Sample records for attenuate gastrointestinal motility

  1. Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders in Children (United States)

    Ambartsumyan, Lusine


    The most common and challenging gastrointestinal motility disorders in children include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal achalasia, gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and constipation. GERD is the most common gastrointestinal motility disorder affecting children and is diagnosed clinically and treated primarily with acid secretion blockade. Esophageal achalasia, a less common disorder in the pediatric patient population, is characterized by dysphagia and treated with pneumatic balloon dilation and/or esophagomyotomy. Gastroparesis and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction are poorly characterized in children and are associated with significant morbidity. Constipation is among the most common complaints in children and is associated with significant morbidity as well as poor quality of life. Data on epidemiology and outcomes, clinical trials, and evaluation of new diagnostic techniques are needed to better diagnose and treat gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. We present a review of the conditions and challenges related to these common gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. PMID:24799835

  2. Does Hypothyroidism Affect Gastrointestinal Motility?

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    Olga Yaylali


    Full Text Available Background. Gastrointestinal motility and serum thyroid hormone levels are closely related. Our aim was to analyze whether there is a disorder in esophagogastric motor functions as a result of hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods. The study group included 30 females (mean age ± SE 45.17 ± 2.07 years with primary hypothyroidism and 10 healthy females (mean age ± SE 39.40 ± 3.95 years. All cases underwent esophagogastric endoscopy and scintigraphy. For esophageal scintigraphy, dynamic imaging of esophagus motility protocol, and for gastric emptying scintigraphy, anterior static gastric images were acquired. Results. The mean esophageal transit time (52.56 ± 4.07 sec for patients; 24.30 ± 5.88 sec for controls; P=.02 and gastric emptying time (49.06 ± 4.29 min for the hypothyroid group; 30.4 ± 4.74 min for the control group; P=.01 were markedly increased in cases of hypothyroidism. Conclusion. Hypothyroidism prominently reduces esophageal and gastric motor activity and can cause gastrointestinal dysfunction.

  3. [Motility and functional gastrointestinal disorders]. (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín


    This article discusses the studies on functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders presented at the 2014 Digestive Diseases Week conference that are of greatest interest to us. New data have been provided on the clinical importance of functional gastrointestinal disorders, with recent prevalence data for irritable bowel syndrome and fecal incontinence. We know more about the pathophysiological mechanisms of the various functional disorders, especially irritable bowel syndrome, which has had the largest number of studies. Thus, we have gained new data on microinflammation, genetics, microbiota, psychological aspects, etc. Symptoms such as abdominal distension have gained interest in the scientific community, both in terms of patients with irritable bowel syndrome and those with constipation. From the diagnostic point of view, the search continues for a biomarker for functional gastrointestinal disorders, especially for irritable bowel syndrome. In the therapeutic area, the importance of diet for these patients (FODMAP, fructans, etc.) is once again confirmed, and data is provided that backs the efficacy of already marketed drugs such as linaclotide, which rule out the use of other drugs such as mesalazine for patients with irritable bowel syndrome. This year, new forms of drug administration have been presented, including metoclopramide nasal sprays and granisetron transdermal patches for patients with gastroparesis. Lastly, a curiosity that caught our attention was the use of a vibrating capsule to stimulate gastrointestinal transit in patients with constipation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Scintigraphic assessment of gastrointestinal motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård


    . Dysmotility in the different major segments of the gastrointestinal tract may give rise to similar symptoms; hence, localizing transit abnormalities to a specific segment is a valuable element of diagnostic evaluation. Scintigraphy is an effective noninvasive tool to assess gastric emptying as well as small...

  5. New advances in gastrointestinal motility research

    CERN Document Server

    Pullan, A; Farrugia, G


    Research into gastrointestinal motility has received renewed interest in part due to recent advances in the techniques for measuring the structure and function of gastrointestinal cells, tissue and organs. The integration of this wealth of data into biophysically based computation models can aid in interpretation of experimental and clinical measurements and the refinement of measurement techniques. The contents of this book span multiple scales - from cell, tissue, organ, to whole body and is divided into four broad sections covering: i) gastrointestinal cellular activity and tissue structure; (ii) techniques for measuring, analyzing and visualizing high-resolution extra-cellular recordings; (iii) methods for sensing gastroelectrical activity using non-invasive bio-electro-magnetic fields and for modulating the underlying gastric electrical activity, and finally; (iv) methods for assessing manometric and videographic motility patterns and the application of these data for predicting the flow and mixing behav...

  6. Peptidergic regulation of gastrointestinal motility in rodents. (United States)

    Fujimiya, M; Inui, A


    Peptides involved in the endocrine and enteric nervous systems as well as in the central nervous system exert concerted action on gastrointestinal motility. Mechanical and chemical stimuli which induce peptide release from the epithelial endocrine cells are the earliest step in the initiation of peristaltic activities. Gut peptides exert hormonal effects, but peptide-containing stimulatory (Ach/substance P/tachykinin) and inhibitory (VIP/PACAP/NO) neurons are also involved in the induction of ascending contraction and descending relaxation, respectively. The dorsal vagal complex (DVC), located in the medulla of the brainstem, constitutes the basic neural circuitry of vago-vagal reflex control of gastrointestinal motility. Several gut peptides act on the DVC to modify vagal cholinergic reflexes directly (PYY and PP) or indirectly via afferent fibers in the periphery (CCK and GLP-1). The DVC is also a primary site of action of many neuropeptides (such as TRH and NPY) in mediating gastrointestinal motor activities. The identification over the last few years of a number of neuropeptide systems has greatly changed the field of feeding and body weight regulation. By exploring the brain and gut systems that employ recently identified peptidergic molecules, it will be possible to elaborate on the central and peripheral pathways involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility.

  7. Gastrointestinal motility during cardiopulmonary bypass : A sonomicrometric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, YJ; de Kroon, TL; Elstrodt, JM; Rakhorst, G

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is known to impair the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract. However, little is known about the movement behavior of the gastrointestinal tract during CPB. This study was aimed to assess the gastrointestinal motility with sonomicrometry, a distance measurement using

  8. Regional gastrointestinal contractility parameters using the wireless motility capsule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, A D; Wegeberg, A-M L; Brock, B


    BACKGROUND: The wireless motility capsule concurrently measures temperature, pH and pressure as it traverses the gastrointestinal tract. AIMS: To describe normative values for motility/contractility parameters across age, gender and testing centres. METHODS: Healthy participants underwent a stand...

  9. Evaluation of gastrointestinal motility with MRI: Advances, challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, C. S.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Nederveen, A. J.; Stoker, J.


    Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of gastrointestinal motility has developed rapidly over the past few years. The non-invasive and non-ionizing character of MRI is an important advantage together with the fact that it is fast and can visualize the entire gastrointestinal tract. Advances in

  10. Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders and Their Clinical Implications in Cirrhosis

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    Eleni Theocharidou


    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal motility is impaired in a substantial proportion of patients with cirrhosis. Cirrhosis-related autonomic neuropathy, increased nitric oxide production, and gut hormonal changes have been implicated. Oesophageal dysmotility has been associated with increased frequency of abnormal gastro-oesophageal reflux. Impaired gastric emptying and accommodation may result in early satiety and may have an impact on the nutritional status of these patients. Small intestinal dysmotility might be implicated in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased bacterial translocation. The latter has been implicated in the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Enhanced colonic motility is usually associated with the use of lactulose. Pharmacological interventions aiming to alter gastrointestinal motility in cirrhosis could potentially have a beneficial effect reducing the risk of hepatic decompensation and improving prognosis.

  11. [Spasmolytic effect of mebeverine on the gastrointestinal motility]. (United States)

    Bertaccini, G; Impicciatore, M; Molina, E; Zappia, L


    Mebeverine, N-ethyl-4'-[1-methyl-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethylamino] butyl-3,4-dimetoxybenzoate, was studied for its inhibitory effect on the motility of the gastrointestinal tract in vivo and in vitro. In both cases its activity was more evident on the hypermotility induced by some common physiological spasmogenic agents than on basal motility. In various tests it was ascertained that mebeverine was able to inhibit the stimulant actions of all the drugs employed, both those acting on specific receptor sites such as histamine and acetylcholine, and those acting directly on the smooth muscle such as substance P, physalaemin etc. This backs up the suggestion of a nonspecific miotropic effect of mebeverine. This compound has the same spasmolytic action at different levels of the gastrointestinal tract and is decisively stronger than papaverine. The lack of remarkable side-effects in the tests which were carried out in vivo with decisively active doses on the gastrointestinal motility and the good inhibitory effect on human isolated strips of the gastrointestinal tract suggest that mebeverine may be useful in the treatment of clinical morbid conditions characterized by hypertone or hypermotility of the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. In vivo and vitro characterization of the effects of kisspeptin-13, endogenous ligands for GPR54, on mouse gastrointestinal motility. (United States)

    Jiang, Jinhong; Jin, Weidong; Peng, Yali; He, Zhen; Wei, Lijuan; Li, Shu; Wang, Xiaoli; Chang, Min; Wang, Rui


    Kisspeptin (KP), the endogenous ligand of GPR54, is a mammalian amidated neurohormone, which belongs to the RF-amide peptide family. However, in contrast with the related members of the RF-amide family, little information is available regarding its role in the gastrointestinal motility. With regard to the recent data suggesting KP play an important role in food intake, and while gastrointestinal motility are closely related to it. Thus, in the present work, effects of central administration of KP-13, one of the endogenous active isoforms, on gastrointestinal motility were investigated. The results indicated that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infused of KP-13 significantly facilitated gastrointestinal transit, bead expulsion and fecal pellet output, respectively, while has no effect on gastric emptying. The effects were significantly reversed by GPR54 antagonist 234, but not GnRH receptor antagonist Cetrorelix. However, i.p. injected of KP-13 or compound 5 (10mg/kg), a high metabolic stability kisspeptin analog, did not affect gastrointestinal transit, suggesting that KP-13 or compound 5 facilitated gastrointestinal transit through the activation of central GPR54. Then the gastrointestinal motility-enhancing effects were also presented after infusion of KP-13 into the hypothalamus. In vitro, KP-13 (10-6M) also modulated colonic contraction, but not in the stomach and small intestine. Similarly, KP-13 (10-6M)-induced contractions of circular and longitudinal colonic muscle were significantly attenuated by antagonist 234 (10-6M). In conclusion, all the results indicated that KP-13 promoted gastrointestinal motility through the activation of GPR54, which implicate that KP/GPR54 system might be a new target to treat gastrointestinal function disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Intrinsic Gastrointestinal Macrophages: Their Phenotype and Role in Gastrointestinal MotilitySummary

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    Gianluca Cipriani


    Full Text Available There is an increasing awareness of the role of macrophages in the regulation and maintenance of gastrointestinal function in health and disease. This work has proceeded in the context of an increased understanding of the complex phenotypic variation in macrophages throughout the body and has shown previously unidentified roles for macrophages in diseases such as gastroparesis, postoperative ileus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Opportunities for exploiting the phenotypic modulation of tissue resident macrophages have been identified as possible therapies for some of these diseases. In addition, macrophages are an established component of the innate immune system and can respond to variations and changes in the intestinal microbiome and potentially mediate part of the impact of the microbiota on intestinal health. We reviewed the latest work on novel concepts in defining macrophage phenotype, discuss possible mechanisms of action for tissue-resident macrophages in the gut, address the significance of microbiome effects on macrophage phenotype, and review the known and possible roles of macrophages in motility disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Keywords: Monocyte–Macrophage Precursor Cells, Gastrointestinal Motility, Enteric Nervous System, Interstitial Cells of Cajal

  14. Gastrointestinal peptides, gastrointestinal motility, and anorexia of aging in frail elderly persons. (United States)

    Serra-Prat, M; Mans, E; Palomera, E; Clavé, P


    The mechanisms involved in anorexia in frail elderly people remain unclear. The objective of this study was to establish whether fasting and postprandial levels of gastrointestinal peptides, gastrointestinal motility, and hunger are modified by age and frailty. Three groups of subjects were studied: (a) frail elderly (>70 years) persons, (b) non-frail elderly (>70 years) persons, and (c) healthy adults (aged 25-65 years). After an overnight fast, participants ingested a 400 Kcal liquid meal and appetite, hormonal, and gastrointestinal responses were monitored during early (0-60 min) and late (60-240 min) postprandial periods. Frail persons showed poor nutritional status, sarcopenia, and almost absence of hunger during fasting and postprandial periods. Older persons presented higher levels of glucose and insulin during fasting, enhanced postprandial CCK release in early postprandial period and postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, but similar ghrelin levels than younger adults. Ultrasound scan showed that the fasting antral area was higher and antral compliance lower in old persons. The paracetamol absorption test showed enhanced postprandial gastric emptying in the frail. Non-gallbladder contractors showed no CCK peak in younger and non-frail groups, but the same high CCK peak as contractors in the frail. Frailty was associated with anorexia, risk of malnutrition, and sarcopenia. Frail persons showed impaired gastric motility (larger antral area at rest, impaired antral compliance, and enhanced postprandial emptying), impaired gallbladder motility, and fasting and/or postprandial alterations in CCK, glucose, and insulin release. Further studies are needed to determine if these factors may contribute to anorexia of aging in frail persons. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Central nervous system control of gastrointestinal motility and secretion and modulation of gastrointestinal functions. (United States)

    Browning, Kirsteen N; Travagli, R Alberto


    Although the gastrointestinal (GI) tract possesses intrinsic neural plexuses that allow a significant degree of autonomy over GI functions, the central nervous system (CNS) provides extrinsic neural inputs that regulate, modulate, and control these functions. While the intestines are capable of functioning in the absence of extrinsic inputs, the stomach and esophagus are much more dependent upon extrinsic neural inputs, particularly from parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways. The sympathetic nervous system exerts a predominantly inhibitory effect upon GI muscle and provides a tonic inhibitory influence over mucosal secretion while, at the same time, regulates GI blood flow via neurally mediated vasoconstriction. The parasympathetic nervous system, in contrast, exerts both excitatory and inhibitory control over gastric and intestinal tone and motility. Although GI functions are controlled by the autonomic nervous system and occur, by and large, independently of conscious perception, it is clear that the higher CNS centers influence homeostatic control as well as cognitive and behavioral functions. This review will describe the basic neural circuitry of extrinsic inputs to the GI tract as well as the major CNS nuclei that innervate and modulate the activity of these pathways. The role of CNS-centered reflexes in the regulation of GI functions will be discussed as will modulation of these reflexes under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Finally, future directions within the field will be discussed in terms of important questions that remain to be resolved and advances in technology that may help provide these answers.

  16. Opiate Modulation of Gastrointestinal Motility and the Actions of Trimebutine

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    Stephen M Collins


    novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of motility disorders, including postoperative ileus and pseudo-obstruction. Finally, the effect of the drug on the colon supports the use of trimcbutine in irritable bowel syndrome patients who have constipation due to colonic inertia.

  17. Effect of intragastric FODMAP infusion on upper gastrointestinal motility, gastrointestinal, and psychological symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome vs healthy controls. (United States)

    Masuy, I; Van Oudenhove, L; Tack, J; Biesiekierski, J R


    The low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyol (FODMAP) diet is a treatment strategy to reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Acute effects of FODMAPs on upper gastrointestinal motility are incompletely understood. Our objectives were to assess the acute effects of intragastric FODMAP infusions on upper gastrointestinal motility and gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms in healthy controls (HC) and IBS patients. A high-resolution solid-state manometry probe and an infusion tube were positioned into the stomach. Fructans, fructose, FODMAP mix, or glucose was intragastrically administered to HC, and fructans or glucose was administered to IBS patients until full satiation (score 0-5), in a randomized crossover fashion. Manometric measurements continued for 3 hours. Gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms were assessed by questionnaires at predefined time points. The study was registered on (NCT02980406). Twenty HC and 20 IBS patients were included. Fructans induced higher postprandial gastric pressures compared with glucose over both groups (P<.001). Bloating, belching, and pain increased more in IBS over both carbohydrates (P<.041). In addition, IBS patients reported more flatulence and cramps compared with HC following fructans (P<.001). Glucose induced more fatigue and dominance compared with fructans (P=.028, P=.001). Irritable bowel syndrome patients reported a higher increase in anger (P=.030) and a stronger decrease in positive affect (P=.021). The upper gastrointestinal motility response varies between carbohydrates. Irritable bowel syndrome patients are more sensitive to fructan infusion, reflected in their higher gastrointestinal symptom scores. Acute carbohydrate infusion can have differential psychological effects in IBS and HC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Gastrointestinal motility, prokinetic benzamides and serotonin : a study on the guinea-pig colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briejer, M.R.


    The prokinetic substituted benzamides stimulate gastrointestinal motility in animal models and in man. Studies done on the isolated guinea-pig ileum have led to the hypothesis that the benzamides act through facilitation of cholinergic transmission due to stimulation of serotonin4 (5-HT

  19. Fluoroscopic study of the normal gastrointestinal motility and measurements in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis). (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Nevarez, Javier; Taylor, W Michael; Jankowski, Gwendolyn; Rademacher, Nathalie; Gaschen, Lorrie; Pariaut, Romain; Tully, Thomas N


    Contrast fluoroscopy is a valuable tool to examine avian gastrointestinal motility. However, the lack of a standardized examination protocol and reference ranges prevents the objective interpretation of motility disorders and other gastrointestinal abnormalities. Our goals were to evaluate gastrointestinal motility in 20 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) by contrast fluoroscopy. Each parrot was crop-fed an equal part mixture of barium sulfate and hand-feeding formula and placed in a cardboard box for fluoroscopy. Over a 3-h period, 1.5 minute segments of lateral and ventrodorsal fluoroscopy were recorded every 30 min. The gastric cycle and patterns of intestinal motility were described. The frequency of crop contractions, esophageal boluses, and gastric cycles were determined in lateral and ventrodorsal views. A range of 3.4-6.6 gastric cycles/min was noted on the lateral view and 3.0-6.6 gastric cycles/min on the ventrodorsal view. Circular measurements of the proventriculus diameter, ventriculus width, and length were obtained using the midshaft femoral diameter as a standard reference unit. The upper limits of the reference ranges were 3.6 and 4.7 femoral units for the proventriculus diameter in the lateral and ventrodorsal view, respectively. Two consecutive measurements were obtained and the measurement technique was found to have high reproducibility. In this study, we established a standardized protocol for contrast fluoroscopic examination of the gastrointestinal tract and a reliable measurement method of the proventriculus and ventriculus using femoral units in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot.

  20. Gastrointestinal transit times and motility in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedsund, Caroline; Gregersen, Tine; Jønsson, Iben


    -based motility tracking system (MTS-1). With each method patients were compared with 16 healthy controls. RESULTS: Basic contraction frequencies of the stomach and small intestine were normal, but the pill reached the cecum after 7 h in only 20% of CF patients while in 88% of controls (p = 0.001). Paradoxically......, velocity of the magnetic pill through the upper small intestine tended to be faster in CF patients (median 1.1 cm/min, range 0.7-1.7) compared with controls (median 1.0 cm/min, range 0.6-1.7) (p = 0.09). No statistically significant differences were found in median gastric emptying time (CF: 58 min, range...... 6-107 vs. healthy: 41 min, range 4-125 (p = 0.24)), GITT (CF: 2 days, range 0.5-3.3 vs. healthy: 1.5 days, range 0.7-2.5 (p = 0.10)), right SCTT (CF: 0.5 day, range 0-1.1 vs. healthy: 0.4 day, range 0-1.0 (p = 0.85)), or left SCTT (CF: 1.0 day, range 0-2.2 vs. healthy 0.6 day, range 0.2-1.2 (p = 0...

  1. Effects of Swertia japonica extract and its main compound swertiamarin on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility in mice. (United States)

    Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Sumiyoshi, Maho


    The Swertia japonica is used clinically as a remedy for gastrointestinal symptoms in Japan. We examined the effects of a S. japonica and swertiamarin on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility in atropine-, dopamine-, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-treated mice. All three preparations inhibited reductions in gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility induced by dopamine (1mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection, ip). Neither the powder, swertiamarin, nor itopride had any effect on the reductions in gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility caused by 5-HT (4 mg/kg, ip). These findings suggest that the powder and swertiamarin stimulate gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility by inhibiting the dopamine D(2) receptor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Murraya koenigii leaf extract on impaired gastrointestinal motility in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. (United States)

    Tembhurne, Sachin V; Sakarkar, Dinesh M


    The present study was to investigate the effects of Murraya koenigii leaf (MKL), an Indian herb, on glucose homeostasis, intestinal transit time, response to exogenous acetylcholine of smooth muscles of distal colon, and intestinal thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) level in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Male adult Wistar rats were used in this study. Diabetes was induced in the rats by STZ (70 mg/kg, intravenously). The treatments of MKL extract (300 and 500 mg/kg) and glibenclamide were started after stabilization of blood glucose level (13 d after single dose of STZ), while the standard drug cisapride or vitamin E was given from the last week (8th week) of experimentation. At the end of the study, the rats were sacrificed and evaluated for gastrointestinal motility, the contractile response of distal colons and the TBARS content. The gastrointestinal motility was evaluated by measuring the intestinal transit rate of charcoal meal. The contractile response of distal colon was measured in terms of evaluating the dose-response curve with increasing doses of acetylcholine, and the TBARS content was measured by calculating the level of polyunsaturated fatty acid in homogenates of intestines of the diabetic rats. MKL significantly decreased the blood glucose level at the 30th (P<0.05) and 60th (P<0.01) day of MKL administration (300 and 500 mg/kg). The gastrointestinal motility significantly (P<0.05) reduced after 9 weeks in diabetic rats and it was correlated to the decrease of the percent response of acetylcholine on distal colons (P<0.01) and the increase of TBARS (as an index of oxidative stress) in intestines (P<0.05), while prior treatment with MKL (300 and 500 mg/kg) up to 9 weeks increased the gastrointestinal motility demonstrated by the increase in the activation of cholinergic response to acetylcholine on distal colons (P<0.05). The TBARS also decreased after 9-week treatment with MKL (P<0.05). The present study suggested that MKL

  3. Effect of electric acupoint stimulation on gastrointestinal hormones and motility among geriatric postoperative patients with gastrointestinal tumors. (United States)

    Hou, Lili; Xu, Lei; Shi, Yan; Gu, Fen


    To evaluate the effects of electric acupoint stimulation on gastrointestinal hormones and motility among geriatric postoperative patients with gastrointestinal tumors, and to explore an efficient and noninvasive method for postoperative recovery of bowel functions. Forty patients were randomly and evenly assigned into a regular nursing care group (RNC) and an acupoint electric stimulation group (AES). Patients in the RNC group received regular nursing care and patients in the AES group received regular nursing care plus electric stimulation of acupoints. The serum levels of gastrin (GAS), motilin (MOT), and cholecystokinin (CCK), and an electrogastrogram (EGG) of all the patients were evaluated on the first, third, and fifth day after surgery. The time to first flatus after surgery and the number of patients with side effects such as abdominal pain, abdominal distention, and diarrhea were recorded. There were significant differences between the two groups in GAS, MOT, EGG, time to first flatus, abdominal pain, abdominal distention, and diarrhea (P Electric stimulation on acupoints could increase levels of GAS and MOT, promote the recovery of gastrointestinal functions, and decrease complications among postoperative senile patients with gastrointestinal tumors.

  4. Effect of hospitalization on gastrointestinal motility and pH in dogs. (United States)

    Warrit, Kanawee; Boscan, Pedro; Ferguson, Leah E; Bradley, Allison M; Dowers, Kristy L; Twedt, David C


    OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of hospitalization on gastrointestinal motility and pH in healthy dogs. DESIGN Experimental study. ANIMALS 12 healthy adult dogs. PROCEDURES A wireless motility capsule (WMC) that measured pressure, transit time, and pH within the gastrointestinal tract was administered orally to dogs in 2 phases. In the first phase, dogs received the WMC at the hospital and then returned to their home to follow their daily routine. In the second phase, dogs were hospitalized, housed individually, had abdominal radiography performed daily, and were leash exercised 4 to 6 times/d until the WMC passed in the feces. All dogs received the same diet twice per day in both phases. Data were compared between phases with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. RESULTS Data were collected from 11 dogs; 1 dog was excluded because the WMC failed to exit the stomach. Median gastric emptying time during hospitalization (71.8 hours; range, 10.7 to 163.0 hours) was significantly longer than at home (17.6 hours; range, 9.7 to 80.8 hours). Values of all other gastric, small bowel, and large bowel parameters (motility index, motility pattern, pH, and transit time) were similar between phases. No change in gastric pH was detected over the hospitalization period. High interdog variability was evident for all measured parameters. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Hospitalization of dogs may result in a prolonged gastric emptying time, which could adversely affect gastric emptying of meals, transit of orally administered drugs, or assessments of underlying motility disorders.

  5. Modulation of Ingestive Behavior and Gastrointestinal Motility by Ghrelin in Diabetic Animals and Humans

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    Chih-Yen Chen


    Full Text Available Acyl ghrelin, a 28-amino acid peptide hormone, is the endogenous cognate ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin is involved in stimulating growth hormone release, eliciting feeding behavior, inducing adiposity and stimulating gastrointestinal motility. Ghrelin is unique for its post-translational modification of O-n-octanoylation at serine 3 through ghrelin O-acyltransferase, and is the only peripheral signal to enhance food intake. Plasma ghrelin levels manifest “biphasic changes” in diabetes mellitus (DM. In the early stage of DM, the stomach significantly increases the secretion of ghrelin into the plasma, and elevated plasma ghrelin levels are correlated with diabetic hyperphagic feeding and accelerated gastrointestinal motility. In the late stage of DM, plasma ghrelin levels may be lower, which might be linked with anorexia/muscle wasting, delayed gastrointestinal transit, and even gastroparesis. Therefore, the unique ghrelin system may be the most important player compared to the other hindgut hormones participating in the “entero-insular axis”. Further studies using either knockdown or knockout of ghrelin gene products and ghrelin O-acyltransferase may unravel the pathogenesis of DM, and show benefits in combating this disease and metabolic syndrome.

  6. The relationship between gastrointestinal transit and motility in dogs with postoperative ileus. (United States)

    Tsukamoto, K; Mizutani, M; Yamano, M; Suzuki, T


    We investigated the relationship between gastrointestinal (GI) transit and motility during postoperative ileus in dogs undergoing a single laparotomy. We combined X-ray radiography for a GI transit study with chronically implanted force transducers (FTs) for a GI motility study. Radio-opaque markers made of polyethylene and steel wires or barium sulfate were used to examine solid substance transit or liquid substance transit. For a while after the end of the operation, postoperative ileus was observed, with weak irregular contractions of the GI tract. Transmission of the contractions to the lower GI tract was then observed. The start point of interdigestive migrating contraction (IMC)-like motility was observed in the order of small intestine (I-IMC), duodenum (D-IMC), and stomach (G-IMC), and IMC proceeded gradually after the operation. The gastric emptying time of a solid marker was 73.6 +/- 2.3 h (n = 5), and depended on the time of first occurrence of G-IMC (r = 0.674, p = 0.006). The gastric emptying of the liquid marker was finished before the time of the first occurrence of G-IMC, and its small intestinal transit time correlated with the time of the first occurrence of G-IMC (r = 0.888, p = 0.018). Using combined X-ray radiography and FTs we found that recovery from postoperative ileus was aided by GI motility in which contractions were transmitted from the stomach to the lower GI tract, like IMC.

  7. Campylobacter jejuni PflB is required for motility and colonisation of the chicken gastrointestinal tract. (United States)

    Kanji, Alpa; Jones, Michael A; Maskell, Duncan J; Grant, Andrew J


    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Although the mechanisms by which C. jejuni causes disease are not completely understood, the presence of functional flagella appears to be required for colonisation of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. Therefore much attention has been given to understanding the synthesis and role of flagella in C. jejuni. In this study we report insights into the function of PflB that is essential for Campylobacter motility. We have explored the function of this gene by constructing deletion mutants in C. jejuni strains NCTC11168 and M1, in the genes cj0390 and CJM1_0368, respectively. The mutants were non-motile yet assembled flagella that appeared structurally identical to the wild type. Furthermore the protein is required for C. jejuni colonisation of caeca in a two-week old chicken colonisation model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Central Nervous System Control of Gastrointestinal Motility and Secretion and Modulation of Gastrointestinal Functions


    Browning, Kirsteen N.; Travagli, R. Alberto


    Although the gastrointestinal (GI) tract possesses intrinsic neural plexuses that allow a significant degree of autonomy over GI functions, the central nervous system (CNS) provides extrinsic neural inputs that regulate, modulate, and control these functions. While the intestines are capable of functioning in the absence of extrinsic inputs, the stomach and esophagus are much more dependent upon extrinsic neural inputs, particularly from parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways. The sympathet...

  9. Effect of ω-3 Fatty Acid on Gastrointestinal Motility after Abdominal Operation in Rats

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    Qun Zhang


    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate whether ω-3 fatty acid could stimulate gastrointestinal motility after abdominal operation. Method. Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 group (normal saline group, intralipid group, and ω-3 fatty acid group, n=18/group after partial caecectomy and gastrostomosis, each group was divided into 3 groups (POD1, POD3, and POD6, n=6/group. Serum gastrin (GAS, motilin (MTL, interleukin-1 (IL-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tissue necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, gastric emptying rate, and small bowel propulsion rate were measured. Results. On POD 3, gastric emptying rate and small bowel propulsion rate in ω-3 fatty acid group were higher than those in normal saline group and intralipid group. Serum GAS and MTL levels in ω-3 fatty acid group were higher than those in normal saline group, but serum IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and COX-2 levels were lower than those in normal saline group and intralipid group. Conclusion. ω-3 fatty acid could accelerate the recovery of gastrointestinal mobility after abdominal operation in rats, mainly by relieving postoperative inflammation.

  10. Aging and neural control of the GI tract: IV. Clinical and physiological aspects of gastrointestinal motility and aging. (United States)

    Orr, William C; Chen, C L


    The gastrointestinal motility changes that occur as a function of age are reviewed herein. Careful attention must be given in any review of aging phenomena to exclude, or at least be cognizant of, the many comorbid conditions that can alter physiological functioning in older adults. The dramatic increase in life expectancy over the past 10-15 years demands that clinicians be aware of the various physiological and clinically relevant changes that occur with age. Gastrointestinal motility changes associated with age are relatively subtle, and in many instances only conflicting data exist. As the older adult population increases, and as the control of disease is improved, much more work needs to be done to understand the true effects of aging on gastrointestinal functioning.

  11. Therapeutic potential of spinal cord stimulation for gastrointestinal motility disorders: a preliminary rodent study. (United States)

    Song, G-Q; Sun, Y; Foreman, R D; Chen, J D Z


    Spinal cord electrical stimulation (SCS) has been applied for the management of chronic pain. Most of studies have revealed a decrease in sympathetic activity with SCS. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of SCS on gastrointestinal (GI) motility in healthy and diabetic rats. Male rats chronically implanted with a unipolar electrode at T9/T10 were studied. The study included four experiments to assess the effects of SCS on (1) gastric tone; (2) gastric emptying of liquids and intestinal transit; (3) gastric emptying of solids; and (4) sympathovagal balance in healthy rats and/or in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat. (1) Spinal cord stimulation intensity dependently increased gastric tone in healthy rats. The gastric volume was 0.97 ± 0.15 mL at baseline, and decreased to 0.92 ± 0.16 mL with SCS of the 30% motor threshold (MT; p = 0.13 vs baseline), 0.86 ± 0.14 mL with 60% MT (p = 0.045 vs baseline), and 0.46 ± 0.19 mL with 90% MT (p = 0.0050 vs baseline). (2) Spinal cord stimulation increased gastric emptying of liquids by about 17% and accelerated small intestinal transit by about 20% in healthy rats (p Spinal cord stimulation accelerated gastric emptying of solids by about 24% in healthy rats and by about 78% in diabetic rats. (4) Spinal cord stimulation decreased sympathetic activity (1.13 ± 0.18 vs 0.68 ± 0.09, p Spinal cord stimulation accelerates gastric emptying of liquids and solids, and intestinal transit, probably by inhibiting the sympathetic activity. Spinal cord stimulation may have a therapeutic potential for treating GI motility disorders. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Neuropilin 1 is essential for gastrointestinal smooth muscle contractility and motility in aged mice. (United States)

    Yamaji, Maiko; Mahmoud, Marwa; Evans, Ian M; Zachary, Ian C


    Neuropilin 1 (NRP1) is a non-tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and class 3 semaphorins, playing a role in angiogenesis and neuronal axon guidance, respectively. NRP1 is expressed in smooth muscle cells (SMC) but the functional role of NRP1 in SMC has not been elucidated. We therefore investigated the biological relevance of NRP1 in SMC in vivo by generating mice with SMC-specific Nrp1 deficiency. Conditional gene targeting generated SMC-specific Nrp1 knockout mice (Nrp1SMKO) in which Cre recombinase is driven by the smooth muscle-specific myosin heavy chain (smMHC) promoter. SMC-specific Nrp1 deficiency resulted in a significant reduction in intestinal length by 6 months, and, by 18 months, in severe constipation, and enlargement of the intestine consistent with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. These effects were associated with significant thinning of the intestinal smooth muscle, and decreased intestinal contractility. Expression of contractile proteins was reduced in Nrp1SMKO mice, including the smMHC isoform, SMB, whereas we observed a significant increase in the expression of the small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3 (SK3/KCa2.3), implicated in negative regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Nrp1 deficiency in visceral SMC results in adult-onset defects in gastrointestinal contractility and motility and causes a shift to a less contractile SMC phenotype. These findings indicate a new role for Nrp1 in the maintenance of the visceral SMC contractile phenotype required for normal GI motility in aged mice.

  13. The effect of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae extract on gastro-intestinal motility function. (United States)

    Nam, Yoonjin; Lee, Jong Mi; Wang, Yiyi; Ha, Hyun Su; Sohn, Uy Dong


    Flos Lonicerae Japonicae is a well-known herb of traditional Chinese medicine that has been used for heat-clearing, detoxification, anti-inflammation, throat pain and gastro-intestinal (GI) disorder. In order to verify the effect of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae on GI disorder, we investigated the prokinetic effect of GC-7101 on GI motility function. GC-7101 is the standardized extract of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae. The contractile action of GC-7101 on feline esophageal smooth muscle cell (ESMC) was evaluated by measuring dispersed cell length. The isometric tension study was performed to investigate the effect of GC-7101 on feline lower esophageal sphincther (LES). The prokinetic effect of GC-7101 was investigated by gastric emptying (GE) and gastro-intestinal transit (GIT) in rats. GC-7101 produced concentration-dependent contractions in ESMCs. Pretreatment with 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor blocker (ondansetron and GR113808) inhibited the contractile responses of the GC-7101-induced ESMCs. In isometric tension study, GC-7101 recovered the HCl-induced decreased tone of LES muscle strips. The treatment of GC-7101 enhanced the carbachol-induced contractile responses and the electric field stimulation (EFS)-induced on-contraction. The oral administration of GC-7101 not only significantly accelerated GE and GIT in normal rats but also recovered the delayed GE and GIT, and its effect was more potent than that of conventional prokinetics (e.g., domperidone, a dopamine-receptor antagonist, and mosapride, a 5-HT4-receptor agonist). GC-7101 revealed a prokinetic effect through enhancing the contractile responses of ESMCs, tone increases, enhancing the carbarchol- or EFS-induced contractile responses of LES muscle strips, and the acceleration of GE and GIT. We have identified the significant potential of GC-7101 for the development of new prokinetic drugs through this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Flexible gastrointestinal motility pressure sensors based on aluminum thin-film strain-gauge arrays (United States)

    Silva, L. R.; Sousa, P. J.; Goncalves, L. M.; Minas, G.


    This paper reports on an innovative approach to measuring intraluminal pressure in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, especially monitoring GI motility and peristaltic movements. The proposed approach relies on thin-film aluminum strain gauges deposited on top of a Kapton membrane, which in turn lies on top of an SU-8 diaphragm-like structure. This structure enables the Kapton membrane to bend when pressure is applied, thereby affecting the strain gauges and effectively changing their electrical resistance. The sensor, with an area of 3.4 mm2, is fabricated using photolithography and standard microfabrication techniques (wet etching). It features a linear response (R2 = 0.9987) and an overall sensitivity of 2.6 mV mmHg-1. Additionally, its topology allows a high integration capability. The strain gauges’ responses to pressure were studied and the fabrication process optimized to achieve high sensitivity, linearity, and reproducibility. The sequential acquisition of the different signals is carried out by a microcontroller, with a 10-bit ADC and a sample rate of 250 Hz. The pressure signals are then presented in a user-friendly interface, developed using the Integrated Development Environment software, QtCreator IDE, for better visualization by physicians.

  15. Effect of antiorthostatic BedRest (BR) on GastroIntestinal Motility (GIM) of normal subjects (United States)

    Putcha, L.; Hunter, R. P.; Tietze, K. J.; Cintron, N. M.


    The combined effects of postural changes, fluid shifts and diuresis associated with the absence of the gravity vector may decrease gastrointestinal motility (GIM) during space flight. GIM can be estimated from the mouth to cecum transit time (MCTT) of orally administered lactulose (LAC); this test is used to assess changes in GIM in normal subjects and in patients with GI pathology and related disease conditions. Since bedrest (BR) mimics some of the physiological changes that occur during space flight, the effect of ten days of BR on GIM was evaluated from the MCTT of LAC. Methods: Subjects were 12 nonsmoking males between the ages of 35 and 50. After an 8-10 hour fast, subjects ingested Cephulac (registered) (20 g solution) with a low-fiber breakfast on four different days (45, 30, 25, and 20) before BR and on three separate days (4, 7, and 10) during BR. Breath-H2 concentrations were measured before and at 10 minute intervals for 4 hours after breakfast using a Quintron breathalyzer and MCTT was determined from these data. Results: MCTT ranged between 10 and 122 minutes during ambulation and 80 to 120 minutes during BR with means of 79 minutes and 122 minutes respectively. Conclusion: Mean MCTT during BR was 54 percent longer than during ambulation, suggesting that absorption and availability of orally administered medications and nutrients may be delayed or impaired as a result of decreased GIM during bedrest.

  16. [An experimental study of the gastrointestinal motility in conscious dogs with strain gauge force transducers]. (United States)

    Koh, K


    Interdigestive motor complex (IMC) from the stomach to the ileum and colonic migrating motor complex (CMMC), and the effects of motilin and PYY to them were studied in conscious dogs with strain gauge force transducers (SG). In fasted dogs, IMC cycle times were 100.5 +/- 7.5 min in from the antrum to the ileum and propagation velocity of the small intestine was fastest in the proximal jejunum (4.85 +/- 0.81 cm/min), slowest in the distal ileum (0.81 +/- 0.08 cm/min). The duration of postprandial interruption of motor complex (DIMC) was longer in the antrum and duodenum in 8 dogs of the twelves than the middle and lower intestines. Ileo-colonic propagation rates of IMC that reached to the terminal ileum were 95/116 (81.9%), but the frequency of CMMCs was about 4 times higher than that of IMCs. Each colonic motor complex were classified into four patterns, such as aboral migrating complex (A), oral migrating complex (O), discrete complex (D) and giant migrating contractions (G), and the starting point of migrating complex was marked with -, like A, O or G. Thus, independency index (I I) in each site was defined as: I I = (sum of number of A, O, G and D)/(total number of colonic motor complex). I I was highest in colon 1 (70-80%) and next in colon 4. Motilin (0.5 microgram/ elicited IMC like activities in the antrum, duodenum and proximal jejunum, but no effects in the middle and lower small intestine, and the colon. PYY infusion caused dose dependent inhibitions of IMC in the antrum and duodenum, but no effects in the below intestines as same as motilin. These findings suggest that IMCs are basal rhythms of gastrointestinal motility and IMCs occurring from the antrum to the proximal jejunum are more sensitive to the factors as eating or gut peptides.

  17. Investigation on the relationship between cannabinoid CB1 and opioid receptors in gastrointestinal motility in mice


    Carai, Mauro A.M.; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Yalamanchili, Ratnakumar; Basavarajppa, Balapal S; Hungund, Basalingappa L


    This study investigated whether (a) cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout (CB1−/−) mice displayed altered gastrointestinal transit and (b) cannabinoid CB1 and opioid receptors functionally interact in the regulation of gastrointestinal transit.Gastrointestinal transit was assessed by the Whole Gastrointestinal Transit, measuring the excretion time of an intragastrically administered marker (whole intestine), and the Upper Gastrointestinal Transit, measuring the distance covered by the marker in t...

  18. Intragastric infusion of denatonium benzoate attenuates interdigestive gastric motility and hunger scores in healthy female volunteers. (United States)

    Deloose, Eveline; Janssen, Pieter; Corsetti, Maura; Biesiekierski, Jessica; Masuy, Imke; Rotondo, Alessandra; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan


    Background: Denatonium benzoate (DB) has been shown to influence ongoing ingestive behavior and gut peptide secretion.Objective: We studied how the intragastric administration of DB affects interdigestive motility, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, hunger and satiety ratings, and food intake in healthy volunteers.Design: Lingual bitter taste sensitivity was tested with the use of 6 concentrations of DB in 65 subjects. A placebo or 1 μmol DB/kg was given intragastrically to assess its effect on fasting gastrointestinal motility and hunger ratings, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, satiety, and caloric intake.Results: Women (n = 39) were more sensitive toward a lingual bitter stimulus (P = 0.005) than men (n = 26). In women (n = 10), intragastric DB switched the origin of phase III contractions from the stomach to the duodenum (P = 0.001) and decreased hunger ratings (P = 0.04). These effects were not observed in men (n = 10). In women (n = 12), motilin (P = 0.04) plasma concentrations decreased after intragastric DB administration, whereas total and octanoylated ghrelin were not affected. The intragastric administration of DB decreased hunger (P = 0.008) and increased satiety ratings (P = 0.01) after a meal (500 kcal) in 13 women without affecting gastric emptying in 6 women. Caloric intake tended to decrease after DB administration compared with the placebo (mean ± SEM: 720 ± 58 compared with 796 ± 45 kcal; P = 0.08) in 20 women.Conclusions: Intragastric DB administration decreases both antral motility and hunger ratings during the fasting state, possibly because of a decrease in motilin release. Moreover, DB decreases hunger and increases satiety ratings after a meal and shows potential for decreasing caloric intake. This trial was registered at as NCT02759926. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Evaluation of the hormones responsible for the gastrointestinal motility in cattle with displacement of the abomasum; ghrelin, motilin and gastrin. (United States)

    Ozturk, A S; Guzel, M; Askar, T K; Aytekin, I


    This study provides the evidence of increased serum gastrointestinal motility hormone concentrations including ghrelin, motilin and gastrin in cattle with displacement of abomasum (DA). In this study, 38 cows with DA (21 left DA (LDA) and 17 right DA (RDA)) and 15 healthy controls were included. All cattle with DA were at the stage of postpartum one to eight weeks, and had clinical signs including anorexia, decreased milk yield and scanty, pasty faeces. Serum ghrelin, motilin and gastrin concentrations, and leptin concentration which is a functional antagonist of ghrelin, were determined by ELISA. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), Na, K, Cl, Ca and P concentrations were measured by spectrophotometer. In serum biochemical analysis, increases were seen on the serum ALT, AST and GGT activities; however, serum Na, K, Cl and P concentrations decreased in abomasal displacement compared with the control animals. The serum ghrelin, motilin and gastrin concentrations increased in the cattle with LDA and RDA, as compared with those in the healthy controls. On the other hand, serum leptin concentration decreased in the cattle with DA compared with the controls. Increases in the serum ghrelin, motilin and gastrin concentrations might be attributed to activation of gastrointestinal motility hormones to enhance of gastric emptying in impaired gastric motility and/or outlet occlusion in displaced abomasum.

  20. GLP-1 suppresses gastrointestinal motility and inhibits the migrating motor complex in healthy subjects and patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, P M; Näslund, E; Edholm, T


    with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Antro-duodeno-jejunal manometry was carried out during a 4-h control period with saline, followed by a 4-h period with intravenous GLP-1 (healthy: 0.7 and 1.2 pmol kg(-1) min(-1) (n = 16); IBS, 1.2 and 2.5 pmol kg(-1) min(-1) (n = 14). Plasma was analysed for GLP-1 and gut......Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is released after food intake to act as an incretin. GLP-1 also inhibits gastric emptying and increases satiety. In rats, GLP-1 inhibits small bowel motility. Our aim was to study the effects of GLP-1 on gastrointestinal motility in healthy subjects and patients...

  1. Acute physiological and electrical accentuation of vagal tone has no effect on pain or gastrointestinal motility in chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juel J


    Full Text Available Jacob Juel,1 Christina Brock,1–4 Søren S Olesen,1,2 Adnan Madzak,5 Adam D Farmer,5–7 Qasim Aziz,7 Jens B Frøkjær,2,5 Asbjørn Mohr Drewes1,2 1Mech-Sense, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Aalborg University Hospital, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, 3Department of Rheumatology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 4Drug Design and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 5Mech-Sense, Department of Radiology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 6Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospitals of North Midlands, Stoke-on-Trent, 7Centre for Neuroscience and Trauma, Blizard Institute, Wingate Institute of Neurogastroenterology, Barts and the London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK Background: The effective management of pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP remains a therapeutic challenge. Analgesic drugs, such as opioids, and the underlying pathology can impair gut function. The autonomic nervous system influences hormone secretion and gut motility. In healthy volunteers, electrical (using noninvasive transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation [t-VNS] and physiological (using deep slow breathing [DSB] modulation of parasympathetic tone results in pain attenuation and enhanced gut motility. Thus, the aims were to investigate whether t-VNS and DSB could enhance the parasympathetic tone, decrease pain sensitivity and improve gut motility in CP.Patients and methods: A total of 20 patients (12 males, mean age=61 years, range: 50–78 years with CP were randomized to short-term (60 minutes t-VNS and DSB, or their placebo equivalent, in a crossover design. Cardiometrically derived parameters of autonomic tone, quantitative sensory testing of bone and muscle pain pressure, conditioned pain modulation (CPM and assessments of gastroduodenal motility with ultrasound were performed.Results: In comparison to sham, t-VNS and DSB increased cardiac

  2. Sleeve gastrectomy effects on hunger, satiation, and gastrointestinal hormone and motility responses after a liquid meal test. (United States)

    Mans, Esther; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Palomera, Elisabet; Suñol, Xavier; Clavé, Pere


    The relation between hunger, satiation, and integrated gastrointestinal motility and hormonal responses in morbidly obese patients after sleeve gastrectomy has not been determined. The objective was to assess the effects of sleeve gastrectomy on hunger, satiation, gastric and gallbladder motility, and gastrointestinal hormone response after a liquid meal test. Three groups were studied: morbidly obese patients (n = 16), morbidly obese patients who had had sleeve gastrectomy (n = 8), and nonobese patients (n = 16). The participants fasted for 10 h and then consumed a 200-mL liquid meal (400 kcal + 1.5 g paracetamol). Fasting and postprandial hunger, satiation, hormone concentrations, and gastric and gallbladder emptying were measured several times over 4 h. No differences were observed in hunger and satiation curves between morbidly obese and nonobese groups; however, sleeve gastrectomy patients were less hungry and more satiated than the other groups. Antrum area during fasting in morbidly obese patients was statistically significant larger than in the nonobese and sleeve gastrectomy groups. Gastric emptying was accelerated in the sleeve gastrectomy group compared with the other 2 groups (which had very similar results). Gallbladder emptying was similar in the 3 groups. Sleeve gastrectomy patients showed the lowest ghrelin concentrations and higher early postprandial cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide 1 peaks than did the other participants. This group also showed an improved insulin resistance pattern compared with morbidly obese patients. Sleeve gastrectomy seems to be associated with profound changes in gastrointestinal physiology that contribute to reducing hunger and increasing sensations of satiation. These changes include accelerated gastric emptying, enhanced postprandial cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide 1 concentrations, and reduced ghrelin release, which together may help patients lose weight and improve their glucose metabolism after

  3. Review article: botulinum toxin in the therapy of gastrointestinal motility disorders. (United States)

    Gui, D; Rossi, S; Runfola, M; Magalini, S C


    Since 1980, botulinum toxin has been employed for the treatment of various voluntary muscle spastic disorders in the fields of neurology and ophthalmology. More recently, botulinum toxin has been proved to be effective in the therapy of dyskinetic smooth muscle disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Achalasia and anal fissure are the gastrointestinal disorders in which botulinum toxin therapy has been most extensively investigated. Botulinum toxin is the best treatment option for achalasia in patients whose condition makes them unfit for pneumatic dilation or surgery. In anal fissure, botulinum toxin is highly effective and may become the treatment of choice. In the future, botulinum toxin application in the gastrointestinal tract will be extended to many other gastrointestinal disorders, such as non-achalasic motor disorders of the oesophagus, dysfunction of Oddi's sphincter, achalasia of the internal anal sphincter and others. This article describes the mechanism of action, rationale of employment, indications and side-effects of botulinum toxin application in smooth muscle disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and compares the results of different techniques of botulinum toxin therapeutic application.

  4. Interactions between erythromycin, flunixin meglumine, levamisole and plant secondary metabolites towards bovine gastrointestinal motility-in vitro study. (United States)

    Mendel, M; Chłopecka, M; Dziekan, N; Karlik, W


    Continued ingestion of plant secondary metabolites by ruminants can provoke pharmacological interactions with pharmaceutical agents used in animals. As some drugs and phytocompounds affect smooth muscle activity, the aim of this study was to verify the possible interaction between selected pharmaceutical agents and plant secondary metabolites towards bovine gastrointestinal motility. The interactions between phytocompounds-apigenin, quercetin, hederagenin, medicagenic acid-and medicines-erythromycin, flunixin meglumine and levamisole-were evaluated on bovine isolated abomasal and duodenal specimens obtained from routinely slaughtered cows. The obtained results confirmed the contractile effect of all three drugs used solely. Hederagenin and medicagenic acid (0.001 μM) enhanced the contractile effect of levamisole. Hederagenin additionally increased the impact of erythromycin. Both saponins (100 μM) showed synergistic effects with all tested pharmaceuticals. Apigenin and quercetin (0.001 μM) intensified the contractile response induced by erythromycin and levamisole. Moreover, both flavonoids (100 μM) showed an antagonistic interaction with all tested drugs which in that situation were devoid of the prokinetic effect. To conclude, plant metabolic metabolites such as saponins and flavonoids are potent modifiers of the effect of drugs towards gut motility. The synergy observed between phytocompounds and selected medicines can be beneficial in the treatment of cows with hypomotility disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Rikkunshi-to attenuates adverse gastrointestinal symptoms induced by fluvoxamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodama Naoki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper gastrointestinal (GI symptoms such as nausea and vomiting are common adverse events associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, and may result in discontinuation of drug therapy in patients with depressive disorder. Rikkunshi-to (formulation TJ-43, a traditional herbal medicine, has been reported to improve upper GI symptoms and comorbid depressive symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia. The aim of the present study was to determine if TJ-43 reduces GI symptoms and potentiates an antidepressant effect in a randomized controlled study of depressed patients treated with fluvoxamine (FLV. Methods Fifty patients with depressive disorder (19–78 years, mean age 40.2 years were treated with FLV (n = 25 or FLV in combination with TJ-43 (FLV+TJ-43 (n = 25 for eight weeks. The following parameters of the two groups were compared: The number of patients who complained of adverse events and their symptoms; GI symptoms quality of life (QOL score, assessed by the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS, Japanese edition, before and two weeks after beginning treatment; and depressive symptoms assessed by the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, before and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after beginning treatment. Results The number of patients who complained of adverse events in the FLV+TJ-43 group (n = 6 was significantly lower than the number complaining in the FLV group (n = 13 (P P Conclusion This study suggests that Rikkunshi-to reduces FLV-induced adverse events, especially nausea, and improves QOL related to GI symptoms without affecting the antidepressant effect of FLV.

  6. Gastrointestinal symptoms, motility, and transit after the Roux-en-Y operation

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    Perino, L.E.; Adcock, K.A.; Goff, J.S.


    Roux-en-Y patients have symptoms that vary from almost none to inability to tolerate oral feedings. This study was designed to determine whether there is a relationship between a patient's symptoms and the function of the gastric remnant or the Roux-limb. Gastric remnant and Roux-limb emptying were studied in eight patients with technetium-99m-labeled oatmeal and Roux-limb motor activity was measured with a water-perfused manometry system. We found that gastric emptying was rarely significantly slowed, but emptying of the Roux-limb was delayed in several patients. We also found that there was a rough correlation between the patient's symptoms and the degree of abnormal motility found in the Roux-limb. There is no known reason for these abnormalities in Roux-limb function in some patients after a Roux-en-Y, but our finding of worse abnormalities in those who had multiple previous gastric surgeries suggests that the symptoms and dysfunction may be related to the number of surgeries, as well as to the type of surgery.

  7. Quantifying the effects of inactin vs Isoflurane anesthesia on gastrointestinal motility in rats using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging and spatio-temporal maps. (United States)

    Ailiani, A C; Neuberger, T; Brasseur, J G; Banco, G; Wang, Y; Smith, N B; Webb, A G


    Anesthetics are commonly applied in animal studies of gastrointestinal (GI) function. Different anesthetics alter smooth-muscle motility in different ways. The aim of this study is to quantify and compare non-invasively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the motility patterns of the rat gut when anesthetized with inactin vs isoflurane anesthetics in the fed state. Rats were given an oral gavage of MRI contrast agent for improved visualization of the GI tract. Two-dimensional images through the jejunum of the pre- and postanesthetized rat in the fed state were acquired every 168 ms. Image registration, segmentation, and postprocessing algorithms were applied to produce spatio-temporal maps that were used to quantify peristaltic and segmental motions in the jejunum region interspersed between periods of inactivity. There were significantly longer periods of inactivity in the rats treated with isoflurane than in those treated with inactin (179.9 ± 22.4 s vs 17.7 ± 10.3 s). The speed of propagation and wavelength of peristalsis, and the frequency and speed of pattern switching of segmental motility, were higher (p < 0.05) in rats treated with inactin. Isoflurane and inactin anesthetics produce significantly different motility behavior with the rat's GI tract in the fed state. Isoflurane anesthetic, results in a reduced frequency of occurrence of motility periods and an overall reduced level of motility in comparison with inactin. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Peptide YY, neuropeptide Y and corticotrophin-releasing factor modulate gastrointestinal motility and food intake during acute stress. (United States)

    Forbes, Sarah C; Cox, Helen M


    Peripheral neuropeptide Y (NPY) provides protection against the endocrine, feeding and gastrointestinal (GI) responses to stress; however, it is not yet established how it interacts with corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) to mediate these effects. Peptide YY (PYY) also has significant roles in GI motility and food intake but little is known about its role in stress responses. Upper GI transit, fecal pellet output (FPO) and feeding responses, and the role of CRF1 receptors, during restraint or a novel environment stress, were ascertained in PYY-/-, NPY-/- and wild type (WT) mice, with CRF and the CRF1 antagonist, antalarmin, injected intraperitoneally. Upper GI transit and FPO were significantly increased in PYY-/- mice during restraint stress. Exogenous CRF increased defecation during placement in a novel environment in WT mice through CRF1 , while CRF1 blockade reduced defecation in WT and NPY-/- mice but had no effect in PYY-/- mice. In addition, CRF1 blockade had no effect on upper GI transit in WT mice, or on food intake in PYY-/- or NPY-/- mice, but it significantly increased food intake in WT mice. Endogenous NPY appears to inhibit the colonic motor response induced by CRF1 activation, unlike PYY, while both peptides are required for CRF1 modulation of feeding behavior during stress. Overall, these results provide new insights into the mechanism by which PYY and NPY affect stress responses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Gastrointestinal motility after pancreatoduodenectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berge Henegouwen, M. I.; van Gulik, T. M.; Moojen, T. M.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.; Gouma, D. J.


    Pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) is a major surgical procedure which is accompanied by a high morbidity of between 30 and 50%. A large part of this morbidity is caused by delayed gastric emptying (DGE), which is reported to have an incidence of between 30 and 40% and is associated with prolonged hospital

  10. Motility in the L3 stage is a poor phenotype for detecting and measuring resistance to avermectin/milbemycin drugs in gastrointestinal nematodes of livestock. (United States)

    George, Melissa M; Lopez-Soberal, Lorraine; Storey, Bob E; Howell, Sue B; Kaplan, Ray M


    Motility is a commonly used in vitro phenotype for assessing anthelmintic activity of candidate compounds, and for detecting anthelmintic resistance in nematodes. Third-stage larvae (L3) of parasitic nematodes are commonly used in motility-based assays because L3 are simple to obtain and can remain viable in storage for extended periods. To improve the measurement of motility of microscopic stages of nematodes, our laboratory developed the Worminator, which quantitatively measures motility of parasites. Using the Worminator, we compared the dose-response characteristics of several avermectin/milbemycin (AM) compounds using L3 from both AM-susceptible and AM-resistant Cooperia spp. (abamectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin) and Haemonchus contortus (eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin). Concentrations tested with the Worminator ranged from 0.156 to 40 μM. Differences in EC50 between AM-susceptible and AM-resistant isolates of Cooperia spp. and Haemonchus contortus were small, with resistance ratios ranging from 1.00 to 1.34 for Cooperia spp., 0.99 to 1.65 for Haemonchus contortus. Larval migration inhibition assays were conducted using the same isolates and were equally ineffective for detection of resistance with resistance ratios less than 2.0. These results contrast with those of the Larval Development Assay where we obtained a resistance ratio of 16.48 using the same isolates of Haemonchus contortus. Moreover, even at the highest concentration tested (40 μM), 100% inhibition of motility was never achieved and EC50 for Worminator assays were more than 100× higher than peak plasma levels achieved in vivo following treatment. These data demonstrate that dose-response characteristics for inhibition of motility in L3 of gastrointestinal nematodes of livestock do not significantly differ for AM-susceptible and AM-resistant isolates. These data challenge the suitability of motility as a phenotype for detecting and measuring resistance to AM

  11. Randomised clinical trial: prucalopride, a colonic pro-motility agent, reduces the duration of post-operative ileus after elective gastrointestinal surgery. (United States)

    Gong, J; Xie, Z; Zhang, T; Gu, L; Yao, W; Guo, Z; Li, Y; Lu, N; Zhu, W; Li, N; Li, J


    Previous studies have shown that recovery of colonic transit is a major determinant of post-operative ileus and clinical recovery after gastrointestinal surgery. Prucalopride is a highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor-4 agonist with colonic pro-motility effects. To evaluate the effect and safety of prucalopride on post-operative ileus and surgical outcomes after elective gastrointestinal surgery. In this phase II randomised clinical trial, 110 patients undergoing elective gastrointestinal surgery were randomised to either oral prucalopride (2 mg/day) (n = 55) or placebo (n = 55). Intervention was started 24 h after surgery and stopped after defecation or maximally at 7 days. The primary outcome was time to defecation. Secondary outcomes included time to first passage of flatus, tolerance of solid food, nasogastric tube reinsertion, post-operative length of stay, hospital readmission, overall cost, time to walk independently, surgical complications and inflammatory parameters. Patients who received prucalopride had a shorter time to defecation (65.0 vs. 94.5 h, P = 0.001), passage of flatus (53.0 vs. 73.0 h, P 5 days) (16.4% vs. 34.5%, P = 0.026) and the C-reactive protein level on post-operative day 5 (35.67 vs. 59.07 mg/L, P = 0.040) were lower in the prucalopride group. There was no significant difference in post-operative Clavien-Dindo grade III and IV complications (P = 0.606) between the groups. Prucalopride is a safe and effective treatment to reduce post-operative ileus and systemic inflammation without affecting post-operative complications in patients undergoing elective gastrointestinal surgery. NCT02004652. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Clinical and experimental studies on gastrointestinal motility following total colectomy: direct measurement (strain gauge force transducer method, barium method) and indirect measurement (hydrogen breath test, acetaminophen method)]. (United States)

    Kayama, H; Koh, K


    In a clinical study, we examined the clinical assessment of bowel function and lactulose hydrogen breath test in 14 patients after total colectomy. All patients within one year after ileostomy closure had 'poor' function and showed no increase of hydrogen breath gas concentration. 10 of 12 patients more than one year showed increase of hydrogen breath gas concentration, and 8 of them had 'fair' function. The oro-neorectal transit time (ONTT) in 'poor' group was shorter than in 'fair' group and control (p less than 0.05). The increase of hydrogen breath gas suggests changes of bacterial flora and colonization of the remained ileum. In an experimental study, we performed subtotal colectomy with the J-pouch reservoir in 11 dogs. We examined ONTT with barium method, gastric emptying with acetaminophen method, and gastrointestinal motility with strain gauge force transducers. Although ONTT at one month after operation had been shorter than control, ONTT at 3 and 6 months became longer than at one month. The gastric emptying after subtotal colectomy was significantly slower than control. Although the propagation velocity of interdigestive migrating complex (IMC) in the jejunum and ileum at 2 weeks had been faster than control, the velocity at 4 weeks and 3 months became slower than at 2 weeks. The frequency of IMC and prolonged propagated contraction in the J-pouch reservoir decreased. The specimen of J-pouch reservoir resected at 6 months showed villous atrophy, crypt elongation, decrease of muscle layers thickness and disappearance of solitary follicles. Therefore, the suppressed motility in each sites of the gastrointestinal tract, increase of anaerobic and colonization of the ileum implied 'adaptation' after total colectomy.

  13. Effects of chronic dietary exposure to monosodium glutamate on feeding behavior, adiposity, gastrointestinal motility, and cardiovascular function in healthy adult rats. (United States)

    López-Miranda, V; Soto-Montenegro, M L; Uranga-Ocio, J A; Vera, G; Herradón, E; González, C; Blas, C; Martínez-Villaluenga, M; López-Pérez, A E; Desco, M; Abalo, R


    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a flavor-enhancer widely used as a food additive. However, its safe dietary concentration and its toxicity, including its possible implication in the recent metabolic syndrome pandemia, is still a controversial issue. Therefore, a deep knowledge of its effects upon regular dietary use is needed. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to MSG on feeding behavior, abdominal fat, gastrointestinal motility, and cardiovascular function in rats. Two groups of adult male Wistar rats were used: control and treated with MSG (4 g/L in drinking water) for 6 weeks. Different functional parameters were determined and the histological structure was analyzed in tissues of interest. Compared to control animals, chronic MSG increased water intake but did not modify food ingestion or body weight gain. Neither the abdominal fat volume nor the fat fraction, measured by magnetic resonance imaging, was modified by MSG. Monosodium glutamate did not alter general gastrointestinal motility, but significantly increased the colonic response to mechanical stimulation. It slightly reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation in aorta, without significantly modifying any other cardiovascular parameters. No significant histological alterations were detected in salivary glands, intestinal wall, aorta, heart, and kidney. Chronic treatment with MSG in the adult rat increased water intake. This supports its potential to improve acceptance of low-fat regimens and to increase hydration in the elderly and sportspeople, often at risk of dehydration. Changes in colonic contractility and cardiovascular function could have some long-term repercussions warranting further research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Production and first use of {sup 153}SmCl{sub 3}-ion exchange resin capsule formulation for assessing gastrointestinal motility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeong, Chai-Hong; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet; Ng, Kwan-Hoong [University of Malaya Research Imaging Centre, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chung, Lip-Yong [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Goh, Khean-Lee [Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sarji, Sazilah Ahmad [University of Malaya Research Imaging Centre, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Perkins, Alan Christopher, E-mail: [Radiological and Imaging Sciences and Nottingham Digestive Diseases Biomedical Research Unit, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH (United Kingdom)


    We produced an enteric-coated gelatine capsule containing neutron-activated {sup 153}Sm-labelled resin beads for use in gastrointestinal motility studies. In vitro test in simulated gastrointestinal environment and in vivo study on volunteers were performed. Scintigraphic images were acquired from ten volunteers over 24 h while blood and urine samples were collected to monitor the presence of {sup 153}Sm. All the capsules remained intact in stomach. This proved to be a safe and practical oral capsule formulation for whole gut transit scintigraphy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enteric-coated gelatin capsule containing {sup 153}Sm-labelled resin was manufactured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vitro disintegration test ensured targeted release properties of the formulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vivo volunteers study confirmed safeness and practical use of the formulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 153}Sm can be used as an alternative nuclide to {sup 111}In in GI transit scintigraphy.

  15. Apocynin attenuates motility and induces transition from sustained to transient EGF-dependent Akt activation in MCF-7 cells that overexpress adaptor protein Ruk/CIN85

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazalii A. V.


    Full Text Available Aim. To study a possible involvement of NADPH oxidases in the control of cell motility and Akt signaling in the human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells that stably overexpress the full-length form of adaptor protein Ruk/CIN85. Methods. Cell motility was studied by a transwell migration assay. The dynamics of EGF-induced Akt activation was investigated by Western blot analysis. Results. It has been shown that apocynin, an inhibitor of the assembly of plasma membrane NADPH oxidases, substantially attenuates the motility of Ruk/CIN85 overexpressing MCF-7 cells (subclone G10 in comparison with control cells. In addition, apocynin induced the transition from sustained to transient EGF-dependent Akt activation in G10 cells and did not influence transient Akt activation in control cells. Conclusions. The data obtained can suggest that ROS produced by NADPH oxidases are signaling components, upstream to Akt kinase, that mediate the increased migratory potential of Ruk/CIN85 overexpressing MCF-7 cells.

  16. Psyllium fiber-enriched meal strongly attenuates postprandial gastrointestinal peptide release in healthy young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karhunen, Leila J.; Juvonen, Kristiina R.; Flander, Sanna M.


    Dietary fiber (DF) and protein are essential constituents of a healthy diet and are well known for their high satiety impact. However, little is known about their influence on postprandial gastrointestinal (GI) peptide release. Our aim in this single-blind, randomized, cross-over study was to inv...

  17. Low Buffer Capacity and Alternating Motility along the Human Gastrointestinal Tract: Implications for in Vivo Dissolution and Absorption of Ionizable Drugs. (United States)

    Hens, Bart; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Bermejo, Marival; Paixao, Paulo; Koenigsknecht, Mark J; Baker, Jason R; Hasler, William L; Lionberger, Robert; Fan, Jianghong; Dickens, Joseph; Shedden, Kerby; Wen, Bo; Wysocki, Jeffrey; Loebenberg, Raimar; Lee, Allen; Frances, Ann; Amidon, Greg; Yu, Alex; Benninghoff, Gail; Salehi, Niloufar; Talattof, Arjang; Sun, Duxin; Amidon, Gordon L


    In this study, we determined the pH and buffer capacity of human gastrointestinal (GI) fluids (aspirated from the stomach, duodenum, proximal jejunum, and mid/distal jejunum) as a function of time, from 37 healthy subjects after oral administration of an 800 mg immediate-release tablet of ibuprofen (reference listed drug; RLD) under typical prescribed bioequivalence (BE) study protocol conditions in both fasted and fed states (simulated by ingestion of a liquid meal). Simultaneously, motility was continuously monitored using water-perfused manometry. The time to appearance of phase III contractions (i.e., housekeeper wave) was monitored following administration of the ibuprofen tablet. Our results clearly demonstrated the dynamic change in pH as a function of time and, most significantly, the extremely low buffer capacity along the GI tract. The buffer capacity on average was 2.26 μmol/mL/ΔpH in fasted state (range: 0.26 and 6.32 μmol/mL/ΔpH) and 2.66 μmol/mL/ΔpH in fed state (range: 0.78 and 5.98 μmol/mL/ΔpH) throughout the entire upper GI tract (stomach, duodenum, and proximal and mid/distal jejunum). The implication of this very low buffer capacity of the human GI tract is profound for the oral delivery of both acidic and basic active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). An in vivo predictive dissolution method would require not only a bicarbonate buffer but also, more significantly, a low buffer capacity of dissolution media to reflect in vivo dissolution conditions.

  18. Beneficial Effects of Anti-Interleukin-6 Antibodies on Impaired Gastrointestinal Motility, Inflammation and Increased Colonic Permeability in a Murine Model of Sepsis Are Most Pronounced When Administered in a Preventive Setup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nullens

    Full Text Available During sepsis, gastrointestinal ileus, mucosal barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation are accepted to be important triggers that can maintain or exacerbate the septic state. In the caecal ligation and puncture animal model of sepsis, we demonstrated that systemic and colonic interleukin-6 levels are significantly increased coinciding with an impaired colonic barrier function. We therefore aimed to study the effect of therapeutic or curative administration of anti-IL6 antibodies on overall GI motility, colonic permeability and translocation of intestinal bacteria in blood and mesenteric lymph nodes in the mouse caecal ligation and puncture model.OF-1 mice were randomized to either the preventive or curative protocol, in which they received 1 mg/kg of antibodies to interleukin-6, or its IgG isotype control solution. They subsequently underwent either the caecal ligation and puncture procedure, or sham-surgery. GI motility was assessed 48 h following the procedure, as well as colonic permeability, serum and colon cytokines, colonic tight junction proteins at the mRNA level; cultures of blood and mesenteric lymph nodes were performed.Preventive administration of anti-interleukin-6 antibodies successfully counteracted the gastrointestinal motility disturbances and impaired colonic barrier function that could be observed in vehicle-treated septic animals. Serum and colonic levels of proinflammatory cytokines were significantly lower when animals were preventively treated with anti-interleukin-6 antibodies. A repetitive injection 24 h later resulted in the most pronounced effects. Curative treatment significantly lowered systemic and colonic inflammation markers while the effects on transit and permeability were unfortunately no longer significant.Caecal ligation and puncture resulted in septic ileus with an increased colonic permeability. Antibodies to interleukin-6 were able to ameliorate gastro-intestinal motility, suppress inflammation and

  19. A psyllium fiber-enriched meal strongly attenuates postprandial gastrointestinal peptide release in healthy young adults. (United States)

    Karhunen, Leila J; Juvonen, Kristiina R; Flander, Sanna M; Liukkonen, Kirsi-Helena; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Siloaho, Maritta; Laaksonen, David E; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Uusitupa, Matti I; Poutanen, Kaisa S


    Dietary fiber (DF) and protein are essential constituents of a healthy diet and are well known for their high satiety impact. However, little is known about their influence on postprandial gastrointestinal (GI) peptide release. Our aim in this single-blind, randomized, cross-over study was to investigate the effects of DF and/or protein enrichments on satiety-related metabolic and hormonal responses. Sixteen healthy, nonobese volunteers participated in the study and ingested 1 of 5 isoenergetic test meals in a randomized order on separate days. The test meals were as follows: 1) low in protein (2.8 g) and fiber (7.6 g); 2) low in protein (2.6 g) and high in soluble fiber (psyllium, 23.0 g); 3) high in protein (soy, 19.7 g) and low in fiber (6.2 g); 4) high in protein (18.4 g) and fiber (23.0 g); and 5) white wheat bread. Serum insulin and plasma glucose, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations were determined for 2 h following the meals. In addition, hunger and satiety ratings were collected. Postprandial glucose, insulin, ghrelin, GLP-1, and PYY responses all differed among the meals (P psyllium fiber strongly modified postprandial signals arising from the GI tract.

  20. Live Probiotic Cultures and the Gastrointestinal Tract: Symbiotic Preservation of Tolerance Whilst Attenuating Pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eVitetta


    Full Text Available Bacteria comprise the earliest form of independent life on this planet. Bacterial development has included co–operative symbiosis with plants (e.g., Leguminosae family and nitrogen fixing bacteria in soil and animals (e.g., the gut microbiome. A fusion event of two prokaryotes evolutionarily gave rise to the eukaryote cell in which mitochondria may be envisaged as a genetically functional mosaic, a relic from one of the prokaryote cells. The discovery of bacterial inhibitors such chloramphenicol and others has been exploited to highlight mitochondria as arising from a bacterial progenitor. As such the evolution of human life has been complexly connected to bacterial activity. This is embodied, by the appearance of mitochondria in eukaryotes (alphaproteobacteria contribution, a significant endosymbiotic evolutionary event. During the twentieth century there was an increasing dependency on anti–microbials as mainline therapy against bacterial infections. It is only comparatively recently that the essential roles played by the gastrointestinal tract (GIT microbiome in animal health and development has been recognized as opposed to the GIT microbiome being a toxic collection of micro–organisms. It is now well documented that t

  1. Early onset of efficacy in patients with functional and motility-related gastrointestinal disorders : A noninterventional study with Iberogast®. (United States)

    Raedsch, Richard; Vinson, Bettina; Ottillinger, Bertram; Holtmann, Gerald


    STW 5 (Iberogast®; Steigerwald Arzneimittelwerk GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany) contains nine plant extracts and possesses well-documented overall efficacy in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). Little is known about the onset of symptom relief. Twenty-nine centers in Germany recruited 272 patients with established FGID. These patients were treated with STW 5 for approximately 3 weeks in this noninterventional study. Patients assessed the severity of their gastrointestinal complaints before and at defined times after the intake of STW 5 (10 cm visual analogue scale; VAS). Fifteen minutes after the first dose, the severity of gastrointestinal complaints had decreased by 1.4 cm (mean; initial mean: 5.2 of 10 cm). After 1 h, more than 90% of the maximum effect of 3.2 cm on the 10 cm VAS had been reached. Most patients with symptoms experienced a marked improvement within 5, 15 or 30 min of taking STW 5. Absolute improvements were larger in patients with more pronounced baseline complaints. Subgroups with upper (80% of the study population) and lower FGID (20%) did not present major differences. Neither did subgroups by age and duration of complaints. Treatment with STW 5 resulted in rapid improvement of symptoms.

  2. Alpha-synuclein transgenic mice display age-related slowing of gastrointestinal motility associated with transgene expression in the vagal system. (United States)

    Noorian, Ali Reza; Rha, Jennifer; Annerino, Dana M; Bernhard, Douglas; Taylor, Georgia M; Greene, James G


    Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is the one of the most common non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and occurs in nearly every patient afflicted with this common neurodegenerative disorder. While parkinsonian motor symptoms are caused by degeneration of dopamine neurons in the midbrain substantia nigra, the neurological localization of non-motor symptoms in PD is not known. In this study, we examined a transgenic mouse model of PD in which mutant (A53T) human α-synuclein was expressed under control of the prion promoter (AS mice). We found that gastrointestinal expression of human α-synuclein in this transgenic line was limited to efferent fibers projecting from the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV) to the enteric nervous system (ENS). Older transgenic mice had a lower density of human α-synuclein expression in the GI tract, suggesting an age-related disruption of efferent vagal fibers in this model. At the same time, mice developed age-related declines in stool frequency and gastric emptying consistent with those seen in human PD. These behavioral and neuropathological patterns parallel those seen in PD patients and suggest the DMV as a target for further investigation into causes for GI neuropathology and symptomatology in parkinsonism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of ageing on gastrointestinal motor function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Madsen, Jan L; Graff, Jesper


    Existing data on the effect of ageing on gastrointestinal motility are few. In this study, we assessed the propulsive effect of all main segments of the gastrointestinal tract in a group of healthy older people...

  4. Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Peter


    Cell motility is a fascinating example of cell behavior which is fundamentally important to a number of biological and pathological processes. It is based on a complex self-organized mechano-chemical machine consisting of cytoskeletal filaments and molecular motors. In general, the cytoskeleton is responsible for the movement of the entire cell and for movements within the cell. The main challenge in the field of cell motility is to develop a complete physical description on how and why cells move. For this purpose new ways of modeling the properties of biological cells have to be found. This long term goal can only be achieved if new experimental techniques are developed to extract physical information from these living systems and if theoretical models are found which bridge the gap between molecular and mesoscopic length scales. Cell Motility gives an authoritative overview of the fundamental biological facts, theoretical models, and current experimental developments in this fascinating area.

  5. Melatonin attenuates (60) Co γ-ray-induced hematopoietic, immunological and gastrointestinal injuries in C57BL/6 male mice. (United States)

    Khan, Shahanshah; Adhikari, Jawahar Singh; Rizvi, Moshahid Alam; Chaudhury, Nabo Kumar


    Protection of hematopoietic, immunological, and gastrointestinal injuries from deleterious effects of ionizing radiation is prime rational for developing radioprotector. The objective of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the radioprotective potential of melatonin against damaging effects of radiation-induced hematopoietic, immunological, and gastrointestinal injuries in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were intraperitoneally administered with melatonin (50-150 mg/kg) 30 min prior to whole-body radiation exposure of 5 and 7.5 Gy using (60) Co-teletherapy unit. Thirty-day survival against 7.5 Gy was monitored. Melatonin (100 mg/kg) pretreatment showed 100% survival against 7.5 Gy radiation dose. Melatonin pretreatment expanded femoral HPSCs, and inhibited spleenocyte DNA strands breaks and apoptosis in irradiated mice. At this time, it also protected radiation-induced loss of T cell sub-populations in spleen. In addition, melatonin pretreatment enhanced crypts regeneration and increased villi number and length in irradiated mice. Translocation of gut bacteria to spleen, liver and kidney were controlled in irradiated mice pretreated with melatonin. Radiation-induced gastrointestinal DNA strand breaks, lipid peroxidation, and expression of proapoptotic-p53, Bax, and antiapoptotic-Bcl-xL proteins were reversed in melatonin pretreated mice. This increase of Bcl-xL was associated with the decrease of Bax/Bcl-xL ratio. ABTS and DPPH radical assays revealed that melatonin treatment alleviated total antioxidant capacity in hematopoietic and gastrointestinal tissues. Present study demonstrated that melatonin pretreatment was able to prevent hematopoietic, immunological, and gastrointestinal radiation-induced injury, therefore, overcoming lethality in mice. These results suggest potential of melatonin in developing radioprotector for protection of bone marrow, spleen, and gastrointestine in planned radiation exposure scenarios including radiotherapy. © 2016 Wiley

  6. Sodium houttuyfonate, a potential phytoanticipin derivative of antibacterial agent, inhibits bacterial attachment and pyocyanine secretion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by attenuating flagella-mediated swimming motility. (United States)

    Shao, Jing; Cheng, Huijuan; Wang, Changzhong; Wu, Daqiang; Zhu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Lingling; Sun, Zhenxin


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a well-known clinical pathogen for its recalcitrant infection caused by biofilm formation which are initiated by flagella-mediated attachment. Sodium houttuyfonate (SH) is a natural phytoanticipin derivative of houttuynin and has anti-pathogenic effect on P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. In this paper, when using 1/2 × MIC SH, the diameter of P. aeruginosa swimming motility was sharply shortened to 36 % in 24 h incubation, and the fold changes of fliC required for swimming motility was 0.36 in 24 h cultivation, the adherence inhibition accounted for about 46 %, and the pyocyanin production decreased to 47 % after 1-day treatment and 56 % after 3-day treatment with obvious visual changes from dark green to light green, compared with the negative control. With the help of mass spectra and scanning electronic microscope, 1/2 × MIC SH was further testified to be enough to eradicate flagella and inhibit pyocyanin secretion of P. aeruginosa. The results do not only re-affirm the close interplay of attachment and virulence (i.e. swimming motility and pyocyanin), but also unravel the potential mechanism of SH on anti-biofilm of P. aeruginosa.

  7. The GGDEF-domain protein GdpX1 attenuates motility, exopolysaccharide production and virulence in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. (United States)

    Yang, F; Qian, S; Tian, F; Chen, H; Hutchins, W; Yang, C-H; He, C


    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), a ubiquitous bacterial second messenger that is synthesized by diguanylate cyclase (DGC) with the GGDEF-domain, regulates diverse virulence phenotypes in pathogenic bacteria. Although 11 genes encoding GGDEF-domain proteins have been shown in the genome of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) strain PXO99(A) , the causal pathogen of bacterial blight of rice, however, little is known about their roles in the c-di-GMP regulation of virulence in the pathogen. GdpX1, one of the GGDEF-domain proteins in Xoo was investigated in this study to reveal its regulatory function of bacterial virulence expression through genetic analysis. GdpX1 was functionally characterized in virulence expression through deletion and overexpression analysis. Bioinformatics analysis revealed the GGDEF-domain in GdpX1 was well conserved, indicating it is a putative DGC. Deletion of gdpX1 resulted in significant increases in virulence, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and flagellar motility. In contrast, overexpression of gdpX1 dramatically reduced these virulence phenotypes. qRT-PCR analysis showed genes related to the type III secretion system (T3SS), EPS synthesis, and flagellar motility, were up-regulated in ∆gdpX1 and down-regulated in the gdpX1-overexpressed strains. In addition, overexpression of gdpX1 promoted biofilm formation and xylanase activity. GdpX1 is the first GGDEF-domain protein functionally characterized in Xoo, which functions as a negative regulator of bacterial virulence via suppression of virulence-related gene transcription. Identification and functional characterization of GdpX1 provided additional insights into molecular mechanisms of c-di-GMP regulation of bacterial virulence expression. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Aging and intestinal motility: a review of factors that affect intestinal motility in the aged.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, Denis


    Normal aging is associated with significant changes in the function of most organs and tissues. In this regard, the gastrointestinal tract is no exception. The purpose of this review is to detail the important age-related changes in motor function of the various parts of the gastrointestinal tract and to highlight some of the important motility changes that may occur, either in relation to common age-related disorders, or as a result of certain drugs commonly prescribed in the aged. A major confounding factor in the interpretation of motor phenomena throughout the gastrointestinal tract in this age group is the frequent coexistence of neurological, endocrinological and other disease states, which may be independently associated with dysmotility. Overall, current data are insufficient to implicate normal aging as a cause of dysmotility in the elderly. Normal aging is associated with various changes in gastrointestinal motility, but the clinical significance of such changes remains unclear. More important is the impact of various age-related diseases on gastrointestinal motility in the elderly: for example, long-standing diabetes mellitus may reduce gastric emptying in up to 50% of patients; depression significantly prolongs whole-gut transit time; hypothyroidism may prolong oro-caecal transit time; and chronic renal failure is associated with impaired gastric emptying. In addition, various, frequently used drugs in the elderly cause disordered gastrointestinal motility. These drugs include anticholinergics, especially antidepressants with an anticholinergic effect, opioid analgesics and calcium antagonists.

  9. IL-13 attenuates gastrointestinal candidiasis in normal and immunodeficient RAG-2(-/-) mice via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation. (United States)

    Coste, Agnès; Lagane, Céline; Filipe, Cédric; Authier, Hélène; Galès, Amandine; Bernad, José; Douin-Echinard, Victorine; Lepert, Jean-Claude; Balard, Patricia; Linas, Marie-Denise; Arnal, Jean-François; Auwerx, Johan; Pipy, Bernard


    We recently demonstrated that in vitro peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) activation of mouse peritoneal macrophages by IL-13 or PPARgamma ligands promotes uptake and killing of Candida albicans through mannose receptor overexpression. In this study, we demonstrate that i.p. treatment of immunocompetent and immunodeficient (RAG-2(-/-)) mice with natural and synthetic PPARgamma-specific ligands or with IL-13 decreases C. albicans colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract 8 days following oral infection with the yeast. We also showed that Candida GI infection triggers macrophage recruitment in cecum mucosa. These mucosal macrophages, as well as peritoneal macrophages, overexpress the mannose receptor after IL-13 and rosiglitazone treatments. The treatments promote macrophage activation against C. albicans as suggested by the increased ability of peritoneal macrophages to phagocyte C. albicans and to produce reactive oxygen intermediates after yeast challenge. These effects on C. albicans GI infection and on macrophage activation are suppressed by treatment of mice with GW9662, a selective PPARgamma antagonist, and are reduced in PPARgamma(+/-) mice. Overall, these data demonstrate that IL-13 or PPARgamma ligands attenuate C. albicans infection of the GI tract through PPARgamma activation and hence suggest that PPARgamma ligands may be of therapeutic value in esophageal and GI candidiasis in immunocompromised patients.

  10. Basic mechanisms of the aging gastrointestinal tract. (United States)

    Salles, N


    The goal of this short review is to summarize recent data on gastrointestinal changes with aging, focusing on gastrointestinal motility disorders, and mucosal variations. First of all, this review focused on gastrointestinal motility disorders with aging, even though an increased prevalence of several gastrointestinal motor disorders (i.e., dysphagia, dyspepsia, anorexia, and constipation) occurs in older people, aging per se appears to have a minor direct effect on most gastrointestinal functions. Secondly, this review focused on histological changes with aging, i.e., regulation of gastrointestinal mucosal growth, gastrointestinal carcinogenesis, and gastric mucosal changes, especially changes in gastric acid secretion, bacterial overgrowth and its consequences on elderly patients. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Effects of ageing on gastrointestinal motor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Graff, Jesper


    BACKGROUND: Existing data on the effect of ageing on gastrointestinal motility are few. In this study, we assessed the propulsive effect of all main segments of the gastrointestinal tract in a group of healthy older people. METHODS: 16 healthy volunteers (eight women, eight men) of mean age 81 ye...

  12. The Nervous System and Gastrointestinal Function (United States)

    Altaf, Muhammad A.; Sood, Manu R.


    The enteric nervous system is an integrative brain with collection of neurons in the gastrointestinal tract which is capable of functioning independently of the central nervous system (CNS). The enteric nervous system modulates motility, secretions, microcirculation, immune and inflammatory responses of the gastrointestinal tract. Dysphagia,…

  13. The ageing gastrointestinal tract. (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Rayner, Christopher K; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael


    This article reviews the impact of ageing on the gastrointestinal tract, including effects on the absorption of nutrients and drugs and the gastrointestinal tract defence system against ingested pathogens. Recent publications support earlier observations of an age-related selective decline in gut function including changes in taste, oesophageal sphincter motility, gastric emptying, and neurons of the myenteric plexus related to gut transit which may impact the nutritional status. Ageing is also associated with structural and functional mucosal defence defects, diminished abilities to generate protective immunity, and increased incidence of inflammation and oxidative stress. A number of gastrointestinal disorders occur more frequently in the elderly population. Alterations in gut function with ageing have particular implications for oesophageal, gastric, and colonic motility. Older individuals are particularly susceptible to malnutrition, postprandial hypotension, dysphagia, constipation, and faecal incontinence. Decrease in the number of nerve cells of the myenteric plexus that impact digestive absorption and the surface area of the small intestine because of degeneration of villi may lead to blunted absorption of nutrients. Impairment of the intestinal immune system as a result of ageing, including the mucosal layer of the gastrointestinal tract, appears to be a significant contributor to the age-related increase in the incidence and severity of infections.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ziganshina


    Full Text Available Objective: to highlight the current concepts of gastrointestinal manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction. The data available in Russian and foreign literature on the gastrointestinal manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction were analyzed. Functional digestive diseases are common in pediatric practice; however, their etiopathogenesis has not been adequately explored today. According to the literature, impaired cellular energy metabolism may underlie gastrointestinal motility disorders in cyclic vomiting syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux, gastric stasis, chronic diarrhea, constipation, intestinal pseudoobstruction, malabsorption syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, as well as diseases of the liver and pancreas.

  15. Cytoskeleton and Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Risler, Thomas


    The present article is an invited contribution to the Encyclopedia of Complexity and System Science, Robert A. Meyers Ed., Springer New York (2009). It is a review of the biophysical mechanisms that underly cell motility. It mainly focuses on the eukaryotic cytoskeleton and cell-motility mechanisms. Bacterial motility as well as the composition of the prokaryotic cytoskeleton is only briefly mentioned. The article is organized as follows. In Section III, I first present an overview of the diversity of cellular motility mechanisms, which might at first glance be categorized into two different types of behaviors, namely "swimming" and "crawling". Intracellular transport, mitosis - or cell division - as well as other extensions of cell motility that rely on the same essential machinery are briefly sketched. In Section IV, I introduce the molecular machinery that underlies cell motility - the cytoskeleton - as well as its interactions with the external environment of the cell and its main regulatory pathways. Sec...

  16. Effect of vanilloid drugs on gastrointestinal transit in mice (United States)

    Izzo, Angelo A; Capasso, Raffaele; Pinto, Luisa; Carlo, Giulia Di; Mascolo, Nicola; Capasso, Francesco


    We have studied the effect of capsaicin, piperine and anandamide, drugs which activate vanilloid receptors and capsazepine, a vanilloid receptor antagonist, on upper gastrointestinal motility in mice. Piperine (0.5 – 20 mg kg−1 i.p.) and anandamide (0.5 – 20 mg kg−1 i.p.), dose-dependently delayed gastrointestinal motility, while capsaicin (up to 3 mg kg−1 i.p.) was without effect. Capsazepine (15 mg kg−1 i.p.) neither per se affected gastrointestinal motility nor did it counteract the inhibitory effect of both piperine (10 mg kg−1) and anandamide (10 mg kg−1). A per se non effective dose of SR141716A (0.3 mg kg−1 i.p.), a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, counteracted the inhibitory effect of anandamide (10 mg kg−1) but not of piperine (10 mg kg−1). By contrast, the inhibitory effect of piperine (10 mg kg−1) but not of anandamide (10 mg kg−1) was strongly attenuated in capsaicin (75 mg kg−1 in total, s.c.)-treated mice. Pretreatment of mice with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (25 mg kg−1 i.p.), yohimbine (1 mg kg−1, i.p.), naloxone (2 mg kg−1 i.p.), or hexamethonium (1 mg kg−1 i.p.) did not modify the inhibitory effect of both piperine (10 mg kg−1) and anandamide (10 mg kg−1). The present study indicates that the vanilloid ligands anandamide and piperine, but not capsaicin, can reduce upper gastrointestinal motility. The effect of piperine involves capsaicin-sensitive neurones, but not vanilloid receptors, while the effect of anandamide involves cannabinoid CB1, but not vanilloid receptors. PMID:11264233

  17. [Esophageal motility disorders]. (United States)

    Hannig, C; Wuttge-Hannig, A; Rummeny, E


    For the better understanding of esophageal motility, the muscle texture and the distribution of skeletal and smooth muscle fibers in the esophagus are of crucial importance. Esophageal physiology will be shortly mentioned as far as necessary for a comprehensive understanding of peristaltic disturbances. Besides the pure depiction of morphologic criteria, a complete esophageal study has to include an analysis of the motility. New diagnostic tools with reduced radiation for dynamic imaging (digital fluoroscopy, videofluoroscopy) at 4-30 frames/s are available. Radiomanometry is a combination of a functional pressure measurement and a simultaneous dynamic morphologic analysis. Esophageal motility disorders are subdivided by radiologic and manometric criteria into primary, secondary, and nonclassifiable forms. Primary motility disorders of the esophagus are achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus, and the hypertonic lower esophageal sphincter. The secondary motility disorders include pseudoachalasia, reflux-associated motility disorders, functionally caused impactions, Boerhaave's syndrome, Chagas'disease, scleroderma, and presbyesophagus. The nonclassificable motility disorders (NEMD) are a very heterogeneous collective.

  18. Interstitial cells of Cajal in human gut and gastrointestinal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderwinden, J M; Rumessen, J J


    of their functional significance. Alterations of ICC reported in achalasia of cardia, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction, Hirschsprung's disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, slow transit constipation, and some other disorders of GI motility as well as in gastrointestinal...

  19. Effects of oral erythromycin on fasting and postprandial antroduodenal motility in patients with type I diabetes, measured with an ambulatory manometric technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samsom, M.; Jebbink, R. J.; Akkermans, L. M.; Bravenboer, B.; vanBerge-Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this double-blind crossover study was to evaluate the effects of oral erythromycin (250 mg t.i.d.) on fasting and postprandial gastrointestinal motility and gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with type I diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Antroduodenal motility was

  20. Gastric antrectomy with selective gastric vagotomy does not influence gallbladder motility during interdigestive and postprandial periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Pedersen, S A


    Fasting gastrointestinal motility and gallbladder motility during the interdigestive state and in the postprandial period was studied in eight patients who were operated for ulcer disease with an antrectomy and selective gastric vagotomy. Nocturnal motility recording revealed all three phases.......77%/min (0.33-0.86%/min). The values in the control group were 0 min (-9 to 13.5 min) and 0.76%/min (0.54-2.25%/min), respectively. These differences between the patients and controls were not significant. In conclusion, antrectomy and selective gastric vagotomy do not influence fasting gastrointestinal...

  1. NCAM regulates cell motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Søren; Lepekhin, Eugene A; Kolkova, Kateryna


    Cell migration is required during development of the nervous system. The regulatory mechanisms for this process, however, are poorly elucidated. We show here that expression of or exposure to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) strongly affected the motile behaviour of glioma cells...... independently of homophilic NCAM interactions. Expression of the transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (NCAM-140) caused a significant reduction in cellular motility, probably through interference with factors regulating cellular attachment, as NCAM-140-expressing cells exhibited a decreased attachment...... to a fibronectin substratum compared with NCAM-negative cells. Ectopic expression of the cytoplasmic part of NCAM-140 also inhibited cell motility, presumably via the non-receptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn) with which NCAM-140 interacts. Furthermore, we showed that the extracellular part of NCAM acted as a paracrine...

  2. Sphincter of Oddi motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funch-Jensen, P; Ebbehøj, N


    Gastroenterology. RESULTS: The SO is a zone with an elevated basal pressure with superimposed phasic contractions. It acts mainly as a resistor in the regulation of bile flow. Neurohormonal regulation influences the motility pattern. The contractions are under the control of slow waves. Clinical subgroups show...

  3. Motility of ureter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroth, H.J.; Steinstraesser, A.; Berberich, R.; Kloss, G.


    Motility of ureter. Changes of secretion-phase during sequential scintigraphy of the kidneys under the influence of Metamizol - a parameter to study the effect of Metamizol: The aim of the study is to get quantitative information about the effect of Metamizol (Novalgin) on the motility of the ureter. We compared the renal excretion of 99m-Tc-MDP (Tecebon) and the extent of flowing off towards gravity through the ureter with and without Metamizol. The effect of Metamizol is shown in comparing the final amplitudes of nephrograms recorded during sequential scintigraphy of the kidneys and comparing the integrals of these curves before and after injection of Metamizol. It can be demonstrated that the flow off towards gravity through the ureter is significantly diminished under Metamizol caused by its spasmolytic effect.

  4. Gastrointestinal tattoos. (United States)

    Snider, T E; Goodell, W M; Pulitzer, D R


    Tattooing of the gastrointestinal tract is used to facilitate the relocation of biopsy sites or other sites of interest at the time of subsequent biopsy or surgery. Submucosal injection of sterile india ink produces a zone of blue-black coloration that is grossly visible from both the mucosal and serosal surfaces. The pathology of gastrointestinal tattoos has only been briefly mentioned previously in the medical literature. We report two cases of gastrointestinal tattooing: one that was done to mark the margin of resection in a patient with gastric lymphoma, and the second that occurred unintentionally following the administration of activated charcoal for drug overdosage in a patient with undiagnosed active inflammatory bowel disease. Unintentional tattooing of the gastrointestinal tract has, therefore, not been reported.

  5. Gastrointestinal emergencies. (United States)

    Aronson, L R; Brockman, D J; Brown, D C


    The animal with a surgical gastrointestinal emergency usually requires a rapid, thorough physical examination with concurrent resuscitation. As the diagnosis is being made, the animal must be made as stable as possible before undergoing general anesthesia. During surgery, there must be a critical evaluation of gastrointestinal viability and the use of precise technical skills to achieve the best outcome. Adept postoperative management, including careful monitoring and an index of suspicion for potential complications, is vital.

  6. Characterization of pro-inflammatory flagellin proteins produced by Lactobacillus ruminis and related motile Lactobacilli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Anne Neville

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus ruminis is one of at least twelve motile but poorly characterized species found in the genus Lactobacillus. Of these, only L. ruminis has been isolated from mammals, and this species may be considered as an autochthonous member of the gastrointestinal microbiota of humans, pigs and cows. Nine L. ruminis strains were investigated here to elucidate the biochemistry and genetics of Lactobacillus motility. Six strains isolated from humans were non-motile while three bovine isolates were motile. A complete set of flagellum biogenesis genes was annotated in the sequenced genomes of two strains, ATCC25644 (human isolate and ATCC27782 (bovine isolate, but only the latter strain produced flagella. Comparison of the L. ruminis and L. mali DSM20444(T motility loci showed that their genetic content and gene-order were broadly similar, although the L. mali motility locus was interrupted by an 11.8 Kb region encoding rhamnose utilization genes that is absent from the L. ruminis motility locus. Phylogenetic analysis of 39 motile bacteria indicated that Lactobacillus motility genes were most closely related to those of motile carnobacteria and enterococci. Transcriptome analysis revealed that motility genes were transcribed at a significantly higher level in motile L. ruminis ATCC27782 than in non-motile ATCC25644. Flagellin proteins were isolated from L. ruminis ATCC27782 and from three other Lactobacillus species, while recombinant flagellin of aflagellate L. ruminis ATCC25644 was expressed and purified from E. coli. These native and recombinant Lactobacillus flagellins, and also flagellate L. ruminis cells, triggered interleukin-8 production in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells in a manner suppressed by short interfering RNA directed against Toll-Like Receptor 5. This study provides genetic, transcriptomic, phylogenetic and immunological insights into the trait of flagellum-mediated motility in the lactobacilli.

  7. Upper gastrointestinal motility: prenatal development and problems in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singendonk, Maartje M. J.; Rommel, Nathalie; Omari, Taher I.; Benninga, Marc A.; van Wijk, Michiel P.


    Deglutition, or swallowing, refers to the process of propulsion of a food bolus from the mouth into the stomach and involves the highly coordinated interplay of swallowing and breathing. At 34 weeks gestational age most neonates are capable of successful oral feeding if born at this time; however,

  8. Gastrointestinal System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jepson, Mark A.; Bouwmeester, Hans


    The epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) acts as a barrier to uptake of potentially dangerous material while allowing absorption of processed food. The gut may be exposed to a diverse range of engineered nanomaterials due to their deliberate addition to food and consumer products

  9. Stress, Anxiety and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir


    Full Text Available Stress has major role in functional gastrointestinal system disorders. The most typical example of this situation is Irritable bowel syndrome. Gastrointestinal system’s response to acute or short-term of stress is delay of gastric emptying and stimulation of colonic transition. While CRF2 receptors are mediate the upper section inhibition, CRF1 is responsible for the lower part colonic and anxiogenic response. Visceral hypersensitivity is managed by the emotional motor system, the amygdala plays a significant role and mucosal mast cells arise. But in people with symptoms of functional gastrointestinal, how is differ motility response in healthy individuals, this situation is due to lack of autonomous nervous system or an increased sensitivity of stress is not adequately understood. The brain-gastrointestinal axis frequency and severity of symptoms associated with negative emotions. American Gastroenterology Association is closely associated with the quality of life and is very difficult to treat the symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders, re-interpreted under the heading of 'Gastrointestinal Distress'. This review is defined as gastrointestinal distresses, physical, emotional, and behavioral components as a disorder in which, almost like an anxiety disorder are discussed. Physical component is pain, gas, and defecation problems, cognitive component is external foci control, catastrophization and anticipatory anxiety, the emotional component is somatic anxiety, hypervigilance, and avoidance of gastrointestinal stimuli as defined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(2.000: 122-133

  10. [Age-related functional gastrointestinal disorders]. (United States)

    Frieling, T


    The demographic development will lead to a disproportionate increase of older people and to a significant increase of functional gastrointestinal disorders including dysphagia due to motility and reflux-related disorders, nausea and vomiting by gastrointestinal dysfunction and abdominal and pelvic pain caused by chronic obstipation, stool impaction and incontinence. This implies significant consequences with regard to the development of weight loss, anorexia, social disadvantages and increased mortality with serious socio-economic burden. Ageing processes are determined by differentiated neurogeneration of the myenteric plexus (cholinergic degeneration) through reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and alteration of protective and regenerative processes. Age-related gastrointestinal dysfunctions may be caused by the ageing gastrointestinal tract itself or by other age-related diseases such as tumour, neurological or inflammatory diseases, anatomic changes, therapeutic medication, polymorbidity or malnutrition. Because of the significant therapeutic options, differential diagnostic work-up is mandatory also in elderly patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Motility of electric cable bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Holm, Simon Agner


    Cable bacteria are filamentous bacteria that electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction at centimeter distances, and observations in sediment environments have suggested that they are motile. By time-lapse microscopy, we found that cable bacteria used gliding motility on surfaces...

  12. Effects of ageing on gastrointestinal motor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Graff, Jesper


    BACKGROUND: Existing data on the effect of ageing on gastrointestinal motility are few. In this study, we assessed the propulsive effect of all main segments of the gastrointestinal tract in a group of healthy older people. METHODS: 16 healthy volunteers (eight women, eight men) of mean age 81...... years (range 74-85 years) participated in the study. Gastric emptying and small intestinal and colonic transit rates were determined by gamma camera technique. The technique was also used to measure the postprandial frequency of antral contractions. Furthermore, we assessed the effects of gender, body...

  13. Anti-stress effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on colonic motility in rats. (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Sazu; Babygirija, Reji; Dobner, Anthony; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku


    Disorders of colonic motility may contribute to symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and stress is widely believed to play a major role in developing IBS. Stress increases corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) of the hypothalamus, resulting in acceleration of colonic transit in rodents. In contrast, hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT) has an anti-stress effect via inhibiting CRF expression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Although transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and acupuncture have been shown to have anti-stress effects, the mechanism of the beneficial effects remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that TENS upregulates hypothalamic OXT expression resulting in reduced CRF expression and restoration of colonic dysmotility in response to chronic stress. Male SD rats received different types of stressors for seven consecutive days (chronic heterotypic stress). TENS was applied to the bilateral hind limbs every other day before stress loading. Another group of rats did not receive TENS treatment. TENS significantly attenuated accelerated colonic transit induced by chronic heterotypic stress, which was antagonized by a central injection of an OXT antagonist. Immunohistochemical study showed that TENS increased OXT expression and decreased CRF expression at the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) following chronic heterotypic stress. It is suggested that TENS upregulates hypothalamic OXT expression which acts as an anti-stressor agent and mediates restored colonic dysmotility following chronic stress. TENS may be useful to treat gastrointestinal symptoms associated with stress.

  14. Surface motility of Myxococcus Xanthus (United States)

    Gibiansky, Maxsim; Hu, William; Jin, Fan; Zhao, Kun; Shi, Wenyuan; Wong, Gerard


    We examine the surface motility of Myxococcus Xanthus, a bacterium species found in soil that exhibits a broad range of self-organizing behavior, including predatory ``swarms'' and survival-enhancing ``fruiting bodies.'' To quantify the effects of exopolysaccharides (EPS) on surface adhesion and motility, we use modified versions of particle tracking algorithms from colloid physics to analyze bacterial trajectories, and compare the wild type (WT) strain to EPS knockout and EPS overproducer strains. We find that EPS deficiency leads to an increase in the number of ``standing'' bacteria oriented normal to the surface, attached by one end with minimal motility. EPS overproduction, by contrast, suppresses this phenotype. A detailed investigation of the influence of EPS on Myxococcus social motility will be presented.

  15. A quarter Wheatstone bridge strain gage force transducer for recording gut motility. (United States)

    Cowles, V E; Condon, R E; Schulte, W J; Woods, J H; Sillin, L F


    Quarter and half Wheatstone bridge extraluminal force transducers for recording of gastrointestinal motility are compared. Modification of the transducer to a quarter bridge is economical, simplifies construction, and improves longevity by eliminating the crossover wire which frequently short circuits. The quarter bridge transducer was found to be as accurate and sensitive as the half bridge transducer.

  16. Gastrointestinal malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; Dolk, Helen


    malformations, although not statistically significant for gastroschisis. There was little difference in median birthweight by GA for the pre- and postnatally diagnosed infants. The difference in GA at birth between prenatally and postnatally diagnosed infants with GIMs is enough to increase the risk......The aim of the study was to analyse the degree to which gestational age (GA) has been shortened due to prenatal diagnosis of gastrointestinal malformations (GIM). The data source for the study was 14 population-based registries of congenital malformations (EUROCAT). All liveborn infants with GIMs...... and without chromosomal anomalies, born 1997-2002, were included. The 14 registries identified 1047 liveborn infants with one or more GIMs (oesophageal atresia, duodenal atresia, omphalocele, gastroschisis and diaphragmatic hernia). Median GA at birth was lower in prenatally diagnosed cases for all five...

  17. Prevalence of Opioid Dispensings and Concurrent Gastrointestinal Medications in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E Williams


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Opioids are frequently prescribed for moderate to severe pain. A side effect of opioid usage is the inhibition of gastrointestinal (GI motility, known as opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OBD. OBD is typically treated prophylactically with laxatives and/or acid suppressants.

  18. The Impact of Opioid Treatment on Regional Gastrointestinal Transit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Nilsson, Matias; Brock, Christina


    BACKGROUND/AIMS: To employ an experimental model of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction in healthy human volunteers, and evaluate the impact ofopioid treatment compared to placebo on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and motility assessed by questionnaires and regional GItransit times using the 3...... during opioid treatment. Oxycodone increased median total GI transit time from 22.2 to 43.9 hours (P

  19. Interstitial cells in the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie


    (electrical slow waves of depolarization) of the smooth musculature and are involved in neurotransmission. By integration of ICC functions, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the neuromuscular control of gastrointestinal motility, opening novel therapeutic perspectives. In this article...

  20. High-resolution esophageal pressure topography for esophageal motility disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Fakhre Yaseri


    Full Text Available Background: High-resolution manometer (HRM of the esophagus has become the main diagnostic test in the evaluation of esophageal motility disorders. The development of high-resolution manometry catheters and software displays of manometry recordings in color-coded pressure plots have changed the diagnostic assessment of esophageal disease. The first step of the Chicago classification described abnormal esophagogastric junction deglutitive relaxation. The latest classification system, proposed by Pandolfino et al, includes contraction patterns and peristalsis integrity based on integrated relaxation pressure 4 (IRP4. It can be discriminating the achalasia from non-achalasia esophageal motility disorders. The aim of this study was to assessment of clinical findings in non-achalasia esophageal motility disorders based on the most recent Chicago classification. Methods: We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study of 963 patients that had been referred to manometry department of Gastrointestinal and Liver Research Center, Firozgar Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from April, 2012 to April, 2015. They had upper GI disorder (Dysphasia, non-cardiac chest pain, regurgitation, heartburn, vomiting and asthma and weight loss. Data were collected from clinical examinations as well as patient questionnaires. Manometry, water-perfused, was done for all patients. Manometry criteria of the patients who had integrated relaxation pressure 4 (IRP4 ≤ 15 mmHg were studied. Results: Our finding showed that the non-achalasia esophageal motility disorders (58% was more common than the achalasia (18.2%. Heartburn (68.5%, regurgitation (65.4% and non-cardiac chest pain (60.6% were the most common clinical symptoms. Although, vomiting (91.7% and weight loss (63% were the most common symptoms in referring patients but did not discriminate this disorders from each other’s. Borderline motor function (67.2% was the most common, absent peristalsis (97% and the hyper

  1. Motility of electric cable bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Holm, Simon Agner


    Cable bacteria are filamentous bacteria that electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction at centimeter distances, and observations in sediment environments have suggested that they are motile. By time-lapse microscopy, we found that cable bacteria used gliding motility on surfaces...... with a highly variable speed of 0.50.3 ms1 (meanstandard deviation) and time between reversals of 155108 s. They frequently moved forward in loops, and formation of twisted loops revealed helical rotation of the filaments. Cable bacteria responded to chemical gradients in their environment, and around the oxic......-anoxic interface, they curled and piled up, with straight parts connecting back to the source of sulfide. Thus, it appears that motility serves the cable bacteria in establishing and keeping optimal connections between their distant electron donor and acceptors in a dynamic sediment environment....

  2. Stochastic models of cell motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradinaru, Cristian


    Cell motility and migration are central to the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms, and errors during this process can lead to major diseases. Consequently, the mechanisms and phenomenology of cell motility are currently under intense study. In recent years, a new...... interdisciplinary field focusing on the study of biological processes at the nanoscale level, with a range of technological applications in medicine and biological research, has emerged. The work presented in this thesis is at the interface of cell biology, image processing, and stochastic modeling. The stochastic...... models introduced here are based on persistent random motion, which I apply to real-life studies of cell motility on flat and nanostructured surfaces. These models aim to predict the time-dependent position of cell centroids in a stochastic manner, and conversely determine directly from experimental...

  3. Flagella Overexpression Attenuates Salmonella Pathogenesis


    Xinghong Yang; Theresa Thornburg; Zhiyong Suo; SangMu Jun; Amanda Robison; Jinquan Li; Timothy Lim; Ling Cao; Teri Hoyt; Recep Avci; Pascual, David W.


    Flagella are cell surface appendages involved in a number of bacterial behaviors, such as motility, biofilm formation, and chemotaxis. Despite these important functions, flagella can pose a liability to a bacterium when serving as potent immunogens resulting in the stimulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Previous work showing appendage overexpression, referred to as attenuating gene expression (AGE), was found to enfeeble wild-type Salmonella. Thus, this approach was adapted to...

  4. Motility of Campylobacter concisus isolated from saliva, feces, and gut mucosal biopsies. (United States)

    Ovesen, Sandra; Kirk, Karina Frahm; Nielsen, Hans Linde; Nielsen, Henrik


    Campylobacter concisus is an emerging pathogen associated with gastrointestinal disorders such as gastroenteritis and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but the species is also found in healthy subjects. The heterogeneous genome of C. concisus increases the likelihood of varying virulence between strains. Flagella motility is a crucial virulence factor for the well-recognized Campylobacter jejuni; therefore, this study aimed to analyze the motility of C. concisus isolated from saliva, gut biopsies, and feces of patients with IBD, gastroenteritis, and healthy subjects. The motility zones of 63 isolates from 52 patients were measured after microaerobic growth in soft-agar plates for 72 hours. The motility of C. concisus was significantly lower than that of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus. The motility of C. concisus varied between isolates (4-22 mm), but there was no statistical significant difference between isolates from IBD patients and healthy subjects (p = 0.14). A tendency of a larger motility zones was observed for IBD gut mucosa isolates, although it did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.13), and no difference was found between oral or fecal isolates between groups. In conclusion, the varying motility of C. concisus could not be related to disease outcome or colonization sites. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Aging and gastrointestinal smooth muscle. (United States)

    Bitar, Khalil N; Patil, Suresh B


    The present review is an attempt to put into perspective the available information on the putative changes in cellular mechanisms of the contractile properties of the aging gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle. Information on smooth muscle of the GI tract is scanty. Smooth muscle cells from old rats (32 months old) exhibit limited cell length distribution and diminished contractility. The observed reduced contractile response may be due to the effect of aging on signal transduction pathways, especially an inhibition of the tyrosine kinase-Src kinase pathway, a reduced activation of the PKCalpha pathway, a reduced association of contractile proteins (HSP27-tropomyosin, HSP27-actin, and actin-myosin). Levels of HSP27-phosphorylation are also reduced compared to adult rats. Regulation of GI motility is a complex mechanism of signal transduction and interaction of signaling and contractile proteins. It is suggested that further studies to elucidate the role of HSP27 in aging smooth muscle of the GI tract are needed.

  6. Acupuncture and regulation of gastrointestinal function (United States)

    Li, Hui; He, Tian; Xu, Qian; Li, Zhe; Liu, Yan; Li, Fang; Yang, Bo-Feng; Liu, Cun-Zhi


    In China, acupuncture has been considered an effective method for treating gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction diseases for thousands of years. In fact, acupuncture has gained progressive acceptance from both practitioners and patients worldwide. However, the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms in treating GI dysfunction have not yet been established due to a lack of systematic and comprehensive review articles. Therefore, the aim of this review is to discuss the efficacy of acupuncture as a treatment for GI dysfunction and the associated underlying mechanisms. A search of PubMed was conducted for articles that were published over the past 10 years using the terms “acupuncture”, “gastrointestine”, and other relevant keywords. In the following review, we describe the effect and underlying mechanisms of acupuncture on GI function from the perspectives of GI motility, visceral sensitivity, the GI barrier, and the brain-gut axis. The dual regulatory effects of acupuncture may manifest by promoting gastric peristalsis in subjects with low initial gastric motility, and suppressing peristalsis in subjects with active initial motility. In addition, the regulation of acupuncture on gastric motility may be intensity-dependent. Our findings suggest that further studies are needed to investigate the effects and more systematic mechanisms in treating GI dysfunction, and to promote the application of acupuncture for the treatment of GI diseases. PMID:26217082

  7. Barriers to bacterial motility on unsaturated surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Smets, Barth F.


    and their isogenic mutants unable to express various type of motility we aimed to quantify the physical limits of bacterial motility. Our results demonstrate how hydration controls bacterial motility under unsaturated conditions. They can form the base of improved biodegradation models that include microbial...

  8. Physical models of cell motility

    CERN Document Server


    This book surveys the most recent advances in physics-inspired cell movement models. This synergetic, cross-disciplinary effort to increase the fidelity of computational algorithms will lead to a better understanding of the complex biomechanics of cell movement, and stimulate progress in research on related active matter systems, from suspensions of bacteria and synthetic swimmers to cell tissues and cytoskeleton.Cell motility and collective motion are among the most important themes in biology and statistical physics of out-of-equilibrium systems, and crucial for morphogenesis, wound healing, and immune response in eukaryotic organisms. It is also relevant for the development of effective treatment strategies for diseases such as cancer, and for the design of bioactive surfaces for cell sorting and manipulation. Substrate-based cell motility is, however, a very complex process as regulatory pathways and physical force generation mechanisms are intertwined. To understand the interplay between adhesion, force ...

  9. Rapamycin inhibits IGF-1 stimulated cell motility through PP2A pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu


    Full Text Available Serine/threonine (Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A has been implicated as a novel component of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway. Recently we have demonstrated that mTOR regulates cell motility in part through p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1 pathways. Little is known about the role of PP2A in the mTOR-mediated cell motility. Here we show that rapamycin inhibited the basal or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1-induced motility of human Ewing sarcoma (Rh1 and rhabdomyosarcoma (Rh30 cells. Treatment of the cells with rapamycin activated PP2A activity, and concurrently inhibited IGF-1 stimulated phosphorylation of Erk1/2. Inhibition of Erk1/2 with PD98059 did not significantly affect the basal mobility of the cells, but dramatically inhibited IGF-1-induced cell motility. Furthermore, inhibition of PP2A with okadaic acid significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of rapamycin on IGF-1-stimulated phosphorylation of Erk1/2 as well as cell motility. Consistently, expression of dominant negative PP2A conferred resistance to IGF-1-stimulated phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and cell motility. Expression of constitutively active MKK1 also attenuated rapamycin inhibition of IGF-1-stimulated phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and cell motility. The results suggest that rapamycin inhibits cell motility, in part by targeting PP2A-Erk1/2 pathway.

  10. Gender effects on esophageal motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas R.O.


    Full Text Available It has been suggested that there are no gender effects on esophageal motility. However, in previous studies the subjects did not perform multiple swallows and the quantitative features of esophageal contractions were not evaluated. In order to investigate the gender effects on esophageal motility we studied 40 healthy normal volunteers, 20 men aged 37 ± 15 years (mean ± SD, and 20 women aged 38 ± 14 years. We used the manometric method with an eight-lumen polyvinyl catheter and continuous perfusion. The upper and lower esophageal sphincter pressures were measured by the rapid pull-through method. With the catheter positioned with one lumen opening in the lower esophageal sphincter, and the others at 5, 10 and 15 cm above the sphincter, ten swallows of a 5-ml water bolus alternated with ten dry swallows were performed. Statistical analysis was done by the Student t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Gender differences (P<0.05 were observed for wet swallows in the duration of contractions 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter (men: 3.7 ± 0.2 s, women: 4.5 ± 0.3 s, mean ± SEM, and in the velocity of contractions from 15 to 10 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter (men: 4.7 ± 0.3 cm/s, women: 3.5 ± 0.2 cm/s. There was no difference (P>0.05 in sphincter pressure, duration and percentage of complete lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, amplitude of contractions, or in the number of failed, multipeaked and synchronous contractions. We conclude that gender may cause some differences in esophageal motility which, though of no clinical significance, should be taken into consideration when interpreting esophageal motility tests.

  11. Gastrointestinal events with clopidogrel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Würtz, Morten; Schwarz, Peter


    Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events.......Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events....

  12. Disturbances of motility and visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome: biological markers or epiphenomenon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M


    Motility and visceral hypersentitivity are regarded as the primary mechanisms of symptom development in irritable bowel syndrome(IBS). While a variety of motor abnormalities have been described throughout the gastrointestinal tract in IBS, their specificity and relationship to symptoms remain unclear. Visceral hypersensitivity is ubiquitous in functional gastrointestinal disease and is especially common in IBS. Again, however, its specificity for IBS has been questioned. Many factors, including stress and psychopathology,complicate the interpretation of these phenomena and new re-search suggests that mucosal inflammation and luminal factors may be more fundamental to the etiology of this common disorder.

  13. Regional Gastrointestinal Transit Times in Patients With Carcinoid Diarrhea: Assessment With the Novel 3D-Transit System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Tine; Haase, Anne-Mette; Schlageter, Vincent


    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The paucity of knowledge regarding gastrointestinal motility in patients with neuroendocrine tumors and carcinoid diarrhea re-stricts targeted treatment. 3D-Transit is a novel, minimally invasive, ambulatory method for description of gastrointestinal motility. The system has...... not yet been evaluated in any group of patients. We aimed to test the performance of 3D-Transit in patients with carcinoid diarrhea and to compare the patients' regional gastrointestinal transit times (GITT) and colonic motility patterns with those of healthy subjects. METHODS: Fifteen healthy volunteers...... = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional Transit allows assessment of regional GITT in patients with diarrhea. Patients with carcinoid diarrhea have faster than normal gastrointestinal transit due to faster small intestinal and colorectal transit times. The latter is caused by an increased frequency...

  14. Inhibition of human pancreatic and biliary output but not intestinal motility by physiological intraileal lipid loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Jutta; Holst, Jens Juul; Layer, Peter


    Lipid perfusion into the distal ileal lumen at supraphysiological loads inhibits pancreatic exocrine secretion and gastrointestinal motility in humans. In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of physiological postprandial intraileal lipid concentrations on endogenously stimulated....... Physiological postprandial ileal lipid concentrations dose dependently inhibited human digestive pancreatic protease and bile acid output, but not intestinal motor activity. Thus physiological postprandial ileal nutrient exposure may be of importance for the termination of digestive secretory responses...

  15. Gastrointestinal effects of low-digestible carbohydrates. (United States)

    Grabitske, Hollie A; Slavin, Joanne L


    Low-digestible carbohydrates (LDCs) are carbohydrates that are incompletely or not absorbed in the small intestine but are at least partly fermented by bacteria in the large intestine. Fiber, resistant starch, and sugar alcohols are types of LDCs. Given potential health benefits (including a reduced caloric content, reduced or no effect on blood glucose levels, non-cariogenic effect) the prevalence of LDCs in processed foods is increasing. Many of the benefits of LDCs are related to the inability of human digestive enzymes to break down completely the carbohydrates into absorbable saccharides and the subsequent fermentation of unabsorbed carbohydrates in the colon. As a result, LDCs may affect laxation and cause gastrointestinal effects, including abdominal discomfort, flatus, and diarrhea, especially at higher or excessive intakes. Such responses, though transient, affect the perception of the well-being of consumers and their acceptance of food products containing LDCs. Current recommendations for fiber intake do not consider total LDC consumption nor recommend an upper limit for LDC intake based on potential gastrointestinal effects. Therefore, a review of published studies reporting gastrointestinal effects of LDCs was conducted. We included only studies published in refereed journals in English. Additionally, we excluded studies of subjects with incomplete or abnormal functioning gastrointestinal tracts or where antibiotics, stimulant laxatives, or other drugs affecting motility were included. Only in studies with a control period, either placebo treatment or no LDC treatment, were included. Studies must have included an acceptable measure of gastrointestinal effect. Sixty-eight studies and six review articles were evaluated. This review describes definitions, classifications, and mechanisms of LDCs, evaluates published human feeding studies of fifteen LDCs for associations between gastrointestinal effects and levels of LDC intake, and presents recommendations

  16. Plasmodium sporozoite motility: an update. (United States)

    Montagna, Georgina N; Matuschewski, Kai; Buscaglia, Carlos A


    Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, employs its own actin/myosin-based motor for forward locomotion, penetration of molecular and cellular barriers, and invasion of target cells. The sporozoite is unique amongst the extracellular Plasmodium developmental forms in that it has to cross considerable distances and different tissues inside the mosquito and vertebrate hosts to ultimately reach a parenchymal liver cell, the proper target cell where to transform and replicate. Throughout this dangerous journey, the parasite alternates between being passively transported by the body fluids and using its own active cellular motility to seamlessly glide through extracellular matrix and cell barriers. But irrespective of the chosen path, the sporozoite is compelled to keep on moving at a fairly fast pace to escape destruction by host defense mechanisms. Here, we highlight and discuss recent findings collected in Plasmodium sporozoites and related parasites that shed new light on the biological significance of apicomplexan motility and on the structure and regulation of the underlying motor machinery.

  17. Prevalence of opioid dispensings and concurrent gastrointestinal medications in Quebec


    Williams, Rachel E.; Nevzeta Bosnic; Sweeney, Carolyn T; Duncan, Ashlee W.; Levine, Kristen B; Michael Brogan; Cook, Suzanne F.


    BACKGROUND: Opioids are frequently prescribed for moderate to severe pain. A side effect of opioid usage is the inhibition of gastrointestinal (GI) motility, known as opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OBD). OBD is typically treated prophylactically with laxatives and/or acid suppressants.AIM: The present study describes the prevalence of outpatient opioid dispensing, opioid patient demographics, and concomitant dispensing of opioids and GI medications in the Quebec Public Prescription Drug In...

  18. Prokinetic Effect of Polyherbal Formulation on Gastrointestinal Tract


    D. Srinivasan; Ramaswamy, S.; S Sengottuvelu


    PHF, a polyherbal formulation, consist of seven known herbs namely, Aegle marmelos, Elettaria cardamomum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Citrus aurantifolia, Rosa damascene, Cissus quadrangularis and Saccharum officinarum. The PHF was evaluated for acute toxicity, gastrointestinal motility and gastric emptying rate in mice and rats. Based on acute toxicity study, the PHF was considered as safe and 3 dose (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) levels were employed for further pharmacological studies. The gastrointesti...

  19. In vivo neutralization of IL-6 receptors ameliorates gastrointestinal dysfunction in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. (United States)

    Manning, J; Buckley, M M; O'Halloran, K D; O'Malley, D


    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal disease characterized by progressive deterioration and degeneration of striated muscle. A mutation resulting in the loss of dystrophin, a structural protein which protects cells from contraction-induced damage, underlies DMD pathophysiology. Damage to muscle fibers results in chronic inflammation and elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, loss of cellular dystrophin also affects neurons and smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with complaints such as hypomotility, pseudo-obstruction, and constipation reported in DMD patients. Using dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, studies were carried out to examine colonic morphology and function compared with wild-type mice. Treatment with neutralizing IL-6 receptor antibodies (xIL-6R) and/or the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) 2 receptor agonist, urocortin 2 (uro2) was tested to determine if they ameliorated GI dysfunction in mdx mice. Mdx mice exhibited thickening of colonic smooth muscle layers and delayed stress-induced defecation. In organ bath studies, neurally mediated IL-6-evoked contractions were larger in mdx colons. In vivo treatment of mdx mice with xIL-6R normalized defecation rates and colon lengths. Uro2 treatment did not affect motility or morphology. The potentiated colonic contractile response to IL-6 was attenuated by treatment with xIL-6R. These findings confirm the importance of dystrophin in normal GI function and implicate IL-6 as an important regulator of GI motility in the mdx mouse. Inhibition of IL-6 signaling may offer a potential new therapeutic strategy for treating DMD-associated GI symptoms. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. LBP based detection of intestinal motility in WCE images (United States)

    Gallo, Giovanni; Granata, Eliana


    In this research study, a system to support medical analysis of intestinal contractions by processing WCE images is presented. Small intestine contractions are among the motility patterns which reveal many gastrointestinal disorders, such as functional dyspepsia, paralytic ileus, irritable bowel syndrome, bacterial overgrowth. The images have been obtained using the Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) technique, a patented, video colorimaging disposable capsule. Manual annotation of contractions is an elaborating task, since the recording device of the capsule stores about 50,000 images and contractions might represent only the 1% of the whole video. In this paper we propose the use of Local Binary Pattern (LBP) combined with the powerful textons statistics to find the frames of the video related to contractions. We achieve a sensitivity of about 80% and a specificity of about 99%. The achieved high detection accuracy of the proposed system has provided thus an indication that such intelligent schemes could be used as a supplementary diagnostic tool in endoscopy.

  1. Paroxetine: An update of response on intestinal motility. (United States)

    Afzal, Ayesha; Ajmal, Khalida; Shakir, Sabeen; Khan, Bushra Tayabba; Ara, Iffat


    To find out the possible effects of paroxetine on gastrointestinal smooth muscles in vitro as they can cause severe nausea and vomiting at the start of therapy which later settles down. Power lab (USA) was used for recording the contractions of ileal smooth muscle of rabbits in response to acetylcholine, serotonin and paroxetine. The percent responses with acetylcholine, serotonin and paroxetine were 100, 158.7 and 6.45 percent respectively indicating that acetylcholine and serotonin causes an increase in contractility of isolated ileal smooth muscle in comparison to paroxetine which has a depressant effect on motility. Inability of paroxetine to enhance the serotonergic transmission in vitro causes a decrease in its qualitative response.

  2. Employment of a noninvasive magnetic method for evaluation of gastrointestinal transit in rats


    Quini, Caio C; Américo, Madileine F; Corá, Luciana A; Calabresi, Marcos FF; Alvarez, Matheus; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Miranda, Jose Ricardo A


    AC Biosusceptometry (ACB) was previously employed towards recording gastrointestinal motility. Our data show a reliable and successful evaluation of gastrointestinal transit of liquid and solid meals in rats, considering the methods scarcity and number of experiments needed to endorsement of drugs and medicinal plants. ACB permits real time and simultaneous experiments using the same animal, preserving the physiological conditions employing both meals with simplicity and accuracy. © 2012 Quin...

  3. Gastrointestinal Polyps in Children


    Wang, Li-Chun; Lee, Hung-Chang; Yeung, Chun-Yan; Chan, Wai-Tao; Jiang, Chuen-Bin


    Gastrointestinal polyps are common in children. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures, endoscopic findings, management, pathology, and recurrence of gastrointestinal polyps in children at Mackay Memorial Hospital. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 50 children with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal polyps managed at Mackay Memorial Hospital between January 1984 and April 2007. Demographic data; clinical features; polyp size...

  4. Osteoporosis and Gastrointestinal Disease


    Katz, Seymour; Weinerman, Stuart


    Gastrointestinal disease is often overlooked or simply forgotten as a cause of osteoporosis. Yet, the consequences of osteoporotic fractures can be devastating. Although the bulk of the published experience regarding osteoporosis is derived from the postmenopausal population, this review will focus on gastrointestinal disorders implicated in osteoporosis, with an emphasis on inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease. The unique aspects of gastrointestinal diseases associated with osteopor...

  5. Nutritional management of gastrointestinal disease. (United States)

    Zoran, Deb


    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is primarily responsible for acquiring and digesting food, absorbing nutrients and water, and expelling wastes from the body as feces. A proper diet and normally functioning GI tract are integral for the delivery of nutrients, prevention of nutrient deficiencies and malnutrition, repair of damaged intestinal epithelium, restoration of normal luminal bacterial populations, promotion of normal GI motility, and maintenance of normal immune functions (eg, both tolerance and protection from pathogens). The amount of food, its form, the frequency of feeding, and the composition of diet each have important effects on GI function and may be used to help ameliorate signs of GI disease. Although both nutrients and nonnutritional components of a diet are important to GI health, they also may cause or influence the development of GI pathology (eg, antibiotic responsive diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, dietary intolerance, or sensitivity and/or allergy). The appropriate diet may have a profound effect on intestinal recovery and successful management of chronic or severe GI disease.

  6. Recent insights into digestive motility in functional dyspepsia. (United States)

    Mizuta, Yohei; Shikuwa, Saburo; Isomoto, Hajime; Mishima, Ryosuke; Akazawa, Yuko; Masuda, Jun-ichi; Omagari, Katsuhisa; Takeshima, Fuminao; Kohno, Shigeru


    Functional gastrointestinal disorders, such as functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome, are common pathologies of the gut. FD is a clinical syndrome defined as chronic or recurrent pain or discomfort of unknown origin in the upper abdomen. The pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for FD have not been fully elucidated, but new ideas regarding its pathophysiology and the significance of the pathophysiology with respect to the symptom pattern of FD have emerged. In particular, there is growing interest in alterations in gastric motility, such as accommodation to a meal or gastric emptying, and visceral sensation in FD. The mechanisms underlying impaired gastroduodenal motor function are unclear, but possible factors include abnormal neurohormonal function, autonomic dysfunction, visceral hypersensitivity to acid or mechanical distention, Helicobacter pylori infection, acute gastrointestinal infection, psychosocial comorbidity, and stress. Although the optimum treatment for FD is not yet clearly established, acid-suppressive drugs, prokinetic agents, eradication of H. pylori, and antidepressants have been widely used in the management of patients with FD. The therapeutic efficacy of prokinetics such as itopride hydrochloride and mosapride citrate in the treatment of FD is supported by the results of relatively large and well-controlled studies. In addition, recent research has yielded new therapeutic agents and modalities for dysmotility in FD, including agonists/antagonists of various sensorimotor receptors, activation of the nitrergic pathway, kampo medicine, acupuncture, and gastric electric stimulation. This review discusses recent research on the pathophysiology of and treatment options for FD, with special attention given to digestive dysmotility.

  7. Real-time visualization of altered gastric motility by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Unger, Marcus M; Hattemer, Katja; Möller, Jens C; Schmittinger, Katrin; Mankel, Katharina; Eggert, Karla; Strauch, Konstantin; Tebbe, Johannes J; Keil, Boris; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Heverhagen, Johannes T; Knake, Susanne


    Gastrointestinal motility is frequently affected in Parkinson's disease (PD) and has even been reported in early stages of PD. We hypothesized that gastric motility can be assessed in vivo by real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an established, noninvasive method. After an overnight fast and a standardized test meal, 10 patients with PD (six drug naïve, four treated) and 10 healthy volunteers underwent real-time MRI scanning of the stomach. Gastric motility was quantified by calculating the gastric motility indices (GMI) from transversal oblique und sagittal oblique MRI scans. There was a trend toward a decreased gastric motility in patients with PD compared with healthy controls (Mann-Whitney test, P 0.059). This difference in peristalsis was due to a significant reduction in the amplitude of peristaltic contractions (P 0.029) and not to a decelerated velocity of the peristaltic waves (P 0.97). Real-time MRI allows direct visualization of gastric motility in PD. In this pilot study, a relatively high interindividual variability impaired accurate separation of our PD sample from healthy controls. The trend toward decreased gastric motility is in accordance with previous studies that investigated gastric motility in patients with PD using other methods. Our study provides first demonstration of a possible underlying mechanism for disturbed gastric motility in PD (reduced amplitude of contractions versus altered velocity of peristaltic waves). Further studies in drug-naïve PD patients are required to determine the discriminatory power and validity of this technique in PD. (c) 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  8. Actions of prolonged ghrelin infusion on gastrointestinal transit and glucose homeostasis in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkén, Y; Hellström, P M; Sanger, G J


    Ghrelin is produced by enteroendocrine cells in the gastric mucosa and stimulates gastric emptying in healthy volunteers and patients with gastroparesis in short-term studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of intravenous ghrelin on gastrointestinal motility and glucose homeostasis...

  9. Reversing cells and oscillating motility proteins. (United States)

    Leonardy, Simone; Bulyha, Iryna; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte


    Cells of the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus organize into two types of patterns depending on their nutritional status, i.e. in the presence of nutrients cells form spreading colonies and in the absence of nutrients cells form fruiting bodies. Formation of both patterns depends on directed cell movements, which, in turn, depend on regulation of motility. M. xanthus cells harbor two motility machines, type IV pili and the A-engine, which act synergistically to generate motive force in the same direction. Periodically, the individual cells reverse their direction of movement. During a reversal the two motility machines switch polarity to generate force in the opposite direction. Recent evidence shows that at the molecular level, reversals involve pole-to-pole oscillations of motility proteins. Between reversals, these proteins localize to the cell poles to stimulate motility and in parallel with a reversal they relocalize between the poles. For two proteins, FrzS and RomR, which are part of the type IV pili and A-engine, respectively, it was directly demonstrated that they oscillate independently of each other but in synchrony, thus, providing evidence that the two motility machines switch polarity independently but synchronously. Protein oscillations are regulated and synchronized by the Frz chemosensory signal transduction system. The correct polarity of the motility systems is likely established by the MglA protein, which is a member of the Ras/Rac/Rho superfamily of small GTPases. In this scenario, MglA establishes the correct polarity of the two motility machines and the Frz-induced synchronized polarity switching maintains the correct polarity of the two motility machines.

  10. Gastrointestinal Diseases in Pregnancy: Nausea, Vomiting, Hyperemesis Gravidarum, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, Constipation, and Diarrhea. (United States)

    Body, Cameron; Christie, Jennifer A


    Many disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are common in pregnancy. Elevated levels of progesterone may lead to alterations in gastrointestinal motility which could contribute to nausea, vomiting, and/or GERD. Pregnancy-induced diarrhea may be due to elevated levels prostaglandins. This article reviews the normal physiologic and structural changes associated with pregnancy that could contribute to many of the common gastrointestinal complaints in pregnant patients. Additionally, the appropriate clinical and laboratory evaluations, other pathologic conditions that should be included in the differential, as well as the nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies for each of these conditions is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Flagella overexpression attenuates Salmonella pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghong Yang

    Full Text Available Flagella are cell surface appendages involved in a number of bacterial behaviors, such as motility, biofilm formation, and chemotaxis. Despite these important functions, flagella can pose a liability to a bacterium when serving as potent immunogens resulting in the stimulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Previous work showing appendage overexpression, referred to as attenuating gene expression (AGE, was found to enfeeble wild-type Salmonella. Thus, this approach was adapted to discern whether flagella overexpression could induce similar attenuation. To test its feasibility, flagellar filament subunit FliC and flagellar regulon master regulator FlhDC were overexpressed in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium wild-type strain H71. The results show that the expression of either FliC or FlhDC alone, and co-expression of the two, significantly attenuates Salmonella. The flagellated bacilli were unable to replicate within macrophages and thus were not lethal to mice. In-depth investigation suggests that flagellum-mediated AGE was due to the disruptive effects of flagella on the bacterial membrane, resulting in heightened susceptibilities to hydrogen peroxide and bile. Furthermore, flagellum-attenuated Salmonella elicited elevated immune responses to Salmonella presumably via FliC's adjuvant effect and conferred robust protection against wild-type Salmonella challenge.

  12. Flagella Overexpression Attenuates Salmonella Pathogenesis (United States)

    Yang, Xinghong; Thornburg, Theresa; Suo, Zhiyong; Jun, SangMu; Robison, Amanda; Li, Jinquan; Lim, Timothy; Cao, Ling; Hoyt, Teri; Avci, Recep; Pascual, David W.


    Flagella are cell surface appendages involved in a number of bacterial behaviors, such as motility, biofilm formation, and chemotaxis. Despite these important functions, flagella can pose a liability to a bacterium when serving as potent immunogens resulting in the stimulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Previous work showing appendage overexpression, referred to as attenuating gene expression (AGE), was found to enfeeble wild-type Salmonella. Thus, this approach was adapted to discern whether flagella overexpression could induce similar attenuation. To test its feasibility, flagellar filament subunit FliC and flagellar regulon master regulator FlhDC were overexpressed in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium wild-type strain H71. The results show that the expression of either FliC or FlhDC alone, and co-expression of the two, significantly attenuates Salmonella. The flagellated bacilli were unable to replicate within macrophages and thus were not lethal to mice. In-depth investigation suggests that flagellum-mediated AGE was due to the disruptive effects of flagella on the bacterial membrane, resulting in heightened susceptibilities to hydrogen peroxide and bile. Furthermore, flagellum-attenuated Salmonella elicited elevated immune responses to Salmonella presumably via FliC’s adjuvant effect and conferred robust protection against wild-type Salmonella challenge. PMID:23056473


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Schneidgenová


    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to compare the motility and progressive motility of rabbit sperm after patulin intramuscular administration twice a week for two weeks. Adult male rabbits (n= 30 were used in experiment. Animals were divided into two groups: control group (C without patulin exposure and experimental group (E with addition of patulin (10 μ of body weight. Semen collection was performed using an artificial vagina. All samples were analysed using CASA (Computer Assisted Semen Analysis system and following parameters were evaluated: percentage of motile spermatozoa and percentage of progressive motile spermatozoa. The sperm motility (p˂0.05 as well as the progressive motility (p˂0.05 was significantly lower in E group when compared to the control.

  14. Mammalian Sperm Motility: Observation and Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Gaffney, E.A.


    Mammalian spermatozoa motility is a subject of growing importance because of rising human infertility and the possibility of improving animal breeding. We highlight opportunities for fluid and continuum dynamics to provide novel insights concerning the mechanics of these specialized cells, especially during their remarkable journey to the egg. The biological structure of the motile sperm appendage, the flagellum, is described and placed in the context of the mechanics underlying the migration of mammalian sperm through the numerous environments of the female reproductive tract. This process demands certain specific changes to flagellar movement and motility for which further mechanical insight would be valuable, although this requires improved modeling capabilities, particularly to increase our understanding of sperm progression in vivo. We summarize current theoretical studies, highlighting the synergistic combination of imaging and theory in exploring sperm motility, and discuss the challenges for future observational and theoretical studies in understanding the underlying mechanics. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  15. Cell motility as random motion: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmeczi, Dávid; Li, Liwen; Pedersen, Leif


    The historical co-evolution of biological motility models with models of Brownian motion is outlined. Recent results for how to derive cell-type-specific motility models from experimental cell trajectories are reviewed. Experimental work in progress, which tests the generality of this phenomenolo...... of this phenomenological model building is reported. So is theoretical work in progress, which explains the characteristic time scales and correlations of phenomenological models in terms of the dynamics of cytoskeleton, lamellipodia, and pseudopodia.......The historical co-evolution of biological motility models with models of Brownian motion is outlined. Recent results for how to derive cell-type-specific motility models from experimental cell trajectories are reviewed. Experimental work in progress, which tests the generality...

  16. Plankton motility patterns and encounter rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; Kiørboe, Thomas


    distances to their prey, but short compared to the reaction distances of their predators. We show motility data for planktonic organisms ranging from bacteria to copepods that support this prediction. We also present simple ballistic and diffusive motility models for estimating encounter rates, which lead......Many planktonic organisms have motility patterns with correlation run lengths (distances traversed before direction changes) of the same order as their reaction distances regarding prey, mates and predators (distances at which these organisms are remotely detected). At these scales, the relative...... measure of run length to reaction distance determines whether the underlying encounter is ballistic or diffusive. Since ballistic interactions are intrinsically more efficient than diffusive, we predict that organisms will display motility with long correlation run lengths compared to their reaction...

  17. Characterizing motility dynamics in human RPE cells (United States)

    Liu, Zhuolin; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Zhang, Furu; Miller, Donald T.


    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are vital to health of the outer retina, however, are often compromised in ageing and ocular diseases that lead to blindness. Early manifestation of RPE disruption occurs at the cellular level, but while in vivo biomarkers at this scale hold considerable promise, RPE cells have proven extremely challenging to image in the living human eye. Recently we addressed this problem by using organelle motility as a novel contrast agent to enhance the RPE cell in conjunction with 3D resolution of adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) to section the RPE layer. In this study, we expand on the central novelty of our method - organelle motility - by characterizing the dynamics of the motility in individual RPE cells, important because of its direct link to RPE physiology. To do this, AO-OCT videos of the same retinal patch were acquired at approximately 1 min intervals or less, time stamped, and registered in 3D with sub-cellular accuracy. Motility was quantified by an exponential decay time constant, the time for motility to decorrelate the speckle field across an RPE cell. In two normal subjects, we found the decay time constant to be just 3 seconds, thus indicating rapid motility in normal RPE cells.

  18. Osteoporosis and gastrointestinal disease. (United States)

    Katz, Seymour; Weinerman, Stuart


    Gastrointestinal disease is often overlooked or simply forgotten as a cause of osteoporosis. Yet, the consequences of osteoporotic fractures can be devastating. Although the bulk of the published experience regarding osteoporosis is derived from the postmenopausal population, this review will focus on gastrointestinal disorders implicated in osteoporosis, with an emphasis on inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease. The unique aspects of gastrointestinal diseases associated with osteoporosis include early onset of disease (and, therefore, prolonged exposure to risk factors for developing osteoporosis, particularly with inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease), malabsorption, and maldigestion of nutrients necessary for bone health and maintenance (eg, calcium, vitamin D), as well as the impact of glucocorticoids. These factors, when added to smoking, a sedentary lifestyle, hypogonadism, and a family history of osteoporosis, accumulate into an imposing package of predictors for osteoporotic fracture. This paper will review the identification and treatment strategies for patients with gastrointestinal disorders and osteoporosis.

  19. Gastrointestinal parasites and the neural control of gut functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Christiane Halliez


    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal motility and transport of water and electrolytes play key roles in the pathophysiology of diarrhea upon exposure to enteric parasites. These processes are actively modulated by the enteric nervous system (ENS, which includes efferent, and afferent neurons, as well as interneurons. ENS integrity is essential to the maintenance of homeostatic gut responses. A number of gastrointestinal parasites are known to cause disease by altering the enteric nervous system. The mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia, Trypanosoma cruzi, Schistosoma sp and others alter gastrointestinal motility, absorption, or secretion at least in part via effects on the ENS. Recent findings also implicate enteric parasites such as Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis in the development of post-infectious complications such as irritable bowel syndrome, which further underscores their effects on the gut-brain axis. This article critically reviews recent advances and the current state of knowledge on the impact of enteric parasitism on the neural control of gut functions, and provides insights into mechanisms underlying these abnormalities.

  20. Mebeverine alters small bowel motility in irritable bowel syndrome. (United States)

    Evans, P R; Bak, Y T; Kellow, J E


    Despite its widespread use in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), limited clinical data exist on the effects of mebeverine hydrochloride on gastrointestinal motility. Human motor activity in the small bowel is more reproducible than that in the large bowel; therefore the aim of this study was to determine in the small bowel the effects of oral mebeverine in both IBS patients and in healthy controls. Twelve IBS patients (11 females/1 male, 46 +/- 13 years old)-predominant constipation (IBS-C, n = 6) and predominant diarrhoea (IBS-D, n = 6)-and six healthy controls, underwent continuous 48 h ambulant recording of small bowel motor activity. One low energy (400 kcal) and one high energy (800 kcal) standard meal were administered in each consecutive 24-h period. Subjects received, in blinded fashion, placebo tablets in the first 24 h then mebeverine 135 mg q.d.s. in the second 24 h. Mebeverine had no effect on parameters of small bowel motility in controls. In contrast, in both IBS-C (P = 0.01) and IBS-D (P mebeverine administration. Also, after mebeverine the proportion of the migrating motor complex cycle occupied by phase 2 was reduced in IBS-D (P = 0.01), while phase 2 burst frequency was reduced in IBS-C (P mebeverine, in the initial dosing period, has a normalizing effect in the small bowel in IBS, enhancing contractile activity in a similar fashion to 'prokinetic' agents, as well as producing alterations in motor activity consistent with an 'antispasmodic' effect.

  1. Gastrointestinal polyps in children. (United States)

    Wang, Li-Chun; Lee, Hung-Chang; Yeung, Chun-Yan; Chan, Wai-Tao; Jiang, Chuen-Bin


    Gastrointestinal polyps are common in children. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures, endoscopic findings, management, pathology, and recurrence of gastrointestinal polyps in children at Mackay Memorial Hospital. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 50 children with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal polyps managed at Mackay Memorial Hospital between January 1984 and April 2007. Demographic data; clinical features; polyp size, number and location; endoscopic findings; management; pathology; and information on recurrences were extracted from the clinical records. The distribution of polyps in the 50 patients included gastric (4 patients), duodenal (2), ileocecal (4) and colorectal polyps (40). All patients with gastric polyps presented with vomiting, and three of the four patients with ileocecal polyps presented with intussusception. The mean age of the 40 patients with colorectal polyps was 6.8 years. The majority of those polyps were in the rectosigmoid colon; 36 patients presented with hematochezia. Solitary polyps were identified in 33 patients and multiple polyps were identified in seven patients. Most of the colorectal polyps were less than 2cm in diameter. Histologically, the most frequent type was juvenile polyp. Gastrointestinal polyps in children are usually benign. Pediatricians treating a child with a gastrointestinal polyp should pay attention to the immediate complications of the polyps, such as intussusception or bleeding, the extraintestinal manifestations and long-term risk for malignancy.

  2. The CLOCK 3111T/C SNP is associated with morning gastric motility in healthy young women. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Mitsue; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Sakane, Naoki; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Takagi, Ayaka; Wakisaka, Shiori; Moritani, Toshio; Nagai, Narumi


    Circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) molecule plays major roles in circadian rhythmicity and regulates daily physiological processes including digestive activity. Therefore, we hypothesized that the CLOCK 3111T/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) might have adverse effects on the regulation of gastric motility. Based on the hypothesis, we investigated whether this SNP was associated with morning gastric motility. Ninety-five female university students (19.6±0.2 years) completed life-style questionnaires. Gastric motility, evaluated by electrogastrography (EGG), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured at 8:30 a.m. after an overnight fast. To determine the gastric motility, the spectral powers and dominant frequency (DF, a peak of the spectrum) of the EGG were calculated. No significant differences were found in breakfast frequency, energy intake, or HRV between CLOCK 3111T/C minor C allele (T/C or C/C) and T/T subjects. However, C allele carriers showed significantly lower DF than T/T subjects, suggesting slower gastric motility. Moreover, C allele carriers had a lower heart rate (HR) and tended to have lower diastolic BP compared with T/T subjects. These results support our hypothesis that this SNP is likely correlated with morning gastric motility. Such attenuated gastric and cardiovascular function that characterized CLOCK 3111C allele carriers could be affecting biological behavior in the morning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanism of shape determination in motile cells. (United States)

    Keren, Kinneret; Pincus, Zachary; Allen, Greg M; Barnhart, Erin L; Marriott, Gerard; Mogilner, Alex; Theriot, Julie A


    The shape of motile cells is determined by many dynamic processes spanning several orders of magnitude in space and time, from local polymerization of actin monomers at subsecond timescales to global, cell-scale geometry that may persist for hours. Understanding the mechanism of shape determination in cells has proved to be extremely challenging due to the numerous components involved and the complexity of their interactions. Here we harness the natural phenotypic variability in a large population of motile epithelial keratocytes from fish (Hypsophrys nicaraguensis) to reveal mechanisms of shape determination. We find that the cells inhabit a low-dimensional, highly correlated spectrum of possible functional states. We further show that a model of actin network treadmilling in an inextensible membrane bag can quantitatively recapitulate this spectrum and predict both cell shape and speed. Our model provides a simple biochemical and biophysical basis for the observed morphology and behaviour of motile cells.

  4. Obesity and gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Binkowska-Borgosz


    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is a significant public health problem in the 21st century due to its scale, common existence and its cause-effect association with multiple diseases. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in humans is regarded as a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. However, data from recent years have revealed that obesity is also strongly associated with increased risk of the majority of cancers in humans, including those originating from the gastrointestinal tract. During the last few year this association has been thoroughly proven and supported by several epidemiological analyses. The authors present i the current state of knowledge regarding key (pathomechanisms that link metabolism of human adipose tissue to development/progression of neoplasms (especially in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as ii the results of selected clinical studies in which the influence of obesity on risk of gastrointestinal cancer development has been addressed.

  5. Prosthetic motility in pegged versus unpegged integrated porous orbital implants. (United States)

    Guillinta, Paulo; Vasani, Sunil N; Granet, David B; Kikkawa, Don O


    To objectively measure and compare prosthetic motility in pegged versus unpegged orbital implants and to determine subjective patient assessment of motility after the pegging procedure. A prospective case series of 10 patients with integrated porous orbital implants, who had secondary motility peg placement procedure, were studied. Infrared oculography was used to quantitatively assess pegged and unpegged prosthetic eye motility in horizontal and vertical excursions. For horizontal excursions, prosthetic motility in unpegged implants retained an average of 49.6% of measured motility of the contralateral normal eye, which increased to 86.5% with peg placement (Ppeg placement (P>0.3). Nine of 10 patients judged their motility as "significantly improved," and 1 patient gave a rating of "some improvement" after peg placement. Four of 10 patients had granulomas around the peg sites. Objective assessment of prosthetic motility shows a significant increase in horizontal gaze after motility peg placement.

  6. Industrial hemp decreases intestinal motility stronger than indian hemp in mice. (United States)

    Sabo, A; Horvat, O; Stilinovic, N; Berenji, J; Vukmirovic, S


    Indian hemp has shown beneficial effects in various gastrointestinal conditions but it is not widely accepted due to high content of tetrahydrocannabinol resulting in unwanted psychotropic effects. Since industrial hemp rich in cannabidiol lacks psychotropic effects the aim of research was to study the effects of industrial hemp on intestinal motility. Animals were randomly divided in six groups (each group consisting of 6 animals): Control group, Cind group - receiving indian hemp infuse for 20 days, Cids group-receiving industrial hemp infuse for 20 days, M group - treated with single dose of morphine (5 mg/kg i.m.) Cind+M group - treated with indian hemp infuse and single dose of morphine (5 mg/kg i.m.), Cids+M - treated with industrial hemp infuse and single dose of morphine (5 mg/kg i.m.). On the 20th day of the study animals were administered charcoal meal, and were sacrificed 35 minutes after administration. Intestinal motility was estimated according to distance between carbo medicinalis and cecum in centimeters. Decrease of intestinal motility in animals treated with indian hemp infuse was not significant compared to controls and it was smaller compared to animals treated with morphine (Indian hemp =15.43±10.5 cm, morphine = 20.14±5.87 cm). Strongest decrease of intestinal motility was recorded in animals treated with industrial hemp infuse, and it was significant compared to controls and morphine (industrial hemp = 26.5±9.90 cm, morphine = 20.14±5.87 cm; p hemp infuse rich in cannabidiol reduces intestinal motility in healthy mice cannabidiol should be further evaluated for the treatment of intestinal hypermotility.

  7. ARMA-based spectral bandwidth for evaluation of bowel motility by the analysis of bowel sounds. (United States)

    Emoto, Takahiro; Shono, Koichi; Abeyratne, Udantha R; Okahisa, Toshiya; Yano, Hiromi; Akutagawa, Masatake; Konaka, Shinsuke; Kinouchi, Yohsuke


    Approximately 10%-20% of adults and adolescents suffer from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) worldwide. IBS is characterized by chronic gastrointestinal dysfunction which may reflect in altered motility. Currently, the diagnosis of IBS is made through expensive invasive radiographic and endoscopic examinations. However these are inconvenient and unsuited for community screening. Bowel sounds (BSs) can be easily recorded with non-invasive and low-cost equipment. Recently, several researchers have pointed out changes in features obtained from BS according to the pathological condition of bowel motility. However a widely accepted, simple automatic BS detection algorithm still has to be found, and the appropriate recording period needs to be investigated for further evaluation of bowel motility. In this study we propose a novel simple automatic method to detect the BSs based on the 3 dB bandwidth of the frequency peaks in the autoregressive moving average spectrum. We use the measure, sound-to-sound interval (SSI) obtained by the proposed method, to capture bowel motility. In this paper, we show that the proposed method for automatic detection could achieve a sensitivity of 87.8±5.88%, specificity of 91.7±4.33% and area under the curve of 0.923 when working on 16 healthy volunteers during mosapride administrations. Furthermore, we show that the measured SSI averaged over a period of 30 min can clearly capture bowel motility. Our findings should have the potential to contribute toward developing automated BS-based diagnosis of IBS.

  8. Electrical stimulation of gut motility guided by an in silico model (United States)

    Barth, Bradley B.; Henriquez, Craig S.; Grill, Warren M.; Shen, Xiling


    Objective. Neuromodulation of the central and peripheral nervous systems is becoming increasingly important for treating a diverse set of diseases—ranging from Parkinson’s Disease and epilepsy to chronic pain. However, neuromodulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has achieved relatively limited success in treating functional GI disorders, which affect a significant population, because the effects of stimulation on the enteric nervous system (ENS) and gut motility are not well understood. Here we develop an integrated neuromechanical model of the ENS and assess neurostimulation strategies for enhancing gut motility, validated by in vivo experiments. Approach. The computational model included a network of enteric neurons, smooth muscle fibers, and interstitial cells of Cajal, which regulated propulsion of a virtual pellet in a model of gut motility. Main results. Simulated extracellular stimulation of ENS-mediated motility revealed that sinusoidal current at 0.5 Hz was more effective at increasing intrinsic peristalsis and reducing colon transit time than conventional higher frequency rectangular current pulses, as commonly used for neuromodulation therapy. Further analysis of the model revealed that the 0.5 Hz sinusoidal currents were more effective at modulating the pacemaker frequency of interstitial cells of Cajal. To test the predictions of the model, we conducted in vivo electrical stimulation of the distal colon while measuring bead propulsion in awake rats. Experimental results confirmed that 0.5 Hz sinusoidal currents were more effective than higher frequency pulses at enhancing gut motility. Significance. This work demonstrates an in silico GI neuromuscular model to enable GI neuromodulation parameter optimization and suggests that low frequency sinusoidal currents may improve the efficacy of GI pacing.

  9. Ageing and Gastrointestinal Sensory Function. (United States)

    Keating, Christopher; Grundy, David

    Over the past few decades a combination of electrophysiological, morphological and molecular approaches has enabled the different populations of vagal and spinal afferents that innervate the bowel to be characterized. The sensitivity of these afferents is determined by their location in the gut wall, their relationship with other cells and structures and the receptors and ion channels that they express on their nerve terminals. An important feature of this innervation is that it is upregulated during injury, inflammation and ischaemia through changes in receptors and ion channels that determine excitability and sensitivity. In recent studies we have sought to identify how sensory mechanisms are influenced as part of the normal ageing process. Attenuated signaling was evident in different gastrointestinal afferent subpopulations conveying low and high threshold mechanosensory information and there was impairment in the ability of sensory neurons to sensitize in response to chemical mediators such as 5-HT. These sensory deficits may contribute to altered bowel habits with age and the prevalence of incontinence in the elderly.

  10. Interaction of glimepiride with prokinetic drugs on some of gastrointestinal functions in STZ-induced diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Fouad


    Conclusion: Use of metoclopramide, domperidone or erythromycin with glimepiride may guard against the risk of gastrointestinal motility disturbance associated with glimepiride treated diabetic patients and may enhance the absorption of carbohydrates. The dose of glimepiride may be safely decreased when combined with erythromycin or metoclopramide.

  11. Vibrio cholerae Represses Polysaccharide Synthesis To Promote Motility in Mucosa (United States)

    Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Yuning; Liu, Shengyan; Sheng, Ying; Rueggeberg, Karl-Gustav; Wang, Hui; Li, Jie; Gu, Frank X.; Zhong, Zengtao; Kan, Biao


    The viscoelastic mucus layer of gastrointestinal tracts is a host defense barrier that a successful enteric pathogen, such as Vibrio cholerae, must circumvent. V. cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is able to penetrate the mucosa and colonize the epithelial surface of the small intestine. In this study, we found that mucin, the major component of mucus, promoted V. cholerae movement on semisolid medium and in liquid medium. A genome-wide screen revealed that Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) production was inversely correlated with mucin-enhanced motility. Mucin adhesion assays indicated that VPS bound to mucin. Moreover, we found that vps expression was reduced upon exposure to mucin. In an infant mouse colonization model, mutants that overexpressed VPS colonized less effectively than wild-type strains in more distal intestinal regions. These results suggest that V. cholerae is able to sense mucosal signals and modulate vps expression accordingly so as to promote fast motion in mucus, thus allowing for rapid spread throughout the intestines. PMID:25561707

  12. Morphological classifications of gastrointestinal lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, Jasper L. A.; Hazewinkel, Yark; Dekker, Evelien


    In the era of spreading adoption of gastrointestinal endoscopy screening worldwide, endoscopists encounter an increasing number of complex lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. For decision-making on optimal treatment, precise lesion characterization is crucial. Especially the assessment of

  13. Transverse loop colostomy and colonic motility. (United States)

    Pucciani, F; Ringressi, M N; Maltinti, G; Bechi, P


    The motility of the defunctionalized colon, distal to transverse loop colostomy, has never been studied "in vivo." The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of transverse loop colostomy on colonic motility. Thirteen patients were examined before stoma closure by means of clinical evaluation and colonic manometry; we studied both the right and distal colon in both fasting and fed patients in order to detect motor activity. Quantitative and qualitative manometric analyses showed that the diverted colon had motor activity even if no regular colonic motor pattern was observed. The spreading of aboral propagated contractions (PCs) was sometimes recorded from the right colon to the distal colon. The response of the proximal and distal colon to a standard meal, when compared to fasting values, increased more than 40 and 35 %, respectively. Stool and gas ejections from the colostomy were never related to a particular type of colonic motility: Motor quiescence such as PCs was chaotically related to stool escape. In conclusion, motility of the defunctionalized colon is preserved in patients with transverse loop colostomy.

  14. Flagellar Motility of Trypanosoma cruzi Epimastigotes

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    G. Ballesteros-Rodea


    Full Text Available The hemoflagellate Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of American trypanosomiasis. Despite the importance of motility in the parasite life cycle, little is known about T. cruzi motility, and there is no quantitative description of its flagellar beating. Using video microscopy and quantitative vectorial analysis of epimastigote trajectories, we find a forward parasite motility defined by tip-to-base symmetrical flagellar beats. This motion is occasionally interrupted by base-to-tip highly asymmetric beats, which represent the ciliary beat of trypanosomatid flagella. The switch between flagellar and ciliary beating facilitates the parasite's reorientation, which produces a large variability of movement and trajectories that results in different distance ranges traveled by the cells. An analysis of the distance, speed, and rotational angle indicates that epimastigote movement is not completely random, and the phenomenon is highly dependent on the parasite behavior and is characterized by directed and tumbling parasite motion as well as their combination, resulting in the alternation of rectilinear and intricate motility paths.

  15. Esophageal motility disorders; Motilitaetsstoerungen des Oesophagus

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    Hannig, C.; Rummeny, E. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Muenchen (Germany); Wuttge-Hannig, A. [Gemeinschaftspraxis fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Strahlentherapie, Muenchen (Germany)


    For the better understanding of esophageal motility, the muscle texture and the distribution of skeletal and smooth muscle fibers in the esophagus are of crucial importance. Esophageal physiology will be shortly mentioned as far as necessary for a comprehensive understanding of peristaltic disturbances. Besides the pure depiction of morphologic criteria, a complete esophageal study has to include an analysis of the motility. New diagnostic tools with reduced radiation for dynamic imaging (digital fluoroscopy, videofluoroscopy) at 4-30 frames/s are available. Radiomanometry is a combination of a functional pressure measurement and a simultaneous dynamic morphologic analysis. Esophageal motility disorders are subdivided by radiologic and manometric criteria into primary, secondary, and nonclassifiable forms. Primary motility disorders of the esophagus are achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus, and the hypertonic lower esophageal sphincter. The secondary motility disorders include pseudoachalasia, reflux-associated motility disorders, functionally caused impactions, Boerhaave's syndrome, Chagas' disease, scleroderma, and presbyesophagus. The nonclassificable motility disorders (NEMD) are a very heterogeneous collective. (orig.) [German] Zum Verstaendnis der Motilitaet des Oesophagus sind muskulaere Architektur und Verteilung der quergestreiften und glatten Muskelfasern von Bedeutung. Die Physiologie des Oesophagus wird in soweit kurz dargestellt, als sie fuer das Verstaendnis von peristaltischen Stoerungen notwendig ist. Neben der Erfassung rein morphologischer Kriterien ist bei der Untersuchung der Speiseroehre eine diagnostische Bewertung der Motilitaet erforderlich. Es stehen uns heute strahlungsarme dynamische Aufzeichnungsverfahren (digitale dynamische Aufzeichnung, Videofluoroskopie) mit Bildsequenzen von 4-30 Bildern/s zur Verfuegung. Die Kombination einer funktionellen Methode zur Darstellung der Morphologie und der

  16. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of 3,3′-Diindolylmethane in Gastrointestinal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Mi Kim


    Full Text Available Studies in humans have shown that 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM, which is found in cruciferous vegetables, such as cabbage and broccoli, is effective in the attenuation of gastrointestinal cancers. This review presents the latest findings on the use, targets, and modes of action of DIM for the treatment of human gastrointestinal cancers. DIM acts upon several cellular and molecular processes in gastrointestinal cancer cells, including apoptosis, autophagy, invasion, cell cycle regulation, metastasis, angiogenesis, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. In addition, DIM increases the efficacy of other drugs or therapeutic chemicals when used in combinatorial treatment for gastrointestinal cancer. The studies to date offer strong evidence to support the use of DIM as an anticancer and therapeutic agent for gastrointestinal cancer. Therefore, this review provides a comprehensive understanding of the preventive and therapeutic properties of DIM in addition to its different perspective on the safety of DIM in clinical applications for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers.

  17. Sperm motility under exposure of hydrogen dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Evdokimov


    Full Text Available The paper contains research data on the effect of low concentrations of hydrogen dioxide on human sperm motility and specific enzyme activity of sperms of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. It is shown that incubation of sperms with hydrogen dioxide in a low concentration leads to a change and motility in sperm and activity of sperm enzyme. Intensity of observed effect depended on the concentration of hydrogen dioxide: active mobility increased by 17–19 % and the total mobility – 11 %. Motility changes in sperms were accompanied by increased activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by 24 %, in normozoospermia response was higher than in pathozoospermia and also depended on the concentration of hydrogen dioxide. The use of sperm analyzer enabled revealing changes in the diapason of different speeds of the active fraction of sperm, which have been observed in the first 15 min of incubation with hydrogen dioxide. A possible mechanism of action of the detected effect is discussed. Reactive oxygen species easily oxidize enzyme for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of sperms, which leads to a loss of sperm motility, for example, in varicocele. Initially low enzyme activity in varicocele (pathozoospermia may be associated with the suppression of sperm antioxidant defense. Addition of low concentrations of hydrogen dioxide into sperm samples leads to an increase in the concentration of reduced glutathione in a cell. Increase of sperm motility in this case can serve as an indicator of normal operation of the cellular antioxidant defense system. Obtained experimental results provide a background for their introduction into clinical practice in the program of assisted reproductive technologies. 

  18. Sperm motility under exposure of hydrogen dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Evdokimov


    Full Text Available The paper contains research data on the effect of low concentrations of hydrogen dioxide on human sperm motility and specific enzyme activity of sperms of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. It is shown that incubation of sperms with hydrogen dioxide in a low concentration leads to a change and motility in sperm and activity of sperm enzyme. Intensity of observed effect depended on the concentration of hydrogen dioxide: active mobility increased by 17–19 % and the total mobility – 11 %. Motility changes in sperms were accompanied by increased activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by 24 %, in normozoospermia response was higher than in pathozoospermia and also depended on the concentration of hydrogen dioxide. The use of sperm analyzer enabled revealing changes in the diapason of different speeds of the active fraction of sperm, which have been observed in the first 15 min of incubation with hydrogen dioxide. A possible mechanism of action of the detected effect is discussed. Reactive oxygen species easily oxidize enzyme for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of sperms, which leads to a loss of sperm motility, for example, in varicocele. Initially low enzyme activity in varicocele (pathozoospermia may be associated with the suppression of sperm antioxidant defense. Addition of low concentrations of hydrogen dioxide into sperm samples leads to an increase in the concentration of reduced glutathione in a cell. Increase of sperm motility in this case can serve as an indicator of normal operation of the cellular antioxidant defense system. Obtained experimental results provide a background for their introduction into clinical practice in the program of assisted reproductive technologies. 

  19. Effects of storage temperature and extension media on motility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 26, 2016 ... Keywords: Egg-yolk citrate, Goat-milk citrate, Motility, Semen ... milk, skin and other products), has been adjudged ... detrimental effect on sperm cells (Purdy, 2006). ... motility at two different storage temperature in an.

  20. Importance of the enteric nervous system in the control of the migrating motility complex. (United States)

    Romański, K W


    The migrating motility complex (MMC), a cyclical phenomenon, represents rudimentary motility pattern in the gastrointestinal tract. The MMC is observed mostly in the stomach and gut of man and numerous animal species. It contains three or four phases, while its phase III is the most characteristic. The mechanisms controlling the pattern are unclear in part, although the neural control of the MMC seems crucial. The main goal of this article was to discuss the importance of intrinsic innervation of the gastrointestinal tract in MMC initiation, migration, and cessation to emphasize that various MMC-controlling mechanisms act through the enteric nervous system. Two main neural regions, central and peripheral, are able to initiate the MMC. However, central regulation of the MMC may require cooperation with the enteric nervous system. When central mechanisms are not active, the MMC can be initiated peripherally in any region of the small bowel. The enteric nervous system affects the MMC in response to the luminal stimuli which can contribute to the initiation and cessation of the cycle, and it may evoke irregular phasic contractions within the pattern. The hormonal regulators released from the endocrine cells may exert a modulatory effect upon the MMC mostly through the enteric nervous system. Their central action could also be considered. It can be concluded that the enteric nervous system is involved in the great majority of the MMC-controlling mechanisms.

  1. Sonographic evaluation of gallbladder motility in children with chronic functional constipation. (United States)

    Mehra, Rakesh; Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh; Saxena, Akshay; Thapa, B R; Khandelwal, Niranjan


    Studies in adults suggest that constipation may not be a purely colonic pathology and may be a component of a generalized gastrointestinal (GI) motor disorder in which proximal GI motility can be impaired. Pediatric data are scarce, and the natural history of the disorder remains undefined. We aimed to evaluate gallbladder motility in a subset of Asian children with chronic functional constipation. Abdominal ultrasound was performed on 105 children, including 55 patients (aged 3 to 13 years) with chronic functional constipation who met the inclusion criteria and 50 age- and gender-matched controls. The gallbladder contractility index was calculated based on the preprandial and postprandial gallbladder areas. Preprandial and postprandial values for gallbladder volume and wall thickness were evaluated. The mean value of the contractility index for the patients (15.77±24.68) was significantly lower than the mean value for the controls (43.66±11.58) (p=0.001). The mean postprandial gallbladder volumes and areas were larger in children with gallbladder hypomotility (pconstipation (4.8 months) was significantly higher (p=0.004) in the children with gallbladder hypomotility. Gallbladder motility is significantly impaired in children with chronic functional constipation. This study contributes to the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, which will enable advancement in and improved management of children with chronic constipation and associated gallbladder hypomotility.

  2. Dose-dependent effects of mosapride citrate on duodenal and cecal motility in donkeys (Equus asinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa A. Gomaa


    Full Text Available Prokinetic drugs are used for the management of gastrointestinal motility disorders in horses; however, little is known about their efficacy in donkeys. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of mosapride citrate on duodenal and cecal motility in normal donkeys. Six donkeys (n = 6 were used in a crossover study. Mosapride citrate was administered orally via a nasogastric tube at dose rate of 1, 2 and 3 mg kg−1. Duodenal and cecal motility were evaluated using ultrasonography before administration and at 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min post-administration. There was a significant increase of duodenal contractions (p < 0.05 after 30 min of mosapride citrate administration at 3 mg kg−1 with a prolonged (p < 0.05 prokinetic effect at 2 mg kg−1. Cecal contractions were significantly increased (p < 0.05 after 15 min at different doses of mosapride with a prolonged effect at 3 mg kg−1. The results of the present study indicate that mosapride citrate has a dose-dependent prokinetic effect on the duodenal and cecal contractions in healthy donkeys. Further studies need to determine whether mosapride citrate is effective in treatment of intestinal disorders in donkey.

  3. Gastrointestinal hyperactivity and its importance in the formationof chronic allergic gastritis in children

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    Bobrova V.I.


    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the clinical and pathogenetic role in the formation of gastrointestinal hyperactivity and chronic allergic gastritis in children. Patients and methods. We observed 82 children aged 6 to 16 years. To verify the diagnosis all the children performed endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract, intragastric pHmeter. To confirm the genesis of atopic disease of patients determined the level general IgE in the serum by ELISA. Results. As a result of studies we find, that in majority (92.7±2.9% patients examined early symptoms of gastrointestinal hyperactivity were diagnosed in the first six months of life. Gastrointestinal hyperactivity in infants is manifested by increased functional reaction of the gastrointestinal system, namely the disorders of the digestive and motorevacuation function of the gastrointestinal tract and symptoms of atopic dermatitis. In older children gastrointestinal hyperactivity transformed intoallergic gastritis, which is manifested by destructive changes of the gastric mucosa, increased production of hydrochloric acid , motility disorders of the gastrointestinal tract mainly in the form of duodenogastric reflux. It was found that the determining factors of the formation of allergic inflammation should be considered a high percentage of family history as a gastroenterological and allergic diseases, disorders physiological feeding graphics and nutrition of children from the first days of life. A characteristic feature of current gastroenterological diseases in patients with gastrointestinal hyperactivity was the absence of seasonal exacerbations, severe pain in the right upper quadrant, belching and flatulence, against the background of destructive changes in the gastric mucosa. Conclusions. We have identified specific clinical symptoms is pathognomonic for children with gastrointestinal hyperactivity and provides the opportunity to be watchful for the diagnosis of allergic changes in the gastric

  4. Gastrointestinal Complications of Obesity (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Malhi, Harmeet; Acosta, Andres


    Obesity usually is associated with morbidity related to diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are many gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases for which obesity is the direct cause (eg, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) or is a significant risk factor, such as reflux esophagitis and gallstones. When obesity is a risk factor, it may interact with other mechanisms and result in earlier presentation or complicated diseases. There are increased odds ratios or relative risks of several gastrointestinal complications of obesity: gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, erosive gastritis, gastric cancer, diarrhea, colonic diverticular disease, polyps, cancer, liver disease including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstones, acute pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterologists are uniquely poised to participate in the multidisciplinary management of obesity as physicians caring for people with obesity-related diseases, in addition to their expertise in nutrition and endoscopic interventions. PMID:28192107


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eTornillo


    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild-type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other entities, have been discovered (e.g. succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data.

  6. [Microbiota and gastrointestinal diseases]. (United States)

    Polanco Allué, I


    The bacterial colonisation is established immediately after birth, through direct contact with maternal microbiota, and may be influenced during lactation. There is emerging evidence indicating that quantitative and qualitative changes on gut microbiota contribute to alterations in the mucosal activation of the immune system, leading to intra- or extra-intestinal diseases. A balance between pathogenic and beneficial microbiota throughout childhood and adolescence is important to gastrointestinal health, including protection against pathogens, inhibition of pathogens, nutrient processing (synthesis of vitamin K), stimulation of angiogenesis, and regulation of host fat storage. Probiotics can promote an intentional modulation of intestinal microbiota favouring the health of the host. A review is presented on the modulation of intestinal microbiota on prevention, and adjuvant treatment of some paediatric gastrointestinal diseases. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Gastrointestinal Complications of Obesity. (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Malhi, Harmeet; Acosta, Andres


    Obesity usually is associated with morbidity related to diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are many gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases for which obesity is the direct cause (eg, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) or is a significant risk factor, such as reflux esophagitis and gallstones. When obesity is a risk factor, it may interact with other mechanisms and result in earlier presentation or complicated diseases. There are increased odds ratios or relative risks of several gastrointestinal complications of obesity: gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, erosive gastritis, gastric cancer, diarrhea, colonic diverticular disease, polyps, cancer, liver disease including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstones, acute pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterologists are uniquely poised to participate in the multidisciplinary management of obesity as physicians caring for people with obesity-related diseases, in addition to their expertise in nutrition and endoscopic interventions. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

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    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology


    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  9. ROS accumulation and IGF-IR inhibition contribute to fenofibrate/PPARα -mediated inhibition of Glioma cell motility in vitro

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    Del Valle Luis


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastomas are characterized by rapid cell growth, aggressive CNS infiltration, and are resistant to all known anticancer regimens. Recent studies indicate that fibrates and statins possess anticancer potential. Fenofibrate is a potent agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα that can switch energy metabolism from glycolysis to fatty acid β-oxidation, and has low systemic toxicity. Fenofibrate also attenuates IGF-I-mediated cellular responses, which could be relevant in the process of glioblastoma cell dispersal. Methods The effects of fenofibrate on Glioma cell motility, IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR signaling, PPARα activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS metabolism, mitochondrial potential, and ATP production were analyzed in human glioma cell lines. Results Fenofibrate treatment attenuated IGF-I signaling responses and repressed cell motility of LN-229 and T98G Glioma cell lines. In the absence of fenofibrate, specific inhibition of the IGF-IR had only modest effects on Glioma cell motility. Further experiments revealed that PPARα-dependent accumulation of ROS is a strong contributing factor in Glioma cell lines responses to fenofibrate. The ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, restored cell motility, improved mitochondrial potential, and increased ATP levels in fenofibrate treated Glioma cell lines. Conclusions Our results indicate that although fenofibrate-mediated inhibition of the IGF-IR may not be sufficient in counteracting Glioma cell dispersal, PPARα-dependent metabolic switch and the resulting ROS accumulation strongly contribute to the inhibition of these devastating brain tumor cells.

  10. Upper Gastrointestinal Stent


    Kim, Sang Gyun; Yang, Chang-Hun


    Gastrointestinal (GI) stent has been developed for palliation of obstructive symptoms in various diseases causing obstruction of GI tract. Self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) has replaced old type of plastic stent, and endoscopic insertion of stent has replaced fluoroscopy-guided insertion. Nowadays, newly-designed SEMSs have been developed for prevention of complications such as stent migration and re-obstruction, and indications of stent recently have been widened into benign conditions as we...

  11. Gastrointestinal food allergies. (United States)

    Heine, Ralf G


    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Lower gastrointestinal endoscopies results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bozdağ


    Full Text Available Objectives: Endoscopic examinations have great potential in early diagnosis of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas with reducing to colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. We aimed to evaluate for diagnostic purposeful lower gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in the second step state hospital retrospectively Methods: Between June 2010 and June 2013, we evaluated 278 patients with rectal bleeding, constipation and abdominal pain detected by lower gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures retrospectively. Results: The mean age of the patients was 54.8 ± 16.8 (15-90 year, respectively. 172 (61.9% of the patients were male and 106 (38.1% of the patients were female. 116 (41.7% of the patients was performed rectosigmoidoscopy and 162 (58.3% of the patients was performed colonoscopy. 51(18.3% of our patients were normal. 10 (3.6% of patients had colorectal cancer, 11(3.9% of patients had inflammatory bowel disease, 8 (2.9% of patients had parasitosis, 31(11.1% of patients had colorectal polyps, 12 (4.3% , in patients had diverticular disease, 2 (0.7% patients had rectal ulcer, 25 (9% patients had anal fissure and 159 (57.2% of the patients had hemorrhoidal disease. Conclusion: Lower gastrointestinal endoscopy is a method been the gold standard with a low complication rate and that can be easily applied in the evaluation to pathology of colorectal and anal canal. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (4: 580-582

  13. Bacteria: a new player in gastrointestinal motility disorders--infections, bacterial overgrowth, and probiotics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M


    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may result from a dysfunctional interaction between the indigenous flora and the intestinal mucosa, which in turn leads to immune activation in the colonic mucosa. Some propose that bacterial overgrowth is a common causative factor in the pathogenesis of symptoms in IBS; others point to evidence suggesting that the cause stems from more subtle qualitative changes in the colonic flora. Bacterial overgrowth will probably prove not to be a major factor in what will eventually be defined as IBS. Nevertheless, short-term therapy with either antibiotics or probiotics seems to reduce symptoms among IBS patients. However, in the long term, safety issues will favor the probiotic approach; results of long-term studies with these agents are eagerly awaited.

  14. Influence of aging on experimental gastrointestinal motility in extraction of rat molar teeth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuboyama, Noboru; Ogawa, Kei; Tuna, Elif Bahar; Arikawa, Kazumune; Muramatsu, Hisayoshi; Abo, Norioki; Maeda, Takahide


      The purpose of the present study was to determine whether different consistency of diet and malocclusion induced by the extraction of molar teeth on the masticatory organs modulated gastric acid...

  15. Motility states in bidirectional cargo transport

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger


    Intracellular cargos which are transported by molecular motors move stochastically along cytoskeleton filaments. In particular for bidirectionally transported cargos it is an open question whether the characteristics of their motion can result from pure stochastic fluctuations or whether some coordination of the motors is needed. The results of a mean-field model of cargo-motors dynamics, which was proposed by M\\"uller et al.[1] suggest the existence of high motility states which would result from a stochastic tug-of-war. Here we analyze a non-mean field extension of their model, that takes explicitly the position of each motor into account. We find that high motility states then disappear. We consider also a mutual motor-motor activation, as an explicit mechanism of motor coordination. We show that the results of the mean-field model are recovered only in case of a strong motor-motor activation in the limit of a high number of motors.

  16. Symbiosis and the origin of eukaryotic motility (United States)

    Margulis, L.; Hinkle, G.


    Ongoing work to test the hypothesis of the origin of eukaryotic cell organelles by microbial symbioses is discussed. Because of the widespread acceptance of the serial endosymbiotic theory (SET) of the origin of plastids and mitochondria, the idea of the symbiotic origin of the centrioles and axonemes for spirochete bacteria motility symbiosis was tested. Intracellular microtubular systems are purported to derive from symbiotic associations between ancestral eukaryotic cells and motile bacteria. Four lines of approach to this problem are being pursued: (1) cloning the gene of a tubulin-like protein discovered in Spirocheata bajacaliforniesis; (2) seeking axoneme proteins in spirochets by antibody cross-reaction; (3) attempting to cultivate larger, free-living spirochetes; and (4) studying in detail spirochetes (e.g., Cristispira) symbiotic with marine animals. Other aspects of the investigation are presented.

  17. Endocytic reawakening of motility in jammed epithelia (United States)

    Malinverno, Chiara; Corallino, Salvatore; Giavazzi, Fabio; Bergert, Martin; Li, Qingsen; Leoni, Marco; Disanza, Andrea; Frittoli, Emanuela; Oldani, Amanda; Martini, Emanuele; Lendenmann, Tobias; Deflorian, Gianluca; Beznoussenko, Galina V.; Poulikakos, Dimos; Ong, Kok Haur; Uroz, Marina; Trepat, Xavier; Parazzoli, Dario; Maiuri, Paolo; Yu, Weimiao; Ferrari, Aldo; Cerbino, Roberto; Scita, Giorgio


    Dynamics of epithelial monolayers has recently been interpreted in terms of a jamming or rigidity transition. How cells control such phase transitions is, however, unknown. Here we show that RAB5A, a key endocytic protein, is sufficient to induce large-scale, coordinated motility over tens of cells, and ballistic motion in otherwise kinetically arrested monolayers. This is linked to increased traction forces and to the extension of cell protrusions, which align with local velocity. Molecularly, impairing endocytosis, macropinocytosis or increasing fluid efflux abrogates RAB5A-induced collective motility. A simple model based on mechanical junctional tension and an active cell reorientation mechanism for the velocity of self-propelled cells identifies regimes of monolayer dynamics that explain endocytic reawakening of locomotion in terms of a combination of large-scale directed migration and local unjamming. These changes in multicellular dynamics enable collectives to migrate under physical constraints and may be exploited by tumours for interstitial dissemination.

  18. Gastrointestinal Physiology During Head Down Tilt Bedrest in Human Subjects (United States)

    Vaksman, Z.; Guthienz, J.; Putcha, L.


    Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility plays a key role in the physiology and function of the GI tract. It directly affects absorption of medications and nutrients taken by mouth, in addition to indirectly altering GI physiology by way of changes in the microfloral composition and biochemistry of the GI tract. Astronauts have reported nausea, loss of appetite and constipation during space flight all of which indicate a reduction in GI motility and function similar to the one seen in chronic bed rest patients. The purpose of this study is to determine GI motility and bacterial proliferation during -6 degree head down tilt bed rest (HTD). Methods: Healthy male and female subjects between the ages of 25-40 participated in a 60 day HTD study protocol. GI transit time (GITT) was determined using lactulose breath hydrogen test and bacterial overgrowth was measured using glucose breath hydrogen test. H. Pylori colonization was determined using C13-urea breath test (UBIT#). All three tests were conducted on 9 days before HDT, and repeated on HDT days 2, 28, 58, and again on day 7 after HDT. Results: GITT increased during HTD compared to the respective ambulatory control values; GITT was significantly lower on day 7 after HTD. A concomitant increase in bacterial colonization was also noticed during HDT starting after approximately 28 days of HDT. However, H. Pylori proliferation was not recorded during HDT as indicated by UBIT#. Conclusion: GITT significantly decreased during HDT with a concomitant increase in the proliferation of GI bacterial flora but not H. pylori.

  19. Swimming Motility Reduces Deposition to Silica Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Nanxi [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Massoudieh, Arash [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Liang, Xiaomeng [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Hu, Dehong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kamai, Tamir [Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan (Israel); Ginn, Timothy R. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Zilles, Julie L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Nguyen, Thanh H. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)


    The role of swimming motility on bacterial transport and fate in porous media was evaluated. We present microscopic evidence showing that strong swimming motility reduces attachment of Azotobacter vinelandii cells to silica surfaces. Applying global and cluster statistical analyses to microscopic videos taken under non-flow conditions, wild type, flagellated A. vinelandii strain DJ showed strong swimming ability with an average speed of 13.1 μm/s, DJ77 showed impaired swimming averaged at 8.7 μm/s, and both the non-flagellated JZ52 and chemically treated DJ cells were non-motile. Quantitative analyses of trajectories observed at different distances above the collector of a radial stagnation point flow cell (RSPF) revealed that both swimming and non-swimming cells moved with the flow when at a distance of at least 20 μm from the collector surface. Near the surface, DJ cells showed both horizontal and vertical movement diverging them from reaching surfaces, while chemically treated DJ cells moved with the flow to reach surfaces, suggesting that strong swimming reduced attachment. In agreement with the RSPF results, the deposition rates obtained for two-dimensional multiple-collector micromodels were also lowest for DJ, while DJ77 and JZ52 showed similar values. Strong swimming specifically reduced deposition on the upstream surfaces of the micromodel collectors.

  20. Agonist-Evoked Ca2+ Signaling in Enteric Glia Drives Neural Programs That Regulate Intestinal Motility in MiceSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon L. McClain


    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Gastrointestinal motility is regulated by enteric neural circuitry that includes enteric neurons and glia. Enteric glia monitor synaptic activity and exhibit responses to neurotransmitters that are encoded by intracellular calcium (Ca2+ signaling. What role evoked glial responses play in the neural regulation of gut motility is unknown. We tested how evoking Ca2+ signaling in enteric glia affects the neural control of intestinal motility. Methods: We used a novel chemogenetic mouse model that expresses the designer receptor hM3Dq under the transcriptional control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP promoter (GFAP::hM3Dq mice to selectively trigger glial Ca2+ signaling. We used in situ Ca2+ imaging and immunohistochemistry to validate this model, and we assessed gut motility by measuring pellet output and composition, colonic bead expulsion time, small intestinal transit time, total gut transit time, colonic migrating motor complex (CMMC recordings, and muscle tension recordings. Results: Expression of the hM3Dq receptor is confined to GFAP-positive enteric glia in the intestines of GFAP::hM3Dq mice. In these mice, application of the hM3Dq agonist clozapine-N-oxide (CNO selectively triggers intracellular Ca2+ responses in enteric glia. Glial activation drove neurogenic contractions in the ileum and colon but had no effect on neurogenic relaxations. CNO enhanced the amplitude and frequency of CMMCs in ex vivo preparations of the colon, and CNO increased colonic motility in vivo. CNO had no effect on the composition of fecal matter, small intestinal transit, or whole gut transit. Conclusions: Glial excitability encoded by intracellular Ca2+ signaling functions to modulate excitatory enteric circuits. Selectively triggering glial Ca2+ signaling might be a novel strategy to improve gut function in motility disorders. Keywords: Autonomic, Chemogenetic, Enteric Nervous System, Intestine, Gut

  1. Physics of protein motility and motor proteins (United States)

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.


    Motor proteins are enzymatic molecules that transform chemical energy into mechanical motion and work. They are critically important for supporting various cellular activities and functions. In the last 15 years significant progress in understanding the functioning of motor proteins has been achieved due to revolutionary breakthroughs in single-molecule experimental techniques and strong advances in theoretical modelling. However, microscopic mechanisms of protein motility are still not well explained, and the collective efforts of many scientists are needed in order to solve these complex problems. In this special section the reader will find the latest advances on the difficult road to mapping motor proteins dynamics in various systems. Recent experimental developments have allowed researchers to monitor and to influence the activity of single motor proteins with a high spatial and temporal resolution. It has stimulated significant theoretical efforts to understand the non-equilibrium nature of protein motility phenomena. The latest results from all these advances are presented and discussed in this special section. We would like to thank the scientists from all over the world who have reported their latest research results for this special section. We are also grateful to the staff and editors of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for their invaluable help in handling all the administrative and refereeing activities. The field of motor proteins and protein motility is fast moving, and we hope that this collection of articles will be a useful source of information in this highly interdisciplinary area. Physics of protein motility and motor proteins contents Physics of protein motility and motor proteinsAnatoly B Kolomeisky Identification of unique interactions between the flexible linker and the RecA-like domains of DEAD-box helicase Mss116 Yuan Zhang, Mirkó Palla, Andrew Sun and Jung-Chi Liao The load dependence of the physical properties of a molecular motor

  2. in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Uzman


    Full Text Available Introduction : There is increasing interest in sedation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE. Prospective randomized studies comparing sedation properties and complications of propofol and midazolam/meperidine in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE are few. Aim: To compare propofol and midazolam/meperidine sedation for UGE in terms of cardiopulmonary side effects, patient and endoscopist satisfaction and procedure-related times. Material and methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study of propofol versus midazolam and meperidine in 100 patients scheduled for diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The patients were divided into propofol and midazolam/meperidine groups. Randomization was generated by a computer. Cardiopulmonary side effects (hypotension, bradycardia, hypoxemia, procedure-related times (endoscopy time, awake time, time to hospital discharge, and patient and endoscopist satisfaction were compared between groups. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to the cost, endoscopy time, or demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients. Awake time and time to hospital discharge were significantly shorter in the propofol group (6.58 ±4.72 vs. 9.32 ±4.26 min, p = 0.030 and 27.60 ±7.88 vs. 32.00 ±10.54 min, p = 0.019. Hypotension incidence was significantly higher in the propofol group (12% vs. 0%, p = 0.027. The patient and endoscopist satisfaction was better with propofol. Conclusions : Propofol may be preferred to midazolam/meperidine sedation, with a shorter awake and hospital discharge time and better patient and endoscopist satisfaction. However, hypotension risk should be considered with propofol, and careful evaluation is needed, particularly in cardiopulmonary disorders.

  3. The gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Harrison, Adrian Paul


    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has always been and remains a major source of interest in terms of both its function, and its malfunction. Our current knowledge of age-related changes in this system, as well as drug-food interactions, however, remains relatively limited. Paradoxically, the GIT...... is not one of the core battery of tests that pharmaceutical companies are obliged to investigate as part of drug development. This review aims to cover the basics of GIT function before highlighting aspects of relevance for safety pharmacology in terms of age, cancerogenesis, and noth drug and diet...

  4. Gastrointestinal care for older people. (United States)

    Tremayne, Penny; Harrison, Penny


    This article discusses gastrointestinal (GI) healthcare in older people. It outlines the physiological changes that occur in the GI tract as a result of ageing, and discusses common GI disorders in older people. These GI disorders include dysphagia, gastrointestinal reflux disease, colorectal cancer, diverticular disease, constipation and anaemia. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the factors that may influence gastrointestinal health in older people, including nutrition, hydration and alcohol use, which are important considerations when delivering person-centred care.

  5. Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis (United States)


    Cystic fibrosis has historically been considered a pulmonary disease, but with the increasing life expectancy of these patients, gastrointestinal manifestations are becoming more important. Furthermore, nutritional status is closely linked to pulmonary function and, thus, overall mortality. This article discusses gastrointestinal manifestations (which involve nutritional, pancreatic, hepatobiliary, and, in particular, gastrointestinal tract issues) of cystic fibrosis as well as management of the disease. In addition, the article discusses studies that have been critical to our understanding of gastrointestinal manifestations of cystic fibrosis. PMID:27330503

  6. Gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders in critically ill dogs and cats. (United States)

    Whitehead, KimMi; Cortes, Yonaira; Eirmann, Laura


    To review the human and veterinary literature regarding gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility disorders in respect to pathogenesis, patient risk factors, and treatment options in critically ill dogs and cats. GI dysmotility is a common sequela of critical illness in people and small animals. The most common GI motility disorders in critically ill people and small animals include esophageal dysmotility, delayed gastric emptying, functional intestinal obstruction (ie, ileus), and colonic motility abnormalities. Medical conditions associated with the highest risk of GI dysmotility include mechanical ventilation, sepsis, shock, trauma, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and multiple organ failure. The incidence and pathophysiology of GI dysmotility in critically ill small animals is incompletely understood. A presumptive diagnosis of GI dysmotility is often made in high-risk patient populations following detection of persistent regurgitation, vomiting, lack of tolerance of enteral nutrition, abdominal pain, and constipation. Definitive diagnosis is established via radioscintigraphy; however, this diagnostic tool is not readily available and is difficult to perform on small animals. Other diagnostic modalities that have been evaluated include abdominal ultrasonography, radiographic contrast, and tracer studies. Therapy is centered at optimizing GI perfusion, enhancement of GI motility, and early enteral nutrition. Pharmacological interventions are instituted to promote gastric emptying and effective intestinal motility and prevention of complications. Promotility agents, including ranitidine/nizatidine, metoclopramide, erythromycin, and cisapride are the mainstays of therapy in small animals. The development of complications related to GI dysmotility (eg, gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration) have been associated with increased mortality risk. Institution of prophylaxic therapy is recommended in high-risk patients, however, no consensus exists regarding optimal

  7. First identification of proteins involved in motility of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. (United States)

    Indikova, Ivana; Vronka, Martin; Szostak, Michael P


    Mycoplasma gallisepticum, the most pathogenic mycoplasma in poultry, is able to glide over solid surfaces. Although this gliding motility was first observed in 1968, no specific protein has yet been shown to be involved in gliding. We examined M. gallisepticum strains and clonal variants for motility and found that the cytadherence proteins GapA and CrmA were required for gliding. Loss of GapA or CrmA resulted in the loss of motility and hemadsorption and led to drastic changes in the characteristic flask-shape of the cells. To identify further genes involved in motility, a transposon mutant library of M. gallisepticum was generated and screened for motility-deficient mutants, using a screening assay based on colony morphology. Motility-deficient mutants had transposon insertions in gapA and the neighbouring downstream gene crmA. In addition, insertions were seen in gene mgc2, immediately upstream of gapA, in two motility-deficient mutants. In contrast to the GapA/CrmA mutants, the mgc2 motility mutants still possessed the ability to hemadsorb. Complementation of these mutants with a mgc2-hexahistidine fusion gene restored the motile phenotype. This is the first report assigning specific M. gallisepticum proteins to involvement in gliding motility.

  8. Osteoporosis in Gastrointestinal Diseases. (United States)

    Krela-Kaźmierczak, Iwona; Szymczak, Aleksandra; Łykowska-Szuber, Liliana; Eder, Piotr; Linke, Krzysztof


    Secondary osteoporosis occurs as an isolated pathology or co-exists with types I and II osteoporosis. The gastroenterologist may come across osteoporosis or osteopenia in a patient with a gastrointestinal disease. This is often a young patient in whom investigations should be carried out and appropriate treatment initiated, aimed at preventing bone fractures and the formation of the best peak bone mass. Osteoporosis occurs in patients with the following conditions: Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, celiac disease, post gastrectomy patients, patients with short bowel syndrome, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, treated with steroids (steroid-induced osteoporosis) and patients using proton pump inhibitors chronically (state of achlorhydria). It is therefore necessary to approve a list of risk factors of secondary osteoporosis, the presence of which would be an indication for screening for osteoporosis, including a DXA study and the development of a separate algorithm for the therapeutic management of secondary osteoporosis accompanying gastrointestinal diseases, especially in premenopausal young women and young men, because there are currently no registered drugs with proven antifracture activity for this group of patients.

  9. Update on Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors for Radiologists. (United States)

    Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Baheti, Akshay D; Tirumani, Harika; O'Neill, Ailbhe; Jagannathan, Jyothi P


    The management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) has evolved significantly in the last two decades due to better understanding of their biologic behavior as well as development of molecular targeted therapies. GISTs with exon 11 mutation respond to imatinib whereas GISTs with exon 9 or succinate dehydrogenase subunit mutations do not. Risk stratification models have enabled stratifying GISTs according to risk of recurrence and choosing patients who may benefit from adjuvant therapy. Assessing response to targeted therapies in GIST using conventional response criteria has several potential pitfalls leading to search for alternate response criteria based on changes in tumor attenuation, volume, metabolic and functional parameters. Surveillance of patients with GIST in the adjuvant setting is important for timely detection of recurrences.

  10. Update on gastrointestinal stromal tumors for radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirumani, Sree Harsha; O' Neill, Alibhe; Jagannathan, Jyothi P. [Dept. of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston (United States); Baheti, Akahay D. [Dept. of Radiology, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai (India); Tirumani, Harika [Dept. of Radiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (United States)


    The management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) has evolved significantly in the last two decades due to better understanding of their biologic behavior as well as development of molecular targeted therapies. GISTs with exon 11 mutation respond to imatinib whereas GISTs with exon 9 or succinate dehydrogenase subunit mutations do not. Risk stratification models have enabled stratifying GISTs according to risk of recurrence and choosing patients who may benefit from adjuvant therapy. Assessing response to targeted therapies in GIST using conventional response criteria has several potential pitfalls leading to search for alternate response criteria based on changes in tumor attenuation, volume, metabolic and functional parameters. Surveillance of patients with GIST in the adjuvant setting is important for timely detection of recurrences.

  11. Rhythm of digestion: keeping time in the gastrointestinal tract. (United States)

    Bron, Romke; Furness, John B


    1. The best characterized mammalian circadian rhythms follow a light-entrained central master pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and are associated with fluctuations in the activities of clock genes, including Clock, Bmal1, Per and Cry, the products of which bind to sequences in the promoters of effector genes. This is the central clock. 2. In the present review, we discuss evidence for an independent, but interacting, gut-associated circadian clock, the peripheral clock, which is entrained by food. 3. Disruption of circadian rhythms is associated with a wide range of pathologies, most prominently metabolism linked, but the effects of disruption of circadian rhythms on the digestive system are less well studied, although also likely to lead to functional consequences. There are clues suggestive of links between gastrointestinal disorders related to inflammation, cancer and motility and disruption of peripheral rhythms. Research aimed at understanding these links is still in its infancy. 4. We also discuss practical aspects of the presence of circadian rhythms in gastrointestinal tissues for researchers related to experimental design, data interpretation and the choice of animal models. 5. There is currently sufficient evidence to suggest that circadian rhythms are important to gut function, metabolism and mucosal defence and that further investigation will uncover connections between disordered rhythms and gastrointestinal malfunction.

  12. Estrogen and its role in gastrointestinal health and disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M


    INTRODUCTION: While the concept of a role of estrogen in gastrointestinal (in particular, colonic) malignancy has generated excitement in recent years, no review has examined the role of this potent and omnipresent steroid hormone in physiological states or its contribution to the development of benign pathological processes. Understanding these effects (and mechanisms therein) may provide a platform for a deeper understanding of more complex disease processes. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the PubMed database and the search terms were "estrogen," "estrogen AND gastrointestinal tract," "estrogen AND colon," "estrogen AND esophagus," "estrogen AND small intestine," "estrogen AND stomach," "estrogen AND gallbladder," and "estrogen AND motility." Bibliographies of extracted studies were further cross-referenced. In all, 136 full-text articles were selected for review. A logical organ-based approach was taken to enable extraction of data of clinical relevance and meaningful interpretation thereof. Insight is provided into the hypotheses, theories, controversies, and contradictions generated over the last five decades by extensive investigation of estrogen in human, animal, and cell models using techniques as diverse as autoradiographic studies of baboons to human population analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Effects from esophagus through to the colon and rectum are summarized in this first concise collection of data pertaining to estrogenic actions in gastrointestinal health and disease. Mechanisms of these actions are discussed where possible. Undoubtedly, this hormone exerts many actions yet to be elucidated, and its potential therapeutic applications remain, as yet, largely unexplored.

  13. The clinical significance of gastrointestinal changes with aging. (United States)

    Bhutto, Asif; Morley, John E


    With the graying of the world's population, there is an increased interest in the physiological effects of aging. This review examines the physiological changes of the gut with aging and their clinical significance. Changes with aging in the gastrointestinal tract are variable, but in some cases they are responsible for a variety of symptoms. Thus, alterations in taste and smell, gastric motility, intestinal overgrowth and changes in gastrointestinal hormone release are the basis of the physiological anorexia of aging. Alterations in swallowing lead to silent aspiration. Changes in gastric emptying play a role in postprandial hypotension. Changes in gastrointestinal function can lead to constipation and fecal incontinence. Weakening of the colonic muscular wall produces diverticula. Achlorhydria is associated with malabsorption of some forms of iron and calcium. Vitamin D malabsorption aggravates the hypovitaminosis D that is so common in older persons. Changes in probiotics can lead to diarrhea and altered immune system. In the liver, aging is associated with delayed drug metabolism. Changes in the physiology of the gut play a role in the anorexia of aging, aspiration pneumonia, postprandial hypotension, constipation and fecal incontinence.

  14. Age-mediated changes in the gastrointestinal tract. (United States)

    Merchant, Hamid A; Liu, Fang; Orlu Gul, Mine; Basit, Abdul W


    Physiological functions of the two extreme ends of the age spectrum, children (aged 65 y and over), differ from healthy young adults. This consequently affects the pharmacokinetic profiles of administered drugs, which, in turn, impacts upon clinical practice and drug therapy. The gastrointestinal milieu acts as a distinct and vital organ regulating the dissolution, absorption and metabolism of orally ingested drugs. Age-mediated alteration in the physiology and function of the gut can reshape the pharmacokinetics of certain drugs. However, our understanding of this topic is limited. This article references the gut physiology of healthy adults to capture the available evidence in the literature on the extent and nature of the changes in childhood and older age. The gut, as an organ, is examined with regards to the effect of age on luminal fluid, microbiota, transit and motility, and the intestinal mucosa. Whilst drastic developmental changes were observed in certain aspects of the gastrointestinal environment, the examination reveals significant gaps in our knowledge in the physiology and function of the developing or ageing gut. The revelation of the unknown paves the way towards a better characterization of the human gastrointestinal tract for optimized drug therapy in children and older adults. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Dysbiosis in gastrointestinal disorders. (United States)

    Chang, Christopher; Lin, Henry


    The recent development of advanced sequencing techniques has revealed the complexity and diverse functions of the gut microbiota. Furthermore, alterations in the composition or balance of the intestinal microbiota, or dysbiosis, are associated with many gastrointestinal diseases. The looming question is whether dysbiosis is a cause or effect of these diseases. In this review, we will evaluate the contribution of intestinal microbiota in obesity, fatty liver, inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. Promising results from microbiota or metabolite transfer experiments in animals suggest the microbiota may be sufficient to reproduce disease features in the appropriate host in certain disorders. Less compelling causal associations may reflect complex, multi-factorial disease pathogenesis, in which dysbiosis is a necessary condition. Understanding the contributions of the microbiota in GI diseases should offer novel insight into disease pathophysiology and deliver new treatment strategies such as therapeutic manipulation of the microbiota. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Obesity and Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Fujimoto


    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in the Japanese population has been increasing dramatically in step with the Westernization of lifestyles and food ways. Our study demonstrated significant associations between obesity and a number of gastrointestinal disorders in a large sample population in Japan. We demonstrated that reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia were strongly related to obesity (BMI > 25 in the Japanese. In particular, obesity with young male was a high risk for these diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that obesity is also associated with Barrett’s esophagus and colorectal adenoma; however, obesity was not a risk factor for these diseases in our study. The difference of ethnicity of our subjects may partly explain why we found no data to implicate obesity as a risk factor for Barrett’s esophagus. Arterial sclerosis associated with advanced age and hyperglycemia was accompanied by an increased risk of colorectal adenoma.

  17. Estrogen and gastrointestinal malignancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A M


    The concept that E2 exerts an effect on the gastrointestinal tract is not new and its actions on intestinal mucosa have been investigated for at least three decades. An attempt to consolidate results of these investigations generates more questions than answers, thus suggesting that many unexplored avenues remain and that the full capabilities of this steroid hormone are far from understood. Evidence of its role in esophageal, gastric and gallbladder cancers is confusing and often equivocal. The most compelling evidence regards the protective role conferred by estrogen (or perhaps ERbeta) against the development and proliferation of colon cancer. Not only has the effect been described but also many mechanisms of action have been explored. It is likely that, along with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, hormonal manipulation will play an integral role in colon cancer management in the very near future.

  18. Rosacea and gastrointestinal disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A; Weinstock, L B; Thyssen, E P


    BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a common inflammatory facial skin condition. Recent genetic and epidemiological studies have suggested pathogenic links between rosacea and gastrointestinal disorders, but data are limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the association between rosacea...... and coeliac disease (CeD), Crohn disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), Helicobacter pylori infection (HPI), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), respectively. METHODS: We performed a nationwide cohort study. A total of 49 475 patients with rosacea and 4 312 213...... with rosacea. RESULTS: The prevalence of CeD, CD, UC, HPI, SIBO and IBS, respectively, was higher among patients with rosacea when compared with the control subjects. Adjusted HRs revealed significant associations between rosacea and CeD (HR 1·46, 1·11-1·93), CD (HR 1·45, 1·19-1·77), UC (HR 1·19, 1...

  19. Quantum dot-based cell motility assay. (United States)

    Pellegrino, Teresa; Parak, Wolfgang J; Boudreau, Rosanne; Le Gros, Mark A; Gerion, Daniele; Alivisatos, A Paul; Larabell, Carolyn A


    Motility and migration are measurable characteristics of cells that are classically associated with the invasive potential of cancer cells, but in vitro assays of invasiveness have been less than perfect. We previously developed an assay to monitor cell motility and migration using water-soluble CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals; cells engulf the fluorescent nanocrystals as they crawl across them and leave behind a fluorescent-free trail. We show here that semiconductor nanocrystals can also be used as a sensitive two-dimensional in vitro invasion assay. We used this assay to compare the behavior of seven different adherent human cell lines, including breast epithelial MCF 10A, breast tumor MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435S, MCF 7, colon tumor SW480, lung tumor NCI H1299, and bone tumor Saos-2, and observed two distinct behaviors of cancer cells that can be used to further categorize these cells. Some cancer cell lines demonstrate fibroblastic behaviors and leave long fluorescent-free trails as they migrate across the dish, whereas other cancer cells leave clear zones of varying sizes around their periphery. This assay uses fluorescence detection, requires no processing, and can be used in live cell studies. These features contribute to the increased sensitivity of this assay and make it a powerful new tool for discriminating between non-invasive and invasive cancer cell lines.

  20. Bacterial motility in the sea and its ecological implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Riemann, Lasse; Azam, F.


    ). Bacteria in natural seawater did not swim constantly nor at constant speeds; over 40% swam algae, bacteria...... colonization of living and dead algal cells by bacteria. Filtering seawater through a 1 µm filter reduced % motile, again suggesting the importance of particulate loci. Enrichment with dissolved organic nutrients enhanced % motile only after 6 h but it rapidly (=1 h) increased the time individual bacteria were...... swimming. Our results show that a variable fraction of marine bacteria is able to respond to loci of organic matter, e.g. organic particles and algae, and that motility underlies dynamic patterns of ecological relationships (symbiosis, competition, parasitism) between bacteria and algae. Since motility may...

  1. Pressure surge attenuator (United States)

    Christie, Alan M.; Snyder, Kurt I.


    A pressure surge attenuation system for pipes having a fluted region opposite crushable metal foam. As adapted for nuclear reactor vessels and heads, crushable metal foam is disposed to attenuate pressure surges.

  2. Computer vision-based diameter maps to study fluoroscopic recordings of small intestinal motility from conscious experimental animals. (United States)

    Ramírez, I; Pantrigo, J J; Montemayor, A S; López-Pérez, A E; Martín-Fontelles, M I; Brookes, S J H; Abalo, R


    When available, fluoroscopic recordings are a relatively cheap, non-invasive and technically straightforward way to study gastrointestinal motility. Spatiotemporal maps have been used to characterize motility of intestinal preparations in vitro, or in anesthetized animals in vivo. Here, a new automated computer-based method was used to construct spatiotemporal motility maps from fluoroscopic recordings obtained in conscious rats. Conscious, non-fasted, adult, male Wistar rats (n=8) received intragastric administration of barium contrast, and 1-2 hours later, when several loops of the small intestine were well-defined, a 2 minutes-fluoroscopic recording was obtained. Spatiotemporal diameter maps (Dmaps) were automatically calculated from the recordings. Three recordings were also manually analyzed for comparison. Frequency analysis was performed in order to calculate relevant motility parameters. In each conscious rat, a stable recording (17-20 seconds) was analyzed. The Dmaps manually and automatically obtained from the same recording were comparable, but the automated process was faster and provided higher resolution. Two frequencies of motor activity dominated; lower frequency contractions (15.2±0.9 cpm) had an amplitude approximately five times greater than higher frequency events (32.8±0.7 cpm). The automated method developed here needed little investigator input, provided high-resolution results with short computing times, and automatically compensated for breathing and other small movements, allowing recordings to be made without anesthesia. Although slow and/or infrequent events could not be detected in the short recording periods analyzed to date (17-20 seconds), this novel system enhances the analysis of in vivo motility in conscious animals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Modulation of vagal tone enhances gastroduodenal motility and reduces somatic pain sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjaer, J B; Bergmann, S; Brock, C


    , using transcutaneous electrical vagal nerve stimulation (t-VNS) and deep slow breathing (DSB) respectively, could increase musculoskeletal pain thresholds and enhance gastroduodenal motility in healthy subjects. METHODS: Eighteen healthy subjects were randomized to a subject-blinded, sham......-controlled, cross-over study with an active protocol including stimulation of auricular branch of the vagus nerve, and breathing at full inspiratory capacity and forced full expiration. Recording of cardiac derived parameters including cardiac vagal tone, moderate pain thresholds to muscle, and bone pressure......BACKGROUND: The parasympathetic nervous system, whose main neural substrate is the vagus nerve, exerts a fundamental antinociceptive role and influences gastrointestinal sensori-motor function. Our research question was to whether combined electrical and physiological modulation of vagal tone...

  4. Gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa swarming motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déziel Eric


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of three types of motilities: swimming, twitching and swarming. The latter is characterized by a fast and coordinated group movement over a semi-solid surface resulting from intercellular interactions and morphological differentiation. A striking feature of swarming motility is the complex fractal-like patterns displayed by migrating bacteria while they move away from their inoculation point. This type of group behaviour is still poorly understood and its characterization provides important information on bacterial structured communities such as biofilms. Using GeneChip® Affymetrix microarrays, we obtained the transcriptomic profiles of both bacterial populations located at the tip of migrating tendrils and swarm center of swarming colonies and compared these profiles to that of a bacterial control population grown on the same media but solidified to not allow swarming motility. Results Microarray raw data were corrected for background noise with the RMA algorithm and quantile normalized. Differentially expressed genes between the three conditions were selected using a threshold of 1.5 log2-fold, which gave a total of 378 selected genes (6.3% of the predicted open reading frames of strain PA14. Major shifts in gene expression patterns are observed in each growth conditions, highlighting the presence of distinct bacterial subpopulations within a swarming colony (tendril tips vs. swarm center. Unexpectedly, microarrays expression data reveal that a minority of genes are up-regulated in tendril tip populations. Among them, we found energy metabolism, ribosomal protein and transport of small molecules related genes. On the other hand, many well-known virulence factors genes were globally repressed in tendril tip cells. Swarm center cells are distinct and appear to be under oxidative and copper stress responses. Conclusions Results reported in this study show that, as opposed to

  5. Assessment of gastric motility using meal labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matolo, N.M.; Stadalnik, R.C.


    During a 2 year period, 83 patients with gastric motility problems were evaluated using radionuclide imaging. The patients presented with epigastric distress, postprandial fullness, pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; signs and symptoms suggestive of either gastroparesis or gastric outlet obstruction. Upper gastrointestinal series or endoscopy, or both, demonstrated no mechanical obstruction. After oral administration of a 300 g meal labeled with 600 muCi of technetium-99m sulfur colloid, a gastric emptying study consisting of serial images and data acquisition was performed. Of the patients studied, 52 had had peptic ulcer surgery, 17 were suspected of having gastroesophageal reflux, 8 were diabetic and suspected of having visceral enteropathy, and 6 had a history of irritable bowel syndrome. The normal mean gastric half emptying time was 77 +/- 16 minutes. Of the patients who had had gastric surgery, 90.4 percent had abnormal emptying: 69.2 percent had delayed gastric emptying and 21.2 percent had rapid gastric emptying time; 9.6 percent had normal emptying time. Of the gastroesophageal reflux group, all but two had normal gastric emptying time; 65 percent demonstrated gastroesophageal reflux within 15 minutes. Two of the patients with irritable bowel syndrome had prolonged emptying; the rest had normal emptying. All diabetic patients with gastroparesis had prolonged gastric emptying time, and all responded favorably to metoclopramide. Of the patients who previously had peptic ulcer surgery and had prolonged emptying time, 72 percent also responded favorably to metoclopramide. We conclude that radionuclide gastric imaging is a useful diagnostic test for the measurement of gastric emptying in patients with a variety of gastrointestinal motility disorders and may be helpful in assessing medical therapy and selecting those who may be candidates for surgery.

  6. Chlamydia Spreading from the Genital Tract to the Gastrointestinal Tract - A Two-Hit Hypothesis. (United States)

    Zhong, Guangming


    Chlamydia trachomatis, a leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infection-induced infertility, is frequently detected in the gastrointestinal tract. Chlamydia muridarum, a model pathogen for investigating C. trachomatis pathogenesis, readily spreads from the mouse genital tract to the gastrointestinal tract, establishing long-lasting colonization. C. muridarum mutants, despite their ability to activate acute oviduct inflammation, are attenuated in inducing tubal fibrosis and are no longer able to colonize the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that the spread of C. muridarum to the gastrointestinal tract may contribute to its pathogenicity in the upper genital tract. However, gastrointestinal C. muridarum cannot directly autoinoculate the genital tract. Both antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and profibrotic cytokines, such as TNFα and IL-13, are essential for C. muridarum to induce tubal fibrosis; this may be induced by the gastrointestinal C. muridarum, as a second hit, to transmucosally convert tubal repairing - initiated by C. muridarum infection of tubal epithelial cells (serving as the first hit) - into pathogenic fibrosis. Testing the two-hit mouse model should both add new knowledge to the growing list of mechanisms by which gastrointestinal microbes contribute to pathologies in extragastrointestinal tissues and provide information for investigating the potential role of gastrointestinal C. trachomatis in human chlamydial pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Motility alterations in celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. (United States)

    Pinto-Sanchez, Maria Ines; Bercik, Premysl; Verdu, Elena F


    Regulation of gut motility is complex and involves neuromuscular, immune and environmental mechanisms. It is well established that patients with celiac disease (CD) often display gut dysmotility. Studies have shown the presence of disturbed esophageal motility, altered gastric emptying, and dysmotility of the small intestine, gallbladder and colon in untreated CD. Most of these motor abnormalities resolve after a strict gluten-free diet, suggesting that mechanisms related to the inflammatory condition and disease process are responsible for the motor dysfunction. Motility abnormalities are also a hallmark of functional bowel disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where it has been proposed as underlying mechanism for symptom generation (diarrhea, constipation, bloating). Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a poorly defined entity, mostly self-diagnosed, that presents clinically with IBS symptoms in the absence of specific celiac markers. Patients with NCGS are believed to react symptomatically to wheat components, and some studies have proposed the presence of low-grade inflammation in these patients. There is little information regarding the functional characterization of these patients before and after a gluten-free diet. A study suggested the presence of altered gastrointestinal transit in NCGS patients who also have a high prevalence of nonspecific anti-gliadin antibodies. Results of an ongoing clinical study in NCGS patients with positive anti-gliadin antibodies before and after a gluten-free diet will be discussed. Elucidating the mechanisms for symptom generation in NCGS patients is important to find new therapeutic alternatives to the burden of imposing a strict gluten-free diet in patients who do not have CD. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Effect of sublethal lead exposure on gastric motility of red-tailed hawks. (United States)

    Lawler, E M; Duke, G E; Redig, P T


    In order to determine the effects of low level lead exposure on gastric motility in raptors, strain gage transducers were surgically implanted on the serosal surface of the muscular stomach of three red-tailed hawks. The frequency and amplitude of gastric contractions during ingestion and early digestion were monitored for 1 week under control conditions and for 3 weeks while the birds were fed 0.82 or 1.64 mg lead (as lead acetate) per kg body weight each day. Exposure to these doses did not appreciably affect either the frequency or amplitude of gastric contractions in these birds. This low level lead exposure also had no consistent effect on the regular egestion of pellets of undigested material by hawks. Daily exposure to doses up to 6.55 mg lead/kg body weight did not affect the frequency or timing of pellet egestion, and exposure to 1.64 mg lead/kg did not affect the gastric contractions associated with pellet egestion. Although gastrointestinal dysfunction is often associated with clinical cases of acute lead toxicity, chronic exposure to these low levels of lead acetate did not significantly alter gastric motility in red-tailed hawks.

  9. Splenosis with lower gastrointestinal bleeding mimicking colonical gastrointestinal stromal tumour


    Xiao, Shuo-meng; Xu, Rui; Tang, Xiao-li; Ding, Zhi; Li, Ji-man; Zhou, Xiang


    Background Splenosis refers to the heterotopic transplantation of splenic tissue following splenic trauma or splenectomy. Splenosis is typically asymptomatic and is often identified incidentally. Case presentation We report a case of splenosis with colon and stomach invasion presenting as lower gastrointestinal bleeding and mimicking colonic gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). The importance of suspicion for splenosis in patients with a history of splenic injury should be highlighted. Com...

  10. Mechanics model for actin-based motility. (United States)

    Lin, Yuan


    We present here a mechanics model for the force generation by actin polymerization. The possible adhesions between the actin filaments and the load surface, as well as the nucleation and capping of filament tips, are included in this model on top of the well-known elastic Brownian ratchet formulation. A closed form solution is provided from which the force-velocity relationship, summarizing the mechanics of polymerization, can be drawn. Model predictions on the velocity of moving beads driven by actin polymerization are consistent with experiment observations. This model also seems capable of explaining the enhanced actin-based motility of Listeria monocytogenes and beads by the presence of Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, as observed in recent experiments.

  11. Thyroxin Is Useful to Improve Sperm Motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendeluk Gabriela Ruth


    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the non-genomic action of thyroxin on sperm kinetic and its probable use to improve sperm recovery after applying an en- richment method like “swim-up” in comparison with the available one, pentoxifylline. Materials and Methods This is an experimental study. A total of 50 patients were re- cruited, followed by infertility consultation. Conventional sperm assays were performed according to World Health Organization criteria-2010 (WHO-2010. A Computer Aided Semen Analysis System was employed to assess kinetic parameters and concentrations. Number of the motile sperm recovered after preparation technique was calculated. Results Addition of T4 (0.002 µg/ml to semen samples increased hypermotility at 20 minutes (control: 14.18 ± 5.1% vs. 17.66 ± 8.88%, P<0.03, data expressed as mean ± SD and remained unchanged after 40 minutes. Significant differences were found in the motile sperm recovered after swim-up (control: 8.93×106 ± 9.52× 06vs. 17.20×106 ± 21.16×106, P<0.03, achieving all of the tested samples a desirable threshold value for artificial insemination outcome, while adding pentoxifylline increased the number of recovered sperm after swim-up in 60% of the studied cases. No synergism between two treatments could be determined. Conclusion We propose a new physiological tool to artificially improve insemination. The discussion opens windows to investigate unknown pathways involved in sperm ca- pacitation and gives innovative arguments to better understand infertility mechanisms.

  12. in human sperm motility and level of calcium and magnesium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. Valsa


    Nov 6, 2015 ... Abstract A detailed sperm motility study for 24 h after collection was done. The level of calcium and magnesium in seminal plasma during this period was also seen to understand the role of these electrolytes on sperm motility. Good care was taken in selection of subjects (young and healthy), collection and ...

  13. Quantification of motility of carabid beetles in farmland. (United States)

    Allema, A B; van der Werf, W; Groot, J C J; Hemerik, L; Gort, G; Rossing, W A H; van Lenteren, J C


    Quantification of the movement of insects at field and landscape levels helps us to understand their ecology and ecological functions. We conducted a meta-analysis on movement of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae), to identify key factors affecting movement and population redistribution. We characterize the rate of redistribution using motility μ (L2 T-1), which is a measure for diffusion of a population in space and time that is consistent with ecological diffusion theory and which can be used for upscaling short-term data to longer time frames. Formulas are provided to calculate motility from literature data on movement distances. A field experiment was conducted to measure the redistribution of mass-released carabid, Pterostichus melanarius in a crop field, and derive motility by fitting a Fokker-Planck diffusion model using inverse modelling. Bias in estimates of motility from literature data is elucidated using the data from the field experiment as a case study. The meta-analysis showed that motility is 5.6 times as high in farmland as in woody habitat. Species associated with forested habitats had greater motility than species associated with open field habitats, both in arable land and woody habitat. The meta-analysis did not identify consistent differences in motility at the species level, or between clusters of larger and smaller beetles. The results presented here provide a basis for calculating time-varying distribution patterns of carabids in farmland and woody habitat. The formulas for calculating motility can be used for other taxa.

  14. Impedance planimetric description of normal rectoanal motility in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Inge S; Michelsen, Hanne B; Krogh, Klaus


    the experiment, the cross-sectional area at all channels showed strong cyclic contractile activity and the anal pressure increased by approximately 100 percent. CONCLUSIONS: The new rectal impedance planimetry system allows highly detailed description of rectoanal motility patterns. It has promise as a new...... method for description of rectoanal motility in further studies. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...

  15. Cell motility as persistent random motion: Theories from experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmeczi, D.; Mosler, S.; Hagedorn, P.H.


    Experimental time series for trajectories of motile cells may contain so much information that a systematic analysis will yield cell-type- specific motility models. Here we demonstrate how, using human keratinocytes and fibroblasts as examples. The two resulting models reflect the cells' different...

  16. Photoacclimation state determines the photobehaviour of motile microalgae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezequiel, João; Laviale, Martin; Frankenbach, Silja


    (i.e. photoacclimation). Unialgal cultures of the motile diatom Navicula cf. recens were grown under contrasting light regimes (20 and 300μmolquantam-2s-1) to induce different photoacclimation states. The migratory response to light was characterized by studying the distribution of motile cells along...

  17. Detection and Genomic Characterization of Motility in Lactobacillus curvatus: Confirmation of Motility in a Species outside the Lactobacillus salivarius Clade (United States)

    Cousin, Fabien J.; Lynch, Shónagh M.; Harris, Hugh M. B.; McCann, Angela; Lynch, Denise B.; Neville, B. Anne; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Okada, Sanae; Endo, Akihito


    Lactobacillus is the largest genus within the lactic acid bacteria (LAB), with almost 180 species currently identified. Motility has been reported for at least 13 Lactobacillus species, all belonging to the Lactobacillus salivarius clade. Motility in lactobacilli is poorly characterized. It probably confers competitive advantages, such as superior nutrient acquisition and niche colonization, but it could also play an important role in innate immune system activation through flagellin–Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) interaction. We now report strong evidence of motility in a species outside the L. salivarius clade, Lactobacillus curvatus (strain NRIC 0822). The motility of L. curvatus NRIC 0822 was revealed by phase-contrast microscopy and soft-agar motility assays. Strain NRIC 0822 was motile at temperatures between 15°C and 37°C, with a range of different carbohydrates, and under varying atmospheric conditions. We sequenced the L. curvatus NRIC 0822 genome, which revealed that the motility genes are organized in a single operon and that the products are very similar (>98.5% amino acid similarity over >11,000 amino acids) to those encoded by the motility operon of Lactobacillus acidipiscis KCTC 13900 (shown for the first time to be motile also). Moreover, the presence of a large number of mobile genetic elements within and flanking the motility operon of L. curvatus suggests recent horizontal transfer between members of two distinct Lactobacillus clades: L. acidipiscis in the L. salivarius clade and L. curvatus in the L. sakei clade. This study provides novel phenotypic, genetic, and phylogenetic insights into flagellum-mediated motility in lactobacilli. PMID:25501479

  18. Bacterial signaling and motility: Sure bets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhulin, Igor B [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)


    The IX International Conference on Bacterial Locomotion and Signal Transduction (BLAST IX) was held from 14 to 19 January 2007 in Laughlin, NV, a town in the Mojave Desert on the Nevada-Arizona border near old Route 66 and along the banks of the Colorado River. This area is a home to rattlesnakes, sagebrush, abandoned gold mines, and compulsive gamblers. What better venue could scientists possibly dream of for a professional meeting? So there they were, about 190 scientists gathered in the Aquarius Casino Resort, the largest hotel and casino in Laughlin, discussing the latest advances in the field. Aside from a brief excursion to an abandoned gold mine and a dinner cruise on the Colorado River, the scientists focused on nothing but their data and hypotheses, in spirited arguments and rebuttals, and outlined their visions and future plans in a friendly and open environment. The BLAST IX program was dense, with nearly 50 talks and over 90 posters. For that reason, this meeting report will not attempt to be comprehensive; instead it will first provide general background information on the central topics of the meeting and then highlight only a few talks that were of special interest to us and hopefully to the wider scientific community. We will also attempt to articulate some of the future directions or perspectives to the best of our abilities. The best known and understood bacterial motility mechanism is swimming powered by flagella. The rotation of bacterial flagella drives this form of bacterial movement in an aqueous environment. A bacterial flagellum consists of a helical filament attached to the cell body through a complex structure known as the hook-basal body, which drives flagellar rotation. The essential components of the basal body are the MotA-MotB motor-stator proteins bound to the cytoplasmic membrane. These stator proteins interact with proteins that comprise the supramembrane and cytoplasmic rings, which are components of the motor imbedded in the

  19. Immunotherapy for gastrointestinal malignancies. (United States)

    Toomey, Paul G; Vohra, Nasreen A; Ghansah, Tomar; Sarnaik, Amod A; Pilon-Thomas, Shari A


    Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are the most common human tumors encountered worldwide. The majority of GI cancers are unresectable at the time of diagnosis, and in the subset of patients undergoing resection, few are cured. There is only a modest improvement in survival with the addition of modalities such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Due to an increasing global cancer burden, it is imperative to integrate alternative strategies to improve outcomes. It is well known that cancers possess diverse strategies to evade immune detection and destruction. This has led to the incorporation of various immunotherapeutic strategies, which enable reprogramming of the immune system to allow effective recognition and killing of GI tumors. A review was conducted of the results of published clinical trials employing immunotherapy for esophageal, gastroesophageal, gastric, hepatocellular, pancreatic, and colorectal cancers. Monoclonal antibody therapy has come to the forefront in the past decade for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Immunotherapeutic successes in solid cancers such as melanoma and prostate cancer have led to the active investigation of immunotherapy for GI malignancies, with some promising results. To date, monoclonal antibody therapy is the only immunotherapy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for GI cancers. Initial trials validating new immunotherapeutic approaches, including vaccination-based and adoptive cell therapy strategies, for GI malignancies have demonstrated safety and the induction of antitumor immune responses. Therefore, immunotherapy is at the forefront of neoadjuvant as well as adjuvant therapies for the treatment and eradication of GI malignancies.

  20. Luminally expressed gastrointestinal biomarkers. (United States)

    Cummins, Gerard; Yung, Diana E; Cox, Ben F; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Desmulliez, Marc P Y; Cochran, Sandy


    A biomarker is a measurable indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes or pharmacological responses. The identification of a useful biomarker is challenging, with several hurdles to overcome before clinical adoption. This review gives a general overview of a range of biomarkers associated with inflammatory bowel disease or colorectal cancer along the gastrointestinal tract. Areas covered: These markers include those that are already clinically accepted, such as inflammatory markers such as faecal calprotectin, S100A12 (Calgranulin C), Fatty Acid Binding Proteins (FABP), malignancy markers such as Faecal Occult Blood, Mucins, Stool DNA, Faecal microRNA (miRNA), other markers such as Faecal Elastase, Faecal alpha-1-antitrypsin, Alpha2-macroglobulin and possible future markers such as microbiota, volatile organic compounds and pH. Expert commentary: There are currently a few biomarkers that have been sufficiently validated for routine clinical use at present such as FC. However, many of these biomarkers continue to be limited in sensitivity and specificity for various GI diseases. Emerging biomarkers have the potential to improve diagnosis and monitoring but further study is required to determine efficacy and validate clinical utility.

  1. Gastrointestinal manifestations of leukemia. (United States)

    Ebert, Ellen C; Hagspiel, Klaus D


    Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations of leukemia occur in up to 25% of patients at autopsy, generally during relapse. Its presence varies with the type of leukemia and has been decreasing over time due to improved chemotherapy. Gross leukemic lesions are most common in the stomach, ileum, and proximal colon. Leukemia in the esophagus and stomach includes hemorrhagic lesions from petechiae to ulcers, leukemic infiltrates, pseudomembranous esophagitis, and fungal esophagitis. Lesions in the small and large bowel are usually hemorrhagic or infiltrative. Infiltration of lymphoreticular organs, mainly spleen, liver, and lymph nodes, is more prominent in chronic than acute leukemia. Neutropenic enterocolitis, a necrotizing process involving the cecum, ascending colon, and terminal ileum, is increasing in incidence due to greater intensity of chemotherapy. Distension of bowel leads to mucosal breaches, permitting entry of organisms that grow profusely in the absence of neutrophils. Ischemic necrosis follows, leading to perforation and/or peritonitis. Patients present with fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension and tenderness. Ultrasound and computed tomography scans show thickening of the bowel wall. Treatment is supportive with surgery for necrosis and perforation. The main GI causes of death in leukemia are hemorrhage, infection, and necrotizing enterocolitis. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Swimming bacteria promote dispersal of non-motile staphylococcal species. (United States)

    Samad, Tahoura; Billings, Nicole; Birjiniuk, Alona; Crouzier, Thomas; Doyle, Patrick S; Ribbeck, Katharina


    Swimming motility is considered a beneficial trait among bacterial species as it enables movement across fluid environments and augments invasion of tissues within the host. However, non-swimming bacteria also flourish in fluid habitats, but how they effectively spread and colonize distant ecological niches remains unclear. We show that non-motile staphylococci can gain motility by hitchhiking on swimming bacteria, leading to extended and directed motion with increased velocity. This phoretic interaction was observed between Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and P. aeruginosa, as well as S. aureus and Escherichia coli, suggesting hitchhiking as a general translocation mechanism for non-motile staphylococcal species. By leveraging the motility of swimming bacteria, it was observed that staphylococci can colonize new niches that are less available in the absence of swimming carriers. This work highlights the importance of considering interactions between species within polymicrobial communities, in which bacteria can utilize each other as resources.

  3. Motility of copepod nauplii and implications for food encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titelman, Josefin; Kiørboe, Thomas


    Velocity differences drive all encounter processes. Therefore, knowledge of both prey and predator motility are essential in order to understand feeding behavior and predict food acquisition rates. Here, we describe and quantify the motility behavior of young and old naupliar stages of 6 copepods...... with a smoother glide of varying continuity. We apply observed time budgets and behavior-specific speeds in simple models to examine mechanisms of food encounter. The motility of all nauplii may account for clearance rates reported in the literature, but through different mechanisms. Smoothly swimming nauphi...... encounter food by scavenging, which also allows for some food capture inefficiency. Jump-sink types rely on motile food. We demonstrate how diffusivity of motile prey may account for observed clearance rates for jump-sink types, which seem to employ 2 strategies. Infrequent jumping as observed in many...

  4. High motility reduces grazing mortality of planktonic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matz, Carsten; Jurgens, K.


    We tested the impact of bacterial swimming speed on the survival of planktonic bacteria in the presence of protozoan grazers. Grazing experiments with three common bacterivorous nanoflagellates revealed low clearance rates for highly motile bacteria. High-resolution video microscopy demonstrated...... size revealed highest grazing losses for moderately motile bacteria with a cell size between 0.2 and 0.4 mum(3). Grazing mortality was lowest for cells of >0.5 mum(3) and small, highly motile bacteria. Survival efficiencies of >95% for the ultramicrobacterial isolate CP-1 (less than or equal to0.1 mum......(3), >50 mum s(-1)) illustrated the combined protective action of small cell size and high motility. Our findings suggest that motility has an important adaptive function in the survival of planktonic bacteria during protozoan grazing....

  5. Assessment of the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal autonomic complications of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Christina; Brock, Birgitte; Pedersen, Anne Grave


    The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing; arguably as a consequence of changes in diet, lifestyle and the trend towards urbanization. Unsurprisingly, the incidence of both micro and macrovascular complications of diabetes mirrors this increasing prevalence. Amongst the complications...... with the highest symptom burden, yet frequently under-diagnosed and sub-optimally treated, is diabetic autonomic neuropathy, itself potentially resulting in cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and gastrointestinal (GI) tract dysmotility. The aims of this review are fourfold. Firstly to provide an overview...... of the pathophysiological processes that cause diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Secondly, to discuss both the established and emerging cardiometric methods for evaluating autonomic nervous system function in vivo. Thirdly, to examine the tools for assessing pan-GI and segmental motility and finally, we will provide...

  6. How to perform gastrointestinal ultrasound: Anatomy and normal findings. (United States)

    Atkinson, Nathan S S; Bryant, Robert V; Dong, Yi; Maaser, Christian; Kucharzik, Torsten; Maconi, Giovanni; Asthana, Anil K; Blaivas, Michael; Goudie, Adrian; Gilja, Odd Helge; Nuernberg, Dieter; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Dietrich, Christoph F


    Gastrointestinal ultrasound is a practical, safe, cheap and reproducible diagnostic tool in inflammatory bowel disease gaining global prominence amongst clinicians. Understanding the embryological processes of the intestinal tract assists in the interpretation of abnormal sonographic findings. In general terms, the examination principally comprises interrogation of the colon, mesentery and small intestine using both low-frequency and high-frequency probes. Interpretation of findings on GIUS includes assessment of bowel wall thickness, symmetry of this thickness, evidence of transmural changes, assessment of vascularity using Doppler imaging and assessment of other specific features including lymph nodes, mesentery and luminal motility. In addition to B-mode imaging, transperineal ultrasonography, elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography are useful adjuncts. This supplement expands upon these features in more depth.

  7. Gastrointestinal perfusion in septic shock.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haren, E.M. van; Sleight, J.W.; Pickkers, P.; Hoeven, J.G. van der


    Septic shock is characterised by vasodilation, myocardial depression and impaired microcirculatory blood flow, resulting in redistribution of regional blood flow. Animal and human studies have shown that gastrointestinal mucosal blood flow is impaired in septic shock. This is consistent with

  8. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G


    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  9. Foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kefeli


    Full Text Available Objective: Ingested foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract are a common event which can cause serious morbidity and mortality in the children and adult population. For this reason, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing these life threatening complications. In this study, we aimed to analyze the characteristics of the patients with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies that were treated in our department. Methods: Patients diagnosed with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies who were admitted to our hospital between February 2010 and August2013 were evaluated retrospectively. The data regarding their age, gender, clinical profile, type and localization of the esophageal foreign body, performed endoscopic procedure and initial symptoms of the patients were noted and analyzed statistically. Results: Thirty-eight patients with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal foreign body were included in this study. Of these patients, 21 were male and 17 were female. The youngest patient was 17 years old and the oldest patient was 79 years old. Most of the foreign bodies (%55.3 detected in the stomach. Food waste and metallic objects in 21 and 16 patients respectively. The most common complaint was dysphagia (%50. After endoscopic intervention three of the patients were directed to surgery. Conclusion: Early recognition and treatment of gastrointestinal foreign bodies is important as their complications are life threatening. The best method of removal of foreign bodies is controversial. Early management with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the most efficient and safe treatment method in current conditions.

  10. Activation of serotonin receptors promotes microglial injury-induced motility but attenuates phagocytic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Grietje; Matyash, Vitali; Pannasch, Ulrike; Mamer, Lauren; Boddeke, Hendrikus W. G. M.; Kettenmann, Helmut

    Microglia, the brain immune cell, express several neurotransmitter receptors which modulate microglial functions. In this project we studied the impact of serotonin receptor activation on distinct microglial properties as serotonin deficiency not only has been linked to a number of psychiatric

  11. Intragastric infusion of the bitter tastant quinine suppresses hormone release and antral motility during the fasting state in healthy female volunteers. (United States)

    Deloose, E; Corsetti, M; Van Oudenhove, L; Depoortere, I; Tack, J


    Intragastric administration of the bitter tastant denatonium benzoate inhibits the increase of motilin plasma levels and antral contractility. While these findings suggest that gastrointestinal bitter taste receptors could be new targets to modulate gastrointestinal motility and hormone release, they need confirmation with other bitter receptor agonists. The primary aim was to evaluate the effect of intragastric administration of the bitter tastant quinine-hydrochloride (QHCl) on motilin and ghrelin plasma levels. Secondly, we studied the effect on interdigestive motility. Ten healthy female volunteers were recruited (33±4 y; 22±0.5 kg/m²). Placebo or QHCl (10 μmol/kg) was administered intragastrically through a nasogastric feeding tube after an overnight fast in a single-blind randomized fashion. Administration started 20 min after the first phase III of the migrating motor complex. The measurement continued for another 2 h after the administration. Blood samples were collected every 10 min with the baseline sample taken 10 min prior to administration. The increase in plasma levels of motilin (administration; P=.04) and total ghrelin (administration; P=.02) was significantly lower after QHCl. The fluctuation of octanoylated ghrelin was reduced after QHCl (time by administration; P=.03). Duodenal motility did not differ. The fluctuation of antral activity differed over time between placebo and QHCl (time by administration; P=.03). QHCl suppresses the increase of both motilin and ghrelin plasma levels. Moreover, QHCl reduced the fluctuation of antral motility. These findings confirm the potential of bitter taste receptors as targets for modifying interdigestive motility in man. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Functional gastrointestinal disorders]. (United States)

    Moser, Gabriele


    The functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are the most frequent clinical conditions seen in practice. The FGID are associated with significant work absenteeism, impaired quality of life and increased medical costs. Most patients also suffer from psychosocial problems. Therefore it is important to define the patient's complaints in terms of a biopsychosocial disorder rather than just a medical illness. Physicians must acknowledge the relevance of the psychosocial aspects to prepare the patient for a referral to a specialist (in psychosomatic medicine or a psychotherapist) and to get the patient interested in the psychological factors involved as well as further explore their cause. Most of the research on psychotherapy in FGID to date has focused on the irritable bowel syndrome, and different methods of treatments have been studied (e. g., cognitive-behavioral therapy, dynamic psychotherapy, hypnotherapy, and relaxation). Randomised controlled studies have shown that psychotherapy is superior to conventional medical therapy. Hypnotherapy seems to be very successful. Predictors of a positive response to psychological treatment generally are: (1) awareness that stress exacerbates their bowel symptoms, (2) mild anxiety or depression, (3) the predominant bowel symptom is abdominal pain or diarrhea and not constipation, (4) the abdominal pain waxes and wanes in response to eating, defecation, or stress rather than being constant pain, and (5) the symptoms are of relatively short duration. Psychotherapy is initially relatively expensive because it requires multiple, long sessions. However, its benefits persist or even increase over time, and in the long run, there may be a reduction in clinic visits and health care costs which offsets the initial cost of psychological treatment.

  13. Probiotics and gastrointestinal health. (United States)

    Gorbach, S L


    Evidence for positive health benefits of Lactobacilli applies to only a few strains used for commercial applications. It is generally agreed that a probiotic must be capable of colonizing the intestinal tract to influence human health; this requirement disqualifies many of the strains currently used in fermented dairy products. Lactobacillus GG, a variant of L. casei sps rhamnosus, has been studied extensively in adults and children. When consumed as a dairy product or as a lyophilized powder, LGG colonizes the gastrointestinal tract for 1-3 days in most individuals and up to 7 days in about 30% of subjects. Traveler's diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and relapsing Clostridium difficile colitis are improved with LGG. In infantile diarrhea, the severity and duration of the attack is reduced. LGG-fermented milk lessens the intestinal permeability defects caused by exposure to cows milk or rotavirus infection. LGG has proven beneficial effects on intestinal immunity. It increases the numbers of IgA and other immunoglobulin-secreting cells in the intestinal mucosa. LGG stimulates local release of interferon. It facilitates antigen transport to underlying lymphoid cells, which serves to increase antigen uptake in Peyer's patches. LGG also acts as an immunoadjuvant for oral vaccines. In an animal model of colon cancer, LGG reduced the incidence of chemically induced tumors in the large bowel of rodents. Extensive safety testing has shown no pathogenic potential in humans or animals. Probiotic cultures of Lactobacilli have the potential to bring substantial health benefits to the consumer. The purported benefits for any probiotic must pass the highest standards of scientific scrutiny before the claims can be accepted.

  14. Gastrointestinal Physiology and Function. (United States)

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Johnson, Anthony C; Grundy, David


    The gastrointestinal (GI) system is responsible for the digestion and absorption of ingested food and liquids. Due to the complexity of the GI tract and the substantial volume of material that could be covered under the scope of GI physiology, this chapter briefly reviews the overall function of the GI tract, and discusses the major factors affecting GI physiology and function, including the intestinal microbiota, chronic stress, inflammation, and aging with a focus on the neural regulation of the GI tract and an emphasis on basic brain-gut interactions that serve to modulate the GI tract. GI diseases refer to diseases of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, and rectum. The major symptoms of common GI disorders include recurrent abdominal pain and bloating, heartburn, indigestion/dyspepsia, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation. GI disorders rank among the most prevalent disorders, with the most common including esophageal and swallowing disorders, gastric and peptic ulcer disease, gastroparesis or delayed gastric emptying, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Many GI disorders are difficult to diagnose and their symptoms are not effectively managed. Thus, basic research is required to drive the development of novel therapeutics which are urgently needed. One approach is to enhance our understanding of gut physiology and pathophysiology especially as it relates to gut-brain communications since they have clinical relevance to a number of GI complaints and represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of conditions including inflammatory diseases of the GI tract such as IBD and functional gut disorders such as IBS.

  15. Progress in Mathematical Modeling of Gastrointestinal Slow Wave Abnormalities. (United States)

    Du, Peng; Calder, Stefan; Angeli, Timothy R; Sathar, Shameer; Paskaranandavadivel, Niranchan; O'Grady, Gregory; Cheng, Leo K


    Gastrointestinal (GI) motility is regulated in part by electrophysiological events called slow waves, which are generated by the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Slow waves propagate by a process of "entrainment," which occurs over a decreasing gradient of intrinsic frequencies in the antegrade direction across much of the GI tract. Abnormal initiation and conduction of slow waves have been demonstrated in, and linked to, a number of GI motility disorders. A range of mathematical models have been developed to study abnormal slow waves and applied to propose novel methods for non-invasive detection and therapy. This review provides a general outline of GI slow wave abnormalities and their recent classification using multi-electrode (high-resolution) mapping methods, with a particular emphasis on the spatial patterns of these abnormal activities. The recently-developed mathematical models are introduced in order of their biophysical scale from cellular to whole-organ levels. The modeling techniques, main findings from the simulations, and potential future directions arising from notable studies are discussed.

  16. Coordination of glioblastoma cell motility by PKCι

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin R Mitchell


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma is one of the deadliest forms of cancer, in part because of its highly invasive nature. The tumor suppressor PTEN is frequently mutated in glioblastoma and is known to contribute to the invasive phenotype. However the downstream events that promote invasion are not fully understood. PTEN loss leads to activation of the atypical protein kinase C, PKCι. We have previously shown that PKCι is required for glioblastoma cell invasion, primarily by enhancing cell motility. Here we have used time-lapse videomicroscopy to more precisely define the role of PKCι in glioblastoma. Results Glioblastoma cells in which PKCι was either depleted by shRNA or inhibited pharmacologically were unable to coordinate the formation of a single leading edge lamellipod. Instead, some cells generated multiple small, short-lived protrusions while others generated a diffuse leading edge that formed around the entire circumference of the cell. Confocal microscopy showed that this behavior was associated with altered behavior of the cytoskeletal protein Lgl, which is known to be inactivated by PKCι phosphorylation. Lgl in control cells localized to the lamellipod leading edge and did not associate with its binding partner non-muscle myosin II, consistent with it being in an inactive state. In PKCι-depleted cells, Lgl was concentrated at multiple sites at the periphery of the cell and remained in association with non-muscle myosin II. Videomicroscopy also identified a novel role for PKCι in the cell cycle. Cells in which PKCι was either depleted by shRNA or inhibited pharmacologically entered mitosis normally, but showed marked delays in completing mitosis. Conclusions PKCι promotes glioblastoma motility by coordinating the formation of a single leading edge lamellipod and has a role in remodeling the cytoskeleton at the lamellipod leading edge, promoting the dissociation of Lgl from non-muscle myosin II. In addition PKCι is required

  17. Pattern formation mechanisms in motility mutants of Myxococcus xanthus

    CERN Document Server

    Starruss, Joern; Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Sogaard-Andersen, Lotte; Deutsch, Andreas; Baer, Markus


    Formation of spatial patterns of cells is a recurring theme in biology and often depends on regulated cell motility. Motility of M. xanthus depends on two motility machineries: the S-engine and A-engine. Moving M. xanthus cells can organize into spreading colonies or spore-filled fruiting bodies depending on their nutritional status. To understand these two pattern formation processes and the contributions by the two motility machineries, as well as cell reversal, we analyze spatial self-organization in 3 strains: i) a mutant that moves unidirectionally without reversing by the A-motility system only, ii) a unidirectional mutant that is also equipped with the S-motility system, and iii) the wild-type that, in addition to the two motility systems, reverses its direction of movement. The mutant moving by the A-engine illustrates that collective motion in the form of large moving clusters can arise in gliding bacteria due to steric interactions of the rod-shaped cells, without the need of invoking any biochemica...

  18. [Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation on Post-surgical Gastrointestinal Function, Autonomic Nerve Activities and Plasma Brain-gut Peptide Levels in Patients Undergoing Gastrointestinal Surgery]. (United States)

    Li, Jin-Jin; Zhao, Wen-Sheng; Shao, Xiao-Mei; Yang, Ai-Ming; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Fang, Jian-Qiao


    To observe the effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on ileus-postope-rative gastrointestinal functions and plasma ghrelin, motilin, and gastrin contents, and heart rate variability (HRV) in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery, so as to explore the interaction of vagus-brain-gut peptide. A total of 58 patients undergoing elective gastrointestinal surgery were randomly assigned to TEAS (n=29) and sham-TEAS group (n=29, patients had no subjective sensation to 1 mA TEAS, thus, being considered to be sham-TEAS). TEAS (2 Hz/100 Hz, 6-8 mA for LI 4-PC 6, 12-18 mA for ST 36-SP 6) was applied to bilateral Hegu (LI 4)-Neiguan (PC 6) from 30 min pre-operation to the end of the operation and to bilateral LI 4-PC 6 and Zusanli (ST 36)-Sanyinjiao (SP 6) for 30 minutes twice daily in 3 consecutive post-operative days. ECGs of 12 leads were recorded to analyze different parameters of HRV from 2 days before and 4 days after surgery. Plasma ghrelin, motilin and gastrin contents were assayed by radioimmunoassay, and the patients' first bowel sound, first independent walk, first flatus, first solid food-intake and first defecation were recorded to evaluate the recovery state of gastrointestinal motility. Postoperative gastrointestinal motility:compared with the sham-TEAS group, the first bowel sound and the first defecation after surgery appeared apparently earlier in the TEAS group (P0.05). HRV domains:in comparison with pre-surgery, the levels of low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) of frequency domain (FD) and root mean square of successive differences (rMSSD) of the time domain (TD) of HRV 4 days after surgery were significantly decreased in the sham-TEAS group (P0.05). Compared with the sham-TEAS group, the HF and rMSSD levels were significantly increased in the TEAS group 4 days after the surgery (P<0.05). No significant differences were found between the two groups in the levels of very low frequency, LF and LF/HF levels of FD, and

  19. Effects of the herbal formulation ColiMil on upper gastrointestinal transit in mice in vivo. (United States)

    Capasso, Raffaele; Savino, Francesco; Capasso, Francesco


    Clinical evidence suggests that the herbal formulation ColiMil (which contains Matricaria recutita flowers extract, Foeniculum vulgare fruit extract and Melissa officinalis aerial parts extract) is effective in the treatment of breastfed colic in infants. Therefore the effect of this phytotherapeutic formulation and its herbal constituents on upper gastrointestinal transit was investigated in mice in vivo. Oral administration of the herbal formulation (0.4-0.8 mL/mice) dose-dependently delayed upper gastrointestinal transit. Among the herbal components, Matricaria recutita extract (0.89 and 1.78 mg/mouse) and Melissa officinalis extract (6.46 and 12.92 mg/mouse), but not Foeniculum vulgare (8.21 and 16.42 mg/mouse), reduced motility significantly. These results suggest that ColiMil reduces upper gastrointestinal motility in mice, with a major contribution by Matricaria recutita and Melissa officinalis. These experimental data may be important to better understand the observation that the herbal formulation ColiMil improves colic in breastfed infants.

  20. Juvenile-like (inflammatory/hyperplastic) mucosal polyps of the gastrointestinal tract in neurofibromatosis type 1. (United States)

    Agaimy, Abbas; Schaefer, Inga-Marie; Kotzina, Leopoldina; Knolle, Jürgen; Baumann, Irith; Ströbel, Philipp; Vieth, Michael


    Diffuse neurofibromatosis/ganglioneuromatosis, solitary/plexiform neurofibroma, periampullary carcinoids and gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) are the main gastrointestinal manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1, von Recklinghausen disease). Inflammatory (juvenile-like) polyps have not been recognised to date as specific gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations of NF-1. We describe four males aged 23-65 years with NF-1 and inflammatory (juvenile-like) gastrointestinal polyps, and review the literature for similar cases. Two patients had single polyps (sigmoid colon and antrum, respectively), one had two polyps (left colon), and one had three polyps (distal oesophagus and colon). Histological appearances were variable, ranging from juvenile-like to granulation tissue-rich, predominantly inflammatory and hyperplastic. Three lesions showed obliterative vasculopathic changes. None had neurofibromatous or ganglioneuromatous polyps. A review of the literature disclosed 11 similar cases. Most patients presented with severe gastrointestinal symptoms and/or anaemia. NF-1-associated inflammatory polyps probably represent specific GI manifestations of this disorder, and should be considered, particularly in patients with GI symptoms. They should be distinguished from inflammatory fibroid polyps and from juvenile-like changes associated with ganglioneuroma/ganglioneuromatosis and neurofibroma/neurofibromatosis. Their aetiology remains obscure, but different mechanisms, including NF-1 inactivation, NF-1-associated vasculopathy, and localised mucosal prolapse/damage caused by motility disorders, might be involved. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Exopolysaccharide-independent social motility of Myxococcus xanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    Full Text Available Social motility (S motility, the coordinated movement of large cell groups on agar surfaces, of Myxococcus xanthus requires type IV pili (TFP and exopolysaccharides (EPS. Previous models proposed that this behavior, which only occurred within cell groups, requires cycles of TFP extension and retraction triggered by the close interaction of TFP with EPS. However, the curious observation that M. xanthus can perform TFP-dependent motility at a single-cell level when placed onto polystyrene surfaces in a highly viscous medium containing 1% methylcellulose indicated that "S motility" is not limited to group movements. In an apparent further challenge of the previous findings for S motility, mutants defective in EPS production were found to perform TFP-dependent motility on polystyrene surface in methylcellulose-containing medium. By exploring the interactions between pilin and surface materials, we found that the binding of TFP onto polystyrene surfaces eliminated the requirement for EPS in EPS(- cells and thus enabled TFP-dependent motility on a single cell level. However, the presence of a general anchoring surface in a viscous environment could not substitute for the role of cell surface EPS in group movement. Furthermore, EPS was found to serve as a self-produced anchoring substrate that can be shed onto surfaces to enable cells to conduct TFP-dependent motility regardless of surface properties. These results suggested that in certain environments, such as in methylcellulose solution, the cells could bypass the need for EPS to anchor their TPF and conduct single-cell S motility to promote exploratory movement of colonies over new specific surfaces.

  2. Structures of the Toxoplasma gliding motility adhesin (United States)

    Song, Gaojie; Springer, Timothy A.


    Micronemal protein 2 (MIC2) is the key adhesin that supports gliding motility and host cell invasion by Toxoplasma gondii. With a von Willebrand factor A (VWA) domain and six thrombospondin repeat domains (TSR1–6) in its ectodomain, MIC2 connects to the parasite actomyosin system through its cytoplasmic tail. MIC2-associated protein (M2AP) binds noncovalently to the MIC2 ectodomain. MIC2 and M2AP are stored in micronemes as proforms. We find that the MIC2–M2AP ectodomain complex is a highly elongated 1:1 monomer with M2AP bound to the TSR6 domain. Crystal structures of N-terminal fragments containing the VWA and TSR1 domains for proMIC2 and MIC2 reveal a closed conformation of the VWA domain and how it associates with the TSR1 domain. A long, proline-rich, disulfide-bonded pigtail loop in TSR1 overlaps the VWA domain. Mannose α-C-linked to Trp-276 in TSR1 has an unusual 1C4 chair conformation. The MIC2 VWA domain includes a mobile α5-helix and a 22-residue disordered region containing two disulfide bonds in place of an α6-helix. A hydrophobic residue in the prodomain binds to a pocket adjacent to the α7-helix that pistons in opening of the VWA domain to a putative high-affinity state. PMID:24639528

  3. Splenosis with lower gastrointestinal bleeding mimicking colonical gastrointestinal stromal tumour. (United States)

    Xiao, Shuo-Meng; Xu, Rui; Tang, Xiao-Li; Ding, Zhi; Li, Ji-Man; Zhou, Xiang


    Splenosis refers to the heterotopic transplantation of splenic tissue following splenic trauma or splenectomy. Splenosis is typically asymptomatic and is often identified incidentally. We report a case of splenosis with colon and stomach invasion presenting as lower gastrointestinal bleeding and mimicking colonic gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). The importance of suspicion for splenosis in patients with a history of splenic injury should be highlighted. Computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy, nuclear scintigraphy and ferumoxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can support an accurate diagnosis. An accurate diagnosis of splenosis is important to avoid unnecessary operations, especially in patients with previous histories of splenic trauma or splenectomy.

  4. Rare case of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in achalasia. (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Xie, Xiang-Jun; Geng, Chang-Xin; Zhan, Shu-Hui


    Achalasia is a prototypic esophageal motility disorder with complications including aspiration-pneumonia, esophagitis, esophageal-tracheal fistula, spontaneous rupture of the esophagus, and squamous cell carcinoma. However, achalasia is rarely associated with esophageal stones and ulcer formation that lead to upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Here, we report the case of a 61-year-old woman who was admitted to our department after vomiting blood for six hours. Physical examination revealed that the patient had severe anemia and mild palpitation in the upper abdomen. CT revealed lower esophageal dilatation and esophageal wall thickening, and an emergency upper endoscopy showed that the esophagus was substantially expanded by a dark round stone, with multiple ulcers on the esophageal wall and a slit in the cardiac mucosa with a large clot attached. The patient's history included ingestion of 1 kg hawthorn three days prior. The acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding was caused by Mallory-Weiss syndrome associated with achalasia and an esophageal stone. For patients with achalasia, preventing excessive ingestion of tannins is crucial to avoid complications such as bleeding and rupture.

  5. NtrC-dependent control of exopolysaccharide synthesis and motility in Burkholderia cenocepacia H111.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilei Liu

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cenocepacia is a versatile opportunistic pathogen that survives in a wide variety of environments, which can be limited in nutrients such as nitrogen. We have previously shown that the sigma factor σ54 is involved in the control of nitrogen assimilation and virulence in B. cenocepacia H111. In this work, we investigated the role of the σ54 enhancer binding protein NtrC in response to nitrogen limitation and in the pathogenicity of H111. Of 95 alternative nitrogen sources tested the ntrC showed defects in the utilisation of nitrate, urea, L-citrulline, acetamide, DL-lactamide, allantoin and parabanic acid. RNA-Seq and phenotypic analyses of an ntrC mutant strain showed that NtrC positively regulates two important phenotypic traits: exopolysaccharide (EPS production and motility. However, the ntrC mutant was not attenuated in C. elegans virulence.

  6. Clock gene expression in the murine gastrointestinal tract: endogenous rhythmicity and effects of a feeding regimen. (United States)

    Hoogerwerf, Willemijntje A; Hellmich, Helen L; Cornélissen, Germaine; Halberg, Franz; Shahinian, Vahakn B; Bostwick, Jonathon; Savidge, Tor C; Cassone, Vincent M


    Based on observations that the gastrointestinal tract is subject to various 24-hour rhythmic processes, it is conceivable that some of these rhythms are under circadian clock gene control. We hypothesized that clock genes are present in the gastrointestinal tract and that they are part of a functional molecular clock that coordinates rhythmic physiologic functions. The effects of timed feeding and vagotomy on temporal clock gene expression (clock, bmal1, per1-3, cry1-2) in the gastrointestinal tract and suprachiasmatic nucleus (bmal, per2) of C57BL/6J mice were examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting (BMAL, PER2). Colonic clock gene localization was examined using immunohistochemistry (BMAL, PER1-2). Clock immunoreactivity was observed in the myenteric plexus and epithelial crypt cells. Clock genes were expressed rhythmically throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Timed feeding shifted clock gene expression at the RNA and protein level but did not shift clock gene expression in the central clock. Vagotomy did not alter gastric clock gene expression compared with sham-treated controls. The murine gastrointestinal tract contains functional clock genes, which are molecular core components of the circadian clock. Daytime feeding in nocturnal rodents is a strong synchronizer of gastrointestinal clock genes. This synchronization occurs independently of the central clock. Gastric clock gene expression is not mediated through the vagal nerve. The presence of clock genes in the myenteric plexus and epithelial cells suggests a role for clock genes in circadian coordination of gastrointestinal functions such as motility, cell proliferation, and migration.

  7. Sperm motility of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians. (United States)

    Browne, R K; Kaurova, S A; Uteshev, V K; Shishova, N V; McGinnity, D; Figiel, C R; Mansour, N; Agney, D; Wu, M; Gakhova, E N; Dzyuba, B; Cosson, J


    We review the phylogeny, sperm competition, morphology, physiology, and fertilization environments of the sperm of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians. Increased sperm competition in both fish and anurans generally increases sperm numbers, sperm length, and energy reserves. The difference between the internal osmolarity and iconicity of sperm cells and those of the aquatic medium control the activation, longevity, and velocity of sperm motility. Hypo-osmolarity of the aquatic medium activates the motility of freshwater fish and amphibian sperm and hyperosmolarity activates the motility of marine fish sperm. The average longevity of the motility of marine fish sperm (~550 seconds) was significantly (P amphibian sperm in general and anurans reversion from internal to external fertilization. Our findings provide a greater understanding of the reproductive biology of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians, and a biological foundation for the further development of reproduction technologies for their sustainable management.

  8. Melanosome Motility in Fish Retinal Pigment Epithelial (RPE) Cells. (United States)

    King-Smith, Christina


    Several model systems have been developed to investigate mechanism and regulation of intracellular organelle motility. The fish retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell represents a novel yet simple system for the study of organelle motility. Primary cultures of dissociated RPE cells are easily prepared and amenable to motility studies. In vivo, melanin-containing pigment granules (melanosomes) within fish RPE migrate distances up to 100 μm in response to light flux. When dissociated from the epithelial layer and cultured in vitro, RPE cells attach to the substrate with the apical projections extending radially from the central cell body. Melanosomes can be chemically triggered to aggregate or disperse throughout the projections, and are easily observed using phase contrast microscopy. Melanosome migration in RPE apical projections is dependent on actin filaments, and thus renders this model system useful for investigations of actin-dependent organelle motility.

  9. A myxobacterial S-motility protein dances with poles. (United States)

    Huitema, Edgar; Viollier, Patrick H


    Coordinated movement of packs of S-motile Myxococcus xanthus cells relies on extrusion and retraction of pili that are located at one cell pole. At regular intervals the pili switch their polar location and cells reverse direction. Recently, the FrzS S-motility protein was observed to localize predominantly to the piliated pole. In time, FrzS was redeployed to the opposite pole and its sequestration at the new site coincided with cell reversal. The C-terminal region of FrzS, a response regulator homolog, is rich in coiled-coil motifs and is required for dynamic localization and proper motility. These results raise the possibility that proper spatial control of FrzS has an important role in the regulation of cell reversal and S-motility.

  10. Extra - Intestinal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of Omentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Basnet


    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are rare tumors, constituting less than 3% of all gastrointestinal malignant neoplasms but are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Approximately 10% of gastrointestinal stromal tumors are extraintestinal and mostly arise from the mesentery or omentum. Here we report a rare case of an extraintestinal gastrointestinal stromal tumor of mesentery. Morphological and immunohistochemical features led to a diagnosis of extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumor.DOI: Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 682-684

  11. Rectal motility after sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, H B; Worsøe, J; Krogh, K


    Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is effective against faecal incontinence, but the mode of action is obscure. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of SNS on fasting and postprandial rectal motility. Sixteen patients, 14 women age 33-73 (mean 58), with faecal incontinence of various...... CSA was 2999 mm(2) (range: 1481-3822) during fast and 2697 mm(2) (range: 1227-3310) postprandially (P incontinence does not affect phasic rectal motility...

  12. The effect of a physiotherapy intervention on intestinal motility


    Morisawa, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Nishi, Shinichi


    [Purpose] It is important to facilitate intestinal motility in patients with reduced bowel movement through physiotherapy. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of passive exercise of the lower limbs and trunk (PELT) and combination therapies (COM) with those of conventional thermotherapy (TT) on bowel sounds (BSs) in healthy adult subjects. Since autonomic activity (AA) significantly influences intestinal motility, we also investigated the relation between intestinal mo...

  13. Changes in Swallowing Symptoms and Esophageal Motility After Thyroid Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Markoew, Simone; Døssing, Helle


    INTRODUCTION: Swallowing difficulties, the pathophysiology behind which is incompletely understood, have been reported in 47-83% of goiter patients referred for thyroidectomy. We aimed at examining the influence of thyroid surgery on swallowing symptoms and esophageal motility. METHODS: Thirty-th...... to esophageal motility disturbances. This information is essential when interpreting dysphagia in patients with nodular goiter, and when balancing patients' expectations to surgical goiter therapy. REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03100357 ( )....

  14. Molecular Analysis of Motility in Metastatic Mammary Adenocarcinoma Cells (United States)


    elements of epidermoid carcinoma (A43 1) cells. J. Cell. Biol. 103: 87-94 Winkler, M. (1988). Translational regulation in sea urchin eggs: a complex...response range of changes in cell motility and morphology after stimulation with EGF using time-lapse video microscopy. This determines the appropriate...importance in mediating changes in cell motility or morphology after stimulation, and identify or acquire clones for the rat gene for the most important proten

  15. Color television in gastrointestinal endoscopy. (United States)

    Nelson, R S


    Endoscopic color television is a practical method of recording gastrointestinal pathology and procedures. Nevertheless, a careful MEDLARS review of the medical literature failed to reveal a mention of this method during the past ten years. The endoscopic procedure can be recorded to illustrate many features not possible with still pictures. While particularly useful in teaching endoscopy, it is also useful for demonstrating pathologic findings to interested physicians, patients, and relatives. Television recording requires meticulous attention to details of lighting, focus, and cleansing of areas to be photographed and of the instrument objective, but results may well be superior to other means of photography in gastrointestinal endoscopy.

  16. Dopamine inhibits mitochondrial motility in hippocampal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeng Chen


    Full Text Available The trafficking of mitochondria within neurons is a highly regulated process. In an earlier study, we found that serotonin (5-HT, acting through the 5-HT1A receptor subtype, promotes axonal transport of mitochondria in cultured hippocampal neurons by increasing Akt activity, and consequently decreasing glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3beta activity. This finding suggests a critical role for neuromodulators in the regulation of mitochondrial trafficking in neurons. In the present study, we investigate the effects of a second important neuromodulator, dopamine, on mitochondrial transport in hippocampal neurons.Here, we show that dopamine, like 5-HT, regulates mitochondrial motility in cultured hippocampal neurons through the Akt-GSK3beta signaling cascade. But, in contrast to the stimulatory effect of 5-HT, administration of exogenous dopamine or bromocriptine, a dopamine 2 receptor (D2R agonist, caused an inhibition of mitochondrial movement. Moreover, pretreatment with bromocriptine blocked the stimulatory effect of 5-HT on mitochondrial movement. Conversely, in cells pretreated with 5-HT, no further increases in movement were observed after administration of haloperidol, a D2R antagonist. In contrast to the effect of the D2R agonist, addition of SKF38393, a dopamine 1 receptor (D1R agonist, promoted mitochondrial transport, indicating that the inhibitory effect of dopamine was actually the net summation of opposing influences of the two receptor subtypes. The most pronounced effect of dopamine signals was on mitochondria that were already moving directionally. Western blot analysis revealed that treatment with either a D2R agonist or a D1R antagonist decreased Akt activity, and conversely, treatment with either a D2R antagonist or a D1R agonist increased Akt activity.Our observations strongly suggest a role for both dopamine and 5-HT in regulating mitochondrial movement, and indicate that the integrated effects of these two neuromodulators may be

  17. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC) Ultrastructure and Connexin 43 Protein Expression in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) Rats. (United States)

    Zhang, Guoshan; Xie, Shen; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuer; Liu, Mailan; Liu, Mi; Chang, Xiaorong


    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal motility disorder is the main clinical manifestation in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Electroacupuncture is effective in improving gastrointestinal motility disorder in FD; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemaker cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and the pacemaker potential is transmitted to nearby cells through gap junctions between ICC or ICC and the smooth muscle. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of electroacupuncture on ICC ultrastructure and expression of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in FD rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS The animals were randomized into 3 groups: control, model, and electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture was applied at Zusanli (ST36) in the electroacupuncture group daily for 10 days, while no electroacupuncture was applied to model group animals. RESULTS Ultrastructure of ICC recovered normally in gastric antrum and small intestine specimens was improved, with Cx43 expression levels in these tissues significantly increased in the electroacupuncture group compared with the model group. CONCLUSIONS These findings indicated that electroacupuncture is effective in alleviating ICC damage and reduces Cx43 levels in FD rats, and suggest that ICC and Cx43 are involved in electroacupuncture treatment in rats with FD to improve gastrointestinal motility disorders.

  18. Clinical nutrition and gastrointestinal dysfunction in critically ill stroke patients. (United States)

    Patejdl, Robert; Kästner, Matthias; Kolbaske, Stephan; Wittstock, Matthias


    Background Data on the epidemiology and risk factors of altered gastrointestinal motility (AGIM) is virtually lacking for patients suffering from non-traumatic neurologic diseases and stroke. This study investigated whether patterns of AGIM differ between patients with stroke and other severe acute brain diseases. Methods Clinical records of stroke and non-stroke patients treated at a neurological intensive care unit (ICU) were reviewed at day 1-5 and at day 10 after admission. The data was analyzed for the course of enteral/parenteral nutrition and for and for signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal dysfunction. The study included data of 76 patients, 57 with stroke (stroke group, SG) and 19 with other neurological diseases (non-stroke group, NSG). Results Basic demographic as well as clinical baseline characteristics and alimentation regime were similar in both groups. At least one sign of AGIM was seen in 33/57 (58%) SG and in 15/19 (79%) NSG patients (P = 0.099). Regurgitation was significantly more frequent among patients from the NSG (P < 0.05). Subjects from the NSG also spent a higher proportion of time with at least one symptom of AGIM present (P < 0.05). Conclusions For the first time, this study investigated the prevalence of AGIM in patients suffering from severe stroke. The prevalence of disturbed gastrointestinal function was found to be high in stroke patients, but was lower than in a group of non-stroke patients with similar general disease severity and baseline characteristics.

  19. Swimming and swarming motility properties of peanut-nodulating rhizobia. (United States)

    Vicario, Julio C; Dardanelli, Marta S; Giordano, Walter


    Motility allows populations of bacteria to rapidly reach and colonize new microniches or microhabitats. The motility of rhizobia (symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria that nodulate legume roots) is an important factor determining their competitive success. We evaluated the effects of temperature, incubation time, and seed exudates on swimming and swarming motility of five strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (peanut-nodulating rhizobia). Swimming motility was increased by exudate exposure for all strains except native Pc34. In contrast, swarming motility was increased by exudate exposure for native 15A but unchanged for the other four strains. All five strains displayed the ability to differentiate into swarm cells. Morphological examination by scanning electron microscopy showed that the length of the swarm cells was variable, but generally greater than that of vegetative cells. Our findings suggest the importance of differential motility properties of peanut-nodulating rhizobial strains during agricultural inoculation and early steps of symbiotic interaction with the host. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  20. Approach to upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ese clinical factors, age over 60, and shock on admission are highly predictive.[7] Concurrent medical therapy is particularly important as NSAIDs and anticoagulants, which are commonly prescribed in the elderly, have a direct deleterious effect on coagulation. e. Table 1. Causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding-related ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 4, 2004 ... ileus, urinary tract infection and chest infection, respectively postoperatively. Mortality was 28%, all of who had associated intraabdominal or extraabdominal injuries. Conclusion: Gastrointestinal injury from blunt abdominal trauma in children, though uncommon, carries a high mortality, usually from ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana G. Makarova


    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the prevalence  of food allergies. Pathological conditions associated  with a food intolerance are becoming an increasingly urgent problem of pediatrics. According to different researchers, allergic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract occurs in 25–50% of patients with such common pathology as an allergy to cow's milk proteins. The severity of diseases  associated  with food allergies and their prognosis  depend largely on early diagnosis and adequate treatment. Difficulties and errors  in the diagnosis  of gastrointestinal  food allergies  are associated  with both subjective  and objective  reasons,  primarily due to the fact that gastrointestinal  reactions to food are often delayed and non-IgE-mediated. The article describes clinical forms of gastrointestinal food allergy according to the existing classification. Diagnostic algorithms and modern approaches  to differential diagnosis of disease based on evidence-based  medicine and corresponding to international consensus papers are given.

  3. Diagnosis of Chronic Gastrointestinal Ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Noord (Désirée)


    textabstractThree aortic branches provide the arterial blood supply to the gastrointestinal tract: the celiac artery (CA), superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and inferior mesenteric artery (IMA). The CA supplies stomach, liver, part of the pancreas and proximal part of the duodenum. The SMA supplies


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 4, 2004 ... E. A. Ameh, MBBS, FWACS, Senior Lecturer and Consultant Paediatric Surgeon and P. T. Nmadu, MBBS, FMCS (Nig), FWACS, Professor of Paediatric .... injuries were treated accordingly. Table 1. Age and Sex of 21 children with gastrointestinal injuries from blunt abdominal trauma. Age (years). Sex.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    one hundred and ninety nine (199) were infested fish samples from gills and gastrointestinal tract .... in female sex organ. Examination and Identification of Piscine. Parasites. Specimens were categorized as Juveniles, sub adults and adults according to Ugwuzor .... size of the fish is important in determining the parasite.

  6. The Gastrointestinal Aspects of Halitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Kinberg


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Halitosis is a common human condition for which the exact pathophysiological mechanism is unclear. It has been attributed mainly to oral pathologies. Halitosis resulting from gastrointestinal disorders is considered to be extremely rare. However, halitosis has often been reported among the symptoms related to Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  7. Nutritional management of gastrointestinal malignancies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional management of a patient with gastrointestinal cancer fi rst begins with an appropriate nutritional assessment, seeing that several factors could affect the patient's nutritional status. The most signifi cant dietary advice for cancer patients in general, is to consume a signifi cant amount of energy daily to maintain ...

  8. Alternative Argets Within the Endocannabinoid System for Future Treatment of Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Schicho


    Full Text Available Many beneficial effects of herbal and synthetic cannabinoids on gut motility and inflammation have been demonstrated, suggesting a vast potential for these compounds in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. These effects are based on the so-called ‘endocannabinoid system’ (ECS, a cooperating network of molecules that regulate the metabolism of the body’s own and of exogenously administered cannabinoids. The ECS in the gastrointestinal tract quickly responds to homeostatic disturbances by de novo synthesis of its components to maintain homeostasis, thereby offering many potential targets for pharmacological intervention. Of major therapeutic interest are nonpsychoactive cannabinoids or compounds that do not directly target cannabinoid receptors but still possess cannabinoid-like properties. Drugs that inhibit endocannabinoid degradation and raise the level of endocannabinoids are becoming increasingly promising alternative therapeutic tools to manipulate the ECS.

  9. Role of Brain NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the Stress-induced Modulation of Gastrointestinal Functions. (United States)

    Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Stengel, Andreas


    Nucleobindin2 (NUCB2)/nesfatin-1 plays a well-established role in homeostatic functions associated with food intake and stress integration. This review focusses on NUCB2/nesfatin-1's central effects on gastrointestinal functions and will summarize the effects on food intake, motility and secretion with focus on the upper gastrointestinal tract. We will highlight the stressors that influence brain NUCB2/nesfatin-1 expression and discuss functional implications. In addition to traditional acute psychological and physical stressors such as restraint stress and abdominal surgery we will look at immunological, visceral and metabolic stressors as well as a chronic combination stress model that have been shown to affect NUCB2/nesfatin-1 signaling and describe associated functional consequences.

  10. Landing gear noise attenuation (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)


    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  11. Computational and Modeling Strategies for Cell Motility (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Adalsteinsson, David; Elston, Timothy C.; Jacobson, Ken; Kapustina, Maryna; Forest, M. Gregory

    A predictive simulation of the dynamics of a living cell remains a fundamental modeling and computational challenge. The challenge does not even make sense unless one specifies the level of detail and the phenomena of interest, whether the focus is on near-equilibrium or strongly nonequilibrium behavior, and on localized, subcellular, or global cell behavior. Therefore, choices have to be made clear at the outset, ranging from distinguishing between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, specificity within each of these types, whether the cell is "normal," whether one wants to model mitosis, blebs, migration, division, deformation due to confined flow as with red blood cells, and the level of microscopic detail for any of these processes. The review article by Hoffman and Crocker [48] is both an excellent overview of cell mechanics and an inspiration for our approach. One might be interested, for example, in duplicating the intricate experimental details reported in [43]: "actin polymerization periodically builds a mechanical link, the lamellipodium, connecting myosin motors with the initiation of adhesion sites, suggesting that the major functions driving motility are coordinated by a biomechanical process," or to duplicate experimental evidence of traveling waves in cells recovering from actin depolymerization [42, 35]. Modeling studies of lamellipodial structure, protrusion, and retraction behavior range from early mechanistic models [84] to more recent deterministic [112, 97] and stochastic [51] approaches with significant biochemical and structural detail. Recent microscopic-macroscopic models and algorithms for cell blebbing have been developed by Young and Mitran [116], which update cytoskeletal microstructure via statistical sampling techniques together with fluid variables. Alternatively, whole cell compartment models (without spatial details) of oscillations in spreading cells have been proposed [35, 92, 109] which show positive and negative feedback

  12. Water intake, faecal output and intestinal motility in horses moved from pasture to a stabled management regime with controlled exercise (United States)

    Williams, S; Horner, J; Orton, E; Green, M; McMullen, S; Mobasheri, A; Freeman, S L


    Reasons for performing study A change in management from pasture to stabling is a risk factor for equine colic. Objectives To investigate the effect of a management change from pasture with no controlled exercise to stabling with light exercise on aspects of gastrointestinal function related to large colon impaction. The hypothesis was that drinking water intake, faecal output, faecal water content and large intestinal motility would be altered by a transition from a pastured to a stabled regime. Study design Within-subject management intervention trial involving changes in feeding and exercise using noninvasive techniques. Methods Seven normal horses were evaluated in a within-subjects study design. Horses were monitored while at pasture 24 h/day, and for 14 days following a transition to a stabling regime with light controlled exercise. Drinking water intake, faecal output and faecal dry matter were measured. Motility of the caecum, sternal flexure and left colon (contractions/min) were measured twice daily by transcutaneous ultrasound. Mean values were pooled for the pastured regime and used as a reference for comparison with stabled data (Days 1–14 post stabling) for multilevel statistical analysis. Results Drinking water intake was significantly increased (mean ± s.d. pasture 2.4 ± 1.8 vs. stabled 6.4 ± 0.6 l/100 kg bwt/day), total faecal output was significantly decreased (pasture 4.62 ± 1.69 vs. stabled 1.81 ± 0.5 kg/100 kg bwt/day) and faecal dry matter content was significantly increased (pasture 18.7 ± 2.28 vs. stabled 27.2 ± 1.93% DM/day) on all days post stabling compared with measurements taken at pasture (P<0.05). Motility was significantly decreased in all regions of the large colon collectively on Day 2 post stabling (-0.76 contractions/min), and in the left colon only on Day 4 (-0.62 contractions/min; P<0.05). Conclusions There were significant changes in large intestinal motility patterns and parameters relating to gastrointestinal water

  13. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gastrointestinal symptoms are reportedly more common in patients with diabetes mellitus, and are attributed to autonomic dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract. These symptoms are also frequent in individuals without diabetes mellitus. Objectives: To determine whether gastrointestinal symptoms are more ...

  14. Diagnostic indications for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Aim: Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy now assumes a prominent role in the diagnosis and therapy of upper GI diseases. Some indications for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy include dyspepsia, dysphagia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This study aimed to review the ...

  15. Reverse Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica L. Juice and Seeds Aqueous Extract on Gastric Emptying and Small-Bowel Motility in Rat. (United States)

    Rtibi, Kaïs; Selmi, Slimen; Saidani, Khouloud; Grami, Dhekra; Amri, Mohamed; Sebai, Hichem; Marzouki, Lamjed


    This study was conducted to compare the effects of juice and seeds on gastric emptying, small-bowel motility and intestinal ion transport. Separate groups of rats were randomized to receive NaCl, increasing doses of juice (5, 10, and 20 mL/kg, b.w.) or seeds aqueous extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, b.w.). Simultaneously, two other groups were received, the reference drugs; clonidine (1 mg/kg) and yohimbine (2 mg/kg). The charcoal meal was used as a suspension for gastrointestinal motility test. The purgative action of juice was confirmed using the loperamide (5 mg/kg, p.o.) induced constipation. To evaluate the antisecretory effect, we were used as a hypersecretion agent, the castor oil at the dose of 5 mL/kg. Compared to the control and standard groups, we were showed that the prickly pear has an opposite effect on small-bowel motility and gastric emptying. Indeed, the juice at various doses has a laxative effect of gastrointestinal transit in healthy and constipated-rats. However, the aqueous extract of the seeds leads to a reduction of motility in normal rats which gives it a remarkable antidiarrhoeal activity, a notable intestinal fluid accumulation decline and electrolyte concentrations reestablishment. Moreover, orally juice administered at different doses accelerated the stomach emptying time in contrast to the seeds aqueous extract. More importantly, a significant variation in the phytochemical constituents levels between juice and seeds was found. These findings confirm the reverse therapeutic effects of this fruit in the treatment of digestive disturbances such as difficulty stool evacuation and massive intestinal secretion, likewise, the gastric emptying process perturbation. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Stress-induced changes in gastric emptying, postprandial motility, and plasma gut hormone levels in dogs. (United States)

    Gué, M; Peeters, T; Depoortere, I; Vantrappen, G; Buéno, L


    The influence of acoustic stress on postprandial gastrointestinal motility, gastric emptying, and plasma gastrin, pancreatic polypeptide, motilin, and somatostatin was evaluated in conscious dogs. Six dogs were equipped with strain-gauge transducers and were exposed from 1-3 h after the meal to prerecorded music (80-90 dB broad frequency noise), which produced a significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) lengthening of the gastric (31.2%) and jejunal (37.0%) postprandial pattern. In 4 other dogs with gastric cannula, a 2-h session of acoustic stress beginning just after eating a radiolabeled standard meal induced a slowing of gastric emptying of both liquid (45.7%) and solid (47.1%) phases of the test meal when measured 0.5 h after feeding. In contrast, when measured 2 h after feeding, similar values of gastric emptying of liquids and solids were observed in stressed and control animals. Compared with controls, the postprandial increases of plasma gastrin and pancreatic polypeptide levels were significantly enhanced in stressed animals and occurred early (15 min after the meal). Although postprandial decrease in plasma motilin was unchanged by acoustic stress, the rise in plasma somatostatin level was significantly (p less than or equal to 0.05) prolonged in stressed dogs. These results indicate that acoustic stress affects gastric and intestinal postprandial motility in dogs, delaying the recovery of the migrating motor complex pattern, inducing a transient slowing of gastric emptying, and enhancing the feeding-induced release of gastrin, pancreatic polypeptide, and somatostatin. Such hormonal changes might be due to a direct effect of stress rather than being the consequence of acoustic stress-induced slowing of gastric emptying.

  17. Radiography and image-intensified fluoroscopy of barium passage through the gastrointestinal tract in six healthy Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva). (United States)

    Vink-Nooteboom, Mariette; Lumeij, J T; Wolvekamp, W T C


    Gastrointestinal contrast studies were performed in six clinically healthy blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) using radiography and image-intensified fluoroscopy. During examination, the birds were confined in a perspex cage. The quality of the lateral radiographs was adequate for assessment of the contrast medium-filled gastrointestinal tract. Thirty minutes after administration of 20 mL/kg of a 25% barium sulphate suspension directly in the crop, in all birds the ventriculus was totally outlined by barium. After 60 min, the small intestine was filled in five of six birds. After 180 min, the crop was empty in all birds. The barium-outlined ventriculus had differences in shape on radiographs of individual birds and also between birds. The colon and cloaca had further filling after 120 to 300 min. With image-intensified fluoroscopy, gastrointestinal motility was evaluated. Contractions of the crop were seen, and boluses of contrast medium passing through the esophagus toward the proventriculus were easily identified. Proventricular contractions were rarely noted, but ventriculus motility was present and clearly defined. The ventriculus had a mean of 3.7 contraction cycles/min. In the duodenum and small intestine, rapid antegrade and retrograde peristaltic movements in combination with segmental contractions were seen. In the colon, occasionally very slow peristaltic activity, mainly of segmental nature, was present. During the examinations, no defeacation was recorded. Confinement in a small perspex cage provides an adequate and handy radiological set-up for evaluation of gastrointestinal passage and motility in birds, minimizing the influences of stress and anesthesia.

  18. Bidirectional motility of the fission yeast kinesin-5, Cut7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edamatsu, Masaki, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Motile properties of Cut7 (fission yeast kinesin-5) were studied for the first time. • Half-length Cut7 moved toward plus-end direction of microtubule. • Full-length Cut7 moved toward minus-end direction of microtubule. • N- and C-terminal microtubule binding sites did not switch the motile direction. - Abstract: Kinesin-5 is a homotetrameric motor with its motor domain at the N-terminus. Kinesin-5 crosslinks microtubules and functions in separating spindle poles during mitosis. In this study, the motile properties of Cut7, fission yeast kinesin-5, were examined for the first time. In in vitro motility assays, full-length Cut7 moved toward minus-end of microtubules, but the N-terminal half of Cut7 moved toward the opposite direction. Furthermore, additional truncated constructs lacking the N-terminal or C-terminal regions, but still contained the motor domain, did not switch the motile direction. These indicated that Cut7 was a bidirectional motor, and microtubule binding regions at the N-terminus and C-terminus were not involved in its directionality.

  19. Rac and Rho GTPases in cancer cell motility control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parri Matteo


    Full Text Available Abstract Rho GTPases represent a family of small GTP-binding proteins involved in cell cytoskeleton organization, migration, transcription, and proliferation. A common theme of these processes is a dynamic reorganization of actin cytoskeleton which has now emerged as a major switch control mainly carried out by Rho and Rac GTPase subfamilies, playing an acknowledged role in adaptation of cell motility to the microenvironment. Cells exhibit three distinct modes of migration when invading the 3 D environment. Collective motility leads to movement of cohorts of cells which maintain the adherens junctions and move by photolytic degradation of matrix barriers. Single cell mesenchymal-type movement is characterized by an elongated cellular shape and again requires extracellular proteolysis and integrin engagement. In addition it depends on Rac1-mediated cell polarization and lamellipodia formation. Conversely, in amoeboid movement cells have a rounded morphology, the movement is independent from proteases but requires high Rho GTPase to drive elevated levels of actomyosin contractility. These two modes of cell movement are interconvertible and several moving cells, including tumor cells, show an high degree of plasticity in motility styles shifting ad hoc between mesenchymal or amoeboid movements. This review will focus on the role of Rac and Rho small GTPases in cell motility and in the complex relationship driving the reciprocal control between Rac and Rho granting for the opportunistic motile behaviour of aggressive cancer cells. In addition we analyse the role of these GTPases in cancer progression and metastatic dissemination.

  20. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palankezhe Sashidharan


    Full Text Available Advances in the identification of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, its molecular and immunohiostochemical basis, and its management have been a watershed in the treatment of gastrointestinal tumors. This paradigm shift occurred over the last two decades and gastrointestinal stromal tumors have now come to be understood as rare gastrointestinal tract tumors with predictable behavior and outcome, replacing the older terminologies like leiomyoma, schwannoma or leiomyosarcoma. This report presents a case of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor operated recently in a 47-year-old female patient and the outcome, as well as literature review of the pathological identification, sites of origin, and factors predicting its behavior, prognosis and treatment.

  1. Excretory/secretory proteases and mechanical movement of Anisakis pegreffii infective larvae in the penetration of BALB/c mice gastrointestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June-Der Lee


    Full Text Available Anisakiasis is a human parasitic disease caused by infection with the infective larvae of Anisakis. Accidental infection in humans causes the gastrointestinal pathophysiological effects of mechanical tissue damage by migrating larvae. The mechanism of the infective larval invasion and migration is suspected to involve larval excretory/secretory proteases and motility. This study demonstrates the penetration rate of the infective larvae of Anisakis pegreffii in mouse gastrointestine depends on the time after infection, and that only 15% of larvae remain in the gastrointestinal tract 3 h after infection. Strong activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and serine proteases, especially plasmin, were found in the excretory/secretory products of A. pegreffii; these can be inhibited by ONO-4817 and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, respectively. The protease activity was also significantly decreased in another 1 h of cultivation of larvae in fresh 0.9% normal saline (NS after previous cultivation for 48 h in NS. The motility scores of larvae were significantly lower after 48 h of cultivation in NS. The penetration rate of A. pegreffii larvae in the gastrointestine of infected mice sequentially were 90% in the freshly prepared, 68% in serine protease inhibited, 55% in MMPs inhibited larvae, and 16% in larvae cultivated in NS for 48 h. Therefore, this study demonstrates that MMPs and serine proteases excreted and secreted by A. pegreffii and the mechanical movement of infective larvae participate in the penetration of the gastrointestine of mice after infection.

  2. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.


    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization......, or differentiated maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed in cells outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and neurons but others also in other...

  3. Therapeutic Vaccines for Gastrointestinal Cancers


    Rahma, Osama E; Khleif, Samir N.


    Despite progress in the management of gastrointestinal malignancies, these diseases remain devastating maladies. Conventional treatment with chemotherapy and radiation is still only partially effective and highly toxic. In the era of increasing knowledge of the molecular biology of tumors and the interaction between the tumor and immune system, the development of targeted agents, including cancer vaccines, has emerged as a promising modality. In this paper, we discuss the principals of vaccin...

  4. Activation of Drosophila hemocyte motility by the ecdysone hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Sampson


    Drosophila hemocytes compose the cellular arm of the fly's innate immune system. Plasmatocytes, putative homologues to mammalian macrophages, represent ∼95% of the migratory hemocyte population in circulation and are responsible for the phagocytosis of bacteria and apoptotic tissues that arise during metamorphosis. It is not known as to how hemocytes become activated from a sessile state in response to such infectious and developmental cues, although the hormone ecdysone has been suggested as the signal that shifts hemocyte behaviour from quiescent to migratory at metamorphosis. Here, we corroborate this hypothesis by showing the activation of hemocyte motility by ecdysone. We induce motile behaviour in larval hemocytes by culturing them with 20-hydroxyecdysone ex vivo. Moreover, we also determine that motile cell behaviour requires the ecdysone receptor complex and leads to asymmetrical redistribution of both actin and tubulin cytoskeleton.

  5. Model for self-polarization and motility of keratocyte fragments

    KAUST Repository

    Ziebert, F.


    Computational modelling of cell motility on substrates is a formidable challenge; regulatory pathways are intertwined and forces that influence cell motion are not fully quantified. Additional challenges arise from the need to describe a moving deformable cell boundary. Here, we present a simple mathematical model coupling cell shape dynamics, treated by the phase-field approach, to a vector field describing the mean orientation (polarization) of the actin filament network. The model successfully reproduces the primary phenomenology of cell motility: discontinuous onset of motion, diversity of cell shapes and shape oscillations. The results are in qualitative agreement with recent experiments on motility of keratocyte cells and cell fragments. The asymmetry of the shapes is captured to a large extent in this simple model, which may prove useful for the interpretation of experiments.

  6. Interface-Controlled Motility of Photoactive Microalgae in Confinement (United States)

    Ostapenko, Tanya; Kreis, Christian T.; Baeumchen, Oliver

    The natural habitats of many biological microorganisms include complex interfaces and varying environmental conditions. For flagellated microalgae swimming in an aqueous medium, we showed that the curvature of the compartment wall governs their motility in geometric confinement. This curvature-guided motility results in long detention times towards the interface, which we determined from the analysis of individual cell trajectories. For puller-type microswimmers, the precise nature of their flagella-wall interactions are important. We discovered a way to control these interactions for photoactive microalgae by manipulating the adhesiveness of their flagella in light. Here, we report on the swimming dynamics of single photoactive microalgae in two-dimensional microfluidic chambers under different light conditions. We find that their motility can be switched reversibly in confinement, which could be exploited for use in biological optical traps and wastewater decontamination.

  7. Gastrointestinal complications in renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Jeet Singh


    Full Text Available Objective: Gastrointestinal complications are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality among renal allograft recipients. We retrospectively analyzed incidence of these complications and their impact on the patient outcome. Materials & Methods: Between 1998 to Aug 2002, 558 live related renal transplants were performed at our center. The immunosuppression used consisted mainly of cyclosporine, azathioprine and prednisolone, though varied in some patients. These patients were followed for any occurrence of significant gastrointestinal problems. Results: Out of the of 538 renal transplant recipients studied, gastro esophageal ulcerations were seen in 3% patients. Acute pancreatitis was observed in twelve (2.2% patients and four patients had acute intestinal obstruction secondary to fecal impaction. Infectious complications included acute diarrheas in 18% of patients. Three patients developed abdominal tuberculosis. Acute rejection episodes were encountered in 26% of the patients. During these episodes, 58% of patients experienced prolonged ileus. Most of these complications (66% occurred within first one-year post transplant. Three patients presenting with acute intestinal obstruction required laparotomy (two- bands, one-intussusception. There were four mortalities -two patients had severe pancreatitis, one patient had massive upper GI bleed and one succumbed due to perforation peritonitis. Conclusions: Gastrointestinal complications account for significant morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients. Paralytic ileus secondary to acute vascular rejection is quite common and resolves spontaneously with recovery of renal function.

  8. The effect of loss of O-antigen ligase on phagocytic susceptibility of motile and non-motile Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (United States)

    Demirdjian, Sally; Schutz, Kristin; Wargo, Matthew J; Lam, Joseph S; Berwin, Brent


    The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa undergoes adaptation and selection over the course of chronic respiratory tract infections which results in repeatedly-observed phenotypic changes that are proposed to enable its persistence. Two of the clinically significant P. aeruginosa phenotypic changes are loss of flagellar motility and modifications to LPS structure, including loss of O-antigen expression. The effect of loss of O-antigen, frequently described as conversion from smooth to rough LPS, and the combined effect of loss of motility and O-antigen on phagocytic susceptibility by immune cells remain unknown. To address this, we generated genetic deletion mutants of waaL, which encodes the O-antigen ligase responsible for linking O-antigen to lipid A-core oligosaccharide, in both motile and non-motile P. aeruginosa strains. With the use of these bacterial strains we provide the first demonstration that, despite a progressive selection for P. aeruginosa with rough LPS during chronic pulmonary infections, loss of the LPS O-antigen does not confer phagocytic resistance in vitro. However, use of the waaLmotABmotCD mutant revealed that loss of motility confers resistance to phagocytosis regardless of the smooth or rough LPS phenotype. These findings reveal how the O-antigen of P. aeruginosa can influence bacterial clearance during infection and expand our current knowledge about the impact of bacterial phenotypic changes during chronic infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Myoinositol: does it improve sperm mitochondrial function and sperm motility? (United States)

    Condorelli, Rosita A; La Vignera, Sandro; Bellanca, Salvatore; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E


    To evaluate whether an improvement in mitochondrial membrane potential was associated with sperm motility amelioration and greater sperm recovery after the swim-up procedure. A second purpose was to evaluate the effects of myoinositol (MYO) on sperm apoptosis, quality of chromatin compaction, and DNA integrity. Spermatozoa from 20 normozoospermic men and 20 patients with oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia were incubated in vitro with 2 mg/mL of MYO or phosphate-buffered saline as a control for 2 hours. After this incubation period, sperm motility was evaluated. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the mitochondrial membrane potential, phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin compactness, and DNA fragmentation. We also evaluated the total number of motile spermatozoa recovered after swim-up after incubation with MYO or phosphate-buffered saline. MYO significantly increased the percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility in both normozoospermic men and patients with oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia. Motility improvement in the latter group was associated with a significant increase in the percentage of spermatozoa with high mitochondrial membrane potential. MYO had no effects on mitochondrial function in spermatozoa from normozoospermic men. Sperm phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin compactness, and DNA fragmentation were unaffected by MYO in both groups. After incubation with MYO, the total number of spermatozoa recovered after swim-up had improved significantly in both groups. These data show that MYO increases sperm motility and the number of spermatozoa retrieved after swim-up in both normozoospermic men and patients with abnormal sperm parameters. In patients with oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia, the improvement in these parameters was associated with improved sperm mitochondrial function. These findings support the use of MYO in both in vivo- and in vitro-assisted reproductive techniques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical Structures of Plant Hydrolyzable Tannins Reveal Their in Vitro Activity against Egg Hatching and Motility of Haemonchus contortus Nematodes. (United States)

    Engström, M T; Karonen, M; Ahern, J R; Baert, N; Payré, B; Hoste, H; Salminen, J-P


    The use of synthetic drugs against gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants has led to a situation where resistance to anthelmintics is widespread, and there is an urgent need for alternative solutions for parasite control. One promising approach is to use polyphenol-rich bioactive plants in animal feeds as natural anthelmintics. In the present work, the in vitro activity of a series of 33 hydrolyzable tannins (HTs) and their hydrolysis product, gallic acid, against egg hatching and motility of L1 and L2 stage Haemonchus contortus larvae was studied. The effect of the selected compounds on egg and larval structure was further studied by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated clear relationships between HT structure and anthelmintic activity. While HT size, overall flexibility, the types and numbers of functional groups, together with the linkage types between monomeric HTs affected the activity differently, the optimal structure was found with pentagalloylglucose.

  11. Hydration-controlled bacterial motility and dispersal on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Wang, G.; Gulez, Gamze


    Flagellar motility, a mode of active motion shared by many prokaryotic species, is recognized as a key mechanism enabling population dispersal and resource acquisition in microbial communities living in marine, freshwater, and other liquid-replete habitats. By contrast, its role in variably...... resume motility in response to periodic increases in hydration. We propose a biophysical model that captures key effects of hydration and liquid-film thickness on individual cell velocity and use a simple roughness network model to simulate colony expansion. Model predictions match experimental results...... the costs associated with flagella synthesis and explain the sustained presence of flagellated prokaryotes in partially saturated habitats such as soil surfaces....

  12. Sodium-coupled motility in a swimming cyanobacterium.


    Willey, J M; Waterbury, J B; Greenberg, E P


    The energetics of motility in Synechococcus strain WH8113 were studied to understand the unique nonflagellar swimming of this cyanobacterium. There was a specific sodium requirement for motility such that cells were immotile below 10 mM external sodium and cell speed increased with increasing sodium levels above 10 mM to a maximum of about 15 microns/s at 150 to 250 mM sodium. The sodium motive force increased similarly with increasing external sodium from -120 to -165 mV, but other energetic...

  13. Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 Is Involved in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)-Enhanced Cell Motility and Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 Expression in Human Chondrosarcoma Cells (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Yang; Chang, Sunny Li-Yun; Fong, Yi-Chin; Hsu, Chin-Jung; Tang, Chih-Hsin


    Chondrosarcoma is the primary malignancy of bone that is characterized by a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis, and is therefore associated with poor prognoses. Chondrosarcoma further shows a predilection for metastasis to the lungs. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a small molecule in the neurotrophin family of growth factors that is associated with the disease status and outcome of cancers. However, the effect of BDNF on cell motility in human chondrosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. Here, we found that human chondrosarcoma cell lines had significantly higher cell motility and BDNF expression compared to normal chondrocytes. We also found that BDNF increased cell motility and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in human chondrosarcoma cells. BDNF-mediated cell motility and MMP-1 up-regulation were attenuated by Trk inhibitor (K252a), ASK1 inhibitor (thioredoxin), JNK inhibitor (SP600125), and p38 inhibitor (SB203580). Furthermore, BDNF also promoted Sp1 activation. Our results indicate that BDNF enhances the migration and invasion activity of chondrosarcoma cells by increasing MMP-1 expression through a signal transduction pathway that involves the TrkB receptor, ASK1, JNK/p38, and Sp1. BDNF thus represents a promising new target for treating chondrosarcoma metastasis. PMID:23892595

  14. Radiofrequency attenuator and method (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM; Burrell, Anthony K [Los Alamos, NM; Agrawal, Anoop [Tucson, AZ; Hall, Simon B [Palmerston North, NZ


    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  15. Characterisation of an extract and fractions of Azadirachta indica flower on cholesterol lowering property and intestinal motility. (United States)

    Duangjai, Acharaporn; Nuengchamnong, Nitra; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing; Saokaew, Surasak; Suphrom, Nungruthai


    Azadirachta indica has long been used in traditional medicine. This study focused on isolation and characterisation of active ingredients in the extract, its fractions (NF-EA, NF-AQ, NF-G) and its effect on the cholesterol absorption activity. The NF-EA fraction was identified by marker compounds by LC-ESI-QTOF/MS. Cholesterol absorption activity was performed by measuring the solubility and size of cholesterol micelles. The intestinal motility was also examined by isolated rat's ileum to test the contraction. The extract and its fractions consist of flavonoids and phenolic compounds, like quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin. We found that A. indica extract and NF-EA increase cholesterol micelles size, while the extract, NF-AQ, myricetin and quercetin, reduced the solubility of cholesterol in micelles. The extract and quercetin inhibited the contraction induced by KCl up to 29 and 18%, respectively, and also decreased CaCl2-induced contraction. This finding is in support to traditional uses of A. indica as cholesterol-lowering agents and regulator of gastrointestinal motility.

  16. Protease-resistant single-domain antibodies inhibit Campylobacter jejuni motility. (United States)

    Hussack, Greg; Riazi, Ali; Ryan, Shannon; van Faassen, Henk; MacKenzie, Roger; Tanha, Jamshid; Arbabi-Ghahroudi, Mehdi


    Camelid heavy-chain antibody variable domains (VHHs) are emerging as potential antimicrobial reagents. We have engineered a previously isolated VHH (FlagV1M), which binds Campylobacter jejuni flagella, for greater thermal and proteolytic stability. Mutants of FlagV1M were obtained from an error-prone polymerase chain reaction library that was panned in the presence of gastrointestinal (GI) proteases. Additional FlagV1M mutants were obtained through disulfide-bond engineering. Each approach produced VHHs with enhanced thermal stability and protease resistance. When the beneficial mutations from both approaches were combined, a hyperstabilized VHH was created with superior stability. The hyperstabilized VHH bound C. jejuni flagella with wild-type affinity and was capable of potently inhibiting C. jejuni motility in assays performed after sequential digestion with three major GI proteases, demonstrating the remarkable stability imparted to the VHH by combining our engineering approaches. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  17. Oestrogen inhibits human colonic motility by a non-genomic cell membrane receptor-dependent mechanism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A M


    BACKGROUND: Classical effects of oestrogen involve activation of target genes after binding nuclear receptors. Oestrogenic effects too rapid for DNA transcription (non-genomic) are known to occur. The effect of oestrogen on colonic motility is unknown despite the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in pregnant and premenopausal women. METHODS: Histologically normal colon was obtained from proximal resection margins of colorectal carcinoma specimens. Circular smooth muscle strips were microdissected and suspended in organ baths under 1 g of tension. After equilibration, they were exposed to 17beta-oestradiol (n = 8) or bovine serum albumin (BSA)-conjugated 17beta-oestradiol (n = 8). Fulvestrant, an oestrogen receptor antagonist, was added to some baths (n = 8). Other strips were exposed to calphostin C or cycloheximide. Carbachol was added in increasing concentrations and contractile activity was recorded isometrically. RESULTS: Oestrogen inhibited colonic contractility (mean difference 19.7 per cent; n = 8, P < 0.001). In keeping with non-genomic, rapid-onset steroid action, the effect was apparent within minutes and reversible. It was observed with both 17beta-oestradiol and BSA-conjugated oestrogen, and was not altered by cycloheximide. Effects were inhibited by fulvestrant, suggesting receptor mediation. CONCLUSION: Oestrogen decreases contractility in human colonic smooth muscle by a non-genomic mechanism involving cell membrane coupling.

  18. Disorders of gastrointestinal hypomotility [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Bielefeldt


    Full Text Available Ingestion and digestion of food as well as expulsion of residual material from our gastrointestinal tract requires normal propulsive, i.e. motor, function. Hypomotility refers to inherited or acquired changes that come with decreased contractile forces or slower transit. It not only often causes symptoms but also may compromise nutritional status or lead to other complications. While severe forms, such as pseudo-obstruction or ileus, may have a tremendous functional impact, the less severe forms of hypomotility may well be more relevant, as they contribute to common disorders, such as functional dyspepsia, gastroparesis, chronic constipation, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. Clinical testing can identify changes in contractile activity, defined by lower amplitudes or abnormal patterns, and the related effects on transit. However, such biomarkers show a limited correlation with overall symptom severity as experienced by patients. Similarly, targeting hypomotility with pharmacological interventions often alters gut motor function but does not consistently improve symptoms. Novel diagnostic approaches may change this apparent paradox and enable us to obtain more comprehensive information by integrating data on electrical activity, mechanical forces, patterns, wall stiffness, and motions with information of the flow of luminal contents. New drugs with more selective effects or more specific delivery may improve benefits and limit adverse effects. Lastly, the complex regulation of gastrointestinal motility involves the brain-gut axis as a reciprocal pathway for afferent and efferent signaling. Considering the role of visceral input in emotion and the effects of emotion on visceral activity, understanding and managing hypomotility disorders requires an integrative approach based on the mind-body continuum or biopsychosocial model of diseases.

  19. [Advances in gastrointestinal peptides: somatostatin]. (United States)

    Ubilluz, R


    Twenty years after being identified as "somatotropin release inhibiting factor" (SRIF) and "growth-hormone release inhibiting hormone" (GH-RIH), under a new name, somatostatin (SMS) has reached an outstanding position in gastroenteropancreatic endocrinology. It is a powerful and universal inhibitor of the digestive functions: secretion, motility, absorption and splanchnic blood flow. Long-acting synthetic analogues have made possible its therapeutic trial in certain clinical problems. This review covers the advances in several areas of interest for gastroenterologists: (a) the role of SMS in the regulation of digestive physiology and its participation in neurohumoral and inmunoneuropeptidic interrelations; (b) in relation to gastric acid secretion, hypotheses on supposed links between duodenal ulcer and Helicobacter pylori infection; (c) theoretical and experimental bases for somatostatin analogues use in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices; (d) current status of the management of other nonneoplastic gastroenteropancreatic diseases; and (d) strategy for the therapy of endocrine tumors of the digestive system.

  20. Interpretability of the PedsQL gastrointestinal symptoms scales and gastrointestinal worry scales in pediatric patients with functional and organic gastrointestinal diseases (United States)

    The present study investigates the clinical interpretability of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventor (PedsQL) Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales and Worry Scales in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic gastrointestinal diseases in comparison with healthy controls....

  1. Abnormalities of antroduodenal motility in type I diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samsom, M.; Jebbink, R. J.; Akkermans, L. M.; van Berge-Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.


    OBJECTIVE: In the present study, a recently developed manometric technique was used to study antroduodenal motility in ambulant type I diabetic subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In 12 patients with type I diabetes, antroduodenal manometry was performed for 20 h during the fasting period and the

  2. Mechanical stress as a regulator of cell motility (United States)

    Putelat, T.; Recho, P.; Truskinovsky, L.


    The motility of a cell can be triggered or inhibited not only by an applied force but also by a mechanically neutral force couple. This type of loading, represented by an applied stress and commonly interpreted as either squeezing or stretching, can originate from extrinsic interaction of a cell with its neighbors. To quantify the effect of applied stresses on cell motility we use an analytically transparent one-dimensional model accounting for active myosin contraction and induced actin turnover. We show that stretching can polarize static cells and initiate cell motility while squeezing can symmetrize and arrest moving cells. We show further that sufficiently strong squeezing can lead to the loss of cell integrity. The overall behavior of the system depends on the two dimensionless parameters characterizing internal driving (chemical activity) and external loading (applied stress). We construct a phase diagram in this parameter space distinguishing between static, motile, and collapsed states. The obtained results are relevant for the mechanical understanding of contact inhibition and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

  3. Pili-driven surface motility of Myxococcus xanthus (United States)

    Gibiansky, Maxsim; Hu, Wei; Zhao, Kun; Pan, Hongwei; Shi, Wenyuan; Dahmen, Karin; Wong, Gerard


    Myxococcus xanthus is a common, rod-shaped soil-dwelling bacterium with complex motility characteristics. In groups, M. xanthus bacteria can move via social ``S'' motility, in which the Type IV Pili (TFP) attach to secreted exopolysaccharides (EPS). We examine this motility mechanism using high-framerate video acquisition, taking data on individual bacteria at 400 frames per second; using particle tracking algorithms, we algorithmically reconstruct the bacterial trajectories. The motion of a single bacterium as it is pulled by its TFP through the EPS layer on the surface is not smooth, but instead displays distinct plateaus and slips, with a wide range of plateau and slip lengths. The distribution of slips exhibits power law scaling, consistent with a crackling noise model; crackling noise has previously been used to model nonbiological systems such as earthquake dynamics and Barkhausen noise. We show quantitative agreement between mean field friction models and observed bacterial dynamics. We demonstrate that the crackling noise behavior of M. xanthus is strongly dependent on the presence of EPS, but is unaffected by the chemotactic behavior of the bacterium; we also demonstrate velocity coupling between pairs of bacteria in the early stages of social motility.

  4. Divalent Cation Control of Flagellar Motility in African Trypanosomes (United States)

    Westergard, Anna M.; Hutchings, Nathan R.


    Changes in calcium concentration have been shown to dynamically affect flagellar motility in several eukaryotic systems. The African trypanosome is a monoflagellated protozoan parasite and the etiological agent of sleeping sickness. Although cell motility has been implicated in disease progression, very little is currently known about biochemical control of the trypanosome flagellum. In this study, we assess the effects of extracellular changes in calcium and nickel concentration on trypanosome flagellar movement. Using a flow through chamber, we determine the relative changes in motility in individual trypanosomes in response to various concentrations of calcium and nickel, respectively. Extracellular concentrations of calcium and nickel (as low as 100 micromolar) significantly inhibit trypanosome cell motility. The effects are reversible, as indicated by the recovery of motion after removal of the calcium or nickel from the chamber. We are currently investigating the specific changes in flagellar oscillation and coordination that result from calcium and nickel, respectively. These results verify the presence of a calcium-responsive signaling mechanism(s) that regulates flagellar beat in trypanosomes.

  5. Bacillus subtilis Hfq: A role in chemotaxis and motility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jul 16, 2016 ... Hfq is a global post-transcriptional regulator that modulates the translation and stability of target mRNAs and thereby regulates pleiotropic functions, such as growth, stress, virulence and motility, in many Gram-negative bacteria. However, comparatively little is known about the regulation and function(s) of ...

  6. Social motility in African trypanosomes: fact or model? (United States)

    Bastin, Philippe; Rotureau, Brice


    African trypanosomes grown on agarose plates exhibit behaviours akin to social motility. This phenomenon has not been observed in vivo so far but recently turned out to be instrumental in the definition of two specific stages of the parasite cycle and as a tool to probe for trypanosome sensing functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Respiratory motile cilia dysfunction in a patient with cranioectodermal dysplasia. (United States)

    Li, You; Garrod, Andrea S; Madan-Khetarpal, Suneeta; Sreedher, Gayathri; McGuire, Marianne; Yagi, Hisato; Klena, Nikolai T; Gabriel, George C; Khalifa, Omar; Zahid, Maliha; Panigrahy, Ashok; Weiner, Daniel J; Lo, Cecilia W


    Ciliopathies such as cranioectodermal dysplasia, Sensenbrenner syndrome, short-rib polydactyly, and Jeune syndrome are associated with respiratory complications arising from rib cage dysplasia. While such ciliopathies have been demonstrated to involve primary cilia defects, we show motile cilia dysfunction in the airway of a patient diagnosed with cranioectodermal dysplasia. While this patient had mild thoracic dystrophy not requiring surgical treatment, there was nevertheless newborn respiratory distress, restrictive airway disease with possible obstructive airway involvement, repeated respiratory infections, and atelectasis. High-resolution videomicroscopy of nasal epithelial biopsy showed immotile/dyskinetic cilia and nasal nitric oxide was reduced, both of which are characteristics of primary ciliary dyskinesia, a sinopulmonary disease associated with mucociliary clearance defects due to motile cilia dysfunction in the airway. Exome sequencing analysis of this patient identified compound heterozygous mutations in WDR35, but no mutations in any of the 30 known primary ciliary dyskinesia genes or other cilia-related genes. Given that WDR35 is only known to be required for primary cilia function, we carried out WDR35 siRNA knockdown in human respiratory epithelia to assess the role of WDR35 in motile cilia function. This showed WDR35 deficiency disrupted ciliogenesis in the airway, indicating WDR35 is also required for formation of motile cilia. Together, these findings suggest patients with WDR35 mutations have an airway mucociliary clearance defect masked by their restrictive airway disease. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Intestinal mast cells in gut inflammation and motility disturbances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Benedicte Y.; van den Wijngaard, Rene M.; de Jonge, Wouter J.


    Mast cells may be regarded as prototypes of innate immune cells that can be controlled by neuronal mediators. Their activation has been implicated in many types of neuro-inflammatory responses, and related disturbances of gut motility, via direct or indirect mechanisms that involve several

  9. Morphological characteristics of motile plants for dynamic motion (United States)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Sang Joon


    Most plants have been considered as non-motile organisms. However, plants move in response to environmental changes for survival. In addition, some species drive dynamic motions in a short period of time. Mimosa pudica is a plant that rapidly shrinks its body in response to external stimuli. It has specialized organs that are omnidirectionally activated due to morphological features. In addition, scales of pinecone open or close up depending on humidity for efficient seed release. A number of previous studies on the dynamic motion of plants have been investigated in a biochemical point of view. In this study, the morphological characteristics of those motile organs were investigated by using X-ray CT and micro-imaging techniques. The results show that the dynamic motions of motile plants are supported by structural features related with water transport. These studies would provide new insight for better understanding the moving mechanism of motile plant in morphological point of view. This research was financially supported by the Creative Research Initiative of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) and the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Grant Number: 2008-0061991).

  10. Chromatographic and anti-motility studies on extracts of Loranthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-motility properties of the leaves of African mistletoe, Loranthus micranthus (Linn), Loranthaceae harvested from Kola acuminate host tree was studied by the charcoal meal test in mice. The intraperitoneal LD50 of the methanol extract was determined in mice by the Locke's method. The phytochemical constituents of ...

  11. Effect of zinc treatment on intestinal motility in experimentally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This antidiarrheal effect of zinc was abolished by propranolol and nifedipine. Zinc sulphate significantly reduced (p< 0.05) intestinal transit time (60.7 ± 7.13%) compared with control (85.7 ± 2.35%). It is concluded that zinc sulphate reduces the frequency of wet faeces output and intestinal motility during diarrhea via ...

  12. intestinal motility and transit following chronic ingestion of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    charcoal (BDH, England) was mixed with 5 ml of. 0.15% Leishman's stain (BDH, England). Twenty ml of the ... subtracted from the position of the marker nearest the caecum. The intestinal transit was calculated as length moved by marker/total length of the small intestine x 100. Motility. The animals were starved 24hours ...

  13. HES6 enhances the motility of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickramasinghe, Caroline M [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0QH (United Kingdom); Domaschenz, Renae [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); Gene Regulation and Chromatin Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 ONN (United Kingdom); Amagase, Yoko [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); Department of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Doshisha Women' s College of Liberal Arts, Kodo, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0395 (Japan); Williamson, Daniel [Molecular Cytogenetics, The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Paul O' Gorman Building, Medical School, Newcastle University, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Missiaglia, Edoardo; Shipley, Janet [Molecular Cytogenetics, The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Murai, Kasumi [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); Jones, Philip H, E-mail: [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital Cambridge, CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom)


    Absract: HES6, a member of the hairy-enhancer-of-split family of transcription factors, plays multiple roles in myogenesis. It is a direct target of the myogenic transcription factor MyoD and has been shown to regulate the formation of the myotome in development, myoblast cell cycle exit and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton during terminal differentiation. Here we investigate the expression and function of HES6 in rhabdomyosarcoma, a soft tissue tumor which expresses myogenic genes but fails to differentiate into muscle. We show that HES6 is expressed at high levels in the subset of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas expressing PAX/FOXO1 fusion genes (ARMSp). Knockdown of HES6 mRNA in the ARMSp cell line RH30 reduces proliferation and cell motility. This phenotype is rescued by expression of mouse Hes6 which is insensitive to HES6 siRNA. Furthermore, expression microarray analysis indicates that the HES6 knockdown is associated with a decrease in the levels of Transgelin, (TAGLN), a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. Knockdown of TAGLN decreases cell motility, whilst TAGLN overexpression rescues the motility defect resulting from HES6 knockdown. These findings indicate HES6 contributes to the pathogenesis of ARMSp by enhancing both proliferation and cell motility.

  14. SIRT1 inhibits the mouse intestinal motility and epithelial proliferation (United States)

    SIRT1 inhibits the mouse intestinal motility and epithelial proliferation. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase, is involved in a wide array of cellular processes, including glucose homeostasis, energy metabolism, proliferation and apoptosis, and immune response. However, it is un...

  15. Spermometer: electrical characterization of single boar sperm motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wagenaar, B.; Geijs, Daan J.; de Boer, Hans L.; Bomer, Johan G.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene


    Objective: To study single sperm boar motility using electrical impedance measurements in a microfluidic system. Design: Comparison of the optical data and electrical impedance data. Setting: Research laboratory at a university. Animal(s): Boar semen sample were used. Intervention(s): A microfluidic

  16. Effects of storage temperature and extension media on motility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survivability of caprine spermatozoa was compared in semen extenders prepared from the conventional egg-yolk citrate and goat-milk citrate. Motility was comparable in both sets of extenders during the first 24 hours post-extension when extended ejaculates were stored at either room temperature (28 OC) or ...

  17. Gliding motility: anticipating the next move with a molecular clock. (United States)

    Margolin, William


    FrzS protein is important for normal social motility in myxobacteria, which includes periodic reversals in the direction of cell motion. Recent results show that cell reversal correlates with the migration of FrzS from the old leading pole of the cell to the new leading pole.

  18. Studies on the motility and cryopreservation of rainbow trout

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the motility and cryopreservation of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerl) spermatozoa. G. van der Horst, H.M. Dott and G.C. Foster. ARC, Institute of Animal Physiology, Animal Research Station, Cambridge, United Kingdom. The very short duration of vigorous movement (1'12 to 7 min) in fresh water and physiological ...

  19. Neural network for automatic analysis of motility data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Kruse-Andersen, S; Kolberg, Jens Godsk


    Continuous recording of intraluminal pressures for extended periods of time is currently regarded as a valuable method for detection of esophageal motor abnormalities. A subsequent automatic analysis of the resulting motility data relies on strict mathematical criteria for recognition of pressure...

  20. Schmidtea mediterranea: a model system for analysis of motile cilia. (United States)

    Rompolas, Panteleimon; Patel-King, Ramila S; King, Stephen M


    Cilia are cellular organelles that appeared early in the evolution of eukaryotes. These structures and the pool of about 600genes involved in their assembly and function are highly conserved in organisms as distant as single-cell protists, like Chlamydomonas reinhardtti, and humans (Silflow and Lefebvre, 2001). A significant body of work on the biology of cilia has been produced over the years, with the help of powerful model organisms including C. reinhardtti, Caenorhabditis elegans, sea urchins, and mice. However, specific limitations of these systems, especially regarding the ability to efficiently study gene loss-of-function, warrant the search for a new model organism to study cilia and cilia-based motility. Schmidtea mediterranea is a species of planarian (Class: Tubellaria) with a well-defined monostratified ciliated epithelium, which contributes to the motility of the organism, in addition to other more specialized ciliary structures. The use of S. mediterranea as an experimental system to study stem cell biology and regeneration has led to a recently sequenced genome and to the development of a wide array of powerful tools including the ability to inhibit gene expression via RNA interference. In addition, we have developed and describe here a number of methods for analyzing motile cilia in S. mediterranea. Overall, S. mediterranea is a highly versatile, easy to maintain, and genetically tractable organism that provides a powerful alternative model system for the study of motile cilia. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rates of gastric emptying and small intestinal motility in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groups I and II served as the control (non-pregnant rats)fed normal rat chow and essentially carbohydrate diet respectively, while Groups III and IV served as test animals(pregnant rats) fed essentially carbohydrate diet in early and late gestation periods respectively. Gastric emptying and small intestinal motility rates were ...

  2. Regulation of human sperm motility by opioid receptors. (United States)

    Agirregoitia, E; Subiran, N; Valdivia, A; Gil, J; Zubero, J; Irazusta, J


    The endogenous opioid system has been reported to have important functions in human reproduction. Practically all the components of this peptide system have been discovered in human sperm cells, but their functions in these cells are far from being well understood. In the present work, we report the effects of opioid agonism and antagonism on human sperm motility, a parameter which is crucially associated with male fertility. Morphine (10(-7) M), a μ- opioid receptor agonist, decreased both the percentage of motile progressive sperm and three measured velocities without altering the linearity, straightness or vigour of sperm cells. This effect was reversed by naloxone. Higher doses of morphine did not have further effects on the measured parameters. The incubation of sperm cells with the δ-opioid receptor agonist D-penicillamine (2,5)-enkephalin did not affect sperm cell motility. However, naltrindole, a specific δ-receptor antagonist, reduced the linear and curvilinear velocities, as well as linearity, straightness and the amplitude of head displacement, and beat frequency. In summary, our results indicate that the endogenous opioid system may regulate opioid motility in vitro. These finding suggest that the endogenous opioid system could be useful as a biochemical tool for the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. The gastrointestinal aspects of halitosis (United States)

    Kinberg, Sivan; Stein, Miki; Zion, Nataly; Shaoul, Ron


    BACKGROUND: Halitosis is a common human condition for which the exact pathophysiological mechanism is unclear. It has been attributed mainly to oral pathologies. Halitosis resulting from gastrointestinal disorders is considered to be extremely rare. However, halitosis has often been reported among the symptoms related to Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroesophageal reflux disease. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively review the experience with children and young adults presenting with halitosis to a pediatric gastroenterology clinic. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with halitosis as a primary or secondary symptom was conducted. All endoscopies were performed by the same endoscopist. RESULTS: A total of 94 patients had halitosis, and of the 56 patients (59.6%) who were recently examined by a dental surgeon, pathology (eg, cavities) was found in only one (1.8%). Pathology was found in only six of 27 patients (28.7%) who were assessed by an otolaryngology surgeon. Gastrointestinal pathology was found to be very common, with halitosis present in 54 of the 94 (57.4%) patients. The pathology was noted regardless of dental or otolaryngological findings. Most pathologies, both macroscopically and microscopically, were noted in the stomach (60% non-H pylori related), followed by the duodenum and the esophagus. Fifty-two of 90 patients (57.8%) were offered a treatment based on their endoscopic findings. Of the 74 patients for whom halitosis improvement data were available, some improvement was noted in 24 patients (32.4%) and complete improvement was noted in 41 patients (55.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal pathology was very common in patients with halitosis regardless of dental or otolaryngological findings, and most patients improved with treatment. PMID:21152460

  4. Gastrointestinal helminths in migratory Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Rewatkar

    Full Text Available Survey of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in camel migrated from U.P., M.P., and Rajasthan at Nagpur region was carried out in early summer, 2008. Total 28 samples (12 males and 16 females were collected from different places of Nagpur region. They revealed parasites as Trichuris sp.(50%, Strongyloides sp.(32.14%, Trichostrongylus sp.(10.71%, Nematodirus sp.(10.71%, Haemonchus sp.(14.28%, Eurytrema sp.(21.42% ,Eimeria sp.(25%, Entamoeba sp.(17.85% and Balantidium sp.(7.14%.All were found positive for mixed helminthic infection. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 258-258

  5. Gastrointestinal Disturbances in the Elderly. (United States)

    Baker, Natalie R; Blakely, Kala K


    Gastrointestinal (GI) age-related changes create alterations in the body's ability to digest, absorb, and excrete nutrients, medications, and alcohol and disrupts GI immunity responses. All older adults exhibit some degree of swallowing difficulty, also known as senescent swallowing. The effects of chronic disease and sustained use of alcohol, tobacco, and medications often exacerbate age-related GI dysfunction. Older adults often have nonspecific complaints, warranting a thorough health history and physical examination, including prescription and over-the-counter medications. Colorectal cancer screening tests should be discussed with all older adults because of the high incidence of colorectal cancer in this patient population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Natural attenuation of herbicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, Nina; Højberg, Anker Lajer; Broholm, Mette Martina


    A field injection experiment in a sandy, aerobic aquifer showed that two phenoxy acids MCPP (mecoprop) and dichlorprop were degraded within I in downgradient of the injection wells after an apparent lag period. The plume development and microbial measurements indicated that microbial growth....... The observations may be important for application of natural attenuation as a remedy in field scale systems....

  7. Polymyxin B effects on motility parameters of cryopreserved bull semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Rashedi


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of adding different values of polymyxin B (PMB to bull semen on various motility parameters of post-thawed semen such as total motility, progressive motility and velocity parameters using kinetic parameters of sperm by Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis. Methods: Gram negative bacteria release lipopolysaccharide, which induces the apoptotic pathway. Antibiotics are added to semen in order to prevent bacterial contaminations in bovine semen. These antibiotics kill the bacteria especially gram negative bacteria. Therefore, their endotoxins are released during bacteriolysis and bind to the head region and midpiece of sperm. PMB is a bactericidal antibiotic against multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria and is able to neutralize the toxic effects of the released endotoxin. This study was performed on 3-year old Taleshi bulls. Results: The results showed both positive and negative significant effects of PMB on semen quality. Total motility and progressive motility were significantly increased (P<0.000 1 by 100 μg per mL of PMB (55.2% and 48.8% respectively against the control groups (43.5% and 37.7%, respectively. Moreover, they were significantly decreased (P<0.000 1 by 1 000 μg per mL of PMB (35.2% and 28.8% respectively against the control groups (43.5% and 37.7% respectively in above-mentioned parameters. In Computer Assisted Semen Analyzer, parameter VAP was significantly decreased (P<0.04 in 1 000 μg (69.6 μm/s against the control group (78.7 μm/s. Finally, using PMB in processing cryopreserved bull semen is advised, but before using it, the rate of endotoxins must be measured. Conclusions: We advise using PMB after measuring endotoxin concentration; In vitro, in vivo and in field fertilization, adding other sperm evaluation factors such as acrosomal integrity, DNA integrity, mitochondrial function to PMB treated semen.

  8. Esophageal Motility Disorders: Current Concepts of Pathogenesis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Kahrilas


    Full Text Available Current concepts of esophageal motility disorders are summarized. Primary data sources were located via MEDLINE or cross-citation. No attempt was made to be comprehensive or inclusive of the literature because fewer than 10% of citations are discussed. Instead, emphasis was placed on new developments in diagnosis, therapeutics, and practice patterns. Controlled therapeutic trials and pathophysiological observations are emphasized. Achalasia is a rare disease of failed lower sphincter relaxation and aperistalsis. Diffuse esophageal spasm (DES, an equally rare disease, is defined by non-propagated esophageal contractions. Nonspecific motility disorders, including nutcracker esophagus and hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter, are identified only by manometry and are ten times as prevalent. Neuromuscular pathology is evident only with achalasia (myenteric plexus neurons destruction. Pharmacological therapies have limited efficacy with achalasia; more limited with DES; and none with the nonspecific motility disorders. More efficacious therapies for the nonspecific disorders are directed at associated reflux disease or psychiatric disorders. Pneumatic dilation is effective therapy for achalasia 72% of instances, but frequently requires repeat dilation and is complicated by a 3% perforation rate. Surgical myotomy is effective in 88% of achalasics; morbidity from thoracotomy has been the major limitation but this has been sharply reduced with a laparoscopic approach. In conclusion, although it has been suggested that esophageal motility disorders are distinct clinical entities, critical review of the literature supports this only in the case of achalasia, a disease of well defined pathophysiology, functional disturbance, and therapies. This clarity diminishes progressively for DES and non-specific esophageal motility disorders.

  9. Analyzing Neutrophil Morphology, Mechanics, and Motility in Sepsis : Options and Challenges for Novel Bedside Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonneveld, Rens; Molema, Grietje; Plötz, Frans B

    Objective: Alterations in neutrophil morphology (size, shape, and composition), mechanics (deformability), and motility (chemotaxis and migration) have been observed during sepsis. We combine summarizing features of neutrophil morphology, mechanics, and motility that change during sepsis with an

  10. Upper Gastrointestinal Complications and Cardiovascular/ Gastrointestinal Risk Calculator in Patients with Myocardial Infarction Treated with Aspirin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lei Wen


    .... How to weigh the benefits and hazards? The current study aimed to assess the feasibility of a cardiovascular/gastrointestinal risk calculator, AsaRiskCalculator, in predicting gastrointestinal events in Chinese patients with myocardial infarction (MI...

  11. Administration of exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito, an endogenous ghrelin enhancer, improves the decrease in postprandial gastric motility in an acute restraint stress mouse model (United States)

    Nahata, M; Saegusa, Y; Sadakane, C; Yamada, C; Nakagawa, K; Okubo, N; Ohnishi, S; Hattori, T; Sakamoto, N; Takeda, H


    Background Physical or psychological stress causes functional disorders in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This study aims to elucidate the ameliorating effect of exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito, a Kampo medicine which acts as a ghrelin enhancer, on gastric dysfunction during acute restraint stress in mice. Methods Fasted and postprandial motor function of the gastric antrum was wirelessly measured using a strain gauge force transducer and solid gastric emptying was detected in mice exposed to restraint stress. Plasma corticosterone and ghrelin levels were also measured. To clarify the role of ghrelin on gastrointestinal dysfunction in mice exposed to stress, exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito was administered, then the mice were subjected to restraint stress. Key Results Mice exposed to restraint stress for 60 min exhibited delayed gastric emptying and increased plasma corticosterone levels. Gastric motility was decreased in mice exposed to restraint stress in both fasting and postprandial states. Restraint stress did not cause any change in plasma acylated ghrelin levels, but it significantly increased the plasma des-acyl ghrelin levels. Administration of acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito improved the restraint stress-induced delayed gastric emptying and decreased antral motility. Ameliorating effects of rikkunshito on stress-induced gastric dysfunction were abolished by simultaneous administration of a ghrelin receptor antagonist. Conclusions & Inferences Plasma acylated/des-acyl ghrelin imbalance was observed in acute restraint stress. Supplementation of exogenous acylated ghrelin or enhancement of endogenous ghrelin signaling may be useful in the treatment of decreased gastric function caused by stress. PMID:24684160

  12. Management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Novel Approaches to the Pharmacology of Gut Motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Scarpignato


    Full Text Available Although it is unclear to what extent irritable bowel syndrome (IBS symptoms represent a normal perception of abnormal function or an abnormal perception of normal function, many believe that IBS constitutes the clinical expression of an underlying motility disorder, affecting primarily the mid- and lower gut. Indeed, transit and contractile abnormalities have been demonstrated with sophisticated techniques in a subset of patients with IBS. As a consequence, drugs affecting gastrointestinal (GI motility have been widely employed with the aim of correcting the major IBS manifestations, ie, pain and altered bowel function. Unfortunately, no single drug has proven to be effective in treating IBS symptom complex. In addition, the use of some medications has often been associated with unpleasant side effects. Therefore, the search for a truly effective and safe drug to control motility disturbances in IBS continues. Several classes of drugs look promising and are under evaluation. Among the motor- inhibiting drugs, gut selective muscarinic antagonists (such as zamifenacin and darifenacin, neurokinin2 antagonists (such as MEN-10627 and MEN-11420, beta3-adrenoreceptor agonists (eg, SR-58611A and GI-selective calcium channel blockers (eg, pinaverium bromide and octylonium are able to decrease painful contractile activity in the gut (antispasmodic effect, without significantly affecting other body functions. Novel mechanisms to stimulate GI motility and transit include blockade of cholecystokinin (CCKA receptors and stimulation of motilin receptors. Loxiglumide (and its dextroisomer, dexloxiglumide is the only CCKA receptor antagonist that is being evaluated clinically. This drug accelerates gastric emptying and colonic transit, thereby increasing the number of bowel movements in patients with chronic constipation. It is also able to reduce visceral perception. Erythromycin and related 14-member macrolide compounds inhibit the binding of motilin to its

  13. Feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia. (United States)

    Craig, L E; Hardam, E E; Hertzke, D M; Flatland, B; Rohrbach, B W; Moore, R R


    A retrospective study of cases of a unique intramural inflammatory mass within the feline gastrointestinal tract was performed in order to describe and characterize the lesion. Twenty-five cases were identified from archival surgical and postmortem tissues. The lesion most often occurred as an ulcerated intramural mass at the pyloric sphincter (n = 12) or the ileocecocolic junction or colon (n = 9); the remaining cases were in the small intestine. Seven cases also had lymph node involvement. The lesions were characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, large reactive fibroblasts, and trabeculae of dense collagen. Intralesional bacteria were identified in 56% of the cases overall and all of the ileocecocolic junction and colon lesions. Fifty-eight percent of cats tested had peripheral eosinophilia. Cats treated with prednisone had a significantly longer survival time than those receiving other treatments. We propose that this is a unique fibroblastic response of the feline gastrointestinal tract to eosinophilic inflammation that in some cases is associated with bacteria. The lesion is often grossly and sometimes histologically mistaken for neoplasia.

  14. Functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders. (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín


    This article discusses the most interesting presentations at Digestive Disease Week, held in San Diego, in the field of functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders. One of the most important contributions was undoubtedly the presentation of the new Rome IV diagnostic criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders. We therefore devote some space in this article to explaining these new criteria in the most common functional disorders. In fact, there has already been discussion of data comparing Rome IV and Rome III criteria in the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome, confirming that the new criteria are somewhat more restrictive. From the physiopathological point of view, several studies have shown that the aggregation of physiopathological alterations increases symptom severity in distinct functional disorders. From the therapeutic point of view, more data were presented on the efficacy of acotiamide and its mechanisms of action in functional dyspepsia, the safety and efficacy of domperidone in patients with gastroparesis, and the efficacy of linaclotide both in irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. In irritable bowel syndrome, more data have come to light on the favourable results of a low FODMAP diet, with emphasis on its role in modifying the microbiota. Finally, long-term efficacy data were presented on the distinct treatment options in achalasia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Ghrelin and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. (United States)

    Zhu, Chang-Zhen; Liu, Dong; Kang, Wei-Ming; Yu, Jian-Chun; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Ye, Xin; Li, Kang


    Ghrelin, as a kind of multifunctional protein polypeptide, is mainly produced in the fundus of the stomach and can promote occurrence and development of many tumors, including gastrointestinal tumors, which has been proved by the relevant researches. Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs, about 80%), as the most common mesenchymal tumor, also develop in the fundus. Scientific research has confirmed that ghrelin, its receptors and mRNA respectively can be found in GISTs, which demonstrated the existence of a ghrelin autocrine/paracrine loop in GIST tissues. However, no reports to date have specified the mechanism whether ghrelin can promote the occurrence and development of GISTs. Studies of pulmonary artery endothelial cells in a low-oxygen environment and cardiac muscle cells in an ischemic environment have shown that ghrelin can activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signaling pathway. Moreover, some studies of GISTs have confirmed that activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway can indeed promote the growth and progression of GISTs. Whether ghrelin is involved in the development or progression of GISTs through certain pathways remains unknown. Can we find a new target for the treatment of GISTs? This review explores and summaries the relationship among ghrelin, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and the development of GISTs.

  16. [The experimental study on melatonin gastro intestinal motility and plasma levels of stress hormones in overtraining rat]. (United States)

    Jing, Hui-feng; Wang, Xiao-mei


    To study the effect of melatonin on the gastrointestinal motility and plasma levels of the stress hormone in overtraining rats. Thirty adult SD rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10): control group, over-training group, melatonin intervention group. 30 min before each training, rats in the control and over-training groups were fed with normal saline (15 mg/kg) once a day and 5 times per week, while rats in the melatonin intervention group were administrated with melatonin, perfusion in the intervention group (15 mg/kg). Excessive training group and melatonin intervention group rats were subjected to excessive training at 5 times a week for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, the gastric emptying rate, small intestinal propulsion ratio and levels of plasma motilin (MTL) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), cortisol (CORT) and catecholamines (CA) were observed in all groups. Compared with the control group, the gastric emptying rate, small intestinal propulsion ratio and levels of plasma MTL, CORT and CA were increased significantly (P melatonin, this trend was reversed, that was, the gastric emptying rate, small intestinal propulsion ratio and levels of plasma MTL, CORT and CA were surpressed significantly (P Melatonin plays an important role in protecting gastrointestinal tract from dysfunction, in which MTL, CGRP, CORT and CA are all involved.

  17. Prevalence of opioid dispensings and concurrent gastrointestinal medications in Quebec. (United States)

    Williams, R E; Bosnic, N; Sweeney, C T; Duncan, A W; Levine, K B; Brogan, M; Cook, S F


    Opioids are frequently prescribed for moderate to severe pain. A side effect of opioid usage is the inhibition of gastrointestinal (GI) motility, known as opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OBD). OBD is typically treated prophylactically with laxatives and/or acid suppressants. The present study describes the prevalence of outpatient opioid dispensing, opioid patient demographics, and concomitant dispensing of opioids and GI medications in the Quebec Public Prescription Drug Insurance Plan in 2005. Using a retrospective cohort design, opioid dispensings were identified using claims and reimbursement data. Laxative and acid suppressant dispensings were also identified. Concurrent use was defined as having at least one 'GI medication-exposed day' overlapping an 'opioid-exposed day'. More than 11% of the drug plan population was dispensed an opioid in 2005, and dispensings increased with age. Approximately two-thirds of patients who received an opioid were given codeine. Approximately one-third of opioid patients were concomitantly dispensed a GI medication, yet only 2% were dispensed a laxative. Although the GI side effects of opioids are well known, these side effects appear to increase with age and duration of opioid use. Opioid-related side effects, particularly OBD, should be effectively managed so as not to lead to the cessation of opioid therapy.


    Windholz, Frank; Kaplan, Henry S.; Jones, Henry H.


    A stable colloidal suspension of barium sulfate has been developed and tested in roentgen examination of the gastrointestinal tract. The new material is rather distinctive in radiographic appearance and can usually be differentiated from simple barium-water mixtures by inspection of roentgenograms of the opacified stomach and small intestine. It usually affords a satisfactory demonstration of the mucosal folds of the stomach and duodenal bulb and is considerably more resistant to flocculation and precipitation by retained gastric secretions. In the small intestine, it has little tendency to undergo flocculation and fragmentation, and permits visualization of fine mucosal configurations with unusual clarity. Its motility is about the same as that of conventional suspensions. Air contrast colon examinations with the colloidal preparation exhibit a very uniform, opaque, and stable coating of the bowel wall and are more consistently satisfactory than when simple barium-water mixtures are used. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 1.Figure 1.Figure 1.Figure 2.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:14812347

  19. MicroRNAs dynamically remodel gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanjae Park


    Full Text Available Smooth muscle cells (SMCs express a unique set of microRNAs (miRNAs which regulate and maintain the differentiation state of SMCs. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of miRNAs during the development of gastrointestinal (GI SMCs in a transgenic animal model. We generated SMC-specific Dicer null animals that express the reporter, green fluorescence protein, in a SMC-specific manner. SMC-specific knockout of Dicer prevented SMC miRNA biogenesis, causing dramatic changes in phenotype, function, and global gene expression in SMCs: the mutant mice developed severe dilation of the intestinal tract associated with the thinning and destruction of the smooth muscle (SM layers; contractile motility in the mutant intestine was dramatically decreased; and SM contractile genes and transcriptional regulators were extensively down-regulated in the mutant SMCs. Profiling and bioinformatic analyses showed that SMC phenotype is regulated by a complex network of positive and negative feedback by SMC miRNAs, serum response factor (SRF, and other transcriptional factors. Taken together, our data suggest that SMC miRNAs are required for the development and survival of SMCs in the GI tract.

  20. Correlation between slow-wave myoelectric signals and mechanical contractions in the gastrointestinal tract: Advanced electromyographic method in rats. (United States)

    Szucs, Kalman F; Nagy, Aniko; Grosz, Gyorgy; Tiszai, Zita; Gaspar, Robert

    Gastrointestinal motility disorders are presumed to be associated with abnormalities of the generation of slow-wave electric impulses. A requirement for the development of non-invasive clinical methods for the diagnosis of motility disorders is the identification of these signals. We set out to separate and characterize the signals from the various sections of the gastrointestinal tract and to detect changes in the smooth muscle electromyography (SEMG) signals. Partially resected (stomach-small intestine, stomach-large intestine or small and large intestine) or non-resected male SPRD rats were measured under deep anaesthesia. Bipolar thread and disk electrodes and strain gauge sensors were used for SEMG and the detection of mechanical contractions, respectively. The electric activity was characterized by cycle per minute (cpm) and power spectrum density maximum (PsDmax) W by fast Fourier transformation analysis. Contractions were evaluated by area under the curve analysis. The myoelectric signals of the stomach, ileum and caecum were at 3-5, 20-25 and 1-3cpm, respectively. Neostigmine increased (40-60%), while atropine decreased (30-50%) the PsDmax values. However, the cpm values remained unchanged. Linear regression revealed a good correlation between the PsDmax values and the smooth muscle contractions. Electric signals of the same character were recorded from the organ and from the abdominal surface. The change in PsDmax perfectly reflects the change in the contractions of the smooth muscle. These results may serve as the basis for non-invasive gastrointestinal measurements in experimental animals, which can be translated into clinical practice for motility studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Computer-assisted motility analysis (CASA) was used to evaluate the effect of cryopreservation and theophylline treatment on sperm motility of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens).Motility was recorded at 0 and 5 min postactivation.The effect of cryopreservation on sperm acrosin-...

  2. Competitive Advantage Provided by Bacterial Motility in the Formation of Nodules by Rhizobium meliloti (United States)

    Ames, Peter; Bergman, Kostia


    The effect of motility on the competitive success of Rhizobium meliloti in nodule production was investigated. A motile strain formed more nodules than expected when mixed at various unfavorable ratios with either flagellated or nonflagellated nonmotile derivatives. We conclude that motility confers a selective advantage on rhizobia when competing with nonmotile strains. PMID:7298580

  3. Two forensic autopsy cases of death due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a comparison of postmortem computed tomography and autopsy findings. (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hasegawa, Iwao; Hoshino, Norio; Fukunaga, Tatsushige


    In this report, we describe two autopsy cases of death due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (Case 1: gastric ulcer, Case 2: aortoduodenal fistula). Postmortem computed tomography (CT) images from both cases revealed pooling of gastric fluid, which contained high attenuation areas, although these images also mirrored the different sources of the gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Fluid collection was observed in the small intestine for both cases, although the high attenuation areas were only remarkable in Case 2. The autopsy in Case 1 revealed a peptic ulcer, with small vessels exposed on the surface of the ulcer. Melena was also observed throughout the intestine, although clotting was only observed inside the stomach. The autopsy in Case 2 revealed diffuse massive clotting from the stomach to the upper portion of the ileum, which was due to a primary aortoduodenal fistula. Given our autopsy findings, the extent of the high attenuation areas in the digestive tract during postmortem CT scanning may be correlated with the speed of the gastrointestinal hemorrhage before death. Carefully evaluating the radiodensity of the gastrointestinal contents during postmortem CT scanning may indicate the primary site of the hemorrhage before the autopsy, thereby facilitating the accurate identification of the cause of death during forensic autopsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sympathetic pathways mediate GLP-1 actions in the gastrointestinal tract of the rat. (United States)

    Giralt, M; Vergara, P


    The aim of this study was to establish the actions of GLP-1 (7-37) on gastrointestinal motility in rats. We prepared anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats with strain-gauges in the antrum, duodenum and the proximal jejunum and a catheter in the aorta close to the coeliac artery for close infusion of substances. Intraarterial GLP-1 infusions (3 x 10(-10) and 3 x 10(-9) moles/kg per 10 min) (n = 8) induced inhibition of spontaneous motor activity in the antrum, duodenum and proximal jejunum. Inhibition induced by GLP-1 was reversed by i.v. infusion of GLP-1 receptor antagonist, Exendin (9-39) (3 x 10(-8) moles/kg per 10 min) (n = 6). Neither the presence of L-NNA (10(-5) moles/kg) (n = 9) nor the VIP receptor antagonist [4-Cl-D-Phe6, Leu17]-VIP (3 x 10(-8) moles/kg per 10 min) (n = 8) modified responses to GLP-1. However, a combination of the adrenergic blockers phentolamine and propranolol (1 mg/kg each) (n = 8) completely blocked motor actions of GLP-1 in all the organs studied. Moreover, inhibition of gastrointestinal motor activity by GLP-1 was blocked by previous infusion of hexamethonium (10 mg/kg) (n = 4). This study demonstrates that GLP-1 inhibits gastrointestinal motor activity of the rat acting on specific GLP-1 receptors and via stimulation of adrenergic pathways.

  5. Fluid dynamic bowtie attenuators (United States)

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Hermus, James


    Fluence field modulated CT allows for improvements in image quality and dose reduction. To date, only 1-D modulators have been proposed, the extension to 2-D modulation is difficult with solid-metal attenuation-based modulators. This work proposes to use liquids and gas to attenuate the x-ray beam which can be arrayed allowing for 2-D fluence modulation. The thickness of liquid and the pressure for a given path length of gas were determined that provided the same attenuation as 30 cm of soft tissue at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV. Gaseous Xenon and liquid Iodine, Zinc Chloride, and Cerium Chloride were studied. Additionally, we performed some proof-of-concept experiments in which (1) a single cell of liquid was connected to a reservoir which allowed the liquid thickness to be modulated and (2) a 96 cell array was constructed in which the liquid thickness in each cell was adjusted manually. Liquid thickness varied as a function of kV and chemical composition, with Zinc Chloride allowing for the smallest thickness; 1.8, 2.25, 3, and 3.6 cm compensated for 30 cm of soft tissue at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV respectively. The 96 cell Iodine attenuator allowed for a reduction in both dynamic range to the detector and scatter to primary ratio. Successful modulation of a single cell was performed at 0, 90, and 130 degrees using a simple piston/actuator. The thickness of liquids and the Xenon gas pressure seem logistically implementable within the constraints of CBCT and diagnostic CT systems.

  6. Gastrointestinal symptoms and ethanol metabolism in alcoholics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, R.J.F.; Verlaan, M.; Oijen, M.G.H. van; Doelder, M.S. de; Jong, C.A.J. de; Jansen, J.B.M.J.


    Excessive alcohol intake frequently results in gastrointestinal discomfort. It is an empirical fact that the severity of gastrointestinal discomfort induced by alcohol abuse is subject to interindividual variation. The aim of this study was to determine whether genetic polymorphism in alcohol

  7. Gastrointestinal symptoms and ethanol metabolism in alcoholics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, R. J. E.; Verlaan, M.; van Oijen, M. G. H.; de Doelder, M. S.; Dejong, C. A. J.; Jansen, J. B. M. J.


    Excessive alcohol intake frequently results in gastrointestinal discomfort. It is an empirical fact that the severity of gastrointestinal discomfort induced by alcohol abuse is subject to interindividual variation. The aim of this study was to determine whether genetic polymorphism in alcohol

  8. Upper gastrointestinal fiberoptic endoscopy in pediatric patients. (United States)

    Prolla, J C; Diehl, A S; Bemvenuti, G A; Loguercio, S V; Magalhães, D S; Silveira, T R


    Upper gastrointestinal fiberendoscopy in pediatric patients is done safely and under local anesthesia in most instances. This study of 47 children confirmed the value of fiberendoscopy in establishing the etiology of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and the presence of esophageal varices. It also contributed significantly to the management of patients with disphagia, pyrosis, epigastric pain, and ingestion of foreign bodies. No significant morbidity was caused.

  9. Doxycycline-induced gastrointestinal injury. (United States)

    Affolter, Kajsa; Samowitz, Wade; Boynton, Kathleen; Kelly, Erinn Downs


    Doxycycline-induced gastric injury is a rarely recognized adverse effect of a common medication. Only 2 cases have previously described the distinctive capillary degeneration identified in gastric mucosa. We expanded on this by describing additional involved sites, endoscopic findings, and patient characteristics. Gastrointestinal biopsy materials for cases indexed with the word doxycycline were retrieved and the histology reviewed. The medical record was used to obtain clinical details. Three cases with biopsy materials were identified from the search, and doxycycline ingestion was confirmed. All patients' gastric biopsies had small vessel injury with fibrinoid material around the vessel, and 1 patient had similar changes in the duodenum. Endoscopic findings included fundic and pyloric erosions and ulcers. One patient had a normal endoscopy on follow-up after drug cessation. Confirmation and increased understanding of this drug-specific injury pattern are important for patient management, as cessation appears to result in symptom improvement and healing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.


    BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in preventing gastrointestinal...... Database from inception to October 2007. We scanned reference lists and contacted pharmaceutical companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing antioxidant supplements to placebo/no intervention examining occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors (GB...... high. Heterogeneity was low to moderate. Antioxidant supplements were without significant effects on gastrointestinal cancers (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.06). However, there was significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 54.0%, P = 0.003). The heterogeneity may have been explained by bias risk (low-bias risk...

  11. Surgical treatment of gastrointestinal hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. (United States)

    Yen, Min-Hsuan; Chen, Chiung-Nien


    A 48-year-old man with a history of gastrointestinal bleeding from Osler-Weber-Rendu disease presented with recurrent hematemesis and tarry stool. He received repeated endoscopic therapy, but profound component therapy was still needed. Because repeated gastrointestinal bleeding was caused by same bleeder, tattoo-assisted laparoscopic gastric wedge resection was carried out. The pathology showed vascular abnormalities that involved gastric mucosal and submucosal layers. After surgery, the blood transfusion for the patient is not seen. Osler-Weber-Rendu is a hereditary disease characterized by vascular abnormalities of the nose, skin, lung, brain, and gastrointestinal tract. Management of gastrointestinal bleeding requires medical treatment first, and there are rare reports of surgical treatment. Our pathology findings showed a transmucosal vessel lesion, which had poor response to endoscopic treatment. Surgical intervention may be considered in the patient with gastrointestinal bleeding refractory to endoscopic therapy.

  12. Dopaminergic and beta-adrenergic effects on gastric antral motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, K; Hovendal, C P; Gottrup, F


    of bethanechol or pentagastrin inducing motor activity patterns as in the phase III of the MMC and the digestive state respectively. The stimulated antral motility was dose-dependently inhibited by dopamine. The effect was significantly blocked by specifically acting dopaminergic blockers, while alpha- and beta......-adrenergic blockers were without any significant effects. Dose-response experiments with bethanechol and dopamine showed inhibition of a non-competitive type. Isoprenaline was used alone and in conjunction with selective blockade of beta 1- and beta 2-receptors during infusion of bethanechol which induces a pattern...... similar to phase III in the migrating myoelectric complex. The stimulated antral motility was dose-dependently inhibited by isoprenaline. The effect could be significantly blocked by propranolol (beta 1 + beta 2-adrenoceptor blocker) and by using in conjunction the beta 1-adrenoceptor blocker practolol...

  13. A Structural Basis for How Motile Cilia Beat (United States)

    Satir, Peter; Heuser, Thomas; Sale, Winfield S.


    The motile cilium is a mechanical wonder, a cellular nanomachine that produces a high-speed beat based on a cycle of bends that move along an axoneme made of 9+2 microtubules. The molecular motors, dyneins, power the ciliary beat. The dyneins are compacted into inner and outer dynein arms, whose activity is highly regulated to produce microtubule sliding and axonemal bending. The switch point hypothesis was developed long ago to account for how sliding in the presence of axonemal radial spoke–central pair interactions causes the ciliary beat. Since then, a new genetic, biochemical, and structural complexity has been discovered, in part, with Chlamydomonas mutants, with high-speed, high-resolution analysis of movement and with cryoelectron tomography. We stand poised on the brink of new discoveries relating to the molecular control of motility that extend and refine our understanding of the basic events underlying the switching of arm activity and of bend formation and propagation. PMID:26955066

  14. US of gastrointestinal tract disease. (United States)

    Muradali, Derek; Goldberg, Deborah R


    The potential use of ultrasonography (US) in evaluating gut disease has been underappreciated in most diagnostic imaging departments in North America. The impression that US has a questionable role in bowel assessment is related to the operator-dependent nature of the modality, the technical challenges of performing bowel US examinations, and the lack of familiarity of radiologists and technologists with the US appearances of normal and abnormal bowel. However, with development of technical experience by the sonographer and integration of a clinical focus at patient evaluation, US can become a powerful tool for bowel assessment. Unlike computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, it provides a widely available, noninvasive, inexpensive method for evaluating the gut without the use of ionizing radiation. These factors are of particular importance in young patients and those who require recurrent follow-up imaging. Because US is performed with real-time imaging, the modality also allows the sonographer to view and assess the motility properties of the bowel, a feature that has not been previously used to its full potential. Color Doppler US can yield useful information about mural vascularity in bowel disease when used in conjunction with gray-scale findings and clinical symptoms. Radiologists should be familiar with the static and dynamic US appearances of the normal and abnormal bowel, recognize features of various pathologic conditions, and understand potential errors at imaging interpretation. Online supplemental material is available for this article. RSNA, 2015

  15. The effect of flagellar motor-rotor complexes on twitching motility in P. aeruginosa (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Utada, Andrew; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Xian, Wujing; Wong, Gerard


    P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterium responsible for a broad range of biofilm infections. In order for biofilms to form, P. aeruginosa uses different types of surface motility. In the current understanding, flagella are used for swarming motility and type IV pili are used for twitching motility. The flagellum also plays important roles in initial surface attachment and in shaping the architectures of mature biofilms. Here we examine how flagella and pili interact during surface motility, by using cell tracking techniques. We show that the pili driven twitching motility of P. aeruginosa can be affected by the motor-rotor complexes of the flagellar system.

  16. Upper gastrointestinal sensitivity to meal-related signals in adult humans - relevance to appetite regulation and gut symptoms in health, obesity and functional dyspepsia. (United States)

    Feinle-Bisset, Christine


    Both the stomach and small intestine play important roles in sensing the arrival of a meal, and its physico-chemical characteristics, in the gastrointestinal lumen. The presence of a meal in the stomach provides a distension stimulus, and, as the meal empties into the small intestine, nutrients interact with small intestinal receptors, initiating the release of gut hormones, associated with feedback regulation of gastrointestinal functions, including gut motility, and signaling to the central nervous system, modulating eating behaviours, including energy intake. Lipid appears to have particularly potent effects, also in close interaction with, and modulating the effects of, gastric distension, and involving the action of gut hormones, particularly cholecystokinin (CCK). These findings have not only provided important, and novel, insights into how gastrointestinal signals interact to modulate subjective appetite perceptions, including fullness, but also laid the foundation for an increasing appreciation of the role of altered gastrointestinal sensitivities, e.g. as a consequence of excess dietary intake in obesity, or underlying the induction of gastrointestinal symptoms in functional dyspepsia (a condition characterized by symptoms, including bloating, nausea and early fullness, amongst others, after meals, particularly those high in fat, in the absence of any structural or functional abnormalities in the gastrointestinal tract). This paper will review the effects of dietary nutrients, particularly lipid, on gastrointestinal function, and associated effects on appetite perceptions and energy intake, effects of interactions of gastrointestinal stimuli, as well as the role of altered gastrointestinal sensitivities (exaggerated, or reduced) in eating-related disorders, particularly obesity and functional dyspepsia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The Semen pH Affects Sperm Motility and Capacitation. (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Chen, Li; Li, Jie; Li, Hongjun; Hong, Zhiwei; Xie, Min; Chen, Shengrong; Yao, Bing


    As the chemical environment of semen can have a profound effect on sperm quality, we examined the effect of pH on the motility, viability and capacitation of human sperm. The sperm in this study was collected from healthy males to avoid interference from other factors. The spermatozoa cultured in sperm nutrition solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were analyzed for sperm total motility, progressive motility (PR), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) rate, and sperm penetration. Our results showed that these parameters were similar in pH 7.2 and 8.2 sperm nutrition solutions, but decreased in pH 5.2 and 6.2 solutions. The HOS rate exhibited positive correlation with the sperm total motility and PR. In addition, the sperm Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at different pHs was measured, and the enzyme activity was significantly lower in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media, comparing with that in pH 8.2 and pH 7.2 solutions. Using flow cytometry (FCM) and laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) analysis, the intracellular Ca2(+ )concentrations of sperm cultured in sperm capacitation solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were determined. Compared with that at pH 7.2, the mean fluorescence intensity of sperm in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media decreased significantly, while that of pH 8.2 group showed no difference. Our results suggested that the declined Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at acidic pHs result in decreased sperm movement and capacitation, which could be one of the mechanisms of male infertility.

  18. Discrimination of motile bacteria from filamentous fungi using dynamic speckle (United States)

    Murialdo, Silvia E.; Passoni, Lucía I.; Guzman, Marcelo N.; Sendra, G. Hernán; Rabal, Héctor; Trivi, Marcelo; Gonzalez, J. Froilán


    We present a dynamic laser speckle method to easily discriminate filamentous fungi from motile bacteria in soft surfaces, such as agar plate. The method allows the detection and discrimination between fungi and bacteria faster than with conventional techniques. The new procedure could be straightforwardly extended to different micro-organisms, as well as applied to biological and biomedical research, infected tissues analysis, and hospital water and wastewaters studies.

  19. Subtotal esophageal resection in motility disorders of the esophagus. (United States)

    Gockel, Ines; Kneist, Werner; Eckardt, Volker F; Oberholzer, Katja; Junginger, Theodor


    Esophagectomy for motility disorders is performed infrequently. It is indicated after failed medical therapy, pneumatic dilation, non-resecting surgical and redo procedures. Patient selection in this group is challenging and the operative risk has to be weighted carefully against the poor quality of life with persistent or recurrent dysphagia. Between September 1985 and April 2004, subtotal esophageal resections for advanced esophageal motility disorders of the esophagus not responding to previous therapy were carried out in 8 patients (6 females, 2 males). The median age of these patients was 59.5 (43-78) years. Six patients had a megaesophagus secondary to achalasia; 1 patient had a non-specific esophageal motility disorder with a stenosis of the distal esophagus, and a further patient displayed a recurrent huge epiphrenic diverticulum, which occurred in the context of a collagen disease. A transhiatal esophageal resection was performed in 6, a transthoracic procedure in 2 patients. Outcome assessment was done after a follow-up of 43.5 (3-92) months in median. The resection and reconstruction of the esophagus in advanced and decompensated esophageal motility disorders led to a marked functional improvement with disappearance of dysphagia. Despite previous therapeutic failures, alimentation could be restored in all patients. Favourable long-term results with significant improvement of symptoms can be achieved by esophageal resection even if endoscopic therapy or non-resecting surgical measures are unsuccessful. Transhiatal esophagectomy with gastric pull-up should be the preferred procedure and can be performed with low morbidity. Copyright (c) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Effects of Surface Passivation on Gliding Motility Assays (United States)


    prepared for observation, nail polish was used to seal the open ends. We have not observed any adverse affects to the assay by using nail polish as the...5 minutes. Finally, our motility solution was flowed into the cell that was then sealed with nail polish to prevent evaporation. Experiment and data...environment were prepared for future use. Polymerized microtubules were stored at room temperature and protected from ambient light until used in a

  1. Mechanisms of motility change on trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid-induced colonic inflammation in mice. (United States)

    Cheon, Gab Jin; Cui, Yuan; Yeon, Dong-Soo; Kwon, Seong-Chun; Park, Byong-Gon


    Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by recurrent episodes of colonic inflammation and tissue degeneration in human or animal models. The contractile force generated by the smooth muscle is significantly attenuated, resulting in altered motility leading to diarrhea or constipation in IBD. The aim of this study is to clarify the altered contractility of circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers in proximal colon of trinitrobenzen sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis mouse. Colitis was induced by direct injection of TNBS (120 mg/kg, 50% ethanol) in proximal colon of ICR mouse using a 30 G needle anesthetized with ketamin (50 mg/kg), whereas animals in the control group were injected of 50% ethanol alone. In TNBS-induced colitis, the wall of the proximal colon is diffusely thickened with loss of haustration, and showed mucosal and mucular edema with inflammatory infiltration. The colonic inflammation is significantly induced the reduction of colonic contractile activity including spontaneous contractile activity, depolarization-induced contractility, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated contractile response in circular muscle layer compared to the longitudinal muscle layer. The inward rectification of currents, especially, important to Ca(2+) and Na(+) influx-induced depolarization and contraction, was markedly reduced in the TNBS-induced colitis compared to the control. The muscarinic acetylcholine-mediated contractile responses were significantly attenuated in the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle strips induced by the reduction of membrane expression of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channel isoforms from the proximal colon of the TNBS-induced colitis mouse than the control.

  2. Fast regulation of axonal growth cone motility by electrical activity. (United States)

    Ibarretxe, Gaskon; Perrais, David; Jaskolski, Frédéric; Vimeney, Alice; Mulle, Christophe


    Axonal growth cones are responsible for the correct guidance of developing axons and the establishment of functional neural networks. They are highly motile because of fast and continuous rearrangements of their actin-rich cytoskeleton. Here we have used live imaging of axonal growth cones of hippocampal neurons in culture and quantified their motility with a temporal resolution of 2 s. Using novel methods of analysis of growth cone dynamics, we show that transient activation of kainate receptors by bath-applied kainate induced a fast and reversible growth cone stalling. This effect depends on electrical activity and can be mimicked by the transient discharge of action potentials elicited in the neuron by intracellular current injections at the somatic level through a patch pipette. Growth cone stalling induced by electrical stimulation is mediated by calcium entry from the extracellular medium as well as by calcium release from intracellular stores that define spatially restricted microdomains directly affecting cytoskeletal dynamics. We propose that growth cone motility is dynamically controlled by transient bursts of spontaneous electrical activity, which constitutes a prominent feature of developing neural networks in vivo.

  3. Syndecan-1 modulates the motility and resolution responses of macrophages. (United States)

    Angsana, Julianty; Chen, Jiaxuan; Smith, Sumona; Xiao, Jiantao; Wen, Jing; Liu, Liying; Haller, Carolyn A; Chaikof, Elliot L


    Syndecan-1 (Sdc-1) is a member of a family of cell surface proteoglycans, which has been reported to participate in the regulation of events relevant to tissue repair and chronic injury responses, including cell-substrate interactions, matrix remodeling, and cell migration. In this study, we report the functional significance of Sdc-1 in polarized macrophage populations and its role in adhesion and motility events relevant to resolution of the inflammatory program. Macrophage Sdc-1 expression is associated with differentiated M2 macrophages with high intrinsic motility, and Sdc-1 deficiency is characterized by impaired migration and enhanced adhesion. Leukocyte infiltration and emigration were examined in a thioglycollate-induced model of peritonitis in Sdc-1(+/+) and Sdc-1(-/-) mice. Although the infiltration of inflammatory cells was similar in both cohorts, a significant delay in the lymphatic clearance of Sdc-1(-/-) macrophages was observed. Moreover, we observed enhanced inflammation and greater burden of atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE(-/-)Sdc-1(-/-) mice maintained on a Western diet. These results demonstrate that defective motility in Sdc-1(-/-) macrophages promotes a persistent inflammatory state with relevance to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Actin-based motility propelled by molecular motors (United States)

    Upadyayula, Sai Pramod; Rangarajan, Murali


    Actin-based motility of Listeria monocytogenes propelled by filament end-tracking molecular motors has been simulated. Such systems may act as potential nanoscale actuators and shuttles useful in sorting and sensing biomolecules. Filaments are modeled as three-dimensional elastic springs distributed on one end of the capsule and persistently attached to the motile bacterial surface through an end-tracking motor complex. Filament distribution is random, and monomer concentration decreases linearly as a function of position on the bacterial surface. Filament growth rate increases with monomer concentration but decreases with the extent of compression. The growing filaments exert push-pull forces on the bacterial surface. In addition to forces, torques arise due to two factors—distribution of motors on the bacterial surface, and coupling of torsion upon growth due to the right-handed helicity of F-actin—causing the motile object to undergo simultaneous translation and rotation. The trajectory of the bacterium is simulated by performing a force and torque balance on the bacterium. All simulations use a fixed value of torsion. Simulations show strong alignment of the filaments and the long axis of the bacterium along the direction of motion. In the absence of torsion, the bacterial surface essentially moves along the direction of the long axis. When a small amount of the torsion is applied to the bacterial surface, the bacterium is seen to move in right-handed helical trajectories, consistent with experimental observations.

  5. Apprenticeship-based training in neurogastroenterology and motility. (United States)

    Vasant, Dipesh H; Sharma, Amol; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Viswanathan, Lavanya; Rao, Satish S C


    Although neurogastroenterology and motility (NGM) disorders affect 50% of patients seen in clinics, many gastroenterologists receive limited NGM training. One-month apprenticeship-based NGM training has been provided at ten centers in the USA for a decade, however, outcomes of this training are unclear. Our goal was to describe the effectiveness of this program from a trainees perspective. Areas covered: We describe the training model, learning experiences, and outcomes of one-month apprenticeship-based training in NGM at a center of excellence, using a detailed individual observer account and data from 12 consecutive trainees that completed the program. During a one-month training period, 302 procedures including; breath tests (BT) n = 132, anorectal manometry (ARM) n = 29 and esophageal manometry (EM) n = 28, were performed. Post-training, all trainees (n = 12) knew indications for motility tests, and the majority achieved independence in basic interpretation of BT, EM and ARM. Additionally, in a multiple-choice NGM written-test paper, trainees achieved significant improvements in test scores post-training (P = 0.003). Expert commentary: One-month training at a high-volume center can facilitate rapid learning of NGM and the indications, basic interpretation and utility of motility tests. Trainees demonstrate significant independence, and this training model provides an ideal platform for those interested in sub-specialty NGM.

  6. Emergence of coherent motion in aggregates of motile coupled maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Cantu Ros, A., E-mail: [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Interdisciplinary Center for Nonlinear Phenomena and Complex Systems (CENOLI), Service de Physique des Systemes Complexes et Mecanique Statistique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Antonopoulos, Ch.G., E-mail: [Interdisciplinary Center for Nonlinear Phenomena and Complex Systems (CENOLI), Service de Physique des Systemes Complexes et Mecanique Statistique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Basios, V., E-mail: [Interdisciplinary Center for Nonlinear Phenomena and Complex Systems (CENOLI), Service de Physique des Systemes Complexes et Mecanique Statistique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)


    Highlights: > A minimal model of motile particles with adjustable intrinsic steering is presented. > Collective motion emerges due to self-adaptation of each particle's intrinsic state. > Adaptation is achieved by a map which behavior ranges from periodic to chaotic. > Higher cohesion occurs in a balanced combination of ordered and chaotic motion. > Exhibits an abrupt change in degree of coherence as a function of particle density. - Abstract: In this paper we study the emergence of coherence in collective motion described by a system of interacting motiles endowed with an inner, adaptative, steering mechanism. By means of a nonlinear parametric coupling, the system elements are able to swing along the route to chaos. Thereby, each motile can display different types of behavior, i.e. from ordered to fully erratic motion, accordingly with its surrounding conditions. The appearance of patterns of collective motion is shown to be related to the emergence of interparticle synchronization and the degree of coherence of motion is quantified by means of a graph representation. The effects related to the density of particles and to interparticle distances are explored. It is shown that the higher degrees of coherence and group cohesion are attained when the system elements display a combination of ordered and chaotic behaviors, which emerges from a collective self-organization process.

  7. Impact of external factors on sperm motility of Sepiella maindroni (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Jiang, Xiamin; Feng, Xiandong


    Sperm motility is important in reproductive biology. To understand the physiological ecology characteristics of sperm of Sepiella maindroni, we studied the activation rate, active time, and lifespan of sperm to evaluate the influence of external factors, including temperature, salinity, pH, glucose, NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, CaCl2, EDTA-2Na and artificial seawater on sperm motility. The results show that the appropriate activation and motility condition for sperm were: temperature 20-30°C (optimum 25°C), salinity 10.6-30.6 (optimum 15.9) and pH 8.0-8.6 (optimum 8.0-8.4). Sperm activity varied in different concentrations of glucose, NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2. None of the selected concentrations of EDTA-2Na solution could activate the sperm. The activation rate in artificial seawater devoid of Ca{2/+}, Mg{2/+} or HCO{3/-} was low. The results should help further studies on the preservation and activation of squid sperm.

  8. Experimental studies on small intestinal pouch motility and evacuation. (United States)

    Willis, S; Riesener, K P; Anurow, M; Titkova, S; Ottinger, A; Arlt, G; Schumpelick, V


    The aim of the study was to investigate pouch motility and evacuation under standardised conditions with a minimum of external influence. Ileal J-pouches had been constructed 30 cm proximal to the ileocecal valve in 10 dogs (6 pelvic/4 gastric configuration). After 8 weeks the following examinations were performed: (1) measurement of pouch compliance by balloon distension, (2) measurement of pouch contractions by strain gauge transducers, (3) radiological imaging of pouch contractions and evacuation, (4) evacuation scintigraphy and (5) radiological determination of small intestinal transit time. Compliance (2.3 +/- 1.1 mmHg/ml) and small intestinal transit time (31.6 +/- 7.5 h) were significantly higher in the pouch group than in controls (0.5 +/- 0.2 mmHg/ml, 8.0 +/- 2.8 h; p evacuation (t(1/2) = 109 +/- 52 min). Strain gauge measurements revealed irregular pouch contractions without detectable propagation. Contraction amplitudes (40.4 +/- 22.9 g) and frequencies (10.4 +/- 1.0/min) were equal all over the pouch. There were no functional differences between gastric and pelvic pouch configuration. Small intestinal pouches act as reservoirs. Uncoordinated motility patterns contribute to this function. Other factors than pouch motility are responsible for evacuation.

  9. Comparison of postoperative motility in hand-sewn end-to-end anastomosis and functional end-to-end anastomosis: an experimental study in conscious dogs. (United States)

    Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Mochiki, Erito; Ando, Hiroyuki; Yanai, Mitsuhiro; Ogata, Kyoichi; Tabe, Yuichi; Ohno, Tetsuro; Aihara, Ryuusuke; Kuwano, Hiroyuki


    The objective of this study is to compare the postoperative motility between hand-sewn end-to-end anastomosis and functional end-to-end anastomosis. Fifteen conscious dogs were divided into three groups: normal intact dog group, end-to-end anastomosis group (EE), and functional end-to-end anastomosis group (FEE). In the EE and FEE groups, the dogs underwent a transection of the jejunum 30 cm distal to the Treitz ligament and anastomosis in each method. To compare the gastrointestinal motility, the time to the appearance and the rate of propagation of interdigestive migrating motor contractions (IMC) across the anastomosis, as well as the motility index (MI) at the oral and anal sides of the anastomosis, were measured using strain gauge force transducers. Furthermore, the histological examination of intrinsic nerve fibers was evaluated. The time to the appearance of propagation of IMC in the EE and FEE was not significantly different. The propagation rates of IMC in the EE and FEE completely recovered within 4 weeks of the surgery. The MI in the EE and FEE was not significantly different. In addition, no continuity of intrinsic nerve fibers across the anastomosis could be identified in either group. In the present study, there are no significant differences between the EE and FEE with regard to the time of the appearance and the rate of propagation of IMC. These results suggest that the effect of functional end-to-end anastomosis on postoperative motility is not different from that of hand-sewn end-to-end anastomosis.

  10. The traditional anti-diarrheal remedy, Garcinia buchananii stem bark extract, inhibits propulsive motility and fast synaptic potentials in the guinea pig distal colon (United States)

    Balemba, Onesmo B.; Bhattarai, Yogesh; Stenkamp-Strahm, Chloe; Lesakit, Mellau S.B.; Mawe, Gary M.


    Background Garcinia buchananii bark extract is a traditional African remedy for diarrhea, dysentery, abdominal discomfort and pain. We investigated the mechanisms and efficacy of this extract using the guinea pig distal colon model of gastrointestinal motility. Methods Stem bark was collected from G. buchananii trees in their natural habitat of Karagwe, Tanzania. Bark was sun dried and ground into fine powder, which was suspended in Krebs to obtain an aqueous extract. Isolated guinea pig distal colon was used to determine the effect of the G. buchananii bark extract on fecal pellet propulsion. Intracellular recording was used to evaluate the extract action on evoked fast excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in S- neurons of the myenteric plexus. Key Results G. buchananii bark extract inhibited pellet propulsion in a concentration-dependent manner, with an optimal concentration of ~10 mg powder ml−1. Interestingly, washout of the extract resulted in an increase in pellet propulsion to a level above basal activity. The extract reversibly reduced the amplitude of evoked fEPSPs in myenteric neurons. The extract’s inhibitory action on propulsive motility and fEPSPs was not affected by the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, or the alpha- 2 adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine. The extract inhibited pellet motility in the presence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), GABAA and GABAB receptor antagonists picrotoxin and phaclofen, respectively. However, phaclofen and picrotoxin inhibited recovery rebound of motility during washout. Conclusions & Inferences G. buchananii extract has the potential to provide an effective, non-opiate anti-diarrheal drug. Further studies are required to characterize bioactive components and elucidate the mechanisms of action, efficacy and safety. PMID:20718943

  11. Reporting systems in gastrointestinal endoscopy: Requirements and standards facilitating quality improvement: European society of gastrointestinal endoscopy position statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bretthauer (Michael); L. Aabakken (Lars); E. Dekker (Evelien); M.F. Kaminski (Michal); Rösch, T. (Thomas); R. Hultcrantz (Rolf); S. Suchanek (Stephan); R. Jover (Rodrigo); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); R. Bisschops (Raf); C. Spada (Cristiano); R.M. Valori (Roland ); D. Domagk (Dirk); C. Rees (Colin); Rutter, M.D. (Matthew D.)


    textabstractTo develop standards for high quality of gastrointestinal endoscopy, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) has established the ESGE Quality Improvement Committee. A prerequisite for quality assurance and improvement for all gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures is

  12. Reporting systems in gastrointestinal endoscopy: Requirements and standards facilitating quality improvement: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy position statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bretthauer, Michael; Aabakken, Lars; Dekker, Evelien; Kaminski, Michal F.; Rösch, Thomas; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Suchanek, Stepan; Jover, Rodrigo; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Bisschops, Raf; Spada, Cristiano; Valori, Roland; Domagk, Dirk; Rees, Colin; Rutter, Matthew D.


    To develop standards for high quality of gastrointestinal endoscopy, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) has established the ESGE Quality Improvement Committee. A prerequisite for quality assurance and improvement for all gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures is

  13. Gastrointestinal symptoms predictors of health-related quality of life in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (United States)

    To investigate the patient-reported multidimensional gastrointestinal symptoms predictors of generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales and ...

  14. Moscatilin Inhibits Lung Cancer Cell Motility and Invasion via Suppression of Endogenous Reactive Oxygen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkarawut Kowitdamrong


    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among cancer patients worldwide, and most of them have died from metastasis. Migration and invasion are prerequisite processes associated with high metastasis potential in cancers. Moscatilin, a bibenzyl derivative isolated from the Thai orchid Dendrobium pulchellum, has been shown to have anticancer effect against numerous cancer cell lines. However, little is known regarding the effect of moscatilin on cancer cell migration and invasion. The present study demonstrates that nontoxic concentrations of moscatilin were able to inhibit human nonsmall cell lung cancer H23 cell migration and invasion. The inhibitory effect of moscatilin was associated with an attenuation of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS, in which hydroxyl radical (OH∙ was identified as a dominant species in the suppression of filopodia formation. Western blot analysis also revealed that moscatilin downregulated activated focal adhesion kinase (phosphorylated FAK, Tyr 397 and activated ATP-dependent tyrosine kinase (phosphorylated Akt, Ser 473, whereas their parental counterparts were not detectable changed. In conclusion, our results indicate the novel molecular basis of moscalitin-inhibiting lung cancer cell motility and invasion and demonstrate a promising antimetastatic potential of such an agent for lung cancer therapy.

  15. Ageing and gastrointestinal sensory function: altered colonic mechanosensory and chemosensory function in the aged mouse. (United States)

    Keating, Christopher; Nocchi, Linda; Yu, Yang; Donovan, Jemma; Grundy, David


    Remarkably little is known about how age affects the sensory signalling pathways in the gastrointestinal tract despite age-related gastrointestinal dysfunction being a prime cause of morbidity amongst the elderly population High-threshold gastrointestinal sensory nerves play a key role in signalling distressing information from the gut to the brain. We found that ageing is associated with attenuated high-threshold afferent mechanosensitivity in the murine colon, and associated loss of TRPV1 channel function. These units have the capacity to sensitise in response to injurious events, and their loss in ageing may predispose the elderly to lower awareness of GI injury or disease. Ageing has a profound effect upon gastrointestinal function through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Here we investigated the effect of age upon gastrointestinal sensory signalling pathways in order to address the mechanisms underlying these changes. In vitro mouse colonic and jejunal preparations with attached splanchnic and mesenteric nerves were used to study mechanosensory and chemosensory afferent function in 3-, 12- and 24-month-old C57BL/6 animals. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to investigate mRNA expression in colonic tissue and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells isolated from 3- and 24-month animals, and immunohistochemistry was used to quantify the number of 5-HT-expressing enterochromaffin (EC) cells. Colonic and jejunal afferent mechanosensory function was attenuated with age and these effects appeared earlier in the colon compared to the jejunum. Colonic age-related loss of mechanosensory function was more pronounced in high-threshold afferents compared to low-threshold afferents. Chemosensory function was attenuated in the 24-month colon, affecting TRPV1 and serotonergic signalling pathways. High-threshold mechanosensory afferent fibres and small-diameter DRG neurons possessed lower functional TRPV1 receptor responses, which occurred without a change in TRPV1 mRNA expression

  16. A Combination of Pre- and Post-Exposure Ascorbic Acid Rescues Mice from Radiation-Induced Lethal Gastrointestinal Damage (United States)

    Ito, Yasutoshi; Kinoshita, Manabu; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Sato, Tomohito; Obara, Takeyuki; Saitoh, Daizoh; Seki, Shuhji; Takahashi, Yukihiro


    The development of an effective therapy for radiation-induced gastrointestinal damage is important, because it is currently a major complication of treatment and there are few effective therapies available. Although we have recently demonstrated that pretreatment with ascorbic acid attenuates lethal gastrointestinal damage in irradiated mice, more than half of mice eventually died, thus indicating that better approach was needed. We then investigated a more effective therapy for radiation-induced gastrointestinal damage. Mice receiving abdominal radiation at 13 Gy were orally administered ascorbic acid (250 mg/kg/day) for three days before radiation (pretreatment), one shot of engulfment (250 mg/kg) at 8 h before radiation, or were administered the agent for seven days after radiation (post-treatment). None of the control mice survived the abdominal radiation at 13 Gy due to severe gastrointestinal damage (without bone marrow damage). Neither pretreatment with ascorbic acid (20% survival), engulfment (20%), nor post-treatment (0%) was effective in irradiated mice. However, combination therapy using ascorbic acid, including pretreatment, engulfment and post-treatment, rescued all of the mice from lethal abdominal radiation, and was accompanied by remarkable improvements in the gastrointestinal damage (100% survival). Omitting post-treatment from the combination therapy with ascorbic acid markedly reduced the mouse survival (20% survival), suggesting the importance of post-treatment with ascorbic acid. Combination therapy with ascorbic acid may be a potent therapeutic tool for radiation-induced gastrointestinal damage. PMID:24084715

  17. New technologies in using recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine vectors. (United States)

    Curtiss, Roy; Xin, Wei; Li, Yuhua; Kong, Wei; Wanda, Soo-Young; Gunn, Bronwyn; Wang, Shifeng


    Recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines (RASVs) have been constructed to deliver antigens from other pathogens to induce immunity to those pathogens in vaccinated hosts. The attenuation means should ensure that the vaccine survives following vaccination to colonize lymphoid tissues without causing disease symptoms. This necessitates that attenuation and synthesis of recombinant gene encoded protective antigens do not diminish the ability of orally administered vaccines to survive stresses encountered in the gastrointestinal tract. We have eliminated these problems by using RASVs with regulated delayed expression of attenuation and regulated delayed synthesis of recombinant antigens. These changes result in RASVs that colonize effector lymphoid tissues efficiently to serve as "factories" to synthesize protective antigens that induce higher protective immune responses than achieved when using previously constructed RASVs. We have devised a biological containment system with regulated delayed lysis to preclude RASV persistence in vivo and survival if excreted. Attributes were added to reduce the mild diarrhea sometimes experienced with oral live RASVs and to ensure complete safety in newborns. These collective technologies have been used to develop a novel, low-cost, RASV-synthesizing, multiple-protective Streptococcus pneumoniae antigens that will be safe for newborns/infants and will induce protective immunity to diverse S. pneumoniae serotypes after oral immunization.

  18. Gastrointestinal Conditions in the Female Athlete. (United States)

    Diduch, Barry Kent


    Exercise can have significant effects on gastrointestinal diseases. Regular, moderate exercise can impart beneficial effects for the intestinal microbiome, irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, and inflammatory bowel disease. High-intensity training or prolonged endurance training, on the other hand, can have negative effects on these same entities. Female athletes report a higher prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome and celiac disease, and furthermore, have gastrointestinal symptoms modulated by the menstrual cycle. Management of gastrointestinal problems in the athletic population is widespread and includes training adjustments, dietary measures, and medicine management of symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Probiotics: defenders of gastrointestinal habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desh D. Singh


    Full Text Available Intestinal microbiota play an important role in maintaining normal gastrointestinal (GI function and ensuring that changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota can promote GI function. The digestive tract is full of bacteria and many of these, including probiotics, are necessary for optimal digestive function. During bacterial gastroenteritis, harmful bacteria invade the digestive tract causing unpleasant symptoms and upsetting the balance between good and bad bacteria. Supplemental probiotics can help restore this balance. Studies have demonstrated that probiotics can often help reduce the severity of symptoms such as diarrhea and may help accelerate recovery. Probiotics are therapeutic preparations of live microorganisms administered in sufficient dosage to be beneficial to health. The therapeutic effects of these microorganisms appear to be strain specific. Primal Defense®, a unique, probiotic, bacterial compound, contains probiotics that support gut flora balance, promote consistent bowel function, control stomach acid levels to quickly eliminate burning sensation in the stomach and maintain immune system response. The probiotics in Primal Defense® maximize the benefits of a healthy diet by supporting normal absorption and assimilation of nutrients in the gut. Nearly 75% of our immune defenses are located in the digestive tract, so maintaining a favorable bacterial balance in the intestines (ideally 80% good or neutral bacteria to 20% bad or harmful bacteria is crucial to achieving and maintaining optimum health.

  20. [Functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders]. (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín


    This article discusses the most interesting studies on functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders presented at Digestive Diseases Week (DDW), 2015. Researchers are still seeking biomarkers for irritable bowel syndrome and have presented new data. One study confirmed that the use of low-dose antidepressants has an antinociceptive effect without altering the psychological features of patients with functional dyspepsia. A contribution that could have immediate application is the use of transcutaneous electroacupuncture, which has demonstrated effectiveness in controlling nausea in patients with gastroparesis. New data have come to light on the importance of diet in irritable bowel syndrome, although the effectiveness of a low-FODMAP diet seems to be losing momentum with time. Multiple data were presented on the long-term efficacy of rifaximin therapy in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and diarrhoea. In addition, among other contributions, and more as a curiosity, a study evaluated the effect of histamine in the diet of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Laparoscopic approach in gastrointestinal emergencies. (United States)

    Jimenez Rodriguez, Rosa M; Segura-Sampedro, Juan José; Flores-Cortés, Mercedes; López-Bernal, Francisco; Martín, Cristobalina; Diaz, Verónica Pino; Ciuro, Felipe Pareja; Ruiz, Javier Padillo


    This review focuses on the laparoscopic approach to gastrointestinal emergencies and its more recent indications. Laparoscopic surgery has a specific place in elective procedures, but that does not apply in emergency situations. In specific emergencies, there is a huge range of indications and different techniques to apply, and not all of them are equally settle. We consider that the most controversial points in minimally invasive procedures are indications in emergency situations due to technical difficulties. Some pathologies, such as oesophageal emergencies, obstruction due to colon cancer, abdominal hernias or incarcerated postsurgical hernias, are nearly always resolved by conventional surgery, that is, an open approach due to limited intraabdominal cavity space or due to the vulnerability of the bowel. These technical problems have been solved in many diseases, such as for perforated peptic ulcer or acute appendectomy for which a laparoscopic approach has become a well-known and globally supported procedure. On the other hand, endoscopic procedures have acquired further indications, relegating surgical solutions to a second place; this happens in cholangitis or pancreatic abscess drainage. This endoluminal approach avoids the need for laparoscopic development in these diseases. Nevertheless, new instruments and new technologies could extend the laparoscopic approach to a broader array of potentials procedures. There remains, however, a long way to go.

  2. Biosecurity for neonatal gastrointestinal diseases. (United States)

    Barrington, George M; Gay, John M; Evermann, James F


    Infectious diarrhea is an important cause of neonatal calf morbidity and mortality that results in significant economic losses in the beef and dairy industries. Although numerous risk factors related to the occurrence of neonatal diarrhea have been identified, they can all be categorized into those that are related to the calf, the pathogens involved, or the environment of the calf. The immune status of calves, specifically the level of passively acquired immunity through colostrum, is the major risk factor related to the calf and the occurrence of diarrhea. Although numerous pathogens have been implicated in the occurrence of neonatal diarrhea, only a relatively limited number are commonly involved. Most should be viewed as secondary opportunists rather than primary pathogens, because none are extraordinarily virulent, and with the exception of Salmonella spp., most are present within the gastrointestinal tract of many healthy, mature cattle. Important risk factors related to pathogens involved in neonatal calf diarrhea involve the size of the inoculum and the occurrence of multiple infections. Finally, when considering the environment and housing conditions in which beef and dairy calves may reside, it is clear that tremendous variations exist. Despite these variations, the risk factors associated with the environment of the calf are also those that are the most amenable to the implementation of general environmental control and monitoring strategies as well as specific biosecurity measures.

  3. Mutations in the β-Subunit of the RNA Polymerase Impair the Surface-Associated Motility and Virulence of Acinetobacter baumannii. (United States)

    Pérez-Varela, María; Corral, Jordi; Vallejo, Juan Andrés; Rumbo-Feal, Soraya; Bou, Germán; Aranda, Jesús; Barbé, Jordi


    Acinetobacter baumannii is a major cause of antibiotic-resistant nosocomial infections worldwide. In this study, several rifampin-resistant spontaneous mutants obtained from the A. baumannii ATCC 17978 strain that differed in their point mutations in the rpoB gene, encoding the β-subunit of the RNA polymerase, were isolated. All the mutants harboring amino acid substitutions in position 522 or 540 of the RpoB protein were impaired in surface-associated motility and had attenuated virulence in the fertility model of Caenorhabditis elegans The transcriptional profile of these mutants included six downregulated genes encoding proteins homologous to transporters and metabolic enzymes widespread among A. baumannii clinical isolates. The construction of knockout mutants in each of the six downregulated genes revealed a significant reduction in the surface-associated motility and virulence of four of them in the A. baumannii ATCC 17978 strain, as well as in the virulent clinical isolate MAR002. Taken together, our results provide strong evidence of the connection between motility and virulence in this multiresistant nosocomial pathogen. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Gastrointestinal Bleeding Secondary to Gastrointestinal Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Lin [Henan Cancer Hospital, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Department of Radiology (China); Shin, Ji Hoon, E-mail:; Han, Kichang; Tsauo, Jiaywei; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Ko, Gi-Young [University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jong-Soo [Kyunghee University, College of Medicine, Kangdong Kyunghee University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Kyu-Bo [University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)


    PurposeTo evaluate the effectiveness of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding caused by GI lymphoma.Materials and MethodsThe medical records of 11 patients who underwent TAE for GI bleeding caused by GI lymphoma between 2001 and 2015 were reviewed retrospectively.ResultsA total of 20 TAE procedures were performed. On angiography, contrast extravasation, and both contrast extravasation and tumor staining were seen in 95 % (19/20) and 5 % (1/20) of the procedures, respectively. The most frequently embolized arteries were jejunal (n = 13) and ileal (n = 5) branches. Technical and clinical success rates were 100 % (20/20) and 27 % (3/11), respectively. The causes of clinical failure in eight patients were rebleeding at new sites. In four patients who underwent repeat angiography, the bleeding focus was new each time. Three patients underwent small bowel resection due to rebleeding after one (n = 2) or four (n = 1) times of TAEs. Another two patients underwent small bowel resection due to small bowel ischemia/perforation after three or four times of TAEs. The 30-day mortality rate was 18 % due to hypovolemic shock (n = 1) and multiorgan failure (n = 1).ConclusionAngiogram with TAE shows limited therapeutic efficacy to manage GI lymphoma-related bleeding due to high rebleeding at new sites. Although TAE can be an initial hemostatic measure, surgery should be considered for rebleeding due to possible bowel ischemic complication after repeated TAE procedures.

  5. Is fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) an effective treatment for patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID)? (United States)

    Pinn, D M; Aroniadis, O C; Brandt, L J


    Despite its high prevalence and significant effect on quality of life, the etiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), and specifically irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), has yet to be fully elucidated. While alterations in immunity, motility, and the brain-gut axis have been implicated in disease pathogenesis, the intestinal microbiota are increasingly being shown to play a role and numerous studies have demonstrated significant differences from normal in the intestinal flora of patients with FGID, and between types of FGID. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a curative therapy for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), a disease hallmarked by intestinal dysbiosis, and FMT is now being explored as a means to also restore intestinal homeostasis in FGID. This review aims to investigate the role of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of FGID, the implications of FMT for the treatment of FGID, and the challenges encountered in measuring response to a specific intervention in patients with FGID. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Gastrointestinal Bleeding: MedlinePlus Health Topic (United States)

    ... Spanish Vomiting blood (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Gastrointestinal Bleeding updates ... Vomiting blood Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Hemorrhoids Peptic Ulcer National Institutes of Health The ...

  7. Candida albicans commensalism in the gastrointestinal tract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neville, B. Anne; d'Enfert, Christophe; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Munro, Carol


    ... and the approaches used to study it, models of gastrointestinal colonization by C. albicans, the C. albicans genes and phenotypes that are necessary for commensalism and the host factors that influence C...

  8. Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (United States)

    ... for Minimizing Bile Duct Injuries: Adopting a Universal Culture of Safety in Cholecystectomy ... Surgeons: The New SAGES Course Endorsement System The Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) recognizes that ...

  9. The microbiome of the chicken gastrointestinal tract. (United States)

    Yeoman, Carl J; Chia, Nicholas; Jeraldo, Patricio; Sipos, Maksim; Goldenfeld, Nigel D; White, Bryan A


    The modern molecular biology movement was developed in the 1960s with the conglomeration of biology, chemistry, and physics. Today, molecular biology is an integral part of studies aimed at understanding the evolution and ecology of gastrointestinal microbial communities. Molecular techniques have led to significant gains in our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome. New advances, primarily in DNA sequencing technologies, have equipped researchers with the ability to explore these communities at an unprecedented level. A reinvigorated movement in systems biology offers a renewed promise in obtaining a more complete understanding of chicken gastrointestinal microbiome dynamics and their contributions to increasing productivity, food value, security, and safety as well as reducing the public health impact of raising production animals. Here, we contextualize the contributions molecular biology has already made to our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome and propose targeted research directions that could further exploit molecular technologies to improve the economy of the poultry industry.

  10. Gastrointestinal Epithelial Organoid Cultures from Postsurgical Tissues. (United States)

    Hahn, Soojung; Yoo, Jongman


    An organoid is a cellular structure three-dimensionally (3D) cultured from self-organizing stem cells in vitro, which has a cell population, architectures, and organ specific functions like the originating organs. Recent advances in the 3D culture of isolated intestinal crypts or gastric glands have enabled the generation of human gastrointestinal epithelial organoids. Gastrointestinal organoids recapitulate the human in vivo physiology because of all the intestinal epithelial cell types that differentiated and proliferated from tissue resident stem cells. Thus far, gastrointestinal organoids have been extensively used for generating gastrointestinal disease models. This protocol describes the method of isolating a gland or crypt using stomach or colon tissue after surgery and establishing them into gastroids or colonoids.

  11. Prolonged parenteral nutrition after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estmann, Anne; Qvist, Niels; Husby, Steffen


    INTRODUCTION: Long-term treatment with parenteral nutrition (PN) may be essential for survival in infants after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery. It seemed well indicated in a population-based study to estimate the need for long-term PN and to characterize the infants that received TPN with regard...... to diagnosis and clinical course. METHODOLOGY: This study reviews the clinical course of infants with gastrointestinal disease (gastroschisis, intestinal atresia, omphalocele, volvulus, Hirschsprung's disease and necrotizing enterocolitis) with a prolonged need for parenteral nutrition in the Western part...... of Denmark over a period of 11 1/2 years. RESULTS: A total of 21 patients with need for PN for 55 days or more due to gastrointestinal disease were registered with a cumulative hospital stay of 4462 days. The study showed a low incidence of long-term PN due to gastro-intestinal surgical illness...

  12. Histological and molecular classification of gastrointestinal polyps. (United States)

    Haumaier, Franziska; Sterlacci, William; Vieth, Michael


    Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment for gastrointestinal polyps became widely available within the last decades. Exact terminology is important for further therapeutic steps, follow up or treatment. Gastroenterologists, Oncologists, Surgeons and Pathologists need to be aware of the most recent terminology to ensure proper risk assessment and subsequent treatment if necessary. This manuscript aims to list the variety of gastrointestinal polyps and the molecular background where appropriate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F


    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones un......, but also constitute regulatory systems operating in the whole organism. This overview of gut hormone biology is supplemented with an annotation on some Scandinavian contributions to gastrointestinal hormone research....

  14. [Endoscopy in upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage]. (United States)

    Marañón Sepúlveda, M


    There are several changes in the role that endoscopy plays in upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. We propose indications and make point about the factors than an endoscopist must have in mind referring to timing the endoscopy study. In the experience of our Hospital (Hospital Central Norte de Petroleos Mexicanos, Mexico City), during 20 years we found a diminution in the prevalence of duodenal ulceration and an increase in gastric ulceration, erosive gastritis an neoplasies as causes of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

  15. Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Involvement in Hypereosinophilic Syndrome


    Inayat, Faisal; Hurairah, Abu


    The objective of this investigation was to study the gastrointestinal and hepatic involvement in hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). Gastrointestinal or hepatic involvement is estimated to affect up to one-third of patients with HES, although most of the clinical evidence has been derived from case reports. In literature, HES presenting with hepatitis and jaundice with subsequent development of colitis is a rare clinicopathologic entity. Given the clinical implications, physicians should includ...

  16. Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Involvement in Hypereosinophilic Syndrome (United States)

    Hurairah, Abu


    The objective of this investigation was to study the gastrointestinal and hepatic involvement in hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). Gastrointestinal or hepatic involvement is estimated to affect up to one-third of patients with HES, although most of the clinical evidence has been derived from case reports. In literature, HES presenting with hepatitis and jaundice with subsequent development of colitis is a rare clinicopathologic entity. Given the clinical implications, physicians should include HES among differentials in these types of presentations. PMID:27733964

  17. Effects on gastrointestinal transit and antroduodenojejunal manometry after gut-directed hypnotherapy in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). (United States)

    Lindfors, Perjohan; Törnblom, Hans; Sadik, Riadh; Björnsson, Einar S; Abrahamsson, Hasse; Simrén, Magnus


    Gut-directed hypnotherapy is an effective treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but little is known about the mechanisms of action. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects on gastrointestinal motility when treating IBS with gut-directed hypnotherapy. We randomized 90 patients with IBS, refractory to standard management to receive gut-directed hypnotherapy 1 h/week for 12 weeks or supportive treatment for the same time period. Eighty-one subjects (40 hypnotherapy, 41 controls) could be evaluated by one or more of the following investigations, both before and after the intervention: gastric emptying time, small bowel transit time, colonic transit time, and antroduodenojejunal manometry. No significant differences in gastric emptying time, small bowel transit time, or colonic transit time was found when comparing the baseline and post-intervention measurements in the hypnotherapy group or in the control group. The same was true concerning the results of the antroduodenojejunal manometry. However, there was a numerical trend toward a higher number of migrating motor complexes at manometry and an accelerated gastric emptying time after hypnotherapy that did not reach statistical significance. In this study, we were not able to find evidence for long-standing effects on gastrointestinal motility as a mediator of the effects on IBS when treating the condition with gut-directed hypnotherapy. Further research to understand the mechanism of action is needed.

  18. Electrophysiological and mechanical activity of the upper gastrointestinal tract after duodenoplasty or segmental resection of benign gastric outlet stenosis. (United States)

    Peiper, C; Titkova, S M; Polivoda, M; Anurov, M; Arlt, G; Ottinger, A P; Schumpelick, V


    In an animal experimental study we examined the postoperative recovery of the motility of the upper gastrointestinal tract after operative treatment of a benign gastric outlet obstruction. At 45 Days after induction, a duodenal stenosis was resected in six dogs, and resolved by Finney's duodenoplasty in another six dogs. Fourteen days after segmental resection, the gastric emptying was faster [half evacuation time (T1/2) for semisolid food = 44.4 +/- 16.8 min] than following duodenoplasty [T1/2 = 56.8 +/- 25.3). Here motor migrating complexes (MMCs) started in the antrum and could be traced down to the jejunum. After segmental resection we recognized MMC only distal to the anastomosis. The duration of the whole MMC cycle (69.0 +/- 18.6 min) as well as of the single phases was significantly shorter in the resection group than after duodenoplasty (108.0 +/- 15.1 min). At 28 days after operation the differences in the electromyographic findings were smaller (82.0 +/- 15.1 min vs. 111.4 +/- 11.2 min), but still significant. Obviously humoral transmitters and the extrinsic neural system lead to good propagation of the MMC across the anastomosis, even before the intramural pathways are reestablished. Concerning the fast recovery of the motility of the upper gastrointestinal tract, duodenoplasty is superior to segmental duodenal resection.

  19. Motility of small nematodes in wet granular media

    CERN Document Server

    Juarez, G; Sznitman, J; Arratia, P E


    The motility behavior of the \\textit{Caenorhabditis elegans} is investigated in wet granular medium as a function of area density ($\\phi$) and dispersity. Surprisingly, the locomotion speed increases in granular media compared to free swimming. The surrounding structure of the medium leads to enhanced undulatory propulsion due to its ability to sustain a finite shear stress and convert lateral force into forward motion. For $\\phi > 0.55$, the nematode is observed to change its gate from swimming to crawling in polydisperse media \\textit{only}. This highlights the subtle difference in local structure between media.

  20. A Mach-Zender Holographic Microscope for Quantifying Bacterial Motility (United States)

    Niraula, B.; Nadeau, J. L.; Serabyn, E.; Wallace, J. K.; Liewer, K.; Kuhn, J.; Graff, E.; Lindensmith, C.


    New microscopic techniques have revolutionized cell biology over the past two decades. However, there are still biological processes whose details elude us, especially those involving motility: e.g. feeding behavior of microorganisms in the ocean, or migration of cancer cells to form metastases. Imaging prokaryotes, which range in size from several hundred nm to a few microns, is especially challenging. An emerging technique to address these issues is Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM). DHM is an imaging technique that uses the interference of light to record and reproduce three-dimensional magnified images of objects. This approach has several advantages over ordinary brightfield microscopy for fieldwork: a larger depth of field, hands-off operation, robustness regarding environmental conditions, and large sampling volumes with quantitative 3D records of motility behavior. Despite these promising features, real-time DHM was thought to be impractical for technological and computational reasons until recently, and there has so far been very limited application of DHM to biology. Most existing instruments are limited in performance by their particular (e.g. in-line, lens-less, phase-shifting) approach to holography. These limitations can be mitigated with an off-axis dual-path configuration. Here we describe the design and implementation of a design for a Mach-Zehnder-type holographic microscope with diffraction-limited lateral resolution, with intended applications in environmental microbiology. We have achieved sub-micron resolution and three-dimensional tracking of prokaryotic and eukaryotic test strains designed to represent different modes and speeds of microbial motility. Prokaryotes are Escherichia coli, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Bacillus subtilis. Each shows a characteristic motility pattern, as we illustrate in holographic videos in sample chambers 0.6 mm in depth. The ability to establish gradients of attractants with bacterial taxis towards the

  1. Cancer cell motility: lessons from migration in confined spaces (United States)

    Paul, Colin D.; Mistriotis, Panagiotis; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos


    Time-lapse, deep-tissue imaging made possible by advances in intravital microscopy has demonstrated the importance of tumour cell migration through confining tracks in vivo. These tracks may either be endogenous features of tissues or be created by tumour or tumour-associated cells. Importantly, migration mechanisms through confining microenvironments are not predicted by 2D migration assays. Engineered in vitro models have been used to delineate the mechanisms of cell motility through confining spaces encountered in vivo. Understanding cancer cell locomotion through physiologically relevant confining tracks could be useful in developing therapeutic strategies to combat metastasis. PMID:27909339

  2. Influence of electromagnetic SHF-waves on motility of tubifex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Smolyarenko


    Full Text Available We investigated influence of electromagnetic superhigh frequency (SHF waves (10 hHz on mechanical parameters of motility of bunch tubifex (1300 - 1500 units at a different load and sequence of its mechanical stimulation. Is shown, that after a пот-thermal waveirradiation (1 MVt/sm2 latency and forward front of mechanograms is increased on 5 - 10 %, amplitude and duration of the answers simultaneously decreases. The maximal mass, which can lift single unit tubifex is decreased. The capacity of single unit is reduced on the average about 80 %. The authors make conclusion about temporary negative influence SHF-waves on simple biological systems.

  3. Prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in Angelman syndrome. (United States)

    Glassman, Laura W; Grocott, Olivia R; Kunz, Portia A; Larson, Anna M; Zella, Garrett; Ganguli, Kriston; Thibert, Ronald L


    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability, expressive speech impairment, movement disorder, epilepsy, and a happy demeanor. Children with AS are frequently reported to be poor feeders during infancy and as having gastrointestinal issues such as constipation, reflux, and abnormal food related behaviors throughout their lifetime. To assess the prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in individuals with AS, we retrospectively analyzed medical records of 120 individuals seen at the Angelman Syndrome Clinic at Massachusetts General Hospital and 43 individuals seen at the University of North Carolina Comprehensive Angelman Clinic. The majority of patients' medical records indicated at least one symptom of gastrointestinal dysfunction, with constipation and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) the most common. Other gastrointestinal issues reported were cyclic vomiting episodes, difficulty swallowing, excessive swallowing, and eosinophilic esophagitis. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms such as GERD, swallowing difficulties, cyclic vomiting, and eosinophilic esophagitis were more common in those with deletions and uniparental disomy, likely related to the involvement of multiple genes and subsequent hypotonia. The frequency of constipation is consistent among all genetic subtypes while early feeding issues appear to mainly affect those with deletions. Caregivers and healthcare providers should be aware of the high prevalence of these issues, as proper treatment may improve not only gastrointestinal dysfunction but also sleep and behavioral issues. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Molecular Testing for Gastrointestinal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Seung Lee


    Full Text Available With recent advances in molecular diagnostic methods and targeted cancer therapies, several molecular tests have been recommended for gastric cancer (GC and colorectal cancer (CRC. Microsatellite instability analysis of gastrointestinal cancers is performed to screen for Lynch syndrome, predict favorable prognosis, and screen patients for immunotherapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor has been approved in metastatic CRCs with wildtype RAS (KRAS and NRAS exon 2–4. A BRAF mutation is required for predicting poor prognosis. Additionally, amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 and MET is also associated with resistance to EGFR inhibitor in metastatic CRC patients. The BRAF V600E mutation is found in sporadic microsatellite unstable CRCs, and thus is helpful for ruling out Lynch syndrome. In addition, the KRAS mutation is a prognostic biomarker and the PIK3CA mutation is a molecular biomarker predicting response to phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors and response to aspirin therapy in CRC patients. Additionally, HER2 testing should be performed in all recurrent or metastatic GCs. If the results of HER2 immunohistochemistry are equivocal, HER2 silver or fluorescence in situ hybridization testing are essential for confirmative determination of HER2 status. Epstein-Barr virus–positive GCs have distinct characteristics, including heavy lymphoid stroma, hypermethylation phenotype, and high expression of immune modulators. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies enable us to examine various genetic alterations using a single test. Pathologists play a crucial role in ensuring reliable molecular testing and they should also take an integral role between molecular laboratories and clinicians.

  5. Deep Learning in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. (United States)

    Patel, Vivek; Armstrong, David; Ganguli, Malika; Roopra, Sandeep; Kantipudi, Neha; Albashir, Siwar; Kamath, Markad V


    Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is used to inspect the lumen or interior of the GI tract for several purposes, including, (1) making a clinical diagnosis, in real time, based on the visual appearances; (2) taking targeted tissue samples for subsequent histopathological examination; and (3) in some cases, performing therapeutic interventions targeted at specific lesions. GI endoscopy is therefore predicated on the assumption that the operator-the endoscopist-is able to identify and characterize abnormalities or lesions accurately and reproducibly. However, as in other areas of clinical medicine, such as histopathology and radiology, many studies have documented marked interobserver and intraobserver variability in lesion recognition. Thus, there is a clear need and opportunity for techniques or methodologies that will enhance the quality of lesion recognition and diagnosis and improve the outcomes of GI endoscopy. Deep learning models provide a basis to make better clinical decisions in medical image analysis. Biomedical image segmentation, classification, and registration can be improved with deep learning. Recent evidence suggests that the application of deep learning methods to medical image analysis can contribute significantly to computer-aided diagnosis. Deep learning models are usually considered to be more flexible and provide reliable solutions for image analysis problems compared to conventional computer vision models. The use of fast computers offers the possibility of real-time support that is important for endoscopic diagnosis, which has to be made in real time. Advanced graphics processing units and cloud computing have also favored the use of machine learning, and more particularly, deep learning for patient care. This paper reviews the rapidly evolving literature on the feasibility of applying deep learning algorithms to endoscopic imaging.

  6. Molecular Testing for Gastrointestinal Cancer. (United States)

    Lee, Hye Seung; Kim, Woo Ho; Kwak, Yoonjin; Koh, Jiwon; Bae, Jeong Mo; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Chang, Mee Soo; Han, Hye Seung; Kim, Joon Mee; Kim, Hwal Woong; Chang, Hee Kyung; Choi, Young Hee; Park, Ji Y; Gu, Mi Jin; Lhee, Min Jin; Kim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Hee Sung; Cho, Mee-Yon


    With recent advances in molecular diagnostic methods and targeted cancer therapies, several molecular tests have been recommended for gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). Microsatellite instability analysis of gastrointestinal cancers is performed to screen for Lynch syndrome, predict favorable prognosis, and screen patients for immunotherapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor has been approved in metastatic CRCs with wildtype RAS (KRAS and NRAS exon 2-4). A BRAF mutation is required for predicting poor prognosis. Additionally, amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and MET is also associated with resistance to EGFR inhibitor in metastatic CRC patients. The BRAF V600E mutation is found in sporadic microsatellite unstable CRCs, and thus is helpful for ruling out Lynch syndrome. In addition, the KRAS mutation is a prognostic biomarker and the PIK3CA mutation is a molecular biomarker predicting response to phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors and response to aspirin therapy in CRC patients. Additionally, HER2 testing should be performed in all recurrent or metastatic GCs. If the results of HER2 immunohistochemistry are equivocal, HER2 silver or fluorescence in situ hybridization testing are essential for confirmative determination of HER2 status. Epstein-Barr virus-positive GCs have distinct characteristics, including heavy lymphoid stroma, hypermethylation phenotype, and high expression of immune modulators. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies enable us to examine various genetic alterations using a single test. Pathologists play a crucial role in ensuring reliable molecular testing and they should also take an integral role between molecular laboratories and clinicians.

  7. Mechanisms of electrical activation and conduction in the gastrointestinal system: lessons from cardiac electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eTse


    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI tract is an electrically excitable organ system containing multiple cell types, which coordinate electrical activity propagating through this tract. Disruption in its normal electrophysiology is observed in a number of GI motility disorders. However, this is not well characterized and the field of GI electrophysiology is much less developed compared to the cardiac field. The aim of this article is to use the established knowledge of cardiac electrophysiology to shed light on the mechanisms of electrical activation and propagation along the GI tract, and how abnormalities in these processes lead to motility disorders and suggest better treatment options based on this improved understanding. In the first part of the article, the ionic contributions to the generation of GI slow wave and the cardiac action potential (AP are reviewed. Propagation of these electrical signals can be described by the core conductor theory in both systems. However, specifically for the GI tract, the following unique properties are observed: changes in slow wave frequency along its length, periods of quiescence, synchronization in short distances and desynchronization over long distances. These are best described by a coupled oscillator theory. Other differences include the diminished role of gap junctions in mediating this conduction in the GI tract compared to the heart. The electrophysiology of conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease and gastroparesis, and functional problems such as irritable bowel syndrome are discussed in detail, with reference to ion channel abnormalities and potential therapeutic targets. A deeper understanding of the molecular basis and physiological mechanisms underlying GI motility disorders will enable the development of better diagnostic and therapeutic tools and the advancement of this field.

  8. Prokinetic effects of large-dose lubiprostone on gastrointestinal transit in dogs and its mechanisms. (United States)

    Song, Jun; Yin, Jieyun; Xu, Xiaohong; Chen, Jiande


    To systemically explore effects of large dose of lubiprostone on gastrointestinal (GI) transit and contractions and its safety in dogs. 12 healthy dogs were studied. 6 dogs were operated to receive duodenal cannula and colon cannula and the other 6 dogs received gastric cannula. Lubiprostone was orally administrated at a dose of 24 µg or 48 µg 1 hr prior to the experiments. Gastric emptying (GE) of solids and small bowel transit were evaluated by collecting the effluents from the duodenal cannula and from the colon cannula. Gastric accommodation was measured by barostat. Gastric and intestinal contractions were by manometry. Colon transit was by X-ray pictures. 1) Lubiprostone 48 µg not 24 µg accelerated GE. Atropine could block the effect; 2) Average motility index (MI) of gastric antrum in lubiprostone 48 µg session was significantly higher in both fasting state (P = 0.01) and fed state (P = 0.03). Gastric accommodation was not significantly different; 3) Lubiprostone 48 µg accelerated small bowel and colon transit. Atropine could block the effect on small bowel transit; 4) Lubiprostone 48 µg increased postprandial small bowel MI (P = 0.0008) and colon MI (P = 0.002). 5) No other adverse effects except for diarrhea were observed. Acute administration of lubiprostone at a dose of 48 µg accelerates GI motility and enhances GI contractions in the postprandial state. The findings suggest that lubiprostone may have an indirect prokinetic effects on the GI tract and vagal activity may be involved. Lubiprostone may be safely used.

  9. The endocannabinoid system in the physiology and pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract. (United States)

    Massa, Federico; Storr, Martin; Lutz, Beat


    Numerous investigations have recently demonstrated the important roles of the endocannabinoid system in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In the GI tract, cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors are present in neurons of the enteric nervous system and in sensory terminals of vagal and spinal neurons, while cannabinoid type 2 receptors are located in immune cells. Activation of CB1 receptors was shown to modulate several functions in the GI tract, including gastric secretion, gastric emptying and intestinal motility. Under pathophysiological conditions induced experimentally in rodents, the endocannabinoid system conveys protection to the GI tract (e.g. from inflammation and abnormally high gastric and enteric secretions). Such protective activities are largely in agreement with anecdotal reports from folk medicine on the use of Cannabis sativa extracts by subjects suffering from various GI disorders. Thus, the endocannabinoid system may serve as a potentially promising therapeutic target against different GI disorders, including frankly inflammatory bowel diseases (e.g. Crohn's disease), functional bowel diseases (e.g. irritable bowel syndrome) and secretion- and motility-related disorders. As stimulation of this modulatory system by CB1 receptor agonists can lead to unwanted psychotropic side effects, an alternative and promising avenue for therapeutic applications resides in the treatment with CB1 receptor agonists that are unable to cross the blood-brain barrier, or with compounds that inhibit the degradation of endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids) of CB1 receptors, hence prolonging the activity of the endocannabinoid system.

  10. Parathyroid Hormone Induces Bone Cell Motility and Loss of Mature Osteocyte Phenotype through L-Calcium Channel Dependent and Independent Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Prideaux

    Full Text Available Parathyroid Hormone (PTH can exert both anabolic and catabolic effects on the skeleton, potentially through expression of the PTH type1 receptor (PTH1R, which is highly expressed in osteocytes. To determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible, we examined the effects of PTH on osteoblast to osteocyte differentiation using primary osteocytes and the IDG-SW3 murine cell line, which differentiate from osteoblast to osteocyte-like cells in vitro and express GFP under control of the dentin matrix 1 (Dmp1 promoter. PTH treatment resulted in an increase in some osteoblast and early osteocyte markers and a decrease in mature osteocyte marker expression. The gene expression profile of PTH-treated Day 28 IDG-SW3 cells was similar to PTH treated primary osteocytes. PTH treatment induced striking changes in the morphology of the Dmp1-GFP positive cells in IDG-SW3 cultures and primary cells from Dmp1-GFP transgenic mice. The cells changed from a more dendritic to an elongated morphology and showed increased cell motility. E11/gp38 has been shown to be important for cell migration, however, deletion of the E11/gp38/podoplanin gene had no effect on PTH-induced motility. The effects of PTH on motility were reproduced using cAMP, but not with protein kinase A (PKA, exchange proteins activated by cAMP (Epac, protein kinase C (PKC or phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphonate 3-kinase (Pi3K agonists nor were they blocked by their antagonists. However, the effects of PTH were mediated through calcium signaling, specifically through L-type channels normally expressed in osteoblasts but decreased in osteocytes. PTH was shown to increase expression of this channel, but decrease the T-type channel that is normally more highly expressed in osteocytes. Inhibition of L-type calcium channel activity attenuated the effects of PTH on cell morphology and motility but did not prevent the downregulation of mature osteocyte marker expression. Taken together, these

  11. Effect of dopamine on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric antral motility in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, K; Hovendal, C P; Andersen, D


    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dopamine on gastric antral motility in conscious dogs with gastric fistula by using miniature strain-gauge transducers. Infusion of pentagastrin changed the contractile activity to a digestive state. Dopamine, an endogenous catecholam...... antral motility through dopaminergic receptors. beta-Adrenergic receptors, which are active in the impairment of gastric acid secretion, seem not to be involved in the motility response....

  12. Vitamin D is positively associated with sperm motility and increases intracellular calcium in human spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Bjerrum, Poul J; Jessen, Torben E


    motility and acrosome reaction. All men delivered samples for routine semen analysis and blood for measurements of follicle stimulating hormone, Inhibin B, 25-hydroxy-VD, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH). RESULTS In the association study, 44% were VD insufficient (75 n...... concentration, sperm motility and induced the acrosome reaction in mature spermatozoa, and VD serum levels were positively associated with sperm motility, suggesting a role for VD in human sperm function....

  13. Direct Inhibition of Microtubule-Based Kinesin Motility by Local Anesthetics


    Miyamoto, Yoshikazu; Muto, Etsuko; Mashimo, Takashi; Iwane, Atsuko H.; Yoshiya, Ikuto; Yanagida, Toshio


    Local anesthetics are known to inhibit neuronal fast anterograde axoplasmic transport (FAAT) in a reversible and dose-dependent manner, but the precise mechanism has not been determined. FAAT is powered by kinesin superfamily proteins, which transport membranous organelles, vesicles, or protein complexes along microtubules. We investigated the direct effect of local anesthetics on kinesin, using both in vitro motility and single-molecule motility assays. In the modified in vitro motility assa...

  14. Leukocyte Motility Models Assessed through Simulation and Multi-objective Optimization-Based Model Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark N Read


    Full Text Available The advent of two-photon microscopy now reveals unprecedented, detailed spatio-temporal data on cellular motility and interactions in vivo. Understanding cellular motility patterns is key to gaining insight into the development and possible manipulation of the immune response. Computational simulation has become an established technique for understanding immune processes and evaluating hypotheses in the context of experimental data, and there is clear scope to integrate microscopy-informed motility dynamics. However, determining which motility model best reflects in vivo motility is non-trivial: 3D motility is an intricate process requiring several metrics to characterize. This complicates model selection and parameterization, which must be performed against several metrics simultaneously. Here we evaluate Brownian motion, Lévy walk and several correlated random walks (CRWs against the motility dynamics of neutrophils and lymph node T cells under inflammatory conditions by simultaneously considering cellular translational and turn speeds, and meandering indices. Heterogeneous cells exhibiting a continuum of inherent translational speeds and directionalities comprise both datasets, a feature significantly improving capture of in vivo motility when simulated as a CRW. Furthermore, translational and turn speeds are inversely correlated, and the corresponding CRW simulation again improves capture of our in vivo data, albeit to a lesser extent. In contrast, Brownian motion poorly reflects our data. Lévy walk is competitive in capturing some aspects of neutrophil motility, but T cell directional persistence only, therein highlighting the importance of evaluating models against several motility metrics simultaneously. This we achieve through novel application of multi-objective optimization, wherein each model is independently implemented and then parameterized to identify optimal trade-offs in performance against each metric. The resultant Pareto

  15. Sperm preparation after freezing improves motile sperm count, motility, and viability in frozen-thawed sperm compared with sperm preparation before freezing-thawing process. (United States)

    Palomar Rios, A; Gascón, A; Martínez, J V; Balasch, S; Molina Botella, I


    The aim of this study is to evaluate which cryopreservation protocol, freezing before or after swim-up, optimizes cryopreservation outcomes in terms of motile sperm count, motility, morphology, and viability, and also to establish whether sperm viability could be assessed based on sperm motility. Fifty-three fresh and 53 swim-up prepared samples were considered for the first experiment. In parallel, total motility evaluation by CASA system (computer-assisted sperm analyzer) and hypoosmotic swelling test (HOS-test) was performed in each sample to compare the viability results of both methods. In the second experiment, 21 normozoospermic semen samples and 20 semen samples from male factor patients were included. After fresh ejaculate evaluation, the semen sample of each patient was divided into two aliquots, one of them was frozen before swim-up and the other was frozen after swim-up. Motility, sperm count, morphology, and viability were evaluated after thawing. A linear regression model allows prediction of HOS-test viability results based on total motility: HOS = 1.38 + 0.97 · TM (R (2) = 99.10, residual mean squares = 9.51). Freezing before sperm selection leads to higher total and progressive motility, total motile sperm count, and viability rates than when sperm selection is performed before freezing (P < 0.005 in all cases). In fact, sperm selection prior to freezing reaches critical values when subfertile patients are considered. To conclude, total motility evaluation can predict HOS-test viability results, resulting in a more objective and less time-consuming method to assess viability. In addition, sperm freezing prior to swim-up selection must be considered in order to achieve better outcomes after thawing, especially in patients presenting poor sperm baseline.

  16. We do, therefore we think: time, motility, and consciousness. (United States)

    Goodrich, Barbara Gwenn


    This article is a philosopher's expanded review of two recent books on neurophysiology: Rodolfo Llinás's I of the Vortex and György Buszáki's Rhythms of the Brain. Researchers such as these are converging on a view of consciousness as originating in motility and as inherently temporal due to the brainwave oscillations that underlay it. Most current discussions of consciousness include implicit philosophical presuppositions inherited from the canon of Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, and Kant, e.g. that consciousness is self-reflective, passive, and timeless. Because of this, Llinás's and Buszáki's insights may not be fully appreciated. Western philosophy, however, also includes what might be described as a counter-tradition--and one that is more compatible with empirical biological science than the usual canon. Heraclitus, Spinoza, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and especially the 20th century French philosopher and psychologist, Merleau-Ponty, all anticipated aspects of Llinás's and Buszáki's approaches. Their alternative conceptual vocabularies are useful for strengthening Llinás's and Buszáki's approaches, sketching out a notion of consciousness emerging from motility, and generating new hypotheses for neurophysiological research.

  17. The influence of electric field and confinement on cell motility. (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ja; Samorajski, Justin; Kreimer, Rachel; Searson, Peter C


    The ability of cells to sense and respond to endogenous electric fields is important in processes such as wound healing, development, and nerve regeneration. In cell culture, many epithelial and endothelial cell types respond to an electric field of magnitude similar to endogenous electric fields by moving preferentially either parallel or antiparallel to the field vector, a process known as galvanotaxis. Here we report on the influence of dc electric field and confinement on the motility of fibroblast cells using a chip-based platform. From analysis of cell paths we show that the influence of electric field on motility is much more complex than simply imposing a directional bias towards the cathode or anode. The cell velocity, directedness, as well as the parallel and perpendicular components of the segments along the cell path are dependent on the magnitude of the electric field. Forces in the directions perpendicular and parallel to the electric field are in competition with one another in a voltage-dependent manner, which ultimately govern the trajectories of the cells in the presence of an electric field. To further investigate the effects of cell reorientation in the presence of a field, cells are confined within microchannels to physically prohibit the alignment seen in 2D environment. Interestingly, we found that confinement results in an increase in cell velocity both in the absence and presence of an electric field compared to migration in 2D.

  18. Immobilization of motile bacterial cells via dip-pen nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyamjav, Dorjderem; Holz, Richard C [Department of Chemistry, Loyola University-Chicago, 1068 N. Sheridan Road, Chicago, IL 60626 (United States); Rozhok, Sergey, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Nanotechnology, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan, Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States)


    A strategy to bind bacterial cells to surfaces in a directed fashion via dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) is presented. Cellular attachment to pre-designed DPN generated microarrays was found to be dependent on the shape and size of the surface feature. While this observation is likely due in part to a dense, well formed mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHA) monolayer generated via DPN, it may also simply be due to the physical shape of the surface structure. Motile Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial cells were observed to bind to DPN generated mercaptohexadecanoic acid/poly-L-lysine (MHA/PLL) line patterns, 'blocks' made up of eight lines with 100 nm spacings, with {approx} 80% occupancy. Cellular binding to these 'block' surface structures occurs via an electrostatic interaction between negatively charged groups on the bacterial cell surface and positively charged poly-L-lysine (PLL) assemblies. These data indicate that these DPN generated 'block' surface structures provide a promising footprint for the attachment of motile bacterial cells that may find utility in cell based biosensors or single cell studies.

  19. Realizing the Physics of Motile Cilia Synchronization with Driven Colloids (United States)

    Bruot, Nicolas; Cicuta, Pietro


    Cilia and flagella in biological systems often show large scale cooperative behaviors such as the synchronization of their beats in "metachronal waves." These are beautiful examples of emergent dynamics in biology, and are essential for life, allowing diverse processes from the motility of eukaryotic microorganisms, to nutrient transport and clearance of pathogens from mammalian airways. How these collective states arise is not fully understood, but it is clear that individual cilia interact mechanically, and that a strong and long-ranged component of the coupling is mediated by the viscous fluid. We review here the work by ourselves and others aimed at understanding the behavior of hydrodynamically coupled systems, and particularly a set of results that have been obtained both experimentally and theoretically by studying actively driven colloidal systems. In these controlled scenarios, it is possible to selectively test aspects of living motile cilia, such as the geometrical arrangement, the effects of the driving profile and the distance to no-slip boundaries. We outline and give examples of how it is possible to link model systems to observations on living systems, which can be made on microorganisms, on cell cultures or on tissue sections. This area of research has clear clinical application in the long term, as severe pathologies are associated with compromised cilia function in humans.

  20. Membrane tension and cytoskeleton organization in cell motility. (United States)

    Sens, Pierre; Plastino, Julie


    Cell membrane shape changes are important for many aspects of normal biological function, such as tissue development, wound healing and cell division and motility. Various disease states are associated with deregulation of how cells move and change shape, including notably tumor initiation and cancer cell metastasis. Cell motility is powered, in large part, by the controlled assembly and disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton. Much of this dynamic happens in close proximity to the plasma membrane due to the fact that actin assembly factors are membrane-bound, and thus actin filaments are generally oriented such that their growth occurs against or near the membrane. For a long time, the membrane was viewed as a relatively passive scaffold for signaling. However, results from the last five years show that this is not the whole picture, and that the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton are intimately linked to the mechanics of the cell membrane. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning the role of plasma membrane mechanics in cell cytoskeleton dynamics and architecture, showing that the cell membrane is not just an envelope or a barrier for actin assembly, but is a master regulator controlling cytoskeleton dynamics and cell polarity.

  1. Trajectories of Listeria-type motility in two dimensions (United States)

    Wen, Fu-Lai; Leung, Kwan-tai; Chen, Hsuan-Yi


    Force generated by actin polymerization is essential in cell motility and the locomotion of organelles or bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments on actin-based motility have observed geometrical trajectories including straight lines, circles, S-shaped curves, and translating figure eights. This paper reports a phenomenological model of an actin-propelled disk in two dimensions that generates geometrical trajectories. Our model shows that when the evolutions of actin density and force per filament on the disk are strongly coupled to the disk self-rotation, it is possible for a straight trajectory to lose its stability. When the instability is due to a pitchfork bifurcation, the resulting trajectory is a circle; a straight trajectory can also lose stability through a Hopf bifurcation, and the resulting trajectory is an S-shaped curve. We also show that a half-coated disk, which mimics the distribution of functionalized proteins in Listeria, also undergoes similar symmetry-breaking bifurcations when the straight trajectory loses stability. For both a fully coated disk and a half-coated disk, when the trajectory is an S-shaped curve, the angular frequency of the disk self-rotation is different from that of the disk trajectory. However, for circular trajectories, these angular frequencies are different for a fully coated disk but the same for a half-coated disk.

  2. Modelling cell motility and chemotaxis with evolving surface finite elements. (United States)

    Elliott, Charles M; Stinner, Björn; Venkataraman, Chandrasekhar


    We present a mathematical and a computational framework for the modelling of cell motility. The cell membrane is represented by an evolving surface, with the movement of the cell determined by the interaction of various forces that act normal to the surface. We consider external forces such as those that may arise owing to inhomogeneities in the medium and a pressure that constrains the enclosed volume, as well as internal forces that arise from the reaction of the cells' surface to stretching and bending. We also consider a protrusive force associated with a reaction-diffusion system (RDS) posed on the cell membrane, with cell polarization modelled by this surface RDS. The computational method is based on an evolving surface finite-element method. The general method can account for the large deformations that arise in cell motility and allows the simulation of cell migration in three dimensions. We illustrate applications of the proposed modelling framework and numerical method by reporting on numerical simulations of a model for eukaryotic chemotaxis and a model for the persistent movement of keratocytes in two and three space dimensions. Movies of the simulated cells can be obtained from∼maskae/CV_Warwick/Chemotaxis.html.

  3. Lichen Secondary Metabolite, Physciosporin, Inhibits Lung Cancer Cell Motility (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Park, So-Yeon; Nguyen, Thanh Thi; Yu, Young Hyun; Nguyen, Tru Van; Sun, Eun Gene; Udeni, Jayalal; Jeong, Min-Hye; Pereira, Iris; Moon, Cheol; Ha, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Kyung Keun; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Hangun


    Lichens produce various unique chemicals that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. To screen for novel lichen secondary metabolites showing inhibitory activity against lung cancer cell motility, we tested acetone extracts of 13 lichen samples collected in Chile. Physciosporin, isolated from Pseudocyphellaria coriacea (Hook f. & Taylor) D.J. Galloway & P. James, was identified as an effective compound and showed significant inhibitory activity in migration and invasion assays against human lung cancer cells. Physciosporin treatment reduced both protein and mRNA levels of N-cadherin with concomitant decreases in the levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers such as snail and twist. Physciosporin also suppressed KITENIN (KAI1 C-terminal interacting tetraspanin)-mediated AP-1 activity in both the absence and presence of epidermal growth factor stimulation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of the metastasis suppressor gene, KAI1, was increased while that of the metastasis enhancer gene, KITENIN, was dramatically decreased by physciosporin. Particularly, the activity of 3’-untranslated region of KITENIN was decreased by physciosporin. Moreover, Cdc42 and Rac1 activities were decreased by physciosporin. These results demonstrated that the lichen secondary metabolite, physciosporin, inhibits lung cancer cell motility through novel mechanisms of action. PMID:26371759

  4. Acidosis Promotes Metastasis Formation by Enhancing Tumor Cell Motility. (United States)

    Riemann, A; Schneider, B; Gündel, D; Stock, C; Gekle, M; Thews, O


    The tumor microenvironment is characterized by hypoxia, acidosis as well as other metabolic and biochemical alterations. Its role in cancer progression is increasingly appreciated especially on invasive capacity and the formation of metastasis. The effect of acidosis on metastasis formation of two rat carcinoma cell lines was studied in the animal model. In order to analyze the pH dependency of different steps of metastasis formation, invasiveness, cell adhesion and migration of AT-1 prostate cancer cells as well as possible underlying cell signaling pathways were studied in vitro. Acidosis significantly increased the formation of lung metastases of both tumor cell lines in vivo. In vitro, extracellular acidosis neither enhanced invasiveness nor affected cell adhesion to a plastic or to an endothelial layer. However, cellular motility was markedly elevated at pH 6.6 and this effect was sustained even when extracellular pH was switched back to pH 7.4. When analyzing the underlying mechanism, a prominent role of ROS in the induction of migration was observed. Signaling through the MAP kinases ERK1/2 and p38 as well as Src family kinases was not involved. Thus, cancer cells in an acidic microenvironment can acquire enhanced motility, which is sustained even if the tumor cells leave their acidic microenvironment e.g. by entering the blood stream. This increase depended on elevated ROS production and may contribute to the augmented formation of metastases of acidosis-primed tumor cells in vivo.

  5. Mechanosensitive Adhesion Explains Stepping Motility in Amoeboid Cells. (United States)

    Copos, Calina A; Walcott, Sam; Del Álamo, Juan C; Bastounis, Effie; Mogilner, Alex; Guy, Robert D


    Cells employing amoeboid motility exhibit repetitive cycles of rapid expansion and contraction and apply coordinated traction forces to their environment. Although aspects of this process are well studied, it is unclear how the cell controls the coordination of cell length changes with adhesion to the surface. Here, we develop a simple model to mechanistically explain the emergence of periodic changes in length and spatiotemporal dynamics of traction forces measured in chemotaxing unicellular amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum. In contrast to the biochemical mechanisms that have been implicated in the coordination of some cellular processes, we show that many features of amoeboid locomotion emerge from a simple mechanochemical model. The mechanism for interaction with the environment in Dictyostelium is unknown and thus, we explore different cell-environment interaction models to reveal that mechanosensitive adhesions are necessary to reproduce the spatiotemporal adhesion patterns. In this modeling framework, we find that the other motility modes, such as smooth gliding, arise naturally with variations in the physical properties of the surface. Thus, our work highlights the prominent role of biomechanics in determining the emergent features of amoeboid locomotion. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Deletion of murine choline dehydrogenase results in diminished sperm motility. (United States)

    Johnson, Amy R; Craciunescu, Corneliu N; Guo, Zhong; Teng, Ya-Wen; Thresher, Randy J; Blusztajn, Jan K; Zeisel, Steven H


    Choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) catalyzes the conversion of choline to betaine, an important methyl donor and organic osmolyte. We have previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human CHDH gene that, when present, seem to alter the activity of the CHDH enzyme. These SNPs occur frequently in humans. We created a Chdh(-/-) mouse to determine the functional effects of mutations that result in decreased CHDH activity. Chdh deletion did not affect fetal viability or alter growth or survival of these mice. Only one of eleven Chdh(-/-) males was able to reproduce. Loss of CHDH activity resulted in decreased testicular betaine and increased choline and PCho concentrations. Chdh(+/+) and Chdh(-/-) mice produced comparable amounts of sperm; the impaired fertility was due to diminished sperm motility in the Chdh(-/-) males. Transmission electron microscopy revealed abnormal mitochondrial morphology in Chdh(-/-) sperm. ATP content, total mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and inner mitochondrial membrane polarization were all significantly reduced in sperm from Chdh(-/-) animals. Mitochondrial changes were also detected in liver, kidney, heart, and testis tissues. We suggest that men who have SNPs in CHDH that decrease the activity of the CHDH enzyme could have decreased sperm motility and fertility.

  7. Multicellularity and the Functional Interdependence of Motility and Molecular Transport (United States)

    Solari, C.; Ganguly, S.; Kessler, J. O.; Michod, R.; Goldstein, R. E.


    Benefits, costs and requirements accompany the transition from motile totipotent unicellular organisms to multicellular organisms having cells specialized into reproductive (germ) and vegetative (sterile soma) functions such as motility. In flagellated colonial organisms such as the volvocalean green algae, organized beating by the somatic cells' flagella yields propulsion important in phototaxis and chemotaxis. It has not been generally appreciated that for the larger colonies, flagellar stirring of boundary layers and remote transport are fundamental for maintaining a sufficient rate of metabolite turnover, one not attainable by diffusive transport alone. We describe experiments that quantify the role of advective dynamics in enhancing productivity in germ-soma differentiated colonies. First, experiments with suspended deflagellated colonies of Volvox carteri show that forced advection improves productivity. Second, Particle Imaging Velocimetry of fluid motion around colonies reveals flow fields with very large characteristic velocities U extending to length scales comparable to the colony radius R. For a typical metabolite diffusion constant D, the Peclet number Pe=2UR/D 1, indicative of the dominance of advection over diffusion, with striking augmentation at the cell division stage.

  8. Motility-Driven Glass and Jamming Transitions in Biological Tissues (United States)

    Bi, Dapeng; Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina; Manning, M. Lisa


    Cell motion inside dense tissues governs many biological processes, including embryonic development and cancer metastasis, and recent experiments suggest that these tissues exhibit collective glassy behavior. To make quantitative predictions about glass transitions in tissues, we study a self-propelled Voronoi model that simultaneously captures polarized cell motility and multibody cell-cell interactions in a confluent tissue, where there are no gaps between cells. We demonstrate that the model exhibits a jamming transition from a solidlike state to a fluidlike state that is controlled by three parameters: the single-cell motile speed, the persistence time of single-cell tracks, and a target shape index that characterizes the competition between cell-cell adhesion and cortical tension. In contrast to traditional particulate glasses, we are able to identify an experimentally accessible structural order parameter that specifies the entire jamming surface as a function of model parameters. We demonstrate that a continuum soft glassy rheology model precisely captures this transition in the limit of small persistence times and explain how it fails in the limit of large persistence times. These results provide a framework for understanding the collective solid-to-liquid transitions that have been observed in embryonic development and cancer progression, which may be associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in these tissues.

  9. Lichen Secondary Metabolite, Physciosporin, Inhibits Lung Cancer Cell Motility. (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Park, So-Yeon; Nguyen, Thanh Thi; Yu, Young Hyun; Nguyen, Tru Van; Sun, Eun Gene; Udeni, Jayalal; Jeong, Min-Hye; Pereira, Iris; Moon, Cheol; Ha, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Kyung Keun; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Hangun


    Lichens produce various unique chemicals that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. To screen for novel lichen secondary metabolites showing inhibitory activity against lung cancer cell motility, we tested acetone extracts of 13 lichen samples collected in Chile. Physciosporin, isolated from Pseudocyphellaria coriacea (Hook f. & Taylor) D.J. Galloway & P. James, was identified as an effective compound and showed significant inhibitory activity in migration and invasion assays against human lung cancer cells. Physciosporin treatment reduced both protein and mRNA levels of N-cadherin with concomitant decreases in the levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers such as snail and twist. Physciosporin also suppressed KITENIN (KAI1 C-terminal interacting tetraspanin)-mediated AP-1 activity in both the absence and presence of epidermal growth factor stimulation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of the metastasis suppressor gene, KAI1, was increased while that of the metastasis enhancer gene, KITENIN, was dramatically decreased by physciosporin. Particularly, the activity of 3'-untranslated region of KITENIN was decreased by physciosporin. Moreover, Cdc42 and Rac1 activities were decreased by physciosporin. These results demonstrated that the lichen secondary metabolite, physciosporin, inhibits lung cancer cell motility through novel mechanisms of action.

  10. Leiomyomas in the gastric cardia: CT findings and differentiation from gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hyun Kyung [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, 82, Gumi-ro 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hoon, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, 82, Gumi-ro 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon Jin; Park, Ji Hoon; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Kyoung Ho [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, 82, Gumi-ro 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hye Seung [Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 82, Gumi-ro 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Gastric leiomyomas frequently involve the gastric cardia. • Gastric cardial leiomyomas and GISTs could be differentiated with CT. • Differentiation of cardial leiomyomas and GISTs can help choosing surgical procedure. - Abstract: Objective: To describe CT findings of leiomyomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) in the gastric cardia and to identify their differentiating features. Materials and methods: CT images of pathologically proven leiomyomas (n = 26) and GISTs (n = 19) in the gastric cardia were retrospectively reviewed for esophagogastric junction (EGJ) involvement, contour, surface, growth pattern, enhancement pattern and degree of the tumor, and the presences of intralesional low attenuation, calcification and surface dimples or ulcers. The long (LD) and short diameters (SD), LD/SD ratio, and attenuation value of each lesion were measured. Results: EGJ involvement, homogeneous enhancement, intermediate or low enhancement, absences of intralesional low attenuation and surface dimples or ulcers, LD/SD ratio >1.2, and attenuation value ≤71.2 HU were significant findings for differentiating leiomyomas from GISTs (P < 0.05 for each finding). An LD/SD ratio of >1.2 and attenuation value of ≤71.2 HU yielded sensitivities of 84.6% and 61.5%, and specificities of 52.6% and 84.2%, respectively, on the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. When at least five of these seven criteria were used in combination, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing leiomyomas were 100% (26 of 26) and 89.5% (17 of 19), respectively. When any six of these criteria were used, a specificity of 100% was achieved. Conclusions: CT features including EGJ involvement, enhancement pattern and degree, presences of intralesional low attenuation and surface dimples or ulcers, LD/SD ratio, and attenuation value could help differentiating leiomyomas from GISTs in the gastric cardia, particularly in the manner of combination.

  11. Relationship between Porcine Sperm Motility and Sperm Enzymatic Activity using Paper-based Devices (United States)

    Matsuura, Koji; Huang, Han-Wei; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Yu; Cheng, Chao-Min


    Mammalian sperm motility has traditionally been analyzed to determine fertility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) systems. To develop low-cost and robust male fertility diagnostics, we created a paper-based MTT assay and used it to estimate motile sperm concentration. When porcine sperm motility was inhibited using sperm enzyme inhibitors for sperm enzymes related to mitochondrial activity and glycolysis, we simultaneously recorded sperm motility and enzymatic reactivity using a portable motility analysis system (iSperm) and a paper-based MTT assay, respectively. When using our paper-based MTT-assay, we calculated the area mean value signal intensity (AMV) to evaluate enzymatic reactivity. Both sperm motility and AMV decreased following treatment with iodoacetamide (IODO) and 3-bromopyruvic acid (3BP), both of which are inhibitors of glycolytic enzymes including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). We found a correlation between recorded motility using iSperm and AMV from our paper-based assay (P < 0.05), suggesting that a sperm-related enzymatic reaction is involved in sperm motility. Under this protocol, MTT reduction was coupled with catalysis of GAPDH and was promoted by electron transfer from NADH. Based on this inhibitor study, sperm motility can be estimated using our paper-based MTT-assay.

  12. Lipid-rich enteral nutrition controls intestinal inflammation, improves intestinal motility and mucosal barrier damage in a rat model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury. (United States)

    Lin, Zhi-Liang; Tan, Shan-Jun; Cheng, Min-Hua; Zhao, Chen-Yan; Yu, Wen-Kui; He, Yu-Long; Li, Jieshou; Li, Ning


    It has been reported that lipid-rich enteral nutrition (EN) could ameliorate inflammation in various diseases. In this study, we investigated whether lipid-rich EN could control intestinal inflammation, improve intestinal motility and mucosal barrier injury after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Male adult rats received saline, conventional EN, or lipid-rich EN via gavage before and after intestinal I/R injury. The superior mesenteric artery was occluded for 60 min. The sham group underwent laparotomy without superior mesenteric artery occlusion and was administrated saline. Intestinal motility was measured 4 h after intestinal I/R injury by fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran transit assay; the intestinal and systemic inflammation were assessed by analyzing intestinal and serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL)- 6, and IL-10, separately. The intestinal mucosal barrier injury was assessed by analyzing the serum levels of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) and intestinal mucosal tight junction (TJ) proteins. The intestinal I/R injury decreased intestinal motility and intestinal mucosal TJs expression significantly when compared with the sham group (P < 0.05). The intestinal and systemic inflammatory parameters and the serum I-FABP were also significantly higher in the I/R groups than those in the sham group (P < 0.05). Both conventional and lipid-rich EN increased the intestinal motility and the intestinal mucosal TJs expression and decreased the intestinal and systemic inflammatory parameter and serum I-FABP levels to different degrees when compared with the I/R group (P < 0.05). However, lipid-rich EN significantly improved the negative alterations in these biochemical parameters when compared with the conventional EN (P < 0.05). These results suggest that lipid-rich EN might be able to control intestinal inflammation, improve intestinal motility and mucosal barrier injury after intestinal I/R injury

  13. Predictors of gastrointestinal lesions on endoscopy in iron deficiency anemia without gastrointestinal symptoms

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    Wasaya Rozina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA due to occult gastrointestinal (GI blood loss usually remains unnoticed until patient become symptomatic. There is sparse data in IDA patients without gastrointestinal symptoms. This study was designed to find out the frequency and predictors of endoscopic lesions in IDA without gastrointestinal symptoms. Cross-sectional study performed on a convenience sample of consecutive subjects. Methods Ninety five consecutive patients with laboratory based diagnosis of IDA having no gastrointestinal symptoms were interviewed and their clinical and biochemical variables were recorded. All the study patients underwent esophago-gastroduodenoscopy (EGD and colonoscopy. Endoscopic findings were documented as presence/absence of bleeding related lesion and presence/absence of cause of IDA. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to identify variables significantly related to outcome variables. Results Possible cause of anaemia was found in 71% and bleeding related lesions were found in 53% of patients. Upper gastrointestinal tract lesions were found in 41% of patients with bleeding related lesions. On multivariable logistic regression; advancing age, low mean corpuscular volume (MCV ≤ 60 fl, and positive fecal occult blood test were predictive factors for bleeding related GI lesions and cause of IDA Conclusion Clinical and Biochemical markers can predict gastrointestinal lesions on endoscopy in IDA patients without gastrointestinal symptoms. High proportion of upper gastrointestinal involvement warrants EGD as initial endoscopic procedure however, this needs validation by further studies.

  14. Patient health communication mediating effects between gastrointestinal symptoms and gastrointestinal worry in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (United States)

    To investigate the effects of patient health communication regarding their inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to their health care providers and significant others in their daily life as a mediator in the relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and gastrointestinal worry in pediatric patients. ...

  15. Helicobacter pylori and Gastrointestinal Malignancies. (United States)

    Venerito, Marino; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Rokkas, Theodoros; Malfertheiner, Peter


    Helicobacter pylori infection is the principal trigger of gastric carcinogenesis and gastric cancer (GC) and remains the third leading cause of cancer-related death in both sexes worldwide. In a big Japanese study, the risk of developing GC in patients with peptic ulcer disease who received H. pylori eradication therapy and annual endoscopic surveillance for a mean of 9.9 years was significantly lower after successful eradication therapy compared to the group with persistent infection (0.21%/year and 0.45%/year, respectively, p = .049). According to a recent meta-analysis, H. pylori eradication is insufficient in GC risk reduction in subjects with advanced precancerous conditions (i.e., intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia). A microsimulation model suggested screening smokers over the age of 50 in the U.S. for serum pepsinogens. This would allow to detect advanced gastric atrophy with endoscopic follow-up of subjects testing positive as a cost-effective strategy to reduce GC mortality. In a Taiwanese study, the anti-H. pylori IgG-based test-and-treat program had lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratios than that with (13)C-urea breath test in both sexes to prevent GC whereas expected years of life lost for GC were higher and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of test-and-treat programs were more cost-effective in young adults (30-69 years old) than in elders (>70 years old). With respect to gastrointestinal malignancies other than GC, a meta-analysis confirmed the inverse association between H. pylori infection and esophageal adenocarcinoma. In a Finnish study, H. pylori seropositivity was associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancers (multivariate adjusted OR 2.63; 95% CI: 1.08-6.37), another meta-analysis showed a slightly increased rate of pancreatic cancer in patients with CagA-negative strains (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.02-1.65), whereas current data suggest that the association between H. pylori and colorectal neoplasms may be population

  16. Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding Due to a Small Intestinal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor in a Young Adult

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    Mami Yamamoto


    Full Text Available The source of most cases of gastrointestinal bleeding is the upper gastrointestinal tract. Since bleeding from the small intestine is very rare and difficult to diagnose, time is required to identify the source. Among small intestine bleeds, vascular abnormalities account for 70–80%, followed by small intestine tumors that account for 5–10%. The reported peak age of the onset of small intestinal tumors is about 50 years. Furthermore, rare small bowel tumors account for only 1–2% of all gastrointestinal tumors. We describe a 29-year-old man who presented with obscure anemia due to gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent laparotomy. Surgical findings revealed a well-circumscribed lesion measuring 45 × 40 mm in the jejunum that initially appeared similar to diverticulosis with an abscess. However, the postoperative pathological diagnosis was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor with extramural growth.

  17. Monitoring and treatment of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. (United States)

    Lenjani, Basri; Zeka, Sadik; Krasniqi, Salih; Bunjaku, Ilaz; Jakupi, Arianit; Elshani, Besni; Xhafa, Agim


    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding-massive acute bleeding from gastrointestinal section is one of the most frequent forms of acute abdomen. The mortality degree in emergency surgery is about 10%. It's very difficult to identify the place of bleeding and etiology. The important purpose of this research is to present the cases of acute gastrointestinal bleeding from the patients which were monitored and treated at The University Clinical Center of Kosova-Emergency Center in Pristina. These inquests included 137 patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding who were treated in emergency center of The University Clinical Center in Pristina for the period from January 2005 until December 2006. From 137 patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding 41% or 29% was female and 96% or 70.1% male. Following the sex we gained a high significant difference of statistics (p < 0.01). The gastrointestinal bleeding was two times more frequent in male than in female. Also in the age-group we had a high significant difference of statistics (p < 0.01) 63.5% of patients were over 55 years old. The mean age of patients with an acute gastrointestinal bleeding was 58.4 years SD 15.8 age. The mean age for female patients was 56.4 age SD 18.5 age. The patients with arterial systolic pressure under 100 mmHg have been classified as patients with hypovolemic shock. They participate with 17.5% in all prevalence of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. From the number of prevalence 2 {1.5%} patients have been diagnosed with peptic ulcer, 1 {0.7%} as gastric perforation and 1 {0.7%} with intestine ischemia. Abdominal Surgery and Intensive Care 2 or 1.5% died, 1 at intensive care unit and 1 at nephrology. As we know the severe condition of the patients with gastrointestinal bleeding and etiology it is very difficult to establish, we need to improve for the better conditions in our emergency center for treatment and initiation base of clinic criteria.

  18. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms in autoimmune gastritis (United States)

    Carabotti, Marilia; Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Sacchi, Maria Carlotta; Severi, Carola; Annibale, Bruno


    Abstract Autoimmune gastritis is often suspected for its hematologic findings, and rarely the diagnosis is made for the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess in a large cohort of patients affected by autoimmune gastritis the occurrence and the pattern of gastrointestinal symptoms and to evaluate whether symptomatic patients are characterized by specific clinical features. Gastrointestinal symptoms of 379 consecutive autoimmune gastritis patients were systematically assessed and classified following Rome III Criteria. Association between symptoms and anemia pattern, positivity to gastric autoantibodies, Helicobacter pylori infection, and concomitant autoimmune disease were evaluated. In total, 70.2% of patients were female, median age 55 years (range 17–83). Pernicious anemia (53.6%), iron deficiency anemia (34.8%), gastric autoantibodies (68.8%), and autoimmune disorders (41.7%) were present. However, 56.7% of patients complained of gastrointestinal symptoms, 69.8% of them had exclusively upper symptoms, 15.8% only lower and 14.4% concomitant upper and lower symptoms. Dyspepsia, subtype postprandial distress syndrome was the most represented, being present in 60.2% of symptomatic patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age gastritis is associated in almost 60% of cases with gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular dyspepsia. Dyspepsia is strictly related to younger age, no smoking, and absence of anemia. PMID:28072728

  19. Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders: neonate/toddler. (United States)

    Hyman, Paul E; Milla, Peter J; Benninga, Marc A; Davidson, Geoff P; Fleisher, David F; Taminiau, Jan


    Recognizing the importance of childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders in understanding adult functional gastrointestinal disorders, and encouraging clinical and research interest, the Rome Coordinating Committee added a pediatric working team to Rome II in 1999. For Rome III, there was an increase from 1 to 2 pediatric working teams. This report summarizes the current consensus concerning functional disorders in infants and toddlers. Another report covers disorders diagnosed more often in school-aged children and adolescents. The symptoms from functional gastrointestinal disorders in children younger than 5 years depend on maturational factors in anatomy, gastrointestinal physiology, and intellectual and affective functioning. There has been little or no change for infant regurgitation, infant rumination syndrome, or infant dyschezia. Cyclic vomiting syndrome may be diagnosed after 2 rather than 3 episodes. The description of infant colic has been expanded, although there was consensus that infant colic does not reflect gastrointestinal malfunction. The greatest change was in functional constipation. Functional constipation and functional fecal retention in the 1999 report were merged into a single entity: functional constipation. Data-driven changes in diagnostic criteria for functional constipation appear to be less rigid and more inclusive than previous criteria.

  20. The gut microbiota and gastrointestinal surgery. (United States)

    Guyton, Kristina; Alverdy, John C


    Surgery involving the gastrointestinal tract continues to prove challenging because of the persistence of unpredictable complications such as anastomotic leakage and life-threatening infections. Removal of diseased intestinal segments results in substantial catabolic stress and might require complex reconstructive surgery to maintain the functional continuity of the intestinal tract. As gastrointestinal surgery necessarily involves a breach of an epithelial barrier colonized by microorganisms, preoperative intestinal antisepsis is used to reduce infection-related complications. The current approach to intestinal antisepsis varies widely across institutions and countries with little understanding of its mechanism of action, effect on the gut microbiota and overall efficacy. Many of the current approaches to intestinal antisepsis before gastrointestinal surgery run counter to emerging concepts of intestinal microbiota contributing to immune function and recovery from injury. Here, we review evidence outlining the role of gut microbiota in recovery from gastrointestinal surgery, particularly in the development of infections and anastomotic leak. To make surgery safer and further reduce complications, a molecular, genetic and functional understanding of the response of the gastrointestinal tract to alterations in its microbiota is needed. Methods can then be developed to preserve the health-promoting functions of the microbiota while at the same time suppressing their harmful effects.

  1. In silico reconstitution of actin-based symmetry breaking and motility.

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    Mark J Dayel


    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells assemble viscoelastic networks of crosslinked actin filaments to control their shape, mechanical properties, and motility. One important class of actin network is nucleated by the Arp2/3 complex and drives both membrane protrusion at the leading edge of motile cells and intracellular motility of pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. These networks can be reconstituted in vitro from purified components to drive the motility of spherical micron-sized beads. An Elastic Gel model has been successful in explaining how these networks break symmetry, but how they produce directed motile force has been less clear. We have combined numerical simulations with in vitro experiments to reconstitute the behavior of these motile actin networks in silico using an Accumulative Particle-Spring (APS model that builds on the Elastic Gel model, and demonstrates simple intuitive mechanisms for both symmetry breaking and sustained motility. The APS model explains observed transitions between smooth and pulsatile motion as well as subtle variations in network architecture caused by differences in geometry and conditions. Our findings also explain sideways symmetry breaking and motility of elongated beads, and show that elastic recoil, though important for symmetry breaking and pulsatile motion, is not necessary for smooth directional motility. The APS model demonstrates how a small number of viscoelastic network parameters and construction rules suffice to recapture the complex behavior of motile actin networks. The fact that the model not only mirrors our in vitro observations, but also makes novel predictions that we confirm by experiment, suggests that the model captures much of the essence of actin-based motility in this system.

  2. Different computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems highly influence sperm motility parameters. (United States)

    Boryshpolets, S; Kowalski, R K; Dietrich, G J; Dzyuba, B; Ciereszko, A


    In this study, we examined different computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems (CRISMAS, Hobson Sperm Tracker, and Image J CASA) on the exact same video recordings to evaluate the differences in sperm motility parameters related to the specific CASA used. To cover a wide range of sperm motility parameters, we chose 12-second video recordings at 25 and 50 Hz frame rates after sperm motility activation using three taxonomically distinct fish species (sterlet: Acipenser ruthenus L.; common carp: Cyprinus carpio L.; and rainbow trout: Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) that are characterized by essential differences in sperm behavior during motility. Systematically higher values of velocity and beat cross frequency (BCF) were observed in video recordings obtained at 50 Hz frame frequency compared with 25 Hz for all three systems. Motility parameters were affected by the CASA and species used for analyses. Image J and CRISMAS calculated higher curvilinear velocity (VCL) values for rainbow trout and common carp at 25 Hz frequency compared with the Hobson Sperm Tracker, whereas at 50 Hz, a significant difference was observed only for rainbow trout sperm recordings. No significant difference was observed between the CASA systems for sterlet sperm motility at 25 and 50 Hz. Additional analysis of 1-second segments taken at three time points (1, 6, and 12 seconds of the recording) revealed a dramatic decrease in common carp and rainbow trout sperm speed. The motility parameters of sterlet spermatozoa did not change significantly during the 12-second motility period and should be considered as a suitable model for longer motility analyses. Our results indicated that the CASA used can affect motility results even when the same motility recordings are used. These results could be critically altered by the recording quality, time of analysis, and frame rate of camera, and could result in erroneous conclusions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of Novel Factors Involved in Swimming and Swarming Motility in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.

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    Julia Andrea Deditius

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica utilizes flagellar motility to swim through liquid environments and on surfaces. The biosynthesis of the flagellum is regulated on various levels, including transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. Here, we investigated the motility phenotype of 24 selected single gene deletions that were previously described to display swimming and swarming motility effects. Mutations in flgE, fliH, ydiV, rfaG, yjcC, STM1267 and STM3363 showed an altered motility phenotype. Deletions of flgE and fliH displayed a non-motile phenotype in both swimming and swarming motility assays as expected. The deletions of STM1267, STM3363, ydiV, rfaG and yjcC were further analyzed in detail for flagellar and fimbrial gene expression and filament formation. A ΔydiV mutant showed increased swimming motility, but a decrease in swarming motility, which coincided with derepression of curli fimbriae. A deletion of yjcC, encoding for an EAL domain-containing protein, increased swimming motility independent on flagellar gene expression. A ΔSTM1267 mutant displayed a hypermotile phenotype on swarm agar plates and was found to have increased numbers of flagella. In contrast, a knockout of STM3363 did also display an increase in swarming motility, but did not alter flagella numbers. Finally, a deletion of the LPS biosynthesis-related protein RfaG reduced swimming and swarming motility, associated with a decrease in transcription from flagellar class II and class III promoters and a lack of flagellar filaments.

  4. Radiological study of gastrointestinal motor activity after acute cisplatin in the rat. Temporal relationship with pica. (United States)

    Cabezos, Pablo Antonio; Vera, Gema; Castillo, Mónica; Fernández-Pujol, Ramón; Martín, María Isabel; Abalo, Raquel


    Nausea and vomiting are amongst the most severe dose-limiting side effects of chemotherapy. Emetogenic activity in rats can only be evaluated by indirect markers, such as pica (kaolin intake), or delay in gastric emptying. The aim of this work was to study, by radiological methods, the alterations in gastrointestinal motility induced by acute cisplatin in the rat, and to compare them with the development of pica. Rats received cisplatin (0-6 mg kg(-1)) at day 0. In the pica study, individual food ingestion and kaolin intake were measured each day (from day -3 to day 3). In the radiological study, conscious rats received an intragastric dose of medium contrast 0, 24 or 48 h after cisplatin injection, and serial X-rays were taken 0-24 h after contrast. Cisplatin dose-dependently induced both gastric stasis and stomach distension, showing a strict temporal relationship with the induction of both acute and delayed pica. Radiological methods, which are non-invasive and preserve animals' welfare, are useful to study the effect of emetogenic drugs in the different gastrointestinal regions and might speed up the search for new anti-emetics.


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    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin


    Wave-induced variations of pore pressure in a partially-saturated reservoir result in oscillatory liquid flow. The viscous losses during this flow are responsible for wave attenuation. The same viscous effects determine the changes in the dynamic bulk modulus of the system versus frequency. These changes are necessarily linked to attenuation via the causality condition. We analytically quantify the frequency dependence of the bulk modulus of a partially saturated rock by assuming that saturation is patchy and then link these changes to the inverse quality factor. As a result, the P-wave attenuation is quantitatively linked to saturation and thus can serve as a saturation indicator.

  6. Disruption of TgPHIL1 alters specific parameters of Toxoplasma gondii motility measured in a quantitative, three-dimensional live motility assay.

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    Jacqueline M Leung

    Full Text Available T. gondii uses substrate-dependent gliding motility to invade cells of its hosts, egress from these cells at the end of its lytic cycle and disseminate through the host organism during infection. The ability of the parasite to move is therefore critical for its virulence. T. gondii engages in three distinct types of gliding motility on coated two-dimensional surfaces: twirling, circular gliding and helical gliding. We show here that motility in a three-dimensional Matrigel-based environment is strikingly different, in that all parasites move in irregular corkscrew-like trajectories. Methods developed for quantitative analysis of motility parameters along the smoothed trajectories demonstrate a complex but periodic pattern of motility with mean and maximum velocities of 0.58 ± 0.07 µm/s and 2.01 ± 0.17 µm/s, respectively. To test how a change in the parasite's crescent shape might affect trajectory parameters, we compared the motility of Δphil1 parasites, which are shorter and wider than wild type, to the corresponding parental and complemented lines. Although comparable percentages of parasites were moving for all three lines, the Δphil1 mutant exhibited significantly decreased trajectory lengths and mean and maximum velocities compared to the parental parasite line. These effects were either partially or fully restored upon complementation of the Δphil1 mutant. These results show that alterations in morphology may have a significant impact on T. gondii motility in an extracellular matrix-like environment, provide a possible explanation for the decreased fitness of Δphil1 parasites in vivo, and demonstrate the utility of the quantitative three-dimensional assay for studying parasite motility.

  7. Tissue Staining (Chromoscopy of the Gastrointestinal Tract

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    M Brian Fennerty


    Full Text Available Tissue staining, or chomoscopy, is used as an adjunctive technique during gastrointestinal endoscopy. Chemical agents are applied to the gastrointestinal mucosal surface to identify specific epithelia or to enhance the mucosal surface characteristics of the gastrointestinal epithelium. This aids in the recognition of subtle lesions (ie, polyps or allows directed targeting of biopsies (ie, sprue or Barrett’s esophagus to increase the yield of endoscopic diagnostic accuracy. The four endoscopic tissue-staining techniques in use are vital staining, contrast staining (chromoscopy, reactive staining and tattooing. Some of the agents used for endoscopic tissue staining and the uses of chromoscopy in identifying pathology of the esophagus, stomach, small bowel and colon during endoscopy are discussed.

  8. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Analysis of 40 cases

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    Belén García


    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors represent less than 3% of all digestive tumors. They are primarily located in the stomach and the small intestine. The curative treatment is surgical resection. In the case of unresectable tumor or advanced disease, imatinib is the treatment of choice. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the characteristics of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors treated at our institution in the period 2000-2015. We analyzed 40 consecutive patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (mean age 58-year old, range 33-84. The mean 5-year survival was 30.5%. At diagnosis, 30 patients had localized disease (75%; 14 of them received adjuvant imatinib and 15 follow-up on observation. In this group the disease-free interval was 55 months. In patients with advanced disease, the progression-free interval was 30 months

  9. Primary (AL) amyloidosis with gastrointestinal involvement

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    Madsen, Lone Galmstrup; Gimsing, Peter; Schiødt, Frank V


    , patients with AL amyloidosis admitted for evaluation of malabsorption in a Department of Gastroenterology between January 2000 and December 2006 were identified. RESULTS: A total of 11 patients (4 F, age 60 years, median (range) 50-69) were included in the study. Gastrointestinal amyloidosis......OBJECTIVE: Immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is a rare disease that can affect several organs. The aim of this study was to characterize patients with gastrointestinal manifestations of AL amyloidosis, in terms of symptoms, biochemistry, and outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospectively...... was histologically verified in all patients. All patients had gastrointestinal symptoms, 8 of them prior to establishment of diagnosis. Median (range) delay from initial symptoms to diagnosis was 7 (0-24) months. The most prominent symptom was weight loss (n=10) averaging 7 (0-25) kg, followed by diarrhea (n=5...

  10. Effects of ginseng on Pseudomonas aeruginosa motility and biofilm formation

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    Wu, Hong; Lee, Baoleri; Yang, Liang


    Biofilm-associated chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis are virtually impossible to eradicate with antibiotics because biofilm-growing bacteria are highly tolerant to antibiotics and host defense mechanisms. Previously, we found that ginseng treatments...... protected animal models from developing chronic lung infection by P. aeruginosa. In the present study, the effects of ginseng on the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms were further investigated in vitro and in vivo. Ginseng aqueous extract at concentrations of 0.5-2.0% did not inhibit the growth of P....... aeruginosa, but significantly prevented P. aeruginosa from forming biofilm. Exposure to 0.5% ginseng aqueous extract for 24 h destroyed most 7-day-old mature biofilms formed by both mucoid and nonmucoid P. aeruginosa strains. Ginseng treatment enhanced swimming and twitching motility, but reduced swarming...

  11. The Motile Breast Cancer Phenotype Roles of Proteoglycans/Glycosaminoglycans

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    Dragana Nikitovic


    Full Text Available The consecutive stages of cancer growth and dissemination are obligatorily perpetrated through specific interactions of the tumor cells with their microenvironment. Importantly, cell-associated and tumor microenvironment glycosaminoglycans (GAGs/proteoglycan (PG content and distribution are markedly altered during tumor pathogenesis and progression. GAGs and PGs perform multiple functions in specific stages of the metastatic cascade due to their defined structure and ability to interact with both ligands and receptors regulating cancer pathogenesis. Thus, GAGs/PGs may modulate downstream signaling of key cellular mediators including insulin growth factor receptor (IGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, estrogen receptors (ERs, or Wnt members. In the present review we will focus on breast cancer motility in correlation with their GAG/PG content and critically discuss mechanisms involved. Furthermore, new approaches involving GAGs/PGs as potential prognostic/diagnostic markers or as therapeutic agents for cancer-related pathologies are being proposed.

  12. Motility of magnetotactic bacteria/MTB to Geomagnetic fields (United States)

    Hidajatullah-Maksoed, Fatahillah


    Bacteria with motility directed by a local geomagnetic fields have been observed in marine sediments'' discussed by R. Blakemore, 1975. Magnetotactic bacteria/MTB discovered in 1963 by Salvatore Bellini. For ``off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope was used to correlates the physical & magnetic microstructure of magnetite nanocrystals in magnetotactic bacteria'' sought ``single-domain magnetite in hemopelagic sediments'' from JF Stolz. Otherwise, for potential source of bioproducts- product meant from result to multiplier -of magnetotactic bacteria[ACV Araujo,, 2014 ] of marine drugs retrieved the `measurement of cellular chemotaxis with ECIS/Taxis, from KM Pietrosimone, 2012, whereas after ``earth magnetic field role on small living models'' are other interpretation of ``taxis'' as a movement of a cell instead usual ``tax'' for yew's taxus cuspidate, hired car & taxes in financial realms. Acknowledgements to HE. Mr. H. TUK SETYOHADI, Jl. Sriwijaya Raya 3, South-Jakarta, INDONESIA.

  13. Monoamine oxidase in amphistomes and its role in worm motility. (United States)

    Abidi, S M; Nizami, W A


    The quantitative assay of mitochondrial monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity revealed a higher enzyme level in Explanatum explanatum than Gastrothylax crumenifer. The specific MAO inhibitors, chlorgyline, pargyline, deprenyl and nialamide produced different degrees of interspecific inhibition. The differential effects on enzyme activity of chlorgyline and deprenyl suggests the possible existence of polymorphic forms of the enzyme, MAO-A and MAO-B, in amphistomes. These specific inhibitors also had a differential influence on the in vitro motility of amphistomes, further indicating the involvement of different forms of MAO in the oxidative deamination of biogenic monoamines which might be partly responsible for neuromuscular coordination in amphistomes. The experimental procedures used in this study could be conveniently used for quick screening and evaluation of some of the qualitative effects of anthelmintic drugs under in vitro conditions.

  14. Management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Wee


    Full Text Available Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding is unique from variceal bleeding in terms of patient characteristics, management, rebleeding rates, and prognosis, and should be managed differently. The majority of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeds will not rebleed once treated successfully. The incidence is 80 to 90% of all upper gastrointestinal bleeds and the mortality is between 5 to 10%. The causes include nonacid-related ulceration from tumors, infections, inflammatory disease, Mallory-Weiss tears, erosions, esophagitis, dieulafoy lesions, angiodysplasias, gastric antral vascular ectasia, and portal hypertensive gastropathy. Rarer causes include hemobilia, hemosuccus pancreaticus, and aortoenteric fistulas. Hematemesis and melena are the key features of bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract, but fresh per rectal bleeding may be present in a rapidly bleeding lesion. Resuscitation and stabilization before endoscopy leads to improved outcomes. Fluid resuscitation is essential to avoid hypotension. Though widely practiced, there is currently insufficient evidence to show that routine red cell transfusion is beneficial. Coagulopathy requires correction, but the optimal international normalized ratio has not been determined yet. Risk stratification scores such as the Rockall and Glasgow-Blatchford scores are useful to predict rebleeding, mortality, and to determine the urgency of endoscopy. Evidence suggests that high-dose proton pump inhibitors (PPI should be given as an infusion before endoscopy. If patients are intolerant of PPIs, histamine-2 receptor antagonists can be given, although their acid suppression is inferior. Endoscopic therapy includes thermal methods such as coaptive coagulation, argon plasma coagulation, and hemostatic clips. Four quadrant epinephrine injections combined with either thermal therapy or clipping reduces mortality. In hypoxic patients, endoscopy masks allow high-flow oxygen during upper

  15. Preventive effect of Desferal on sperm motility and morphology. (United States)

    Nenkova, Galina; Stefanov, Rossen; Chervenkov, Mihail; Alexandrova, Albena


    Transition metal ions, mainly iron, are involved in the generation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, which are the most powerful inducers of oxidative damage to all biomolecules. The lipids in sperm membranes are highly susceptible to oxidation. Sperm lipid peroxidation (LPO) leads to decrease of motility and reduction of likelihood for sperm-oocyte fusion. The excess radical production may affect also the spermatozoa morphology. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Desferal on the LPO, motility, and morphology of boar sperm subjected to oxidative stress. After collection, the ejaculates were equally separated and diluted in a commercial semen extender (experiment 1) or in physiological saline (experiment 2). The ejaculates of the 2 experiments were divided into aliquots, which were incubated with one of the following agents: FeSO4 (0.1mM), H2 O2 (0.5mM), or FeSO4  + H2 O2 (Fenton system), in the presence or absence of Desferal. The application of Desferal in the incubation medium had a protective effect against FeSO4  + H2 O2 -induced sperm damage, namely, decrease of LPO; decrease the quantity of immotile spermatozoa and decrease the number of morphological abnormalities, regardless of the used medium. In experiment 2, the presence of FeSO4 in the incubation medium induced LPO in the same range as the combination FeSO4  + H2 O2 , in which the effect was reduced by Desferal. Thus, the supplement of Desferal to media used for sperm storage and processing could be a useful tool for diminishing oxidative injury and improving the quality of the semen. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Role of extracellular cations in cell motility, polarity, and chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soll D


    Full Text Available David R Soll1, Deborah Wessels1, Daniel F Lusche1, Spencer Kuhl1, Amanda Scherer1, Shawna Grimm1,21Monoclonal Antibody Research Institute, Developmental Studies, Hybridoma Bank, Department of Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City; 2Mercy Medical Center, Surgical Residency Program, Des Moines, Iowa, USAAbstract: The concentration of cations in the aqueous environment of free living organisms and cells within the human body influence motility, shape, and chemotaxis. The role of extracellular cations is usually perceived to be the source for intracellular cations in the process of homeostasis. The role of surface molecules that interact with extracellular cations is believed to be that of channels, transporters, and exchangers. However, the role of Ca2+ as a signal and chemoattractant and the discovery of the Ca2+ receptor have demonstrated that extracellular cations can function as signals at the cell surface, and the plasma membrane molecules they interact with can function as bona fide receptors that activate coupled signal transduction pathways, associated molecules in the plasma membrane, or the cytoskeleton. With this perspective in mind, we have reviewed the cationic composition of aqueous environments of free living cells and cells that move in multicellular organisms, most notably humans, the range of molecules interacting with cations at the cell surface, the concept of a cell surface cation receptor, and the roles extracellular cations and plasma membrane proteins that interact with them play in the regulation of motility, shape, and chemotaxis. Hopefully, the perspective of this review will increase awareness of the roles extracellular cations play and the possibility that many of the plasma membrane proteins that interact with them could also play roles as receptors.Keywords: extracellular cations, chemotaxis, transporters, calcium, receptors

  17. Effect of storage temperature on the motility of west African dwarf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Semen stored under refrigerator has significantly higher value (P<0.01, P<0.05) when compared to semen stored under room temperature. This implies that refrigerator temperature preserved ram sperms motility better than room temperature under the same storage diluent. Keywords: Effect, Storage temperature, Motility, ...

  18. The impact of quorum sensing and swarming motility on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation is nutritionally conditional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrout, J.D.; Chopp, D.L.; Just, C.L.


    nutritionally conditional control of biofilm development through regulation of swarming motility. Examination of pilA and fliM mutant strains further supported the role of swarming motility in biofilm formation. These data led to a model proposing that the prevailing nutritional conditions dictate...

  19. Effect of cooling on sperm motility before and after frozen-thawed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cooling on sperm motility before and after frozen-thawed stallion semen. Fifteen ejaculates of three stallions were collected with artificial vagina. The progressive motility was determined under microscope immediately after collection, cooling (5°C for 0, 2, 7 or 24 h) before ...

  20. The effect of oestradiol-17β on the motility, viability and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of oestradiol-17β on the motility, viability and the acrosomal status of bull sperm. ... Pooled semen from Holstein bulls were incubated in the presence of 2, 4, and 8 μg E2/mL for 24 h. Semen was also incubated in ... on viability. Keywords: Bovine males, estradiol, acrosome, motility, spermatozoa, in vitro incubation ...

  1. Motility in blastogregarines (Apicomplexa): Native and drug-induced organisation of Siedleckia nematoides cytoskeletal elements. (United States)

    Valigurová, Andrea; Vaškovicová, Naděžda; Diakin, Andrei; Paskerova, Gita G; Simdyanov, Timur G; Kováčiková, Magdaléna


    Recent studies on motility of Apicomplexa concur with the so-called glideosome concept applied for apicomplexan zoites, describing a unique mechanism of substrate-dependent gliding motility facilitated by a conserved form of actomyosin motor and subpellicular microtubules. In contrast, the gregarines and blastogregarines exhibit different modes and mechanisms of motility, correlating with diverse modifications of their cortex. This study focuses on the motility and cytoskeleton of the blastogregarine Siedleckia nematoides Caullery et Mesnil, 1898 parasitising the polychaete Scoloplos cf. armiger (Müller, 1776). The blastogregarine moves independently on a solid substrate without any signs of gliding motility; the motility in a liquid environment (in both the attached and detached forms) rather resembles a sequence of pendular, twisting, undulation, and sometimes spasmodic movements. Despite the presence of key glideosome components such as pellicle consisting of the plasma membrane and the inner membrane complex, actin, myosin, subpellicular microtubules, micronemes and glycocalyx layer, the motility mechanism of S. nematoides differs from the glideosome machinery. Nevertheless, experimental assays using cytoskeletal probes proved that the polymerised forms of actin and tubulin play an essential role in the S. nematoides movement. Similar to Selenidium archigregarines, the subpellicular microtubules organised in several layers seem to be the leading motor structures in blastogregarine motility. The majority of the detected actin was stabilised in a polymerised form and appeared to be located beneath the inner membrane complex. The experimental data suggest the subpellicular microtubules to be associated with filamentous structures (= cross-linking protein complexes), presumably of actin nature.

  2. Control of exoenzyme production, motility and cell differentiation in Serratia liquefaciens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givskov, Michael Christian; Eberl, Leo; Molin, Søren


    Serratia liquefaciens secretes a broad spectrum of hydrolytic enzymes to the surrounding medium and possesses the ability to differentiate into specialized swarmer cells capable of rapid surface motility. Control of exoenzyme production and swarming motility is governed by similar regulatory...... components, including a quorum-sensing mechanism and the flagellar master operon flhDC....

  3. Personalized Clinical Decision Making in Gastrointestinal Malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Søren; Bjerring, Ole Steen; Pfeiffer, Per


    and initial stages. This article outlines the potential use of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT in clinical decision making with special regard to preoperative evaluation and response assessment in gastric cancer (including the gastroesophageal junction), pancreatic cancer (excluding neuroendocrine tumors......Gastrointestinal malignancies comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases that include both common and rare diseases with very different presentations and prognoses. The mainstay of treatment is surgery in combination with preoperative and adjuvant chemotherapy depending on clinical presentation......), colorectal cancer, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors....

  4. The toxic effect of opioid analgesics on human sperm motility in vitro. (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Yan-Juan; Lu, Pei-Hua; Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Hai


    Opioid analgesics are the most common therapeutic analgesic for acute pain. In this study, the toxicological and pharmacological features of a group of opioid analgesics were characterized by the motility of human sperm. Aliquots of sperm were incubated with various concentrations of opioid analgesics in vitro. Computer-assisted sperm analysis was used to assess sperm motility at 15 minutes, 2 hours, and 4 hours after drug addition to the medium. Butorphanol and dezocine showed marked reduction of motility after incubation with sperm for 15 minutes. Butorphanol was more effective than dezocine in immobilizing sperm. Other opioids studied, such as fentanyl, alfentanil, and sufentanil, showed only partial inhibitory activity. Based on the data reported herein, we have found that butorphanol and dezocine exert a sperm-immobilizing effect. However, fentanyl, alfentanil, and sufentanil exhibit only partial inhibition of sperm motility. Given the increasing use of opioids and their potential effect on sperm motility, these findings are greatly relevant to male reproductive health.

  5. Regulation of Cell Polarity in Motility and Cell Division in Myxococcus xanthus. (United States)

    Schumacher, Dominik; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte


    Rod-shaped Myxococcus xanthus cells are polarized with proteins asymmetrically localizing to specific positions. This spatial organization is important for regulation of motility and cell division and changes over time. Dedicated protein modules regulate motility independent of the cell cycle, and cell division dependent on the cell cycle. For motility, a leading-lagging cell polarity is established that is inverted during cellular reversals. Establishment and inversion of this polarity are regulated hierarchically by interfacing protein modules that sort polarized motility proteins to the correct cell poles or cause their relocation between cell poles during reversals akin to a spatial toggle switch. For division, a novel self-organizing protein module that incorporates a ParA ATPase positions the FtsZ-ring at midcell. This review covers recent findings concerning the spatiotemporal regulation of motility and cell division in M. xanthus and illustrates how the study of diverse bacteria may uncover novel mechanisms involved in regulating bacterial cell polarity.

  6. Integrated Microfluidic Variable Optical Attenuator (United States)


    indices , the optical output power is gradually attenuated. We obtain a maximum attenuation of 28 dB when the fluid refractive index changes from 1.557 to...Electron. 23, pp. 1348-1354 (2005). 14. J. M. Ruano, V. Benoit, J. S. Aitchison , and J. M. Cooper, “Flame hydrolysis deposition of glass on silicon for...different refractive indices flowing in a microfluidic channel as the cladding for a segment of straight optical waveguide. Recently, the integration of

  7. Physiological roles of group X-secreted phospholipase A2 in reproduction, gastrointestinal phospholipid digestion, and neuronal function. (United States)

    Sato, Hiroyasu; Isogai, Yuki; Masuda, Seiko; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Miki, Yoshimi; Kamei, Daisuke; Hara, Shuntaro; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ishii, Toshiharu; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Ishimoto, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Noriko; Yokota, Yasunori; Hanasaki, Kohji; Suzuki-Yamamoto, Toshiko; Yamamoto, Kei; Murakami, Makoto


    Although the secreted phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) family has been generally thought to participate in pathologic events such as inflammation and atherosclerosis, relatively high and constitutive expression of group X sPLA(2) (sPLA(2)-X) in restricted sites such as reproductive organs, the gastrointestinal tract, and peripheral neurons raises a question as to the roles played by this enzyme in the physiology of reproduction, digestion, and the nervous system. Herein we used mice with gene disruption or transgenic overexpression of sPLA(2)-X to clarify the homeostatic functions of this enzyme at these locations. Our results suggest that sPLA(2)-X regulates 1) the fertility of spermatozoa, not oocytes, beyond the step of flagellar motility, 2) gastrointestinal phospholipid digestion, perturbation of which is eventually linked to delayed onset of a lean phenotype with reduced adiposity, decreased plasma leptin, and improved muscle insulin tolerance, and 3) neuritogenesis of dorsal root ganglia and the duration of peripheral pain nociception. Thus, besides its inflammatory action proposed previously, sPLA(2)-X participates in physiologic processes including male fertility, gastrointestinal phospholipid digestion linked to adiposity, and neuronal outgrowth and sensing.

  8. Lipid profiles of sperm and seminal plasma from boars having normal or low sperm motility. (United States)

    Am-in, N; Kirkwood, R N; Techakumphu, M; Tantasuparuk, W


    Sperm plasma membrane lipids have an important role to play in determining membrane fluidity and sperm motility. The objective of the present study was to determine whether there are differences in the lipid and fatty acid (FA) composition of boar sperm and seminal plasma in the ejaculates of boars having different sperm motilities. Semen was collected from two groups of boars having normal (> 60%; n = 53) or low (sperm and the semen was evaluated for motility, morphology and vitality. The semen was then centrifuged to separate the sperm from the seminal plasma and both were kept at -20 °C until analyzed for lipid content and FA profile by gas chromatography. Total antioxidant status (TAS) of seminal plasma was determined using a commercial kit. There were differences (P ≤ 0.05) in sperm total lipids, cholesterol, saturated fatty acids (SFA), phospholipids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA between boars with normal and low motility sperm. Total lipids, cholesterol, phospholipids, PUFA, DHA and n-3 PUFA were positively correlated with sperm motility, viability, normal morphology and normal plasma membrane. In contrast, SFA and the ratio of n-6: n-3 PUFA were negatively correlated (P ≤ 0.05) with sperm motility, viability, normal morphology and normal plasma membranes. The TAS of seminal plasma from boars having normal motility sperm was higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of boars having low motility sperm and TAS was positively correlated (P = 0.0001) with sperm motility, viability, normal morphology and normal plasma membranes. In summary, differences in sperm motility were related to n-3 PUFA content in the sperm plasma membrane and extracellular antioxidants in seminal plasma which protect sperm plasma membranes from lipid peroxidation during periods of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Lipid composition of the canine sperm plasma membrane as markers of sperm motility. (United States)

    Lucio, C F; Brito, M M; Angrimani, Dsr; Belaz, Kra; Morais, D; Zampieri, D; Losano, Jda; Assumpção, Meoa; Nichi, M; Eberlin, M N; Vannucchi, C I


    The fatty acid composition of the sperm membrane is an important factor involved in the overall sperm quality, including motility. However, in the canine species, the exact composition of the plasma membrane is still unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the plasma membrane lipid composition of motile sperm cells and to compare it with asthenospermic samples, as an attempt to determine possible involvements of membrane lipids in dog sperm cell motility. The sperm-rich fraction of ten mature dogs was collected, and samples were subjected to density gradient centrifugation by Percoll(®) , in order to separate motile and asthenospermic samples. Processed semen samples were evaluated for sperm motility, plasma and acrosome membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and susceptibility to oxidative stress. Lipid plasma membrane composition was identified by mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The motile sperm samples presented the following phospholipids in a high frequency in the plasma membrane: phosphatidylcholine 38:4 (composed of stearic and arachidonic fatty acids), phosphatidylcholine 36:1 (stearic and oleic fatty acids), phosphatidylethanolamine 34:4 (myristic and arachidonic fatty acids), glycerophosphatidic acid 36:4 (palmitic and arachidonic fatty acids), phosphatidylcholine 40:4 plasmanyl and phosphatidylcholine 40:5 plasmenyl. Furthermore, no lipid markers were found in the asthenospermic samples. Results also indicate that differences on plasma membrane composition between motile and asthenospermic samples are crucial factors for determining sperm motility, sperm functionality and susceptibility to oxidative stress. In conclusion, plasma membrane lipid composition varies considerable between motile and asthenospermic samples. Therefore, lipid markers of sperm motility can be considered, such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine plasmanyl, phosphatidylcholine plasmenyl and phosphatidic acid. © 2016

  10. Genetic determinants of swimming motility in the squid light-organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri. (United States)

    Brennan, Caitlin A; Mandel, Mark J; Gyllborg, Mattias C; Thomasgard, Krista A; Ruby, Edward G


    Bacterial flagellar motility is a complex cellular behavior required for the colonization of the light-emitting organ of the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, by the beneficial bioluminescent symbiont Vibrio fischeri. We characterized the basis of this behavior by performing (i) a forward genetic screen to identify mutants defective in soft-agar motility, as well as (ii) a transcriptional analysis to determine the genes that are expressed downstream of the flagellar master regulator FlrA. Mutants with severe defects in soft-agar motility were identified due to insertions in genes with putative roles in flagellar motility and in genes that were unexpected, including those predicted to encode hypothetical proteins and cell division-related proteins. Analysis of mutants for their ability to enter into a productive symbiosis indicated that flagellar motility mutants are deficient, while chemotaxis mutants are able to colonize a subset of juvenile squid to light-producing levels. Thirty-three genes required for normal motility in soft agar were also downregulated in the absence of FlrA, suggesting they belong to the flagellar regulon of V. fischeri. Mutagenesis of putative paralogs of the flagellar motility genes motA, motB, and fliL revealed that motA1, motB1, and both fliL1 and fliL2, but not motA2 and motB2, likely contribute to soft-agar motility. Using these complementary approaches, we have characterized the genetic basis of flagellar motility in V. fischeri and furthered our understanding of the roles of flagellar motility and chemotaxis in colonization of the juvenile squid, including identifying 11 novel mutants unable to enter into a productive light-organ symbiosis. © 2013 The Authors. Microbiology Open published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Identification of novel factors involved in modulating motility of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia M Bogomolnaya

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium can move through liquid using swimming motility, and across a surface by swarming motility. We generated a library of targeted deletion mutants in Salmonella Typhimurium strain ATCC14028, primarily in genes specific to Salmonella, that we have previously described. In the work presented here, we screened each individual mutant from this library for the ability to move away from the site of inoculation on swimming and swarming motility agar. Mutants in genes previously described as important for motility, such as flgF, motA, cheY are do not move away from the site of inoculation on plates in our screens, validating our approach. Mutants in 130 genes, not previously known to be involved in motility, had altered movement of at least one type, 9 mutants were severely impaired for both types of motility, while 33 mutants appeared defective on swimming motility plates but not swarming motility plates, and 49 mutants had reduced ability to move on swarming agar but not swimming agar. Finally, 39 mutants were determined to be hypermotile in at least one of the types of motility tested. Both mutants that appeared non-motile and hypermotile on plates were assayed for expression levels of FliC and FljB on the bacterial surface and many of them had altered levels of these proteins. The phenotypes we report are the first phenotypes ever assigned to 74 of these open reading frames, as they are annotated as 'hypothetical genes' in the Typhimurium genome.

  12. Chemotactic Motility of Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 under Aerobic and Denitrification Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candela Muriel

    Full Text Available The sequence of the genome of Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 has shown the presence of multiple traits relevant for rhizosphere colonization and plant growth promotion. Among these traits are denitrification and chemotactic motility. Besides aerobic growth, F113 is able to grow anaerobically using nitrate and nitrite as final electron acceptors. F113 is able to perform swimming motility under aerobic conditions and under anaerobic conditions when nitrate is used as the electron acceptor. However, nitrite can not support swimming motility. Regulation of swimming motility is similar under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, since mutants that are hypermotile under aerobic conditions, such as gacS, sadB, kinB, algU and wspR, are also hypermotile under anaerobic conditions. However, chemotactic behavior is different under aerobic and denitrification conditions. Unlike most pseudomonads, the F113 genome encode three complete chemotaxis systems, Che1, Che2 and Che3. Mutations in each of the cheA genes of the three Che systems has shown that the three systems are functional and independent. Mutation of the cheA1 gene completely abolished swimming motility both under aerobic and denitrification conditions. Mutation of the cheA2 gene, showed only a decrease in swimming motility under both conditions, indicating that this system is not essential for chemotactic motility but is necessary for optimal motility. Mutation of the cheA3 gene abolished motility under denitrification conditions but only produced a decrease in motility under aerobic conditions. The three Che systems proved to be implicated in competitive rhizosphere colonization, being the cheA1 mutant the most affected.

  13. Live Imaging of Influenza Infection of the Trachea Reveals Dynamic Regulation of CD8+ T Cell Motility by Antigen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambert Emo, Kris; Hyun, Young-Min; Reilly, Emma; Barilla, Christopher; Gerber, Scott; Fowell, Deborah; Kim, Minsoo; Topham, David J


    ... an experimental model system using the trachea as a site where live imaging can be performed. CD8+ T cell motility was dynamic with marked changes in motility on different days of the infection...

  14. Effects of oxaliplatin on mouse myenteric neurons and colonic motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linah eWafai


    Full Text Available Oxaliplatin, an anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of colorectal cancer, commonly causes gastrointestinal side-effects such as constipation, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting. Damage to enteric neurons may underlie some of these gastrointestinal side-effects, as the enteric nervous system controls the functions of the bowel. In this study, neuronal loss and changes to the structure and immunoreactivity of myenteric neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS neurons were examined in colonic segments from mice following exposure to oxaliplatin ex vivo and following repeated intraperitoneal injections of oxaliplatin over 3 weeks in vivo, using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Significant morphological alterations and increases in the proportion of NOS-immunoreactive neurons were associated with both short-term oxaliplatin exposure and long-term oxaliplatin administration, confirming that oxaliplatin causes changes to the myenteric neurons. Long-term oxaliplatin administration induced substantial neuronal loss that was correlated with a reduction in both the frequency and propagation speed of colonic migrating motor complexes in vitro. Similar changes probably produce some symptoms experienced by patients undergoing oxaliplatin treatment.

  15. Review article: olestra and its gastrointestinal safety. (United States)

    Thomson, A B; Hunt, R H; Zorich, N L


    Olestra is a fat substitute made from sucrose and vegetable oil. Olestra is neither digested nor absorbed, and therefore adds no calories or fat to the diet. Because the gut is the only organ that is exposed to olestra, the potential for olestra to affect gastrointestinal structure and function, and the absorption of nutrients from the gut, has been investigated. Histological evaluations performed after long-term feeding studies have shown no indications that olestra causes injury to the gastrointestinal mucosa. Olestra is not metabolized by the colonic microflora, and has no meaningful effects on the metabolic function of these organisms. Studies of gastrointestinal transit have shown that the consumption of olestra with food does not affect gastric emptying, or small or large bowel transit times. Olestra does not affect the absorption of macronutrients, water-soluble vitamins or minerals. It causes a dose-responsive decrease in the availability of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K; however, this potentially adverse effect is offset by the addition of vitamins to olestra-containing foods. Olestra has no consistent effect on the amount of total bile acids excreted in the faeces, and therefore probably has no significant effect on bile acid absorption. The occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhoea, loose stools, gas and abdominal cramping, after consumption of olestra under ordinary snacking conditions is comparable to that following consumption of triglyceride-containing snacks.

  16. The Health Problems, Gastrointestinal and Blood Parasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The report on the disease conditions in donkeys in most West African countries is scanty in literature. This study was conducted to identify the health related problems including gastrointestinal and blood parasites of donkeys at the Bolgatanga livestock market in the Upper East region of Ghana from July to December, 2012.

  17. Gastrointestinal Basidiobolomycosis Mimicking Colon Cancer in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basidiobolomycosisis a rare disease caused by the fungus Basidiobolus ranarum. The incidence Rate of Gastrointestinal Basidiobolomycosis is approximately 1 in 45,333,334 or 0.00% in every 5 people in USA), member of the class Zygomycetes found worldwide (1).Basidiobolomycosis is usually a subcutaneous infection ...

  18. Endoscopic Management of Gastrointestinal Leaks and Fistulae. (United States)

    Willingham, Field F; Buscaglia, Jonathan M


    Gastrointestinal leaks and fistulae can be serious acute complications or chronic morbid conditions resulting from inflammatory, malignant, or postsurgical states. Endoscopic closure of gastrointestinal leaks and fistulae represents major progress in the treatment of patients with these complex presentations. The main goal of endoscopic therapy is the interruption of the flow of luminal contents across a gastrointestinal defect. In consideration of the proper endoscopic approach to luminal closure, several basic principles must be considered. Undrained cavities and fluid collections must often first be drained percutaneously, and the percutaneous drain provides an important measure of safety for subsequent endoscopic luminal manipulations. The size and exact location of the leak/fistula, as well as the viability of the surrounding tissue, must be defined. Almost all complex leaks and fistulae must be approached in a multidisciplinary manner, collaborating with colleagues in nutrition, radiology, and surgery. Currently, gastrointestinal leaks and fistulae may be managed endoscopically by using 1 or more of the following modalities: stent placement, clip closure (including through-the-scope clips and over-the-scope devices), endoscopic suturing, and the injection of tissue sealants. In this article, we discuss these modalities and review the published outcomes data regarding each approach as well as practical considerations for successful closure of luminal defects. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, C.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.


    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and

  20. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dyspepsia is a common presenting complaint of various upper gastrointestinal disorders. The symptoms of causes of dyspepsia often overlap and this makes etiological diagnosis difficult. Endoscopy is the ideal procedure for identifying organic diseases of the foregut. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with various ...

  1. Clinical applications of gastrointestinal endoscopy | Otegbayo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability to view the occult recesses of the human organism has moved the practice of Medicine in leaps and bounds leading to more accurate diagnoses and effective therapy. Gastrointestinal endoscopy in its current form has enabled the gastroenterologist or endoscopist to not just have access to view the inner ...

  2. [Psychic disorders and gastrointestinal pathology. Part 2]. (United States)

    Kolesnikov, D B; Rapoport, S I; Voznesenskaia, L A


    The problem of nosological forms of somatic diseases associated with psychic disorders is discussed as exemplified by gastrointestinal pathology (duodenal ulcer, ulcerative colitis, irritated bowl syndrome). Implication of such diseases provides a basis for regarding certain pathological conditions as specific clinical variants in which somatic and psychic constituents are integrated into a single morbid complex.

  3. [Gastrointestinal abnormalities in children with autism]. (United States)

    Wasilewska, Jolanta; Jarocka-Cyrta, Elzbieta; Kaczmarski, Maciej


    The autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by socially aloof behavior and impairment of language and social interaction. This paper is a review of literature on gastrointestinal problems in children with ASD. Gastrointestinal symptoms are described in 9-54% of autistic children, among which most common are: constipation, diarrhea and abdominal distension. The gastro-intestinal abnormalities reported in autism include: inflammation (esophagitis, gastritis, duodenitis, enterocolitis) with or without autoimmunity, lymphoid nodular hyperplasia, increased intestinal permeability, low activities of disaccharidase enzymes, impairment of detoxification (e.g. defective sulfation of ingested phenolic amines), dysbiosis with bacterial overgrowth, food intolerance or exorphin intoxication (by opioid derived from casein and gluten). A beneficial effect of dietary intervention on behavior and cognition of some autistic children indicates a functional relationship between the alimentary tract and the central nervous system. There are no epidemiologic data concerning the incidence or prevalence of gastrointestinal problems within the population of children with ASD in comparison to the population of non-ASD children.

  4. Point prevalence and pathology associated with gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, 21 helminth parasites were identified in the guinea fowls and 19 were identified in the local chickens. Trematodes were rarely encountered in the study and coccidian parasites were not differentiated. Overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was 98.8% in the guinea fowls and 91.4% in the local chickens.

  5. Mammalian gastrointestinal parasites in rainforest remnants of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We examined 349 faecal samples of 17 mammalian species and successfully identified 24 gastroin-testinal parasite taxa including 1 protozoan, 2 trematode, 3 cestode and 18 nematode taxa. Twenty of these parasites are known parasites of humans. We also found that as much as 73% of all infected samples were infected ...

  6. The intestinal microenvironment and functional gastrointestinal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbara, Giovanni; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Ghoshal, Uday C.; Santos, Javier; Vanner, Stepen J.; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Quigley, Eamonn M.


    For decades, interactions between the enteric neuromuscular apparatus and the central nervous system have served as the primary focus of pathophysiological research in the functional gastrointestinal disorders. The accumulation of patient reports, as well as clinical observations, has belatedly

  7. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Dyspepsia is a common presenting complaint of various upper gastrointestinal disorders. The symptoms of causes of dyspepsia often overlap and this makes etiological diagnosis difficult. Endoscopy is the ideal procedure for identifying organic diseases of the foregut. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with.

  8. Prevalence of potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Humans can get infected through direct or indirect contact with infective stages of zoonotic parasites shed to the environment through dog faeces. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the presence of gastrointestinal parasites present in dog faeces shed on the street of Ibadan metropolis, one of ...

  9. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour presenting as gastroduodenal intussusception.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilson, Mark H


    Gastroduodenal intussusception secondary to gastrointestinal stromal tumour is a very rare cause for intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis of this condition can be challenging, as symptoms are often non-specific and intermittent. This article reports a case where the diagnosis was made preoperatively with abdominal imaging and was treated by a combination of endoscopic reduction and laparoscopic resection.

  10. Pattern of gastrointestinal opportunistic infections among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-two per cent (22%) of these had mixed parasitosis of cryptosporidium and hookworm. There was no significant association of CD4 cells count with intestinal parasitosis. x2 = 5.286 and p=0.259. However marital status was significantly associated with gastrointestinal opportunistic parasitosis with x2 of 12.693, ...

  11. Unsedated Flexible Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: Need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unsedated Flexible Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: Need for Routine Oxygen Monitoring? HY Embu, MJ Misauno, ES Isamade, MG Yilkudi. Abstract. Background: To determine the incidence of oxygen desaturation and whether routine oxygen monitoring is necessary during unsedated diagnostic flexible upper ...

  12. Case Report Duplication Of Gastrointestinal Tract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Duplications of the alimentary tract are rare congenital malformations that may be found anywhere along the entire gastrointestinal tract. They may vary in presentation, size, location, and ... well developed coat of smooth muscle, and inner mucosal lining. Several theories have been proposed for the development but the ...

  13. Antihelmintic Resistance For Gastrointestinal Bovine Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres Vásquez


    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN, in domestic animals, especially in bovines are a very important factor that affects their productivity, because cattle production systems have intervened in the relationship between gastrointestinal parasites (PGI and the host, breaking therefore the ecological balance between them. In many opportunities the development of parasitic populations have been favored or a parasitic population have been led to extinction, it has made that these populations express genes that would not express under normal conditions, favoring thus, resistance to medications that were made to their destruction. NGI are highly important in all cattle exploitations, but their inappropriate handling, mainly in the pharmacological aspect, has created vermifuge resistance by some parasitic populations. This article will determine the importance of the vermifuge resistance in cattle exploitations, as a factor of risk for the control of parasitic populations. The most important antihelmintic groups used in bovine are Benzimidazoles, Levamisol and Ivermectine and with these products resistance has been reported by parasitic populations such as in Haemochus contortus, Trichostrongylus. colubriformis, Ostertagia circumcicta, Ostertagia ostertagi. Different risk factors were classified in extrinsic (which don’t depend on the gastrointestinal parasite and intrinsic (which depend directly on gastrointestinal parasites related with genetics which occupy a great importance in the development of the vermifuge resistance.

  14. SHORT COMMUNICATION Gastrointestinal endoscopy at Amana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: endoscopy, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, oesophageal cancer, oesophageal varices, dysphagia,. Tanzania ... screening for varices in chronic liver disease (NICE, 2007). Non-erosive gastritis, duodenitis and esophagitis, as well as surveillance of benign gastric conditions or gastritis in gastric resection are.

  15. Vascular Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Harki (Jihan)


    markdownabstractChronic gastrointestinal ischemia (CGI) results from insufficient blood supply to the stomach, small intestine and colon. In most cases this is caused by stenosis of the supplying arteries with lack of sufficient collateral circulation. Most often the stenosis is due to

  16. Nutrition in the prevention of gastrointestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.


    Diet has been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of gastrointestinal cancer for a long time. Initially, strong evidence of such effects was found in retrospective epidemiological studies. Dietary habits, in particular those from the distant past, are difficult to measure, however. Results

  17. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes in dromedary camels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... through general hygiene, routine deworming and provision of proper nutrition will help in alleviating the severe effects of helminthoses on camel health and productivity. Keywords: Gastrointestinal helminthes; dromedary camels; slaughterhouse; Nigeria Animal Production Research Advances Vol. 2 (3) 2006: pp. 164-167 ...

  18. Biological performance and gastrointestinal development of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Short paper and poster abstracts: 38th Congress of the South African Society of Animal Science. The South African Journal of Animal Science is available online at 136. 136. Biological performance and gastrointestinal development of broiler chicks fed diets varying in energy : protein ratio.

  19. Approach to upper gastrointestinal bleeding | Thomson | Continuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 31, No 11 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Approach to upper gastrointestinal bleeding. SR Thomson. Abstract.

  20. Therapy for obesity based on gastrointestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K


    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities...