar thr i t is, react ive ar thr i t is, psor iat i c arthritis, spondyloarthritis associated with IBD,juvenile onset spondyloarthritis. This topic reviews the major gastrointestinal manifestations that can occur in patients with SpA and in nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs users.

  19. Visceral Pain and Gastrointestinal Microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Chichlowski, Maciej; Rudolph, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A complex set of interactions between the microbiome, gut and brain modulate responses to visceral pain. These interactions occur at the level of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and via local neural, endocrine or immune activity; as well as by the production of factors transported through the circulatory system, like bacterial metabolites or hormones. Various psychological, infectious and other stressors can disrupt this harmonious relationship and alter both the microbiome and visceral pain res...

  20. The Gastrointestinal Aspects of Halitosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kinberg, Sivan; Stein, Miki; Zion, Nataly; Shaoul, Ron

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Halitosis is a common human condition for which the exact pathophysiological mechanism is unclear. It has been attributed mainly to oral pathologies. Halitosis resulting from gastrointestinal disorders is considered to be extremely rare. However, halitosis has often been reported among the symptoms related to Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroesophageal reflux disease.OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively review the experience with children and young adults presenting with halitosis...

  1. Upper gastrointestinal physiology and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldum, Helge L; Kleveland, Per M; Fossmark, Reidar

    2015-06-01

    Nordic research on physiology and pathophysiology of the upper gastrointestinal tract has flourished during the last 50 years. Swedish surgeons and physiologists were in the frontline of research on the regulation of gastric acid secretion. This research finally led to the development of omeprazole, the first proton pump inhibitor. When Swedish physiologists developed methods allowing the assessment of acid secretion in isolated oxyntic glands and isolated parietal cells, the understanding of mechanisms by which gastric acid secretion is regulated took a great step forward. Similarly, in Trondheim, Norway, the acid producing isolated rat stomach model combined with a sensitive and specific method for determination of histamine made it possible to evaluate this regulation qualitatively as well as quantitatively. In Lund, Sweden, the identification of the enterochromaffin-like cell as the cell taking part in the regulation of acid secretion by producing and releasing histamine was of fundamental importance both physiologically and clinically. Jorpes and Mutt established a center at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm for the purification of gastrointestinal hormones in the 1960s, and Danes followed up this work by excelling in the field of determination and assessment of biological role of gastrointestinal hormones. A Finnish group was for a long period in the forefront of research on gastritis, and the authors' own studies on the classification of gastric cancer and the role of gastrin in the development of gastric neoplasia are of importance. It can, accordingly, be concluded that Nordic researchers have been central in the research on area of the upper gastrointestinal physiology and diseases. PMID:25857514

  2. Gastrointestinal manifestations of endocrine disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christina Maser; Arnbjorn Toset; Sanziana Roman

    2006-01-01

    The hormonal interactions among the systems throughout the body are not fully understood; many vague clinical symptoms may in fact be manifestations of underlying endocrine diseases. The aim of the following review is to discuss gastrointestinal manifestations of surgically correctable endocrine diseases, focusing on abnormalities of thyroid function, cancer and finally autoimmune diseases. We also review manifestations of pancreatic endocrine tumors, and multiple endocrine neoplasia.

  3. Never events in gastrointestinal nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, C. L.

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal diseases and disorders frequently require interventions that can lead to serious consequences for patients when an organization has not put in place the correct systems and processes to prevent incidents from happening, procedures have not been followed (generally due to poor observation), or when an individual disregards protocol (generally due to lack of judgment). It has been identified that over 400,000 patients suffer potentially preventable harmful events each year (Ems...

  4. Rare gastrointestinal lymphomas: the endoscopicinvestigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal lymphomas represent up to 10% ofgastrointestinal malignancies and about one third of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The most prominent histologies aremucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and diffuselarge B-cell lymphoma. However, the gastrointestinaltract can be the site of rarer lymphoma subtypes as aprimary or secondary localization. Due to their rarity andthe multifaceted histology, an endoscopic classificationhas not been validated yet. This review aims to analyzethe endoscopic presentation of rare gastrointestinallymphomas from disease diagnosis to follow-up,according to the involved site and lymphoma subtype.Existing, new and emerging endoscopic technologieshave been examined. In particular, we investigated thediagnostic, prognostic and follow-up endoscopic featuresof T-cell and natural killer lymphomas, lymphomatouspolyposis and mantle cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma,plasma cell related disease, gastrointestinal lymphomasin immunodeficiency and Hodgkin's lymphoma ofthe gastrointestinal tract. Contrarily to more frequentgastrointestinal lymphomas, data about rare lymphomasare mostly extracted from case series and casereports. Due to the data paucity, a synergism betweengastroenterologists and hematologists is required in order to better manage the disease. Indeed, clinicaland prognostic features are different from nodal andextranodal or the bone marrow (in case of plasma celldisease) counterpart. Therefore, the approach shouldbe based on the knowledge of the peculiar behavior andnatural history of disease.

  5. Planetary Ices Attenuation Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Christine; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    In this chapter, we review the topic of energy dissipation in the context of icy satellites experiencing tidal forcing. We describe the physics of mechanical dissipation, also known as attenuation, in polycrystalline ice and discuss the history of laboratory methods used to measure and understand it. Because many factors - such as microstructure, composition and defect state - can influence rheological behavior, we review what is known about the mechanisms responsible for attenuation in ice and what can be inferred from the properties of rocks, metals and ceramics. Since attenuation measured in the laboratory must be carefully scaled to geologic time and to planetary conditions in order to provide realistic extrapolation, we discuss various mechanical models that have been used, with varying degrees of success, to describe attenuation as a function of forcing frequency and temperature. We review the literature in which these models have been used to describe dissipation in the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Finally, we address gaps in our present knowledge of planetary ice attenuation and provide suggestions for future inquiry.

  6. Effects of GLP-1 and Incretin-Based Therapies on Gastrointestinal Motor Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmay S. Marathe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 is a hormone secreted predominantly by the distal small intestine and colon and released in response to enteral nutrient exposure. GLP-1-based therapies are now used widely in the management of type 2 diabetes and have the potential to be effective antiobesity agents. Although widely known as an incretin hormone, there is a growing body of evidence that GLP-1 also acts as an enterogastrone, with profound effects on the gastrointestinal motor system. Moreover, the effects of GLP-1 on gastrointestinal motility appear to be pivotal to its effect of reducing postprandial glycaemic excursions and may, potentially, represent the dominant mechanism. This review summarizes current knowledge of the enterogastrone properties of GLP-1, focusing on its effects on gut motility at physiological and pharmacological concentrations, and the motor actions of incretin-based therapies. While of potential importance, the inhibitory action of GLP-1 on gastric acid secretion is beyond the scope of this paper.

  7. Sperm motility of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, R K; Kaurova, S A; Uteshev, V K; Shishova, N V; McGinnity, D; Figiel, C R; Mansour, N; Agney, D; Wu, M; Gakhova, E N; Dzyuba, B; Cosson, J

    2015-01-01

    We review the phylogeny, sperm competition, morphology, physiology, and fertilization environments of the sperm of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians. Increased sperm competition in both fish and anurans generally increases sperm numbers, sperm length, and energy reserves. The difference between the internal osmolarity and iconicity of sperm cells and those of the aquatic medium control the activation, longevity, and velocity of sperm motility. Hypo-osmolarity of the aquatic medium activates the motility of freshwater fish and amphibian sperm and hyperosmolarity activates the motility of marine fish sperm. The average longevity of the motility of marine fish sperm (~550 seconds) was significantly (P amphibian sperm in general and anurans reversion from internal to external fertilization. Our findings provide a greater understanding of the reproductive biology of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians, and a biological foundation for the further development of reproduction technologies for their sustainable management.

  8. Motility of copepod nauplii and implications for food encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titelman, Josefin; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    of tracks, speeds, durations and frequencies of events as well as time budgets. Motility mode often changes drastically during naupliar ontogeny. Crudely, nauplii can be divided into those moving with a jump-sink type of motility of various frequencies (1 min(-1) to 3 s(-1)) and those swimming...... with a smoother glide of varying continuity. We apply observed time budgets and behavior-specific speeds in simple models to examine mechanisms of food encounter. The motility of all nauplii may account for clearance rates reported in the literature, but through different mechanisms. Smoothly swimming nauphi...... cyclopoids is sufficient to prevent prey diffusion from reaching steady state rates, which are too low to account for observed clearance rates reported in the literature. Frequent jumpers (e.g. Acartia tonsa) jump at a frequency close to the optimum required to maximize the use of prey motility and to avoid...

  9. Cystic changes in intraabdominal extrahepatic metastases from gastrointestinal stromal tumors treated with imatinib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Cheol; Lee, Jeong Min; Choi, Seoung Hong; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Heon; Kim, Sam Soo [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hyun [National Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-09-15

    This study was undertaken for the purpose of describing the CT features of intra-abdominal extra-hepatic metastases from gastrointestinal stromal tumors in patients who were treated with imatinib. Eleven patients with intra-abdominal extra-hepatic metastases from gastrointestinal stromal tumors, who were treated with imatinib between May 2001 and December 2003, were included in this study. The clinical findings and CT scans were retrospectively reviewed. The metastatic lesions were assessed according to the location, size (greatest diameter), attenuation, and the enhancing pattern before and after imatinib treatment. Prior to the treatment, the sizes and attenuation values of the metastatic lesions ranged from 5 to 20 cm and from 63 to 131 H, respectively. The metastatic lesions showed a heterogeneous enhancement pattern on the contrast-enhanced CT scans. After the treatment, the metastatic lesions became smaller in all 11 patients, and the corresponding attenuation value ranged from 15 to 51 H. The metastatic lesions became homogeneous and cystic in appearance on the follow-up CT scans, mimicking ascites. Intra-abdominal extra-hepatic metastases of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors treated with imatinib may appear as well-circumscribed cystic lesions on contrast-enhanced CT. These metastases are likely to become smaller and resemble ascites, but may persist indefinitely on the follow-up CT.

  10. Motility of the jejunum after proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anastomosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaussade, S; Merite, F; Hautefeuille, M; Valleur, P; Hautefeuille, P.; Couturier, D

    1989-01-01

    Proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anastomosis could modify motility of the small intestine through two mechanisms: obstruction or bacterial overgrowth. Motility of the jejunum was measured in 11 patients with ileoanal anastomosis six (n = 6), or 12 (n = 5) months after closure of the loop ileostomy. Manometric recording from the jejunum were made during fasting (four hours) and after a liquid meal (one hour). These findings were compared with those of six healthy volunteers. Motor events were ...

  11. Radiation-induced motility alterations in medulloblastoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rieken, Stefan; Rieber, Juliane; Brons, Stephan; Habermehl, Daniel; Rief, Harald; Orschiedt, Lena; Lindel, Katja; Klaus J. Weber; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E

    2015-01-01

    Photon irradiation has been repeatedly suspected of increasing tumor cell motility and promoting locoregional recurrence of disease. This study was set up to analyse possible mechanisms underlying the potentially radiation-altered motility in medulloblastoma cells. Medulloblastoma cell lines D425 and Med8A were analyzed in migration and adhesion experiments with and without photon and carbon ion irradiation. Expression of integrins was determined by quantitative FACS analysis. Matrix metallop...

  12. Ocular Motility Disturbances in Orbital Wall Fracture Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang Hun; Lew, Helen; Yun, Young Soo

    2005-01-01

    It is difficult to identify the exact cause of ocular motility disturbances in orbital wall fracture patients. By performing CT and ocular motility tests before and after surgery, this study analyzes the functions of the extraocular muscles and determines correlations between the results. Between February 2001 and January 2003, 45 eyes of 45 patients with orbital wall fractures, whose medical records could be traced back at least 6 months, underwent surgical repair in our hospital. All variab...

  13. Mass sperm motility is associated with fertility in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    David, Ingrid; Kohnke, Philippa; Lagriffoul, Gilles; Praud, Olivier; Plouarboué, Franck; Degond, Pierre; Druart, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The study was to focus on the relationship between wave motion (mass sperm motility, measured by a mass sperm motility score, manually assessed by artificial insemination (AI) center operators) and fertility in male sheep. A dataset of 711,562 artificial inseminations performed in seven breeds by five French AI centers during the 2001–2005 time period was used for the analysis. Factors influencing the outcome of the insemination, which is a binary response observed at lambing of either succes...

  14. Gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations of sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Ellen C; Kierson, Malca; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2008-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease characterized by noncaseating granulomas in the affected organs, including skin, heart, nervous system, and joints. Diagnosis of sarcoidosis is generally based upon a compatible history, demonstration of granulomas in at least two different organs, negative staining and culture for acid fast bacilli, absence of occupational or domestic exposure to toxins, and lack of drug-induced disease. Involvement of the hollow organs is rare. Rather than being due to sarcoidosis, some reported mucosal lesions may simply have incidental granulomas. Extrinsic compression from lymphadenopathy can occur throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The stomach, particularly the antrum, is the most common extrahepatic organ to be involved, while the small bowel is the least common. Liver involvement frequently occurs and ranges from asymptomatic incidental granulomas to portal hypertension from granulomas in the portal triad, usually with relatively preserved liver function. CT scans show hepatosplenomegaly and adenopathy, followed in frequency by focal low-attenuation lesions of the liver and spleen. Ascites is usually a transudate from right heart failure (because of pulmonary hypertension) or portal hypertension (because of biliary cirrhosis). Rarely, an exudative ascites may occur from studding of the peritoneum with nodules. Pancreatic involvement presents as a mass, usually in the head or a diffusely firm, nodular organ. Corticosteroids should be instituted when organ function is threatened, usually lungs, eyes, and central nervous system. Their role in the treatment of hepatic sarcoidosis is unclear. The overall prognosis is good although most patients will have some permanent organ impairment. Cardiac and pulmonary diseases are the main causes of death. PMID:18853979

  15. Guaifenesin and increased sperm motility: a preliminary case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Means

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Gary Means1, Cristóbal S Berry-Cabán2, Kurt Hammermeuller11Department of Family Medicine, 2Department of Research, Womack Army Medical Center, Fort Bragg, NC, USABackground: A review of the literature and an extensive Medline search revealed that this is the first case report of the use of guaifenesin to increase sperm motility.Case: A 32-year-old male presented for an infertility evaluation. He reported an inability to conceive with his wife after 18 months of unprotected intercourse. A semen analysis was performed that included spermatozoa count, liquefaction, morphology, motility, viscosity and volume. Initial results of the semen analysis demonstrated low sperm count and motility. The provider offered treatment with guaifenesin 600 mg extended release tablets twice daily. Two months after guaifenesin therapy the semen analysis was repeated that demonstrated marked improvement in both total sperm count and motility.Conclusion: Evidence for the effectiveness of guaifenesin is almost entirely anecdotal. Given the mechanism of action of guaifenesin, it is not clear from this case why the patient demonstrated such a large improvement in both sperm count and motility. Additional studies of the effects of guaifenesin on male fertility could yield information of the medication's effect on men with normal or decreased total sperm counts.Keywords: sperm motility, guaifenesin, infertility, male pregnancy

  16. Frequency Dependent Attenuation Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Kowar; Xavier, Bonnefond

    2009-01-01

    The work is inspired by thermo-and photoacoustic imaging, where recent efforts are devoted to take into account attenuation and varying wave speed parameters. In this paper we study causal equations describing propagation of attenuated pressure waves. We review standard models like frequency power laws and and the thermo-viscous equation. The lack of causality of standard models in the parameter range relevant for photoacoustic imaging requires to derive novel equations. The main ingredients for deriving causal equations are the Kramers-Kronig relation and the mathematical concept of linear system theory. The theoretical results of this work are underpined by numerical experiments.

  17. A role for O-1602 and G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 in the control of colonic motility in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Kun; Fichna, Jakub; Schicho, Rudolf; Saur, Dieter; Bashashati, Mohammad; Mackie, Ken; Li, Yongyu; Zimmer, Andreas; Göke, Burkhard; Keith A Sharkey; Storr, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Objective The G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is a novel cannabinoid (CB) receptor, whose role in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract remains unknown. Here we studied the significance of GPR55 in the regulation of GI motility. Design GPR55 mRNA and protein expression were measured by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The effects of the GPR55 agonist O-1602 and a selective antagonist cannabidiol (CBD) were studied in vitro and in vivo and compared to a non-selective cannabinoid receptor agoni...

  18. Dkk-1 Inhibits Intestinal Epithelial Cell Migration by Attenuating Directional Polarization of Leading Edge Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Stefan; Capaldo, Christopher T.; Samarin, Stanislav; Nava, Porfirio; Neumaier, Irmgard; Skerra, Arne; Sacks, David B; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2009-01-01

    Wnt signaling pathways regulate proliferation, motility, and survival in a variety of human cell types. Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) is a secreted Wnt antagonist that has been proposed to regulate tissue homeostasis in the intestine. In this report, we show that Dkk-1 is secreted by intestinal epithelial cells after wounding and that it inhibits cell migration by attenuating the directional orientation of migrating epithelial cells. Dkk-1 exposure induced mislocalized activation of Cdc42 in migrating c...

  19. Disorders of gastrointestinal hypomotility [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Bielefeldt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion and digestion of food as well as expulsion of residual material from our gastrointestinal tract requires normal propulsive, i.e. motor, function. Hypomotility refers to inherited or acquired changes that come with decreased contractile forces or slower transit. It not only often causes symptoms but also may compromise nutritional status or lead to other complications. While severe forms, such as pseudo-obstruction or ileus, may have a tremendous functional impact, the less severe forms of hypomotility may well be more relevant, as they contribute to common disorders, such as functional dyspepsia, gastroparesis, chronic constipation, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. Clinical testing can identify changes in contractile activity, defined by lower amplitudes or abnormal patterns, and the related effects on transit. However, such biomarkers show a limited correlation with overall symptom severity as experienced by patients. Similarly, targeting hypomotility with pharmacological interventions often alters gut motor function but does not consistently improve symptoms. Novel diagnostic approaches may change this apparent paradox and enable us to obtain more comprehensive information by integrating data on electrical activity, mechanical forces, patterns, wall stiffness, and motions with information of the flow of luminal contents. New drugs with more selective effects or more specific delivery may improve benefits and limit adverse effects. Lastly, the complex regulation of gastrointestinal motility involves the brain-gut axis as a reciprocal pathway for afferent and efferent signaling. Considering the role of visceral input in emotion and the effects of emotion on visceral activity, understanding and managing hypomotility disorders requires an integrative approach based on the mind-body continuum or biopsychosocial model of diseases.

  20. Tissue Staining (Chromoscopy) of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Fennerty, M. Brian

    1999-01-01

    Tissue staining, or chomoscopy, is used as an adjunctive technique during gastrointestinal endoscopy. Chemical agents are applied to the gastrointestinal mucosal surface to identify specific epithelia or to enhance the mucosal surface characteristics of the gastrointestinal epithelium. This aids in the recognition of subtle lesions (ie, polyps) or allows directed targeting of biopsies (ie, sprue or Barrett’s esophagus) to increase the yield of endoscopic diagnostic accuracy. The four endoscop...

  1. Gastrointestinal helminths in migratory Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Rewatkar

    Full Text Available Survey of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in camel migrated from U.P., M.P., and Rajasthan at Nagpur region was carried out in early summer, 2008. Total 28 samples (12 males and 16 females were collected from different places of Nagpur region. They revealed parasites as Trichuris sp.(50%, Strongyloides sp.(32.14%, Trichostrongylus sp.(10.71%, Nematodirus sp.(10.71%, Haemonchus sp.(14.28%, Eurytrema sp.(21.42% ,Eimeria sp.(25%, Entamoeba sp.(17.85% and Balantidium sp.(7.14%.All were found positive for mixed helminthic infection. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 258-258

  2. Multicentric malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla Shailaja; Singh Sanjeet; Pujani Mukta

    2009-01-01

    Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a rare type of sarcoma that is found in the digestive system, most often in the wall of the stomach. Multiple GISTs are extremely rare and usually associated with type 1 neurofibromatosis and familial GIST. We report here a case of a 70-year-old woman who reported pain in the abdomen, loss of appetite, and weight loss for six months. Ultrasound examination showed a small bowel mass along with multiple peritoneal deposits and a mass within th...

  3. Changes to the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This article explores changes in the ageing gastrointestinal tract, including: » Diminished sense of taste and smell. » Shrinking of the maxillary and mandibular bones in the jaw. » Slowing of oesophageal peristalsis giving a feeling that something is 'stuck in the throat'. » Relaxation of the lower sphincter leading to gastro-oesophageal reflux. » Reduction in gastric bicarbonate and prostaglandin in mucus increasing susceptibility to stomach ulcers. » Changes in villi in the small intestine reducing the area for absorption. » Overpopulation of bacteria in the small intestine leading to decreased absorption of folic acid and minerals. PMID:27573953

  4. Interdigestive gastroduodenal motility and cycling of putative regulatory hormones in severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieramico, O; Malfertheiner, P; Nelson, D K; Glasbrenner, B; Ditschuneit, H

    1992-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate interdigestive gastrointestinal motility and its coordination with plasma concentrations of motilin and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) in 14 patients with severe obesity and in 10 control subjects with normal body weight. Motor activity of the stomach, duodenum, and proximal jejunum was recorded by using an eight-lumen catheter. Blood samples were drawn for determination of interdigestive motilin and PP plasma concentrations. We observed no difference in total duration of the migrating motor complex (MMC) or of phases I, II, or III of the MMC. Gastric phase-III activity occurred less frequently in severely obese patients (only 15% originating in the stomach) than in controls (65%; p less than 0.01). Plasma motilin concentrations were decreased in obese patients in phase I (127 +/- 17 pg/ml in controls versus 87 +/- 10 pg/ml in obese), in phase II (189 +/- 26 pg/ml controls versus 134 +/- 15 obese) and in phase III (195 +/- 29 pg/ml controls versus 153 +/- 28 pg/ml obese). Peak motilin release occurred in synchrony with phase-III activity and was greater in controls than in obese patients. Plasma PP concentrations did not differ from those of controls during any phase of the MMC. These results further suggest a potential role for motilin in regulating gastrointestinal motor activity and indicate a potential defect in this regulatory mechanism in severe obesity. Whether the relationship between disordered motor activity and motilin release is etiologic with regard to the pathophysiology of obesity remains to be determined. PMID:1641580

  5. Chemical Structures of Plant Hydrolyzable Tannins Reveal Their in Vitro Activity against Egg Hatching and Motility of Haemonchus contortus Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, M T; Karonen, M; Ahern, J R; Baert, N; Payré, B; Hoste, H; Salminen, J-P

    2016-02-01

    The use of synthetic drugs against gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants has led to a situation where resistance to anthelmintics is widespread, and there is an urgent need for alternative solutions for parasite control. One promising approach is to use polyphenol-rich bioactive plants in animal feeds as natural anthelmintics. In the present work, the in vitro activity of a series of 33 hydrolyzable tannins (HTs) and their hydrolysis product, gallic acid, against egg hatching and motility of L1 and L2 stage Haemonchus contortus larvae was studied. The effect of the selected compounds on egg and larval structure was further studied by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated clear relationships between HT structure and anthelmintic activity. While HT size, overall flexibility, the types and numbers of functional groups, together with the linkage types between monomeric HTs affected the activity differently, the optimal structure was found with pentagalloylglucose.

  6. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  7. MicroRNAs dynamically remodel gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanjae Park

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle cells (SMCs express a unique set of microRNAs (miRNAs which regulate and maintain the differentiation state of SMCs. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of miRNAs during the development of gastrointestinal (GI SMCs in a transgenic animal model. We generated SMC-specific Dicer null animals that express the reporter, green fluorescence protein, in a SMC-specific manner. SMC-specific knockout of Dicer prevented SMC miRNA biogenesis, causing dramatic changes in phenotype, function, and global gene expression in SMCs: the mutant mice developed severe dilation of the intestinal tract associated with the thinning and destruction of the smooth muscle (SM layers; contractile motility in the mutant intestine was dramatically decreased; and SM contractile genes and transcriptional regulators were extensively down-regulated in the mutant SMCs. Profiling and bioinformatic analyses showed that SMC phenotype is regulated by a complex network of positive and negative feedback by SMC miRNAs, serum response factor (SRF, and other transcriptional factors. Taken together, our data suggest that SMC miRNAs are required for the development and survival of SMCs in the GI tract.

  8. Bidirectional motility of the fission yeast kinesin-5, Cut7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edamatsu, Masaki, E-mail: cedam@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Motile properties of Cut7 (fission yeast kinesin-5) were studied for the first time. • Half-length Cut7 moved toward plus-end direction of microtubule. • Full-length Cut7 moved toward minus-end direction of microtubule. • N- and C-terminal microtubule binding sites did not switch the motile direction. - Abstract: Kinesin-5 is a homotetrameric motor with its motor domain at the N-terminus. Kinesin-5 crosslinks microtubules and functions in separating spindle poles during mitosis. In this study, the motile properties of Cut7, fission yeast kinesin-5, were examined for the first time. In in vitro motility assays, full-length Cut7 moved toward minus-end of microtubules, but the N-terminal half of Cut7 moved toward the opposite direction. Furthermore, additional truncated constructs lacking the N-terminal or C-terminal regions, but still contained the motor domain, did not switch the motile direction. These indicated that Cut7 was a bidirectional motor, and microtubule binding regions at the N-terminus and C-terminus were not involved in its directionality.

  9. Control of actin-based motility through localized actin binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide variety of cell biological and biomimetic systems use actin polymerization to drive motility. It has been suggested that an object such as a bacterium can propel itself by self-assembling a high concentration of actin behind it, if it is repelled by actin. However, it is also known that it is essential for the moving object to bind actin. Therefore, a key question is how the actin tail can propel an object when it both binds and repels the object. We present a physically consistent Brownian dynamics model for actin-based motility that includes the minimal components of the dendritic nucleation model and allows for both attractive and repulsive interactions between actin and a moveable disc. We find that the concentration gradient of filamentous actin generated by polymerization is sufficient to propel the object, even with moderately strong binding interactions. Additionally, actin binding can act as a biophysical cap, and may directly control motility through modulation of network growth. Overall, this mechanism is robust in that it can drive motility against a load up to a stall pressure that depends on the Young’s modulus of the actin network and can explain several aspects of actin-based motility. (paper)

  10. Rac and Rho GTPases in cancer cell motility control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parri Matteo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rho GTPases represent a family of small GTP-binding proteins involved in cell cytoskeleton organization, migration, transcription, and proliferation. A common theme of these processes is a dynamic reorganization of actin cytoskeleton which has now emerged as a major switch control mainly carried out by Rho and Rac GTPase subfamilies, playing an acknowledged role in adaptation of cell motility to the microenvironment. Cells exhibit three distinct modes of migration when invading the 3 D environment. Collective motility leads to movement of cohorts of cells which maintain the adherens junctions and move by photolytic degradation of matrix barriers. Single cell mesenchymal-type movement is characterized by an elongated cellular shape and again requires extracellular proteolysis and integrin engagement. In addition it depends on Rac1-mediated cell polarization and lamellipodia formation. Conversely, in amoeboid movement cells have a rounded morphology, the movement is independent from proteases but requires high Rho GTPase to drive elevated levels of actomyosin contractility. These two modes of cell movement are interconvertible and several moving cells, including tumor cells, show an high degree of plasticity in motility styles shifting ad hoc between mesenchymal or amoeboid movements. This review will focus on the role of Rac and Rho small GTPases in cell motility and in the complex relationship driving the reciprocal control between Rac and Rho granting for the opportunistic motile behaviour of aggressive cancer cells. In addition we analyse the role of these GTPases in cancer progression and metastatic dissemination.

  11. Sodium affects the sperm motility in the European eel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vílchez, M Carmen; Morini, Marina; Peñaranda, David S; Gallego, Víctor; Asturiano, Juan F; Pérez, Luz

    2016-08-01

    The role of seminal plasma sodium and activation media sodium on sperm motility was examined by selectively removing the element from these two media, in European eel sperm. Sperm size (sperm head area) was also measured using an ASMA (Automated Sperm Morphometry Analyses) system, in the different conditions. Intracellular sodium [Na(+)]i was quantitatively analyzed by first time in the spermatozoa from a marine fish species. Measurement of [Na(+)]i was done before and after motility activation, by Flow Cytometry, using CoroNa Green AM as a dye. Sperm motility activation induced an increase in [Na(+)]i, from 96.72mM in quiescent stage to 152.21mM post-activation in seawater. A significant decrease in sperm head area was observed post-activation in seawater. There was a notable reduction in sperm motility when sodium was removed from the seminal plasma, but not when it was removed from the activation media. Sodium removal was also linked to a significant reduction in sperm head area in comparison to the controls. Our results indicate that the presence of the ion Na(+) in the seminal plasma (or in the extender medium) is necessary for the preservation of sperm motility in European eel, probably because it plays a role in maintaining an appropriate sperm cell volume in the quiescent stage of the spermatozoa. PMID:27085371

  12. Carbonic anhydrases in normal gastrointestinal tract and gastrointestinal tumours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antti J. Kivel(a); Jyrki Kivel(a); Juha Saarnio; Seppo Parkkila

    2005-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) catalyse the hydration of CO2to bicarbonate at physiological pH. This chemical interconversion is crucial since HCO3- is the substrate for several biosynthetic reactions. This review is focused on the distribution and role of CA isoenzymes in both normal and pathological gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissues. It has been known for many years that CAs are widely present in the GI tract and play important roles in several physiological functions such as production of saliva, gastric acid, bile, and pancreatic juice as well as in absorption of salt and water in intestine. New information suggests that these enzymes participate in several processes that were not envisioned earlier. Especially, the recent reports on plasma membranebound isoenzymes Ⅸ and Ⅻ have raised considerable interest since they were reported to participate in cancer invasion and spread. They are induced by tumour hypoxia and may also play a role in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-mediated carcinogenesis.

  13. The Useage of Opioids and their Adverse Effects in Gastrointestinal Practice: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansari, MahmoudReza; Sohrabi, MasourReza; Zamani, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    Opium is one of the oldest herbal medicines currently used as an analgesic, sedative and antidiarrheal treatment. The effects of opium are principally mediated by the μ-, κ- and δ-opioid receptors. Opioid substances consist of all natural and synthetic alkaloids that are derived from opium. Most of their effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion result from suppression of neural activity. Inhibition of gastric emptying, increase in sphincter tone, changes in motor patterns, and blockage of peristalsis result from opioid use. Common adverse effects of opioid administration include sedation, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, constipation, dependency and tolerance, and respiratory depression. The most common adverse effect of opioid use is constipation. Although stool softeners are frequently used to decrease opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, however they are not efficacious. Possibly, the use of specific opioid receptor antagonists is a more suitable approach. Opioid antagonists, both central and peripheral, could affect gastrointestinal function and visceromotor sensitivity, which suggests an important role for endogenous opioid peptides in the control of gastrointestinal physiology. Underlying diseases or medications known to influence the central nervous system (CNS) often accelerate the opioid’s adverse effects. However, changing the opioid and/or route of administration could also decrease their adverse effects. Appropriate patient selection, patient education and discussion regarding potential adverse effects may assist physicians in maximizing the effectiveness of opioids, while reducing the number and severity of adverse effects. PMID:24829664

  14. Upper gastrointestinal sensitivity to meal-related signals in adult humans - relevance to appetite regulation and gut symptoms in health, obesity and functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2016-08-01

    Both the stomach and small intestine play important roles in sensing the arrival of a meal, and its physico-chemical characteristics, in the gastrointestinal lumen. The presence of a meal in the stomach provides a distension stimulus, and, as the meal empties into the small intestine, nutrients interact with small intestinal receptors, initiating the release of gut hormones, associated with feedback regulation of gastrointestinal functions, including gut motility, and signaling to the central nervous system, modulating eating behaviours, including energy intake. Lipid appears to have particularly potent effects, also in close interaction with, and modulating the effects of, gastric distension, and involving the action of gut hormones, particularly cholecystokinin (CCK). These findings have not only provided important, and novel, insights into how gastrointestinal signals interact to modulate subjective appetite perceptions, including fullness, but also laid the foundation for an increasing appreciation of the role of altered gastrointestinal sensitivities, e.g. as a consequence of excess dietary intake in obesity, or underlying the induction of gastrointestinal symptoms in functional dyspepsia (a condition characterized by symptoms, including bloating, nausea and early fullness, amongst others, after meals, particularly those high in fat, in the absence of any structural or functional abnormalities in the gastrointestinal tract). This paper will review the effects of dietary nutrients, particularly lipid, on gastrointestinal function, and associated effects on appetite perceptions and energy intake, effects of interactions of gastrointestinal stimuli, as well as the role of altered gastrointestinal sensitivities (exaggerated, or reduced) in eating-related disorders, particularly obesity and functional dyspepsia. PMID:27013098

  15. Possible Waardenburg syndrome with gastrointestinal anomalies.

    OpenAIRE

    Nutman, J; Steinherz, R; Sivan, Y; Goodman, R M

    1986-01-01

    We describe a patient with possible Waardenburg syndrome associated with anal atresia and oesophageal atresia with tracheooesophageal fistula. Three other published cases with atretic gastrointestinal anomalies associated with the Waardenburg syndrome are reviewed. We conclude that the association between atretic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and the Waardenburg syndrome may be a significant one.

  16. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy.

  17. Gastrointestinal symptoms and ethanol metabolism in alcoholics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, R.J.F.; Verlaan, M.; Oijen, M.G.H. van; Doelder, M.S. de; Jong, C.A.J. de; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Excessive alcohol intake frequently results in gastrointestinal discomfort. It is an empirical fact that the severity of gastrointestinal discomfort induced by alcohol abuse is subject to interindividual variation. The aim of this study was to determine whether genetic polymorphism in alcohol dehydr

  18. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  19. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 is involved in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-enhanced cell motility and matrix metalloproteinase 1 expression in human chondrosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Yang; Chang, Sunny Li-Yun; Fong, Yi-Chin; Hsu, Chin-Jung; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2013-07-25

    Chondrosarcoma is the primary malignancy of bone that is characterized by a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis, and is therefore associated with poor prognoses. Chondrosarcoma further shows a predilection for metastasis to the lungs. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a small molecule in the neurotrophin family of growth factors that is associated with the disease status and outcome of cancers. However, the effect of BDNF on cell motility in human chondrosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. Here, we found that human chondrosarcoma cell lines had significantly higher cell motility and BDNF expression compared to normal chondrocytes. We also found that BDNF increased cell motility and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in human chondrosarcoma cells. BDNF-mediated cell motility and MMP-1 up-regulation were attenuated by Trk inhibitor (K252a), ASK1 inhibitor (thioredoxin), JNK inhibitor (SP600125), and p38 inhibitor (SB203580). Furthermore, BDNF also promoted Sp1 activation. Our results indicate that BDNF enhances the migration and invasion activity of chondrosarcoma cells by increasing MMP-1 expression through a signal transduction pathway that involves the TrkB receptor, ASK1, JNK/p38, and Sp1. BDNF thus represents a promising new target for treating chondrosarcoma metastasis.

  20. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in preventing gastrointestinal...... Database from inception to October 2007. We scanned reference lists and contacted pharmaceutical companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing antioxidant supplements to placebo/no intervention examining occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors (GB...... high. Heterogeneity was low to moderate. Antioxidant supplements were without significant effects on gastrointestinal cancers (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.06). However, there was significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 54.0%, P = 0.003). The heterogeneity may have been explained by bias risk (low-bias risk...

  1. High motility reduces grazing mortality of planktonic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matz, Carsten; Jurgens, K.

    2005-01-01

    We tested the impact of bacterial swimming speed on the survival of planktonic bacteria in the presence of protozoan grazers. Grazing experiments with three common bacterivorous nanoflagellates revealed low clearance rates for highly motile bacteria. High-resolution video microscopy demonstrated...... at high growth rates and under starvation with the following results: (i) for two out of three strains increased growth rate resulted in larger and slower bacterial cells, and (ii) starved cells became smaller but maintained their swimming speeds. Combined data sets for bacterial swimming speed and cell...... size revealed highest grazing losses for moderately motile bacteria with a cell size between 0.2 and 0.4 mum(3). Grazing mortality was lowest for cells of >0.5 mum(3) and small, highly motile bacteria. Survival efficiencies of >95% for the ultramicrobacterial isolate CP-1 (less than or equal to0.1 mum...

  2. Single cell motility and trail formation in populations of microglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Jin

    2009-03-01

    Microglia are a special type of glia cell in brain that has immune responses. They constitute about 20 % of the total glia population within the brain. Compared to other glia cells, microglia are very motile, constantly moving to destroy pathogens and to remove dead neurons. While doing so, they exhibit interesting body shapes, have cell-to-cell communications, and have chemotatic responses to each other. Interestingly, our recent in vitro studies show that their unusual motile behaviors can self-organize to form trails, similar to those in populations of ants. We have studied the changes in the physical properties of these trails by varying the cell population density and by changing the degree of spatial inhomogeneities (``pathogens''). Our experimental observations can be quite faithfully reproduced by a simple mathematical model involving many motile cells whose mechanical motion are driven by actin polymerization and depolymerization process within the individual cell body and by external chemical gradients.

  3. Activation of Drosophila hemocyte motility by the ecdysone hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Sampson

    2013-11-01

    Drosophila hemocytes compose the cellular arm of the fly's innate immune system. Plasmatocytes, putative homologues to mammalian macrophages, represent ∼95% of the migratory hemocyte population in circulation and are responsible for the phagocytosis of bacteria and apoptotic tissues that arise during metamorphosis. It is not known as to how hemocytes become activated from a sessile state in response to such infectious and developmental cues, although the hormone ecdysone has been suggested as the signal that shifts hemocyte behaviour from quiescent to migratory at metamorphosis. Here, we corroborate this hypothesis by showing the activation of hemocyte motility by ecdysone. We induce motile behaviour in larval hemocytes by culturing them with 20-hydroxyecdysone ex vivo. Moreover, we also determine that motile cell behaviour requires the ecdysone receptor complex and leads to asymmetrical redistribution of both actin and tubulin cytoskeleton.

  4. Model for self-polarization and motility of keratocyte fragments

    KAUST Repository

    Ziebert, F.

    2011-10-19

    Computational modelling of cell motility on substrates is a formidable challenge; regulatory pathways are intertwined and forces that influence cell motion are not fully quantified. Additional challenges arise from the need to describe a moving deformable cell boundary. Here, we present a simple mathematical model coupling cell shape dynamics, treated by the phase-field approach, to a vector field describing the mean orientation (polarization) of the actin filament network. The model successfully reproduces the primary phenomenology of cell motility: discontinuous onset of motion, diversity of cell shapes and shape oscillations. The results are in qualitative agreement with recent experiments on motility of keratocyte cells and cell fragments. The asymmetry of the shapes is captured to a large extent in this simple model, which may prove useful for the interpretation of experiments.

  5. Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Scott S., E-mail: sshsieh@stanford.edu [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Pelc, Norbert J. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not requirea priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current

  6. Enhancement of mouse sperm motility by trophinin-binding peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Seong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trophinin is an intrinsic membrane protein that forms a complex in the cytoplasm with bystin and tastin, linking it microtubule-associated motor dynein (ATPase in some cell types. Previously, we found that human sperm tails contain trophinin, bystin and tastin proteins, and that trophinin-binding GWRQ (glycine, tryptophan, arginine, glutamine peptide enhanced motility of human sperm. Methods Immunohistochemistry was employed to determine trophinin protein in mouse spermatozoa from wild type mouse, by using spermatozoa from trophinin null mutant mice as a negative control. Multivalent 8-branched GWRQ (glycine, tryptophan, arginine, glutamine peptide or GWRQ-MAPS, was chemically synthesized, purified by HPLC and its structure was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Effect of GWRQ-MAPS on mouse spermatozoa from wild type and trophinin null mutant was assessed by a computer-assisted semen analyzer (CASA. Results Anti-trophinin antibody stained the principal (central piece of the tail of wild type mouse sperm, whereas the antibody showed no staining on trophinin null sperm. Phage particles displaying GWRQ bound to the principal piece of sperm tail from wild type but not trophinin null mice. GWRQ-MAPS enhanced motility of spermatozoa from wild type but not trophinin null mice. CASA showed that GWRQ-MAPS enhanced both progressive motility and rapid motility in wild type mouse sperm. Conclusions Present study established the expression of trophinin in the mouse sperm tail and trophinin-dependent effect of GWRQ-MAPS on sperm motility. GWRQ causes a significant increase in sperm motility.

  7. Treatment of gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnblom, Hans

    2016-03-01

    The symptoms caused by gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus is important to highlight since it affects a large proportion of people with diabetes, regardless of whether this is type 1 or type 2. Gastroparesis and general signs of bowel dysfunction, such as constipation, diarrhoea and abdominal pain are most often encountered and involve both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options. This mini-review summarises a presentation given at the 'Diagnosis and treatment of autonomic diabetic neuropathy in the gut' symposium at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by another mini-review on a topic from this symposium (by Azpiroz and Malagelada, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-015-3831-1 ) and a commentary by the Session Chair, Péter Kempler (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-015-3826-y ). PMID:26634570

  8. Oestrogen inhibits human colonic motility by a non-genomic cell membrane receptor-dependent mechanism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Classical effects of oestrogen involve activation of target genes after binding nuclear receptors. Oestrogenic effects too rapid for DNA transcription (non-genomic) are known to occur. The effect of oestrogen on colonic motility is unknown despite the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in pregnant and premenopausal women. METHODS: Histologically normal colon was obtained from proximal resection margins of colorectal carcinoma specimens. Circular smooth muscle strips were microdissected and suspended in organ baths under 1 g of tension. After equilibration, they were exposed to 17beta-oestradiol (n = 8) or bovine serum albumin (BSA)-conjugated 17beta-oestradiol (n = 8). Fulvestrant, an oestrogen receptor antagonist, was added to some baths (n = 8). Other strips were exposed to calphostin C or cycloheximide. Carbachol was added in increasing concentrations and contractile activity was recorded isometrically. RESULTS: Oestrogen inhibited colonic contractility (mean difference 19.7 per cent; n = 8, P < 0.001). In keeping with non-genomic, rapid-onset steroid action, the effect was apparent within minutes and reversible. It was observed with both 17beta-oestradiol and BSA-conjugated oestrogen, and was not altered by cycloheximide. Effects were inhibited by fulvestrant, suggesting receptor mediation. CONCLUSION: Oestrogen decreases contractility in human colonic smooth muscle by a non-genomic mechanism involving cell membrane coupling.

  9. Characterization of Romboutsia ilealis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the gastro-intestinal tract of a rat and proposal for the reclassification of five closely related members of the genus Clostridium into the genera Romboutsia gen. nov., Intestinibacter gen. nov., Terrisporobacter gen. nov. and Asaccharospora gen. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, J.; Fuentes Enriquez de Salamanca, S.; Grievink, W.; Niftrik, van L.; Tindall, B.J.; Timmerman, H.M.; Rijkers, G.T.; Smidt, H.

    2014-01-01

    A Gram-positive staining, rod-shaped, non-motile, spore-forming obligately anaerobic bacterium, designated CRIBT, was isolated from the gastro-intestinal tract of a rat and characterized. The major cellular fatty acids of strain CRIBT were saturated and unsaturated straight chain C12-C19 fatty acids

  10. [Disturbances of gastrointestinal motility of the stomach in patients with chronic gastric erosions and biliary tract disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svintsitskyĭ, A S; Solovĭova, H A

    2012-12-01

    Article dwells on comparison data about motor function of the stomach in the three groups of patients: with gastric erosions and biliary tract diseases, duodenal ulcer disease, chronic gastritis. It is shown, that patients with gastric erosions and biliary tract diseases are characterized by slower evacuation function of the stomach, hypotonus of the stomach. Frequency of duodenal reflux in this group of patients is very high (85,9 %).

  11. Neurokinin NK1 and NK3 receptors as targets for drugs to treat gastrointestinal motility disorders and pain

    OpenAIRE

    Sanger, Gareth J

    2004-01-01

    NK1 and NK3 receptors do not appear to play significant roles in normal GI functions, but both may be involved in defensive or pathological processes. NK1 receptor antagonists are antiemetic, operating via vagal sensory and motor systems, so there is a need to study their effects on other gastro-vagal functions thought to play roles in functional bowel disorder's. Interactions between NK1 receptors and enteric nonadrenergic, noncholinergic motorneurones suggest a need to explore the role of t...

  12. Vagal neurocircuitry and its influence on gastric motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travagli, R Alberto; Anselmi, Laura

    2016-07-01

    A large body of research has been dedicated to the effects of gastrointestinal peptides on vagal afferent fibres, yet multiple lines of evidence indicate that gastrointestinal peptides also modulate brainstem vagal neurocircuitry, and that this modulation has a fundamental role in the physiology and pathophysiology of the upper gastrointestinal tract. In fact, brainstem vagovagal neurocircuits comprise highly plastic neurons and synapses connecting afferent vagal fibres, second order neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), and efferent fibres originating in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). Neuronal communication between the NTS and DMV is regulated by the presence of a variety of inputs, both from within the brainstem itself as well as from higher centres, which utilize an array of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. Because of the circumventricular nature of these brainstem areas, circulating hormones can also modulate the vagal output to the upper gastrointestinal tract. This Review summarizes the organization and function of vagovagal reflex control of the upper gastrointestinal tract, presents data on the plasticity within these neurocircuits after stress, and discusses the gastrointestinal dysfunctions observed in Parkinson disease as examples of physiological adjustment and maladaptation of these reflexes. PMID:27251213

  13. Devil's claw root: ulcers and gastrointestinal bleeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Harpagophytum procumbens, or devil's claw, is an African plant whose root is used to relieve minor joint symptoms. Several cases of gastrointestinal bleeding associated with the use of devil's claw root have been reported. A systematic review of the adverse effects of devil's claw root in about 20 randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials showed mainly gastrointestinal effects: gastralgia and dyspepsia. In practice, devil's claw root exposes patients to the risk of sometimes serious upper gastrointestinal disorders, yet has no established efficacy beyond a placebo effect. It is best avoided. PMID:24600731

  14. [Metagenomics in studying gastrointestinal tract microorganism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Yang, Yunjuan; Li, Junjun; Tang, Xianghua; Mu, Yuelin; Huang, Zunxi

    2013-12-01

    Animal gastrointestinal tract contains a complex community of microbes, whose composition ultimately reflects the co-evolution of microorganisms with their animal host. The gut microbial community of humans and animals has received significant attention from researchers because of its association with health and disease. The application of metagenomics technology enables researchers to study not only the microbial composition but also the function of microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. In this paper, combined with our own findings, we summarized advances in studying gastrointestinal tract microorganism with metagenomics and the bioinformatics technology.

  15. Management of irritable bowel syndrome: novel approaches to the pharmacology of gut motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpignato, C; Pelosini, I

    1999-03-01

    Although it is unclear to what extent irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms represent a normal perception of abnormal function or an abnormal perception of normal function, many believe that IBS constitutes the clinical expression of an underlying motility disorder, affecting primarily the mid- and lower gut. Indeed, transit and contractile abnormalities have been demonstrated with sophisticated techniques in a subset of patients with IBS. As a consequence, drugs affecting gastrointestinal (GI) motility have been widely employed with the aim of correcting the major IBS manifestations, ie, pain and altered bowel function. Unfortunately, no single drug has proven to be effective in treating IBS symptom complex. In addition, the use of some medications has often been associated with unpleasant side effects. Therefore, the search for a truly effective and safe drug to control motility disturbances in IBS continues. Several classes of drugs look promising and are under evaluation. Among the motor-inhibiting drugs, gut selective muscarinic antagonists (such as zamifenacin and darifenacin), neurokinin2 antagonists (such as MEN-10627 and MEN-11420), beta3-adrenoreceptor agonists (eg, SR-58611A) and GI-selective calcium channel blockers (eg, pinaverium bromide and octylonium) are able to decrease painful contractile activity in the gut (antispasmodic effect), without significantly affecting other body functions. Novel mechanisms to stimulate GI motility and transit include blockade of cholecystokinin (CCK)A receptors and stimulation of motilin receptors. Loxiglumide (and its dextroisomer, dexloxiglumide) is the only CCKA receptor antagonist that is being evaluated clinically. This drug accelerates gastric emptying and colonic transit, thereby increasing the number of bowel movements in patients with chronic constipation. It is also able to reduce visceral perception. Erythromycin and related 14-member macrolide compounds inhibit the binding of motilin to its receptors on

  16. Helical motion of the cell body enhances Caulobacter crescentus motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Gulino, Marco; Morse, Michael; Tang, Jay X; Powers, Thomas R; Breuer, Kenneth S

    2014-08-01

    We resolve the 3D trajectory and the orientation of individual cells for extended times, using a digital tracking technique combined with 3D reconstructions. We have used this technique to study the motility of the uniflagellated bacterium Caulobacter crescentus and have found that each cell displays two distinct modes of motility, depending on the sense of rotation of the flagellar motor. In the forward mode, when the flagellum pushes the cell, the cell body is tilted with respect to the direction of motion, and it precesses, tracing out a helical trajectory. In the reverse mode, when the flagellum pulls the cell, the precession is smaller and the cell has a lower translation distance per rotation period and thus a lower motility. Using resistive force theory, we show how the helical motion of the cell body generates thrust and can explain the direction-dependent changes in swimming motility. The source of the cell body precession is believed to be associated with the flexibility of the hook that connects the flagellum to the cell body.

  17. Motility in cyanobacteria: polysaccharide tracks and Type IV pilus motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Annegret; Mullineaux, Conrad W

    2015-12-01

    Motility in cyanobacteria is useful for purposes that range from seeking out favourable light environments to establishing symbioses with plants and fungi. No known cyanobacterium is equipped with flagella, but a diverse range of species is able to 'glide' or 'twitch' across surfaces. Cyanobacteria with this capacity range from unicellular species to complex filamentous forms, including species such as Nostoc punctiforme, which can generate specialised motile filaments called hormogonia. Recent work on the model unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has shown that its means of propulsion has much in common with the twitching motility of heterotrophs such as Pseudomonas and Myxococcus. Movement depends on Type IV pili, which are extended, adhere to the substrate and then retract to pull the cell across the surface. Previous work on filamentous cyanobacteria suggested a very different mechanism, with movement powered by the directional extrusion of polysaccharide from pores close to the cell junctions. Now a new report by Khayatan and colleagues in this issue of Molecular Microbiology suggests that the motility of Nostoc hormogonia has much more in common with Synechocystis than was previously thought. In both cases, polysaccharide secretion is important for preparing the surface, but the directional motive force comes from Type IV pili.

  18. Morphological characteristics of motile plants for dynamic motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2014-11-01

    Most plants have been considered as non-motile organisms. However, plants move in response to environmental changes for survival. In addition, some species drive dynamic motions in a short period of time. Mimosa pudica is a plant that rapidly shrinks its body in response to external stimuli. It has specialized organs that are omnidirectionally activated due to morphological features. In addition, scales of pinecone open or close up depending on humidity for efficient seed release. A number of previous studies on the dynamic motion of plants have been investigated in a biochemical point of view. In this study, the morphological characteristics of those motile organs were investigated by using X-ray CT and micro-imaging techniques. The results show that the dynamic motions of motile plants are supported by structural features related with water transport. These studies would provide new insight for better understanding the moving mechanism of motile plant in morphological point of view. This research was financially supported by the Creative Research Initiative of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) and the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Grant Number: 2008-0061991).

  19. Hydration-controlled bacterial motility and dispersal on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Wang, G.; Gulez, Gamze;

    2010-01-01

    Flagellar motility, a mode of active motion shared by many prokaryotic species, is recognized as a key mechanism enabling population dispersal and resource acquisition in microbial communities living in marine, freshwater, and other liquid-replete habitats. By contrast, its role in variably...

  20. HES6 enhances the motility of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absract: HES6, a member of the hairy-enhancer-of-split family of transcription factors, plays multiple roles in myogenesis. It is a direct target of the myogenic transcription factor MyoD and has been shown to regulate the formation of the myotome in development, myoblast cell cycle exit and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton during terminal differentiation. Here we investigate the expression and function of HES6 in rhabdomyosarcoma, a soft tissue tumor which expresses myogenic genes but fails to differentiate into muscle. We show that HES6 is expressed at high levels in the subset of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas expressing PAX/FOXO1 fusion genes (ARMSp). Knockdown of HES6 mRNA in the ARMSp cell line RH30 reduces proliferation and cell motility. This phenotype is rescued by expression of mouse Hes6 which is insensitive to HES6 siRNA. Furthermore, expression microarray analysis indicates that the HES6 knockdown is associated with a decrease in the levels of Transgelin, (TAGLN), a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. Knockdown of TAGLN decreases cell motility, whilst TAGLN overexpression rescues the motility defect resulting from HES6 knockdown. These findings indicate HES6 contributes to the pathogenesis of ARMSp by enhancing both proliferation and cell motility.

  1. Flagellar motility and structure in the hyperthermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabo, Zalan; Sani, Musa; Groeneveld, Maarten; Zolghadr, Benham; Schelert, James; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Blum, Paul; Boekema, Egbert J.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Flagellation in archaea is widespread and is involved in swimming motility. Here, we demonstrate that the structural flagellin gene from the crenarchaeaon Suffolobus soffiataricus is highly expressed in stationary-phase-grown cells and under unfavorable nutritional conditions. A mutant in a flagella

  2. Effects of Ergot Alkaloids on Bovine Sperm Motility In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids are synthesized by endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire). Our objective was to determine direct effects of ergot alkaloids (ergotamine, dihydroergotamine and ergonovine) on the motility of bovine spermatozoa in vit...

  3. Gastrointestinal hormones and pathogenesis of diabetic gastroparesis%胃肠激素与糖尿病胃轻瘫发病机制的关系研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓娜; 吴兴全; 王富春

    2016-01-01

    糖尿病胃轻瘫(DGP)发生的根本原因是胃肠功能紊乱,胃肠激素是调节胃肠运动的重要因素。血浆和胃组织中胃肠激素含量变化在糖尿病胃动力障碍的发病中发挥重要作用。现已证实,胃动素(MTL)、胃泌素(GAS)、生长抑素(SS)、血管活性肠肽(VIP)、P 物质(SP)等在消化道运动功能调节方面起重要作用。探索胃肠激素与 DGP 发病机制,胃肠激素与 DGP 病程关系,可为 DGP 的治疗提供理论依据。%Root causes of diabetic gastroparesis(DGP)occurring gastrointestinal dysfunction,gastrointestinal hor-mones are an important factor in regulating gastrointestinal motility. Plasma and stomach tissue changes of gastrointesti-nal hormone content plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic gastric motility disorder. In order to under-stand the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal hormones on DGP mechanisms and relations were developing in the course of this review.

  4. Control of exoenzyme production, motility and cell differentiation in Serratia liquefaciens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givskov, Michael Christian; Eberl, Leo; Molin, Søren

    1997-01-01

    Serratia liquefaciens secretes a broad spectrum of hydrolytic enzymes to the surrounding medium and possesses the ability to differentiate into specialized swarmer cells capable of rapid surface motility. Control of exoenzyme production and swarming motility is governed by similar regulatory...

  5. Measurements of Boar Spermatozoa Motility Using PFG NMR Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of spermatozoa motility, viability and morphology is an essential parameter in the examination of sperm quality and in the establishment of correlations between sperm quality and fertility. Until now, assessment of sperm quality has been based on subjective evaluation of parameters, such as motility and viability, and on objective parameters, such as semen concentration and morphology abnormalities. When subjective optical microscopic evaluation was used in humans and animals, variations of 30 to 60% have been reported in the estimation of the motility parameters of the same ejaculates. To overcome this variability, different systems have been proposed such as turbidimetry, laser-Doppler spectroscopy, and photometric methods. Other accurate techniques, such as flow cytometry, which allows the evaluation of concentration, and cellulose-acetate/nitrate filter measure only a single semen parameter. The more recent track semen analysis system, based on individual spermatozoon evaluation, offers an accurate calculation of different semen parameters. Although some interesting results have already been obtained, many questions remain, which have to be answered to allow for further development in veterinary medicine, clinical fertility settings, physiological, and toxicology research activities. Pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG NMR) techniques have been presented demonstrating the potential to study flow and transport processes in complex systems. By PFG NMR, the molecular displacement can be measured that occurs during a time interval D, between two consecutive magnetic field gradient pulses. In this poster we present the results of PFG-NMR obtained for a number of samples of boar spermatozoa with varying motility and discuss whether this method can be useful for fast and reliable spermatozoa motility evaluation. (author)

  6. Rapid actions of plasma membrane estrogen receptors regulate motility of mouse embryonic stem cells through a profilin-1/cofilin-1-directed kinase signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seung Pil; Ryu, Jung Min; Kim, Mi Ok; Park, Jae Hong; Han, Ho Jae

    2012-08-01

    Long-term estrogen actions are vital for driving cell growth, but more recent evidence suggests that estrogen mediates more rapid cellular effects. However, the function of estradiol-17β (E(2))-BSA in mouse embryonic stem cells has not been reported. Therefore, we examined the role of E(2)-BSA in mouse embryonic stem cell motility and its related signal pathways. E(2)-BSA (10(-8) m) significantly increased motility after 24 h incubation and increased filamentous (F)-actin expression; these effects were inhibited by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780, indicating that E(2)-BSA bound membrane estrogen receptors and initiated a signal. E(2)-BSA increased c-Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation, which was attenuated by ICI 182,780. The E(2)-BSA-induced increase in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation was inhibited by Src inhibitor PP2. As a downstream signal molecule, E(2)-BSA activated cdc42 and increased formation of a complex with the neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP)/cdc42/transducer of cdc42-dependent actin assembly-1 (TOCA-1), which was inhibited by FAK small interfering RNA (siRNA) and EGFR inhibitor AG 1478. In addition, E(2)-BSA increased profilin-1 expression and cofilin-1 phosphorylation, which was blocked by cdc42 siRNA. Subsequently, E(2)-BSA induced an increase in F-actin expression, and cell motility was inhibited by each signal pathway-related siRNA molecule or inhibitors but not by cofilin-1 siRNA. A combined treatment of cofilin-1 siRNA and E(2)-BSA increased F-actin expression and cell motility more than that of E(2)-BSA alone. These data demonstrate that E(2)-BSA stimulated motility by interacting with profilin-1/cofilin-1 and F-actin through FAK- and c-Src/EGFR transactivation-dependent N-WASP/cdc42/TOCA-1 complex.

  7. Histiocytic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, Sönke; Fagerberg, Christina R; Ousager, Lilian Bomme;

    2013-01-01

    a short review on histiocytic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in general. The primary histiocytic disorders of uncertain origin, Rosai-Dorfman disease, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and Erdheim-Chester disease, are addressed. Reactive and infectious conditions such as xanthomatosis...

  8. Ketamine Sedation in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman E. Eskander

    2016-07-01

    CONCLUSION: Ketamine sedation found to be safe for paediatric gastrointestinal endoscopy in Egyptian children without co-morbidities. Transient Hypoxia (13% may occur but easily reversed by nasal oxygen therapy.

  9. Targeted therapies in upper gastrointestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kordes

    2016-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, as esophageal, gastric and pancreatic cancer, are still highly lethal diseases, in spite of advances in surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and specific targeted therapy. Especially when patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastasized disease, upper

  10. Tumour markers in gastrointestinal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamerz, R.

    1988-02-01

    For non-endocrine gastrointestinal tumours the following tumour markers are of clinical interest: For esophageal cancer CEA (sensitivity, s: 40-60%) and SCC (squamous cell carcinoma antigen, x: 20-50%); for gastric cancer CEA (s: 30-40%) as well as CA 19-9 (s: 30-40%) because of complementary results (additive s: 50-60); for hepatocellular cancer AFP (first choice, s: 70-90%; second choice CA 19-9, s: 50-70%); for cholangiocellular cancer CA 19-9 (s: 40-70%); for secondary liver cancer in general CEA; for biliary tract cancer CA 19-9 (s: 40-70%) as well as for excretory pancreatic cancer (s: 70-90%); for colorectal cancer CEA (s: 40-70%) as a first choice marker, and CA 19-9 (s: 20-60%) as a second choice marker, and for anal cancer SCC. The frequency of tumour marker determinations depends on follow-up care recommendations for different tumour diseases (e.g. 1-3 monthly during the 1st and 2nd postoperative year, following chemotherapy courses, on change of therapy, on restaging and at unclear alteration of the clinical state). Tumour markers are only valuable adjuncts to the medical care of tumour patients and therefore useless as solitary findings or on missing therapeutic consequence.

  11. ADAM Proteases and Gastrointestinal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer C; Rustagi, Shelly; Dempsey, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are a family of cell surface proteases that regulate diverse cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, cellular signaling, and proteolysis. Proteolytically active ADAMs are responsible for ectodomain shedding of membrane-associated proteins. ADAMs rapidly modulate key cell signaling pathways in response to changes in the extracellular environment (e.g., inflammation) and play a central role in coordinating intercellular communication within the local microenvironment. ADAM10 and ADAM17 are the most studied members of the ADAM family in the gastrointestinal tract. ADAMs regulate many cellular processes associated with intestinal development, cell fate specification, and the maintenance of intestinal stem cell/progenitor populations. Several signaling pathway molecules that undergo ectodomain shedding by ADAMs [e.g., ligands and receptors from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ErbB and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) receptor (TNFR) families] help drive and control intestinal inflammation and injury/repair responses. Dysregulation of these processes through aberrant ADAM expression or sustained ADAM activity is linked to chronic inflammation, inflammation-associated cancer, and tumorigenesis.

  12. Multicentric malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a rare type of sarcoma that is found in the digestive system, most often in the wall of the stomach. Multiple GISTs are extremely rare and usually associated with type 1 neurofibromatosis and familial GIST. We report here a case of a 70-year-old woman who reported pain in the abdomen, loss of appetite, and weight loss for six months. Ultrasound examination showed a small bowel mass along with multiple peritoneal deposits and a mass within the liver. Barium studies were suggestive of a neoplastic pathology of the distal ileum. A differential diagnosis of adenocarcinoma/lymphoma with metastases was entertained. Perioperative findings showed two large growths arising from the jejunum and the distal ileum, along with multiple smaller nodules on the serosal surface and adjoining mesentery of the involved bowel segments. Segmental resection of the involved portions of the intestine was performed. Histopathological features were consistent with those of multicentric malignant GIST-not otherwise specified (GIST-NOS). Follow-up examination three months after surgery showed no evidence of recurrence. (author)

  13. Multicentric malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shailaja; Singh, Sanjeet K; Pujani, Mukta

    2009-01-01

    Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a rare type of sarcoma that is found in the digestive system, most often in the wall of the stomach. Multiple GISTs are extremely rare and usually associated with type 1 neurofibromatosis and familial GIST.We report here a case of a 70-year-old woman who reported pain in the abdomen, loss of appetite, and weight loss for six months. Ultrasound examination showed a small bowel mass along with multiple peritoneal deposits and a mass within the liver. Barium studies were suggestive of a neoplastic pathology of the distal ileum. A differential diagnosis of adenocarcinoma/lymphoma with metastases was entertained. Perioperative findings showed two large growths arising from the jejunum and the distal ileum, along with multiple smaller nodules on the serosal surface and adjoining mesentery of the involved bowel segments. Segmental resection of the involved portions of the intestine was performed. Histopathological features were consistent with those of multicentric malignant GIST-not otherwise specified (GIST-NOS). Follow-up examination three months after surgery showed no evidence of recurrence. PMID:19568556

  14. Multicentric malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Shailaja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is a rare type of sarcoma that is found in the digestive system, most often in the wall of the stomach. Multiple GISTs are extremely rare and usually associated with type 1 neurofibromatosis and familial GIST. We report here a case of a 70-year-old woman who reported pain in the abdomen, loss of appetite, and weight loss for six months. Ultrasound examination showed a small bowel mass along with multiple peritoneal deposits and a mass within the liver. Barium studies were suggestive of a neoplastic pathology of the distal ileum. A differential diagnosis of adenocarcinoma/lymphoma with metastases was entertained. Perioperative findings showed two large growths arising from the jejunum and the distal ileum, along with multiple smaller nodules on the serosal surface and adjoining mesentery of the involved bowel segments. Segmental resection of the involved portions of the intestine was performed. Histopathological features were consistent with those of multicentric malignant GIST-not otherwise specified (GIST-NOS. Follow-up examination three months after surgery showed no evidence of recurrence.

  15. ADAM Proteases and Gastrointestinal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer C.; Rustagi, Shelly; Dempsey, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are a family of cell surface proteases that regulate diverse cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, cellular signaling, and proteolysis. Proteolytically active ADAMs are responsible for ectodomain shedding of membrane-associated proteins. ADAMs rapidly modulate key cell signaling pathways in response to changes in the extracellular environment (e.g., inflammation) and play a central role in coordinating intercellular communication within the local microenvironment. ADAM10 and ADAM17 are the most studied members of the ADAM family in the gastrointestinal tract. ADAMs regulate many cellular processes associated with intestinal development, cell fate specification, and the maintenance of intestinal stem cell/progenitor populations. Several signaling pathway molecules that undergo ectodomain shedding by ADAMs [e.g., ligands and receptors from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ErbB and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) receptor (TNFR) families] help drive and control intestinal inflammation and injury/repair responses. Dysregulation of these processes through aberrant ADAM expression or sustained ADAM activity is linked to chronic inflammation, inflammation-associated cancer, and tumorigenesis. PMID:26667078

  16. ADAM Proteases and Gastrointestinal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer C; Rustagi, Shelly; Dempsey, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are a family of cell surface proteases that regulate diverse cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, cellular signaling, and proteolysis. Proteolytically active ADAMs are responsible for ectodomain shedding of membrane-associated proteins. ADAMs rapidly modulate key cell signaling pathways in response to changes in the extracellular environment (e.g., inflammation) and play a central role in coordinating intercellular communication within the local microenvironment. ADAM10 and ADAM17 are the most studied members of the ADAM family in the gastrointestinal tract. ADAMs regulate many cellular processes associated with intestinal development, cell fate specification, and the maintenance of intestinal stem cell/progenitor populations. Several signaling pathway molecules that undergo ectodomain shedding by ADAMs [e.g., ligands and receptors from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ErbB and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) receptor (TNFR) families] help drive and control intestinal inflammation and injury/repair responses. Dysregulation of these processes through aberrant ADAM expression or sustained ADAM activity is linked to chronic inflammation, inflammation-associated cancer, and tumorigenesis. PMID:26667078

  17. Potassium Channelopathies and Gastrointestinal Ulceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jaeyong; Lee, Seung Hun; Giebisch, Gerhard; Wang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Potassium channels and transporters maintain potassium homeostasis and play significant roles in several different biological actions via potassium ion regulation. In previous decades, the key revelations that potassium channels and transporters are involved in the production of gastric acid and the regulation of secretion in the stomach have been recognized. Drugs used to treat peptic ulceration are often potassium transporter inhibitors. It has also been reported that potassium channels are involved in ulcerative colitis. Direct toxicity to the intestines from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been associated with altered potassium channel activities. Several reports have indicated that the long-term use of the antianginal drug Nicorandil, an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, increases the chances of ulceration and perforation from the oral to anal regions throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Several of these drug features provide further insights into the role of potassium channels in the occurrence of ulceration in the GI tract. The purpose of this review is to investigate whether potassium channelopathies are involved in the mechanisms responsible for ulceration that occurs throughout the GI tract. PMID:27784845

  18. The in vitro effects of superoxide, some commercially available antioxidants and red palm oil on sperm motility%过氧化物、商业化抗氧化剂、红棕榈油对精子活力的体外作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yapo Guillaume Aboua; Stefan Stephanus du Plessis; Patricia Reichgelt; Nicole Brooks

    2009-01-01

    In this study, two commercially available superoxide scavengers, tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (Mn[III]TMPyP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as red palm oil (RPO), a natural vegetable oil, had been used to investigate their possible in vitro effects against the toxic effects of superoxide (O2) on human sperm motility. Semen samples were obtained from 12 normozoospermic healthy volunteer donors aged between 19 and 23 years. The O2- donor 2,3-dimetoxyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ) (2.5 μmol L~(-1)-100 μmol L~(-1)) was added to normozoospermic post-swim-up sperm in the presence or absence of Mn(III)TMPyP (50 μmol L~(-1)), SOD (50 IU) or RPO (0.1% or 0.5%). Computer-assisted semen analysis was used to analyze various motility parameters. The parameters of interest were percentage of motile cells, progressive motility, rapid cells and static cells. Concentrations of higher than 25 μmol L~(-1) DMNQ were detrimental to sperm motility. Mn(III)TMPyP was able to attenuate the effect of Or on the motility parameters. In vitro addition of SOD and RPO showed harmful effects on sperm motility.

  19. GEIS 2013 guidelines for gastrointestinal sarcomas (GIST)

    OpenAIRE

    Poveda, Andrés; del Muro, Xavier García; López-Guerrero, Jose Antonio; Martínez, Virginia; Romero, Ignacio; Valverde, Claudia; Cubedo, Ricardo; Martín-Broto, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal soft tissue sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract. Correct diagnosis with thorough use of pathologic and molecular tools of GIST mutations has been of the foremost importance. GIST are usually (95 %) KIT positive and harbor frequent KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor α-activating mutations. This deep molecular understanding has allowed the correct classification into risk groups with implications regarding prog...

  20. Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumor of the stomach

    OpenAIRE

    Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed N.; Al-Garni, Ayed A.; Sami A Al-Momen; Al-Nahawi, Mamdouh; Abu Subaih, Jawad

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 32 Final Diagnosis: Gastrintestinal Autonomic Nerve Tumor (GANT) Symptoms: anemia • anorexia • fatigue • fever • hearburn • nausea • weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors (GANT) are extremely rare tumors that are related to gastrointestinal autonomic nervous plexuses. They are distinguished from stromal tumors by their unique ultrastructural feature...

  1. Stress, Anxiety and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Sermin Kesebir; Semra Ocak Karatas; Cigdem Bezgin; Fatma Cengiz

    2012-01-01

    Stress has major role in functional gastrointestinal system disorders. The most typical example of this situation is Irritable bowel syndrome. Gastrointestinal system’s response to acute or short-term of stress is delay of gastric emptying and stimulation of colonic transition. While CRF2 receptors are mediate the upper section inhibition, CRF1 is responsible for the lower part colonic and anxiogenic response. Visceral hypersensitivity is managed by the emotional motor system, the amygd...

  2. Imaging spectrum of gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binit Sureka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs were first described by Clark and Mazur in 1983 for smooth muscle neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract differentiating them from leiomyoma, leiomyosarcomas and neurogenic tumors. GISTs can arise from the bowel, peritoneum, omentum or retroperitoneum. This article reviews the computed tomography imaging features of primary GISTs, response to treatment and highlights data on predicting the outcome to chemotherapeutic drugs on imaging.

  3. Anaphylactoid reactions with gastrointestinal contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skucas, J

    1997-04-01

    Significant anaphylactoid reactions to gastrointestinal contrast media are rare. Whether a patient who is atopic or has asthma is predisposed to these reactions is speculative. The rare patient who previously had a severe allergic reaction to such a product probably should not undergo a subsequent examination with a similar agent. The American College of Radiology classification of contrast media side effects can also be applied to the gastrointestinal contrast media. PMID:9124150

  4. Risk assessment after acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage.

    OpenAIRE

    Rockall, T A; Logan, R F; Devlin, H. B.; Northfield, T. C.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the relative importance of risk factors for mortality after acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and to formulate a simple numerical scoring system that categorizes patients by risk. A prospective, unselected, multicentre, population based study was undertaken using standardised questionnaires in two phases one year apart. A total of 4185 cases of acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage over the age of 16 identified over a four month period in 1993...

  5. Monitorering og iltbehandling ved gastrointestinal endoskopi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J

    1992-01-01

    Gastroenterological Societies in Britain and USA have published recommendations for sedation, monitoring and oxygen therapy during gastrointestinal endoscopy. No scientific basis for the introduction of recommendations such as these is, however, present as it has not yet been proved that hypoxaemia....... The scientific data available at present in this field is not conclusive. Introduction of recommendations for monitoring and oxygen therapy during gastrointestinal endoscopy in Denmark should be delayed until elucidation of the mechanisms involved has been undertaken....

  6. Mechanisms of Gastric Emptying Disturbances in Chronic and Acute Inflammation of the Distal Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Jutta; Beglinger, Christoph; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2009-01-01

    Objective: It is unclear why patients with inflammation of the distal bowel complain of symptoms referable to the upper gastrointestinal tract, specifically to gastric emptying (GE) disturbances. Thus, we aimed to determine occurrence and putative pathomechanisms of gastric motor disorders...... (25.1[5.2] vs. 33.5[13.0] pmol/l, p=0.046) but markedly decreased in DIV (9.6[5.2] pmol/l, pdisturbances are most pronounced in CD and might partly be caused by excessive CCK release. In DIV there might...... be a pathophysiological link between decreased GLP-1 release, postprandial hyperglycemia and delayed GE. These explorative data encourage further studies in larger patient groups. Key words: inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, motility, hormonal regulation....

  7. Drebrin attenuates the interaction between actin and myosin-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ryoki; Katoh, Kaoru; Takahashi, Ayumi; Xie, Ce; Oseki, Koushi; Watanabe, Michitoshi; Igarashi, Michihiro; Nakamura, Akio; Kohama, Kazuhiro

    2007-07-27

    Drebrin-A is an actin-binding protein localized in the dendritic spines of mature neurons, and has been suggested to affect spine morphology [K. Hayashi, T. Shirao, Change in the shape of dendritic spines caused by overexpression of drebrin in cultured cortical neurons, J. Neurosci. 19 (1999) 3918-3925]. However, no biochemical analysis of drebrin-A has yet been reported. In this study, we purified drebrin-A using a bacterial expression system, and characterized it in vitro. Drebrin-A bound to actin filaments with a stoichiometry of one drebrin molecule to 5-6 actin molecules. Furthermore, drebrin-A decreased the Mg-ATPase activity of myosin V. In vitro motility assay revealed that the attachment of F-actin to glass surface coated with myosin-V was decreased by drebrin-A, but once F-actin attached to the surface, the sliding speed of F-actin was unaffected by the presence of drebrin A. These findings suggest that drebrin-A may affect spine dynamics, vesicle transport, and other myosin-V-driven motility in neurons through attenuating the interaction between actin and myosin-V.

  8. Total bilirubin in nasogastric aspirates: A potential new indicator of postoperative gastrointestinal recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Miyano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of our study was to investigate if total bilirubin (T-bil, amylase (Amy, and sodium (Na in nasogastric (NG aspirates can reflect gastrointestinal motility reliably. Materials and Methods: NG aspirates from all laparotomies lasting more than 150 min in children less than 12 months old were studied for 3 months. Color of aspirates and intensity of bowel sounds were graded every 3 h by nursing staff and aspirate samples for measuring T-bil, Amy, and Na were collected independently every 12 h until an oral fluid challenge was tolerated. Results: There were 26 subjects. Mean age at surgery was 5.6 months; mean body weight at surgery was 5.8 kg. No postoperative complications occurred. While there was no reduction in average volume of NG aspirates, color change was subjective, and bowel sounds could not be standardized, T-bil decreased over time (0d: 4.4 mg/dL; 0.5d: 2.7 mg/dL; 1.0d: 1.6 mg/dL; 1.5d: 1.3 mg/dL; 2.0d: 0.4 mg/dL; 2.5d: 0.33 mg/dL; 3.0d: 0.21 mg/dL; 3.5d: 0.15 mg/dL; 4.0d: 0.06 mg/dL; 4.5d: 0.05 mg/dL; 5.0d: 0.02 mg/dL; 5.5d: 0.02 mg/dL; 6.0d: 0.01 mg/dL. Amy and Na were inconclusive. Conclusion: T-bil levels in NG aspirates may be useful as a reliable objective quantitative marker of gastrointestinal motility postoperatively.

  9. Mechanisms of motility change on trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid-induced colonic inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Gab Jin; Cui, Yuan; Yeon, Dong-Soo; Kwon, Seong-Chun; Park, Byong-Gon

    2012-12-01

    Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by recurrent episodes of colonic inflammation and tissue degeneration in human or animal models. The contractile force generated by the smooth muscle is significantly attenuated, resulting in altered motility leading to diarrhea or constipation in IBD. The aim of this study is to clarify the altered contractility of circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers in proximal colon of trinitrobenzen sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis mouse. Colitis was induced by direct injection of TNBS (120 mg/kg, 50% ethanol) in proximal colon of ICR mouse using a 30 G needle anesthetized with ketamin (50 mg/kg), whereas animals in the control group were injected of 50% ethanol alone. In TNBS-induced colitis, the wall of the proximal colon is diffusely thickened with loss of haustration, and showed mucosal and mucular edema with inflammatory infiltration. The colonic inflammation is significantly induced the reduction of colonic contractile activity including spontaneous contractile activity, depolarization-induced contractility, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated contractile response in circular muscle layer compared to the longitudinal muscle layer. The inward rectification of currents, especially, important to Ca(2+) and Na(+) influx-induced depolarization and contraction, was markedly reduced in the TNBS-induced colitis compared to the control. The muscarinic acetylcholine-mediated contractile responses were significantly attenuated in the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle strips induced by the reduction of membrane expression of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channel isoforms from the proximal colon of the TNBS-induced colitis mouse than the control.

  10. Leiomyomas in the gastric cardia: CT findings and differentiation from gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hyun Kyung [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, 82, Gumi-ro 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hoon, E-mail: yhkrad@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, 82, Gumi-ro 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon Jin; Park, Ji Hoon; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Kyoung Ho [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, 82, Gumi-ro 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hye Seung [Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 82, Gumi-ro 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Gastric leiomyomas frequently involve the gastric cardia. • Gastric cardial leiomyomas and GISTs could be differentiated with CT. • Differentiation of cardial leiomyomas and GISTs can help choosing surgical procedure. - Abstract: Objective: To describe CT findings of leiomyomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) in the gastric cardia and to identify their differentiating features. Materials and methods: CT images of pathologically proven leiomyomas (n = 26) and GISTs (n = 19) in the gastric cardia were retrospectively reviewed for esophagogastric junction (EGJ) involvement, contour, surface, growth pattern, enhancement pattern and degree of the tumor, and the presences of intralesional low attenuation, calcification and surface dimples or ulcers. The long (LD) and short diameters (SD), LD/SD ratio, and attenuation value of each lesion were measured. Results: EGJ involvement, homogeneous enhancement, intermediate or low enhancement, absences of intralesional low attenuation and surface dimples or ulcers, LD/SD ratio >1.2, and attenuation value ≤71.2 HU were significant findings for differentiating leiomyomas from GISTs (P < 0.05 for each finding). An LD/SD ratio of >1.2 and attenuation value of ≤71.2 HU yielded sensitivities of 84.6% and 61.5%, and specificities of 52.6% and 84.2%, respectively, on the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. When at least five of these seven criteria were used in combination, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing leiomyomas were 100% (26 of 26) and 89.5% (17 of 19), respectively. When any six of these criteria were used, a specificity of 100% was achieved. Conclusions: CT features including EGJ involvement, enhancement pattern and degree, presences of intralesional low attenuation and surface dimples or ulcers, LD/SD ratio, and attenuation value could help differentiating leiomyomas from GISTs in the gastric cardia, particularly in the manner of combination.

  11. Feverlike Temperature is a Virulence Regulatory Cue Controlling the Motility and Host Cell Entry of Typhoidal Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhadad, Dana; McClelland, Michael; Rahav, Galia; Gal-Mor, Ohad

    2015-07-01

    Human infection with typhoidal Salmonella serovars causes a febrile systemic disease, termed enteric fever. Here we establish that in response to a temperature equivalent to fever (39 °C-42 °C) Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Sendai significantly attenuate their motility, epithelial cell invasion, and uptake by macrophages. Under these feverlike conditions, the residual epithelial cell invasion of S. Paratyphi A occurs in a type III secretion system (T3SS) 1-independent manner and results in restrained disruption of epithelium integrity. The impaired motility and invasion are associated with down-regulation of T3SS-1 genes and class II and III (but not I) of the flagella-chemotaxis regulon. In contrast, we demonstrate up-regulation of particular Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 genes (especially spiC) and increased intraepithelial growth in a T3SS-2-dependent manner. These results indicate that elevated physiological temperature is a novel cue controlling virulence phenotypes in typhoidal serovars, which is likely to play a role in the distinct clinical manifestations elicited by typhoidal and nontyphoidal salmonellae. PMID:25492917

  12. Mechanisms of electrical activation and conduction in the gastrointestinal system: lessons from cardiac electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eTse

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI tract is an electrically excitable organ system containing multiple cell types, which coordinate electrical activity propagating through this tract. Disruption in its normal electrophysiology is observed in a number of GI motility disorders. However, this is not well characterized and the field of GI electrophysiology is much less developed compared to the cardiac field. The aim of this article is to use the established knowledge of cardiac electrophysiology to shed light on the mechanisms of electrical activation and propagation along the GI tract, and how abnormalities in these processes lead to motility disorders and suggest better treatment options based on this improved understanding. In the first part of the article, the ionic contributions to the generation of GI slow wave and the cardiac action potential (AP are reviewed. Propagation of these electrical signals can be described by the core conductor theory in both systems. However, specifically for the GI tract, the following unique properties are observed: changes in slow wave frequency along its length, periods of quiescence, synchronization in short distances and desynchronization over long distances. These are best described by a coupled oscillator theory. Other differences include the diminished role of gap junctions in mediating this conduction in the GI tract compared to the heart. The electrophysiology of conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease and gastroparesis, and functional problems such as irritable bowel syndrome are discussed in detail, with reference to ion channel abnormalities and potential therapeutic targets. A deeper understanding of the molecular basis and physiological mechanisms underlying GI motility disorders will enable the development of better diagnostic and therapeutic tools and the advancement of this field.

  13. Dopaminergic and beta-adrenergic effects on gastric antral motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, K; Hovendal, C P; Gottrup, F;

    1984-01-01

    bethanechol or pentagastrin inducing motor activity patterns as in the phase III of the MMC and the digestive state respectively. The stimulated antral motility was dose-dependently inhibited by dopamine. The effect was significantly blocked by specifically acting dopaminergic blockers, while alpha- and beta......-adrenergic blockers were without any significant effects. Dose-response experiments with bethanechol and dopamine showed inhibition of a non-competitive type. Isoprenaline was used alone and in conjunction with selective blockade of beta 1- and beta 2-receptors during infusion of bethanechol which induces a pattern...... similar to phase III in the migrating myoelectric complex. The stimulated antral motility was dose-dependently inhibited by isoprenaline. The effect could be significantly blocked by propranolol (beta 1 + beta 2-adrenoceptor blocker) and by using in conjunction the beta 1-adrenoceptor blocker practolol...

  14. Persistence-driven durotaxis: Generic, directed motility in rigidity gradients

    CERN Document Server

    Novikova, Elizaveta A; Discher, Dennis E; Storm, Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Cells move differently on substrates with different elasticities. In particular, the persistence time of their motion is higher on stiffer substrates. We show that this behavior will result in a net transport of cells directed up a soft-to-stiff gradient. Using simple random walk models with controlled persistence and stochastic simulations, we characterize this propensity to move in terms of the durotactic index measured in experiments. A one-dimensional model captures the essential features of this motion and highlights the competition between diffusive spreading and linear, wavelike propagation. Since the directed motion is rooted in a non-directional change in the behavior of individual cells, the motility is a kinesis rather than a taxis. Persistence-driven durokinesis is generic and may be of use in the design of instructive environments for cells and other motile, mechanosensitive objects.

  15. Bacillus subtilis Hfq: A role in chemotaxis and motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Chandrakant B; Kumar, Pradeep; Rao, Krishnamurthy K

    2016-09-01

    Hfq is a global post-transcriptional regulator that modulates the translation and stability of target mRNAs and thereby regulates pleiotropic functions, such as growth, stress, virulence and motility, in many Gram-negative bacteria. However, comparatively little is known about the regulation and function(s) of Hfq in Gram-positive bacteria. Recently, in Bacillus subtilis, a role for Hfq in stationary phase survival has been suggested, although the possibility of Hfq having an additional role(s) cannot be ruled out. In this study we show that an ortholog of Hfq in B. subtilis is regulated by the stress sigma factor, sigma^B, in addition to the stationary phase sigma factor, sigma^H. We further demonstrate that Hfq positively regulates the expression of flagellum and chemotaxis genes (fla/che) that control chemotaxis and motility, thus assigning a new function for Hfq in B. subtilis. PMID:27581927

  16. Impedance planimetric description of normal rectoanal motility in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Inge S; Michelsen, Hanne B; Krogh, Klaus;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Manometry and pressure-volume measurements are commonly used to study anorectal physiology. However, the methods are limited by several sources of error. Recently, a new impedance planimetric system has been introduced in a porcine model. It allows simultaneous determination of anorectal...... pressures and multiple rectal luminal cross-sectional areas. This study was designed to study normal human rectoanal motility by means of impedance planimetry with multiple rectal cross-sectional areas and rectal and anal pressure. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers (10 females), aged 24 to 53 years, were...... the experiment, the cross-sectional area at all channels showed strong cyclic contractile activity and the anal pressure increased by approximately 100 percent. CONCLUSIONS: The new rectal impedance planimetry system allows highly detailed description of rectoanal motility patterns. It has promise as a new...

  17. Curvature-guided motility of microalgae in geometric confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Ostapenko, Tanya; Böddeker, Thomas; Kreis, Christian; Cammann, Jan; Mazza, Marco G; Bäumchen, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms often live in microhabitats that consist of a liquid phase and a plethora of typically curved interfaces. The ways in which motile cells possessing propulsive appendages sense and interact with the physical nature of their environment remains unclear today. For pusher-type microswimmers with rear-mounted flagella, such as bacteria and spermatozoa, cell trapping at a wall was attributed to contrasting microscopic mechanisms, namely hydrodynamic and contact interactions. Here, we demonstrate that, in confined spaces, the geometry of the habitat controls the motility of microalgae that propel themselves by the beating of two anterior flagella. Brownian dynamics simulations and analytical theory both quantitatively match the experimental data and capture a characteristic curvature scaling observed in the experiments. This curvature-guided navigation of the microalgae originates from only two essential ingredients: excluded volume resulting in predominantly ballistic swimming in confinement and the ...

  18. Endothelial cell motility, coordination and pattern formation during vasculogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czirok, Andras

    2013-01-01

    How vascular networks assemble is a fundamental problem of developmental biology that also has medical importance. To explain the organizational principles behind vascular patterning, we must understand how can tissue level structures be controlled through cell behavior patterns like motility and adhesion that, in turn, are determined by biochemical signal transduction processes? We discuss the various ideas that have been proposed as mechanisms for vascular network assembly: cell motility guided by extracellular matrix alignment (contact guidance), chemotaxis guided by paracrine and autocrine morphogens, and multicellular sprouting guided by cell-cell contacts. All of these processes yield emergent patterns, thus endothelial cells can form an interconnected structure autonomously, without guidance from an external pre-pattern.

  19. Motility-driven glass and jamming transitions in biological tissues

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Dapeng; Marchetti, M Cristina; Manning, M Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Cell motion inside dense tissues governs many biological processes, including embryonic development and cancer metastasis, and recent experiments suggest that these tissues exhibit collective glassy behavior. To make quantitative predictions about glass transitions in tissues, we study a self-propelled Voronoi (SPV) model that simultaneously captures polarized cell motility and multi-body cell-cell interactions in a confluent tissue, where there are no gaps between cells. We demonstrate that the model exhibits a jamming transition from a solid-like state to a fluid-like state that is controlled by three parameters: the single-cell motile speed, the persistence time of single-cell tracks, and a target shape index that characterizes the competition between cell-cell adhesion and cortical tension. In contrast to traditional particulate glasses, we are able to identify an experimentally accessible structural order parameter that specifies the entire jamming surface as a function of model parameters. We demonstrat...

  20. Particle-based simulations of self-motile suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hinz, Denis F; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Fried, Eliot

    2013-01-01

    A simple model for simulating flows of active suspensions is investigated. The approach is based on dissipative particle dynamics. While the model is potentially applicable to a wide range of self-propelled particle systems, the specific class of self-motile bacterial suspensions is considered as a modeling scenario. To mimic the rod-like geometry of a bacterium, two dissipative particle dynamics particles are connected by a stiff harmonic spring to form an aggregate dissipative particle dynamics molecule. Bacterial motility is modeled through a constant self-propulsion force applied along the axis of each such aggregate molecule. The model accounts for hydrodynamic interactions between self-propelled agents through the pairwise dissipative interactions conventional to dissipative particle dynamics. Numerical simulations are performed using a customized version of the open-source LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator) software package. Detailed studies of the influence of agent con...

  1. Microbial Morphology and Motility as Biosignatures for Outer Planet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Jay; Lindensmith, Chris; Deming, Jody W.; Fernandez, Vicente I.; Stocker, Roman

    2016-10-01

    Meaningful motion is an unambiguous biosignature, but because life in the Solar System is most likely to be microbial, the question is whether such motion may be detected effectively on the micrometer scale. Recent results on microbial motility in various Earth environments have provided insight into the physics and biology that determine whether and how microorganisms as small as bacteria and archaea swim, under which conditions, and at which speeds. These discoveries have not yet been reviewed in an astrobiological context. This paper discusses these findings in the context of Earth analog environments and environments expected to be encountered in the outer Solar System, particularly the jovian and saturnian moons. We also review the imaging technologies capable of recording motility of submicrometer-sized organisms and discuss how an instrument would interface with several types of sample-collection strategies.

  2. Voltage- and calcium-dependent motility of saccular hair bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, Patricia M.; Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.; Bozovic, Dolores

    2015-12-01

    Active bundle motility, which is hypothesized to supply feedback for mechanical amplification of signals, is thought to enhance sensitivity and sharpen tuning in vestibular and auditory organs. To study active hair bundle motility, we combined high-speed camera recordings of bullfrog sacculi, which were mounted in a two-compartment chamber, and voltage-clamp of the hair cell membrane potential. Using this paradigm, we measured three types of bundle motions: 1) spontaneous oscillations which can be analyzed to measure the physiological operating range of the transduction channel; 2) a sustained quasi-static movement of the bundle that depends on membrane potential; and 3) a fast, transient and asymmetric movement that resets the bundle position and depends on changes in the membrane potential. These data support a role for both calcium and voltage in the transduction-channel function.

  3. Multiple peptidoglycan modification networks modulate Helicobacter pylori's cell shape, motility, and colonization potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K Sycuro

    Full Text Available Helical cell shape of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori has been suggested to promote virulence through viscosity-dependent enhancement of swimming velocity. However, H. pylori csd1 mutants, which are curved but lack helical twist, show normal velocity in viscous polymer solutions and the reason for their deficiency in stomach colonization has remained unclear. Characterization of new rod shaped mutants identified Csd4, a DL-carboxypeptidase of peptidoglycan (PG tripeptide monomers and Csd5, a putative scaffolding protein. Morphological and biochemical studies indicated Csd4 tripeptide cleavage and Csd1 crosslinking relaxation modify the PG sacculus through independent networks that coordinately generate helical shape. csd4 mutants show attenuation of stomach colonization, but no change in proinflammatory cytokine induction, despite four-fold higher levels of Nod1-agonist tripeptides in the PG sacculus. Motility analysis of similarly shaped mutants bearing distinct alterations in PG modifications revealed deficits associated with shape, but only in gel-like media and not viscous solutions. As gastric mucus displays viscoelastic gel-like properties, our results suggest enhanced penetration of the mucus barrier underlies the fitness advantage conferred by H. pylori's characteristic shape.

  4. Motility of small nematodes in disordered wet granular media

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez, G.; Lu, K.; Sznitman, J.; Arratia, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    The motility of the worm nematode \\textit{Caenorhabditis elegans} is investigated in shallow, wet granular media as a function of particle size dispersity and area density ($\\phi$). Surprisingly, we find that the nematode's propulsion speed is enhanced by the presence of particles in a fluid and is nearly independent of area density. The undulation speed, often used to differentiate locomotion gaits, is significantly affected by the bulk material properties of wet mono- and polydisperse granu...

  5. Hydrogel Walkers with Electro-Driven Motility for Cargo Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Yang; Wei Wang; Chen Yao; Rui Xie; Xiao-Jie Ju; Zhuang Liu; Liang-Yin Chu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, soft hydrogel walkers with electro-driven motility for cargo transport have been developed via a facile mould-assisted strategy. The hydrogel walkers consisting of polyanionic poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid-co-acrylamide) exhibit an arc looper-like shape with two “legs” for walking. The hydrogel walkers can reversibly bend and stretch via repeated “on/off” electro-triggers in electrolyte solution. Based on such bending/stretching behaviors, the hydrogel walkers ...

  6. The Semen pH Affects Sperm Motility and Capacitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhou

    Full Text Available As the chemical environment of semen can have a profound effect on sperm quality, we examined the effect of pH on the motility, viability and capacitation of human sperm. The sperm in this study was collected from healthy males to avoid interference from other factors. The spermatozoa cultured in sperm nutrition solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were analyzed for sperm total motility, progressive motility (PR, hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS rate, and sperm penetration. Our results showed that these parameters were similar in pH 7.2 and 8.2 sperm nutrition solutions, but decreased in pH 5.2 and 6.2 solutions. The HOS rate exhibited positive correlation with the sperm total motility and PR. In addition, the sperm Na(+/K(+-ATPase activity at different pHs was measured, and the enzyme activity was significantly lower in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media, comparing with that in pH 8.2 and pH 7.2 solutions. Using flow cytometry (FCM and laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM analysis, the intracellular Ca2(+ concentrations of sperm cultured in sperm capacitation solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were determined. Compared with that at pH 7.2, the mean fluorescence intensity of sperm in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media decreased significantly, while that of pH 8.2 group showed no difference. Our results suggested that the declined Na(+/K(+-ATPase activity at acidic pHs result in decreased sperm movement and capacitation, which could be one of the mechanisms of male infertility.

  7. GLP-1: broadening the incretin concept to involve gut motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Per M

    2009-08-01

    The incretin effect of the gut peptide hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a combined result of inhibition of gastric emptying and stimulation of insulin secretion via an incretin mechanism. The temporal pattern of these events implicate that gastric emptying is primarily delayed, while later in the digestive process insulin is released for nutrient disposal. Since the inhibitory effect of GLP-1 on gastric motility is very outspoken, we considered it of value to study its effects on gut motility. Animal experimentation in the rat clearly showed that not only gastric emptying, but also small bowel motility with the migrating myoelectric complex was profoundly inhibited by GLP-1 at low doses. Similar effects were seen with analogues of the peptide. Extending the studies to man supported our earliest data indicating that the migrating motor complex of the small intestine was affected, and even more noticeable, the summarized motility index inhibited. Further extension of our studies to patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) displayed similar results. This encouraged us to embark on a clinical pain-relief multi-centre study in IBS patients using a GLP-1 analogue, ROSE-010, with longer half-life than the native peptide. The outcome of the IBS study proved ROSE-010 to be superior to placebo with a pain-relief response rate of 24% for ROSE-010 compared to 12% for placebo. Taken together, the GLP-1 analogue ROSE-010 is believed to cause relaxation of the gut and can thereby relieve an acute pain attack of IBS, even though its precise mechanism is yet to be defined. PMID:19362109

  8. Synchronous occurrence of gastrointestinal stromal tumors and other primary gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Wronski; Bogna Ziarkiewicz-Wroblewska; Barbara Gornicka; Wlodzimierz Cebulski; Maciej Slodkowski; Aleksander Wasiutynski; Ireneusz W Krasnodebski

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To review clinical and pathologic features of Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) occurring synchronously with other primary gastrointestinal neoplasms.METHODS: 28 patients with primary GIST were treated at our institution between 1989 and 2005. Clinical and pathologic records were reviewed.RESULTS: The gastrointestinal stromal tumor occurred simultaneously with other primary GI malignancies in 14% of all patients with GIST. The synchronous stromal tumors were located in the stomach and were incidentally found during the operation. The coexistent neoplasms were colon adenocarcinoma, gastric cancer (2 cases) and gastric lymphoma.CONCLUSION: The synchronous occurrence of GISTs and other gastrointestinal malignancies is more common than it has been considered. The development of gastrointestinal stromal tumors and other neoplasms may involvethe same carcinogenic agents.

  9. Motility of the jejunum after proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaussade, S; Merite, F; Hautefeuille, M; Valleur, P; Hautefeuille, P; Couturier, D

    1989-01-01

    Proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anastomosis could modify motility of the small intestine through two mechanisms: obstruction or bacterial overgrowth. Motility of the jejunum was measured in 11 patients with ileoanal anastomosis six (n = 6), or 12 (n = 5) months after closure of the loop ileostomy. Manometric recording from the jejunum were made during fasting (four hours) and after a liquid meal (one hour). These findings were compared with those of six healthy volunteers. Motor events were classified as follows: migrating motor complex (MMC), propagated contractions, or discrete clustered contractions. All patients were investigated for bacterial overgrowth (D-glucose breath test). Only two patients had bacterial overgrowth. The frequency of MMC remained unchanged after ileo-anal anastomosis (2.83 (0.37)/four hours) compared with normal volunteers (2.81 (0.29)/four hours). During fasting, four patients had numerous propagated contractions in the jejunum. This condition was associated in two with bacterial overgrowth and in two with intubation of the reservoir. Discrete clustered contractions were found in the seven patients studied postprandially (7.6 (2.5)/h), but not in volunteers. These seven patients emptied their pouch spontaneously and bacterial overgrowth was found in only one. As this motility pattern was previously described in partial small intestinal obstruction, it is postulated that discrete clustered contractions could be the consequence of a functional obstruction as a result of anastomosis of the small intestine to the high pressure zone of the anal sphincters. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2707637

  10. Radiation-induced motility alterations in medulloblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieken, Stefan; Rieber, Juliane; Brons, Stephan; Habermehl, Daniel; Rief, Harald; Orschiedt, Lena; Lindel, Katja; Weber, Klaus J; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E

    2015-05-01

    Photon irradiation has been repeatedly suspected of increasing tumor cell motility and promoting locoregional recurrence of disease. This study was set up to analyse possible mechanisms underlying the potentially radiation-altered motility in medulloblastoma cells. Medulloblastoma cell lines D425 and Med8A were analyzed in migration and adhesion experiments with and without photon and carbon ion irradiation. Expression of integrins was determined by quantitative FACS analysis. Matrix metalloproteinase concentrations within cell culture supernatants were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test. Both photon and carbon ion irradiation significantly reduced chemotactic medulloblastoma cell transmigration through 8-μm pore size membranes, while simultaneously increasing adherence to fibronectin- and collagen I- and IV-coated surfaces. Correspondingly, both photon and carbon ion irradiation downregulate soluble MMP9 concentrations, while upregulating cell surface expression of proadhesive extracellular matrix protein-binding integrin α5. The observed phenotype of radiation-altered motility is more pronounced following carbon ion than photon irradiation. Both photon and (even more so) carbon ion irradiation are effective in inhibiting medulloblastoma cell migration through downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and upregulation of proadhesive cell surface integrin α5, which lead to increased cell adherence to extracellular matrix proteins. PMID:25736470

  11. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Lysosmal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid IMANZADEH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available  How to Cite this Article: Imanzadeh F. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Lysosmal Disease. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6:4 (suppl. 1:17-18.pls see PDF. References: 1. Semenza  GL,  Pyeritz  RE.  Respiratory complications of mucopolysaccharide storage disorders. Medicine (Baltimore 1988; 67:209. 2.   Wraith   JE,   Scarpa   M,   Beck   M,   et   al. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome: a clinical review and recommendations for treatment in the era of enzyme replacement therapy. Eur J Pediatr 2008; 167:267. 3. Stevens JM, Kendall BE, Crockard HA, Ransford   A.   The   odontoid   process   in Morquio-Brailsford’s disease. The effects of occipitocervical fusion. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1991; 73:851. 4.   Jones AE, Croley TF. Morquio syndrome and anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1979; 51:261. 5.   Ashraf J, Crockard HA, Ransford AO, Stevens JM. Transoral decompression and posterior stabilisation in Morquio’s disease. Arch Dis Child 1991; 66:1318. 6.  Neufeld EF, Muenzer J. The metabolic and molecular bases of inherited disease, Scriver C, Beaudet AL, Valle D, Sly W (Eds, McGraw- Hill, New York 2001. p.3421. 7.   Wraith   JE.   The   mucopolysaccharidoses:   a clinical review and guide to management. Arch Dis Child 1995; 72:263. 8.   Cleary MA, Wraith JE. The presenting features of mucopolysaccharidosis type IH (Hurler syndrome. Acta Paediatr 1995; 84:337. 9.   Elsner B. Ultrastructure of the rectal wall in Hunter’s   syndrome.   Gastroenterology   1970; 58:856. 10. Cleary   MA,   Wraith   JE.   Management   of mucopolysaccharidosis type III. Arch Dis Child 1993; 69:403. 

  12. Helicobacter pylori and Gastrointestinal Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerito, Marino; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Rokkas, Theodoros; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the principal trigger of gastric carcinogenesis and gastric cancer (GC) and remains the third leading cause of cancer-related death in both sexes worldwide. In a big Japanese study, the risk of developing GC in patients with peptic ulcer disease who received H. pylori eradication therapy and annual endoscopic surveillance for a mean of 9.9 years was significantly lower after successful eradication therapy compared to the group with persistent infection (0.21%/year and 0.45%/year, respectively, p = .049). According to a recent meta-analysis, H. pylori eradication is insufficient in GC risk reduction in subjects with advanced precancerous conditions (i.e., intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia). A microsimulation model suggested screening smokers over the age of 50 in the U.S. for serum pepsinogens. This would allow to detect advanced gastric atrophy with endoscopic follow-up of subjects testing positive as a cost-effective strategy to reduce GC mortality. In a Taiwanese study, the anti-H. pylori IgG-based test-and-treat program had lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratios than that with (13)C-urea breath test in both sexes to prevent GC whereas expected years of life lost for GC were higher and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of test-and-treat programs were more cost-effective in young adults (30-69 years old) than in elders (>70 years old). With respect to gastrointestinal malignancies other than GC, a meta-analysis confirmed the inverse association between H. pylori infection and esophageal adenocarcinoma. In a Finnish study, H. pylori seropositivity was associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancers (multivariate adjusted OR 2.63; 95% CI: 1.08-6.37), another meta-analysis showed a slightly increased rate of pancreatic cancer in patients with CagA-negative strains (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.02-1.65), whereas current data suggest that the association between H. pylori and colorectal neoplasms may be population

  13. Gastrointestinal mucosal barrier function and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Tadayuki; Miwa, Hiroto

    2016-08-01

    The gastrointestinal mucosal barrier plays an essential role in the separation of the inside of the body from the outside environment. Tight junctions (TJs) are the most important component for construction of a constitutive barrier of epithelial cells, and they regulate the permeability of the barrier by tightly sealing the cell-cell junctions. TJ proteins are represented by claudins, occludin, junctional adhesion molecules, and scaffold protein zonula occludens. Among these TJ proteins, claudins are the major components of TJs and are responsible for the barrier and the polarity of the epithelial cells. Gastrointestinal diseases including reflux esophagitis, inflammatory bowel disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, and cancers may be regulated by these molecules, and disruption of their functions leads to chronic inflammatory conditions and chronic or progressive disease. Therefore, regulation of the barrier function of epithelial cells by regulating the expression and localization of TJ proteins is a potential new target for the treatment of these diseases. Treatment strategies for these diseases might thus be largely altered if symptom generation and/or immune dysfunction could be regulated through improvement of mucosal barrier function. Since TJ proteins may also modify tumor infiltration and metastasis, other important goals include finding a good TJ biomarker of cancer progression and patient prognosis, and developing TJ protein-targeted therapies that can modify patient prognosis. This review summarizes current understanding of gastrointestinal barrier function, TJ protein expression, and the mechanisms underlying epithelial barrier dysregulation in gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:27048502

  14. Endoscopic management of gastrointestinal smooth muscle tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Zhou; Nong-Hua Lv; Hong-Xia Chen; Chong-Wen Wang; Xuan Zhu; Ping Xu; You-Xiang Chen

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic resection of gastrointestinal smooth muscle tumors (SMTs, including leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma) and to review our preliminary experiences on endoscopic diagnosis of gastrointestinal SMTs.METHODS: A total of 69 patients with gastrointestinal SMT underwent routine endoscopy in our department.Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) was also performed in 9 cases of gastrointestinal SMT. The sessile submucosal gastrointestinal SMTs with the base smaller than 2 cm in diameter were resected by "pushing" technique or "grasping and pushing" technique while the pedunculated SMTs were resected by polypectomy. For those SMTs originating from muscularis propria or with the base size ≥ 2 cm, ordinary biopsy technique was performed in tumors with ulcers while the "Digging" technique was performed in those without ulcers.RESULTS: 54 cases of leiomyoma and 15 cases of leiomyosarcoma were identified. In them, 19 cases of submucosal leiomyoma were resected by "pushing"technique and 10 cases were removed by "grasping and pushing" technique. Three cases pedunculated submucosal leiomyoma were resected by polypectomy.No severe complications developed during or after the procedure. No recurrence was observed. The diagnostic accuracy of ordinary and the "Digging" biopsy technique was 90.0% and 94.1%, respectively.CONCLUSION: Endoscopic resection is a safe and effective treatment for leiomyomas with the base size ≤2 cm. The "digging" biopsy technique would be a good option for histologic diagnosis of SMTs.

  15. Live probiotic cultures and the gastrointestinal tract: symbiotic preservation of tolerance whilst attenuating pathogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Vitetta, Luis; Hall, Sean; Linnane, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria comprise the earliest form of independent life on this planet. Bacterial development has included co-operative symbiosis with plants (e.g., Leguminosae family and nitrogen fixing bacteria in soil) and animals (e.g., the gut microbiome). A fusion event of two prokaryotes evolutionarily gave rise to the eukaryote cell in which mitochondria may be envisaged as a genetically functional mosaic, a relic from one of the prokaryote cells. The discovery of bacterial inhibitors such chloramphe...

  16. Seismic attenuation in fractured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prime objective of this paper is to quantitatively estimate seismic attenuation caused by fractures with different physical parameters. In seismic wave simulation, the fractured media are treated as the anisotropic media and fractures are represented by frequency-dependent elastic constants. Based on numerical experiments with three different parameters, namely viscosity, porosity and the Lamé parameters, this paper has the following observations. First, seismic attenuation is not affected by the viscosity within fractures, although it increases with the increase of porosity and decreases with the increase of the Lamé parameters within fractures. Among the latter two parameters, seismic attenuation is more sensitive to the Lamé parameters than to the porosity. Second, for the attenuation anisotropy, low frequencies have more anisotropic effect than high frequencies. For example, a 50 Hz wavefield has the strongest anisotropy effect if compared to 100 and 150 Hz wavefields. The attenuation anisotropy for low frequency (say 50 Hz) is more sensitive to the viscosity than the porosity and the Lamé parameters have the weakest effect among these three parameters. These observations suggest that low-frequency seismic attenuation, and especially the attenuation anisotropy in low frequency, would have great potential for fluid discrimination within fractured media. (paper)

  17. In Vitro and in vivo characterization of wireless and passive micro system enabling gastrointestinal pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiang; Wang, Junbo; Chen, Deyong; Chen, Jian; Li, Jing; Bao, Kaikai

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a wireless and passive micro pressure system based on the LC mutual inductance detection mechanism for gastrointestinal (GI) pressure monitoring. The micro pressure system is composed of a sensor capsule (a pressure sensitive micro capacitive sensor in series with an induction coil to form an LC tank) and a detection unit (a detection coil connected with a network analyzer). The pressure variations under measurement lead to changes in the capacitance of the pressure sensor and therefore a shift in the LC tank resonant frequency, quantified by the impedance measurement of the detection coil. The pressure sensor was fabricated using microfabrication processes with key parameters optimized. The in vitro characterization of the micro pressure system recorded a sensitivity of 0.2491 kHz/kPa (-10 kPa to 30 kPa). One-month rabbit stomach pressure monitoring was conducted based on the developed micro pressure system as a confirmation of device long term in vivo stability. Furthermore, rabbit stomach pressure variations before and after food feeding was recorded and compared where three distinctive contraction patterns (random contraction with low amplitude, irregular strong contractions and regular contraction in a cyclic manner) following food feeding were located. Compared to previous reported GI pressure sensors, this LC tank is featured with simple device structure without batteries and electrical components for energy transfer. Both in vitro and in vivo characterization confirm the functionality of the system, which may enable the gastrointestinal motility study in the near future. PMID:25119603

  18. Radiological study of gastrointestinal motor activity after acute cisplatin in the rat. Temporal relationship with pica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezos, Pablo Antonio; Vera, Gema; Castillo, Mónica; Fernández-Pujol, Ramón; Martín, María Isabel; Abalo, Raquel

    2008-08-18

    Nausea and vomiting are amongst the most severe dose-limiting side effects of chemotherapy. Emetogenic activity in rats can only be evaluated by indirect markers, such as pica (kaolin intake), or delay in gastric emptying. The aim of this work was to study, by radiological methods, the alterations in gastrointestinal motility induced by acute cisplatin in the rat, and to compare them with the development of pica. Rats received cisplatin (0-6 mg kg(-1)) at day 0. In the pica study, individual food ingestion and kaolin intake were measured each day (from day -3 to day 3). In the radiological study, conscious rats received an intragastric dose of medium contrast 0, 24 or 48 h after cisplatin injection, and serial X-rays were taken 0-24 h after contrast. Cisplatin dose-dependently induced both gastric stasis and stomach distension, showing a strict temporal relationship with the induction of both acute and delayed pica. Radiological methods, which are non-invasive and preserve animals' welfare, are useful to study the effect of emetogenic drugs in the different gastrointestinal regions and might speed up the search for new anti-emetics. PMID:18579450

  19. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilce Mitiko Matsuda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease are mainly a result of enteric nervous system impairment caused by T. cruzi infection. The anatomical locations most commonly described to be affected by Chagas disease are salivary glands, esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, small intestine, colon, gallbladder and biliary tree. Chagas disease has also been studied in association with Helicobacter pylori infection, interstitial cells of Cajal and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer.

  20. Tissue Staining (Chromoscopy of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Brian Fennerty

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue staining, or chomoscopy, is used as an adjunctive technique during gastrointestinal endoscopy. Chemical agents are applied to the gastrointestinal mucosal surface to identify specific epithelia or to enhance the mucosal surface characteristics of the gastrointestinal epithelium. This aids in the recognition of subtle lesions (ie, polyps or allows directed targeting of biopsies (ie, sprue or Barrett’s esophagus to increase the yield of endoscopic diagnostic accuracy. The four endoscopic tissue-staining techniques in use are vital staining, contrast staining (chromoscopy, reactive staining and tattooing. Some of the agents used for endoscopic tissue staining and the uses of chromoscopy in identifying pathology of the esophagus, stomach, small bowel and colon during endoscopy are discussed.

  1. Placebo responses in patients with gastrointestinal disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frauke Musial; Sibylle Klosterhalfen; Paul Enck

    2007-01-01

    Over the last several years there has been a growing interest in placebo, not only as an inert control in clinical trials, but also in the placebo effect as a group effect as well as a reaction in individual subjects. Methodological factors such as regression to the mean and natural history of the disease play a role in the evaluation of a possible placebo effect. In this report, we discuss several factors including Pavlovian conditionincg,beliefs outcome, expectations, and other factors as potential mediators of the placebo response. Placebo effects are common in gastrointestinal diseases and there seems to be no clear difference between placebo effects in functional gastrointestinal diseases (functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome)and organic gastrointestinal disease (duodenal ulcer and inflammatory bowel disease).

  2. Gastrointestinal and Liver Issues in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Varun; Fang, James C

    2016-04-26

    Heart failure affects ≈23 million people worldwide and continues to have a high mortality despite advancements in modern pharmacotherapy and device therapy. HF is a complex clinical syndrome that can result in the impairment of endocrine, hematologic, musculoskeletal, renal, respiratory, peripheral vascular, hepatic, and gastrointestinal systems. Although gastrointestinal involvement and hepatic involvement are common in HF and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, their bidirectional association with HF progression remains poorly fathomed. The current understanding of multiple mechanisms, including proinflammatory cytokine milieu, hormonal imbalance, and anabolic/catabolic imbalance, has been used to explain the relationship between the gut and HF and has been the basis for many novel therapeutic strategies. However, the failure of these novel therapies such as anti-tumor necrosis factor-α has resulted in further complexity. In this review, we describe the involvement of the gastrointestinal and liver systems within the HF syndrome, their pathophysiological mechanisms, and their clinical consequences.

  3. GASTROINTESTINAL MALIGNANCIES: GETTING A DECADE YOUNGER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmitha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal malignancies are one of the most common malignancies encountered frequently, with rising incidence in young age due to the changing lifestyle and food habits in India. Oesophagus, stomach and colonic cancers are the commonly affected regions of the GI tract. These malignancies is known to occur in older age of fifth decade onwards. This is a study intended to highlight the rising incidence of such malignancies in the younger age in second to third decade as observed in and around Mangalore. Upper gastrointestinal malignancies are common in oesophagus and stomach, whereas lower gastrointestinal malignancies occur more commonly seen in colon. Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most common of all familial malignancies with peak incidence in 60 to 70 years of age, 90% of cases occur in people aged 50 or older.Risk factors include a genetic predisposition, diet and lifestyle changes in the current era. Inheritance plays a role in the pathogenesis of upto a third of CRC cases. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of gastrointestinal malignancies in patients less than fifty years and the association of positive family history and polyps with colorectal carcinomas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 128 cases of gastrointestinal malignancies from June 2010 to May 2012 received in and around Mangalore. The study includes endoscopic biopsies, colonoscopic biopsies partial and total colectomy specimens with growth seen anywhere from oesophagus to rectum. Representative sections are taken, processed routinely and stained with H & E. The pathological findings are then correlated with clinical data like age and sex distribution, site, family history and presence of other malignancies. RESULTS: In this study gastrointestinal malignancies were studied as upper and lower gastrointestinal lesions. Upper gastrointestinal (GI lesions were those in oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum. A total of 128 cases

  4. Diagnosis of liver, biliary tract and gastrointestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of RI imaging in the diagnosis of lesions of the liver, biliary tracts and gastrointestinal tracts are reviewed, and representative cases are shown. Liver scintigraphy was of value for the diagnosis of lesions limitted to the liver such as primary and metastatic liver cancer and inflammatory liver diseases. However, RI methods were less useful in the diagnosis of lesions of the biliary tracts and stomach. RI scintigraphy was more sensitive than angiography in the detection of Meckel's deverticulum, Ballet's esophagus, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. (Tsunoda, M.)

  5. Candida albicans commensalism in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, B Anne; d'Enfert, Christophe; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2015-11-01

    Candida albicans is a polymorphic yeast species that often forms part of the commensal gastrointestinal mycobiota of healthy humans. It is also an important opportunistic pathogen. A tripartite interaction involving C. albicans, the resident microbiota and host immunity maintains C. albicans in its commensal form. The influence of each of these factors on C. albicans carriage is considered herein, with particular focus on the mycobiota and the approaches used to study it, models of gastrointestinal colonization by C. albicans, the C. albicans genes and phenotypes that are necessary for commensalism and the host factors that influence C. albicans carriage.

  6. Multiple Gastrointestinal Complications of Crack Cocaine Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Carlin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine and its alkaloid free base “crack-cocaine” have long since been substances of abuse. Drug abuse of cocaine via oral, inhalation, intravenous, and intranasal intake has famously been associated with a number of medical complications. Intestinal ischemia and perforation remain the most common manifestations of cocaine associated gastrointestinal disease and have historically been associated with oral intake of cocaine. Here we find a rare case of two relatively uncommon gastrointestinal complications of hemorrhage and pancreatitis presenting within a single admission in a chronic crack cocaine abuser.

  7. Prolonged parenteral nutrition after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estmann, Anne; Qvist, Niels; Husby, Steffen

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Long-term treatment with parenteral nutrition (PN) may be essential for survival in infants after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery. It seemed well indicated in a population-based study to estimate the need for long-term PN and to characterize the infants that received TPN with regard...... to diagnosis and clinical course. METHODOLOGY: This study reviews the clinical course of infants with gastrointestinal disease (gastroschisis, intestinal atresia, omphalocele, volvulus, Hirschsprung's disease and necrotizing enterocolitis) with a prolonged need for parenteral nutrition in the Western part...

  8. Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI bleeding is more common in patients with chronic kidney disease and is associated with higher mortality than in the general population. Blood losses in this patient population can be quite severe at times and it is important to differentiate anemia of chronic diseases from anemia due to GI bleeding. We review the literature on common causes of lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGI in chronic kidney disease (CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients. We suggest an approach to diagnosis and management of this problem.

  9. Gastrointestinal pathology in neonates: new imaging strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Stephanie; Donoghue, Veronica [Children' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin 1 (Ireland)

    2010-06-15

    The mainstay of imaging of gastrointestinal (GI) pathology in infants has always been and still is the plain radiograph of the abdomen and conventional contrast studies. In this review emphasis is placed on the situations where there are new imaging strategies and alternative modalities of imaging, including US, CT, MRI and radionuclide studies. This review will deal with GI pathology in the newborn and in the older neonate. It will also refer to any new approaches to imaging GI pathology in the premature infant. Finally the review will address how antenatal diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract abnormalities has changed the imaging strategy and management of the neonate. (orig.)

  10. Effects of environment factors on initiation of sperm motility in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Shao, Mingyu; Bao, Zhenmin; Hu, Jingjie; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2011-06-01

    Sperm of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) were quiescent in electrolyte NaCl solution and artificial seawater (ASW) and nonelectrolyte glucose and mannitol solutions when the osmolality was less than 200 mOsm kg-1. The sperm started to be motile as a result of increased osmolality, indicating an osmolality-dependent initiation of sperm motility in sea cucumber. After a brief incubation in hypotonic NaCl and glucose solutions with osmolalities of 200 and 400 mOsm kg-1, sperm lost partial motile ability. Sperm became immobilized when pH was 6.0 in NaCl, glucose and mannitol solutions, suggesting that an H+ release is involved in sperm activation. The decreased pH had no effect on the percentage of motile sperm in ASW, whereas it delayed the time period to reach the maximum motility (motilitymax). Extracellular Ca2+ in electrolyte solutions was not essential for motility stimulation but shortened the time of reaching motilitymax. When Ca2+ was mixed in nonelectrolyte solutions the sperm motility was completely suppressed. The K+ channel blocker, quinine, suppressed the sperm motility in electrolyte solution, showing a possible involvement of K+ transport in the process. High K+ concentration did not affect the sperm motility in NaCl solution, but decreased it in ASW and almost entirely suppressed it in nonelectrolyte solutions. The different effects of pH and K+ in ASW and NaCl solution indicate that external ions may also regulate sperm motility.

  11. Effects of Environment Factors on Initiation of Sperm Motility in Sea Cucumber Apostichopusjaponicus (Selenka)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Li; SHAO Mingyu; BAO Zhenmin; HU Jingjie; ZHANG Zhifeng

    2011-01-01

    Sperm of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) were quiescent in electrolyte NaCI solution and artificial seawater (ASW) and nonelectrolyte glucose and mannitol solutions when the osmolality was less than 200 mOsm kg-1 The sperm started to be motile as a result of increased osmolality, indicating an osmolality-dependent initiation of sperm motility in sea cucumber. After a brief incubation in hypotonic NaCI and glucose solutions with osmolalities of 200 and 400 mOsm kg-1, sperm lost partial motile ability. Sperm became immobilized when pH was 6.0 in NaCI, glucose and mannitol solutions, suggesting that an H+ release is involved in sperm activation. The decreased pH had no effect on the percentage of motile sperm in ASW, whereas it delayed the time period to reach the maximum motility (motilitymax). Extracellular Ca2+ in electrolyte solutions was not essential for motility stimulation but shortened the time of reaching motilitymax,. When Ca2+ was mixed in nonelectrolyte solutions the sperm motility was completely suppressed. The K+ channel blocker, quinine, suppressed the sperm motility in electrolyte solution, showing a possible involvement of K+ transport in the process. High K+ concentration did not affect the sperm motility in NsC1 solution, but decreased it in ASW and almost entirely suppressed it in nonelectrolyte solutions. The different effects of pH and K+ in ASW and NaCI solution indicate that external ions may also regulate sperm motility.

  12. A rare cause of recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding: mesenteric hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeytunlu Murat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage accounts for approximately 20% of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The most common causes of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in adults are diverticular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, benign anorectal diseases, intestinal neoplasias, coagulopathies and arterio-venous malformations. Hemangiomas of gastrointestinal tract are rare. Mesenteric hemangiomas are also extremely rare. We present a 25-year-old female who was admitted to the emergency room with recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding. An intraluminal bleeding mass inside the small intestinal segment was detected during explorative laparotomy as the cause of the recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding. After partial resection of small bowel segment, the histopathologic examination revealed a cavernous hemagioma of mesenteric origin. Although rare, gastrointestinal hemangioma should be thought in differential diagnosis as a cause of recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

  13. Do We Know What Causes Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Can gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors be prevented? Do we know what causes gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors? Researchers have ... our genes, which control how our cells function. We look like our parents because they are the ...

  14. Parathyroid Hormone Induces Bone Cell Motility and Loss of Mature Osteocyte Phenotype through L-Calcium Channel Dependent and Independent Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Prideaux

    Full Text Available Parathyroid Hormone (PTH can exert both anabolic and catabolic effects on the skeleton, potentially through expression of the PTH type1 receptor (PTH1R, which is highly expressed in osteocytes. To determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible, we examined the effects of PTH on osteoblast to osteocyte differentiation using primary osteocytes and the IDG-SW3 murine cell line, which differentiate from osteoblast to osteocyte-like cells in vitro and express GFP under control of the dentin matrix 1 (Dmp1 promoter. PTH treatment resulted in an increase in some osteoblast and early osteocyte markers and a decrease in mature osteocyte marker expression. The gene expression profile of PTH-treated Day 28 IDG-SW3 cells was similar to PTH treated primary osteocytes. PTH treatment induced striking changes in the morphology of the Dmp1-GFP positive cells in IDG-SW3 cultures and primary cells from Dmp1-GFP transgenic mice. The cells changed from a more dendritic to an elongated morphology and showed increased cell motility. E11/gp38 has been shown to be important for cell migration, however, deletion of the E11/gp38/podoplanin gene had no effect on PTH-induced motility. The effects of PTH on motility were reproduced using cAMP, but not with protein kinase A (PKA, exchange proteins activated by cAMP (Epac, protein kinase C (PKC or phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphonate 3-kinase (Pi3K agonists nor were they blocked by their antagonists. However, the effects of PTH were mediated through calcium signaling, specifically through L-type channels normally expressed in osteoblasts but decreased in osteocytes. PTH was shown to increase expression of this channel, but decrease the T-type channel that is normally more highly expressed in osteocytes. Inhibition of L-type calcium channel activity attenuated the effects of PTH on cell morphology and motility but did not prevent the downregulation of mature osteocyte marker expression. Taken together, these

  15. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor and mitosis, pay attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federico Coccolini; Fausto Catena; Luca Ansaloni; Antonio Daniele Pinna

    2012-01-01

    The difference between stages I and III of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor depends principally on the number of mitosis. According with TNM classification, the presence in the tumor of high mitotic rate determines the upgrading. Many studies exposed different count techniques in evaluating the number of mitosis. An international standardized method to assess mitotic rate is needed.

  16. Gastrointestinal amyloidosis: a case of chronic diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonnesu, C; Giovinale, M; Verrecchia, E; De Socio, G; Cerquaglia, C; Curigliano, V; Soriano, A; Obici, L; Grieco, A; Lauriola, L; Gasbarrini, G; Manna, R

    2009-03-01

    Amyloidosis is a rare disease caused by extracellular deposits of insoluble fibrillar proteins in various organs and tissues. There are different forms of amyloidosis distinguished by the type of protein fibrils, by the sites of deposition and by associated conditions. Gastrointestinal involvement is common both in primary and secondary amyloidosis, while isolated gastrointestinal amyloidosis is rare. We describe a case of AL amyloidosis with a gastrointestinal involvement and restrictive cardiomiopathy. A 64 year old woman came to our attention with a history of chronic diarrhoea and weight loss, associated with dysphagia, dry mouth, xerophtalmia, chronic gastritis and depression. Clinical diagnosis has been difficult because of aspecificity of symptoms that mimed other more common diseases, like gastro-paresis, epigastric discomfort, gastric or duodenal ulcers, perforation, malabsorption, intestinal pseudo-obstruction. There is an important risk of misunderstanding and diagnostic delay. Indeed in this patient a diagnosis of irritable colon syndrome was erroneously established two years before admission in our hospital. Therefore gastrointestinal amyloidosis should be considered among differential diagnoses of chronic diarrhoea and weight loss when other more common diseases have been excluded. PMID:19530511

  17. Sleep, immunity and inflammation in gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Tauseef; Choe, James; Awab, Ahmed; Wagener, Theodore L; Orr, William C

    2013-12-28

    Sleep disorders have become a global issue, and discovering their causes and consequences are the focus of many research endeavors. An estimated 70 million Americans suffer from some form of sleep disorder. Certain sleep disorders have been shown to cause neurocognitive impairment such as decreased cognitive ability, slower response times and performance detriments. Recent research suggests that individuals with sleep abnormalities are also at greater risk of serious adverse health, economic consequences, and most importantly increased all-cause mortality. Several research studies support the associations among sleep, immune function and inflammation. Here, we review the current research linking sleep, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases and discuss the interdependent relationship between sleep and these gastrointestinal disorders. Different physiologic processes including immune system and inflammatory cytokines help regulate the sleep. The inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6 have been shown to be a significant contributor of sleep disturbances. On the other hand, sleep disturbances such as sleep deprivation have been shown to up regulate these inflammatory cytokines. Alterations in these cytokine levels have been demonstrated in certain gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, gastro-esophageal reflux, liver disorders and colorectal cancer. In turn, abnormal sleep brought on by these diseases is shown to contribute to the severity of these same gastrointestinal diseases. Knowledge of these relationships will allow gastroenterologists a great opportunity to enhance the care of their patients. PMID:24409051

  18. Role of Endoscopic Ultrasound in Gastrointestinal Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Biswanath P Gouda; Gupta, Tarun

    2011-01-01

    Endoscopic Ultrasound is an emerging diagnostic tool in the field of Gastrointestinal Surgery. Our review article focuses on role of EUS in staging cancers (esophageal, gastric, biliary and rectal), detection of bilio-pancreatic calculi and diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. Potential for performing EUS based therapeutic interventions are been explored and looks promising from the initial reports.

  19. Imaging of gastrointestinal and abdominal tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhoenacker, FM; De Backer, AI; Op de Beeck, B; Maes, M; Van Altena, R; Van Beckevoort, D; Kersemans, P; De Schepper, AM

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the abdomen, including involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, the peritoneum, mesentery, omentum, abdominal lymph nodes, solid abdominal organs, the genital system and the abdominal aorta. Abdominal TB is a diagnostic cha

  20. Standardization and Coding of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.M. Groenen (Marcel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractGastrointestinal endoscopy has developed rapidly in the last five decades. It started in the sixties, when the first commercial model of the then recently invented fully flexible fiberoptic gastroscope was developed. In the late sixties fiberoptic endoscopes changed to forward viewing, w

  1. Angiography and angiotherapy of gastrointestinal tract bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In selected patients with upper and lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage there is an indication for angiography. Vasoconstrictive drugs or embolization materials can be submitted through the catheter to stop the hermorrhage (angiotherapy). 81 patients were diagnosed by this method. Treatment through the angiographic catheter followed the diagnostic procedure in 41 cases. The hemorrhage was controlled in 36 patients. (orig.)

  2. Nutrition in the prevention of gastrointestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Diet has been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of gastrointestinal cancer for a long time. Initially, strong evidence of such effects was found in retrospective epidemiological studies. Dietary habits, in particular those from the distant past, are difficult to measure, however. Results f

  3. Targeting nitric oxide in the gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Gerard; van Goor, Harry; Jansen, Peter L M; Moshage, Han; van Goor, Harm

    2004-01-01

    This review discusses the contributions of the three nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) isozymes neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) to the function and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Small (nanomolar) quantities of NO produced by calcium-dependent nNOS play a

  4. Multiple gastrointestinal atresias in two consecutive siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahukamble, D B; Gahukamble, L D

    2002-03-01

    Two consecutive female siblings with multiple gastrointestinal atresias are described. The history of consanguinity in the parents and the presence of extensive typical pathological lesions suggest a genetically-induced developmental fault in the alimentary tract during the early embryonic period.

  5. Androgen receptor expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lisandro F; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of estrogen, progesterone, and androgen receptors in a large series of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Clinical and pathologic data were reviewed in 427 cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumor and the expression of such hormone receptors was investigated by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarray technique. All tumors were negative for estrogen receptor expression. Progesterone and androgen receptors expression was observed in 5.4% and 17.6% of tumors, respectively. We found the higher average age at diagnosis, the lower frequency of tumors located in the small intestine, and the higher frequency of extragastrointestinal tumors to be statistically significant in the group of tumors with androgen receptor expression in contrast to the group showing no androgen receptor expression. There was no statistic difference between such groups regarding sex, tumor size, mitotic count, cell morphology, and risk of aggressive behavior. Considering that the expression of androgen receptors in gastrointestinal stromal tumors is not negligible, further studies are encouraged to establish the role of androgen deprivation therapy for gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

  6. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour presenting as gastroduodenal intussusception.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilson, Mark H

    2012-08-01

    Gastroduodenal intussusception secondary to gastrointestinal stromal tumour is a very rare cause for intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis of this condition can be challenging, as symptoms are often non-specific and intermittent. This article reports a case where the diagnosis was made preoperatively with abdominal imaging and was treated by a combination of endoscopic reduction and laparoscopic resection.

  7. Catastrophic gastrointestinal complication of systemic immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lyn Alexandra; Gangopadhyay, Mitali; Gaya, Daniel R

    2015-02-28

    We present a case of acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in a patient with systemic vasculitis immunosuppressed on cyclophosphamide and prednisolone. The patient presented with a diffuse haemorrhagic oesophagitis and a non-specific duodenitis. Biopsies taken from the oesophagus and duodenum demonstrated infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) respectively. Viral infection of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a recognised complication of immunosuppression and HSV is one of the most common pathogens. CMV on the other hand most commonly causes a colitis or less commonly oesophagitis. CMV enteritis is rare as is the synchronous infection with two viral agents in an immunocompromised patient having being described in a few case series only. Viral infection of the gastrointestinal tract in immunocompromised patients should be treated with systemic anti-viral medication and consideration to withdrawal of the immunosuppressive therapy if possible and appropriate. The authors highlight the need for a high suspicion of viral infection in immunosuppressed patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:25741165

  8. Influences of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate and forskolin on human sperm motility in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-HongLIU; YangLI; Zheng-GuoCAO; Zhang-QunYE

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To study the influences of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (dbcAMP) and forskolin on human sperm motility in vitro. Methods: Semen samples, aseptically obtained by masturbation and prepared by swim-up technique from 20 fertile men, were incubated with different concenlrations of dbcAMP and forskolin at 37℃. Measurements were carried out after l0 min, 20 min, 30 min and 60 min incubation. Motility parameters were estimated by using an automatic analyzing system. Results: Treatment with dbcAMP or forskolin resulted in a significant increase in sperm motility and progressive motility. The larger the concenlrations of dbcAMP or forskolin,the greater the effect appeared. The straight linear velocity and curvilinear velocity were not affected by both agents.Conclusion: dbcAMP and forskolin increase the motility and progressive motility of human sperm in vitro. ( Asian J Androl 2003 Jun; 5: 113-115)

  9. Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on motile microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of slightly increased UV-B radiation was studied in four taxonomically very different microorganisms: the gliding prokaryotic cyanobacterium, Phormidium, the unicellular green alga Cosmarium, the flagellate Euglena and the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium. UV-B doses which can be expected as a result of a slight decrease of the protective ozone layer in the stratosphere, do not kill or damage the microorganisms visibly. However, such UV-B doses impair the development, motility and photoorientation of these organisms. Due to the inhibition of these physiological important parameters the organisms cannot respond adequately to the changing factors in their environment, which prevents the survival of the populations. (orig.)

  10. A Mach-Zender Holographic Microscope for Quantifying Bacterial Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraula, B.; Nadeau, J. L.; Serabyn, E.; Wallace, J. K.; Liewer, K.; Kuhn, J.; Graff, E.; Lindensmith, C.

    2014-12-01

    New microscopic techniques have revolutionized cell biology over the past two decades. However, there are still biological processes whose details elude us, especially those involving motility: e.g. feeding behavior of microorganisms in the ocean, or migration of cancer cells to form metastases. Imaging prokaryotes, which range in size from several hundred nm to a few microns, is especially challenging. An emerging technique to address these issues is Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM). DHM is an imaging technique that uses the interference of light to record and reproduce three-dimensional magnified images of objects. This approach has several advantages over ordinary brightfield microscopy for fieldwork: a larger depth of field, hands-off operation, robustness regarding environmental conditions, and large sampling volumes with quantitative 3D records of motility behavior. Despite these promising features, real-time DHM was thought to be impractical for technological and computational reasons until recently, and there has so far been very limited application of DHM to biology. Most existing instruments are limited in performance by their particular (e.g. in-line, lens-less, phase-shifting) approach to holography. These limitations can be mitigated with an off-axis dual-path configuration. Here we describe the design and implementation of a design for a Mach-Zehnder-type holographic microscope with diffraction-limited lateral resolution, with intended applications in environmental microbiology. We have achieved sub-micron resolution and three-dimensional tracking of prokaryotic and eukaryotic test strains designed to represent different modes and speeds of microbial motility. Prokaryotes are Escherichia coli, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Bacillus subtilis. Each shows a characteristic motility pattern, as we illustrate in holographic videos in sample chambers 0.6 mm in depth. The ability to establish gradients of attractants with bacterial taxis towards the

  11. Rectal motility after sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, H B; Worsøe, J; Krogh, K;

    2010-01-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is effective against faecal incontinence, but the mode of action is obscure. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of SNS on fasting and postprandial rectal motility. Sixteen patients, 14 women age 33-73 (mean 58), with faecal incontinence of various...... contractions, total time with cyclic rectal contractions, the number of aborally and orally propagating contractions, the number of anal sampling reflexes or rectal wall tension during contractions. Postprandial changes in rectal tone were significantly reduced during SNS (P

  12. Motility of small nematodes in wet granular media

    CERN Document Server

    Juarez, G; Sznitman, J; Arratia, P E

    2010-01-01

    The motility behavior of the \\textit{Caenorhabditis elegans} is investigated in wet granular medium as a function of area density ($\\phi$) and dispersity. Surprisingly, the locomotion speed increases in granular media compared to free swimming. The surrounding structure of the medium leads to enhanced undulatory propulsion due to its ability to sustain a finite shear stress and convert lateral force into forward motion. For $\\phi > 0.55$, the nematode is observed to change its gate from swimming to crawling in polydisperse media \\textit{only}. This highlights the subtle difference in local structure between media.

  13. Guaifenesin and increased sperm motility: a preliminary case report

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Means; Cristóbal S Berry-Cabán; Kurt Hammermeuller

    2010-01-01

    Gary Means1, Cristóbal S Berry-Cabán2, Kurt Hammermeuller11Department of Family Medicine, 2Department of Research, Womack Army Medical Center, Fort Bragg, NC, USABackground: A review of the literature and an extensive Medline search revealed that this is the first case report of the use of guaifenesin to increase sperm motility.Case: A 32-year-old male presented for an infertility evaluation. He reported an inability to conceive with his wife after 18 months of unprotect...

  14. Relationships between parameters of gallbladder motility and brain electrical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Marfiyan, Olena M; Zukow, Walery; Popovych, Milentyna V; Ganyk, Lyubov M; Kit, Yevgen I; Ivanyts’ka, Oksana M; Kyjenko, Valeriy M

    2016-01-01

    Marfiyan Olena M, Zukow Walery, Popovych Milentyna V, Ganyk Lyubov M, Kit Yevgen I, Ivanyts’ka Oksana M, Kyjenko Valeriy M. Relationships between parameters of gallbladder motility and brain electrical activity. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(8):11-20. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.59271 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3728 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/sedno-webapp/works/740334     The journal has had 7 ...

  15. Digital radiography in the evaluation of oesophageal motility disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, Yehia A

    2000-07-01

    AIMS: To develop a simple technique for examination of the oesophagus by digital radiography and to assess its role in the evaluation of motility disorders of the oesophagus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine patients and 44 control subjects underwent manometry and digital examination of the oesophagus. The digital study consisted of two parts: firstly examination of the pharynx and cervical oesophagus using 15 ml of fluid barium in anterio-posterior (AP) and lateral views, with image acquisition of four frames/s for 2 s. Secondly, examination of the thoracic oesophagus and oesophagogastric junction using 25 ml of barium in two prone oblique and one supine AP series, with image acquisition of one frame/s for 20 s. Oesophageal transit time (OTT) was measured in each case. Abnormal or non-peristaltic contractions were described regarding their morphology, time of visualization and length. The presence or absence of hiatal hernia, reflux or any associated organic lesions was noted. RESULTS: Digital radiography diagnosed 14 cases of achalasia and 28 cases of non-specific oesophageal motility disorder (NOMD). Normal OTT was 11.95 {+-} 1.304 s. The OTT was prolonged (16 s or more) in all patients except five; four of these were cases of NOMD. Abnormal contractions were classified into circular and longitudinal types. The circular non-obliterating type was commoner. Achalasia was diagnosed in all cases, as failure of relaxation of the inferior oesophageal sphincter was always present and easily depicted by digital radiography. Abnormal contractions in the body of the oesophagus were elicited in 57% of cases of achalasia. The sensitivity of digital radiography in detecting oesophageal motility disorders was 85.7% based on the presence of abnormal contractions and 91.6% by eliciting a prolonged OTT. CONCLUSIONS: Examination of the oesophagus by digital radiography is simple, non-invasive, reproducible, rapid and without discomfort to patients. It allows the diagnosis of

  16. Phenomenological modeling of the motility of self-propelled microorganisms

    CERN Document Server

    Zaoli, Silvia; Formentin, Marco; Azaele, Sandro; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos

    2014-01-01

    The motility of microorganisms in liquid media is an important issue in active matter and it is not yet fully understood. Previous theoretical approaches dealing with the microscopic description of microbial movement have modeled the propelling force exerted by the organism as a Gaussian white noise term in the equation of motion. We present experimental results for ciliates of the genus Colpidium, which do not agree with the Gaussian white noise hypothesis. We propose a new stochastic model that goes beyond such assumption and displays good agreement with the experimental statistics of motion, such as velocity distribution and velocity autocorrelation.

  17. Gastrointestinal cancer after treatment of Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study aimed to quantify the risk of gastrointestinal cancer following Hodgkin's disease treatment according to age at treatment, type of treatment, and anatomic sites. Methods and Materials: Cases were identified from the records of 2,441 patients treated for Hodgkin's disease between 1961 and 1994. Follow-up averaged 10.9 years, representing 26,590 person-years of observation. Relative risks (RR) for gastrointestinal cancer incidence and mortality were computed by comparison with expected annualized rates for a general population matched for age, sex, and race. Results: Gastrointestinal cancers developed in 25 patients. The incidence RR was 2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-3.5] and mortality RR was 3.8 (CI, 2.4-4.7). Sites associated with significantly increased risks included the stomach [RR 7.3 (CI, 3.4-13.8)], small intestine [RR 11.6 (CI, 1.9-38.3)], and pancreas [RR 3.5 (CI, 1.1-8.5)]. Risk was significantly elevated after combined modality therapy, RR 3.9 (CI, 2.2-5.6). The risk after radiotherapy alone was 2.0 (CI, 1.0-3.4), not a statistically significant elevation. The RR for gastrointestinal cancer was greatest after treatment at young age and decreased with advancing age. It was significantly elevated within 10 years after treatment [RR 2.0 (CI, 1.1-3.5)] and increased further after 20 years [RR 6.1 (CI, 2.5-12.7)]. Risk assessed by attained age paralleled risk according to age at treatment. Fifteen cases of gastrointestinal cancers arose within the irradiation fields. Conclusion: Patients treated for Hodgkin's disease are at modestly increased risk for secondary gastrointestinal cancer, especially after combined modality therapy and treatment at a young age. Risk was highest more than 20 years after treatment, but was significantly elevated within 10 years. Gastrointestinal sites with increased risk included the stomach, pancreas, and small intestine

  18. Functional lumen imaging of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottrup, Christian; Gregersen, Hans; Liao, Donghua; Fynne, Lotte; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Krogh, Klaus; Regan, Julie; Kunwald, Peter; McMahon, Barry P

    2015-10-01

    This nonsystematic review aims to describe recent developments in the use of functional lumen imaging in the gastrointestinal tract stimulated by the introduction of the functional lumen imaging probe. When ingested food in liquid and solid form is transported along the gastrointestinal tract, sphincters provide an important role in the flow and control of these contents. Inadequate function of sphincters is the basis of many gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, traditional methods of sphincter diagnosis and measurement such as fluoroscopy, manometry, and the barostat are limited in what they can tell us. It has long been thought that measurement of sphincter function through resistance to distension is a better approach, now more commonly known as distensibility testing. The functional lumen imaging probe is the first medical measurement device that purports in a practical way to provide geometric profiling and measurement of distensibility in sphincters. With use of impedance planimetry, an axial series of cross-sectional areas and pressure in a catheter-mounted allantoid bag are used for the calculation of distensibility parameters. The technique has been trialed in many valvular areas of the gastrointestinal tract, including the upper esophageal sphincter, the esophagogastric junction, and the anorectal region. It has shown potential in the biomechanical assessment of sphincter function and characterization of swallowing disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease, eosinophilic esophagitis, achalasia, and fecal incontinence. From this early work, the functional lumen imaging technique has the potential to contribute to a better and more physiological understanding of narrowing regions in the gastrointestinal tract in general and sphincters in particular. PMID:25980822

  19. Computed tomography in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to define the imaging characteristics of primary and recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in computed tomography with respect to the tumor size. Computed tomography was performed in 35 patients with histologically confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumors and analyzed retrospectively by two experienced and independent radiologist. The following morphologic tumor characteristics of primary (n=20) and (n=16) recurrent tumors were evaluated according to tumor size, shape, homogeneity, density compared with liver, contrast enhancement, presence of calcifications, ulcerations, fistula or distant metastases and the anatomical relationship to the intestinal wall, and the infiltration of adjacent visceral organs. Small GIST (5-10 cm) demonstrated an irregular shape, inhomogeneous density on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images, a combined intra- and extraluminal tumor growth with aggressive findings, and infiltration of adjacent organs in 9 primary diagnosed and 2 recurrent tumors. Large GIST (>10 cm), which were observed in 8 primary tumors and 11 recurrent tumors, showed an irregular margin with inhomogeneous density and aggressive findings, and were characterized by signs of malignancy such as distant and peritoneal metastases. Small recurrent tumors had a similar appearance as compared with large primary tumors. Computed tomography gives additional information with respect to the relationship of gastrointestinal stromal tumor to the gastrointestinal wall and surrounding organs, and it detects distant metastasis. Primary and recurrent GIST demonstrate characteristic CT imaging features which are related to tumor size. Aggressive findings and signs of malignancy are found in larger tumors and in recurrent disease. Computed tomography is useful in detection and characterization of primary and recurrent tumors with regard to tumor growth pattern, tumor size, and varied appearances of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and indirectly

  20. Computed tomography in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanem, Nadir; Altehoefer, Carsten; Winterer, Jan; Schaefer, Oliver; Springer, Oliver; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106, Freiburg (Germany); Furtwaengler, Alex [Department of Abdominal Surgery, University Hospital Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106, Freiburg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to define the imaging characteristics of primary and recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in computed tomography with respect to the tumor size. Computed tomography was performed in 35 patients with histologically confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumors and analyzed retrospectively by two experienced and independent radiologist. The following morphologic tumor characteristics of primary (n=20) and (n=16) recurrent tumors were evaluated according to tumor size, shape, homogeneity, density compared with liver, contrast enhancement, presence of calcifications, ulcerations, fistula or distant metastases and the anatomical relationship to the intestinal wall, and the infiltration of adjacent visceral organs. Small GIST (<5 cm) showed a sharp tumor margin with homogeneous density and structure on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images, and were characterized by an intraluminal tumor growth. Intermediate sized GIST (>5-10 cm) demonstrated an irregular shape, inhomogeneous density on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images, a combined intra- and extraluminal tumor growth with aggressive findings, and infiltration of adjacent organs in 9 primary diagnosed and 2 recurrent tumors. Large GIST (>10 cm), which were observed in 8 primary tumors and 11 recurrent tumors, showed an irregular margin with inhomogeneous density and aggressive findings, and were characterized by signs of malignancy such as distant and peritoneal metastases. Small recurrent tumors had a similar appearance as compared with large primary tumors. Computed tomography gives additional information with respect to the relationship of gastrointestinal stromal tumor to the gastrointestinal wall and surrounding organs, and it detects distant metastasis. Primary and recurrent GIST demonstrate characteristic CT imaging features which are related to tumor size. Aggressive findings and signs of malignancy are found in larger tumors and in recurrent disease. Computed tomography

  1. Experimental observations consistent with a surface tension model of gliding motility of Myxococcus xanthus.

    OpenAIRE

    Dworkin, M; Keller, K H; Weisberg, D.

    1983-01-01

    We have presented experimental evidence to support the model that gliding motility of Myxococcus xanthus is driven by surface tension. (i) Motility is inhibited by the addition of sufficient exogenous, nontoxic surfactants to swamp out the cells' own surfactant gradient. (ii) M. xanthus does not move polystyrene latex beads over its surface. (iii) Motility is prevented by elimination of an interfacial surface tension either by embedding the cells in soft agar or by placing them at an agar-aqu...

  2. Esophageal motility impairment in Plummer-Vinson syndrome. Correction by iron treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, R O; Villanova, M G

    1993-05-01

    We report the case of a 41-year-old woman with Plummer-Vinson syndrome and an esophageal motility disorder. She complained of dysphagia and odynophagia and had cheilitis, glossitis, and hypochromic anemia. An esophageal motility study showed low amplitude of contraction and high intrabolus pressure in the esophageal body. After iron replacement, the patient was free from symptoms, and a new motility study showed increased amplitude of contraction and decreased intrabolus pressure.

  3. Estimation of Water Vapour Attenuation And Rain Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Kalyana Srinivas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation due to and water vapour and rain can severely degrade the radio wave propagation at centimeter or millimeter wavelengths. It restricts the path length of radio communication systems and limits the use of higher frequencies for line-of-sight microwave links and satellite communications. The attenuation will pose a greater problem to communication as the frequency of occurrence of heavy rain increases.In a tropical region, like Malaysia, where excessive rainfall is a common phenomenon throughout the year, the knowledge of the rain attenuation at the frequency of operation is extremely required for the design of a reliable terrestrial and earth space communication link at a particular location.

  4. Trajectories of Listeria-type motility in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fu-Lai; Leung, Kwan-tai; Chen, Hsuan-Yi

    2012-12-01

    Force generated by actin polymerization is essential in cell motility and the locomotion of organelles or bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments on actin-based motility have observed geometrical trajectories including straight lines, circles, S-shaped curves, and translating figure eights. This paper reports a phenomenological model of an actin-propelled disk in two dimensions that generates geometrical trajectories. Our model shows that when the evolutions of actin density and force per filament on the disk are strongly coupled to the disk self-rotation, it is possible for a straight trajectory to lose its stability. When the instability is due to a pitchfork bifurcation, the resulting trajectory is a circle; a straight trajectory can also lose stability through a Hopf bifurcation, and the resulting trajectory is an S-shaped curve. We also show that a half-coated disk, which mimics the distribution of functionalized proteins in Listeria, also undergoes similar symmetry-breaking bifurcations when the straight trajectory loses stability. For both a fully coated disk and a half-coated disk, when the trajectory is an S-shaped curve, the angular frequency of the disk self-rotation is different from that of the disk trajectory. However, for circular trajectories, these angular frequencies are different for a fully coated disk but the same for a half-coated disk.

  5. Membrane tension and cytoskeleton organization in cell motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell membrane shape changes are important for many aspects of normal biological function, such as tissue development, wound healing and cell division and motility. Various disease states are associated with deregulation of how cells move and change shape, including notably tumor initiation and cancer cell metastasis. Cell motility is powered, in large part, by the controlled assembly and disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton. Much of this dynamic happens in close proximity to the plasma membrane due to the fact that actin assembly factors are membrane-bound, and thus actin filaments are generally oriented such that their growth occurs against or near the membrane. For a long time, the membrane was viewed as a relatively passive scaffold for signaling. However, results from the last five years show that this is not the whole picture, and that the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton are intimately linked to the mechanics of the cell membrane. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning the role of plasma membrane mechanics in cell cytoskeleton dynamics and architecture, showing that the cell membrane is not just an envelope or a barrier for actin assembly, but is a master regulator controlling cytoskeleton dynamics and cell polarity. (topical review)

  6. Geometric determinants of directional cell motility revealed using microcontact printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Amy; Chang, Eric; Ho, Chia-Chi; LeDuc, Philip; Jiang, Xingyu; Whitesides, George M; Ingber, Donald E

    2003-03-01

    Mammalian cells redirect their movement in response to changes in the physical properties of their extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesive scaffolds, including changes in available substrate area, shape, or flexibility. Yet, little is known about the cell's ability to discriminate between different types of spatial signals. Here we utilize a soft-lithography-based, microcontact printing technology in combination with automated computerized image analysis to explore the relationship between ECM geometry and directional motility. When fibroblast cells were cultured on fibronectin-coated adhesive islands with the same area (900 micrometers2) but different geometric forms (square, triangle, pentagon, hexagon, trapezoid, various parallelograms) and aspect ratios, cells preferentially extended new lamellipodia from their corners. In addition, by imposing these simple geometric constraints through ECM, cells were directed to deposit new fibronectin fibrils in these same corner regions. These data indicate that mammalian cells can sense edges within ECM patterns that exhibit a wide range of angularity and that they use these spatial cues to guide where they will deposit ECM and extend new motile processes during the process of directional migration. PMID:14674434

  7. Host Matrix Modulation by Tumor Exosomes Promotes Motility and Invasiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Mu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are important intercellular communicators, where tumor exosomes (TEX severely influence hematopoiesis and premetastatic organ cells. With the extracellular matrix (ECM being an essential constituent of non-transformed tissues and tumors, we asked whether exosomes from a metastatic rat tumor also affect the organization of the ECM and whether this has consequences on host and tumor cell motility. TEX bind to individual components of the ECM, the preferential partner depending on the exosomes' adhesion molecule profile such that high CD44 expression is accompanied by hyaluronic acid binding and high α6β4 expression by laminin (LN 332 binding, which findings were confirmed by antibody blocking. TEX can bind to the tumor matrix already during exosome delivery but also come in contact with distinct organ matrices. Being rich in proteases, TEX modulate the ECM as demonstrated for degradation of collagens, LNs, and fibronectin. Matrix degradation by TEX has severe consequences on tumor and host cell adhesion, motility, and invasiveness. By ECM degradation, TEX also promote host cell proliferation and apoptosis resistance. Taken together, the host tissue ECM modulation by TEX is an important factor in the cross talk between a tumor and the host including premetastatic niche preparation and the recruitment of hematopoietic cells. Reorganization of the ECM by exosomes likely also contributes to organogenesis, physiological and pathologic angiogenesis, wound healing, and clotting after vessel disruption.

  8. We do, therefore we think: time, motility, and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Barbara Gwenn

    2010-01-01

    This article is a philosopher's expanded review of two recent books on neurophysiology: Rodolfo Llinás's I of the Vortex and György Buszáki's Rhythms of the Brain. Researchers such as these are converging on a view of consciousness as originating in motility and as inherently temporal due to the brainwave oscillations that underlay it. Most current discussions of consciousness include implicit philosophical presuppositions inherited from the canon of Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, and Kant, e.g. that consciousness is self-reflective, passive, and timeless. Because of this, Llinás's and Buszáki's insights may not be fully appreciated. Western philosophy, however, also includes what might be described as a counter-tradition--and one that is more compatible with empirical biological science than the usual canon. Heraclitus, Spinoza, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and especially the 20th century French philosopher and psychologist, Merleau-Ponty, all anticipated aspects of Llinás's and Buszáki's approaches. Their alternative conceptual vocabularies are useful for strengthening Llinás's and Buszáki's approaches, sketching out a notion of consciousness emerging from motility, and generating new hypotheses for neurophysiological research.

  9. The influence of electric field and confinement on cell motility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ja Huang

    Full Text Available The ability of cells to sense and respond to endogenous electric fields is important in processes such as wound healing, development, and nerve regeneration. In cell culture, many epithelial and endothelial cell types respond to an electric field of magnitude similar to endogenous electric fields by moving preferentially either parallel or antiparallel to the field vector, a process known as galvanotaxis. Here we report on the influence of dc electric field and confinement on the motility of fibroblast cells using a chip-based platform. From analysis of cell paths we show that the influence of electric field on motility is much more complex than simply imposing a directional bias towards the cathode or anode. The cell velocity, directedness, as well as the parallel and perpendicular components of the segments along the cell path are dependent on the magnitude of the electric field. Forces in the directions perpendicular and parallel to the electric field are in competition with one another in a voltage-dependent manner, which ultimately govern the trajectories of the cells in the presence of an electric field. To further investigate the effects of cell reorientation in the presence of a field, cells are confined within microchannels to physically prohibit the alignment seen in 2D environment. Interestingly, we found that confinement results in an increase in cell velocity both in the absence and presence of an electric field compared to migration in 2D.

  10. Thermodynamics of the motility-induced phase separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon, Alexandre; Stenhammar, Joachim; Cates, Michael; Tailleur, Julien

    Self-propelled particles are known to accumulate in regions of space where their velocity is lowered. In addition, if their velocity diminishes when the local density increases (for example due to crowding effects), a positive feedback loop leads to the now well-established motility-induced phase separation (MIPS) between a dense immotile phase and a dilute motile phase. Understanding the phase equilibrium of MIPS is still a matter of debate. Although, depending on the models used to study the transition, a chemical potential or a pressure can be defined, these quantities do not play their usual thermodynamic role. In particular, the usual common tangent or equal-area constructions fail in these systems. Indeed, we will show that describing the phase equilibrium of MIPS necessitates generalized thermodynamics that include non-equilibrium contributions. This approach allows us to predict correctly the phase diagram of MIPS and to gain insight into the thermodynamics of active systems. It also sheds light on the (in)equivalence of statistical ensembles for these systems, paving the way for more efficient computational studies.

  11. Lichen Secondary Metabolite, Physciosporin, Inhibits Lung Cancer Cell Motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Park, So-Yeon; Nguyen, Thanh Thi; Yu, Young Hyun; Nguyen, Tru Van; Sun, Eun Gene; Udeni, Jayalal; Jeong, Min-Hye; Pereira, Iris; Moon, Cheol; Ha, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Kyung Keun; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Hangun

    2015-01-01

    Lichens produce various unique chemicals that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. To screen for novel lichen secondary metabolites showing inhibitory activity against lung cancer cell motility, we tested acetone extracts of 13 lichen samples collected in Chile. Physciosporin, isolated from Pseudocyphellaria coriacea (Hook f. & Taylor) D.J. Galloway & P. James, was identified as an effective compound and showed significant inhibitory activity in migration and invasion assays against human lung cancer cells. Physciosporin treatment reduced both protein and mRNA levels of N-cadherin with concomitant decreases in the levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers such as snail and twist. Physciosporin also suppressed KITENIN (KAI1 C-terminal interacting tetraspanin)-mediated AP-1 activity in both the absence and presence of epidermal growth factor stimulation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of the metastasis suppressor gene, KAI1, was increased while that of the metastasis enhancer gene, KITENIN, was dramatically decreased by physciosporin. Particularly, the activity of 3'-untranslated region of KITENIN was decreased by physciosporin. Moreover, Cdc42 and Rac1 activities were decreased by physciosporin. These results demonstrated that the lichen secondary metabolite, physciosporin, inhibits lung cancer cell motility through novel mechanisms of action. PMID:26371759

  12. Lichen Secondary Metabolite, Physciosporin, Inhibits Lung Cancer Cell Motility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    Full Text Available Lichens produce various unique chemicals that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. To screen for novel lichen secondary metabolites showing inhibitory activity against lung cancer cell motility, we tested acetone extracts of 13 lichen samples collected in Chile. Physciosporin, isolated from Pseudocyphellaria coriacea (Hook f. & Taylor D.J. Galloway & P. James, was identified as an effective compound and showed significant inhibitory activity in migration and invasion assays against human lung cancer cells. Physciosporin treatment reduced both protein and mRNA levels of N-cadherin with concomitant decreases in the levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers such as snail and twist. Physciosporin also suppressed KITENIN (KAI1 C-terminal interacting tetraspanin-mediated AP-1 activity in both the absence and presence of epidermal growth factor stimulation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of the metastasis suppressor gene, KAI1, was increased while that of the metastasis enhancer gene, KITENIN, was dramatically decreased by physciosporin. Particularly, the activity of 3'-untranslated region of KITENIN was decreased by physciosporin. Moreover, Cdc42 and Rac1 activities were decreased by physciosporin. These results demonstrated that the lichen secondary metabolite, physciosporin, inhibits lung cancer cell motility through novel mechanisms of action.

  13. Interactions of Motile Bacteria with Surfaces Leading to Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Roseanne

    2003-03-01

    Motile bacteria have the ability to swim by the rotation of flagellar filaments that form a coordinated bundle and propel the bacteria from the bulk fluid to a surface. As swimming bacteria approach a surface their swimming speed decreases and the cell body moves laterally along the surface before a secure attachment is formed. Bacterial flagella have been implicated in the attachment of motile bacteria to surfaces due to their physical and chemical properties. To study the initial surface interactions we use a technique known as total internal reflection aqueous fluorescence (TIRAF) microscopy which can resolve distances between bacteria and surfaces to the nanometer scale. Behavior of mutant strains of bacteria with deficiencies in flagella function was observed within 100 nm of the surface to ascertain the role that flagella play in the attachment process. We compared these qualitative observations of behavior to quantitative analysis of attachment and detachment rate constants for bacterial suspensions in parallel plate flow chambers. We also assayed mutant populations for their ability to form a biofilm in order to relate our microscopic studies of individual cells to macroscopic observations of bacterial suspensions.

  14. Motility-Driven Glass and Jamming Transitions in Biological Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Dapeng; Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina; Manning, M. Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Cell motion inside dense tissues governs many biological processes, including embryonic development and cancer metastasis, and recent experiments suggest that these tissues exhibit collective glassy behavior. To make quantitative predictions about glass transitions in tissues, we study a self-propelled Voronoi model that simultaneously captures polarized cell motility and multibody cell-cell interactions in a confluent tissue, where there are no gaps between cells. We demonstrate that the model exhibits a jamming transition from a solidlike state to a fluidlike state that is controlled by three parameters: the single-cell motile speed, the persistence time of single-cell tracks, and a target shape index that characterizes the competition between cell-cell adhesion and cortical tension. In contrast to traditional particulate glasses, we are able to identify an experimentally accessible structural order parameter that specifies the entire jamming surface as a function of model parameters. We demonstrate that a continuum soft glassy rheology model precisely captures this transition in the limit of small persistence times and explain how it fails in the limit of large persistence times. These results provide a framework for understanding the collective solid-to-liquid transitions that have been observed in embryonic development and cancer progression, which may be associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in these tissues.

  15. Particle-based simulations of self-motile suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Denis F.; Panchenko, Alexander; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Fried, Eliot

    2015-11-01

    A simple model for simulating flows of active suspensions is investigated. The approach is based on dissipative particle dynamics. While the model is potentially applicable to a wide range of self-propelled particle systems, the specific class of self-motile bacterial suspensions is considered as a modeling scenario. To mimic the rod-like geometry of a bacterium, two dissipative particle dynamics particles are connected by a stiff harmonic spring to form an aggregate dissipative particle dynamics molecule. Bacterial motility is modeled through a constant self-propulsion force applied along the axis of each such aggregate molecule. The model accounts for hydrodynamic interactions between self-propelled agents through the pairwise dissipative interactions conventional to dissipative particle dynamics. Numerical simulations are performed using a customized version of the open-source software package LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator) software package. Detailed studies of the influence of agent concentration, pairwise dissipative interactions, and Stokes friction on the statistics of the system are provided. The simulations are used to explore the influence of hydrodynamic interactions in active suspensions. For high agent concentrations in combination with dominating pairwise dissipative forces, strongly correlated motion patterns and a fluid-like spectral distributions of kinetic energy are found. In contrast, systems dominated by Stokes friction exhibit weaker spatial correlations of the velocity field. These results indicate that hydrodynamic interactions may play an important role in the formation of spatially extended structures in active suspensions.

  16. The influence of electric field and confinement on cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ja; Samorajski, Justin; Kreimer, Rachel; Searson, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    The ability of cells to sense and respond to endogenous electric fields is important in processes such as wound healing, development, and nerve regeneration. In cell culture, many epithelial and endothelial cell types respond to an electric field of magnitude similar to endogenous electric fields by moving preferentially either parallel or antiparallel to the field vector, a process known as galvanotaxis. Here we report on the influence of dc electric field and confinement on the motility of fibroblast cells using a chip-based platform. From analysis of cell paths we show that the influence of electric field on motility is much more complex than simply imposing a directional bias towards the cathode or anode. The cell velocity, directedness, as well as the parallel and perpendicular components of the segments along the cell path are dependent on the magnitude of the electric field. Forces in the directions perpendicular and parallel to the electric field are in competition with one another in a voltage-dependent manner, which ultimately govern the trajectories of the cells in the presence of an electric field. To further investigate the effects of cell reorientation in the presence of a field, cells are confined within microchannels to physically prohibit the alignment seen in 2D environment. Interestingly, we found that confinement results in an increase in cell velocity both in the absence and presence of an electric field compared to migration in 2D.

  17. Is ineffective esophageal motility associated with gastropharyngeal reflux disease?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyung Yup Kim; Gwang Ha Kim; Dong Uk Kim; Soo Geun Wang; Byung Joo Lee; Jin Choon Lee; Do Youn Park; Geun Am Song

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between IEM and gastropharyngeal reflux disease (GPRD) in patients who underwent ambulatory 24-h dual-probe pH monitoring for the evaluation of supraesophageal symptoms.METHODS: A total of 632 patients who underwent endoscopy, esophageal manometry and ambulatory 24-h dual-pH monitoring due to supraesophageal symptoms (e.g. globus, hoarseness, or cough) were enrolled. Of them, we selected the patients who had normal esophageal motility and IEM. The endoscopy and ambulatory pH monitoring findings were compared between the two groups.RESULTS: A total of 264 patients with normal esophageal motility and 195 patients with the diagnosis of IEM were included in this study. There was no difference in the frequency of reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia between the two groups. All the variables showing gastroesophageal reflux and gastropharyngeal reflux were not different between the two groups. The frequency of GERD and GPRD, as defined by ambulatory pH monitoring, was not different between the two groups.CONCLUSION: There was no association between IEM and GPRD as well as between IEM and GERD. IEM alone cannot be considered as a definitive marker for reflux disease.

  18. Realizing the Physics of Motile Cilia Synchronization with Driven Colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruot, Nicolas; Cicuta, Pietro

    2016-03-01

    Cilia and flagella in biological systems often show large scale cooperative behaviors such as the synchronization of their beats in "metachronal waves." These are beautiful examples of emergent dynamics in biology, and are essential for life, allowing diverse processes from the motility of eukaryotic microorganisms, to nutrient transport and clearance of pathogens from mammalian airways. How these collective states arise is not fully understood, but it is clear that individual cilia interact mechanically, and that a strong and long-ranged component of the coupling is mediated by the viscous fluid. We review here the work by ourselves and others aimed at understanding the behavior of hydrodynamically coupled systems, and particularly a set of results that have been obtained both experimentally and theoretically by studying actively driven colloidal systems. In these controlled scenarios, it is possible to selectively test aspects of living motile cilia, such as the geometrical arrangement, the effects of the driving profile and the distance to no-slip boundaries. We outline and give examples of how it is possible to link model systems to observations on living systems, which can be made on microorganisms, on cell cultures or on tissue sections. This area of research has clear clinical application in the long term, as severe pathologies are associated with compromised cilia function in humans.

  19. Modulation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagellar motility by redox poise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ken-ichi; King, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    Redox-based regulatory systems are essential for many cellular activities. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exhibits alterations in motile behavior in response to different light conditions (photokinesis). We hypothesized that photokinesis is signaled by variations in cytoplasmic redox poise resulting from changes in chloroplast activity. We found that this effect requires photosystem I, which generates reduced NADPH. We also observed that photokinetic changes in beat frequency and duration of the photophobic response could be obtained by altering oxidative/reductive stress. Analysis of reactivated cell models revealed that this redox poise effect is mediated through the outer dynein arms (ODAs). Although the global redox state of the thioredoxin-related ODA light chains LC3 and LC5 and the redox-sensitive Ca2+-binding subunit of the docking complex DC3 did not change upon light/dark transitions, we did observe significant alterations in their interactions with other flagellar components via mixed disulfides. These data indicate that redox poise directly affects ODAs and suggest that it may act in the control of flagellar motility. PMID:16754958

  20. TGF-β Signaling Regulates the Differentiation of Motile Cilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janos Tözser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The cilium is a small cellular organelle with motility- and/or sensory-related functions that plays a crucial role during developmental and homeostatic processes. Although many molecules or signal transduction pathways that control cilia assembly have been reported, the mechanisms of ciliary length control have remained enigmatic. Here, we report that Smad2-dependent transforming growth factor β (TGF-β signaling impacts the length of motile cilia at the Xenopus left-right (LR organizer, the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP, as well as at the neural tube and the epidermis. Blocking TGF-β signaling resulted in the absence of the transition zone protein B9D1/MSKR-1 from cilia in multi-ciliated cells (MCCs of the epidermis. Interestingly, this TGF-β activity is not mediated by Mcidas, Foxj1, and RFX2, the known major regulators of ciliogenesis. These data indicate that TGF-β signaling is crucial for the function of the transition zone, which in turn may affect the regulation of cilia length.

  1. The attenuation and the attenuators: strategies and tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Briz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is inscribed in a research project (ES.POR.ATENUAÇÃO that seeks to analyze and explain the attenuator activity in different regional varieties of Spanish and Portuguese, in order to perform, subsequently, different contrastive intralinguistic and interlinguistic studies. In this article, we explain some of the theoretical and methodological principles on which are based the qualitative and quantitative analysis. And especially, we will refer to the concept of attenuation (Briz 1995, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2007a, 2012.

  2. Multi-transmitting formula for attenuating waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈少林; 廖振鹏

    2003-01-01

    The MTF is extended to case of attenuating incident wave by introducing an attenuation coefficient. The reflection coefficients of this modified MTF and MTF areevaluated and compared when an attenuating wave impinges on the boundary, and the results demonstrate that MTF can be used to absorb slightly attenuating wavesand the modified MTF is more capable of absorbing heavily attenuating waves than MTF. The accuracy of modified MTF is also tested by numerical examples of fluid saturated porous media.

  3. Photoacoustic Imaging Taking into Account Attenuation

    CERN Document Server

    Kowar, Richard

    2010-01-01

    First, we review existing attenuation models and discuss their causality properties, which we believe to be essential for algorithms for inversion with attenuated data. Then, we survey causality properties of common attenuation models. We also derive integro-differential equations which the attenuated waves are satisfying. In addition we discuss the ill--conditionness of the inverse problem for calculating the unattenuated wave from the attenuated one.

  4. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding: A practical guide for clinicians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bong; Sik; Matthew; Kim; Bob; T; Li; Alexander; Engel; Jaswinder; S; Samra; Stephen; Clarke; Ian; D; Norton; Angela; E; Li

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding is a common problem encountered in the emergency department and in the primary care setting. Acute or overt gastrointestinal bleeding is visible in the form of hematemesis, melena or hematochezia. Chronic or occult gastrointestinal bleeding is notapparent to the patient and usually presents as positive fecal occult blood or iron deficiency anemia. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding is recurrent bleeding when the source remains unidentified after upper endoscopy and colonoscopic evaluation and is usually from the small intestine. Accurate clinical diagnosis is crucial and guides definitive investigations and interventions. This review summarizes the overall diagnostic approach to gastrointestinal bleeding and provides a practical guide for clinicians.

  5. Sound attenuation in magnetorheological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, J.; Elvira, L.; Resa, P.; Montero de Espinosa, F.

    2013-02-01

    In this work, the attenuation of ultrasonic elastic waves propagating through magnetorheological (MR) fluids is analysed as a function of the particle volume fraction and the magnetic field intensity. Non-commercial MR fluids made with iron ferromagnetic particles and two different solvents (an olive oil based solution and an Araldite-epoxy) were used. Particle volume fractions of up to 0.25 were analysed. It is shown that the attenuation of sound depends strongly on the solvent used and the volume fraction. The influence of a magnetic field up to 212 mT was studied and it was found that the sound attenuation increases with the magnetic intensity until saturation is reached. A hysteretic effect is evident once the magnetic field is removed.

  6. Josephson tunnel junction microwave attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Shchukin, A. V.;

    1993-01-01

    A new element for superconducting electronic circuitry-a variable attenuator-has been proposed, designed, and successfully tested. The principle of operation is based on the change in the microwave impedance of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junction when dc biased...... at different points in the current-voltage characteristic. Both numerical calculations based on the Tien-Gordon theory and 70-GHz microwave experiments have confirmed the wide dynamic range (more than 15-dB attenuation for one stage) and the low insertion loss in the ''open'' state. The performance of a fully...... integrated submillimeter receiver circuit which comprises a flux-flow oscillator (FFO) as local oscillator, a superconducting variable attenuator, and a microwave SIS detector with tuned-out capacitance is also reported....

  7. In silico reconstitution of actin-based symmetry breaking and motility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Dayel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells assemble viscoelastic networks of crosslinked actin filaments to control their shape, mechanical properties, and motility. One important class of actin network is nucleated by the Arp2/3 complex and drives both membrane protrusion at the leading edge of motile cells and intracellular motility of pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. These networks can be reconstituted in vitro from purified components to drive the motility of spherical micron-sized beads. An Elastic Gel model has been successful in explaining how these networks break symmetry, but how they produce directed motile force has been less clear. We have combined numerical simulations with in vitro experiments to reconstitute the behavior of these motile actin networks in silico using an Accumulative Particle-Spring (APS model that builds on the Elastic Gel model, and demonstrates simple intuitive mechanisms for both symmetry breaking and sustained motility. The APS model explains observed transitions between smooth and pulsatile motion as well as subtle variations in network architecture caused by differences in geometry and conditions. Our findings also explain sideways symmetry breaking and motility of elongated beads, and show that elastic recoil, though important for symmetry breaking and pulsatile motion, is not necessary for smooth directional motility. The APS model demonstrates how a small number of viscoelastic network parameters and construction rules suffice to recapture the complex behavior of motile actin networks. The fact that the model not only mirrors our in vitro observations, but also makes novel predictions that we confirm by experiment, suggests that the model captures much of the essence of actin-based motility in this system.

  8. Characterization of Novel Factors Involved in Swimming and Swarming Motility in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Andrea Deditius

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica utilizes flagellar motility to swim through liquid environments and on surfaces. The biosynthesis of the flagellum is regulated on various levels, including transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. Here, we investigated the motility phenotype of 24 selected single gene deletions that were previously described to display swimming and swarming motility effects. Mutations in flgE, fliH, ydiV, rfaG, yjcC, STM1267 and STM3363 showed an altered motility phenotype. Deletions of flgE and fliH displayed a non-motile phenotype in both swimming and swarming motility assays as expected. The deletions of STM1267, STM3363, ydiV, rfaG and yjcC were further analyzed in detail for flagellar and fimbrial gene expression and filament formation. A ΔydiV mutant showed increased swimming motility, but a decrease in swarming motility, which coincided with derepression of curli fimbriae. A deletion of yjcC, encoding for an EAL domain-containing protein, increased swimming motility independent on flagellar gene expression. A ΔSTM1267 mutant displayed a hypermotile phenotype on swarm agar plates and was found to have increased numbers of flagella. In contrast, a knockout of STM3363 did also display an increase in swarming motility, but did not alter flagella numbers. Finally, a deletion of the LPS biosynthesis-related protein RfaG reduced swimming and swarming motility, associated with a decrease in transcription from flagellar class II and class III promoters and a lack of flagellar filaments.

  9. Different computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems highly influence sperm motility parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boryshpolets, S; Kowalski, R K; Dietrich, G J; Dzyuba, B; Ciereszko, A

    2013-10-15

    In this study, we examined different computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems (CRISMAS, Hobson Sperm Tracker, and Image J CASA) on the exact same video recordings to evaluate the differences in sperm motility parameters related to the specific CASA used. To cover a wide range of sperm motility parameters, we chose 12-second video recordings at 25 and 50 Hz frame rates after sperm motility activation using three taxonomically distinct fish species (sterlet: Acipenser ruthenus L.; common carp: Cyprinus carpio L.; and rainbow trout: Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) that are characterized by essential differences in sperm behavior during motility. Systematically higher values of velocity and beat cross frequency (BCF) were observed in video recordings obtained at 50 Hz frame frequency compared with 25 Hz for all three systems. Motility parameters were affected by the CASA and species used for analyses. Image J and CRISMAS calculated higher curvilinear velocity (VCL) values for rainbow trout and common carp at 25 Hz frequency compared with the Hobson Sperm Tracker, whereas at 50 Hz, a significant difference was observed only for rainbow trout sperm recordings. No significant difference was observed between the CASA systems for sterlet sperm motility at 25 and 50 Hz. Additional analysis of 1-second segments taken at three time points (1, 6, and 12 seconds of the recording) revealed a dramatic decrease in common carp and rainbow trout sperm speed. The motility parameters of sterlet spermatozoa did not change significantly during the 12-second motility period and should be considered as a suitable model for longer motility analyses. Our results indicated that the CASA used can affect motility results even when the same motility recordings are used. These results could be critically altered by the recording quality, time of analysis, and frame rate of camera, and could result in erroneous conclusions.

  10. X-Ray Attenuation Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, D.; Toor, A.

    2000-03-03

    To minimize the pulse-to-pulse variation, the LCLS FEL must operate at saturation, i.e. 10 orders of magnitude brighter spectral brilliance than 3rd-generation light sources. At this intensity, ultra-high vacuums and windowless transport are required. Many of the experiments, however, will need to be conducted at a much lower intensity thereby requiring a reliable means to reduce the x-ray intensity by many orders of magnitude without increasing the pulse-to-pulse variation. In this report we consider a possible solution for controlled attenuation of the LCLS x-ray radiation. We suggest using for this purpose a windowless gas-filled cell with the differential pumping. Although this scheme is easily realizable in principle, it has to be demonstrated that the attenuator can be made short enough to be practical and that the gas loads delivered to the vacuum line of sight (LOS) are acceptable. We are not going to present a final, optimized design. Instead, we will provide a preliminary analysis showing that the whole concept is robust and is worth further study. The spatial structure of the LCLS x-ray pulse at the location of the attenuator is shown in Fig. 1. The central high-intensity component, due to the FEL, has a FWHM of {approx}100 {micro}m. A second component, due to the undulator's broad band spontaneous radiation is seen as a much lower intensity ''halo'' with a FWHM of 1 mm. We discuss two versions of the attenuation cell. The first is directed towards a controlled attenuation of the FEL up to the 4 orders of magnitude in the intensity, with the spontaneous radiation halo being eliminated by collimators. In the second version, the spontaneous radiation is not sacrificed but the FEL component (as well as the first harmonic of the spontaneous radiation) gets attenuated by a more modest factor up to 100. We will make all the estimates assuming that the gas used in the attenuator is Xenon and that the energy of the FEL is 8.25 keV. At

  11. Hubungan antara Imunoekspresi Ki-67 dan Risiko Agresivitas Tumor pada Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Yulianti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is the most common mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract, and arises from intestinal cells of Cajal localized in the muscular layer of the digestive tract, which functions as pacemaker cells in regulating intestinal motility. The incidence of GIST is about 3−5% of all soft tissue sarcomas. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor can occur along the gastrointestinal tract and predominantly in middle-aged and older persons, with a median age between 50 and 60 years. Histologically, there are three categories of GIST morphology such as spindle cells, epitheloid, and mixed type. A spesific marker of GIST is cluster of differentiation (CD117, which has good sensitivity and immunoreactive in 95% of GIST. The expression of Ki-67 correlates with proliferative activities and can be detected in G1, S, G2, and M phases of cell cycle but not in G0 phase. The aim of this study was to assessthe correlation between the risk of aggressive behaviors and proliferative activities as measured by Ki-67 in tumors confirmed as GIST by CD117. The method of this study was cross-sectional, performed on 29 cases of GIST from the Department of Pathology Anatomy Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital/Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, Santo Borromeus Hospital, Immanuel Hospital, and Santosa Hospital between 2007−2012. A section from paraffin embedded tissue of 55 cases of GIST was stained with hematoxylin eosin for histological and immunohistochemical evaluations using monoclonal antibody CD117 to confirm the diagnosis of GIST. There were 29 positive cases for CD117. Further staining was performed using monoclonal antibody Ki-67. The categorized positive cells of immunoexpression of CD117 showed brown particles inside cytoplasma and the immunoexpression of Ki-67 was assessed by identification of nuclear brown staining of neoplastic cells. The result showed that there were significant correlations between the risk of tumor

  12. Current status of familial gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ioan; Jung; Simona; Gurzu; Gligore; Sabin; Turdean

    2015-01-01

    Because of the rarity of familial gastrointestinal cancerpredisposing syndromes,their exploration in literature is not extensive.In this review,an update of the clinicopathological and molecular criteria of gastrointestinal familial polyposis syndromes with potential malignant transformation is performed.In addition,a guide for screening and surveillance was synthesized and a distribution of gene mutations according to the specific syndromes and geographic distribution was included.The following inherited polyposes syndromes were analyzed: familial adenomatous polyposis,the hamartomatous familial polyposes(Juvenile polyposis,Peutz-Jeghers syndrome,Cowden syndrome,BannayanRiley-Ruvalcaba syndrome,hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome,Gorlin syndrome,Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome,neurofibromatosis type Ⅰand multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome 2B),Li-Fraumeni syndrome,and MUTYHassociated adenomatous polyposis.For proper medical care,subspecialization of gastroenterologists,pathologists,and genticists in the field of familial diseases should be introduced in the medical curriculum.

  13. Imaging of gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, S. E-mail: laushunhk@yahoo.com.hk; Tam, K.F.; Kam, C.K.; Lui, C.Y.; Siu, C.W.; Lam, H.S.; Mak, K.L

    2004-06-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) represents the most common kind of mesenchymal tumour that arises from the alimentary tract. GIST is currently defined as a gastrointestinal tract mesenchymal tumour containing spindle cells (or less commonly epithelioid cells or rarely both) and showing CD117 (c-kit protein) positivity. Targeted molecular therapy of non-resectable GIST using imatinib, a specific tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor, represents a real milestone in the management of solid malignancy. Imaging studies, both anatomical and functional, are playing an increasingly important role in management of patients with GIST. This review illustrates the radiological appearance of GISTs and the site-specific roles of each imaging tool. Clinical features and radiological differential diagnosis of GIST are also discussed.

  14. Gastrointestinal stenting: Current status and imaging features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgras, B; Lo Dico, R; Pautrat, K; Dohan, A; Boudiaf, M; Pocard, M; Soyer, P

    2015-06-01

    The use of stents in the gastrointestinal tract has been subjected to major changes. Initially, the use of stents was restricted to malignant strictures in patients with metastatic disease. But thanks to reduction of the morbidity and mortality rates, they are now used with curative intention and in patients with benign diseases after careful selection. However, for patients presenting with colon obstruction due to an advanced colon carcinoma, the mortality and morbidity are still high. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of indications, techniques and further developments of the stents in the gastrointestinal tract and to highlight the predominant role of multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) in the detection of potential complications. PMID:25953525

  15. Radionuclide localization of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors prospectively evaluated the usefulness of abdominal radionuclide scintigraphy using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red cells as a means of monitoring for intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding over a 24-hour period in both control and actively bleeding populations. Of 32 patients with documented hemorrhage, 29 had positive scintiscans (sensitivity, 91%; 9% false negatives). Of 18 nonbleeding patients, 17 had negative scintiscans (specificity, 95%; 5% false positives). 12 of 29 patients bled from 6 to 24 hours after the study was begun. Scintiscans were positive in patient with transfusion requirements of greater than or equal to 500 ml/24 hr. The authors conclude that abdominal scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red cells is an effective method of detecting gastrointestinal bleeding

  16. Radionuclide detection of lower gastrointestinal bleeding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective review of two years' experience with radionuclide screening to detect lower gastrointestinal bleeding sites was conducted at New York's Montefiore Medical Center. Of 82 studies performed in 63 patients, 13 identified active bleeding sites. Only three of eight angiograms obtained in these 13 patients were positive. Thirteen contrast angiograms were performed in the group of 50 patients with negative radionuclide studies of which ten were negative and one was equivocal. The results of this study suggest that the Tc-99m sulfur colloid study for active lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is an effective screening procedure. Positive studies help determine which vessel to catheterize selectively if an angiogram is to be performed. If vascular ectasis is still suspected following a negative radionuclide study, contrast angiography can be more efficaciously performed on a nonemergent basis

  17. Heterotopic pancreas in the gastrointestinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yuan; Jie Chen; Qi Zheng; Xin-Yu Huang; Zhe Yang; Juan Tang

    2009-01-01

    Heterotopic pancreas is defined as pancreatic tissue found outside the usual anatomical location of the pancreas. It is often an incidental finding and can be found at different sites in the gastrointestinal tract. It may become clinically evident when complicated by pathological changes such as inflammation, bleeding, obstruction, and malignant transformation. In this report, a 60-year-old man with carcinoid syndrome caused by heterotopic pancreatic tissue in the duodenum is described, along with a 62-year-old man with abdominal pain caused by heterotopic pancreatic tissue in the gastric antrum. The difficulty of making an accurate diagnosis is highlighted. The patients remain healthy and symptom-free after follow-up of 1 year. Frozen sections may help in deciding the extent of resection intraoperatively. Although heterotopic pancreas is rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

  18. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-01-01

    as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor or a fertility factor. The targets of gastrointestinal hormones are specific G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in the cell membranes also outside the digestive tract. Thus, gut hormones not only regulate digestive functions......Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones...... under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization or differentiated posttranslational...

  19. [Gastrointestinal human myiasis caused by Eristalis tenax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, M; Kreiter, A; Semenas, L

    1998-08-01

    The myiasis observed in Bariloche are characterized and the probable conditions under which the infestations took place established. The larvae obtained from faeces of 2 patients were identified as Eristalis tenax (Diptera: Syrphidae) according to Hartley (1961) and Organización Panamericana de la Salud keys (1962). These 2 cases of human gastrointestinal myiasis were the first to be registered in Bariloche (Patagonia, Argentina) and their characteristics were similar to those described for this species in other parts of the world. The lack of specific control measures in the domestic water supply system was the most probable cause of the infestation. This event extends the distribution of E. tenax and human gastrointestinal myiasis in South America to 41 degrees 03' S.

  20. Biopsies in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: When and How

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Peixoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal endoscopy and the acquisition of tissue samples are essential for the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases of the digestive system. However, given the differences between the recommendations and the clinical practice, the inexorable increase of requests for endoscopic examinations and the financial burden associated with it, it is crucial that we concentrate on the challenge that endoscopic biopsies represent. In this review we describe the available evidence in the literature, including the more recent published guidelines, on when or not to perform endoscopic biopsies in upper and lower endoscopy, focusing on the precise diagnosis of the most common gastrointestinal diseases that motivate endoscopic examinations and on the rational use of available resources without compromising proper management of patients.

  1. Unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms: Think mitochondrial disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, TP; Hadley, G.; Fratter, C; Cullen, SN; Bax, BE; Bain, MD; Sapsford, RA; Poulton, J; Travis, SP

    2014-01-01

    Defects in mitochondrial function are increasingly recognised as central to the pathogenesis of many diseases, both inherited and acquired. Many of these mitochondrial defects arise from abnormalities in mitochondrial DNA and can result in multisystem disease, with gastrointestinal involvement common. Moreover, mitochondrial disease may present with a range of non-specific symptoms, and thus can be easily misdiagnosed, or even considered to be non-organic.We describe the clinical, histopathol...

  2. Unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms: think mitochondrial disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, TP; Hadley, G.; Fratter, C; Cullen, SN; Bax, BE; Bain, MD; Sapsford, RA; Poulton, J; Travis, SP

    2014-01-01

    Defects in mitochondrial function are increasingly recognised as central to the pathogenesis of many diseases, both inherited and acquired. Many of these mitochondrial defects arise from abnormalities in mitochondrial DNA and can result in multisystem disease, with gastrointestinal involvement common. Moreover, mitochondrial disease may present with a range of non-specific symptoms, and thus can be easily misdiagnosed, or even considered to be non-organic. We describe the clinical, histopatho...

  3. Unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms: think mitochondrial disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, TP; Hadley, G.; Fratter, C; Cullen, SN; Bax, BE; Bain, MD; Sapsford, RA; Poulton, J; Travis, SP

    2014-01-01

    Defects in mitochondrial function are increasingly recognised as central to the pathogenesis of many diseases, both inherited and acquired. Many of these mitochondrial defects arise from abnormalities in mitochondrial DNA and can result in multisystem disease, with gastrointestinal involvement common. Moreover, mitochondrial disease may present with a range of non-specific symptoms, and thus can be easily misdiagnosed, or even considered to be non-organic.We describe the clinical, histopathol...

  4. Drug Repurposing for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Pessetto, Ziyan Y.; Weir, Scott J.; Sethi, Geetika; Broward, Melinda A.; Andrew K Godwin

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant treatment advances over the past decade, metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) remains largely incurable. Rare diseases, such as GIST, individually affect small groups of patients but collectively are estimated to affect 25–30 million people in the U.S. alone. Given the costs associated with the discovery, development and registration of new drugs, orphan diseases such as GIST are often not pursued by mainstream pharmaceutical companies. As a result, “drug repur...

  5. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium in the beagle has been determined to be 0.066 +- 0.014% of the amount administered. This result is quite comparable with the results reported for the dog by other workers, and a factor of 3 smaller than that observed by us for mice. On the average, the retained plutonium was found to be almost equally divided between the liver and the skeleton

  6. Plutonium gastrointestinal absorption by adults baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium was investigated in baboons after ingestion of plutonium solution (oxidation states III; IV; V; VI), and plutonium incorporated in soya bean and winkles. We studied the effects of oxidation state and ingested mass for masses ranging from 0.35 μg to 51.6 x 10+3 μg (4 x 10-2 to 7776 μg of plutonium per kg of body weight). No clear increase in plutonium retention was shown for concentrations of plutonium smaller than 1 μg/kg. From 1 μg/kg to 1 mg/kg no effects of mass or oxidation state was observed and the mean fractional retention value was 10-4. For ingested masses higher than 1 mg/kg the fractional retention values respectively increased for Pu(V) and Pu(III) to (0.9 + 0.2) x 10-2 and (7.4+ 4.1) x 10-4 of the ingested mass. This increase might be due to the weak hydrolysis of these oxidation states which would increase gastrointestinal absorption by decrease of hydroxide formation. The fraction of plutonium retained after ingestion of soya bean was (3.0 + 0.5) x 10-4 about 3 fold higher than the value for 238 Pu nitrate solution. No clear increase in plutonium retention was shown after ingestion of winkles containing 238 Pu. In conclusion, except for high masses of ingested Pu, the retention of which could reach 1% of the ingested dose, our results show that the gastrointestinal transfer factor of 10-4 proposed by ICRP for gastrointestinal absorption of soluble form of Pu is acceptable, but 10-3 would provide better safety margin

  7. Pain Management in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Vigano, Antonio; Bruera, Eduardo

    1995-01-01

    Pain is a common feature in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). An abnormally low visceral sensory threshold, as well as a number of central, spinal and peripheral pain-modulating abnormalities, have been proposed for this syndrome. Clinical aspects of pain associated with irritable esophagus, functional dyspepsia, biliary dysmotility, inflammatory bowel syndrome and proctalgia fugax are reviewed. Because of its unclear pathophysiology, pain expression is the main target for the suc...

  8. Gastrointestinal stem cell up-to-date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirvulet, V

    2015-01-01

    Cellular and tissue regeneration in the gastrointestinal tract depends on stem cells with properties of self-renewal, clonogenicity, and multipotency. Progress in stem cell research and the identification of potential gastric, intestinal, colonic stem cells new markers and the signaling pathways provide hope for the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine and treatments for disease. This review provides an overview of the different types of stem cells, focusing on tissue-restricted adult stem cells.

  9. Prion Diseases and the Gastrointestinal Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Gwynivere A; Bryant, Adam R; John D. Reynolds; Jirik, Frank R.; Keith A Sharkey

    2006-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a central role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. These are human and animal diseases that include bovine spongiform encephalopathy, scrapie and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. They are uniformly fatal neurological diseases, which are characterized by ataxia and vacuolation in the central nervous system. Alhough they are known to be caused by the conversion of normal cellular prion protein to its infectious conformational isoform...

  10. New Endoscopic Techniques for Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk den Ouden

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of a postmenopausal woman with a congenital aortic stenosis is presented. She presented with severe iron deficiency anemia. After negative extensive gastrointestinal analysis, she was treated with octreotide for six months. After cessation of octreotide, anemia rapidly recurred. A second capsule endoscopy and a double balloon enteroscopy were performed, and an intestinal vascular malformation was found. After surgical segment resection, the patient had stable, normal levels of hemoglobin and no complaints after 14 months of follow-up.

  11. Guideline for Capsule Endoscopy: Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Ki-Nam; Moon, Jeong Seop; Chang, Dong Kyung; Do, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Ji Hyun; Min, Byung Hoon; Jeon, Seong Ran; Kim, Jin-Oh; Choi, Myung-Gyu; ,

    2013-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is considered as a noninvasive and reliable diagnostic tool of examining the entire small bowel. CE has been performed frequently at many medical centers in South Korea; however, there is no evidence-based CE guideline for adequate diagnostic approaches. To provide accurate information and suggest correct testing approaches for small bowel disease, the guideline on CE was developed by the Korean Gut Image Study Group, a part of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal End...

  12. Penyakit Gastrointestinal Sebagai Penyebab Timbulnya Halitosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Aortharika

    2008-01-01

    Halitosis yang juga dikenal dengan sebutan fetor ex ore atau fetor oris disebabkan oleh faktor-faktor fisiologis dan patologis yang berasal dari kondisi local atau intra oral dan kondisi sistemik atau ekstra oral. Namun kondisi intra oral merupakan penyebab halitosis yang paling banyak. Berdasarkan penelitian, para ahli telah menemukan hubungan antara penyakit gastrointestinal dengan halitosis serta penyebab utamanya yaitu adanya koloni Helicobacterpylori dalam saluran cerna. Untuk ...

  13. Panic Attack during Elective Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Charalampos Mitsonis; Nikolaos Dimopoulos; Marianna Zavrou; Vassiliki Psarra; Christos Giofkos; Christos Fiorakis; Athanasios Dimitriadis; Dimitrios Valavanis; Eleni Vousoura; Iannis Zervas; Efstathios Papavassiliou

    2011-01-01

    Background. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy (CS) can evoke anxiety, embarrassment, and discomfort. These concerns can culminate in panic attacks, which may traumatize patients and significantly decrease their compliance to the procedure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between preendoscopic anxiety and the possibility of a panic attack during an elective gastrointestinal endoscopy (EGE). Methods. The study population comprised of 79 Greek outpatie...

  14. Gastrointestinal lymphomas: Morphology, immunophenotype and molecular features

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista-Quach, Marnelli A; Ake, Christopher D.; Chen, Mingyi; Wang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma comprises 10-15% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas and encompasses 30-40% of the total extranodal lymphomas. Approximately 60-75% of cases occur in the stomach, and then the small bowel, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum. Lymphoid neoplasms may consist of mature B, T and less commonly extranodal NK/T cells. Of these, the two most frequently encountered histologic subtypes are extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma), wher...

  15. Yttrium-90 microsphere induced gastrointestinal tract ulceration

    OpenAIRE

    Rikabi Ali A; Thomas Fred B; Kim Edward Y; Meis Gregory; Meyer Marty M; South Christopher D; Khabiri Hooman; Bloomston Mark

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Radiomicrosphere therapy (RT) utilizing yttrium-90 (90Y) microspheres has been shown to be an effective regional treatment for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. We sought to determine a large academic institution's experience regarding the extent and frequency of gastrointestinal complications. Methods Between 2004 and 2007, 27 patients underwent RT for primary or secondary hepatic malignancies. Charts were subsequently reviewed to determine the incidence and sev...

  16. Heterotopic pancreas in the gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Zhou; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Qi; Huang, Xin-yu; Yang, Zhe; Tang, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Heterotopic pancreas is defined as pancreatic tissue found outside the usual anatomical location of the pancreas. It is often an incidental finding and can be found at different sites in the gastrointestinal tract. It may become clinically evident when complicated by pathological changes such as inflammation, bleeding, obstruction, and malignant transformation. In this report, a 60-year-old man with carcinoid syndrome caused by heterotopic pancreatic tissue in the duodenum is described, along...

  17. An unusual cause of gastrointestinal bleed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C K Adarsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI bleed often brings the patient to the emergency medical service with great anxiety. Known common causes of GI bleed include ulcers, varices, Mallory-Weiss among others. All causes of GI bleed should be considered however unusual during the evaluation. Aortoenteric fistula (AEF is one of the unusual causes of GI bleed, which has to be considered especially in patients with a history of abdominal surgery in general and aortic surgery in particular.

  18. Biopsies in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: When and How

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Peixoto; Marco Silva; Pedro Pereira; Guilherme Macedo

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal endoscopy and the acquisition of tissue samples are essential for the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases of the digestive system. However, given the differences between the recommendations and the clinical practice, the inexorable increase of requests for endoscopic examinations and the financial burden associated with it, it is crucial that we concentrate on the challenge that endoscopic biopsies represent. In this review we describe the available evidence in the li...

  19. Gambaran Endoskopi Gastrointestinal pada Anak di Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Supriatmo

    2010-01-01

    Background: Endoscopy in children and neonates showed a very fast growth following the recent medical technology improvement. There many pediatric gastrointestinal disorders must be explored by endoscopic examination. Endoscopy must be operated by well trained pediatric gastroenterologist. Objective: To report the profile endoscopy examination in children in Medan. Methods: This retrospective was reviewed medical charts in all children who had endoscopy in H.Adam Malik, Dr.Pirngadi and Sarimu...

  20. Disruption of TgPHIL1 alters specific parameters of Toxoplasma gondii motility measured in a quantitative, three-dimensional live motility assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Leung

    Full Text Available T. gondii uses substrate-dependent gliding motility to invade cells of its hosts, egress from these cells at the end of its lytic cycle and disseminate through the host organism during infection. The ability of the parasite to move is therefore critical for its virulence. T. gondii engages in three distinct types of gliding motility on coated two-dimensional surfaces: twirling, circular gliding and helical gliding. We show here that motility in a three-dimensional Matrigel-based environment is strikingly different, in that all parasites move in irregular corkscrew-like trajectories. Methods developed for quantitative analysis of motility parameters along the smoothed trajectories demonstrate a complex but periodic pattern of motility with mean and maximum velocities of 0.58 ± 0.07 µm/s and 2.01 ± 0.17 µm/s, respectively. To test how a change in the parasite's crescent shape might affect trajectory parameters, we compared the motility of Δphil1 parasites, which are shorter and wider than wild type, to the corresponding parental and complemented lines. Although comparable percentages of parasites were moving for all three lines, the Δphil1 mutant exhibited significantly decreased trajectory lengths and mean and maximum velocities compared to the parental parasite line. These effects were either partially or fully restored upon complementation of the Δphil1 mutant. These results show that alterations in morphology may have a significant impact on T. gondii motility in an extracellular matrix-like environment, provide a possible explanation for the decreased fitness of Δphil1 parasites in vivo, and demonstrate the utility of the quantitative three-dimensional assay for studying parasite motility.

  1. Disruption of TgPHIL1 alters specific parameters of Toxoplasma gondii motility measured in a quantitative, three-dimensional live motility assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jacqueline M; Rould, Mark A; Konradt, Christoph; Hunter, Christopher A; Ward, Gary E

    2014-01-01

    T. gondii uses substrate-dependent gliding motility to invade cells of its hosts, egress from these cells at the end of its lytic cycle and disseminate through the host organism during infection. The ability of the parasite to move is therefore critical for its virulence. T. gondii engages in three distinct types of gliding motility on coated two-dimensional surfaces: twirling, circular gliding and helical gliding. We show here that motility in a three-dimensional Matrigel-based environment is strikingly different, in that all parasites move in irregular corkscrew-like trajectories. Methods developed for quantitative analysis of motility parameters along the smoothed trajectories demonstrate a complex but periodic pattern of motility with mean and maximum velocities of 0.58 ± 0.07 µm/s and 2.01 ± 0.17 µm/s, respectively. To test how a change in the parasite's crescent shape might affect trajectory parameters, we compared the motility of Δphil1 parasites, which are shorter and wider than wild type, to the corresponding parental and complemented lines. Although comparable percentages of parasites were moving for all three lines, the Δphil1 mutant exhibited significantly decreased trajectory lengths and mean and maximum velocities compared to the parental parasite line. These effects were either partially or fully restored upon complementation of the Δphil1 mutant. These results show that alterations in morphology may have a significant impact on T. gondii motility in an extracellular matrix-like environment, provide a possible explanation for the decreased fitness of Δphil1 parasites in vivo, and demonstrate the utility of the quantitative three-dimensional assay for studying parasite motility. PMID:24489670

  2. Abdominal ultrasonography of the pediatric gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Heather I; Gee, Michael S; Westra, Sjirk J; Nimkin, Katherine

    2016-07-28

    Ultrasound is an invaluable imaging modality in the evaluation of pediatric gastrointestinal pathology; it can provide real-time evaluation of the bowel without the need for sedation or intravenous contrast. Recent improvements in ultrasound technique can be utilized to improve detection of bowel pathology in children: Higher resolution probes, color Doppler, harmonic and panoramic imaging are excellent tools in this setting. Graded compression and cine clips provide dynamic information and oral and intravenous contrast agents aid in detection of bowel wall pathology. Ultrasound of the bowel in children is typically a targeted exam; common indications include evaluation for appendicitis, pyloric stenosis and intussusception. Bowel abnormalities that are detected prenatally can be evaluated after birth with ultrasound. Likewise, acquired conditions such as bowel hematoma, bowel infections and hernias can be detected with ultrasound. Rare bowel neoplasms, vascular disorders and foreign bodies may first be detected with sonography, as well. At some centers, comprehensive exams of the gastrointestinal tract are performed on children with inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease to evaluate for disease activity or to confirm the diagnosis. The goal of this article is to review up-to-date imaging techniques, normal sonographic anatomy, and characteristic sonographic features of common and uncommon disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract in children. PMID:27551336

  3. Gastrointestinal tract modelling in health and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Hua Liao; Jing-Bo Zhao; Hans Gregersen

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the system of organs within multi-cellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. The various patterns of GI tract function are generated by the integrated behaviour of multiple tissues and cell types. A thorough study of the GI tract requires understanding of the interactions between cells, tissues and gastrointestinal organs in health and disease. This depends on knowledge, not only of numerous cellular ionic current mechanisms and signal transduction pathways, but also of large scale GI tissue structures and the special distribution of the nervous network. A unique way of coping with this explosion in complexity is mathematical and computational modelling; providing a computational framework for the multilevel modelling and simulation of the human gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology. The aim of this review is to describe the current status of biomechanical modelling work of the GI tract in humans and animals, which can be further used to integrate the physiological, anatomical and medical knowledge of the GI system. Such modelling will aid research and ensure that medical professionals benefit, through the provision of relevant and precise information about the patient's condition and GI remodelling in animal disease models. It will also improve the accuracy and efficiency of medical procedures, which could result in reduced cost for diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Imatinib treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lisandro F; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. GISTs are believed to originate from intersticial cells of Cajal (the pacemaker cells of the gastrointestinal tract) or related stem cells, and are characterized by KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) activating mutations. The use of imatinib has revolutionized the management of GIST and altered its natural history, substantially improving survival time and delaying disease progression in many patients. The success of imatinib in controlling advanced GIST led to interest in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant use of the drug. The neoadjuvant (preoperative) use of imatinib is recommended to facilitate resection and avoid mutilating surgery by decreasing tumour size, and adjuvant therapy is indicated for patients at high risk of recurrence. The molecular characterization (genotyping) of GISTs has become an essential part of the routine management of the disease as KIT and PDGFRA mutation status predicts the likelihood of achieving response to imatinib. However, the vast majority of patients who initially responded to imatinib will develop tumour progression (secondary resistance). Secondary resistance is often related to secondary KIT or PDGFRA mutations that interfere with drug binding. Multiple novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be potentially useful for the treatment of imatinib-resistant GISTs as they interfere with KIT and PDGFRA receptors or with the downstream-signalling proteins.

  5. HER-2 status in gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lisandro Ferreira; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2008-08-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) encodes for the transmembrane glycoprotein HER-2 that is involved in activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways that control cell growth and differentiation. HER-2 is overexpressed in approximately 20% of patients with breast cancer and has been associated with poorer prognosis. Since 1998, the anti-HER-2 antibody trastuzumab has been used for the treatment of patients with HER-2-positive breast cancers. However, little information is available about the relationship between HER-2 and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. This study's purpose was to determine the HER-2 status in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We found that all 477 cases included in this study were negative (score 0) by immunohistochemistry using HercepTest, and no HER-2 gene amplification was detected in 71 cases submitted to fluorescence in situ hybridization. These results show that HER-2 may not have any role in gastrointestinal stromal tumor pathogenesis and that the neoplasm may not be suitable for treatment with trastuzumab.

  6. Yttrium-90 microsphere induced gastrointestinal tract ulceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikabi Ali A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiomicrosphere therapy (RT utilizing yttrium-90 (90Y microspheres has been shown to be an effective regional treatment for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. We sought to determine a large academic institution's experience regarding the extent and frequency of gastrointestinal complications. Methods Between 2004 and 2007, 27 patients underwent RT for primary or secondary hepatic malignancies. Charts were subsequently reviewed to determine the incidence and severity of GI ulceration. Results Three patients presented with gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent upper endoscopy. Review of the pretreatment angiograms showed normal vascular anatomy in one patient, sclerosed hepatic vasculature in a patient who had undergone prior chemoembolization in a second, and an aberrant left hepatic artery in a third. None had undergone prophylactic gastroduodenal artery embolization. Endoscopic findings included erythema, mucosal erosions, and large gastric ulcers. Microspheres were visible on endoscopic biopsy. In two patients, gastric ulcers were persistent at the time of repeat endoscopy 1–4 months later despite proton pump inhibitor therapy. One elderly patient who refused surgical intervention died from recurrent hemorrhage. Conclusion Gastrointestinal ulceration is a known yet rarely reported complication of 90Y microsphere embolization with potentially life-threatening consequences. Once diagnosed, refractory ulcers should be considered for aggressive surgical management.

  7. Gastrointestinal surgical emergencies following kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardaxoglou, E; Maddern, G; Ruso, L; Siriser, F; Campion, J P; Le Pogamp, P; Catheline, J M; Launois, B

    1993-05-01

    This study reports major gastrointestinal complications in a group of 416 patients following kidney transplantation. Three hundred and ninety-nine patients received a cadaveric kidney while the other 17 received a living related organ. The immunosuppressive regimen changed somewhat during the course of the study but included azathioprine, prednisolone, antilymphocyte globulin, and cyclosporin. Perforations occurred in the colon (n = 6), small bowel (n = 4), duodenum (n = 2), stomach (n = 1), and esophagus (n = 1). There were five cases of acute pancreatitis, four of upper gastrointestinal and two of lower intestinal hemorrhage, two of acute appendicitis, one of acute cholecystitis, one postoperative mesenteric infarction, and two small bowel obstructions. Fifty percent of the complications occurred while patients were being given high-dose immunosuppression to manage either the early postoperative period or episodes of acute rejection. Ten percent of the complications had an iatrogenic cause. Of the 31 patients affected, 10 (30%) died as a direct result of their gastrointestinal complication. This high mortality appears to be related to the effects of the immunosuppression and the associated response to sepsis. Reduction of these complications can be achieved by improved surgical management, preventive measures, prompt diagnosis, and a reduced immunosuppressive protocol.

  8. A bifunctional O-GlcNAc transferase governs flagellar motility through anti-repression

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Aimee; Kamp, Heather D.; Gründling, Angelika; Darren E Higgins

    2006-01-01

    Flagellar motility is an essential mechanism by which bacteria adapt to and survive in diverse environments. Although flagella confer an advantage to many bacterial pathogens for colonization during infection, bacterial flagellins also stimulate host innate immune responses. Consequently, many bacterial pathogens down-regulate flagella production following initial infection. Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular pathogen that represses transcription of flagellar motility genes...

  9. Laparoscopy in the treatment of a giant true epiphrenic diverticulum with migration of the gastrointestinal anastomosis staples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our case is a 62-year-old diabetic man with a long-standing history of regurgitation, halitosis, recurrent chest infection, and most recently upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. He was diagnosed 10 years earlier with an epiphrenic esophageal diverticulum, and also has a family history of this condition. Barium study revealed a 10x10 cm epiphrenic diverticula with a 4 cm neck, the lower margin of the opening lying 6 cm from the gastro-esophageal junction. Endoscopy confirmed the x-ray findings, and motility studies were within normal limits. The patient underwent laparoscopic excision of the diverticulum via the trans-abdominal approach. Histopathological examination revealed this diverticulum to be of the true type. (author)

  10. Compact plasmonic variable optical attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Rosenzveig, Tiberiu; Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon;

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate plasmonic nanowire-based thermo-optic variable optical attenuators operating in the 1525-1625 nm wavelength range. The devices have a footprint as low as 1 mm, extinction ratio exceeding 40 dB, driving voltage below 3 V, and full modulation bandwidth of 1 kHz. The polarization...

  11. Differential dynamic microscopy to characterize Brownian motion and bacteria motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, David; Leocmach, Mathieu; Gibaud, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a lab module for undergraduate students, which involves the process of quantifying the dynamics of a suspension of microscopic particles using Differential Dynamic Microscopy (DDM). DDM is a relatively new technique that constitutes an alternative method to more classical techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) or video particle tracking (VPT). The technique consists of imaging a particle dispersion with a standard light microscope and a camera and analyzing the images using a digital Fourier transform to obtain the intermediate scattering function, an autocorrelation function that characterizes the dynamics of the dispersion. We first illustrate DDM in the textbook case of colloids under Brownian motion, where we measure the diffusion coefficient. Then we show that DDM is a pertinent tool to characterize biological systems such as motile bacteria.

  12. Bacillus subtilis Hfq: A role in chemotaxis and motility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHANDRAKANT B JAGTAP; PRADEEP KUMAR; K KRISHNAMURTHY RAO

    2016-09-01

    Hfq is a global post-transcriptional regulator that modulates the translation and stability of target mRNAs and therebyregulates pleiotropic functions, such as growth, stress, virulence and motility, in many Gram-negative bacteria.However, comparatively little is known about the regulation and function(s) of Hfq in Gram-positive bacteria.Recently, in Bacillus subtilis, a role for Hfq in stationary phase survival has been suggested, although the possibilityof Hfq having an additional role(s) cannot be ruled out. In this study we show that an ortholog of Hfq in B. subtilis isregulated by the stress sigma factor, σB, in addition to the stationary phase sigma factor, σH. We further demonstratethat Hfq positively regulates the expression of flagellum and chemotaxis genes (fla/che) that control chemotaxis andmotility, thus assigning a new function for Hfq in B. subtilis.

  13. Preliminary remarks for a study of urban motilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We could conceive a sociology of urban motilities associated to the act of going to work as composed of: 1. a dromology of displacements. This includes the study of speeds of material and immaterial (informational transfers, kinetic energy in relation to the type of propulsion or fuel (animal, mechanic, fossil, electric etc. and the type of medium (earth, water, air, wires, aether; average and instantaneous speed of transport, coefficients of velocity (= speed + directional vector, thus considering movements of entrance, exit, turning, etc., accelerations, decelerations, queues, jams, accidents, collisions, and their consequences; the study of transfer vectors, i.e. means of displacement (in relation to the different speeds each type of vehicle ensures, be it private, public, or hybrid transport and the infrastructures for displacement (in relation to the different speeds they ensure, impose or invite; description of distances and travel durations, daily and weekly overall time spent on travelling etc

  14. Estrogen- and progesterone-induced uterine motility of anestrous goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, O P; Singh, L P

    1976-02-01

    Uterine motility was studied in the anestrous goats after a series of estradiol injections was given and after estradiol-plus-progesterone treatment was administered. Estradiol (0.1 mg/kg) given alone by intramuscular route every 6 hours for 4 continuous days produced only a moderate increase in the uterine contractions during treatment, but significantly higher amplitude and frequency of contractions occurred at 2 days after treatment was stopped. The same doses of estradiol administered for a 24-hour period and followed by 4 injections of progesterone (1.0 mg/kg) given intramuscularly once a day produced a moderate response during treatment, but depressed the amplitude and the frequency of contractions after the treatment was stopped. The results indicate that the tissues primed with estrogen produced a stimulatory effect after their estrogen contents diminished. Progesterone, likewise, produced inhibition after a decrease in the progesterone contents of the uterine tissue. PMID:944003

  15. Accumulation of motile elongated micro-organisms in turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Caijuan; Lushi, Enkeleida; Brandt, Luca

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of turbulence on marine life by performing numerical simulations of motile microorganisms, modelled as prolate spheroids, in isotropic homogeneous turbulence. We show that the clustering and patchiness observed in laminar flows, linear shear and vortex flows, are significantly reduced in a three-dimensional turbulent flow mainly because of the complex topology; elongated micro-orgamisms show some level of clustering in the case of swimmers without any preferential alignment whereas spherical swimmers remain uniformly distributed. Micro-organisms with one preferential swimming direction (e.g. gyrotaxis) still show significant clustering if spherical in shape, whereas prolate swimmers remain more uniformly distributed. Due to their large sensitivity to the local shear, these elongated swimmers react slower to the action of vorticity and gravity and therefore do not have time to accumulate in a turbulent flow. These results show how purely hydrodynamic effects can alter the ecology of microor...

  16. Abnormal ocular motility with brainstem and cerebellar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlow, T J; Bicknell, J M

    1978-01-01

    The disorders of ocular motility seen in association with brainstem or cerebellar disorders may point to rather specific anatomical or pathological correlations. Pontine gaze palsy reflects involvement of the pontine paramedian reticular formation. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia signifies a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus. Skew deviation may result from a lesion anywhere in the posterior fossa. Ocular bobbing typically results from a pontine lesion. The Sylvian aqueduct syndrome is characteristic of involvement in the upper midbrain-pretectal region, usually a pinealoma. Cerebellar lesions may be manifested by gaze paresis, skew deviation, disturbances of saccadic or smooth pursuit movements, ocular myoclonus, or several characteristic forms of nystagmus. Familiarity with these disorders may be of great help to the physician dealing with a patient with a possible posterior fossa lesion.

  17. Sperm motility and ATP content in seminal hyperviscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendeluk, G R; Munuce, M J; Carizza, C; Sardi, M; Bregni, C

    1997-01-01

    Objective spermatic motility (Hamilton Thorne Research), the rapid progressive spermatozoa (grade A) recovery after swim-up, and the spermatozoa ATP content (bioluminescence) were studied in normoviscous and hyperviscous asthenospermic samples. The amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) was significantly lower in hyperviscous semen (normal: 4.6 +/- 0.7 microns [n = 20], high: 3.5 +/- 1.2 microns [n = 16]; p semens with high consistency (normal: 71.0 +/- 38.0 [n = 14], high: 181.3 +/- 108.9 [n = 6]; p < .05). The ATP content per living spermatozoa was in the normal consistency group 449.4 +/- 65.1 pmol per million living spermatozoa (n = 29) and in the high consistency batch 605.1 +/- 242.8 (n = 9), p < .05. In asthenospermia, the spermatozoa from hyperviscous samples have minor ALH values, better response to swim-up, and high ATP content than those from normoviscous ejaculates. PMID:9352034

  18. Endoplasmic motility spectral characteristics in plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsievich, T. I.; Ghaleb, K. E. S.; Frolov, S. V.; Proskurin, S. G.

    2015-03-01

    Spectral Fourier analysis of experimentally acquired velocity time dependencies, V(t), of shuttle endoplasmic motility in an isolated strand of plasmodium of slime mold Physarum Polycephalum has been realized. V(t) registration was performed in normal conditions and after the treatment by respiration inhibitors, which lead to a complete cessation of endoplasmic motion in the strand. Spectral analysis of the velocity time dependences of the endoplasm allows obtaining two distinct harmonic components in the spectra. Their ratio appeared to be constant in all cases, ν2/ν1=1.97±0.17. After the inhibitors are washed out respiratory system becomes normal, gradually restoring the activity of both harmonic oscillatory sources with time. Simulated velocity time dependences correspond to experimental data with good accuracy.

  19. Effect of short abstinence time on sperm motility parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alipour, Hiva; Dardmeh, Fereshteh; Van Der Horst, Gerhard;

    2015-01-01

    differences in the details of the sperm movement (kinematics) of human sperm provided by computerized sperm analysis systems. This study was designed to assess the effect of two different media pH levels on kinematic parameters of the human sperm. Samples were prepared using the 40%/80% Pureception (Sage, USA...... of this study illustrated a general insignificant decrease in the ratio of progressively motile and hyperactive sperm after 6 and 24 hours. However a significant difference between the test groups was observed in the curvilinear, straight line and Mean path velocity and Straightness after 6 and 24 hours....... Linearity and Wobble showed significant difference after 24 hours. This study demonstrated a difference in the sperm motion pattern and velocity in different environmental pH levels. Based on these findings, further investigations are required to elucidate knowledge about possible effect of marginal p...

  20. Langevin Dynamics Deciphers the Motility Pattern of Swimming Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaburdaev, Vasily; Uppaluri, Sravanti; Pfohl, Thomas; Engstler, Markus; Friedrich, Rudolf; Stark, Holger

    2011-05-01

    The parasite African trypanosome swims in the bloodstream of mammals and causes the highly dangerous human sleeping sickness. Cell motility is essential for the parasite’s survival within the mammalian host. We present an analysis of the random-walk pattern of a swimming trypanosome. From experimental time-autocorrelation functions for the direction of motion we identify two relaxation times that differ by an order of magnitude. They originate from the rapid deformations of the cell body and a slower rotational diffusion of the average swimming direction. Velocity fluctuations are athermal and increase for faster cells whose trajectories are also straighter. We demonstrate that such a complex dynamics is captured by two decoupled Langevin equations that decipher the complex trajectory pattern by referring it to the microscopic details of cell behavior.