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Sample records for attenuata sipk wipk

  1. Reactive oxygen species in signalling the transcriptional activation of WIPK expression in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Yang, Kwang-Yeol; Yoo, Seung Jin; Liu, Yidong; Ren, Dongtao; Zhang, Shuqun

    2014-07-01

    Plant mitogen-activated protein kinases represented by tobacco WIPK (wounding-induced protein kinase) and its orthologs in other species are unique in their regulation at transcriptional level in response to stress and pathogen infection. We previously demonstrated that transcriptional activation of WIPK is essential for induced WIPK activity, and activation of salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK) by the constitutively active NtMEK2(DD) is sufficient to induce WIPK gene expression. Here, we report that the effect of SIPK on WIPK gene expression is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using a combination of pharmacological and gain-of-function transgenic approaches, we studied the relationship among SIPK activation, WIPK gene activation in response to fungal cryptogein, light-dependent ROS generation in chloroplasts, and ROS generated via NADPH oxidase. In the conditional gain-of-function GVG-NtMEK2(DD) transgenic tobacco, induction of WIPK expression is dependent on the ROS generation in chloroplasts. Consistently, methyl viologen, an inducer of ROS generation in chloroplasts, highly activated WIPK expression. In addition to chloroplast-originated ROS, H(2)O(2) generated from the cell-surface NADPH oxidase could also activate WIPK gene expression, and inhibition of cryptogein-induced ROS generation also abolished WIPK gene activation. Our data demonstrate that WIPK gene activation is mediated by ROS, which provides a mechanism by which ROS influence cellular signalling processes in plant stress/defence response.

  2. Steroidal saponins from Agave Attenuata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polar fraction of the extract of Agave Attenuata Solm (family Agavaceae) afforded two steroidal saponins identified on the basis of spectral data as (25S)-sarsasapogenin-3-b-Dglyconside and (25S)-3-b, 22-a, 26-trihydroxy-16, 22-oxycoprostane-3-26 diglyconside. The glyconsidic moiety in the first compound is a disaccharide consists of glucose and galactose while in the second compound, the glyconsidic moieties are glucose and arabinose. (author)

  3. [Hydrodynamic performance of porpoises (Stenella attenuata)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T G; Pryor, K

    1966-04-22

    Two specimens of Stenella attenuata, trained to chase a winchtowed lure, reached a top speed of 11.03 meters per second (21.4 knots) in 2.0 seconds. The maximum power output, occurring 1.5 seconds after the start, was calculated from measured values of acceleration and drag coefficient. The maximum power output per unit body weight was 50 percent greater than for human athletes. The measured drag coefficient, obtained from periods of coasting, was approximately the same as that of an equivalent rigid body with a near-turbulent boundary layer. PMID:5910195

  4. Description of the male sex of HElota attenuata Rits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema Cz., C.

    1913-01-01

    Helota attenuata belongs, together with Dureli, Moutoni and Helleri, to the group of Helota rotundata (see my „Synopsis” in Notes Leyd. Mus. Vol. XIII, p. 227). It is easily recognizable among these species by the coarse punctuation on the pronotum and by the reddish testaceous colour of the elytral

  5. Differences in nicotine metabolism of two Nicotiana attenuata herbivores render them differentially susceptible to a common native predator

    OpenAIRE

    Pavan Kumar; Preeti Rathi; Matthias Schöttner; Baldwin, Ian T.; Sagar Pandit

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nicotiana attenuata is attacked by larvae of both specialist (Manduca sexta) and generalist (Spodoptera exigua) lepidopteran herbivores in its native habitat. Nicotine is one of N. attenuata's important defenses. M. sexta is highly nicotine tolerant; whether cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated oxidative detoxification and/or rapid excretion is responsible for its exceptional tolerance remains unknown despite five decades of study. Recently, we demonstrated that M. sexta uses its nicoti...

  6. Annual estimates of the unobserved incidental kill of pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata attenuata) calves in the tuna purse-seine fishery of the eastern tropical Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, Frederick; Gerrodette, Tim; Chivers, Susan; Jackson, Alan

    2004-01-01

    We estimated the total number of pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) mothers killed without their calves (“calf deficit”) in all tuna purse-seine sets from 1973– 90 and 1996–2000 in the eastern tropical Pacific. Estimates were based on a tally of the mothers killed as reported by color pattern and gender, several color-pattern-based frequency tables, and a weaning model. Over the time series, there was a decrease in the calf deficit from approximately 2800 for the western-souther...

  7. Seed storage behavior of Knema attenuata, an endemic species of Western Ghats, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinayachandra; K. R.Chandrashekar

    2011-01-01

    We performed desiccation and storage trials to better understand storage behavior of Knema attenuata seeds.Mature seeds with moisture content (MC) of 31% exhibited 73% germination.During the period of desiccation (open lab condition) seeds with MC 23% showed 40% germination.After further drying to MC 21% germination was reduced to 16%.Complete loss in viability resulted when seed moisture was reduced to 18%.The seeds stored at -10℃,0℃,10℃ and 28±2℃ (open lab condition) lost their viability within 10 days.Seeds stored in sealed polythene bags and moist sand retained viability for more daysthan did seeds stored under all other storage conditions.Sensitivity of seeds to lower temperature and desiccation suggest that the storage behavior of K.attenuata seeds is recalcitrant.Seeds stored in moist conditions can,at best,be stored for a period of two months.

  8. [Sighting of Stenella attenuata, the spotted dolphin, in Culebra Bay, Costa Rica, 1999-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Sáenz, Karina; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Javier

    2004-12-01

    Parallel to a zooplankton study (1999-2000) observations were made (from an inflatable boat), on the presence of dolphins along a transect (-8 km long) on the axis of Culebra Bay (24 km2), Gulf of Papagayo, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Dolphins were found during 20 of the 31 boat surveys conducted. The only species of cetacean found in the bay was Stenella attenuata, the spotted dolphin. These sightings were more frequent during the rainy season, particularly during the month of May of both years. The presence of S. attenuata in Culebra Bay might be associated to the abundances of fish and mollusks (their presumed prey: for example, squids), as evidenced by fishery statistics available for this zone of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. PMID:17465137

  9. Differences in oscillatory whistles produced by spinner (Stenella longirostris) and pantropical spotted (Stenella attenuata) dolphins

    OpenAIRE

    Gruden, Pina; White, Paul; Oswald, Julie; Barkley, Yvonne; Cerchio, Salvatore; Lammers, Marc; Baumann-Pickering, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic recordings of two closely related species, spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) and pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata), were investigated from four different geographic locations: two in the Central Tropical Pacific, one in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and one in the Indian Ocean. The two delphinid species occur in tropical and warm temperate waters, with overlapping ranges. They produce very similar vocalizations, but at the same time their calls exhibit a certain d...

  10. Priming of anti-herbivore defence in Nicotiana attenuata by insect oviposition: herbivore-specific effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandoly, Michele; Grichnik, Roland; Hilker, Monika; Steppuhn, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Oviposition by Spodoptera exigua on Nicotiana attenuata primes plant defence against its larvae that consequently suffer reduced performance. To reveal whether this is a general response of tobacco to insect oviposition or species-specific, we investigated whether also Manduca sexta oviposition primes N. attenuata's anti-herbivore defence. The plant response to M. sexta and S. exigua oviposition overlapped in the egg-primed feeding-induced production of the phenylpropanoid caffeoylputrescine. While M. sexta larvae were unaffected in their performance, they showed a novel response to the oviposition-mediated plant changes: a reduced antimicrobial activity in their haemolymph. In a cross-resistance experiment, S. exigua larvae suffered reduced performance on M. sexta-oviposited plants like they did on S. exigua-oviposited plants. The M. sexta oviposition-mediated plant effects on the S. exigua larval performance and on M. sexta larval immunity required expression of the NaMyb8 transcription factor that is governing biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids such as caffeoylputrescine. Thus, NaMyb8-dependent defence traits mediate the effects that oviposition by both lepidopteran species exerts on the plant's anti-herbivore defence. These results suggest that oviposition by lepidopteran species on N. attenuata leaves may generally prime the feeding-induced production of certain plant defence compounds but that different herbivore species show different susceptibility to egg-primed plant effects. PMID:26566692

  11. Ulcer healing potential of ethanolic extract of Caralluma attenuata on experimental diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sunil; Srivastava, Sajal; Singh, Kisanpal; Sharma, Alok; Garg, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Available data indicated that diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the vulnerability of the gastric ulcers and the need of the hour is to develop effective agents to treat ulcer with diabetes for better patient compliance and cost effectiveness. The ulcer-healing properties of ethanolic extract of Caralluma attenuata (CAEt) against both chemically- and physically induced gastric ulcers in experimental rats are recently studied. Aim: To assess the ulcer healing potential of Ethanolic Extract of Caralluma attenuata on Experimental Diabetic Rats. Material and Methods: The current study aimed to evaluate ulcer healing properties of CAEt on the aspirin induced gastric ulcer in rats with streptozotocin induced DM. The hypothesis is based on the fact that DM results in compromising the mucosal defensive factors associated with delay in gastric ulcer healing, and if these changes can be corrected by using agents known for their antidiabetic and antiulcer properties. Experimental albino rats were divided into six groups. Except for Group I, other groups contained streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Group I (normal control) and Group II (diabetic control) were administered vehicle, Groups III and IV (diabetic experimental) were administered CAEt in dose of 100 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg, respectively, and Groups V and VI (positive controls) were respectively administered oral standard drugs omeprazole, 20 mg/kg, and tolbutamide 10 mg/kg. Result: The results confirmed that the CAEt significantly decreases the ulcer index (P < 0.05) in the aspirin-induced gastric ulcers and also significantly exhibit antioxidant and glucose lowering activity in the diabetic ulcer rats. The study showed that C. attenuata has the potential to be used as an antiulcer agent in experimental diabetic rats.

  12. Unbiased transcriptional comparisons of generalist and specialist herbivores feeding on progressively defenseless Nicotiana attenuata plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Govind

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Herbivore feeding elicits dramatic increases in defenses, most of which require jasmonate (JA signaling, and against which specialist herbivores are thought to be better adapted than generalist herbivores. Unbiased transcriptional analyses of how neonate larvae cope with these induced plant defenses are lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We created cDNA microarrays for Manduca sexta and Heliothis virescens separately, by spotting normalized midgut-specific cDNA libraries created from larvae that fed for 24 hours on MeJA-elicited wild-type (WT Nicotiana attenuata plants. These microarrays were hybridized with labeled probes from neonates that fed for 24 hours on WT and isogenic plants progressively silenced in JA-mediated defenses (N: nicotine; N/PI: N and trypsin protease inhibitors; JA: all JA-mediated defenses. H. virescens neonates regulated 16 times more genes than did M. sexta neonates when they fed on plants silenced in JA-mediated defenses, and for both species, the greater the number of defenses silenced in the host plant (JA > N/PI > N, the greater were the number of transcripts regulated in the larvae. M. sexta larvae tended to down-regulate while H. virescens larvae up- and down-regulated transcripts from the same functional categories of genes. M. sexta larvae regulated transcripts in a diet-specific manner, while H. virescens larvae regulated a similar suite of transcripts across all diet types. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The observations are consistent with the expectation that specialists are better adapted than generalist herbivores to the defense responses elicited in their host plants by their feeding. While M. sexta larvae appear to be better adapted to N. attenuata's defenses, some of the elicited responses remain effective defenses against both herbivore species. The regulated genes provide novel insights into larval adaptations to N. attenuata's induced defenses, and represent potential targets for plant

  13. Host-plant-mediated effects of Nadefensin on herbivore and pathogen resistance in Nicotiana attenuata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin Ian T

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adage from Shakespeare, "troubles, not as single spies, but in battalions come," holds true for Nicotiana attenuata, which is commonly attacked by both pathogens (Pseudomonas spp. and herbivores (Manduca sexta in its native habitats. Defense responses targeted against the pathogens can directly or indirectly influence the responses against the herbivores. Nadefensin is an effective induced defense gene against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (PST DC3000, which is also elicited by attack from M. sexta larvae, but whether this defense protein influences M. sexta's growth and whether M. sexta-induced Nadefensin directly or indirectly influences PST DC3000 resistance are unknown. Results M. sexta larvae consumed less on WT and on Nadefensin-silenced N. attenuata plants that had previously been infected with PST DC3000 than on uninfected plants. WT plants infected with PST DC3000 showed enhanced resistance to PST DC3000 and decreased leaf consumption by M. sexta larvae, but larval mass gain was unaffected. PST DC3000-infected Nadefensin-silenced plants were less resistant to subsequent PST DC3000 challenge, and on these plants, M. sexta larvae consumed less and gained less mass. WT and Nadefensin-silenced plants previously damaged by M. sexta larvae were better able to resist subsequent PST DC3000 challenges than were undamaged plants. Conclusion These results demonstrate that Na-defensin directly mediates defense against PST DC3000 and indirectly against M. sexta in N. attenuata. In plants that were previously infected with PST DC3000, the altered leaf chemistry in PST DC3000-resistant WT plants and PST DC3000-susceptible Nadefensin-silenced plants differentially reduced M. sexta's leaf consumption and mass gain. In plants that were previously damaged by M. sexta, the combined effect of the altered host plant chemistry and a broad spectrum of anti-herbivore induced metabolomic responses was more

  14. Digestive duet: Midgut digestive proteinases of Manduca sexta ingesting Nicotiana attenuata with manipulated trypsin proteinase inhibitor expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavala, J.A.; Giri, A.P.; Jongsma, M.A.; Baldwin, I.T.

    2008-01-01

    The defensive effect of endogenous trypsin proteinase inhibitors (NaTPIs) on the herbivore Manduca sexta was demonstrated by genetically altering NaTPI production in M. sexta's host plant, Nicotiana attenuata. To understand how this defense works, we studied the effects of NaTPI on M. sexta gut prot

  15. Opportunistic out-crossing in Nicotiana attenuata (Solanaceae, a predominantly self-fertilizing native tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sime Karen R

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Nicotiana attenuata is entirely self-compatible, chemical and other floral traits suggest selection for the maintenance of advertisement for moth pollinators. Results Experimental exclusions of pollinators from plants with emasculated flowers in natural populations in southern Utah during an outbreak of the hawkmoth Hyles lineata revealed that 24% of the seed set could be attributed to insect pollination, and eliminated wind pollination and apomixis as contributing to seed set. Hence these moths can mediate gene flow when self-pollen is unavailable. To quantify gene flow when self-pollen is available, plants were transformed with two marker genes: hygromycin-B resistance and β-glucuronidase. The utility of these genetic markers to measure gene flow between plants was examined by mixing pollen from plants homozygous for both genes with self-pollen in different ratios and hand-pollinating emasculated flowers of plants growing in a natural population. The proportion of transformed seeds was positively correlated with the amount of transformed pollen applied to stigmas. In glasshouse experiments with the hawkmoth Manduca sexta and experimental arrays of transformed and wild-type plants, pollination mediated by moths accounted for 2.5% of the seed set. Conclusions Even though moth pollination is rare and highly variable for this largely selfing plant, N. attenuata opportunistically employs a mixed-mating system.

  16. Shifting Nicotiana attenuata's diurnal rhythm does not alter its resistance to the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herden, Jasmin; Meldau, Stefan; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Kunert, Grit; Joo, Youngsung; Baldwin, Ian T; Schuman, Meredith C

    2016-07-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana plants are less resistant to attack by the generalist lepidopteran herbivore Trichoplusia ni when plants and herbivores are entrained to opposite, versus identical diurnal cycles and tested under constant conditions. This effect is associated with circadian fluctuations in levels of jasmonic acid, the transcription factor MYC2, and glucosinolate contents in leaves. We tested whether a similar effect could be observed in a different plant-herbivore system: the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata and its co-evolved specialist herbivore, Manduca sexta. We measured larval growth on plants under both constant and diurnal conditions following identical or opposite entrainment, profiled the metabolome of attacked leaf tissue, quantified specific metabolites known to reduce M. sexta growth, and monitored M. sexta feeding activity under all experimental conditions. Entrainment did not consistently affect M. sexta growth or plant defense induction. However, both were reduced under constant dark conditions, as was M. sexta feeding activity. Our data indicate that the response induced by M. sexta in N. attenuata is robust to diurnal cues and independent of plant or herbivore entrainment. We propose that while the patterns of constitutive or general damage-induced defense may undergo circadian fluctuation, the orchestration of specific induced responses is more complex. PMID:26699809

  17. Development of the skull of the pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Meghan M; Nummela, Sirpa; Thewissen, J G M

    2011-10-01

    We describe the bony and cartilaginous structures of five fetal skulls of Stenella attenuata (pantropical spotted dolphin) specimens. The specimens represent early fetal life as suggested by the presence of rostral tactile hairs and the beginnings of skin pigmentation. These specimens exhibit the developmental order of ossification of the intramembranous and endochondral elements of the cranium as well as the functional and morphological development of specific cetacean anatomical adaptations. Detailed observations are presented on telescoping, nasal anatomy, and middle ear anatomy. The development of the middle ear ossicles, ectotympanic bone, and median nasal cartilage is of interest because in the adult these structures are morphologically different from those in land mammals. We follow specific cetacean morphological characteristics through fetal development to provide insight into the form and function of the cetacean body plan. Combining these data with fossil evidence, it is possible to overlie ontogenetic patterns and discern evolutionary patterns of the cetacean skull. PMID:21901843

  18. Terminal airway embryology of the delphinid porpoises, Stenella attenuata and S. longirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabek, C M; Kooyman, G L

    1983-01-01

    A light microscopic investigation of the histological development of the terminal airways of 18 Stenella attenuata and two S. longirostris showed the lungs to be in a glandular stage of development until 3 months postimplantation (p.i.) age. By 3.5 months (p.i.) the lung was at the canalicular stage. At 4 months mesenchymal rings and muscular bands were in a sphincterlike arrangement around terminal bronchioles. At 7 months (p.i.) the alveolar stage occurred. About 8-9 months cartilaginous rings were present and in association with myoelastic sphincters. Their function remains an enigma, even though many hypotheses as to function have been proposed. We suggest that the presence of well-developed sphincters and cartilage in the neonate may give clues to their function as well as offer potential experiments that would not be as suitable in the adult porpoise. PMID:6842612

  19. Allometric analysis of the induced flavonols on the leaf surface of wild tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Amy L; Oldham, Neil J; Svatos, Ales; Baldwin, Ian T

    2003-02-01

    Trichomes excrete secondary metabolites that may alter the chemical composition of the leaf surface, reducing damage caused by herbivores, pathogens and abiotic stresses. We examined the surface exudates produced by Nicotiana attenuata Torr. Ex Wats., a plant known to contain and secrete a number of secondary metabolites that are toxic or a deterrent to herbivorous insects. Extractions specific to the leaf surface, the trichomes, and the laminar components demonstrated the localization of particular compounds. Diterpene glycosides occurred exclusively in leaf mesophyll, whereas nicotine was found in both the trichomes and mesophyll. Neither rutin nor nicotine was found on the leaf surface. Quercetin and 7 methylated derivatives were found in the glandular trichomes and appeared to be excreted onto the leaf surface. We examined the elicitation of these flavonols on the leaf surface with a surface-area allometric analysis, which measures changes in metabolites independent of the effects of leaf expansion. The flavonols responded differently to wounding, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), herbivore attack and UV-C radiation, and the response patterns corresponded to their compound-specific allometries. Finding greater amounts of quercetin on younger leaves and reduced amounts after herbivore feeding and MeJA treatment, we hypothesized that quercetin may function as an attractant, helping the insects locate a preferred feeding site. Consistent with this hypothesis, mirids (Tupiocoris notatus) were found more often on mature leaves sprayed with quercetin at a concentration typical of young leaves than on unsupplemented mature leaves. The composition of metabolites on the leaf surface of N. attenuata changes throughout leaf development and in response to herbivore attack or environmental stress, and these changes are mediated in part by responses of the glandular trichomes.

  20. HSPRO controls early Nicotiana attenuata seedling growth during interaction with the fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Stefan; Camehl, Iris; Gilardoni, Paola A; Oelmueller, Ralf; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    In a previous study aimed at identifying regulators of Nicotiana attenuata responses against chewing insects, a 26-nucleotide tag matching the HSPRO (ORTHOLOG OF SUGAR BEET Hs1(pro)(-)(1)) gene was found to be strongly induced after simulated herbivory (Gilardoni et al., 2010). Here we characterized the function of HSPRO during biotic interactions in transgenic N. attenuata plants silenced in its expression (ir-hspro). In wild-type plants, HSPRO expression was not only induced during simulated herbivory but also when leaves were inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 and roots with the growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica. Reduced HSPRO expression did not affect the regulation of direct defenses against Manduca sexta herbivory or P. syringae pv tomato DC3000 infection rates. However, reduced HSPRO expression positively influenced early seedling growth during interaction with P. indica; fungus-colonized ir-hspro seedlings increased their fresh biomass by 30% compared with the wild type. Grafting experiments demonstrated that reduced HSPRO expression in roots was sufficient to induce differential growth promotion in both roots and shoots. This effect was accompanied by changes in the expression of 417 genes in colonized roots, most of which were metabolic genes. The lack of major differences in the metabolic profiles of ir-hspro and wild-type colonized roots (as analyzed by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry) suggested that accelerated metabolic rates were involved. We conclude that HSPRO participates in a whole-plant change in growth physiology when seedlings interact with P. indica. PMID:22892352

  1. First record of Pantropical spotted dolphins Stenella attenuata in the Yellow Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuxing; Wang, Xianyan; Zhang, Qiuxia; Miao, Xing; Zhang, Ting; Zhu, Qian

    2015-07-01

    On October 1, 2009, sixteen dolphins were obtained from fishermen by incidental catching in the Yellow Sea, China. As the dolphins' skin color was ambiguous, morphological parameters were measured, and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene sequence was studied to identify the species. Morphological characteristics were consistent with Pantropical spotted dolphins, Stenella attenuata. Furthermore, a partial mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene sequence as long as 328-bp was studied by extracting genomic DNA from the skins, and six haplotypes were detected in the sixteen dolphins. By comparing homologous sequences available in GenBank (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov), all the six haplotypes had maximal genetic similarity with Pantropical spotted dolphin. Eight species of cetacean (whales and dolphins) are now recognised in the Yellow Sea. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of Pantropical spotted dolphins from this region. Despite this species being listed as a Grade II National Key Protected Animal since 1988, little is known of its biology in Chinese waters. We recommend remedial research be undertaken to ensure appropriate management.

  2. The effects of pharmaceuticals on the regeneration of the cnidarian, Hydra attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Brian; Gagné, François; Blaise, Christian

    2008-08-25

    The Hydra attenuata regeneration assay was used to identify the teratogenic potential of 10 pharmaceuticals identified in effluent from a large city wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Three types of solvents were used to solubilise the pharmaceuticals (DMSO, acetone and ethanol), at concentrations determined to have no significant effect on measured endpoints. On the one hand, regeneration was significantly inhibited at (nominal) concentrations of 1, 5 and 1 mg/L for gemfibrozil, ibuprofen and naproxen respectively and at the higher concentration of 50 mg/L for bezafibrate and trimethoprim. On the other hand, carbamazepine and the antibiotics sulfapyridine, oxytetracycline and novobiocin significantly increased regeneration at 25, 5, 50 and 50 mg/L respectively. Relatively high IC50 values of 0.9, 3.84, 4.9 and 22.5 mg/L were calculated for gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, naproxen and bezafibrate, respectively. However when subjected to tier two toxicity assessment under EU regulatory guidance using environmentally relevant concentrations a MEC/PNEC value>1 was calculated for gemfibrozil, ibuprofen and naproxen indicating teratogenic potential and the necessity for further tier three assessment. A toxicity index (TI) was also calculated using three different techniques, with TI values>3 (indicating teratogenic potential) found for gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, naproxen and bezafibrate and >1 (indicating a weak teratogenic potential) found for carbamazepine. These results are discussed in the context of their environmental relevance and toxic potential. PMID:18538376

  3. Cytokinin levels and signaling respond to wounding and the perception of herbivore elicitors in Nicotiana attenuata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Schfer; Ivan D Meza-Canales; Aura Navarro-Quezada; Christoph Brtting; Radomira Vankov; Ian T Baldwin; Stefan Meldau

    2015-01-01

    Nearly half a century ago insect herbivores were found to induce the formation of green islands by manipulating cytokinin (CK) levels. However, the response of the CK pathway to attack by chewing insect herbivores remains unclear. Here, we characterize the CK pathway of Nicotiana attenuata (Torr. ex S. Wats.) and its response to wounding and perception of herbivore‐associated molecular patterns (HAMPs). We identified 44 genes involved in CK biosynthesis, inactivation, degradation, and signaling. Leaf wounding rapidly induced transcriptional changes in multiple genes throughout the pathway, as wel as in the levels of CKs, including isopentenyladenosine and cis‐zeatin riboside;perception of HAMPs present in the oral secretions (OS) of the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta amplified these responses. The jasmonate pathway, which triggers many herbivore‐induced processes, was not required for these HAMP‐triggered changes, but rather suppressed the CK responses. Interestingly CK pathway changes were observed also in systemic leaves in response to wounding and OS application indicating a role of CKs in mediating long distance systemic processes in response to herbivory. Since wounding and grasshopper OS elicited similar accumulations of CKs in Arabidopsis thaliana L., we propose that CKs are integral components of wounding and HAMP‐triggered responses in many plant species.

  4. Insect herbivory elicits genome-wide alternative splicing responses in Nicotiana attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zhihao; Zhou, Wenwu; Baldwin, Ian T; Xu, Shuqing

    2015-10-01

    Changes in gene expression and alternative splicing (AS) are involved in many responses to abiotic and biotic stresses in eukaryotic organisms. In response to attack and oviposition by insect herbivores, plants elicit rapid changes in gene expression which are essential for the activation of plant defenses; however, the herbivory-induced changes in AS remain unstudied. Using mRNA sequencing, we performed a genome-wide analysis on tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) feeding-induced AS in both leaves and roots of Nicotiana attenuata. Feeding by M. sexta for 5 h reduced total AS events by 7.3% in leaves but increased them in roots by 8.0% and significantly changed AS patterns in leaves and roots of existing AS genes. Feeding by M. sexta also resulted in increased (in roots) and decreased (in leaves) transcript levels of the serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins that are involved in the AS machinery of plants and induced changes in SR gene expression that were jasmonic acid (JA)-independent in leaves but JA-dependent in roots. Changes in AS and gene expression elicited by M. sexta feeding were regulated independently in both tissues. This study provides genome-wide evidence that insect herbivory induces changes not only in the levels of gene expression but also in their splicing, which might contribute to defense against and/or tolerance of herbivory. PMID:26306554

  5. On the development of Cetacean extremities: I. Hind limb rudimentation in the Spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedmera, D; Misek, I; Klima, M

    1997-02-01

    The Cetacea are group of animals which have completely lost their hind limbs during the course of evolution as a result of their entirely aquatic mode of life. It is known, however, that during their embryonal period, the hind limb buds are temporarily present. The control mechanisms of this regression are not yet understood, and vestigial limbs can sometimes be found in adults. The aim of the present study is to describe the course of hind limb rudimentation during prenatal development of Stenella attenuata (Spotted dolphin) at tissue and cell levels and compare the results with other natural or experimentally induced amelias. Hind limb buds of dolphin embryos, CRL 10-30 mm, were examined histologically. Before total disappearance, they show histodifferentiation comparable with other mammals. Initially, they form the apical ectodermal ridge, which soon regresses. The mesenchyme undergoes the process of condensation to form anlagens of prospective skeletal elements. These condensations are surrounded by vascular plexuses. During the course of rudimentation, some mesenchymal cells die, while the others are incorporated into the body wall. Nerve ingrowth into rudimentary limb buds was also detected. The temporary presence of hind limb rudiments in cetacean embryos can be regarded as a good example of recapitulation of phylogenesis in ontogenesis. PMID:9143876

  6. Cranial variation in the pantropical spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata , in the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chiou-Ju; Yamada, Tadasu K; Chen, Yen-Jean; Chou, Lien-Siang

    2008-12-01

    Cranial variation in 129 pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) from the western and eastern tropical Pacific was investigated morphometrically. This study revealed significant sexual dimorphism in the dolphin skulls. Differences between the genders were mostly recorded in the rostrum and braincase, which are wider and more robust in males. This sexual variation was interpreted in terms of differences in behavioral and life-history strategies between genders. Geographical variation among populations of the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP), Japan, and Taiwan was also significant, with different sexual patterns. While no clear trend in geographical variation was detected in males, there was a positive relationship in females between morphological differences and geographical distance. That is, Japanese and Taiwanese female specimens were morphologically more similar than revealed by other pairwise comparisons between them and the ETP specimens. Moreover, two canonical discriminant functions further discriminated the three populations for males and females, respectively. The two functions showed that the rostrum and braincase are the principal elements in discrimination of geographical variation in males, while only the rostrum is the major discriminant morph of geographical variation in females. In addition, tests based on Mahalanobis distance-squares were conducted to assign six specimens from the western tropical Pacific to the above three populations to clarify the similarities among them. PMID:19267651

  7. Complete amino acid sequence of the myoglobin from the Pacific spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata graffmani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B N; Wang, C C; Dwulet, F E; Lehman, L D; Meuth, J L; Bogardt, R A; Gurd, F R

    1979-04-25

    The complete amino acid sequence of the major component myoglobin from the Pacific spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata graffmani, was determined by the automated Edman degradation of several large peptides obtained by specific cleavage of the protein. The acetimidated apomyoglobin was selectively cleaved at its two methionyl residues with cyanogen bromide and at its three arginyl residues by trypsin. By subjecting four of these peptides and the apomyoglobin to automated Edman degradation, over 80% of the primary structure of the protein was obtained. The remainder of the covalent structure was determined by the sequence analysis of peptides that resulted from further digestion of the central cyanogen bromide fragment. This fragment was cleaved at its glutamyl residues with staphylococcal protease and its lysyl residues with trypsin. The action of trypsin was restricted to the lysyl residues by chemical modification of the single arginyl residue of the fragment with 1,2-cyclohexanedione. The primary structure of this myoglobin proved to be identical with that from the Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin and Pacific common dolphin but differs from the myoglobins of the killer whale and pilot whale at two positions. The above sequence identities and differences reflect the close taxonomic relationship of these five species of Cetacea. PMID:454657

  8. Role of Crassicauda sp. in natural mortality of pantropical spotted dolphins Stenella attenuata: a reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Simpkin, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Evaluating the effect of parasites on population size is essential for designing management and conservation plans of wild animal populations. Although knowledge in this area is scarce in cetaceans, current evidence suggests that species of the nematode genus Crassicauda may play an important regulatory role in some populations. In the present study, a semiparametric regression technique was applied to a previously published dataset to re-examine the role of Crassicauda sp. in natural mortality of pantropical spotted dolphins Stenella attenuata. The resulting model indicated parasite-induced mortality at ages between 6.5 and 9 yr and at roughly 12 yr. The maximum mortality estimates obtained could represent 2 to 4% of natural mortality in dolphins 6 to 8 yr old. This estimate is substantially smaller than previously published values, but in contrast with previous research, our model provides clear statistical evidence for parasite-induced mortality because the bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals of the estimated mortality rates excluded the 0 value. We also evaluated, through simulations, how potential sampling biases of infected dolphins could overestimate parasite-induced mortality. Small differences in sampling selectivity between infected and uninfected animals could substantially reduce the mortality estimates. However, the simulated models also supported the notion of statistically significant mortality in juvenile dolphins. Given that dolphins older than 16 yr were poorly represented in the dataset, further research is needed to establish whether Crassicauda sp. causes meaningful mortality for population dynamics among adult individuals. PMID:24492057

  9. Rapid modification of the insect elicitor N-linolenoyl-glutamate via a lipoxygenase-mediated mechanism on Nicotiana attenuata leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanDoorn Arjen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some plants distinguish mechanical wounding from herbivore attack by recognizing specific constituents of larval oral secretions (OS which are introduced into plant wounds during feeding. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs are major constituents of Manduca sexta OS and strong elicitors of herbivore-induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata plants. Results The metabolism of one of the major FACs in M. sexta OS, N-linolenoyl-glutamic acid (18:3-Glu, was analyzed on N. attenuata wounded leaf surfaces. Between 50 to 70% of the 18:3-Glu in the OS or of synthetic 18:3-Glu were metabolized within 30 seconds of application to leaf wounds. This heat-labile process did not result in free α-linolenic acid (18:3 and glutamate but in the biogenesis of metabolites both more and less polar than 18:3-Glu. Identification of the major modified forms of this FAC showed that they corresponded to 13-hydroxy-18:3-Glu, 13-hydroperoxy-18:3-Glu and 13-oxo-13:2-Glu. The formation of these metabolites occurred on the wounded leaf surface and it was dependent on lipoxygenase (LOX activity; plants silenced in the expression of NaLOX2 and NaLOX3 genes showed more than 50% reduced rates of 18:3-Glu conversion and accumulated smaller amounts of the oxygenated derivatives compared to wild-type plants. Similar to 18:3-Glu, 13-oxo-13:2-Glu activated the enhanced accumulation of jasmonic acid (JA in N. attenuata leaves whereas 13-hydroxy-18:3-Glu did not. Moreover, compared to 18:3-Glu elicitation, 13-oxo-13:2-Glu induced the differential emission of two monoterpene volatiles (β-pinene and an unidentified monoterpene in irlox2 plants. Conclusions The metabolism of one of the major elicitors of herbivore-specific responses in N. attenuata plants, 18:3-Glu, results in the formation of oxidized forms of this FAC by a LOX-dependent mechanism. One of these derivatives, 13-oxo-13:2-Glu, is an active elicitor of JA biosynthesis and differential

  10. Herbivore induction of jasmonic acid and chemical defences reduce photosynthesis in Nicotiana attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabity, Paul D; Zavala, Jorge A; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-01-01

    Herbivory initiates a shift in plant metabolism from growth to defence that may reduce fitness in the absence of further herbivory. However, the defence-induced changes in carbon assimilation that precede this reallocation in resources remain largely undetermined. This study characterized the response of photosynthesis to herbivore induction of jasmonic acid (JA)-related defences in Nicotiana attenuata to increase understanding of these mechanisms. It was hypothesized that JA-induced defences would immediately reduce the component processes of photosynthesis upon attack and was predicted that wild-type plants would suffer greater reductions in photosynthesis than plants lacking JA-induced defences. Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and thermal spatial patterns were measured together with the production of defence-related metabolites after attack and through recovery. Herbivore damage immediately reduced electron transport and gas exchange in wild-type plants, and gas exchange remained suppressed for several days after attack. The sustained reductions in gas exchange occurred concurrently with increased defence metabolites in wild-type plants, whereas plants lacking JA-induced defences suffered minimal suppression in photosynthesis and no increase in defence metabolite production. This suppression in photosynthesis occurred only after sustained defence signalling and defence chemical mobilization, whereas a short bout of feeding damage only transiently altered components of photosynthesis. It was identified that lipoxygenase signalling interacted with photosynthetic electron transport and that the resulting JA-related metabolites reduced photosynthesis. These data represent a metabolic cost to mounting a chemical defence against herbivory and link defence-signalling networks to the differential effects of herbivory on photosynthesis in remaining leaf tissues in a time-dependent manner.

  11. Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine coordinates metabolic networks required for anthesis and floral attractant emission in wild tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitz, Michael; Hartl, Markus; Baldwin, Ian T; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    Jasmonic acid and its derivatives (jasmonates [JAs]) play central roles in floral development and maturation. The binding of jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) to the F-box of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) is required for many JA-dependent physiological responses, but its role in anthesis and pollinator attraction traits remains largely unexplored. Here, we used the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, which develops sympetalous flowers with complex pollination biology, to examine the coordinating function of JA homeostasis in the distinct metabolic processes that underlie flower maturation, opening, and advertisement to pollinators. From combined transcriptomic, targeted metabolic, and allometric analyses of transgenic N. attenuata plants for which signaling deficiencies were complemented with methyl jasmonate, JA-Ile, and its functional homolog, coronatine (COR), we demonstrate that (1) JA-Ile/COR-based signaling regulates corolla limb opening and a JA-negative feedback loop; (2) production of floral volatiles (night emissions of benzylacetone) and nectar requires JA-Ile/COR perception through COI1; and (3) limb expansion involves JA-Ile-induced changes in limb fresh mass and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings demonstrate a master regulatory function of the JA-Ile/COI1 duet for the main function of a sympetalous corolla, that of advertising for and rewarding pollinator services. Flower opening, by contrast, requires JA-Ile signaling-dependent changes in primary metabolism, which are not compromised in the COI1-silenced RNA interference line used in this study. PMID:25326292

  12. The two α-dox genes of Nicotiana attenuata: overlapping but distinct functions in development and stress responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steppuhn Anke

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant fatty acid α-dioxygenases (α-DOX are oxylipin-forming enzymes induced by biotic and abiotic stresses, which also participate in developmental processes. In Nicotiana attenuata, herbivory strongly induces the expression of an α-dox1 gene. To determine its role, we silenced its expression using Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation with an inverted repeat construct. More than half of the transformed lines showed a severe dwarf growth phenotype that was very similar to the phenotype of tomato plants mutated at a second α-dox isoform. This led us to identify the corresponding α-dox2 gene in N. attenuata and examine the regulation of both α-dox genes as well as the consequences of their silencing in plant development and anti-herbivore defense. Results The transformed lines exhibiting a dwarf growth phenotype are co-silenced for both α-dox genes resulting in a nearly complete suppression of α-DOX activity, which is associated with increases in ABA, JA and anthocyanin levels, all metabolic signatures of oxidative stress. The other lines, only silenced for α-dox1, developed similarly to wild-type plants, exhibited a 40% reduction of α-DOX activity resulting in a 50% reduction of its main product in planta (2-HOT and showed no signs of oxidative stress. In contrast to α-dox1, the expression of α-dox2 gene is not induced by wounding or elicitors in the oral secretions of Manduca sexta. Instead, α-dox2 is expressed in roots and flowers which lack α-dox1 expression, but both genes are equally regulated during leaf maturation. We transiently silenced α-dox gene copies with gene-specific constructs using virus induced gene silencing and determined the consequences for plant development and phytohormone and 2-HOT levels. While individual silencing of α-dox1 or α-dox2 had no effects on plant growth, the co-suppression of both α-dox genes decreased plant growth. Plants transiently silenced for both α-dox genes

  13. Larvicidal activities of Knema attenuata (Hook. f. & Thomson) Warb. (Myristicaceae) extracts against Aedes albopictus Skuse and Anopheles stephensi Liston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayachandra; Shwetha, R; Chandrashekar, K R

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, uses of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aril and kernel extracts of Knema attenuata (Hook. f. & Thomson) Warb. (Myristicaceae) on larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse and Anopheles stephensi Liston under laboratory conditions. The aril was extracted with chloroform and ethanol; the kernel was extracted with ethanol and hexane. The extracts were tested against the 3rd-4th instar larvae collected from Bunder area, Mangalore, India, which is a well-known fishing harbour, where several mosquito-borne diseases were reported. All the graded concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm) showed significant larval mortality after 24 h of observation. Chloroform extracts of aril showed 100% mortality against both larval forms of A. albopictus and A. stephensi at the concentration of 500 ppm. Among the extracts tested, chloroform extracts of aril and ethanol extracts of kernel exhibited higher toxicity against both A. albopictus (LC(50), 141 ppm and 159 ppm; LC(90), 290 ppm and 342 ppm) and A. stephensi (LC(50), 160 ppm and 162 ppm; LC90, 445 ppm and 458 ppm). Hexane extracts of kernel exhibited least toxicity against A. albopictus (LC50, 239 ppm; LC(90), 484 ppm), whereas ethanol extracts of aril showed the least toxicity against A. stephensi (LC(50), 290; LC(90), 498). A preliminary phytochemical assay revealed the presence of phenolics, tannins, steroids, terpenes, resins, and glycolipids in all the extracts. Alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins were absent. The lower LC(50) value of the chloroform extracts of K. attenuata aril indicates its potentiality as a larvicide against A. albopictus and A. stephensi mosquito larvae. PMID:21559763

  14. Silencing an N-acyltransferase-like involved in lignin biosynthesis in Nicotiana attenuata dramatically alters herbivory-induced phenolamide metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Gaquerel

    Full Text Available In a transcriptomic screen of Manduca sexta-induced N-acyltransferases in leaves of Nicotiana attenuata, we identified an N-acyltransferase gene sharing a high similarity with the tobacco lignin-biosynthetic hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT gene whose expression is controlled by MYB8, a transcription factor that regulates the production of phenylpropanoid polyamine conjugates (phenolamides, PAs. To evaluate the involvement of this HCT-like gene in lignin production as well as the resulting crosstalk with PA metabolism during insect herbivory, we transiently silenced (by VIGs the expression of this gene and performed non-targeted (UHPLC-ESI/TOF-MS metabolomics analyses. In agreement with a conserved function of N. attenuata HCT-like in lignin biogenesis, HCT-silenced plants developed weak, soft stems with greatly reduced lignin contents. Metabolic profiling demonstrated large shifts (up to 12% deregulation in total extracted ions in insect-attacked leaves due to a large diversion of activated coumaric acid units into the production of developmentally and herbivory-induced coumaroyl-containing PAs (N',N''-dicoumaroylspermidine, N',N''-coumaroylputrescine, etc and to minor increases in the most abundant free phenolics (chlorogenic and cryptochlorogenic acids, all without altering the production of well characterized herbivory-responsive caffeoyl- and feruloyl-based putrescine and spermidine PAs. These data are consistent with a strong metabolic tension, exacerbated during herbivory, over the allocation of coumaroyl-CoA units among lignin and unusual coumaroyl-containing PAs, and rule out a role for HCT-LIKE in tuning the herbivory-induced accumulation of other PAs. Additionally, these results are consistent with a role for lignification as an induced anti-herbivore defense.

  15. Differences in nicotine metabolism of two Nicotiana attenuata herbivores render them differentially susceptible to a common native predator.

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    Pavan Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nicotiana attenuata is attacked by larvae of both specialist (Manduca sexta and generalist (Spodoptera exigua lepidopteran herbivores in its native habitat. Nicotine is one of N. attenuata's important defenses. M. sexta is highly nicotine tolerant; whether cytochrome P450 (CYP-mediated oxidative detoxification and/or rapid excretion is responsible for its exceptional tolerance remains unknown despite five decades of study. Recently, we demonstrated that M. sexta uses its nicotine-induced CYP6B46 to efflux midgut-nicotine into the hemolymph, facilitating nicotine exhalation that deters predatory wolf spiders (Camptocosa parallela. S. exigua's nicotine metabolism is uninvestigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the ability of these two herbivores to metabolize, tolerate and co-opt ingested nicotine for defense against the wolf spider. In addition, we analyzed the spider's excretion to gain insights into its nicotine metabolism. Contrary to previous reports, we found that M. sexta larvae neither accumulate the common nicotine oxides (cotinine, cotinine N-oxide and nicotine N-oxide nor excrete them faster than nicotine. In M. sexta larvae, ingestion of nicotine as well as its oxides increases the accumulation of CYP6B46 transcripts. In contrast, S. exigua accumulates nicotine oxides and exhales less (66% nicotine than does M. sexta. Spiders prefer nicotine-fed S. exigua over M. sexta, a preference reversed by topical or headspace nicotine supplementation, but not ingested or topically-coated nicotine oxides, suggesting that externalized nicotine but not the nicotine detoxification products deter spider predation. The spiders also do not accumulate nicotine oxides. CONCLUSIONS: Nicotine oxidation reduces S. exigua's headspace-nicotine and renders it more susceptible to predation by spiders than M. sexta, which exhales unmetabolized nicotine. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that generalist herbivores incur

  16. Duration of unassisted swimming activity for spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) calves: implications for mother-calf separation during tuna purse-seine sets

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Elizabeth F.

    2006-01-01

    Size-related differences in power production and swim speed duration may contribute to the observed deficit of nursing calves in relation to lactating females killed in sets by tuna purse-seiners in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (ETP). Power production and swim-speed duration were estimated for northeastern spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), the species (neonate through adult) most often captured by the fishery. Power required by neonates to swim unassisted was 3.6 times that require...

  17. SuperSAGE analysis of the Nicotiana attenuata transcriptome after fatty acid-amino acid elicitation (FAC: identification of early mediators of insect responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin Ian T

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants trigger and tailor defense responses after perception of the oral secretions (OS of attacking specialist lepidopteran larvae. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs in the OS of the Manduca sexta larvae are necessary and sufficient to elicit the herbivory-specific responses in Nicotiana attenuata, an annual wild tobacco species. How FACs are perceived and activate signal transduction mechanisms is unknown. Results We used SuperSAGE combined with 454 sequencing to quantify the early transcriptional changes elicited by the FAC N-linolenoyl-glutamic acid (18:3-Glu and virus induced gene silencing (VIGS to examine the function of candidate genes in the M. sexta-N. attenuata interaction. The analysis targeted mRNAs encoding regulatory components: rare transcripts with very rapid FAC-elicited kinetics (increases within 60 and declines within 120 min. From 12,744 unique Tag sequences identified (UniTags, 430 and 117 were significantly up- and down-regulated ≥ 2.5-fold, respectively, after 18:3-Glu elicitation compared to wounding. Based on gene ontology classification, more than 25% of the annotated UniTags corresponded to putative regulatory components, including 30 transcriptional regulators and 22 protein kinases. Quantitative PCR analysis was used to analyze the FAC-dependent regulation of a subset of 27 of these UniTags and for most of them a rapid and transient induction was confirmed. Six FAC-regulated genes were functionally characterized by VIGS and two, a putative lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP and a protein of unknown function, were identified as important mediators of the M. sexta-N. attenuata interaction. Conclusions The analysis of the early changes in the transcriptome of N. attenuata after FAC elicitation using SuperSAGE/454 has identified regulatory genes involved in insect-specific mediated responses in plants. Moreover, it has provided a foundation for the identification of additional novel regulators

  18. Biological data of pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata) from a mass stranding in New Caledonia (South Pacific) associated with hurricane Jim in 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Clua, E.E.; Manire, C.A.; Garrigue, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Despite its distribution throughout the tropics and subtropics, the pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata) is one of the most poorly known species of odontocetes (Cetacea: Delphinidae). We used the opportunity of a mass stranding of six animals in New Caledonia (early February 2006) to gather information about their biology. Four animals, including three males and one female, were found dead, and morphometrics, including dental counts, were collected. Two live mature males of 236 and 246 cm to...

  19. A morphological and histological examination of the pan-tropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) and the spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, L S; Cowan, D F; Pfeiffer, D C

    2008-04-01

    The morphology and histology of the cetacean adrenal gland are poorly understood. Therefore, this study examined 32 pairs of adrenal glands from 18 pan-tropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) and 14 spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris). In both species, the cortex was pseudolobulated and contained a typical mammalian zonation. Medullary protrusions (0-3 per section) and a medullary band were identified in both species. For S. attenuata, no statistical differences were found in the cortex to medulla (CM) ratio or the percent cross-sectional area (PCA) of the adrenal glands compared with sex or sexual maturity. The mean CM ratio for S. attenuata was 2.34 and the PCA was 64.4% cortex, 29.4% medulla and 6.2%'other'. 'Other' indicates blood vessels, connective tissue and the gland capsule itself. For S. longirostris, there was no statistical difference in the CM ratio compared with sexual maturity. However, a statistical difference was found between the CM ratio and sex, suggesting sexual dimorphism (female CM ratio = 2.46 and males = 3.21). No statistical differences were found in the PCA of S. longirostris adrenal glands by sexual maturity. However, a statistical difference was found between the PCA by sex. Female S. longirostris adrenal glands consisted of 65.0% cortex, 27.3% medulla and 7.7% 'other', whereas male adrenal glands consisted of 71.7% cortex, 22.7% medulla and 5.6% 'other'. PMID:18070242

  20. Multi-scale biomarker evaluation of the toxicity of a commercial azo dye (Disperse Red 1) in an animal model, the freshwater cnidarian Hydra attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Laetitia; Pech, Nicolas; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela; Moreau, Xavier

    2016-06-01

    Acute (24 h, 48 h, 72 h) and chronic (7 days) tests have been performed to evaluate the effects of the commercial azo dye Disperse Red 1 (DR1) using various biomarkers in the freshwater invertebrate Hydra attenuata. Morphological changes have been selected to calculate ecotoxicological thresholds for sublethal and lethal DR1 concentrations. A multinomial logistic model showed that the probability of each morphological stage occurrence was function of concentration, time and interaction between both. Results of oxidative balance parameter measurements (72 h and 7 days) suggest that polyps set up defense mechanisms to limit lipid peroxidation caused by DR1. DR1 exposure at hormetic concentrations induces increase of asexual reproductive rates. This result suggests (1) an impact on the fitness-related phenotypical traits and (2) trade-offs between reproduction and maintenance to allow the population to survive harsher conditions. Changes in serotonin immuno-labeling in polyps showing alterations in feeding behavior suggest that chronic DR1 exposure impaired neuronal processes related to ingesting behavior in H. attenuata. This ecotoxicity study sheds light on the possible serotonin function in Hydra model and reports for the first time that serotonin could play a significant role in feeding behavior. This study used a multi-scale biomarker approach investigating biochemical, morphological, reproductive and behavioral endpoints in Hydra attenuata. This organism is proposed for a pertinent animal model to assess ecotoxicological impact of pollutant mixtures in freshwater environment. PMID:27019466

  1. Jasmonate and ppHsystemin Regulate Key Malonylation Steps in the Biosynthesis of 17-Hydroxygeranyllinalool Diterpene Glycosides, an Abundant and Effective Direct Defense against Herbivores in Nicotiana attenuata[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiling, Sven; Schuman, Meredith C.; Schoettner, Matthias; Mukerjee, Purba; Berger, Beatrice; Schneider, Bernd; Jassbi, Amir R.; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2010-01-01

    We identified 11 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides (HGL-DTGs) that occur in concentrations equivalent to starch (mg/g fresh mass) in aboveground tissues of coyote tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata) and differ in their sugar moieties and malonyl sugar esters (0-2). Concentrations of HGL-DTGs, particularly malonylated compounds, are highest in young and reproductive tissues. Within a tissue, herbivore elicitation changes concentrations and biosynthetic kinetics of individual compounds. Using stably transformed N. attenuata plants silenced in jasmonate production and perception, or production of N. attenuata Hyp-rich glycopeptide systemin precursor by RNA interference, we identified malonylation as the key biosynthetic step regulated by herbivory and jasmonate signaling. We stably silenced N. attenuata geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (ggpps) to reduce precursors for the HGL-DTG skeleton, resulting in reduced total HGL-DTGs and greater vulnerability to native herbivores in the field. Larvae of the specialist tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) grew up to 10 times as large on ggpps silenced plants, and silenced plants suffered significantly more damage from herbivores in N. attenuata's native habitat than did wild-type plants. We propose that high concentrations of HGL-DTGs effectively defend valuable tissues against herbivores and that malonylation may play an important role in regulating the distribution and storage of HGL-DTGs in plants. PMID:20081114

  2. Evolutionary potential and adaptation of Banksia attenuata (Proteaceae) to climate and fire regime in southwestern Australia, a global biodiversity hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tianhua; D’Agui, Haylee; Lim, Sim Lin; Enright, Neal J.; Luo, Yiqi

    2016-05-01

    Substantial climate changes are evident across Australia, with declining rainfall and rising temperature in conjunction with frequent fires. Considerable species loss and range contractions have been predicted; however, our understanding of how genetic variation may promote adaptation in response to climate change remains uncertain. Here we characterized candidate genes associated with rainfall gradients, temperatures, and fire intervals through environmental association analysis. We found that overall population adaptive genetic variation was significantly affected by shortened fire intervals, whereas declining rainfall and rising temperature did not have a detectable influence. Candidate SNPs associated with rainfall and high temperature were diverse, whereas SNPs associated with specific fire intervals were mainly fixed in one allele. Gene annotation further revealed four genes with functions in stress tolerance, the regulation of stomatal opening and closure, energy use, and morphogenesis with adaptation to climate and fire intervals. B. attenuata may tolerate further changes in rainfall and temperature through evolutionary adaptations based on their adaptive genetic variation. However, the capacity to survive future climate change may be compromised by changes in the fire regime.

  3. Mechanisms of Optimal Defense Patterns in Nicotiana attenuata: Flowering Attenuates Herbivory-elicited Ethylene and Jasmonate Signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Celia Diezel; Silke AIImann; lan T. Baldwin

    2011-01-01

    To defend themselves against herbivore attack,plants produce secondary metabolites,which are variously inducible and constitutively deployed,presumably to optimize their fitness benefits in light of their fitness costs.Three phytohormones,jasmonates (JA) and their active forms,the JA-isoleucine (JA-Ile) and ethylene (ET),are known to play central roles in the elicitation of induced defenses,but little is known about how this mediation changes over ontogeny.The Optimal Defense Theory (ODT) predicts changes in the costs and benefits of the different types of defenses and has been usefully extrapolated to their modes of deployment.Here we studied whether the herbivore-induced accumulation of JA,JA-lle and ET changed over ontogeny in Nicotiana attenuata,a native tobacco in which inducible defenses are particularly well studied.Herbivore-elicited ET production changed dramatically during six developmental stages,from rosette through flowering,decreasing with the elongation of the first corollas during flower development.This decrease was largely recovered within a day after flower removal by decapitation.A similar pattern was found for the herbivore-induced accumulation of JA and JA-IIe.These results are consistent with ODT predictions and suggest that the last steps in floral development control the inducibility of at least three plant hormones,optimizing defense-growth tradeoffs.

  4. Cadmium contamination of tissues and organs of delphinids species (Stenella attenuata)--influence of biological and ecological factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, J.M.; Amiard, J.C.; Amiard-Triquet, C.; Boudou, A.; Ribeyre, F. (Universite de Bordeaux I, (France))

    1990-12-01

    Based on a sample of 27 dolphins (Stenella attenuata) captured in the Eastern tropical zone of the Pacific Ocean, this study was carried out to analyze the cadmium accumulation levels and distribution in 12 organs or tissue samples. The average cadmium concentrations were between 0.2 mg Cd.kg-1 in the brain and muscle and 48 mg Cd.kg-1 in the kidneys. For most of organs and tissues the average values were between 1 and 5 mg Cd.kg-1. Kidneys, liver, muscle, and intestine contained almost 85% of the total cadmium burden of all tissues considered in this study. Most of the biological and ecological factors taken into account (age, sex, total weight, and length of the dolphins, weight of the organs, place and date of capture) interacted with the cadmium concentrations and burdens in the collected organs or tissues. Three factors appear to be of prime importance: age, body weight, and geographical location of the area of capture.

  5. Cadmium contamination of tissues and organs of delphinids species (Stenella attenuata)--influence of biological and ecological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, J M; Amiard, J C; Amiard-Triquet, C; Boudou, A; Ribeyre, F

    1990-12-01

    Based on a sample of 27 dolphins (Stenella attenuata) captured in the Eastern tropical zone of the Pacific Ocean, this study was carried out to analyze the cadmium accumulation levels and distribution in 12 organs or tissue samples. The average cadmium concentrations were between 0.2 mg Cd.kg-1 in the brain and muscle and 48 mg Cd.kg-1 in the kidneys. For most of organs and tissues the average values were between 1 and 5 mg Cd.kg-1. Kidneys, liver, muscle, and intestine contained almost 85% of the total cadmium burden of all tissues considered in this study. Most of the biological and ecological factors taken into account (age, sex, total weight, and length of the dolphins, weight of the organs, place and date of capture) interacted with the cadmium concentrations and burdens in the collected organs or tissues. Three factors appear to be of prime importance: age, body weight, and geographical location of the area of capture. PMID:2090444

  6. On the development of Cetacean extremities: II. Morphogenesis and histogenesis of the flippers in the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedmera, D; Misek, I; Klima, M

    1997-04-01

    Externally, the flippers of Cetacea resemble fish fins, but their internal structure is entirely mammalian. They show, however, some adaptative deviations from the typical pattern of the mammalian extremities, the most striking of which is an increased number of phalanges. The aim of this study is to describe the course of the development of flippers in the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) and compare its features with other similar species from an evolutionary perspective. Early stages of flipper development were studied histologically. Differentiation of cartilaginous anlagens of the skeleton progresses proximodistally, condensation in digital rays being evident sooner than chondrogenesis in the carpal region. In one specimen, the temporary presence of cartilaginous rudiments of two carpal elements, which are not found in adults, was observed. At all examined stages, phalangeal number progressively increases up to (radial to ulnar) 3, 7, 7, 5, 3 in the most advanced stage. The reason for this condition is the specialised function of these limb-like structures. It is a classical example of convergence, in which mammalian extremities change their form to emulate the fin function. A similar condition is found in another group of originally terrestrial animals secondarily fully adapted to the aquatic mode of life-Ichyosauria (Reptilia). PMID:9253589

  7. A stranding of pygmy killer whale Feresa attenuata Gray, 1874 on Boavista during February 2012 : first record for the Cape Verde Islands

    OpenAIRE

    López-Suárez, Pedro; Oujo, Carolina; Acre, Matthew; Hazevoet, Cornelis J.

    2015-01-01

    On 10 February 2012, at 0845 UTC, a mass stranding involving seven (six adults and a juvenile) pygmy killer whales Feresa attenuata Gray, 1874 occurred at Praia de Boa Esperança (16º12’26”N, 22º52’00”W), along the northern coast of Boavista island, Cape Verde Islands. The event was witnessed by a group of kite-surfers, who managed to move three animals (two adults and a juvenile) back to the sea. No re-strandings were noted. At 1330 UTC, staff of the Protected Areas Department visited the sit...

  8. Tissue specific diurnal rhythms of metabolites and their regulation during herbivore attack in a native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata.

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    Sang-Gyu Kim

    Full Text Available Ecological performance is all about timing and the endogenous clock that allows the entrainment of rhythms and anticipation of fitness-determining events is being rapidly characterized. How plants anticipate daily abiotic stresses, such as cold in early mornings and drought at noon, as well as biotic stresses, such as the timing of pathogen infections, is being explored, but little is known about the clock's role in regulating responses to insect herbivores and mutualists, whose behaviors are known to be strongly diurnally regulated and whose attack is known to reconfigure plant metabolomes. We developed a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry procedure and analyzed its output with model-based peak picking algorithms to identify metabolites with diurnal accumulation patterns in sink/source leaves and roots in an unbiased manner. The response of metabolites with strong diurnal patterns to simulated attack from the specialist herbivore, Manduca sexta larvae was analyzed and annotated with in-house and public databases. Roots and leaves had largely different rhythms and only 10 ions of 182 oscillating ions in leaves and 179 oscillating ions in roots were rhythmic in both tissues: root metabolites mainly peaked at dusk or night, while leaf metabolites peaked during the day. Many oscillating metabolites showed tissue-specific regulation by simulated herbivory of which systemic responses in unattacked tissues were particularly pronounced. Diurnal and herbivory-elicited accumulation patterns of disaccharide, phenylalanine, tyrosine, lyciumoside I, coumaroyl tyramine, 12-oxophytodienoic acid and jasmonic acid and those of their related biosynthetic transcripts were examined in detail. We conclude that oscillating metabolites of N. attenuata accumulate in a highly tissue-specific manner and the patterns reveal pronounced diurnal rhythms in the generalized and specialized metabolism that mediates the plant's responses to herbivores and mutualists. We

  9. Digestive duet: midgut digestive proteinases of Manduca sexta ingesting Nicotiana attenuata with manipulated trypsin proteinase inhibitor expression.

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    Jorge A Zavala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The defensive effect of endogenous trypsin proteinase inhibitors (NaTPIs on the herbivore Manduca sexta was demonstrated by genetically altering NaTPI production in M. sexta's host plant, Nicotiana attenuata. To understand how this defense works, we studied the effects of NaTPI on M. sexta gut proteinase activity levels in different larval instars of caterpillars feeding freely on untransformed and transformed plants. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Second and third instars larvae that fed on NaTPI-producing (WT genotypes were lighter and had less gut proteinase activity compared to those that fed on genotypes with either little or no NaTPI activity. Unexpectedly, NaTPI activity in vitro assays not only inhibited the trypsin sensitive fraction of gut proteinase activity but also halved the NaTPI-insensitive fraction in third-instar larvae. Unable to degrade NaTPI, larvae apparently lacked the means to adapt to NaTPI in their diet. However, caterpillars recovered at least part of their gut proteinase activity when they were transferred from NaTPI-producing host plants to NaTPI-free host plants. In addition extracts of basal leaves inhibited more gut proteinase activity than did extracts of middle stem leaves with the same protein content. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: Although larvae can minimize the effects of high NaTPI levels by feeding on leaves with high protein and low NaTPI activity, the host plant's endogenous NaTPIs remain an effective defense against M. sexta, inhibiting gut proteinase and affecting larval performance.

  10. [Occurrence and behavioral patterns of the spotted coastal dolphin Stenella attenuata (Cetacea: delphinidae) in the Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Collado, Laura; Ramírez, Alvaro Morales

    2005-01-01

    Dolphins are characterized by a significant behavioral versatility, which allows them to respond to environmental seasonality. Seasonal variation in dolphin behavior in tropical waters is not well known. Stenella attenuata graffmani is a resident dolphin in the clearly defined seasonal Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica, and we studied if dolphin group size, occurrence and behavioral patterns were associated with season and time of day in the gulf. Using strip transects we surveyed two locations for three consecutive years. School size ranged from 1 to 50 individuals, mean group size was 10.16 (SD = 9.61) individuals. Overall, foraging activities were the most frequent, followed by social interactions and travel. From 6:00 AM to 9:00 AM we mostly observed social interactions, followed by feeding-socializing (9:00 AM-12:00 PM) and feeding exclusively (12:00 PM-3:00 PM). Social activities intensified afterwards (3:00 PM-6:00 PM). Behavior and gulf seasonality were associated (chi2 = 90.52, gl = 6, p<0.05, n = 99). In the dry season (December-April) feeding predominated over other activities, but socializing was more frequent in the early rainy season (May-July). Larger groups (mean 12 dolphins) forage actively; smaller groups (mean 6 dolphins 6.51 +/- 5.12) foraged more passively. Seasonal variation in dolphin activities are likely to be associated with food availability, as observed in the high number of groups involved in foraging behaviors, and a high investment in foraging activities during the dry season. PMID:17354439

  11. Up in smoke: II. Germination ofNicotiana attenuata in response to smoke-derived cues and nutrients in burned and unburned soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, I T; Morse, L

    1994-09-01

    Nicotiana attenuata is a native tobacco that is commonly found usually one growing season after fires in the blackbrush, sagebrush and pinyon-juniper forests of the Great Basin desert of North America. This plant also occurs in isolated dry washes and roadsides for many consecutive seasons. Postfire annuals are thought to synchronize their germination from the seed bank with the postfire environment in response to increases in (1) fire-related cues or (2) nutrient supply rates resulting from the mineralization of nutrients by fire, or (3) the removal of allelochemicals produced by the dominant vegetation occupying the sites before the burn or the microbial community associated with the dominant vegetation. We examine the effect of these three changes on the germination ofN. attenuata seed from artificial seed banks made with burned and unburned soil taken in 1993 from under four dominant shrub species (Coleogyne ramosissima, Yucca baccata, Lycium andersonnii, Purshia tridentata) of an area that burned in 1992 and from two dry washes in whichN. attenuata populations have persisted since at least 1988. We utilize our recent discovery that aqueous extracts of wood smoke contain potent germination cue(s) for this species and the established observation that nitrate stimulates germination in manyNicotiana species. In two experiments, we added smoke-derived germination cues and nutrients separately and in combinations to the artificial seed banks, measured germination rates, and inferred the effect of burning by the response of the seed banks to these additions. Germination rates of seed in burned soil were consistently higher than those in unburned soil collected from under all species tested; concentrations of nitrate, P, Mn, and Ca were also higher in burned than unburned soils. Because the addition of more cue and nitrate to burned soil increased germination rates, these soil components may not be at concentrations sufficient to saturate the germination response one

  12. Environmental factors governing the distribution of the bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) in Golfo Dulce, South Pacific, off Costa Rica Factores ambientales que gobiernan la distribución del delfín bufeo (Tursiops truncatus) y del delfín manchado (Stenella attenuata) en el Golfo Dulce, Pacífico sur de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Priscilla Cubero-Pardo

    2007-01-01

    This study, conducted from June 1996 to July 1997, was directed at determining the abiotic environmental factors governing the distribution of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the pan-tropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) in Golfo Dulce. The spotted dolphin was associated with significantly deeper zones (t-test = -9.761; p < 0.001, n = 202) and with higher salinity (t-test = -3.538; p = 0.001; n = 202) than the bottlenose dolphin. The combination of environmental variab...

  13. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing Using Tobacco Rattle Virus as a Tool to Study the Interaction between Nicotiana attenuata and Rhizophagus irregularis.

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    Karin Groten

    Full Text Available Most land plants live in a symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF that belong to the phylum Glomeromycota. Although a number of plant genes involved in the plant-AMF interactions have been identified by analyzing mutants, the ability to rapidly manipulate gene expression to study the potential functions of new candidate genes remains unrealized. We analyzed changes in gene expression of wild tobacco roots (Nicotiana attenuata after infection with mycorrhizal fungi (Rhizophagus irregularis by serial analysis of gene expression (SuperSAGE combined with next generation sequencing, and established a virus-induced gene-silencing protocol to study the function of candidate genes in the interaction. From 92,434 SuperSAGE Tag sequences, 32,808 (35% matched with our in-house Nicotiana attenuata transcriptome database and 3,698 (4% matched to Rhizophagus genes. In total, 11,194 Tags showed a significant change in expression (p2-fold change after infection. When comparing the functions of highly up-regulated annotated Tags in this study with those of two previous large-scale gene expression studies, 18 gene functions were found to be up-regulated in all three studies mainly playing roles related to phytohormone metabolism, catabolism and defense. To validate the function of identified candidate genes, we used the technique of virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS to silence the expression of three putative N. attenuata genes: germin-like protein, indole-3-acetic acid-amido synthetase GH3.9 and, as a proof-of-principle, calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK. The silencing of the three plant genes in roots was successful, but only CCaMK silencing had a significant effect on the interaction with R. irregularis. Interestingly, when a highly activated inoculum was used for plant inoculation, the effect of CCaMK silencing on fungal colonization was masked, probably due to trans-complementation. This study demonstrates that

  14. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing Using Tobacco Rattle Virus as a Tool to Study the Interaction between Nicotiana attenuata and Rhizophagus irregularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groten, Karin; Pahari, Nabin T; Xu, Shuqing; Miloradovic van Doorn, Maja; Baldwin, Ian T

    2015-01-01

    Most land plants live in a symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that belong to the phylum Glomeromycota. Although a number of plant genes involved in the plant-AMF interactions have been identified by analyzing mutants, the ability to rapidly manipulate gene expression to study the potential functions of new candidate genes remains unrealized. We analyzed changes in gene expression of wild tobacco roots (Nicotiana attenuata) after infection with mycorrhizal fungi (Rhizophagus irregularis) by serial analysis of gene expression (SuperSAGE) combined with next generation sequencing, and established a virus-induced gene-silencing protocol to study the function of candidate genes in the interaction. From 92,434 SuperSAGE Tag sequences, 32,808 (35%) matched with our in-house Nicotiana attenuata transcriptome database and 3,698 (4%) matched to Rhizophagus genes. In total, 11,194 Tags showed a significant change in expression (p2-fold change) after infection. When comparing the functions of highly up-regulated annotated Tags in this study with those of two previous large-scale gene expression studies, 18 gene functions were found to be up-regulated in all three studies mainly playing roles related to phytohormone metabolism, catabolism and defense. To validate the function of identified candidate genes, we used the technique of virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to silence the expression of three putative N. attenuata genes: germin-like protein, indole-3-acetic acid-amido synthetase GH3.9 and, as a proof-of-principle, calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK). The silencing of the three plant genes in roots was successful, but only CCaMK silencing had a significant effect on the interaction with R. irregularis. Interestingly, when a highly activated inoculum was used for plant inoculation, the effect of CCaMK silencing on fungal colonization was masked, probably due to trans-complementation. This study demonstrates that large

  15. Getting to know you: Identification of pygmy killer whales (Feresa attenuata and melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra under challenging conditions

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    Salvatore Siciliano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra and Pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata are very poorly known species and are often confused with each other. We examined in detail Figure 3 in MARIGO and GIFFONI (2010 who reported that two melon-headed whales were taken in a surface driftnet about 90 nm off Santos, Brazil. We concluded they were in fact pygmy killer whales and explain our reasoning. To aid in future identifications, we illustrate and describe some of the main differences between these two species of small cetaceans. The incident reported by MARIGO and GIFFONI (2010 might represent the 'tip of the iceberg' regarding the incidental catches of cetaceans by pelagic drift nets off Brazil. Offshore driftnetting operating along the south-southeastern coast of Brazil may threaten pygmy killer whales.

  16. Diverting the flux of the JA pathway in Nicotiana attenuata compromises the plant's defense metabolism and fitness in nature and glasshouse.

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    Michael Stitz

    Full Text Available A plant's inducible defenses against herbivores as well as certain developmental processes are known to be controlled by the jasmonic acid (JA pathway. We have previously shown that ectopically expressing Arabidopsis thaliana JA O-methyltransferase in Nicotiana attenuata (35S-jmt strongly reduces the herbivory-elicited jasmonate bursts by acting as metabolic sink that redirects free JA towards methylation; here we examine the consequences of this metabolic sink on N. attenuata's secondary metabolism and performance in nature. In the glasshouse, 35S-jmt plants produced fewer seed capsules due to shorter floral styles, which could be restored to wild type (WT levels after hand-pollination, and were more susceptible to Manduca sexta larvae attack. When transplanted into the Great Basin Desert in Utah, 35S-jmt plants grew as well as WT empty vector, but were highly attacked by native herbivores of different feeding guilds: leaf chewers, miners, and single cell feeders. This greater susceptibility was strongly associated with reduced emissions of volatile organic compounds (hexenylesters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes and profound alterations in the production of direct defenses (trypsin proteinase inhibitors [TPI], nicotine, diterpene glycosides [DTGs] and phenylpropanoid-polyamine conjugates as revealed by a combination of targeted and metabolomics analyses of field collected samples. Complementation experiments with JA-Ile, whose formation is outcompeted in 35S-jmt plants by the methylation reaction, restored the local TPI activation to WT levels and partially complemented nicotine and DTG levels in elicited but not systemic leaves. These findings demonstrate that MeJA, the major JA metabolite in 35S-jmt plants, is not an active signal in defense activation and highlights the value of creating JA sinks to disrupt JA signaling, without interrupting the complete octadecanoid pathway, in order to investigate the regulation of plants' defense

  17. Up in smoke: I. Smoke-derived germination cues for postfire annual,Nicotiana attenuata torr. Ex. Watson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, I T; Staszak-Kozinski, L; Davidson, R

    1994-09-01

    Some postfire annuals with dormant seeds use heat or chemical cues from charred wood to synchronize their germination with the postfire environment. We report that wood smoke and polar extracts of wood smoke, but not the ash of burned wood, contain potent cue(s) that stimulate germination in the postfire annual plant,Nicotiana attenuata. We examined the responses of seeds from six populations of plants from southwest Utah to extracts of smoke and found the proportion of viable seeds that germinated in the presence of smoke cues to vary between populations but to be consistent between generations. With the most dormant genotypes, we examine three mechanisms by which smoke-derived chemical cues may stimulate germination (chemical scarification of the seed coat and nutritive- and signal-mediated stimulation of germination) and report that the response is consistent with the signal-mediated mechanism. The germination cue(s) found in smoke are produced by the burning of hay, hardwood branches, leaves, and, to a lesser degree, cellulose. Moreover, the cues are found in the common food condiment, "liquid smoke," and we find no significant differences between brands. With a bioassay-driven fractionation of liquid smoke, we identified 71 compounds in active fractions by GC-MS and AA spectrometry. However, when these compounds were tested in pure form or in combinations that mimicked the composition of active fractions over a range of concentrations, they failed to stimulate germination to the same degree that smoke fractions did. Moreover, enzymatic oxidation of some of these compounds also failed to stimulate germination. In addition, we tested 43 additional compounds also reported from smoke, 85 compounds that were structurally similar to those reported from smoke and 34 compounds reported to influence germination in other species. Of the 233 compounds tested, 16 proved to inhibit germination at the concentrations tested, and none reproduced the activity of wood smoke. By

  18. Molecular interactions between the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta (lepidoptera, sphingidae) and its natural host Nicotiana attenuata. VI. Microarray analysis reveals that most herbivore-specific transcriptional changes are mediated by fatty acid-amino acid conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halitschke, Rayko; Gase, Klaus; Hui, Dequan; Schmidt, Dominik D; Baldwin, Ian T

    2003-04-01

    Evidence is accumulating that insect-specific plant responses are mediated by constituents in the oral secretions and regurgitants (R) of herbivores, however the relative importance of the different potentially active constituents remains unclear. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) are found in the R of many insect herbivores and have been shown to be necessary and sufficient to elicit a set of herbivore-specific responses when the native tobacco plant Nicotiana attenuata is attacked by the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Attack by this specialist herbivore results in a large transcriptional reorganization in N. attenuata, and 161 genes have been cloned from previous cDNA differential display-polymerase chain reaction and subtractive hybridization with magnetic beads analysis. cDNAs of these genes, in addition to those of 73 new R-responsive genes identified by cDNA-amplified fragment-length polymorphism display of R-elicited plants, were spotted on polyepoxide coated glass slides to create microarrays highly enriched in Manduca spp.- and R-induced genes. With these microarrays, we compare transcriptional responses in N. attenuata treated with R from the two most damaging lepidopteran herbivores of this plant in nature, M. sexta and Manduca quinquemaculata, which have very similar FAC compositions in their R, and with the two most abundant FACs in Manduca spp. R. More than 68% of the genes up- and down-regulated by M. sexta R were similarly regulated by M. quinquemaculata R. A majority of genes up-regulated (64%) and down-regulated (49%) by M. sexta R were similarly regulated by treatment with the two FACs. In contrast, few genes showed similar transcriptional changes after H(2)O(2)- and R-treatment. These results demonstrate that the two most abundant FACs in Manduca spp. R can account for the majority of Manduca spp.-induced alterations of the wound response of N. attenuata. PMID:12692348

  19. Identification and profiling of miRNAs during herbivory reveals jasmonate-dependent and -independent patterns of accumulation in Nicotiana attenuata

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    Bozorov Tohir A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant microRNAs (miRNAs play key roles in the transcriptional responses to environmental stresses. However, the role of miRNAs in responses to insect herbivory has not been thoroughly explored. To identify herbivory-responsive miRNAs, we identified conserved miRNAs in the ecological model plant Nicotiana attenuata whose interactions with herbivores have been well-characterized in both laboratory and field studies. Results We identified 59 miRNAs from 36 families, and two endogenous trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasiRNA targeted by miRNAs. We characterized the response of the precursor and mature miRNAs to simulated attack from the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta by quantitative PCR analysis and used ir-aoc RNAi transformants, deficient in jasmonate biosynthesis, to identify jasmonate-dependent and -independent miRNA regulation. Expression analysis revealed that groups of miRNAs and tasiRNAs were specifically regulated by either mechanical wounding or wounding plus oral secretions from M. sexta larvae, and these small RNAs were accumulated in jasmonate-dependent or -independent manners. Moreover, cDNA microarray analysis indicated that the expression patterns of the corresponding target genes were correlated with the accumulation of miRNAs and tasiRNAs. Conclusions We show that a group of miRNAs and tasiRNAs orchestrates the expression of target genes involved in N. attenuata’s responses to herbivore attack.

  20. 狐尾龙舌兰的组织培养和快速繁殖%Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation of Agave attenuata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 杨建芬; 张朝成

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 植物名称狐尾龙舌兰(Agave attenuata). 2 材料类别幼芽、幼叶片. #3 培养条件诱导芽分化和继代培养基:(1)MS+6-BA 0.5 mg*L-1(单位下同)+NAA 0.05, (2)MS+6-BA 2+NAA 0.05, (3)MS+6-BA 2+KT 2+ZT 0.5+CH 250;诱导生根培养基:(4)1/2MS+IBA 2,(5)1/2MS+IBA 2+NAA 0.75+CH 250.每种培养基均附加3%蔗糖和0.65%琼脂,pH 5.8.培养温度为(25±1)℃,每天光照16 h,光照度2 000 lx左右.

  1. The Sesquiterpenes(E-ß-Farnesene and (E-α-Bergamotene Quench Ozone but Fail to Protect the Wild Tobacco Nicotiana attenuata from Ozone, UVB, and Drought Stresses.

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    Evan C Palmer-Young

    Full Text Available Among the terpenes, isoprene (C5 and monoterpene hydrocarbons (C10 have been shown to ameliorate abiotic stress in a number of plant species via two proposed mechanisms: membrane stabilization and direct antioxidant effects. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (C15 not only share the structural properties thought to lend protective qualities to isoprene and monoterpene hydrocarbons, but also react rapidly with ozone, suggesting that sesquiterpenes may similarly enhance tolerance of abiotic stresses. To test whether sesquiterpenes protect plants against ozone, UVB light, or drought, we used transgenic lines of the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata. The transgenic plants expressed a maize terpene synthase gene (ZmTPS10 which produced a blend of (E-ß-farnesene and (E-α-bergamotene, or a point mutant of the same gene (ZmTPS10M which produced (E-ß-farnesene alone,. (E-ß-farnesene exerted a local, external, and transient ozone-quenching effect in ozone-fumigated chambers, but we found no evidence that enhanced sesquiterpene production by the plant inhibited oxidative damage, or maintained photosynthetic function or plant fitness under acute or chronic stress. Although the sesquiterpenes (E-ß-farnesene and (E-α-bergamotene might confer benefits under intermittent heat stress, which was not tested, any roles in relieving abiotic stress may be secondary to their previously demonstrated functions in biotic interactions.

  2. A Nicotiana attenuata cell wall invertase inhibitor (NaCWII) reduces growth and increases secondary metabolite biosynthesis in herbivore-attacked plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrieri, Abigail P; Arce, Carla C M; Machado, Ricardo A R; Meza-Canales, Ivan D; Lima, Eraldo; Baldwin, Ian T; Erb, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Plant invertases are sucrolytic enzymes that are essential for the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and source-sink relationships. While their activity has been well documented during abiotic and biotic stresses, the role of proteinaceous invertase inhibitors in regulating these changes is unknown. Here, we identify a putative Nicotiana attenuata cell wall invertase inhibitor (NaCWII) which is strongly up-regulated in a jasmonate (JA)-dependent manner following simulated attack by the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta. To understand the role of NaCWII in planta, we silenced its expression by RNA interference and measured changes in primary and secondary metabolism and plant growth following simulated herbivory. NaCWII-silenced plants displayed a stronger depletion of carbohydrates and a reduced capacity to increase secondary metabolite pools relative to their empty vector control counterparts. This coincided with the attenuation of herbivore-induced CWI inhibition and growth suppression characteristic of wild-type plants. Together our findings suggest that NaCWII may act as a regulatory switch located downstream of JA accumulation which fine-tunes the plant's balance between growth and defense metabolism under herbivore attack. Although carbohydrates are not typically viewed as key factors in plant growth and defense, our study shows that interfering with their catabolism strongly influences plant responses to herbivory. PMID:26017581

  3. Molecular interactions between the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and its natural host Nicotiana attenuata. IV. Insect-Induced ethylene reduces jasmonate-induced nicotine accumulation by regulating putrescine N-methyltransferase transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winz, R A; Baldwin, I T

    2001-04-01

    Attack by the specialist herbivore, Manduca sexta, on its native host Nicotiana attenuata Torr. ex Wats. produces a dramatic ethylene release, a jasmonate burst, and a suppression of the nicotine accumulation that results from careful simulations of the herbivore's damage. Methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) treatment induces nicotine biosynthesis. However, this induction can be suppressed by ethylene as pretreatment of plants with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), a competitive inhibitor of ethylene receptors, restores the full MeJA-induced nicotine response in herbivore attacked plants (J. Kahl, D.H. Siemens, R.J. Aerts, R. Gäbler, F. Kühnemann, C.A. Preston, I.T. Baldwin [2000] Planta 210: 336-342). To understand whether this herbivore-induced signal cross-talk occurs at the level of transcript accumulation, we cloned the putrescine methyltransferase genes (NaPMT1 and NaPMT2) of N. attenuata, which are thought to represent the rate limiting step in nicotine biosynthesis, and measured transcript accumulations by northern analysis after various jasmonate, 1-MCP, ethephon, and herbivory treatments. Transcripts of both root putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) genes and nicotine accumulation increased dramatically within 10 h of shoot MeJA treatment and immediately after root treatments. Root ethephon treatments suppressed this response, which could be reversed by 1-MCP pretreatment. Moreover, 1-MCP pretreatment dramatically amplified the transcript accumulation resulting from both wounding and M. sexta herbivory. We conclude that attack from this nicotine-tolerant specialist insect causes N. attenuata to produce ethylene, which directly suppresses the nitrogen-intensive biosynthesis of nicotine. PMID:11299398

  4. Herbivore defense responses and associated herbivore defense mechanism as revealed by comparing a resistant wild soybean with a susceptible cultivar

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    Xiaoyi Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved sophisticated defense mechanisms against herbivores to help them adapt to the environment. Understanding the defense mechanisms in plants can help us control insects in a more effective manner. In this study, we found that compared with Tianlong 2 (a cultivated soybean with insect susceptibility, ED059 (a wild soybean line with insect resistance contains sharper pubescence tips, as well as lower transcript levels of wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK and salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK, which are important mitogen-activated protein kinases involved in early defense response to herbivores. The observed lower transcript levels of WIPK and SIPK induced higher levels of jasmonic acid (JA, JA biosynthesis enzymes (AOC3 and some secondary metabolites in ED059. Functional analysis of the KTI1 gene via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana indicated that it plays an important role in herbivore defense in ED059. We further investigated the molecular response of third-instar Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner larvae to Tianlong 2 and ED059. We found apoptotic cells only in the midguts of larvae that fed on ED059. Compared with larvae reared on the susceptible cultivar Tianlong 2, transcript levels of catalase (CAT and glutathione S-transferase (GST were up-regulated, whereas those of CAR, CHSB, and TRY were down-regulated in larvae that fed on the highly resistant variety ED059. We propose that these differences underlie the different herbivore defense responses of ED059 and Tianlong 2.

  5. ISSR and AFLP analysis of the temporal and spatial population structure of the post-fire annual, Nicotiana attenuata, in SW Utah

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    Preston Catherine A

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The native annual tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, is found primarily in large ephemeral populations (typically for less than 3 growing seasons after fires in sagebrush and pinyon-juniper ecosystems and in small persistent populations (for many growing seasons in isolated washes typically along roadsides throughout the Great Basin Desert of the SW USA. This distribution pattern is due to its unusual germination behavior. Ephemeral populations are produced by the germination of dormant seeds from long-lived seed banks which are stimulated to germinate by a combination of unidentified positive cues found in wood smoke and the removal of inhibitors leached from the unburned litter of the dominant vegetation. Persistent populations may result where these inhibitors do not exist, as in washes or along disturbed roadsides. To determine if this germination behavior has influenced population structure, we conducted an AFLP (244 individuals, ISSR (175 individuals and ISSR+ AFLP (175 individuals analysis on plants originating from seed collected from populations growing in 11 wash and burns over 11 years from the SW USA. Results Genetic variance as measured by both ISSR and AFLP markers was low among sites and comparatively higher within populations. Cluster analysis of the Utah samples with samples collected from Arizona, California, and Oregon as out-groups also did not reveal patterns. AMOVA analysis of the combined AFLP and ISSR data sets yielded significantly low genetic differentiation among sites (Φct, moderate among populations within sites (Φsc and higher genetic differentiation within populations (Φst. Conclusions We conclude that the seed dormancy of this post-fire annual and its resulting age structure in conjunction with natural selection processes are responsible for significantly low among sites and comparatively high within-population genetic variation observed in this species.

  6. The post-pollination ethylene burst and the continuation of floral advertisement are harbingers of non-random mate selection in Nicotiana attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Samik; Baldwin, Ian T

    2012-08-01

    The self-compatible plant Nicotiana attenuata grows in genetically diverse populations after fires, and produces flowers that remain open for 3 days and are visited by assorted pollinators. To determine whether and when post-pollination non-random mate selection occurs among self and non-self pollen, seed paternity and semi-in vivo pollen tube growth were determined in controlled single/mixed pollinations. Despite all pollen sources being equally proficient in siring seeds in single-genotype pollinations, self pollen was consistently selected in mixed pollinations, irrespective of maternal genotype. However, clear patterns of mate discrimination occurred amongst non-self pollen when mixed pollinations were performed soon after corollas open, including selection against hygromycin B resistance (transformation selectable marker) in wild-type styles and for it in transformed styles. However, mate choice among pollen genotypes was completely shut down in plants transformed to be unable to produce (irACO) or perceive (ETR1) ethylene. The post-pollination ethylene burst, which originates primarily from the stigma and upper style, was strongly correlated with mate selection in single and mixed hand-pollinations using eight pollen donors in two maternal ecotypes. The post-pollination ethylene burst was also negatively correlated with the continuation of emission of benzylacetone, the most abundant pollinator-attracting corolla-derived floral volatile. We conclude that ethylene signaling plays a pivotal role in mate choice, and the post-pollination ethylene burst and the termination of benzylacetone release are accurate predictors, both qualitatively and quantitatively, of pre-zygotic mate selection and seed paternity. PMID:22458597

  7. Whistle characteristics and daytime dive behavior in pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) in Hawai'i measured using digital acoustic recording tags (DTAGs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tammy L; Mooney, T Aran; Sayigh, Laela S; Tyack, Peter L; Baird, Robin W; Oswald, Julie N

    2016-07-01

    This study characterizes daytime acoustic and dive behavior of pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) in Hawai'i using 14.58 h of data collected from five deployments of digital acoustic recording tags (DTAG3) in 2013. For each tagged animal, the number of whistles, foraging buzzes, dive profiles, and dive statistics were calculated. Start, end, minimum, and maximum frequencies, number of inflection points and duration were measured from 746 whistles. Whistles ranged in frequency from 9.7 ± 2.8 to 19.8 ± 4.2 kHz, had a mean duration of 0.7 ± 0.5 s and a mean of 1.2 ± 1.2 inflection points. Thirteen foraging buzzes were recorded across all tags. Mean dive depth and duration were 16 ± 9 m and 1.9 ± 1.0 min, respectively. Tagged animals spent the majority of time in the upper 10 m (76.9% ± 16.1%) of the water column. Both whistle frequency characteristics and dive statistics measured here were similar to previously reported values for spotted dolphins in Hawai'i. Shallow, short dive profiles combined with few foraging buzzes provide evidence that little spotted dolphin feeding behavior occurs during daytime hours. This work represents one of the first successful DTAG3 studies of small pelagic delphinids, providing rare insights into baseline bioacoustics and dive behavior. PMID:27475166

  8. [Distribution and environmental conditions related to the behavior in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) (Cetacea: Delphinidae) in Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero-Pardo, Priscilla

    2007-06-01

    Habitat characteristics influencing behavior in animal species vary locally. The influence that a particular environmental characteristic can have on a species depends not only on other variables, but on morphological, physiological and social conditions of that species. In this study, developed from June 1996 to July 1997, I studied whether specific behaviors are related to particular distribution areas and environmental factors in the bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The study area was covered along oblicuous linear transects, and the behavior of single groups was observed from 15 min to 5 h. Environmental factors such as depth, temperature, salinity and distance from shore, among others, were considered. For the bottlenose dolphin, foraging/feeding activities showed exclusive coincidence with river mouths, coral reef and mangrove areas, while social and milling activities where seen close to feeding areas. Traveling occurred along different points parallel to the coast, with a low percentage of cases across the gulf (16.56 %), suggesting that the bottlenose rarely crosses from one side to the other. In the spotted dolphin, several behaviors were observed simultaneously in the schools and it was not possible to associate areas with particular behaviors. The lack of significant relationships among activities and particular environmental variables (ANOVA tests) is attributed to three aspects: (a) transitions among activities generally occurred into a low variable area, (b) dolphins often traveled along large areas without changing activities and (c) environmental conditions in Golfo Dulce are homogeneous. In the two species the highest average in the number of individuals per group corresponded to the category of active socializing, followed by traveling, passive socializing and feeding. In the case of the bottlenose dolphin, the smallest group size was associated with feeding activities (ANOVA, F= 2.624, p=0.037, n=156

  9. Molecular interactions between the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and its natural host Nicotiana attenuata. VII. Changes in the plant's proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Ashok P; Wünsche, Hendrik; Mitra, Sirsha; Zavala, Jorge A; Muck, Alexander; Svatos, Ales; Baldwin, Ian T

    2006-12-01

    When Manduca sexta attacks Nicotiana attenuata, fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) in the larvae's oral secretions (OS) are introduced into feeding wounds. These FACs trigger a transcriptional response that is similar to the response induced by insect damage. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we characterized the proteins in phenolic extracts and in a nuclear fraction of leaves elicited by larval attack, and/or in leaves wounded and treated with OS, FAC-free OS, and synthetic FACs. Phenolic extracts yielded approximately 600 protein spots, many of which were altered by elicitation, whereas nuclear protein fractions yielded approximately 100 spots, most of which were unchanged by elicitation. Reproducible elicitor-induced changes in 90 spots were characterized. In general, proteins that increased were involved in primary metabolism, defense, and transcriptional and translational regulation; those that decreased were involved in photosynthesis. Like the transcriptional defense responses, proteomic changes were strongly elicited by the FACs in OS. A semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR approach based on peptide sequences was used to compare transcript and protein accumulation patterns for 17 candidate proteins. In six cases the patterns of elicited transcript accumulation were consistent with those of elicited protein accumulation. Functional analysis of one of the identified proteins involved in photosynthesis, RuBPCase activase, was accomplished by virus-induced gene silencing. Plants with decreased levels of RuBPCase activase protein had reduced photosynthetic rates and RuBPCase activity, and less biomass, responses consistent with those of herbivore-attacked plants. We conclude that the response of the plant's proteome to herbivore elicitation is complex, and integrated transcriptome-proteome-metabolome analysis is required to fully

  10. An investigation into the acute and chronic toxicity of eleven pharmaceuticals (and their solvents) found in wastewater effluent on the cnidarian, Hydra attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Brian; Gagné, François; Blaise, Christian

    2008-01-25

    Pharmaceuticals previously identified in the effluent from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Montreal discharging into the St. Lawrence river, were tested for acute and chronic toxicity using the cnidarian Hydra attenuata. Acute toxicity was based on the established technique looking at morphological changes in the Hydra, while recently developed endpoints of feeding behaviour, attachment and growth (hydranth number) were used to measure chronic effects. The compounds under investigation (ibuprofen, naproxen, gemfibrozil, bezafibrate, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfapyridine, oxytetracycline, novobiocin, trimethoprim and caffeine) were tested individually in controlled laboratory exposures with LC(50) and EC(50) results calculated. All compounds tested had relatively high LC(50) values with gemfibrozil, ibuprofen and naproxen having the lowest at 22.36 mg/L and EC(50) values based on morphology of 1.18 to 2.62 mg/L (all concentrations are nominal). The EC(50) values based on feeding were similar to those based on morphology but with increased sensitivity for carbamazepine, bezafibrate and novobiocin. A trend of a reduction in feeding with deterioration in morphology was observed in the Hydra, with the exception of novobiocin, where a lower than expected EC(50) of 13.53 mg/L was found with no negative effect on morphology. Significant reductions in attachment and hydranth number were seen at concentrations of 1 and 5 mg/L for gemfibrozil and ibuprofen respectively. A toxicity threshold (TT) of 320 microg/L was calculated for ibuprofen, only a factor of 10(2) or 10 higher than the concentration found in the effluent in the present study (1.19 mug/L) and in other Canadian effluents studied (22 microg/L [Brun GL, Bernier M, Losier R, Doe K, Jackman P, Lee HB, Pharmaceutically active compounds in Atlantic Canadian sewage treatment plant effluents and receiving waters and potential for environmental effects as measured by acute and chronic aquatic toxicity

  11. Molecular interactions between the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and its natural host Nicotiana attenuata. I. Large-scale changes in the accumulation of growth- and defense-related plant mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsmeier, D; Schittko, U; Baldwin, I T

    2001-02-01

    Plants respond to herbivore attack with a dramatic functional reorganization that involves the activation of direct and indirect defenses and tolerance, which in turn make large demands on primary metabolism. Here we provide the first characterization of the transcriptional reorganization that occurs after insect attack in a model plant-herbivore system: Nicotiana attenuata Torr. ex Wats.-Manduca sexta. We used mRNA differential display to characterize one-twentieth of the insect-responsive transcriptome of N. attenuata and verified differential expression for 27 cDNAs. Northern analyses were used to study the effects of folivory and exposure to airborne methyl jasmonate and for kinetic analyses throughout a 16-h- light/8-h-dark cycle. Sequence similarity searches allowed putative functions to be assigned to 15 transcripts. Genes were related to photosynthesis, electron transport, cytoskeleton, carbon and nitrogen metabolism, signaling, and a group responding to stress, wounding, or invasion of pathogens. Overall, transcripts involved in photosynthesis were strongly down-regulated, whereas those responding to stress, wounding, and pathogens and involved in shifting carbon and nitrogen to defense were strongly up-regulated. The majority of transcripts responded similarly to airborne methyl jasmonate and folivory, and had tissue- and diurnal-specific patterns of expression. Transcripts encoding Thr deaminase (TD) and a putative retrotransposon were absent in control plants, but were strongly induced after herbivory. Full-length sequences were obtained for TD and the pathogen-inducible alpha-dioxygenase, PIOX. Effects of abiotic and biotic stimuli were investigated for transcripts encoding TD, importin alpha, PIOX, and a GAL83-like kinase cofactor. PMID:11161026

  12. Cytokinin concentrations and CHASE-DOMAIN CONTAINING HIS KINASE 2 (NaCHK2)- and NaCHK3-mediated perception modulate herbivory-induced defense signaling and defenses in Nicotiana attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Martin; Meza-Canales, Ivan D; Brütting, Christoph; Baldwin, Ian T; Meldau, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Herbivore attack elicits changes in cytokinins (CKs), but how these changes influence defense signaling remains poorly described. We investigated the influence of the CK pathway on the well-described inducible defense pathways of Nicotiana attenuata in response to wounding with and without elicitors from the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta. CK pathway manipulation often suffers from substantial side effects on plant growth and development. We therefore used multiple manipulation tools including spray application of CKs, chemically-inducible expression of the CK biosynthesis enzyme isopentenyltransferase, and transient and constitutive RNAi-mediated gene silencing of CK receptors to resolve the function of CKs in plant defense. The results demonstrated that CK concentrations in leaves and perception through CHASE-DOMAIN CONTAINING HIS KINASE 2 (NaCHK2) and NaCHK3 were important for the accumulation of jasmonic acid (JA) and phenolamides and proteinase inhibitor activity. By contrast, the CK pathway did not promote the accumulation of the active JA-isoleucine conjugate and negatively regulated the release of specific green leaf volatile esters. Interestingly, CK signaling also promotes the systemic phenolamide accumulation. We conclude that the CK pathway is an important regulator of herbivory-inducible defense signaling and chemistry, which expands its reported participation in adjusting a plant's physiology to abiotic and biotic stress responses. PMID:25919325

  13. Molecular interactions between the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and its natural host Nicotiana attenuata. III. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates in herbivore oral secretions are necessary and sufficient for herbivore-specific plant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halitschke, R; Schittko, U; Pohnert, G; Boland, W; Baldwin, I T

    2001-02-01

    Feeding by the tobacco specialist Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and application of larval oral secretions and regurgitant (R) to mechanical wounds are known to elicit: (a) a systemic release of mono- and sesquiterpenes, (b) a jasmonate burst, and (c) R-specific changes in transcript accumulation of putatively growth- and defense-related mRNAs in Nicotiana attenuata Torr. ex Wats. We identified several fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) in the R of M. sexta and the closely related species Manduca quinquemaculata which, when synthesized and applied to mechanical wounds at concentrations comparable with those found in R, elicited all three R-specific responses. Ion-exchange treatment of R, which removed all detectable FACs and free fatty acids (FAs), also removed all detectable activity. The biological activity of ion-exchanged R could be completely restored by the addition of synthetic FACs at R-equivalent concentrations, whereas the addition of FAs did not restore the biological activity of R. We conclude that the biological activity of R is not related to the supply of FAs to the octadecanoid cascade for endogenous jasmonate biosynthesis, but that FACs elicit the herbivore-specific responses by another mechanism and that the insect-produced modification of plant-derived FAs is necessary for the plant's recognition of this specialized herbivore. PMID:11161028

  14. Silencing Brassinosteroid Receptor BRI1 Impairs Herbivory-elicited Accumulation of Jasmonic Acid-isoleucine and Diterpene Glycosides, but not Jasmonic Acid and Trypsin Proteinase Inhibitors in Nicotiana attenuata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Hai Yang; lan T.Baldwin; Jianqiang Wu

    2013-01-01

    The brassinosteroid (BR) receptor,BR insensitive 1 (BRI1),plays a critical role in plant development,but whether BRI1-mediated BR signaling is involved in plant defense responses to herbivores was largely unknown.Here,we examined the function of BRI1 in the resistance of Nicotiana attenuata (Solanaceae) to its specialist insect herbivore Manduca sexta.Jasmonic acid (JA) and JA-isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile) are important hormones that mediate resistance to herbivores and we found that after wounding or simulated herbivory NaBRI1 had little effect on JA levels,but was important for the induction of JA-Ile.Further experiments revealed that decreased JAR (the enzyme for JA-Ile production) activity and availability of lie in NaBRI1-silenced plants were likely responsible for the low JA-Ile levels.Consistently,M.sexta larvae gained more weight on NaBRI1-silenced plants than on the control plants.Quantification of insect feeding-induced secondary metabolites revealed that silencing NaBRI1 resulted in decreased levels of carbon-rich defensive secondary metabolites (hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides,chlorogenic acid,and rutin),but had little effect on the nitrogen-rich ones (nicotine and trypsin proteinase inhibitors).Thus,NaBRI1-mediated BR signaling is likely involved in plant defense responses to M.sexta,including maintaining JA-Ile levels and the accumulation of several carbon-rich defensive secondary metabolites.

  15. Age determination and growth of spotted dolphins Stenella attenuata of Pacific coast of Japan%太平洋日本沿岸斑点原海豚的年龄鉴定与生长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕; 张先锋; 加藤秀弘; 岩崎俊秀

    2005-01-01

    本文利用改良的石蜡包埋切片染色技术,对太平洋日本沿岸收集到的286头斑点原海豚(Stenella attenuata)的牙齿标本进行了年龄鉴定,定义了斑点原海豚的牙齿质和牙骨质生长层组(GLGs).从年龄和生长的角度对斑点原海豚的一些种群生物学特征进行了分析,并推算了部分种群参数.斑点原海豚在约18龄时,牙齿质停止生长,牙髓腔封闭.牙齿质中计数到的GLGs最多为18层,牙骨质中计数到的最多为42层.斑点原海豚的年龄与生长在一定范围内遵循一定的幂函数关系.5-6龄以前,斑点原海豚生长迅速,雌雄生长无明显差异.8-14龄之间,雄性的生长快于雌性.雌性约17龄时达到饱和体长191 cm,雄性约22龄达到饱和体长201 cm[动物学报 51(3):476-485,2005].

  16. Molecular interactions between the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta (lepidoptera, sphingidae) and its natural host Nicotiana attenuata: V. microarray analysis and further characterization of large-scale changes in herbivore-induced mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Dequan; Iqbal, Javeed; Lehmann, Katja; Gase, Klaus; Saluz, Hans Peter; Baldwin, Ian T

    2003-04-01

    We extend our analysis of the transcriptional reorganization that occurs when the native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, is attacked by Manduca sexta larvae by cloning 115 transcripts by mRNA differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subtractive hybridization using magnetic beads (SHMB) from the M. sexta-responsive transcriptome. These transcripts were spotted as cDNA with eight others, previously confirmed to be differentially regulated by northern analysis on glass slide microarrays, and hybridized with Cy3- and Cy5-labeled probes derived from plants after 2, 6, 12, and 24 h of continuous attack. Microarray analysis proved to be a powerful means of verifying differential expression; 73 of the cloned genes (63%) were differentially regulated (in equal proportions from differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and SHMB procedures), and of these, 24 (32%) had similarity to known genes or putative proteins (more from SHMB). The analysis provided insights into the signaling and transcriptional basis of direct and indirect defenses used against herbivores, suggesting simultaneous activation of salicylic acid-, ethylene-, cytokinin-, WRKY-, MYB-, and oxylipin-signaling pathways and implicating terpenoid-, pathogen-, and cell wall-related transcripts in defense responses. These defense responses require resources that could be made available by decreases in four photosynthetic-related transcripts, increases in transcripts associated with protein and nucleotide turnover, and increases in transcripts associated with carbohydrate metabolism. This putative up-regulation of defense-associated and down-regulation of growth-associated transcripts occur against a backdrop of altered transcripts for RNA-binding proteins, putative ATP/ADP translocators, chaperonins, histones, and water channel proteins, responses consistent with a major metabolic reconfiguration that underscores the complexity of response to herbivore attack

  17. Molecular interactions between the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and its natural host Nicotiana attenuata. II. Accumulation of plant mRNAs in response to insect-derived cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schittko, U; Hermsmeier, D; Baldwin, I T

    2001-02-01

    The transcriptional changes in Nicotiana attenuata Torr. ex Wats. elicited by attack from Manduca sexta larvae were previously characterized by mRNA differential display (D. Hermsmeier, U. Schittko, I.T. Baldwin [2001] Plant Physiol 125: 683-700). Because herbivore attack causes wounding, we disentangled wound-induced changes from those elicited by M. sexta oral secretions and regurgitant (R) with a northern analysis of a subset of the differentially expressed transcripts encoding threonine deaminase, pathogen-induced oxygenase, a photosystem II light-harvesting protein, a retrotransposon homolog, and three unknown genes. R extensively modified wound-induced responses by suppressing wound-induced transcripts (type I) or amplifying the wound-induced response (type II) further down-regulating wound-suppressed transcripts (type IIa) or up-regulating wound-induced transcripts (type IIb). It is interesting that although all seven genes displayed their R-specific patterns in the treated tissues largely independently of the leaf or plant developmental stage, only the type I genes displayed strong systemic induction. Ethylene was not responsible for any of the specific patterns of expression. R collected from different tobacco feeding insects, M. sexta, Manduca quinquemaculata, and Heliothis virescens, as well as from different instars of M. sexta were equally active. The active components of M. sexta R were heat stable and active in minute amounts, comparable with real transfer rates during larval feeding. Specific expression patterns may indicate that the plant is adjusting its wound response to efficiently fend off M. sexta, but may also be advantageous to the larvae, especially when R suppress wound-induced plant responses. PMID:11161027

  18. Análisis del contenido estomacal y la razón de isótopos estables de carbono (13C) y nitrógeno (15N) del atún aleta amarilla (Thunnus albacares), delfín manchado (Stenella attenuata) y delfín tornillo (Stenella longirostris) del Océano Pacífico Oriental.

    OpenAIRE

    Román Reyes, José Cristóbal

    2005-01-01

    Las agregaciones del atún aleta amarilla (Thunnus albacares), el delfín manchado (Stenella attenuata) y el delfín tornillo (Stenella longirostris) son frecuentes en el Océano Pacífico oriental tropical. A pesar del considerable interés, la asociación entre el atún aleta amarilla y las especies de delfines no se comprende totalmente. La hipótesis de que la asociación está basada en la alimentación ha sido explorada a través del estudio del contenido estomacal, la cual está limitada sólo a desc...

  19. Heart development in the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedmera, David; Misek, Ivan; Klima, Milan; Thompson, Robert P

    2003-08-01

    Marine mammals show many deviations from typical mammalian characteristics due to their high degree of specialization to the aquatic environment. In Cetaceans, some of the features of limbs and dentition resemble very ancestral patterns. In some species, hearts with a clearly bifid apex (a feature normally present during mammalian embryogenesis prior to completion of ventricular septation) have been described. However, there is a scant amount of data regarding heart development in Cetaceans, and it is not clear whether the bifid apex is the rule or the exception. We examined samples from a unique collection of embryonic dolphin specimens macroscopically and histologically to learn more about normal cardiac development in the spotted dolphin. It was found that during the dolphin's 280 days of gestation, the heart completes septation at about 35 days. However, substantial trabecular compaction, which normally occurs in chicks, mice, and humans at around that time period, was delayed until day 60, when coronary circulation became established. At that time, the apex still appeared bifid, similarly to early fetal mouse or rat hearts. By day 80, however, the heart gained a compacted, characteristic shape, with a single apex. It thus appears that the bifid apex in the adult Cetacean heart is probably particular to certain species, and its significance remains unclear. PMID:12845705

  20. Unbiased Transcriptional Comparisons of Generalist and Specialist Herbivores Feeding on Progressively Defenseless Nicotiana attenuata Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Govind; O. Mittapalli; T. Griebel; S. Allmann; S. Böcker; I.T. Baldwin

    2010-01-01

    Background Herbivore feeding elicits dramatic increases in defenses, most of which require jasmonate (JA) signaling, and against which specialist herbivores are thought to be better adapted than generalist herbivores. Unbiased transcriptional analyses of how neonate larvae cope with these induced pl

  1. Isomers of green leaf volatiles in Nicotiana attenuata and their role in plant-insect interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Allmann

    2012-01-01

    Omdat planten blootgesteld kunnen worden aan aanvallen van schadelijke insecten, hebben ze geavanceerde verdedigingssystemen ontwikkeld. Een belangrijke verdedigingsstrategie is de afgifte van geurstoffen die natuurlijke vijanden van het schadelijke insect aantrekken. Dit is een voorbeeld van een in

  2. Role of Crassicauda sp. in natural mortality of pantropical spotted dolphins Stenella attenuata: a reassesment

    OpenAIRE

    Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Simpkin, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the effect of parasites on population size is essential for designing management and conservation plans of wild animal populations. Although knowledge in this area is scarce in cetaceans, current evidence suggests that species of the nematode genus Crassicauda may play an important regulatory role in some populations. In the present study, a semiparametric regression technique is applied to a previously published dataset to re-examine the role of Crassicauda sp. in natural mortalit...

  3. Early postnatal growth of the spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata, in the offshore Eastern Tropical Pacific.

    OpenAIRE

    Hohn, Aleta A.; Hammond, P S

    1984-01-01

    Estimates of length at birth and early postnatal growth are made for the northern and southern populations of the offshore spotted dolphin in the offshore eastern tropical Pacific. Length at birth is estimated to be 85.4 cm for the northern population and 83.2 cm for the southern population. Analyses of series of monthly distributions of length revealed two cohorts born each year in the northern population, at least in the northern inshore part of its geographic range, but only one cohort bor...

  4. Estimating age of spotted and spinner dolphins (Stenella attenuata and Stenella longirostris) from teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Myrck, Jr., Albert C.; Hohn, Aleta A.; Sloan, Priscilla A.; Kimura, Makoto; Stanley, Drew D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper is an account of preparation and examination techniques and criteria used to estimate age in decalcified and stained tooth thin sections from spinner and spotted dolphins. A dentinal growth layer group (GLG), composed of two thin light and two thicker dark-stained layers, is deposited annually. The GLG component layers are variably visible, but the "ideal" pattern and successive thinning of dentinal GLGs are used as a guide to determine GLG limits. Age-specific thicknesses of de...

  5. Revision of the stick insect genus Leptynia: description of new taxa, speciation mechanism and phylogeography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scali, V.; Milani, L.; Passamonti, M.

    2012-01-01

    Leptynia specimens were analyzed by karyotype analysis, mitochondrial gene sequencing and SEM of bodies and eggs. Here we describe a new species, Leptynia annaepaulae, and three subspecies of L. attenuata Pantel (L. attenuata attenuata, L. attenuata iberica, L. attenuata algarvica). The phylogeny of

  6. C12 derivatives of the hydroperoxide lyase pathway are produced by product recycling through lipoxygenase-2 in Nicotiana attenuata leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kallenbach; P.A. Gilardoni; S. Allmann; I.T. Baldwin; G. Bonaventure

    2011-01-01

    In response to diverse stresses, the hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) pathway produces C(6) aldehydes and 12-oxo-(9Z )-dodecenoic acid ((9Z )-traumatin). Since the original characterization of (10E )-traumatin and traumatic acid, little has been added to our knowledge of the metabolism and fluxes associate

  7. Narboh D, a Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homolog in Nicotiana attenuata, is Required for Late Defense Responses After Herbivore Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinsong Wu; Lei Wang; Hendrik Wünsche; Ian T.Baldwin

    2013-01-01

    The superoxide (O2-)-generating NADPH oxidases are crucial for the defense of plants against attack from pathogens; however,it remains unknown whether they also mediate responses against chewing insect herbivores.The transcripts of the respiratory burst NADPH oxidase homolog Narboh D in Nicotiana attenuate are rapidly and transiently elicited by wounding,and are amplified when Manduca sexta oral secretions (OS) are added to the wounds.The fatty-acid-amino-acid-conjugates (FACs),demonstrably the major elicitors in M.sexta OS,are responsible for the increase in Narboh D transcripts.Silencing Narboh D significantly reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels after OS elicitation,but neither OS-elicited jasmonic acid (JA) or JA-isoleucine (JA-Ile) bursts,pivotal hormones that regulates plant resistance to herbivores,nor early transcripts of herbivore defense-related genes (NaJAR4 and NaPAL1),were influenced.However,late OS-elicited increases in trypsin proteinase inhibitors (TPIs),as well as the transcript levels of defense genes such as polyphenol oxidase,TPI and Thionin were significantly reduced.In addition,Narboh D-silenced plants were more vulnerable to insect herbivores,especially the larvae of the generalist Spodoptera littoralis.We thus conclude that Narboh D-based defenses play an important role in late herbivore-elicited responses.

  8. Instar-specific sensitivity of specialist Manduca sexta larvae to induced defences in their host plant Nicotiana attenuata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, N.M.; Hermenau, U.; Baldwin, I.T.

    2001-01-01

    1. The time delay associated with the activation of induced defences is thought to be a liability for this type of defence because it allows herbivores to remove biomass before the defence is fully induced. When defences are costly and plants grow with competitors, however, it may be more advantageo

  9. Mechanisms of optimal defense patterns in Nicotiana attenuata: flowering attenuates herbivory-elicited ethylene and jasmonate signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Diezel; S. Allmann; I.T. Baldwin

    2011-01-01

    To defend themselves against herbivore attack, plants produce secondary metabolites, which are variously inducible and constitutively deployed, presumably to optimize their fitness benefits in light of their fitness costs. Three phytohormones, jasmonates (JA) and their active forms, the JA-isoleucin

  10. 76 FR 76950 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16473

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... crassidens), 100 pygmy killer (Feresa attenuata), and 100 melon-headed (Peponocephala electra) whales, 8,000 bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus), 5,000 Atlantic spotted (Stenella frontalis), 2,500 Risso's (Grampus griseus... (S. attenuata), 500 striped (S. coeruleoalba), 250 clymene (S. clymene), 100 spinner (S....

  11. 50 CFR 218.181 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Stenella frontalis)—2,355 (an average of 471 annually); (v) Pantropical spotted dolphin (S. attenuata)—115...) Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis)—10 (an average of 2 annually); (iii) Pantropical spotted dolphin (S. attenuata)—5 (an average of 1 annually); (ix) Spinner dolphin (S. longirostris)—5 (an...

  12. Finding a missing link in MAP kinase cascade

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Kwi-Mi; Sano, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is one of the major signaling systems in eukaryotes. External signals are tranduced through three protein kinases, which successively relay phosphorylation to finally activate target genes/proteins. However, few information on targets of MAPK have so far been available. In this study, we identified a novel transcription factor, NtWIF, which is directly phosphorylated by a wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK), a typical MAPK from tobacco plants. P...

  13. 76 FR 35856 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ..., 2008 (73 FR 34875), and remain in effect through July 19, 2013. For detailed information on this action... during EROS activities are bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis), pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), Clymene dolphins (Stenella clymene),...

  14. 77 FR 45341 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ..., 2008 (73 FR 34875), and remain in effect through July 19, 2013. For detailed information on this action... during EROS activities are bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis), pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), Clymene dolphins (Stenella clymene),...

  15. 75 FR 54851 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ..., 2008 (73 FR 34875), and remain in effect through July 19, 2013. For detailed information on this action... during EROS activities are bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis), pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), Clymene dolphins (Stenella clymene),...

  16. 77 FR 39485 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ..., 2008 (73 FR 34875), and remain in effect through July 19, 2013. For detailed information on this action... during EROS activities are bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis), pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), Clymene dolphins (Stenella clymene),...

  17. 75 FR 31423 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ..., 2008 (73 FR 34875), and remain in effect through July 19, 2013. For detailed information on this action... during EROS activities are bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis), pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), Clymene dolphins (Stenella clymene),...

  18. 76 FR 33704 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... EROS were published on June 19, 2008 (73 FR 34875), and remain in effect through July 19, 2013. For...), Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis), pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), Clymene dolphins (Stenella clymene), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), spinner dolphins...

  19. 77 FR 16539 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ..., 2008 (73 FR 34875), and remain in effect through July 19, 2013. For detailed information on this action... during EROS activities are bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis), pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), Clymene dolphins (Stenella clymene),...

  20. 75 FR 28566 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ..., 2008 (73 FR 34875), and remain in effect through July 19, 2013. For detailed information on this action... during EROS activities are bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis), pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), Clymene dolphins (Stenella clymene),...

  1. 78 FR 22517 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ..., 2008 (73 FR 34875), and remain in effect through July 19, 2013. For detailed information on this action... during EROS activities are bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis), pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), Clymene dolphins (Stenella clymene),...

  2. Vaginal calculi in the dolphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, J E; Walker, W A

    1977-10-01

    Examination of the reproductive tract of a mature spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata , revealed 13 vaginal calculi, composed primarily of calcium phosphate compounds. Vaginal calculi also were found in two mature Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and in six mature Delphinus delphis . PMID:24228951

  3. 75 FR 8921 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... EROS were published on June 19, 2008 (73 FR 34889), and remain in effect through July 19, 2013. For...), Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis), pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), Clymene dolphins (Stenella clymene), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), spinner dolphins...

  4. 76 FR 23570 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... EROS were published on June 19, 2008 (73 FR 34875), and remain in effect through July 19, 2013. For...), Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis), pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), Clymene dolphins (Stenella clymene), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), spinner dolphins...

  5. Investigation of trophic level and niche partitioning of 7 cetacean species by stable isotopes, and cadmium and arsenic tissue concentrations in the western Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J-Y; Chou, L-S; Chen, M-H

    2015-04-15

    A total of 24 stranded or bycatch cetaceans, including Balaenoptera omurai, Lagenodelphis hosei, Kogia sima, Stenella attenuata, Grampus griseus, Neophocaena phocaenoides, and Sousa chinensis, were collected from 2001 to 2011 in Taiwan. Using the muscular δ(13)C and δ(15)N data, three ecological groups were identified as the oceanic baleen whale, the neritic, and the coastal toothed whale groups, coinciding with their taxonomy, feeding habits and geographical distribution. A horizontal inshore to offshore distribution was found for the sympatric neritic toothed dolphins, G. griseus, K. sima, S. attenuata, and L. hosei in the outermost offshore waters, accompanying their growth. For the first time we identify Taiwan's Chinese white dolphin, S. chinensis, as an exclusive fish eater. Cd and As bioaccumulated in the G. griseus, L. hosei and S. attenuata increase as they grow. Prey-derived As- and Cd-induced health threats were found in L. hosei, and G. griseus. PMID:25684592

  6. Respuesta a la sequía de Pinus radiata D. Don y su implicación en los procesos de tolerancia

    OpenAIRE

    De Diego Sánchez, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    160 p. (Bibliogr. 141-160) Correo electrónico de la autora: [ES] En este estudio se evaluaron cinco ecotipos de Pinus radiata D. Don y un híbrido de especie (O4, Pinus radiata x Pinus attenuata) con el fin de caracterizar fisiológicamente su respuesta al estrés hídrico y determinar su tolerancia, capacidad de recuperación y endurecimiento. La plantas de O4 fueron incluidas como modelo de tolerancia debido a la alta resistencia a la sequía descrita en P. attenuata (Begle...

  7. Ectoparasites from the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens from Peruvian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two species of ectoparasites were collected from a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens found stranded on the beaches of Chorrillos in Lima, Peru. The ectoparasites were identified as Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera and Orthohalarachne attenuata (Acari. Some morphological characteristics are described in this report. The finding of these ectoparasites is the first records in Peru.

  8. 75 FR 5045 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ...); pantropical spotted dolphin (S. attenuata); Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris); Clymene dolphin (S... IHA and request for 30-day public comment published on January 23, 2006 (71 FR 3474). A 1-year IHA was subsequently issued to Eglin AFB for this activity on May 3, 2006 (71 FR 27695, May 12, 2006). On January...

  9. Plant-mediated pheromone emission by a hemipteran seed feeder increases the apparency of an unreliable but rewarding host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Mariana A; Preβler, Jens; Paetz, Christian; Boland, Wilhelm; Svatoš, Aleš; Baldwin, Ian T

    2016-07-01

    The defensive chemistry and persistence of plant tissues determine their suitability and apparency - the likelihood of being discovered - to insect herbivores. As consumers of plant tissues with transient apparency, florivores and seed-feeders must frequently migrate between host plants to synchronize colonization with plant phenology. Aggregation pheromones could provide information-based solutions to finding ephemeral hosts, but little is known about plant-influenced variation in this form of chemical communication. Combining analytical chemistry, de novo synthesis and field ecology, we investigated the change in colonization of two sympatric host plants, Nicotiana attenuata and Nicotiana obtusifolia, which differ in apparency-related life history traits, by a heteropteran seed-feeder, Corimelaena extensa. We identified a novel pheromone released by C. extensa males - (5Z,8Z)-tetradeca-5,8-dienal - and performed field assays with the synthetic pheromone, showing that it stimulates the formation of feeding aggregations on the post-fire annual N. attenuata. Corimelaena extensa pheromone emission was 40-fold higher when feeding on N. attenuata compared with the perennial N. obtusifolia, as were adult fecundity and seed capsule content of the putative biosynthetic precursor, linoleic acid. Higher pheromone emission increases the apparency and colonization of the ephemeral, high-quality host N. attenuata. This plant-specific variation in insect signaling could facilitate host-finding by seed-feeders migrating between plant patches. PMID:26915986

  10. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially) invasive species

    OpenAIRE

    Verloove, F

    2013-01-01

    Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides), Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta,...

  11. Relationship between sea surface temperatures and dolphin-associated fishing activities by the Mexican tuna fleet

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Muñoz, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    Data from the Mexican purse seiner fleet operating in the eastern Tropical Pacific, for the year 1985-1990, are used to show that the fraction of surface schools of yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares associated with dolphins (Stenella attenuata and others) increases with sea surface temperature. Possible reasons for this correlation are briefly discussed.

  12. On the diagnosis of the Spinner Dolphin, Stenella longirostris (Gray, 1828) and its holotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.; Perrin, W.F.

    1977-01-01

    In 1828 (p. 1-2), John Edward Gray described the spinner dolphin as follows: Delphinus longirostris, n. - Osse palatino carinato, postice convexo; rostro longissimo attenuata, supra depresso, lineâ mediâ elevatâ; dentibus parvis utrique 48/è48 50/50 ." To this Latin diagnosis he added: "Inhab.......

  13. Bombesin-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dockray, G J; Yanaihara, N

    1981-01-01

    With immunocytochemical methods, nerve cells have been detected in Hydra attenuata containing bombesin-like immunoreactivity. These nerve cells are located in ectoderm of all body regions of the animal and are especially abundant in basal disk and tentacles. Radioimmunoassay of extracts of hydra ...

  14. A new Maculotriton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayer, Ch.

    1933-01-01

    Drupa (Maculotriton) buitendijki n. sp. (Pl. I, fig. 1). Testa parvula, tenuis, elongato-turrita, nitidula. Anfractus 10, apice laevi anfractibus 3l/2 annumerata, liris subtilimis, longitudinalibus et transversis ad decussationem nodulosis reticulata Varices 10. Apertura ovata, utrinque attenuata, l

  15. Notities over Nederlandse zeewieren I

    OpenAIRE

    Mol, I.

    1984-01-01

    Four species considered to be newly found drifting ashore are described and illustrated: Sargassum natans (L.) Børg., Champia parvula (C. Ag.) Harv., Crouania attenuata (C. Ag.) J. Ag. and Callophyllis laciniata (Huds.) Kütz. In addition some notes are made on new records of Pogotrichum filiforme Reinke, Leathesia difformis (L.) Aresch. and Punctaria latifolia Grev.

  16. Trichobaris weevils distinguish amongst toxic host plants by sensing volatiles that do not affect larval performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gisuk; Joo, Youngsung; Diezel, Celia; Lee, Eun Ju; Baldwin, Ian T; Kim, Sang-Gyu

    2016-07-01

    Herbivorous insects use plant metabolites to inform their host plant selection for oviposition. These host-selection behaviours are often consistent with the preference-performance hypothesis; females oviposit on hosts that maximize the performance of their offspring. However, the metabolites used for these oviposition choices and those responsible for differences in offspring performance remain unknown for ecologically relevant interactions. Here, we examined the host-selection behaviours of two sympatric weevils, the Datura (Trichobaris compacta) and tobacco (T. mucorea) weevils in field and glasshouse experiments with transgenic host plants specifically altered in different components of their secondary metabolism. Adult females of both species strongly preferred to feed on D. wrightii rather than on N. attenuata leaves, but T. mucorea preferred to oviposit on N. attenuata, while T. compacta oviposited only on D. wrightii. These oviposition behaviours increased offspring performance: T. compacta larvae only survived in D. wrightii stems and T. mucorea larvae survived better in N. attenuata than in D. wrightii stems. Choice assays with nicotine-free, JA-impaired, and sesquiterpene-over-produced isogenic N. attenuata plants revealed that although half of the T. compacta larvae survived in nicotine-free N. attenuata lines, nicotine did not influence the oviposition behaviours of both the nicotine-adapted and nicotine-sensitive species. JA-induced sesquiterpene volatiles are key compounds influencing T. mucorea females' oviposition choices, but these sesquiterpenes had no effect on larval performance. We conclude that adult females are able to choose the best host plant for their offspring and use chemicals different from those that influence larval performance to inform their oviposition decisions. PMID:27146082

  17. Antarctic sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae of the South Shetland Islands and vicinity: part I. Spirophorida, Astrophorida, Hadromerida, Halichondrida and Haplosclerida Esponjas Antárticas (Porifera, Demospongiae das Ilhas Shetland do Sul e áreas próximas: parte I. Spirophorida, Astrophorida, Hadromerida, Halichondrida e Haplosclerida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to redescribe 11 species of sponges collected through the Brazilian Antarctic Program (PROANTAR, at the South Shetland Islands and vicinity. New information is provided on the Antarctic sponge fauna, in regard to species richness and the geographical and bathymetric distributions of identified species. The following species were identified and are here illustrated and fully described: Cinachyra antarctica (Carter, 1872, Cinachyra barbata Sollas, 1886, Craniella leptoderma (Sollas, 1886, Tethyopsis longispinum (Lendenfeld, 1907, Polymastia invaginata Kirkpatrick, 1907, Homaxinella balfourensis (Ridley & Dendy, 1886, Suberites montiniger Carter, 1880, Halichondria (Eumastia attenuata (Topsent, 1915, Haliclona (Soestella chilensis (Thiele, 1905, Hemigellius bidens (Topsent, 1901 and Calyx arcuarius (Topsent, 1913. Two new records are given for the Antarctic continent: Halichondria (Eumastia attenuata (Topsent, 1915 and Haliclona (Soestella chilensis (Thiele, 1905. Tethyopsis longispinum (Lendenfeld, 1907, Suberites montiniger Carter, 1880 and Hemigellius bidens (Topsent, 1901 represent the first records for this sector of the continent. Bathymetric data are extended for T. longispinum and H. attenuata.O objetivo deste trabalho é redescrever 11 espécies de esponjas coletadas através do Programa Antártico Brasileiro (PROANTAR, nas Is. Shetland do Sul e áreas próximas. Nnovas informações são fornecidas acerca do conhecimento da fauna de poríferos da Antártica, tanto para a riqueza específica como para os dados referentes às distribuições geográfica e batimétrica das espécies identificadas. As seguintes espécies foram identificadas e são aqui ilustradas e amplamente descritas: Cinachyra antarctica (Carter, 1872, Cinachyra barbata Sollas, 1886, Craniella leptoderma (Sollas, 1886, Tethyopsis longispinum (Lendenfeld, 1907, Polymastia invaginata Kirkpatrick, 1907, Homaxinella balfourensis (Ridley & Dendy, 1886

  18. Benefits of jasmonate-dependent defenses against vertebrate herbivores in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ricardo Ar; McClure, Mark; Hervé, Maxime R; Baldwin, Ian T; Erb, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous jasmonates are important regulators of plant defenses. If and how they enable plants to maintain their reproductive output when facing community-level herbivory under natural conditions, however, remains unknown. We demonstrate that jasmonate-deficient Nicotiana attenuata plants suffer more damage by arthropod and vertebrate herbivores than jasmonate-producing plants in nature. However, only damage by vertebrate herbivores translates into a significant reduction in flower production. Vertebrate stem peeling has the strongest negative impact on plant flower production. Stems are defended by jasmonate-dependent nicotine, and the native cottontail rabbit Sylvilagus nuttallii avoids jasmonate-producing N. attenuata shoots because of their high levels of nicotine. Thus, endogenous jasmonates enable plants to resist different types of herbivores in nature, and jasmonate-dependent defenses are important for plants to maintain their reproductive potential when facing vertebrate herbivory. Ecological and evolutionary models on plant defense signaling should aim at integrating arthropod and vertebrate herbivory at the community level. PMID:27352734

  19. A native plant growth promoting bacterium, Bacillus megaterium B55, rescues growth performance of an ethylene insensitive plant genotype in nature

    OpenAIRE

    Dorothea Gertrud Meldau; Hoang Hoa Long; Ian Thomas Baldwin

    2012-01-01

    Many plants have intimate relationships with soil microbes that through a variety of mechanisms improve the plant’s growth and fitness. Bacillus megaterium is a natural endophyte isolated from Nicotiana attenuata plant roots growing in native soils. A particular isolate (B55), was found to have dramatic plant growth promoting (PGP) effects on wild type (WT) and transgenic plants impaired in ethylene (ET) perception (35S-etr1), the genotype from which this bacteria was first isolated. B55 not ...

  20. Varamientos de mamíferos marinos en la costa continental ecuatoriana período 1987 - 1995.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiluiza, D.; Aguirre, W.; Félix, F.; Haase, B.

    1998-01-01

    Between 1987 and 1995, 93 strandings of marine mammals were recorded along the ecuadorian continental coast, including one mass stranding of 56. The strandings involved 12 species of cetaceans (10 Odontoceti and 2 Mysticeti) and one species of pinniped. The Odontoceti were represented by: bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus (n=30), sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus (n=25), Pacific spotted dolphin Stenella attenuata (n=7), striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba (n=2), false killer whale Pseu...

  1. A preliminary study of habitat and resource partitioning among co-occurring tropical dolphins around Mayotte, south-west Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Alexandra; Kiszka, Jeremy; Canneyt, Olivier Van; Richard, Pierre; Ridoux, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    International audience Mayotte in the southwest Indian Ocean is characterized by high dolphin diversity. They may coexist within a fairly small area around the island because they exploit neither the same preferential habitats nor the same resources. This preliminary study aimed to investigate ecological niche segregation among these delphinid communities: the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus, the pantropical spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata, the spinner dolphin, Stenel...

  2. Individual and group behavioural reactions of small delphinids to remote biopsy sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Kiszka, Jeremy; Simon-Bouhet, B.; Charlier, Franck; Pusineri, C.; Ridoux, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    International audience Biopsy sampling is an effective technique to collect cetacean skin and blubber samples for various biological studies. However, determining the impact of this research practice is important, as impact may vary among sites, species and gear used. We examined the short-term behavioural reactions of four small (160-278 cm in length) delphinid species (Stenella longirostris, Stenella attenuata, Tursiops aduncus and Peponocephala electra) to remote biopsy sampling around ...

  3. Review of geographical stocks of tropical dolphins (Stenella spp. and Delphinus delphis) in the eastern Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Perrin, William F.; Scott, Michael D.; Walker, G. Jay; Cass, Virginia L.

    1985-01-01

    Information on geographical variation is reviewed for Stenella attenuata, S. longirostris, S. coeruleoalba, and Delphinus delphis in the eastern tropical Pacific, and boundaries for potential management units are proposed. National Marine Fisheries Service and Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission sighting records made from 1979 to 1983 which were outside boundaries used in a 1979 assessment were examined for validity. Tagging returns and morphological data were also analyzed. Several...

  4. Interpreting spotted dolphin age distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, Jay; Hohn, Aleta A.

    1984-01-01

    Previous work has determined the age distribution from a sample of spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) killed in the eastern Pacific tuna purse-seine fishery. In this paper we examine the usefulness of this age distribution for estimating natural mortality rates. The observed age distribution has a deficiency of individuals from 5-15 years and cannot represent a stable age distribution. Sampling bias and errors in age interpretation are examined as possible causes of the "dip" in the obs...

  5. Cytochrome P450 1A1 expression in cetacean skin biopsies from the Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Jauniaux, Thierry; Farnir, Frédéric; Fontaine, Michael; Kiszka, Jeremy; Sarlet, Michaël; Coignoul, Freddy

    2011-01-01

    The study describes cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYPA1) expression in the skin of different cetacean species (Megaptera novaeangliae, n = 15; Stenella attenuata, n = 7 and Stenella longirostris, n = 24) from the Mozambique Channel island of Mayotte. Immunohistochemical examination was performed with a monoclonal antibody against scup cytochrome CYPA1. The sex was determined using a molecular approach consisting in the genotyping sex-specific genes. CYPA1 was detected at the junction between epidermis...

  6. A note on the occurrence and status of cetaceans in Togo. Paper SC/62/SM11 presented to IWC Scientific Committee, June 2010, Agadir, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Segniagbeto, G.; Van Waerebeek, K.

    2010-01-01

    Eight cetacean species are here reported to occur in Togo's coastal waters and all are newly recorded mammals for the country: Megaptera novaeangliae, Balaenoptera brydei, Balaenoptera cf. bonaerensis, Physeter macrocephalus, Stenella attenuata, Delphinus sp., Globicephala cf. macrorhynchus and Orcinus orca. Much of artisanal fisheries in Togolese waters are dominated by Ghanaian fishermen who have the habit of selling cetacean catches as a food product. Because the landing of cetaceans is il...

  7. A Bayesian integrated population dynamics model to analyze data for protected species

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyle, S. D.; Maunder, M. N.

    2004-01-01

    Managing wildlife-human interactions demands reliable information about the likely consequences of management actions. This requirement is a general one, whatever the taxonomic group. We describe a method for estimating population dynamics and decision analysis that is generally applicable, extremely flexible, uses data efficiently, and gives answers in a useful format. Our case study involves bycatch of a protected species, the Northeastern Offshore Spotted Dolphin (Stenella attenuata), in t...

  8. Trophic Relationships and Habitat Preferences of Delphinids from the Southeastern Brazilian Coast Determined by Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Lemos Bisi; Paulo Renato Dorneles; José Lailson-Brito; Gilles Lepoint; Alexandre de Freitas Azevedo; Leonardo Flach,; Olaf Malm; Krishna Das

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (d13C) and nitrogen (d15N) isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the d13C and d15N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon ...

  9. Stocks of Dolphins (Stenella spp. and Delphinus delphis) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific: A Phylogeographic Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Dizon, Andrew E.; Perrin, William F.; Akin, Priscilla A.

    1994-01-01

    Current information is reviewed that provides clues to the intraspecific structure of dolphin species incidently killed in the yellowfin tuna purse-seine fishery of the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP). Current law requires that management efforts are focused on the intraspecific level, attempting to preserve local and presumably locally adapted populations. Four species are reviewed: pantropical spotted, Stenella attenuata; spinner, S. longirostTis; striped, S. coeruleoalba; and common, Del...

  10. PIXE analysis of trace elements in cetacean teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIXE was adopted for analysis of trace elements in teeth of two species of cetaceans, sperm whale (Physeter microcephalus) and pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The analyses were performed along with the growth layer of the teeth, which is formed annually, suitable for age determination. Mn, Fe, Cu, Zu and Sr were detected in the teeth of sperm whale and pantropical spotted dolphin. Among these trace elements, gradual increase was observed for Zn/Ca ratio in the sperm whale's teeth. (author)

  11. Chromosomal variation and constitutive heterochromatin in three porpoise species (genus Stenella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, A D

    1981-01-01

    Chromosomes from cultured fibroblasts of two Pacific porpoise species, Stenella attenuata and S. longirostris, and one Atlantic species, S. dubia, were compared to test the feasibility of using variation in constitutive heterochromatin and other chromosomal characteristics for analyses of population relationships and defining stocks of endangered porpoises. The G-band karyotypes of the three species were identical except for minor band differences resulting from heterochromatin variation. The nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were located on the same two pairs of acrocentric chromosomes in all three species, although individual variation occurred in the number of active NORs present. Differences in the distribution and amount of C-band heterochromatin were observed between the three species. Stenella attenuata and S. dubia were very similar in C-band pattern, while S. longirostris was distinctly different. Conspicuous heteromorphism between the C-heterochromatin of the homologs of several pairs of chromosomes was noted in all individuals examined. In addition, variation in the amount of heterochromatin was observed between the four S.attenuata individuals studied. Of the chromosomal characteristics studied, only C-heterochromatin variation holds promise for distinguishing interspecific populations of porpoises. The final decision regarding the feasibility of using C-band heterochromatin to distinguish interspecific populations of porpoises must await comparison of morphologically differing populations within what is currently regarded as a single species. PMID:7307585

  12. Native bacterial endophytes promote host growth in a species-specific manner; phytohormone manipulations do not result in common growth responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Hoa Long

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All plants in nature harbor a diverse community of endophytic bacteria which can positively affect host plant growth. Changes in plant growth frequently reflect alterations in phytohormone homoeostasis by plant-growth-promoting (PGP rhizobacteria which can decrease ethylene (ET levels enzymatically by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase or produce indole acetic acid (IAA. Whether these common PGP mechanisms work similarly for different plant species has not been rigorously tested. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated bacterial endophytes from field-grown Solanum nigrum; characterized PGP traits (ACC deaminase activity, IAA production, phosphate solubilization and seedling colonization; and determined their effects on their host, S. nigrum, as well as on another Solanaceous native plant, Nicotiana attenuata. In S. nigrum, a majority of isolates that promoted root growth were associated with ACC deaminase activity and IAA production. However, in N. attenuata, IAA but not ACC deaminase activity was associated with root growth. Inoculating N. attenuata and S. nigrum with known PGP bacteria from a culture collection (DSMZ reinforced the conclusion that the PGP effects are not highly conserved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that natural endophytic bacteria with PGP traits do not have general and predictable effects on the growth and fitness of all host plants, although the underlying mechanisms are conserved.

  13. Investigation of trophic level and niche partitioning of 7 cetacean species by stable isotopes, and cadmium and arsenic tissue concentrations in the western Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Muscular δ13C and δ15N data of cetaceans were used to identify their ecological niche • Inshore–offshore distribution pattern was found for four sympatric neritic odontocetes. • Horizontal and vertical movements found in sympatric odontocetes as they grow. • Taiwan’s Chinese white dolphins is an exclusive fish eater. • Prey-derived As- and Cd-induced health threats were found for some dolphins. - Abstract: A total of 24 stranded or bycatch cetaceans, including Balaenoptera omurai, Lagenodelphis hosei, Kogia sima, Stenella attenuata, Grampus griseus, Neophocaena phocaenoides, and Sousa chinensis, were collected from 2001 to 2011 in Taiwan. Using the muscular δ13C and δ15N data, three ecological groups were identified as the oceanic baleen whale, the neritic, and the coastal toothed whale groups, coinciding with their taxonomy, feeding habits and geographical distribution. A horizontal inshore to offshore distribution was found for the sympatric neritic toothed dolphins, G. griseus, K. sima, S. attenuata, and L. hosei in the outermost offshore waters, accompanying their growth. For the first time we identify Taiwan’s Chinese white dolphin, S. chinensis, as an exclusive fish eater. Cd and As bioaccumulated in the G. griseus, L. hosei and S. attenuata increase as they grow. Prey-derived As- and Cd-induced health threats were found in L. hosei, and G. griseus

  14. Systematics-insensitive Periodic Signal Search with K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Ruth; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Johnson, John A.

    2016-02-01

    From pulsating stars to transiting exoplanets, the search for periodic signals in K2 data, Kepler’s two-wheeled extension, is relevant to a long list of scientific goals. Systematics affecting K2 light curves due to the decreased spacecraft pointing precision inhibit the easy extraction of periodic signals from the data. We here develop a method for producing periodograms of K2 light curves that are insensitive to pointing-induced systematics; the Systematics-insensitive Periodogram (SIP). Traditional sine-fitting periodograms use a generative model to find the frequency of a sinusoid that best describes the data. We extend this principle by including systematic trends, based on a set of “eigen light curves,” following Foreman-Mackey et al., in our generative model as well as a sum of sine and cosine functions over a grid of frequencies. Using this method we are able to produce periodograms with vastly reduced systematic features. The quality of the resulting periodograms are such that we can recover acoustic oscillations in giant stars and measure stellar rotation periods without the need for any detrending. The algorithm is also applicable to the detection of other periodic phenomena such as variable stars, eclipsing binaries and short-period exoplanet candidates. The SIP code is available at https://github.com/RuthAngus/SIPK2.

  15. Actividad molusquicida del Piquerol A aislado de Piqueria trinervia (compositae) sobre ocho especies de caracoles pulmonados The molluscicide activity of Piquerol A isolated from Piqueria trinervia (Compositae) against eight species of pulmonate snails

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Cruz-Reys; Carolina Chavarin; Martha P. Campos Arias; Javier Taboada; Manuel Jímenez E.

    1989-01-01

    De las partes aéreas de la planta Piqueria trinervia (Compositae) colectada en diveresas áereas de México, se aisló el Piquerol A. Este compuesto se probó como agente molusquicida contra ocho especies de caracoles pulmonados: Fossaria (Fossaria) humilis, F. (Bakerilymnae) sp., Pseudosuccinea columella, Stagnicola attenuata, de México; F. (B.) cubensis y Physacubensis, de Cuba; P. Columella y Biomphalaria glabrata, de Brasil; B glabrata, de Puerto Rico; S. elodes, de Estados Unidos. Se utiliza...

  16. Lignans from Arnica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas J; Stausberg, Sabine; Raison, Jeanette Von; Berner, Matthias; Willuhn, Günter

    2006-05-10

    From four Arnica species (A. angustifolia Vahl ssp. attenuata (Greene) Maguire, A. lonchophylla Greene ssp. lonchophylla Maguire (flowerheads), A. chamissonis Less. ssp. foliosa (Nutt.) Maguire, A. montana L. (roots and rhizomes)) a total of twelve lignans of the furofuran-, dibenzylbutyrolactone- and dibenzylbutyrolactol-type were isolated. No report on lignans as constituents of Arnica species exists so far. Besides the known pinoresinol, epipinoresinol, phillygenin, matairesinol, nortrachelogenin and nortracheloside, six dibenzylbutyrolactol derivatives with different stereochemistry and substitution at C-9 were isolated and their structures elucidated by NMR spectroscopic and mass spectral analysis. PMID:16644542

  17. Tobacco rattle virus vector: A rapid and transient means of silencing manduca sexta genes by plant mediated RNA interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RNAi can be achieved in insect herbivores by feeding them host plants stably transformed to express double stranded RNA (dsRNA of selected midgut-expressed genes. However, the development of stably transformed plants is a slow and laborious process and here we developed a rapid, reliable and transient method. We used viral vectors to produce dsRNA in the host plant Nicotiana attenuata to transiently silence midgut genes of the plant's lepidopteran specialist herbivore, Manduca sexta. To compare the efficacy of longer, undiced dsRNA for insect gene silencing, we silenced N. attenuata's dicer genes (NaDCL1- 4 in all combinations in a plant stably transformed to express dsRNA targeting an insect gene. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stable transgenic N. attenuata plants harboring a 312 bp fragment of MsCYP6B46 in an inverted repeat orientation (ir-CYP6B46 were generated to produce CYP6B46 dsRNA. After consuming these plants, transcripts of CYP6B46 were significantly reduced in M. sexta larval midguts. The same 312 bp cDNA was cloned in an antisense orientation into a TRV vector and Agro-infiltrated into N. attenuata plants. When larvae ingested these plants, similar reductions in CYP6B46 transcripts were observed without reducing transcripts of the most closely related MsCYP6B45. We used this transient method to rapidly silence the expression of two additional midgut-expressed MsCYPs. CYP6B46 transcripts were further reduced in midguts, when the larvae fed on ir-CYP6B46 plants transiently silenced for two combinations of NaDCLs (DCL1/3/4 and DCL2/3/4 and contained higher concentrations of longer, undiced CYP6B46 dsRNA. CONCLUSIONS: Both stable and transient expression of CYP6B46 dsRNA in host plants provides a specific and robust means of silencing this gene in M. sexta larvae, but the transient system is better suited for high throughput analyses. Transiently silencing NaDCLs in ir-CYP6B46 plants increased the silencing of MsCYP6B46

  18. Microscale ecotoxicity testing of Moselle river watershed (Lorraine Province, France) sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Jean François Férard; Karen F. Burga Pérez; Christian Blaise; Alexandre Péry; Pakawadee Sutthivaiyakit; François Gagné

    2015-01-01

    The ecotoxic potential of seven Moselle river watershed sediments was assessed with a battery of bioassays comprised of rapid phototrophic [LuminoTox solid phase (L-SPA) and elutriate (L-ELU) assays] and bacterial [Microtox solid phase assay (M-SPA)] exposure tests, as well as with two micro-invertebrate solid phase tests conducted with Hydra attenuata (lethal and sublethal effects solid phase assay, HL-SPA and HSL-SPA) and Chironomus riparius. Measured effects of sediments and their elutriat...

  19. No junctional communication between epithelial cells in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Laat, S W; Tertoolen, L G; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1980-01-01

    junctions between epithelial cells of hydra. However, until now, there has been no report published on whether these junctions enable the epithelial cells to exchange molecules of small molecular weight, as has been described in other organisms. Therefore we decided to investigate the communicative...... properties of the junctional membranes by electrophysiological methods and by intracellular-dye iontophoresis. We report here that no electrotonic coupling is detectable between epithelial cells of Hydra attenuata in: (1) intact animals, (2) head-regenerating animals, (3) cell re-aggregates, and (4) hydra...... that have become nervefree. Furthermore we show that epithelial cells are unable to exchange low-molecular weight fluorescent dyes....

  20. Parasites of cetaceans stranded on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J B; Morales, J A; González-Barrientos, R C; Hernández-Gamboa, J; Hernández-Mora, G

    2011-12-15

    Information regarding parasitic fauna of cetaceans from Costa Rica is provided for the first time. A total of 25 stranded dolphins and whales were examined between 2001 and 2009, including striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) (n=19), pantropical spotted dolphin (S. attenuata) (n=2), spinner dolphin (S. longirostris) (n=1), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) (n=1), dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima) (n=1) and Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) (n=1). Pathological findings associated with the parasites are also presented. In the most representative dolphin species, S. coeruleoalba, the prevalence of parasites was 89.5%; moreover, all examined specimens of S. attenuata, S. longirostris, T. truncatus and Z. cavirostris presented parasites. No parasites were recovered from K. sima. Fourteen helminth taxa were identified, including six species of cestodes (Strobilocephalus triangularis, Tetrabothrius forsteri, Trigonocotyle sp., Phyllobothrium delphini, Monorygma grimaldi, Tetraphyllidea gen. sp. plerocercoid), four digeneans (Nasitrema globicephalae, Brachycladium palliatum, B. pacificum and Oschmarinella albamarina) and four nematodes (Anisakis spp., Halocercus lagenorhynchi, Halocercus sp. and Crassicauda anthonyi). A commensal crustacean, Xenobalanus globicipitis, was also identified. All identified parasites representing new geographic records for the Pacific coast of Central America and new host records are presented. Parasitological information is valuable for conservation of cetaceans in Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

  1. Detoxification of hostplant's chemical defence rather than its anti-predator co-option drives β-glucosidase-mediated lepidopteran counteradaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreddy, Spoorthi; Mitra, Sirsha; Schöttner, Matthias; Chandran, Jima; Schneider, Bernd; Baldwin, Ian T; Kumar, Pavan; Pandit, Sagar S

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary plant-herbivore arms race sometimes gives rise to remarkably unique adaptation strategies. Here we report one such strategy in the lepidopteran herbivore Manduca sexta against its hostplant Nicotiana attenuata's major phytotoxins, 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycoside, lyciumoside IV and its malonylated forms. We show that alkalinity of larval regurgitant non-enzymatically demalonylates the malonylated forms to lyciumoside IV. Lyciumoside IV is then detoxified in the midgut by β-glucosidase 1-catalysed deglycosylation, which is unusual, as typically the deglycosylation of glycosylated phytochemicals by insects results in the opposite: toxin activation. Suppression of deglucosylation by silencing larval β-glucosidase 1 by plant-mediated RNAi causes moulting impairments and mortality. In the native habitat of N. attenuata, β-glucosidase 1 silencing also increases larval unpalatability to native predatory spiders, suggesting that the defensive co-option of lyciumoside IV may be ecologically advantageous. We infer that M. sexta detoxifies this allelochemical to avoid its deleterious effects, rather than co-opting it against predators. PMID:26443324

  2. Shifting Nicotiana attenuata’s diurnal rhythm does not alter its resistance to the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jasmin Herden; Stefan Meldau; Sang-Gyu Kim; Grit Kunert; Youngsung Joo; Ian T Baldwin; Meredith C Schuman

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana plants are less resistant to attack by the generalist lepidopteran herbivore Trichoplusia ni when plants and herbivores are entrained to opposite, versus identical diurnal cycles and tested under constant conditions. This effect is associated with circadian fluctuations in levels of jasmonic acid, the transcription factor MYC2, and glucosino-late contents in leaves. We tested whether a similar effect could be observed in a different plant–herbivore system:the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata and its co-evolved specialist herbivore, Manduca sexta. We measured larval growth on plants under both constant and diurnal conditions following identical or opposite entrainment, profiled the metabolome of attacked leaf tissue, quantified specific metabolites known to reduce M. sexta growth, and monitored M. sexta feeding activity under all experimental conditions. Entrainment did not consistently affect M. sexta growth or plant defense induction. However, both were reduced under constant dark conditions, as was M. sexta feeding activity. Our data indicate that the response induced by M. sexta in N. attenuata is robust to diurnal cues and independent of plant or herbivore entrain-ment. We propose that while the patterns of constitutive or general damage-induced defense may undergo circadian fluctuation, the orchestration of specific induced responses is more complex.

  3. Levels of organochlorine compounds in spotted dolphins from the Coiba archipelago, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, A; Cantos, G; Pastor, T; Aguilar, A

    2004-02-01

    Blubber and skin samples from 63 spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) (18 males, 40 females and 5 of unknown sex) were collected by biopsy techniques in the waters of the Coiba archipelago. Blubber was analyzed for organochlorine compounds and skin for gender determination. Mean levels of HCB (hexachlorobenzene), tPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) and tDDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) were 0.064, 2.30 and 6.4 mgkg(-1), respectively. These levels are low and are not considered to represent a threat to the S. attenuata population. No significant differences either in concentrations of HCB, tPCB and tDDT or in PCB profiles were observed between males and females. The ratio tDDT/tPCB was 2.69, indicating predominantly agrarian versus industrial activities in the area. The ratio ppDDE/tDDT was 0.83, a high figure that suggests both a local reduction of DDT inputs and a high rate of DDT degradation. Significant quantitative and qualitative differences were observed between two schools, suggesting intra-population heterogeneity in organochlorine exposure possibly due to demographic segregation. PMID:14599513

  4. Variation in acoustic behavior of delphinids in the Pacific Ocean based on school size and species composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Shannon; Barlow, Jay

    2005-04-01

    Variation in acoustic behavior based on school size and species composition was examined for surveys in the eastern tropical Pacific (2000), along the U.S. West Coast (2001), and in the U.S. EEZ surrounding Hawaii (2002). Sounds were monitored using a towed hydrophone array, and vocal schools were defined as those producing any combination of whistles, burst pulses, and/or echolocation clicks. Delphinid schools containing mixed species were consistently more vocal than single species schools. Vocal schools of Stenella attenuata, S. longirostris, Delphinus delphis, and Lissodelphis borealis were significantly larger than non-vocal schools. Vocal schools of Tursiops truncatus and Grampus griseus were somewhat larger than non-vocal schools, although this relationship was not significant. There was no relationship between group size and vocal activity for S. coeruleoalba, Steno bredanensis, and Globicephala spp. For species without a strong group size effect, all but T. truncatus were more vocal in the Hawaiian waters. The ability to use acoustic techniques in dolphin population estimation depends on their effectiveness in consistently detecting dolphin schools. This study suggests that small single-species schools of S. attenuata, S. longirostris, D. delphis, and L. borealis are more likely to be missed during acoustic monitoring in these regions.

  5. Trophic relationships and habitat preferences of delphinids from the southeastern Brazilian coast determined by carbon and nitrogen stable isotope composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lemos Bisi

    Full Text Available To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ(13C and nitrogen (δ(15N isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the δ(13C and δ(15N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon isotope results from coast to ocean indicated that there was a significant decrease in δ(13C values from estuarine dolphins to oceanic species. S. guianensis from Guanabara Bay had the highest mean δ(13C value, while oceanic species showed significantly lower δ(13C values. The highest δ(15N values were observed for P. crassidens and T. truncatus, suggesting that these species occupy the highest trophic position among the delphinids studied here. The oceanic species S. attenuata, G. griseus and L. hosei had the lowest δ(15N values. Stable isotope analysis showed that the three populations of S. guianensis in coastal bays had different δ(13C values, but similar δ(15N results. Guiana dolphins from Sepetiba and Ilha Grande bays had different foraging habitat, with specimens from Ilha Grande showing more negative δ(13C values. This study provides further information on the feeding ecology of delphinids occurring in southeastern Brazil, with evidence of distinctive foraging habitats and the occupation of different ecological niches by these species in the study area.

  6. Parasites of cetaceans stranded on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J B; Morales, J A; González-Barrientos, R C; Hernández-Gamboa, J; Hernández-Mora, G

    2011-12-15

    Information regarding parasitic fauna of cetaceans from Costa Rica is provided for the first time. A total of 25 stranded dolphins and whales were examined between 2001 and 2009, including striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) (n=19), pantropical spotted dolphin (S. attenuata) (n=2), spinner dolphin (S. longirostris) (n=1), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) (n=1), dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima) (n=1) and Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) (n=1). Pathological findings associated with the parasites are also presented. In the most representative dolphin species, S. coeruleoalba, the prevalence of parasites was 89.5%; moreover, all examined specimens of S. attenuata, S. longirostris, T. truncatus and Z. cavirostris presented parasites. No parasites were recovered from K. sima. Fourteen helminth taxa were identified, including six species of cestodes (Strobilocephalus triangularis, Tetrabothrius forsteri, Trigonocotyle sp., Phyllobothrium delphini, Monorygma grimaldi, Tetraphyllidea gen. sp. plerocercoid), four digeneans (Nasitrema globicephalae, Brachycladium palliatum, B. pacificum and Oschmarinella albamarina) and four nematodes (Anisakis spp., Halocercus lagenorhynchi, Halocercus sp. and Crassicauda anthonyi). A commensal crustacean, Xenobalanus globicipitis, was also identified. All identified parasites representing new geographic records for the Pacific coast of Central America and new host records are presented. Parasitological information is valuable for conservation of cetaceans in Pacific coast of Costa Rica. PMID:21665367

  7. Trophic relationships and habitat preferences of delphinids from the southeastern Brazilian coast determined by carbon and nitrogen stable isotope composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, Tatiana Lemos; Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Lailson-Brito, José; Lepoint, Gilles; Azevedo, Alexandre de Freitas; Flach, Leonardo; Malm, Olaf; Das, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the δ(13)C and δ(15)N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon isotope results from coast to ocean indicated that there was a significant decrease in δ(13)C values from estuarine dolphins to oceanic species. S. guianensis from Guanabara Bay had the highest mean δ(13)C value, while oceanic species showed significantly lower δ(13)C values. The highest δ(15)N values were observed for P. crassidens and T. truncatus, suggesting that these species occupy the highest trophic position among the delphinids studied here. The oceanic species S. attenuata, G. griseus and L. hosei had the lowest δ(15)N values. Stable isotope analysis showed that the three populations of S. guianensis in coastal bays had different δ(13)C values, but similar δ(15)N results. Guiana dolphins from Sepetiba and Ilha Grande bays had different foraging habitat, with specimens from Ilha Grande showing more negative δ(13)C values. This study provides further information on the feeding ecology of delphinids occurring in southeastern Brazil, with evidence of distinctive foraging habitats and the occupation of different ecological niches by these species in the study area. PMID:24358155

  8. Head morphology in perinatal dolphins: a window into phylogeny and ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschmann, Michael A; Huggenberger, Stefan; Kossatz, Lars S; Oelschläger, Helmut H A

    2006-11-01

    In this paper on the ontogenesis and evolutionary biology of odontocete cetaceans (toothed whales), we investigate the head morphology of three perinatal pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) with the following methods: computer-assisted tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, conventional X-ray imaging, cryo-sectioning as well as gross dissection. Comparison of these anatomical methods reveals that for a complete structural analysis, a combination of modern imaging techniques and conventional morphological methods is needed. In addition to the perinatal dolphins, we include series of microslides of fetal odontocetes (S. attenuata, common dolphin Delphinus delphis, narwhal Monodon monoceros). In contrast to other mammals, newborn cetaceans represent an extremely precocial state of development correlated to the fact that they have to swim and surface immediately after birth. Accordingly, the morphology of the perinatal dolphin head is very similar to that of the adult. Comparison with early fetal stages of dolphins shows that the ontogenetic change from the general mammalian bauplan to cetacean organization was characterized by profound morphological transformations of the relevant organ systems and roughly seems to parallel the phylogenetic transition from terrestrial ancestors to modern odontocetes. PMID:17051542

  9. Individual variability in herbivore-specific elicitors from the plant's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Amy; Halitschke, Rayko; Steppuhn, Anke; Baldwin, Ian T

    2004-08-01

    Lepidopteran larvae oral secretions and regurgitant (R), which contain a plethora of potential elicitors, are known to dramatically change a plant's wound response. We demonstrate, with a detailed microarray and secondary metabolite analysis, that the two most abundant fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) in the R of the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) can account for all measured direct (trypsin proteinase inhibitor: TPI) and indirect (cis-alpha-bergamotene) defences, the endogenous jasmonic acid burst that elicits them, and 86% of the induced transcriptional changes (89% up and 83% down) in its native host Nicotiana attenuata and hence are necessary and sufficient for the Manduca-specific modulation of the wound response. FACs were not found in eggs, but detected in larvae of all instars after their first meal. FACs were found in all regions of the alimentary canal and in the frass, but did not occur in salivary or mandibular glands, extracts of which were not active in any assay. Individual larvae differed substantially in their FAC composition and two FAC chemotypes were discernible: N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine biased R and N-linolenoyl-L-glutamate biased R. We created synthetic blends of FACs to mimic these chemical phenotypes and determined whether plants respond differently to the different R chemotypes. Micorarray and TPI analysis revealed that plants do not differentiate. N. attenuata plants use FACs from feeding caterpillars to tailor their wound responses but do not use the variability in FAC ratios to recognize attack from an individual caterpillar. PMID:15245414

  10. Native root-associated bacteria rescue a plant from a sudden-wilt disease that emerged during continuous cropping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Rakesh; Luu, Van Thi; Weinhold, Arne; Goldberg, Jay; Oh, Youngjoo; Baldwin, Ian T

    2015-09-01

    Plants maintain microbial associations whose functions remain largely unknown. For the past 15 y, we have planted the annual postfire tobacco Nicotiana attenuata into an experimental field plot in the plant's native habitat, and for the last 8 y the number of plants dying from a sudden wilt disease has increased, leading to crop failure. Inadvertently we had recapitulated the common agricultural dilemma of pathogen buildup associated with continuous cropping for this native plant. Plants suffered sudden tissue collapse and black roots, symptoms similar to a Fusarium-Alternaria disease complex, recently characterized in a nearby native population and developed into an in vitro pathosystem for N. attenuata. With this in vitro disease system, different protection strategies (fungicide and inoculations with native root-associated bacterial and fungal isolates), together with a biochar soil amendment, were tested further in the field. A field trial with more than 900 plants in two field plots revealed that inoculation with a mixture of native bacterial isolates significantly reduced disease incidence and mortality in the infected field plot without influencing growth, herbivore resistance, or 32 defense and signaling metabolites known to mediate resistance against native herbivores. Tests in a subsequent year revealed that a core consortium of five bacteria was essential for disease reduction. This consortium, but not individual members of the root-associated bacteria community which this plant normally recruits during germination from native seed banks, provides enduring resistance against fungal diseases, demonstrating that native plants develop opportunistic mutualisms with prokaryotes that solve context-dependent ecological problems.

  11. Jasmonate-dependent depletion of soluble sugars compromises plant resistance to Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ricardo A R; Arce, Carla C M; Ferrieri, Abigail P; Baldwin, Ian T; Erb, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Jasmonates regulate plant secondary metabolism and herbivore resistance. How they influence primary metabolites and how this may affect herbivore growth and performance are not well understood. We profiled sugars and starch of jasmonate biosynthesis-deficient and jasmonate-insensitive Nicotiana attenuata plants and manipulated leaf carbohydrates through genetic engineering and in vitro complementation to assess how jasmonate-dependent sugar accumulation affects the growth of Manduca sexta caterpillars. We found that jasmonates reduce the constitutive and herbivore-induced concentration of glucose and fructose in the leaves across different developmental stages. Diurnal, jasmonate-dependent inhibition of invertase activity was identified as a likely mechanism for this phenomenon. Contrary to our expectation, both in planta and in vitro approaches showed that the lower sugar concentrations led to increased M. sexta growth. As a consequence, jasmonate-dependent depletion of sugars rendered N. attenuata plants more susceptible to M. sexta attack. In conclusion, jasmonates are important regulators of leaf carbohydrate accumulation and this determines herbivore growth. Jasmonate-dependent resistance is reduced rather than enhanced through the suppression of glucose and fructose concentrations, which may contribute to the evolution of divergent resistance strategies of plants in nature. PMID:25704234

  12. Developmental process of musculoskeletal integration in ostracod antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Tomonari

    2012-03-01

    The functional morphology of arthropod appendages shows remarkable diversity. Plausible functional integrations, particularly between muscles and the exoskeleton, must be achieved in these diverse morphologies. This study provides an insight into the evolutionary pathway of diversified appendages from a functional point of view. The musculoskeletal structure and development of antennae in five species of Cypridocopina were compared. The muscle and skeletal systems are integrated in several ways: The integration in Propontocypris attenuata occurs during various stages of the molting growth, whereas that in Fabaeformiscandona breuili occurs during the myogenesis. These two types of developmental processes have notable similarities, despite their occurrence during different developmental phases. From the overview of the molecular phylogeny presented by earlier studies, it is suggested that the integrated musculoskeletal system has reappeared repeatedly in cypridoid lineages as an atavism. This study demonstrates how arthropod appendages evolve without losing the integrity of the functional whole. PMID:22305643

  13. Hawkmoths evaluate scenting flowers with the tip of their proboscis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Alexander; Yon, Felipe; Keesey, Ian W; Mißbach, Christine; Koenig, Christopher; Hansson, Bill S; Baldwin, Ian T; Knaden, Markus; Kessler, Danny

    2016-01-01

    Pollination by insects is essential to many ecosystems. Previously, we have shown that floral scent is important to mediate pollen transfer between plants (Kessler et al., 2015). Yet, the mechanisms by which pollinators evaluate volatiles of single flowers remained unclear. Here, Nicotiana attenuata plants, in which floral volatiles have been genetically silenced and its hawkmoth pollinator, Manduca sexta, were used in semi-natural tent and wind-tunnel assays to explore the function of floral scent. We found that floral scent functions to increase the fitness of individual flowers not only by increasing detectability but also by enhancing the pollinator's foraging efforts. Combining proboscis choice tests with neurophysiological, anatomical and molecular analyses we show that this effect is governed by newly discovered olfactory neurons on the tip of the moth's proboscis. With the tip of their tongue, pollinators assess the advertisement of individual flowers, an ability essential for maintaining this important ecosystem service. PMID:27146894

  14. Rotation of middle ear ossicles during cetacean development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkel, M D; Thewissen, J G; Oelschläger, H A

    2001-08-01

    Cetacean middle ears are unique among mammals in that they have an elongated tympanic membrane, a greatly reduced manubrium mallei, and an incudal crus longum that is shorter than the crus breve. Elongation of the tympanic membrane and reduction of the manubrium is thought to be related to an evolutionary rotation of the incus and malleus out of the plane of the tympanic membrane. We examined if rotation also occurs during ontogeny by comparing the middle ears of two species of dolphins (Delphinus delphis, Stenella attenuata) at different stages of development. We observed that: the incus has the body and crural proportions as in terrestrial mammals early in development; the incudomallear complex rotates approximately 90 degrees following ossification; the tympanic membrane is not elongated until relatively late in development. Therefore, some of the unique characteristics of the cetacean middle ear develop as modifications of an initially terrestrial-like morphology. PMID:11466740

  15. Morphologic characteristics of pulmonary macrophages in cetaceans: particular reference to pulmonary intravascular macrophages as a newly identified type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, M; Kuwamura, M; Takeya, M; Yamate, J

    2004-11-01

    We examined the morphologic characteristics of pulmonary macrophages in 42 specimens of Odontoceti (Globicephala macrorhynchus, Grampus griseus, Tursiops truncatus, Stenella attenuata, Stenella coeruleoalba, Berardius bairdii), using light and electron microscopes as well as immunohistochemistry with SRA-E5. SRA-E5-positive alveolar macrophages and pulmonary interstitial macrophages contained graphitic soots, indicating the clearance of airborne, aspirated foreign bodies. Pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs), positive with SRA-E5, were present within pulmonary capillaries, attaching to applied endothelial cells by cell junctions. They showed cytoplasmic tubular structures of micropinocytosis vermiformis and erythrophagocytosis, indicating their contributory role in the clearance of blood-borne particles. The uptake of pathogens by PIMs may be associated with the inducement of acute lung injury, especially bacterial infectious pneumonia. This study revealed for the first time the presence of PIMs in cetaceans. PMID:15557077

  16. Cytochrome P450 1A1 expression in cetacean skin biopsies from the Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauniaux, Thierry; Farnir, Frédéric; Fontaine, Michaël; Kiszka, Jeremy; Sarlet, Michael; Coignoul, Freddy

    2011-06-01

    The study describes cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYPA1) expression in the skin of different cetacean species (Megaptera novaeangliae, n=15; Stenella attenuata, n=7 and Stenella longirostris, n=24) from the Mozambique Channel island of Mayotte. Immunohistochemical examination was performed with a monoclonal antibody against scup cytochrome CYPA1. The sex was determined using a molecular approach consisting in the genotyping sex-specific genes. CYPA1 was detected at the junction between epidermis and blubber on dolphins only, mostly in the endothelial cells. Similar observation was obtained in the dermis of one M. novaeangliae. Immunohistochemical slides were scored to evaluate the expression of the CYPA1 and a higher expression was observed in S. longirostris, suggesting a higher exposure to pollutants for this species. The difference of expression between sexes was not significant. PMID:21565363

  17. The lateral enamel lamina--component of tooth primordia in selected mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, K; Matulová, P; Mísek, I

    2002-01-01

    The lateral enamel lamina (LEL) is a part of the enamel organ, which is probably not involved in tooth formation. It represents, besides the "stalk" of the tooth primordium, a second interconnection between enamel organ and oral epithelium or vestibular lamina. We detected the LEL in the sheep (Ovis aries), the dolphin (Stenella attenuata), and the vole (Microtus agrestis) by light microscopy and computer-aided three-dimensional reconstruction. The LEL could be found in cap to bell stage tooth primordia, most clearly in slowly developing tooth germs. LEL-like structures have been furthermore described or depicted in tooth germs of the mouse, the elk (Alces alces), the dugong (Dugong dugong), the elephant (Loxodonta africana), and the human. Probably it is a part of all mammalian tooth primordia that undergoes regression during morphogenesis of the enamel organ. As a reducing structure, it should be considered in studies of tooth development. PMID:12494916

  18. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verloove, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum chrysotrichum, Tecoma stans, Tipuana tipu, Urochloa mutica, U. plantaginea y Washingtonia se citan por primera vez para las Islas Canarias, mientras que Alopecurus myosuroides, Amaranthus blitoides, Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis, Heliotropium curassavicum, Leonotis nepetifolia, Medicago lupulina, Parkinsonia aculeata, Physalis peruviana, Phytolacca americana y Turnera ulmifolia son nuevas para la flora de la isla de Gran Canaria. Finalmente, se confirma la presencia de Paspalum vaginatum, P. distichum y Cortaderia selloana en Gran Canaria.Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum

  19. Host plant odors represent immiscible information entities - blend composition and concentration matter in hawkmoths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Späthe

    Full Text Available Host plant choice is of vital importance for egg laying herbivorous insects that do not exhibit brood care. Several aspects, including palatability, nutritional quality and predation risk, have been found to modulate host preference. Olfactory cues are thought to enable host location. However, experimental data on odor features that allow choosing among alternative hosts while still in flight are not available. It has previously been shown that M. sexta females prefer Datura wrightii compared to Nicotiana attenuata. The bouquet of the latter is more intense and contains compounds typically emitted by plants after feeding-damage to attract the herbivore's enemies. In this wind tunnel study, we offered female gravid hawkmoths (Manduca sexta odors from these two ecologically relevant, attractive, non-flowering host species. M. sexta females preferred surrogate leaves scented with vegetative odors form both host species to unscented control leaves. Given a choice between species, females preferred the odor bouquet emitted by D. wrightii to that of N. attenuata. Harmonizing, i.e. adjusting, volatile intensity to similar levels did not abolish but significantly weakened this preference. Superimposing, i.e. mixing, the highly attractive headspaces of both species, however, abolished discrimination between scented and non-scented surrogate leaves. Beyond ascertaining the role of blend composition in host plant choice, our results raise the following hypotheses. (i The odor of a host species is perceived as a discrete odor 'Gestalt', and its core properties are lost upon mixing two attractive scents (ii. Stimulus intensity is a secondary feature affecting olfactory-based host choice (iii. Constitutively smelling like a plant that is attracting herbivore enemies may be part of a plant's strategy to avoid herbivory where alternative hosts are available to the herbivore.

  20. Los mamíferos marinos en la costa central de Oaxaca Marine mammals along the central coast of Oaxaca

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    Juan Meraz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de conocer las especies de mamíferos marinos que se encuentran en la costa central de Oaxaca, se elaboró un listado comentando las características de los registros obtenidos. Se incluyeron las observaciones hechas a lo largo de 30 recorridos por mar, entre junio de 1999 y enero de 2004, realizadas entre las bahías de Huatulco y la playa de La Escobilla. Adicionalmente se incluyeron registros de animales varados, así como observaciones realizadas desde la costa. Se presentan comentarios sobre el registro de 8 especies en la zona, incluyendo las localidades y fechas de los avistamientos. Stenella attenuata es la especie más abundante, y la zona de Zipolite-Isla Roca Blanca la localidad con el mayor número de avistamientos. Dado el crecimiento turístico del lugar, es importante contar con este tipo de registros ya que es poco lo que se sabe sobre estas especies en esta porción de la costa oaxaqueña.With the aim of documenting the species of marine mammals that occur along the central coast of Oaxaca, a list with the characteristics of the records was elaborated based on observations made throughout 30 surveys from Huatulco Bays to La Escobilla beach between June 1999 and January 2004. Additional records from stranded animals are included, as well observations from the coast. Comments on 8 species are presented, including localities and dates of sightings. Stenella attenuata is the most abundant species. Zipolite-Roca Blanca island was the locality with the highest number of sightings. This records are important to promote conservation due growth of tourism in the area, given that Oaxaca coast is poorly known regarding marine mammals.

  1. Geranyllinalool Synthases in Solanaceae and Other Angiosperms Constitute an Ancient Branch of Diterpene Synthases Involved in the Synthesis of Defensive Compounds1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falara, Vasiliki; Alba, Juan M.; Kant, Merijn R.; Schuurink, Robert C.; Pichersky, Eran

    2014-01-01

    Many angiosperm plants, including basal dicots, eudicots, and monocots, emit (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene, which is derived from geranyllinalool, in response to biotic challenge. An Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) geranyllinalool synthase (GLS) belonging to the e/f clade of the terpene synthase (TPS) family and two Fabaceae GLSs that belong to the TPS-g clade have been reported, making it unclear which is the main route to geranyllinalool in plants. We characterized a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) TPS-e/f gene, TPS46, encoding GLS (SlGLS) and its homolog (NaGLS) from Nicotiana attenuata. The Km value of SlGLS for geranylgeranyl diphosphate was 18.7 µm, with a turnover rate value of 6.85 s–1. In leaves and flowers of N. attenuata, which constitutively synthesize 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool glycosides, NaGLS is expressed constitutively, but the gene can be induced in leaves with methyl jasmonate. In tomato, SlGLS is not expressed in any tissue under normal growth but is induced in leaves by alamethicin and methyl jasmonate treatments. SlGLS, NaGLS, AtGLSs, and several other GLSs characterized only in vitro come from four different eudicot families and constitute a separate branch of the TPS-e/f clade that diverged from kaurene synthases, also in the TPS-e/f clade, before the gymnosperm-angiosperm split. The early divergence of this branch and the GLS activity of genes in this branch in diverse eudicot families suggest that GLS activity encoded by these genes predates the angiosperm-gymnosperm split. However, although a TPS sequence belonging to this GLS lineage was recently reported from a basal dicot, no representative sequences have yet been found in monocot or nonangiospermous plants. PMID:25052853

  2. A rapid and sensitive method for the simultaneous analysis of aliphatic and polar molecules containing free carboxyl groups in plant extracts by LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventure Gustavo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aliphatic molecules containing free carboxyl groups are important intermediates in many metabolic and signalling reactions, however, they accumulate to low levels in tissues and are not efficiently ionized by electrospray ionization (ESI compared to more polar substances. Quantification of aliphatic molecules becomes therefore difficult when small amounts of tissue are available for analysis. Traditional methods for analysis of these molecules require purification or enrichment steps, which are onerous when multiple samples need to be analyzed. In contrast to aliphatic molecules, more polar substances containing free carboxyl groups such as some phytohormones are efficiently ionized by ESI and suitable for analysis by LC-MS/MS. Thus, the development of a method with which aliphatic and polar molecules -which their unmodified forms differ dramatically in their efficiencies of ionization by ESI- can be simultaneously detected with similar sensitivities would substantially simplify the analysis of complex biological matrices. Results A simple, rapid, specific and sensitive method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of free aliphatic molecules (e.g., free fatty acids (FFA and small polar molecules (e.g., jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid (SA containing free carboxyl groups by direct derivatization of leaf extracts with Picolinyl reagent followed by LC-MS/MS analysis is presented. The presence of the N atom in the esterified pyridine moiety allowed the efficient ionization of 25 compounds tested irrespective of their chemical structure. The method was validated by comparing the results obtained after analysis of Nicotiana attenuata leaf material with previously described analytical methods. Conclusion The method presented was used to detect 16 compounds in leaf extracts of N. attenuata plants. Importantly, the method can be adapted based on the specific analytes of interest with the only consideration that the

  3. First and second sets of shoots in five evergreen woody species from Tiantong National Forest Park of Zhejiang, China%浙江天童国家森林公园5种常绿阔叶植物的一次和二次抽枝进程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏洋洁; 唐坚强; 张光富; 黄超; 蒙凤群; 孙书存

    2013-01-01

    中国东部亚热带常绿阔叶林中,部分常绿木本物种具有明显的二次抽枝现象,即在春天完成第一次抽枝,间隔一定的时间后又开始新一轮抽枝.但是关于这些植物第二次抽枝的进程,迄今鲜有报道,限制了人们对这些植物生活史对策的理解.该文以浙江天童常绿阔叶林中有二次抽枝的5种植物光叶山矾(Symplocos lancifolia)、檵木(Loropetalum chinense)、窄基红褐柃(Euryarubiginosa var.attenuata)、杨梅(Myricarubra)和栲树(Castanopsis fargesii)为研究对象,调查并比较了第一次抽枝和第二次抽枝在昆虫取食压力、展叶动态和小枝投资大小3个方面的差异,探讨第二次抽枝动态的主要特点.结果表明:1)昆虫取食压力上,杨梅、栲树2种植物第二次抽枝的叶片虫食率显著高于第一次抽枝,光叶山矾、檵木和窄基红褐柃3种植物第一、二次抽枝的叶片虫食率没有差异;2)在现叶速率(叶片数量的增加速率)上,同一物种第一、二次抽枝的叶片数量增长模式相同,光叶山矾、檵木、窄基红褐柃和杨梅4个物种呈持续式增长,栲树则呈爆发式增长,但是完成现叶所需时间并不完全相同,光叶山矾、窄基红褐柃和杨梅第二次抽枝完成现叶比第一次少6-9天,檵木和栲树第一、二次抽枝完成现叶所需时间则无差异;3)在展叶速率上,光叶山矾、檵木和窄基红褐柃第二次抽枝显著高于第一次抽枝,但第一次抽枝较晚的杨梅和栲树第一、二次抽枝之间没有差异;4)调查的5种植物,第二次抽枝的投资总量均小于第一次抽枝,光叶山矾、窄基红褐柃、杨梅和栲树4种植物,第二次抽枝形成的小枝在叶片数量、单叶面积、小枝长度和小枝直径上都显著小于第一次抽枝,檵木第二次抽枝形成的小枝在叶片数量和小枝长度上没有差异,单叶面积和小枝直径则显著小于第一次抽枝.总体上看,所研究物

  4. Microarrays in ecological research: A case study of a cDNA microarray for plant-herbivore interactions

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    Gase Klaus

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology allows researchers to simultaneously monitor changes in the expression ratios (ERs of hundreds of genes and has thereby revolutionized most of biology. Although this technique has the potential of elucidating early stages in an organism's phenotypic response to complex ecological interactions, to date, it has not been fully incorporated into ecological research. This is partially due to a lack of simple procedures of handling and analyzing the expression ratio (ER data produced from microarrays. Results We describe an analysis of the sources of variation in ERs from 73 hybridized cDNA microarrays, each with 234 herbivory-elicited genes from the model ecological expression system, Nicotiana attenuata, using procedures that are commonly used in ecologic research. Each gene is represented by two independently labeled PCR products and each product was arrayed in quadruplicate. We present a robust method of normalizing and analyzing ERs based on arbitrary thresholds and statistical criteria, and characterize a "norm of reaction" of ERs for 6 genes (4 of known function, 2 of unknown with different ERs as determined across all analyzed arrays to provide a biologically-informed alternative to the use of arbitrary expression ratios in determining significance of expression. These gene-specific ERs and their variance (gene CV were used to calculate array-based variances (array CV, which, in turn, were used to study the effects of array age, probe cDNA quantity and quality, and quality of spotted PCR products as estimates of technical variation. Cluster analysis and a Principal Component Analysis (PCA were used to reveal associations among the transcriptional "imprints" of arrays hybridized with cDNA probes derived from mRNA from N. attenuata plants variously elicited and attacked by different herbivore species and from three congeners: N. quadrivalis, N. longiflora and N. clevelandii. Additionally, the PCA

  5. Macroalgas submareales de la bahía de Todos Santos, Baja California, México Submareal macroalgae of the Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico

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    Raúl Aguilar-Rosas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de identificar y caracterizar la composición de especies de la zona submareal de la bahía de Todos Santos, Baja California, México; se realizaron muestreos de macroalgas marinas bentónicas en 7 sitios durante 1995-2000. Como resultado de 25 buceos Scuba entre 3 y 33 m de profundidad se encontraron 150 especies de macroalgas para el área de estudio; 10 son Chlorophyta, 26 Phaeophyta y 114 Rhodophyta. Del total, 47 son registros nuevos para el área de estudio y 2 de éstos, Faucheocolax attenuata Setchell y Minium parvum R.L. Moe, son nuevos para la flora marina del Pacífico de México. Se incluye una revisión de las investigaciones en las que se han considerado las macroalgas presentes en la bahía de Todos Santos y una discusión sobre la composición de las especies encontradas, su distribución vertical y reproducción, así como sobre las especies epífitas y parásitas del área.In order to identify and characterize the species composition of the subtidal zone of the Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico, benthic marine macroalgae were sampled at 7 sites from 1995 to 2000. As a result of 25 scuba at derds for the study area, of which Faucheocolax attenuata Setchell and R.L Moe Minium parvum are new to the marine flora of Pacific Mexico. We include a research that consider the macroalpths between 3 and 33 m we found a total of 150 species of macroalgae for the study area, of which 10 are Chlorophyta, 26 Phaeophyta and 114 Rhodophyta; 47 species represent new recogae in the Todos Santos Bay and a discussion on the composition of species found, its vertical distribution and reproduction, particularly the species epiphytes and parasites present in the study area.

  6. Effect of zinc-enriched natural sediments, in isolated and microcosm models, on three species of benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Availability of toxic in aquatic bodies is limited by the physicochemical characteristics of sediments and water, as well as by the interactions between the different xenobiotics and inhabits species. The aim of this work was to relate the effect produced by zinc (Zn) spiked in sediments of the Ignacio Ramirez dam (PIR), in isolated and microcosm models, on ATP concentration of three benthic organisms with the metal biodisponibility. The selected species were a crustacean, an annelid and a mollusk: Hyalella azteca (Amphipoda: Hyalellidae), Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae) and Stagnicola attenuata (Basommatophora: Lymnaeidae), species that are found at high proportions in the reservoir and use different spaces in the benthos. Samples of sediments and organisms were collected from the PIR during the dry season (February of 1999). Metal concentration (Zn, Fe, Cu and Ni), pH, texture, particle size, total nitrogen and organic matter were determined in sediments. Sublethal studies were carried out using two types of static systems (isolated and in microcosm organisms). Both models contained PIR sediments enriched with Zn (nominal concentration of 0.8129 mg/kg) and synthetic water in a proportion of 1:4. The test organisms were added to the systems once the equilibrium was reached (2 hr) considering the biomass quantity with respect to volume (1.0 g of organism by each 100 ml of water:sediment). After 0, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hr of exposure, samples of sediment and hydrobionts were taken, and Zn content was quantified by atomic absorption. ATP concentration was also determined in organisms. The effect produced by natural sediments spiked with Zn is increased by the presence of more than one specie in the system (microcosm). With respect to Zn levels, two of the organisms (L. hoffmeisteri y S. attenuata) tend to lose this metal in isolated and microcosm models, probably as a regulation strategy in its accumulation, as well as Fe presence in the

  7. Mercury, organic-mercury and selenium in small cetaceans in Taiwanese waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Hsien; Shih, Chieh-Chih; Chou, Chiu Long; Chou, Lien-Siang

    2002-01-01

    Total Hg (sigmaHg), organic-Hg (O-Hg) and Se bioaccumulations in small cetaceans distributed in Taiwanese waters of the Taiwan Strait and the southwestern Pacific have been investigated for the first time. The results could represent the baseline metal concentrations of marine mammals in the southwestern Pacific, where volcanic activities are possibly the major source of mercury to the environments. Muscle samples of four species of small cetaceans were collected from animals accidentally caught by tuna-longline fisheries from 1994 through 1995. In total, 53 pantropical spotted dolphins, Stenella attenuata, nine spinner dolphins, S. longirostris, five bottlenose dolphins, Turiops truncatus and four Risso's dolphins, Grampus giseus were analyzed. In addition, two stranded pantropical spotted dolphins were investigated. Cold vapour AAS and ICP-MS were used in the analysis of Hg and Se, respectively. Significant species difference was found in the four species of small cetaceans. Among them, the pantropical spotted dolphin showed the highest mean concentration (mg/kg wet wt.) of both sigmaHg (3.64 +/- 2.19) and O-Hg (2.79 +/- 1.23), whereas the Risso's dolphin had the highest mean concentrations of Se (1.77 +/- 1.29). There was no significant sex difference with respect to metal bioaccumulation in the samples of S. attenuata. Significant correlations between body length (BL) and sigmaHg, as well as O-Hg concentrations were observed in pantropical spotted (Sa) and spinner dolphins (Sl). The linear relationships were Sa: sigmaHg = -8.290 + 0.066BL, r = 0.421; Sl: sigmaHg = -2.735 + 0.025BL, r = 0.875; Sa: O-Hg = -3.723 + 0.036BL, r = 0.408; and Sl: O-Hg = -3.017 + 0.025BL, r = 0.870. However, a demethylation phenomenon that decreasing the percentage of O-Hg coupled with increasing levels of Se was observed when the sigmaHg concentrations in the muscle tissues of dolphins reached 4 mg/kg wet wt. PMID:12398391

  8. Small cetaceans found stranded or accidentally captured in southeastern Brazil: bioindicators of essential and non-essential trace elements in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Leila Soledade; de Moura, Jailson Fulgencio; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; de Campos, Reinaldo Calixto; Siciliano, Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    Essential (Cu, Mn, Se and Zn) and non-essential (Cd and Hg) elements were analyzed in the hepatic tissue of 22 individuals of seven different species of small cetaceans (Feresa attenuata; Orcinus orca; Pontoporia blainvillei; Sotalia guianensis; Stenella frontalis; Steno bredanensis; Tursiops truncatus) accidentally caught in fishing nets or found stranded along the northern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2001 and 2010. Atlantic spotted dolphin (S. frontalis) showed the highest levels of Cd (20.23μgg(-1), dry weight), while rough-toothed dolphin (S. bredanensis) showed the highest levels of Hg (825.9μgg(-1)dw) and Se (221.9μgg(-1)dw). Killer whale (O. orca) presented the highest levels of Cu (64.80μgg(-1)dw) and Zn (2220μgg(-1)dw), and Guiana dolphin (S. guianensis), the highest level of Mn (13.05μgg(-1)dw). Cu, Hg, Mn and Zn in the hepatic tissue of killer whale (O. orca), Cu, Hg, Mn, Se and Zn in the hepatic tissue of rough-toothed dolphin (S. bredanensis) and Cd and Zn in the hepatic tissue of Guiana dolphin (S. guianensis) were significantly higher when compared to other studies with these species around the world. No significant correlations were observed between element accumulation and sex, sexual maturity and body length. An analysis of the interelemental relationships in the Guiana dolphin specimens showed strong positive correlations between Cd and Se, Cu and Zn, and Hg and Se. Differences were observed in the bioaccumulation of elements between the analyzed species, probably related to each species feeding habit, and differences between different element concentrations in the different dolphin species were probably due to the preference for certain preys and their bioavailability in the environment. Thus, the bioavailability of the analyzed elements in the marine environment should also be taken in consideration. This study also presents the first data ever reported for pygmy killer whale (F. attenuata) regarding trace

  9. Reverse genetics in ecological research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Schwachtje

    Full Text Available By precisely manipulating the expression of individual genetic elements thought to be important for ecological performance, reverse genetics has the potential to revolutionize plant ecology. However, untested concerns about possible side-effects of the transformation technique, caused by Agrobacterium infection and tissue culture, on plant performance have stymied research by requiring onerous sample sizes. We compare 5 independently transformed Nicotiana attenuata lines harboring empty vector control (EVC T-DNA lacking silencing information with isogenic wild types (WT, and measured a battery of ecologically relevant traits, known to be important in plant-herbivore interactions: phytohormones, secondary metabolites, growth and fitness parameters under stringent competitive conditions, and transcriptional regulation with microarrays. As a positive control, we included a line silenced in trypsin proteinase inhibitor gene (TPI expression, a potent anti-herbivore defense known to exact fitness costs in its expression, in the analysis. The experiment was conducted twice, with 10 and 20 biological replicates per genotype. For all parameters, we detected no difference between any EVC and WT lines, but could readily detect a fitness benefit of silencing TPI production. A statistical power analyses revealed that the minimum sample sizes required for detecting significant fitness differences between EVC and WT was 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than the 10 replicates required to detect a fitness effect of TPI silencing. We conclude that possible side-effects of transformation are far too low to obfuscate the study of ecologically relevant phenotypes.

  10. A Bayesian integrated population dynamics model to analyze data for protected species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyle, S. D.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Managing wildlife-human interactions demands reliable information about the likely consequences of management actions. This requirement is a general one, whatever the taxonomic group. We describe a method for estimating population dynamics and decision analysis that is generally applicable, extremely flexible, uses data efficiently, and gives answers in a useful format. Our case study involves bycatch of a protected species, the Northeastern Offshore Spotted Dolphin (Stenella attenuata, in the tuna fishery of the eastern Pacific Ocean. Informed decision-making requires quantitative analyses taking all relevant information into account, assessing how bycatch affects these species and how regulations affect the fisheries, and describing the uncertainty in analyses. Bayesian analysis is an ideal framework for delivering information on uncertainty to the decision-making process. It also allows information from other populations or species or expert judgment to be included in the analysis, if appropriate. Integrated analysis attempts to include all relevant data for a population into one analysis by combining analyses, sharing parameters, and simultaneously estimating all parameters, using a combined objective function. It ensures that model assumptions and parameter estimates are consistent throughout the analysis, that uncertainty is propagated through the analysis, and that the correlations among parameters are preserved. Perhaps the most important aspect of integrated analysis is the way it both enables and forces consideration of the system as a whole, so that inconsistencies can be observed and resolved.

  11. New triterpene esters from flowerheads of Arnica lonchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas J; von Raison, Jeanette; Willuhn, Günter

    2004-10-01

    From the flowerheads of Arnica lonchophylla Greene ssp. lonchophylla Maguire (Asteraceae), a variety of mono-, di- and trihydroxytriterpenes of the oleanane, ursane, lupane and dammarane types were isolated and their structures elucidated by EI and CI mass spectrometry and extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis. Most of the compounds are esterified at position 3 with lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids. Several ester derivatives of known triterpenes represent new natural products. The triterpenetriols 20(30)-taraxasten-3beta,16beta,21alpha-triol (arnitriol A) and lupane-3beta,16beta,20-triol, both isolated in the form of their C3-fatty acid ester derivatives, possess hydroxylation patterns which have not been described previously. Besides small amounts of triterpenetriol esters, the lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic acid esters of arnidiol, faradiol, maniladiol and calenduladiol were also identified in the flowerheads of A. montana (Arnicae flos Ph. Eur.), A. chamissonis ssp. foliosa and A. angustifolia ssp. attenuata. A search for sesquiterpene lactones in the flowers of A. lonchophylla resulted in the identification of small amounts of helenalin and 11alpha,13-dihydrohelenalin. PMID:15490326

  12. Activated carbon from pyrolysed sugarcane bagasse: Silver nanoparticle modification and ecotoxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Suely Patrícia C; Strauss, Mathias; Delite, Fabrício S; Clemente, Zaira; Castro, Vera L; Martinez, Diego Stéfani T

    2016-09-15

    Activated carbon from pyrolysed sugarcane bagasse (ACPB) presented pore size ranges from 1.0 to 3.5nm, and surface area between 1200 and 1400m(2)g(-1) that is higher than commonly observed to commercial activated carbon. The ACPB material was successfully loaded with of silver nanoparticles with diameter around 35nm (0.81wt.%). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses showed that the material surface contains metallic/Ag(0) (93.60wt.%) and ionic/Ag(+) states (6.40wt.%). The adsorption capacity of organic model molecules (i.e. methylene blue and phenol) was very efficient to ACPB and ACPB loaded with silver nanoparticles (ACPB-AgNP), indicating that the material modification with silver nanoparticles has not altered its adsorption capacity. ACPB-AgNP inhibited bacteria growth (Escherichia coli), it is a promising advantage for the use of these materials in wastewater treatment and water purification processes. However, ACPB-AgNP showed environmental risks, with toxic effect to the aquatic organism Hydra attenuata (i.e. LC50 value of 1.94mgL(-1)), and it suppressed root development of Lycopersicum esculentum plant (tomato). Finally, this work draw attention for the environmental implications of activated carbon materials modified with silver nanoparticles. PMID:27039274

  13. Annotated checklist and fisheries interactions of cetaceans in Togo, with evidence of Antarctic minke whale in the Gulf of Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segniagbeto, Gabriel H; VAN Waerebeek, Koen; Bowessidjaou, Joseph E; Ketoh, Koffivi; Kpatcha, Takouda K; Okoumassou, Kotchikpa; Ahoedo, Kossi

    2014-01-01

    Based on strandings and captures, 9 cetacean species, including 6 odontocetes and 3 mysticetes, are documented (photos and specimens) in Togo's coastal waters (newly-recorded species marked with an asterisk): Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis*), Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera brydei or B. edeni), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps*), short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus*), pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata*), common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and common dolphin Delphinus sp. An anecdotal sighting record for killer whale (Orcinus orca) is considered reliable. The lack of Sousa teuszii records in Togo is consistent with its apparent contemporaneous absence in Ghana. The B. bonaerensis specimen, entangled in a purse seine set on small pelagics, is a first record for the Gulf of Guinea. The occurrence of this Southern Ocean species north of the equator underscores the severe gaps in our understanding of cetacean distribution off western Africa. The majority of artisanal fishermen operating in Togolese coastal waters are of Ghanaian origin and are thought to promote trade and consumption of cetacean bushmeat. Because captures are illegal, enforced with some success in the main fishing centers, covert landings of cetaceans are exceedingly difficult to monitor, quantify or sample. Concern is expressed about pollution of Togo's coastal waters with heavy metals due to phosphorite mining and export from the coastal basin near Hahotoé and Kpogamé.

  14. Molecular identification of fungal pathogens in nodular skin lesions of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Anne; von Bomhard, Wolf; Antweiler, Elisabeth; Tintelnot, Kathrin

    2015-02-01

    In a retrospective study, we investigated 52 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from cats with histologically confirmed cutaneous and subcutaneous mycoses to determine if the pathogens could be identified by molecular methods. Aim of the study was to obtain a deep understanding of the spectrum of infectious agents, which, as we hypothesized, was not available by histopathology alone. Detection of feline and fungal DNA was achieved in 92.3% and 94.2% of the samples, respectively. Most of the subcutaneous infections in cats were caused by Alternaria spp. (63.5%), followed by Cryptococcus neoformans (7.7%), Histoplasma capsulatum (5.8%), Sporothrix spp. (3.8%), Aspergillus vitricola, Aureobasidium pullulans, Exophiala attenuata, Fusarium oxysporum, Lecythophora cateniformis, Microsporum canis, and Phialophora sp. (1.9% each). The results from molecular identification indicate that correct identifications of the fungal pathogens by histology alone were rarely possible. The spectrum of fungal pathogens identified after DNA extraction from FFPE samples was much broader than that expected by classical histopathology. This was especially noted in alternariosis in that the micromorphological pattern in tissue was misleading and could be confused with that of cryptococcosis. Due to different susceptibilities to antifungal agents, it is important to arrive at a definitive diagnosis, which might be possible by examination of the fungus recovered in culture and/or molecular methods, in addition to the histopathologic techniques. PMID:25550386

  15. Selection of a bioassay battery to assess toxicity in the affluents and effluents of three water-treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bohórquez-Echeverry

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of water quality includes the analysis of both physical-chemical and microbiological parameters. However,none of these evaluates the biological effect that can be generated in ecosystems or humans. In order to define the most suitable organismsto evaluate the toxicity in the affluent and effluent of three drinking-water treatment plants, five acute toxicity bioassays were used,incorporating three taxonomic groups of the food chain. Materials and methods. The bioassays used were Daphnia magna and Hydraattenuata as animal models, Lactuca sativa and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata as plant models, and Photobacterium leioghnathi asbacterial model. To meet this objective, selection criteria of the organisms evaluated and cluster analysis were used to identify the mostsensitive in the affluent and effluent of each plant. Results. All organisms are potentially useful in the assessment of water quality bymeeting four essential requirements and 17 desirable requirements equivalent to 100% acceptability, except P. leioghnathi which doesnot meet two essential requirements that are the IC50 for the toxic reference and the confidence interval. The animal, plant and bacterialmodels showed different levels of sensitivity at the entrance and exit of the water treatment systems. Conclusions. H. attenuata, P.subcapitata and P. leioghnathi were the most effective organisms in detecting toxicity levels in the affluents and D. magna, P. subcapitataand P. leioghnathi in the effluents.

  16. Resumption of traditional drive hunting of dolphins in the Solomon Islands in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremus, Marc; Leqata, John; Baker, C Scott

    2015-05-01

    The 'drive hunting' of dolphins has a long history in the Solomon Islands, specifically at the island of Malaita. In 2010, the most active village, Fanalei, suspended hunting in exchange for financial compensation from an international non-governmental organization but resumed hunting again in early 2013. Here, we report on a visit to Fanalei in March 2013 to document the species and number of dolphins killed in the renewed hunting. Detailed records for the 2013 hunting, up to the time of our visit, included at least 1500 pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), 159 spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) and 15 'bottlenose' dolphins, probably Tursiops truncatus. Molecular identification confirmed two of the species, pantropical spotted and spinner dolphins. A summary of all available records from 1976 to 2013 documented a minimum total of 15 454 dolphins killed by the Fanalei villagers alone. We also found the local price of a dolphin tooth had increased from about US$0.14 (SBD$1) in 2004 to about US$0.70 (SBD$5) in 2013. The large number of dolphins killed and the apparent incentive for future hunting offered by the increasing commercial value of teeth, highlight an urgent need to monitor hunts and assess the abundance and trends in local populations. PMID:26064656

  17. Lanthanide ecotoxicity: First attempt to measure environmental risk for aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geochemical cycles of lanthanides are being disrupted by increasing global production and human use, but their ecotoxicity is not fully characterized. In this study, the sensitivity of Aliivibrio fischeri and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata to lanthanides increased with atomic number, while Daphnia magna, Heterocypris incongruens, Brachionus calyciflorus and Hydra attenuata were equally sensitive to the tested elements. In some cases, a marked decrease in exposure concentrations was observed over test duration and duly considered in calculating effect concentrations and predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) for hazard and risk assessment. Comparison of PNEC with measured environmental concentrations indicate that, for the present, environmental risks deriving from lanthanides should be limited to some hotspots (e.g., downstream of wastewater treatment plants). However, considering the increasing environmental concentrations of lanthanides, the associated risks could become higher in the future. Ecotoxicological and risk assessment studies, along with monitoring, are required for properly managing these emerging contaminants. - Highlights: • For alga and bacteria, ecotoxicity increases with increasing atomic number. • Interspecies differences and exposure condition strongly influenced ecotoxicity. • Current environmental risk for lanthanides appears limited to some hotspots. - Current environmental risk for lanthanides appears limited to some hotspots, but increasing human use could promote a more widespread risk in the future

  18. Chemical and ecotoxicological assessments of water samples before and after being processed by a Water Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Teresa Rosim Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical and ecotoxicological measurements were employed to appraise the water quality of the Corumbataí River raw water (RW intake, and that of its filtered (FW and treated (TW waters, processed by the Water Treatment Plant (WTP of Piracicaba (SP, Brazil during 2010. Some herbicides: ametrine, atrazine, simazine and tebuthiuron, were measured, with levels ranging from 0.01 to 10.3 µg L-1 . These were lower than those required to produce ecotoxicological effects to aquatic life based on published literature. Similarly, trihalomethanes, such as chloroform and bromodichloromethane produced as a result of the WTP process were also shown to be present in concentrations that would neither harm environmental nor human health. Elevated free chlorine concentrations found in FW and TW were credibly responsible for toxicity effects observed in algae and daphnids. (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Daphnia magna. In contrast, results of toxicity testing conducted with Hydra attenuata suggested that this organism is resistant to free chorine and could be used for drinking water evaluations. Coupling bioassays with chemical analyses proved valuable to uncover putative cause-effect relationships existing between physical, chemical and toxic results, as well as in optimizing data interpretation of water quality.

  19. The plastic response of Manduca sexta to host and non-host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Christopher; Bretschneider, Anne; Heckel, David G; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Hansson, Bill S; Vogel, Heiko

    2015-08-01

    Specialist insect herbivores have evolved efficient ways to adapt to the major defenses of their host plants. Although Manduca sexta, specialized on Solanaceous plants, has become a model organism for insect molecular biology, little is known about its adaptive responses to the chemical defenses of its hosts. To study larval performance and transcriptomic responses to host and non-host plants, we conducted developmental assays and replicated RNAseq experiments with Manduca larvae fed on different Solanaceous plants as well as on a Brassicaceous non-host plant, Brassica napus. Manduca larvae developed fastest on Nicotiana attenuata, but no significant differences in performance were found on larvae fed on other Solanaceae or the non-host B. napus. The RNAseq experiments revealed that Manduca larvae display plastic responses at the gene expression level, and transcriptional signatures specific to the challenges of each host- and non-host plant. Our observations are not consistent with expectations that specialist herbivores would perform poorly on non-host plants. Instead, our findings demonstrate the ability of this specialized insect herbivore to efficiently use a larger repertoire of host plants than it utilizes in the field. PMID:26070471

  20. Intraspecific combinations of flower and leaf volatiles act together in attracting hawkmoth pollinators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Kárpáti

    Full Text Available Insects pinpoint mates, food and oviposition sites by olfactory cues. Recognizing and localizing a suitable target by olfaction is demanding. Odor sources emit characteristic blends of compounds that have to be identified against an environmentally derived olfactory background. This background, however, does not necessarily disturb the localization of a source. Rather, the contrary. Sex pheromones become more attractive to male moths when being presented against a relevant plant background. Here we asked whether such olfactory coaction also characterizes foraging cues. The tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta feeds on nectar from wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata and sacred datura Datura wrightii flowers. We tested how leaf-derived volatile blends as a background affect the moths' approach to flower blends. We found coaction when a flower blend was presented against a conspecific leaf volatile background but not when the blend was presented against volatiles emitted by the other host plant or by a non-host plant. Hence, our results reveal a species-specific coaction between flower blend and leaf volatile background. The ability to integrate information from different odor sources on one plant might provide the moth with a fine-grained analysis of food site quality.

  1. Nicotine's defensive function in nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Steppuhn

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce metabolites that directly decrease herbivore performance, and as a consequence, herbivores are selected for resistance to these metabolites. To determine whether these metabolites actually function as defenses requires measuring the performance of plants that are altered only in the production of a certain metabolite. To date, the defensive value of most plant resistance traits has not been demonstrated in nature. We transformed native tobacco(Nicotiana attenuata with a consensus fragment of its two putrescine N-methyl transferase (pmt genes in either antisense or inverted-repeat (IRpmt orientations. Only the latter reduced (by greater than 95% constitutive and inducible nicotine. With D(4-nicotinic acid (NA, we demonstrate that silencing pmt inhibits nicotine production, while the excess NA dimerizes to form anatabine. Larvae of the nicotine-adapted herbivore Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm grew faster and, like the beetle Diabrotica undecimpunctata, preferred IRpmt plants in choice tests. When planted in their native habitat, IRpmt plants were attacked more frequently and, compared to wild-type plants, lost 3-fold more leaf area from a variety of native herbivores, of which the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and Trimerotropis spp. grasshoppers caused the most damage. These results provide strong evidence that nicotine functions as an efficient defense in nature and highlights the value of transgenic techniques for ecological research.

  2. Honing in on phenotypes: comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography of herbivory-induced volatile emissions and novel opportunities for system-level analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaquerel, Emmanuel; Baldwin, Ian T

    2013-01-01

    Plant volatile organic compound (VOC) production requires a complex network of biochemical pathways, which, although well mapped from a biochemical point of view, remains only partly understood with regard to its physiological and genetic regulation. Additionally, although analytical procedures for plant VOC measurement have become increasingly faster and more sensitive in recent years, pinpointing relevant shifts in VOC production from the thousands of molecular fragments that are generated by modern mass spectrometer instruments remains challenging. Here we discuss novel opportunities for system-wide analysis provided by the implementation of non-targeted data processing and multivariate statistics in VOC analysis. We illustrate the value of implementing non-targeted data processing with examples of recent findings from our group on the interactive control exerted by salivary components of a lepidopteran herbivore, Manduca sexta, on herbivory-induced VOC emissions in the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata. Finally, we briefly discuss the use of multi-platform data integration for probing the nature of metabolic and regulatory systems underlying VOC emissions.

  3. Community structures and niche characteristics of Leptospira host animals in farmlands along Huaihe River%沿淮农田区钩端螺旋体宿主动物群落结构及生态位特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡兴强; 顾莉莉; 王俊; 李青; 花高荣; 张冠林

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the syngenetic and synecological characteristics of Leptospira host animals in the farmlands along Huaihe River, China. Methods Trap-at-night method was used to capture small animals in the farmlands along Huaihe River. Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener index, Pielou index, and Levins index, the indices of community dominance, diversity, evenness, and niche breadth, were used for the analysis of syngenetic characteristics and niche characteristics of Leptospira host animals in the farmland ecosystem. Results Of the animals captured in the farmlands along Huaihe River, Apodemus agrarius accounted for 89.80%, Crocidura attenuata 6.51%, and Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, and Cricetulus triton together 3.69%. The density of host animals was the lowest (5.54%) in 2006 and the highest (13.75%) in 2010. The diversity index, evenness index, and dominance index of the host animals along Huaihe River were 0.4338, 0.2696, and 0.8111, respectively. The spatial niche breadth indices of Ap. Agrarius and C. Attenuata were 0.8030 and 0.9353, respectively, but the spatial niche breadth indices of R. Norvegicus, M. Musculus, and C. Triton were 0.3912 to 0.4220. The temporal niche breadth indices were 0.9185 to 0.9979 for all host animals except C. Triton (0). Conclusion There are 5 species of Leptospira host animals in the farmlands along Huaihe River, among which Ap. Agrarius is the dominant species and C. Attenuata is also common. The host animal density increased in general in 2005-2011, with the peak level in 2010. The host animals have low diversity and evenness and high dominant concentration. Ap. Agrarius and C. Attenuata have good adaptation to farmland ecosystem and good farmland resource utilization ability. The competition between the species of host animals is not prominent, which may lead to the population outbreak of Ap. Agrarius, so the regions along Huaihe River are high-risk areas of leptospirosis.%目的 研究沿淮农田区钩端螺旋体(

  4. Patterns of cetacean sighting distribution in the Pacific exclusive economic zone of Costa Rica based on data collected from 1979-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Collado, Laura; Gerrodette, Tim; Calambokidis, John; Rasmussen, Kristin; Sereg, Irena

    2005-01-01

    Nineteen species of cetaceans (families Balaenopteridae, Kogiidae, Physeteridae, Ziphiidae and Delphinidae) occur in the Costa Rican Pacific Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Based on data recorded from the EEZ by the Southwest Fisheries Service Center, Cascadia Research Collective, and CIMAR between 1979-2001, we mapped the distribution of 18 cetacean species. Our results suggest that the majority of the cetacean species use primarily oceanic waters, particularly those species within the families Balaenopteridae, Kogiidae. Physeteridae and Ziphiidae. Members of the family Delphinidae showed a wide variety of distribution patterns: seven species are widespread throughout the EEZ, four appear to be exclusively pelagic, and two are primarily coastal. Overall, three cetacean species appear to have populations concentrated in coastal waters: Stenella attenuata graffmani. Tursiops truncatus, and Megaptera novaeangliae. These three may be more susceptible to human activities due to the overlap of their ranges with fishery areas (tuna and artisanal fisheries), and an uncontrolled increase of touristic whale watching activities in several parts of their range. The distribution maps represent the first comprehensive representation of cetacean species that inhabit Costa Rican Pacific waters. They provide essential base-line information that may be used to initiate conservation and management efforts of the habitats where these animals reproduce and forage. PMID:17354438

  5. Silver speciation in liver of marine mammals by synchrotron X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Emiko; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Hokura, Akiko; Terada, Yasuko; Kunito, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takahito; Yamada, Tadasu K; Rosas, Fernando C W; Fillmann, Gilberto; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Nakai, Izumi

    2011-06-01

    The chemical form of Ag in the livers of five species of marine mammals was examined using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopies. The XAFS analysis suggested that Ag(2)Se was present in the livers of the Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei), Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli), and Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii), whereas Ag(2)S was present in the livers of the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata). XRF spectroscopy results revealed that the distribution patterns of Ag and Se in a thin section of the liver of the Franciscana dolphin were the same; this also implied that Ag was associated with Se in the liver. Thus, the interaction of Ag with Se or S may offer significant protection against the toxicity of Ag in marine mammals. The formation of either Ag(2)Se or Ag(2)S might depend on the Hg levels in the liver. Ag(2)Se was observed in liver samples with relatively high Ag/Hg ratio, whereas liver samples with low Ag/Hg ratio contained Ag(2)S. PMID:21491037

  6. The effect of recording and analysis bandwidth on acoustic identification of delphinid species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Julie N.; Rankin, Shannon; Barlow, Jay

    2004-11-01

    Because many cetacean species produce characteristic calls that propagate well under water, acoustic techniques can be used to detect and identify them. The ability to identify cetaceans to species using acoustic methods varies and may be affected by recording and analysis bandwidth. To examine the effect of bandwidth on species identification, whistles were recorded from four delphinid species (Delphinus delphis, Stenella attenuata, S. coeruleoalba, and S. longirostris) in the eastern tropical Pacific ocean. Four spectrograms, each with a different upper frequency limit (20, 24, 30, and 40 kHz), were created for each whistle (n=484). Eight variables (beginning, ending, minimum, and maximum frequency; duration; number of inflection points; number of steps; and presence/absence of harmonics) were measured from the fundamental frequency of each whistle. The whistle repertoires of all four species contained fundamental frequencies extending above 20 kHz. Overall correct classification using discriminant function analysis ranged from 30% for the 20-kHz upper frequency limit data to 37% for the 40-kHz upper frequency limit data. For the four species included in this study, an upper bandwidth limit of at least 24 kHz is required for an accurate representation of fundamental whistle contours..

  7. Automatic classification of delphinids based on the representative frequencies of whistles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Hao; Chou, Lien-Siang

    2015-08-01

    Classification of odontocete species remains a challenging task for passive acoustic monitoring. Classifiers that have been developed use spectral features extracted from echolocation clicks and whistle contours. Most of these contour-based classifiers require complete contours to reduce measurement errors. Therefore, overlapping contours and partially detected contours in an automatic detection algorithm may increase the bias for contour-based classifiers. In this study, classification was conducted on each recording section without extracting individual contours. The local-max detector was used to extract representative frequencies of delphinid whistles and each section was divided into multiple non-overlapping fragments. Three acoustical parameters were measured from the distribution of representative frequencies in each fragment. By using the statistical features of the acoustical parameters and the percentage of overlapping whistles, correct classification rate of 70.3% was reached for the recordings of seven species (Tursiops truncatus, Delphinus delphis, Delphinus capensis, Peponocephala electra, Grampus griseus, Stenella longirostris longirostris, and Stenella attenuata) archived in MobySound.org. In addition, correct classification rate was not dramatically reduced in various simulated noise conditions. This algorithm can be employed in acoustic observatories to classify different delphinid species and facilitate future studies on the community ecology of odontocetes. PMID:26328716

  8. Observations of vaginal calculi in dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, C D; Rennie, C J

    1991-07-01

    Vaginal calculi have been described from the common (Delphinus delphis), Pacific white-sided (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) and spotted (Stenella attenuata) dolphins. We describe additional calculi found in six sexually mature D. delphis from southern California. Three calculi were large (ca. 7 x 5 cm), exhibited concentric layer crystallization, and were unique from previously published descriptions. One calculus described previously and one in our sample appeared to be a fetal skeleton and skull respectively. Using CAT scans of a first trimester northern right whale dolphin (Lissodelphis borealis) and of a near term Delphinus delphis, we discuss the potential origin and development of vaginal calculi through analysis of ossification in embryonic delphinids. We hypothesize that the calculi represented spontaneous incomplete abortion with retention of part or all of the fetus in the distal reproductive tract. The form of the calculus relates to the degree of skeletal development at the time of fetal death. Calculi from a pregnant dolphin provided one measure of residence time. PMID:1920661

  9. Annotated checklist and fisheries interactions of cetaceans in Togo, with evidence of Antarctic minke whale in the Gulf of Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segniagbeto, Gabriel H; VAN Waerebeek, Koen; Bowessidjaou, Joseph E; Ketoh, Koffivi; Kpatcha, Takouda K; Okoumassou, Kotchikpa; Ahoedo, Kossi

    2014-01-01

    Based on strandings and captures, 9 cetacean species, including 6 odontocetes and 3 mysticetes, are documented (photos and specimens) in Togo's coastal waters (newly-recorded species marked with an asterisk): Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis*), Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera brydei or B. edeni), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps*), short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus*), pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata*), common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and common dolphin Delphinus sp. An anecdotal sighting record for killer whale (Orcinus orca) is considered reliable. The lack of Sousa teuszii records in Togo is consistent with its apparent contemporaneous absence in Ghana. The B. bonaerensis specimen, entangled in a purse seine set on small pelagics, is a first record for the Gulf of Guinea. The occurrence of this Southern Ocean species north of the equator underscores the severe gaps in our understanding of cetacean distribution off western Africa. The majority of artisanal fishermen operating in Togolese coastal waters are of Ghanaian origin and are thought to promote trade and consumption of cetacean bushmeat. Because captures are illegal, enforced with some success in the main fishing centers, covert landings of cetaceans are exceedingly difficult to monitor, quantify or sample. Concern is expressed about pollution of Togo's coastal waters with heavy metals due to phosphorite mining and export from the coastal basin near Hahotoé and Kpogamé. PMID:24447657

  10. Historical and current records of aquarium cetaceans in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peijun; Sun, Ni; Yao, Zhiping; Zhang, Xianfeng

    2012-01-01

    The number of cetaceans housed in aquariums in China is increasing. Detailed information on the historical and current population status has not been reported, despite its importance for successful breeding and population management. Questionnaires were conducted between December 2006 and May 2009, and the information was used to construct studbooks. Our survey showed that 10 species had been introduced to aquariums since 1978, including 26 (with 15 in the current population) finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides), 5 (5) false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens), 94 (80) common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), 48 (30) Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), 36 (32) beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), 10 (10) pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), 8 (8) Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus), 2 (2) short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), 2 (2) Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens), and 5 (0) baiji dolphins (Lipotes vexillifer). The number of cetaceans has increased markedly in the past 32 years, especially since 1995. Currently, 184 individuals are under human care throughout China, a number larger than any other country with an International Species Information System membership. In addition, the Annual Survival Rates of bottlenose dolphins (0.959) and beluga whales (0.968) were found higher than those reported previously (0.93-0.951 and 0.94-0.954, respectively). PMID:21674602

  11. cDNA-derived amino acid sequences of myoglobins from nine species of whales and dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanami, Kentaro; Mita, Hajime; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Tadasu; Suzuki, Tomohiko

    2006-10-01

    We determined the myoglobin (Mb) cDNA sequences of nine cetaceans, of which six are the first reports of Mb sequences: sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis), Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni), pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps), Stejneger's beaked whale (Mesoplodon stejnegeri), Longman's beaked whale (Indopacetus pacificus), and melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra), and three confirm the previously determined chemical amino acid sequences: sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), common minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). We found two types of Mb in the skeletal muscle of pantropical spotted dolphin: Mb I with the same amino acid sequence as that deposited in the protein database, and Mb II, which differs at two amino acid residues compared with Mb I. Using an alignment of the amino acid or cDNA sequences of cetacean Mb, we constructed a phylogenetic tree by the NJ method. Clustering of cetacean Mb amino acid and cDNA sequences essentially follows the classical taxonomy of cetaceans, suggesting that Mb sequence data is valid for classification of cetaceans at least to the family level. PMID:16962803

  12. A tool for real-time acoustic species identification of delphinid whistles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Julie N; Rankin, Shannon; Barlow, Jay; Lammers, Marc O

    2007-07-01

    The ability to identify delphinid vocalizations to species in real-time would be an asset during shipboard surveys. An automated system, Real-time Odontocete Call Classification Algorithm (ROCCA), is being developed to allow real-time acoustic species identification in the field. This Matlab-based tool automatically extracts ten variables (beginning, end, minimum and maximum frequencies, duration, slope of the beginning and end sweep, number of inflection points, number of steps, and presence/absence of harmonics) from whistles selected from a real-time scrolling spectrograph (ISHMAEL). It uses classification and regression tree analysis (CART) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) to identify whistles to species. Schools are classified based on running tallies of individual whistle classifications. Overall, 46% of schools were correctly classified for seven species and one genus (Tursiops truncatus, Stenella attenuata, S. longirostris, S. coeruleoalba, Steno bredanensis, Delphinus species, Pseudorca crassidens, and Globicephala macrorhynchus), with correct classification as high as 80% for some species. If classification success can be increased, this tool will provide a method for identifying schools that are difficult to approach and observe, will allow species distribution data to be collected when visual efforts are compromised, and will reduce the time necessary for post-cruise data analysis. PMID:17614515

  13. [Inshore cetaceans from the North and South Pacific coast of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Fernández, Damián; Montero-Cordero, Andrea; May-Collado, Laura

    2011-03-01

    Twenty nine cetacean species occur in Costa Rican waters but extensive research has been conducted only for three species. The latter shows there is a lack of general and local information about these mammals, even when the country, has shown a remarkable growth in whale watching activities. The increasing use of marine resources in coastal areas has also developed the need to determine the occurrence of cetaceans in areas showing high tourist presence, in order to propose sound conservation measures. In this study, environmental variables were determined and subsequently related to the presence of the species recorded, out of 166 sightings, between 2005 and 2006. The species with highest proportion of sightings were Stenella attenuata (68%), followed by Megaptera novaeangliae (13%) and Tursiops truncatus (10%). The presence of spotted dolphins is related to changes in salinity and water transparency, while that of the humpback whale was related to wave height (Beaufort scale) and water temperature. The presence of seven species of cetaceans was confirmed in two coastal areas of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, from which three are present throughout the year. Environmental variables were found related to the presence of at least two species. PMID:21516651

  14. Morphology of the complex laryngeal gland in the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T L; Turnbull, B S; Cowan, D F

    1999-01-01

    A complex lymphoepithelial gland is a constant feature in the larynx of Atlantic bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, based on study of 56 animals. Larynges were removed from fresh, non-decomposed beach-stranded animals for gross examination and histological sampling. A large lymphoepithelial gland occurs in the rostro-ventral mucosa of the larynx, overlying the cricoid cartilage. It presents as a well-defined, elevated, and heavily trabeculated area. Histological examination reveals a pseudostratified columnar epithelium which branches into the underlying submucosa. The epithelial-lined folds and crypts thus formed are surrounded by aggregations of lymphocytes, which infiltrate this epithelium. Mucous glands are often associated with these lymphoid aggregations. The histological appearance of the laryngeal gland is remarkably similar to the palatine, or dorsal oropharyngeal tonsils, of T. truncatus. It may be analogous to the nasopharyngeal adenoid of terrestrial animals. Age-related involution of the laryngeal gland is not as obvious with increasing animal age (or length) as it is in other mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. The distribution of this gland among cetaceans is not yet known. We have observed it in individuals of every species we have studied, including Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella coeruleoalba, Stenella attenuata, Globicephala macrorhynchus, Steno bredanensis, Physeter catodon, Pseudorca crassidens, Mesoplodon europaeus, and Kogia breviceps. PMID:9892423

  15. A preliminary study of habitat and resource partitioning among co-occurring tropical dolphins around Mayotte, southwest Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alexandra; Kiszka, Jeremy; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Richard, Pierre; Ridoux, Vincent

    2009-09-01

    Mayotte in the southwest Indian Ocean is characterized by high dolphin diversity. They may coexist within a fairly small area around the island because they exploit neither the same preferential habitats nor the same resources. This preliminary study aimed to investigate ecological niche segregation among these delphinid communities: the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus, the pantropical spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata, the spinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris, and the melon-headed whale, Peponocephala electra. Two approaches were used. Habitat preferences were investigated by analysing dolphin sighting data and associated physiographical characteristics. Resource partitioning was explored by analysing C and N stable isotopes in skin and blubber biopsies. Only T. aduncus, which showed clear association with coastal habitats in the lagoon, differed from the others in terms of habitat preferences, characterised by shallow depth and slope, and proximity to the coast. All other species shared similar oceanic habitats immediately outside the lagoon, these being of higher depth and slope, greater distance from the coast and were not discernable by discriminant analysis. The two Stenella species and the melon-headed whale displayed very high overlap in habitat physiographic variables. The analysis of stable isotopes confirmed the ecological isolation of T. aduncus and revealed a clear segregation of P. electra compared to the two Stenella that was not apparent in the habitat analysis. This may reflect ecological differences that were not observable from diurnal surface observations.

  16. Dietary plant phenolic improves survival of bacterial infection in Manduca sexta caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, Marta L; Halitschke, Rayko; Short, Sarah M; Lazzaro, Brian P; Kessler, André

    2013-03-01

    Plant phenolics are generally thought to play significant roles in plant defense against herbivores and pathogens. Many plant taxa, including Solanaceae, are rich in phenolic compounds and some insect herbivores have been shown to acquire phenolics from their hosts to use them as protection against their natural enemies. Here we demonstrate that larvae of an insect specialist on Solanaceae, the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), acquire the plant phenolic chlorogenic acid (CA), and other caffeic acid derivatives as they feed on one of their hosts, Nicotiana attenuata L. (Solanaceae), and on artificial diet supplemented with CA. We test the hypothesis that larvae fed on CA-supplemented diet would have better resistance against bacterial infection than larvae fed on a standard CA-free diet by injecting bacteria into the hemocoel of fourth instars. Larvae fed CA-supplemented diet show significantly higher survival of infection with Enterococcus faecalis (Andrewes & Horder) Schleifer & Kilpper-Bälz, but not of infection with the more virulent Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Schroeter) Migula. Larvae fed on CA-supplemented diet possess a constitutively higher number of circulating hemocytes than larvae fed on the standard diet, but we found no other evidence of increased immune system activity, nor were larvae fed on CA-supplemented diet better able to suppress bacterial proliferation early in the infection. Thus, our data suggest an additional defensive function of CA to the direct toxic inhibition of pathogen proliferation in the gut. PMID:23420018

  17. Auxin Is Rapidly Induced by Herbivore Attack and Regulates a Subset of Systemic, Jasmonate-Dependent Defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ricardo A R; Robert, Christelle A M; Arce, Carla C M; Ferrieri, Abigail P; Xu, Shuqing; Jimenez-Aleman, Guillermo H; Baldwin, Ian T; Erb, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Plant responses to herbivore attack are regulated by phytohormonal networks. To date, the role of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in this context is not well understood. We quantified and manipulated the spatiotemporal patterns of IAA accumulation in herbivore-attacked Nicotiana attenuata plants to unravel its role in the regulation of plant secondary metabolism. We found that IAA is strongly, rapidly, and specifically induced by herbivore attack. IAA is elicited by herbivore oral secretions and fatty acid conjugate elicitors and is accompanied by a rapid transcriptional increase of auxin biosynthetic YUCCA-like genes. IAA accumulation starts 30 to 60 s after local induction and peaks within 5 min after induction, thereby preceding the jasmonate (JA) burst. IAA accumulation does not require JA signaling and spreads rapidly from the wound site to systemic tissues. Complementation and transport inhibition experiments reveal that IAA is required for the herbivore-specific, JA-dependent accumulation of anthocyanins and phenolamides in the stems. In contrast, IAA does not affect the accumulation of nicotine or 7-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides in the same tissue. Taken together, our results uncover IAA as a rapid and specific signal that regulates a subset of systemic, JA-dependent secondary metabolites in herbivore-attacked plants. PMID:27485882

  18. Auxin Is Rapidly Induced by Herbivore Attack and Regulates a Subset of Systemic, Jasmonate-Dependent Defenses1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ricardo A. R.; Robert, Christelle A. M.; Arce, Carla C. M.; Ferrieri, Abigail P.; Jimenez-Aleman, Guillermo H.

    2016-01-01

    Plant responses to herbivore attack are regulated by phytohormonal networks. To date, the role of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in this context is not well understood. We quantified and manipulated the spatiotemporal patterns of IAA accumulation in herbivore-attacked Nicotiana attenuata plants to unravel its role in the regulation of plant secondary metabolism. We found that IAA is strongly, rapidly, and specifically induced by herbivore attack. IAA is elicited by herbivore oral secretions and fatty acid conjugate elicitors and is accompanied by a rapid transcriptional increase of auxin biosynthetic YUCCA-like genes. IAA accumulation starts 30 to 60 s after local induction and peaks within 5 min after induction, thereby preceding the jasmonate (JA) burst. IAA accumulation does not require JA signaling and spreads rapidly from the wound site to systemic tissues. Complementation and transport inhibition experiments reveal that IAA is required for the herbivore-specific, JA-dependent accumulation of anthocyanins and phenolamides in the stems. In contrast, IAA does not affect the accumulation of nicotine or 7-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides in the same tissue. Taken together, our results uncover IAA as a rapid and specific signal that regulates a subset of systemic, JA-dependent secondary metabolites in herbivore-attacked plants. PMID:27485882

  19. Effects of γ irradiation of hydra: elimination of interstitial cells from viable hydra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydra attenuata and H. magnipapillata were γ-irradiated from a cesium source. All doses which had any observable effect (3000 rad and above) resulted in a reduction in the number of interstitial cells and of their differentiated product cells, or in the complete elimination of these cells. Interstitial cells were essentially completely eliminated within 5 days after irradiation doses above 5500 rad, and these hydra died. Irradiation doses of 4200 to 5500 rad resulted in a mixture of effects: some hydra recovered completely, some lost all interstitial cells and died, and some lost interstitial cells but could be propagated, as asexually reproducing clones, by hand feeding them. Hydra of some of these hand-fed clones entirely lacked interstitial cells and did not recover interstitial cells during subsequent culturing. Yet when these hydra were repopulated by interstitial cells from a normal hydra, they were restored to normal. Nerve cells became depleted more slowly than interstitial cells following irradiation, so animals can be obtained which possess nerve but no stem (interstitial) cells. The nerve cells and other derivatives of interstitial cells eventually disappear upon prolonged culture of the hydra. Thus γ irradiation can be used to eliminate interstitial cells from hydra, leaving viable polyps composed only of epithelial cells

  20. Evaluación preliminar de toxicidad, genotoxicidad y actividad antimicrobiana de Sida rhombifolia L. Preliminary evaluation of Sida rhombifolia L. toxicity, genotoxicity and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugés Keile

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available La actual predisposición a consumir productos naturales y, en muchas regiones, la difícil disponibilidad y accesibilidad a los medicamentos han llevado a las poblaciones del mundo a buscar otras alternativas para aliviar sus dolencias. Una de las más difundidas ha sido el regreso a la medicina ancestral, lo cual ha provocado un aumento en el consumo de fitoterapéuticos. En Colombia, el uso de los fitomedicamentos está muy extendido y, dentro de ellos, en esta investigación se  seleccionó la planta Sida rhombifolia L. a la cual se le realizó la evaluación de la toxicidad de extractos y fracciones utilizando como organismos de prueba Daphnia magna, Hydra attenuata y Artemia salina. La actividad biológica fue evaluada mediante la prueba de sensibilidad a antimicrobianos y la genotoxicidad con el ensayo Cometa. Los ensayos de toxicidad aguda con los organismos de prueba muestran que los extractos acuosos son prácticamente no tóxicos (CL50 >1000 ppm, lo cual sugiere que su uso en forma de infusión es seguro. Los extractos etanólicos y las fracciones de acetato de etilo y cloroformo presentaron actividad antimicrobiana frente a Staphylococcus aureus y Pseudomonas aeruginosa que puede ser atribuida a los metabolitos secundarios (terpenoides, flavonoides que están presentes en esta especie. Los extractos etanólicos presentaron una importante actividad genotóxica sobre los linfocitos en el ensayo Cometa, siendo el extracto etanólico de raíces el que presenta mayor genotoxicidad (CL50 35 ppm. Es importante señalar que el extracto acuoso de hojas presenta una baja genotoxicidad (CL50 900 ppm, lo cual es relevante si se toma en consideración que es la parte de la planta tradicionalmente utilizada por las comunidades indígenas ubicadas en la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. The current tendency to consume more natural products and difficult availability of and access to medicines in many regions has led the world’s population to seek

  1. Cetacean records along São Paulo state coast, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos César de Oliveira Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The São Paulo state (SP coast (23º18'S, 44º42'W; 25º14'S, 48º01'W is of approximately 600 km in length, bordering the Western Atlantic Ocean, in southeastern Brazil. Cetacean sightings and strandings have long been observed throughout this area. Scattered data from scientific publications, skeletal remains in museums, photographs and articles from newspaper files, universities and aquaria have been organised and updated since 1993. Field investigations on strandings and sightings have also been conducted. A total of 29 cetacean species have been recorded, including 7 baleen whales (Mysticeti and 22 toothed whales (Odontoceti, as follows: Balaenoptera physalus, B. borealis, B. edeni, B. acutorostrata, B. bonaerensis, Megaptera novaeangliae, Eubalaena australis, Physeter macrocephalus, Kogia breviceps, K. sima, Berardius arnuxii, Mesoplodon europaeus, M. mirus, Ziphius cavirostris, Orcinus orca, Feresa attenuata, Globicephala melas, G. macrorhynchus, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus capensis, Lagenodelphis hosei, Steno bredanensis, Tursiops truncatus, Stenella frontalis, S. longirostris, S. coeruleoalba, Lissodelphis peronii, Sotalia guianensis and Pontoporia blainvillei. Several species have been observed only once and include strays from their areas of common distribution, as well as species with known preferences for offshore distribution. Others, such as P. blainvillei and S. guianensis, are common coastal dwellers year-round. Z. cavirostris, P. crassidens and L. hosei are reported for the first time on the SP coast.A costa do Estado de São Paulo (SP (23º18'S, 44º42'O; 25º14'S, 48º01'O apresenta aproximadamente 600 km de extensão voltada para o Oceano Atlântico Ocidental no sudeste do Brasil. Registros de encalhes e de avistamentos de cetáceos vêm sendo realizados ao longo desse litoral. Desde 1993, dados obtidos em literatura científica, material osteológico encontrado em museus, fotografias e artigos de arquivos de jornais

  2. Actividad molusquicida del Piquerol A aislado de Piqueria trinervia (compositae sobre ocho especies de caracoles pulmonados The molluscicide activity of Piquerol A isolated from Piqueria trinervia (Compositae against eight species of pulmonate snails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cruz-Reys

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available De las partes aéreas de la planta Piqueria trinervia (Compositae colectada en diveresas áereas de México, se aisló el Piquerol A. Este compuesto se probó como agente molusquicida contra ocho especies de caracoles pulmonados: Fossaria (Fossaria humilis, F. (Bakerilymnae sp., Pseudosuccinea columella, Stagnicola attenuata, de México; F. (B. cubensis y Physacubensis, de Cuba; P. Columella y Biomphalaria glabrata, de Brasil; B glabrata, de Puerto Rico; S. elodes, de Estados Unidos. Se utilizaron tres concentraciones 50, 25 y 5 ppm para cada una de las especies y 2 períodos de exposición, 6 y 24 horas, a 20-22ºC. En 50 ppm, después de 6 horas, y 25 ppm, después de 24 horas los ejemplares de todas las especies murieron. En 5 ppm después de 24 horas, se observaron mortalidades de 60 a 100%. En ningún caso se observó recuperación después de la exposición por 24 horas. El piquerol A es un terpeno biodegradable que presenta otras actividades biológicas. No se han hecho pruebas de toxicidad en otros animales ni pruebas de campo. Sin embargo, es una substacia con alto potencial de uso como molusquicida en zonas de transmisión focal. Es la primera que en México se hacen estudios sistemáticos sobre molusquicidas de origen vegetal.In laboratory trials an aqueous solution of Piquerol A from Piqueria trinervia, collected in several regions of Mexico, showed a molluscicide action on the adults of eight different pulmonates snails species. Fossaria (Fossaria humilis, F. (Bakerilymnaea sp., Pseudosuccinea columella and Stagnicola attenuata from Mexico; F. (B. cubensis and Physa cubensis from Cuba; P. columella and Biomphalaria glabrata from Brazil; B. glabrata from Puerto Rico; and S. elodes from USA. The solution was tested at 50, 25 and 5 ppm concentration, for two periods of 6 and 24 hours, at room temperature (20-22ºC. A 100% mortality was obtained for all species at 50 ppm concentration after 6 hours of exposure; the same percentage at 25

  3. F-box蛋白COI1稳定性调控机制%Regulation Mechanism of Protein Stability of the F-box Protein COI1 from Tomato and Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娟; 姚瑞枫; 陈泓宇; 李海鸥; 谢道昕; 闫建斌

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis COI1 (coronatine insensitive 1),an F-box protein that physically interacts with ASK1 (Arabidopsis serine/Threonine kinase 1) protein to form SCFCOI1-E3 ligase complex,perceives jasmonate signals and modulates diverse aspects of the jasmonate-regulated plant defense and developmental processes.The COIl homologs from various plant species have recently been identified,however,little is known about the molecular mechanism regulating protein stability of these COI1 homologs.In this study,we demonstrated that the COI1 homologs from vegetable crop Solanum lycopersicum and commercial plant Nicotiana attenuata remain stable via interacting with ASK1 protein,suggesting that assembly of SCFCOI1 complexes contributes to the stabilization of COI1 homologs.Meanwhile,the 26S proteasome inhibitor represses the degradation of COI1 homologs,demonstrating that ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays a role in degradation of the COI1 homologs.These results suggest that two antagonistic pathways work together to maintain COI1 protein in tomato and tobacco at a suitable abundance for proper biological function.%拟南芥F-box蛋白COI1 (Coronatine insensitive 1)与ASK1(Arabidopsis serine/Threonine kinase 1)蛋白及CUL1(CULLIN1)蛋白等结合形成SCFCOI1泛素连接酶复合体.COI1感知茉莉素信号、进而调控植物一系列的防御反应和生长发育过程.虽然多种作物的COI1同源蛋白已经被相继鉴定,但是其自身蛋白水平的调控机制仍然未知.本文重点研究了蔬菜作物番茄(Solanum lycopersicum)和经济作物烟草(Nicotiana attenuata)中COI1蛋白稳定性的调控机制.结果证明,这两种作物的COI1蛋白通过与ASK1的相互作用而得到稳定,表明形成SCFCOI1复合体可能有助于COI1蛋白的稳定.同时,26S蛋白酶体抑制剂能够明显抑制COI1的降解,说明泛素-蛋白酶体途径参与了其降解过程.这些结果证明在这两个不同物种中,两条互相拮抗的途径共同

  4. Diversity of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Abou Zaid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal abundance, biomass, and taxonomic composition of copepods in El-Mex Bay (Southeastern Mediterranean region were studied from autumn 2011 to 2012. Most species within the copepod communities displayed a clear pattern of succession throughout the investigation period. Generally copepods were the predominant group. They contributed numerically 57% of the total zooplankton counts with an average of 5083 organisms/m3 and a total number of 203,333 individuals. The bay harbored 50 species belonging to 28 genera within 19 families and 4 orders under one class. Calanoids were represented by 24 species which formed 31.6% of total copepods predominantly Acartia clausi, Calocalanus pavo, Clausocalanus furcatus, Eucalanus crassus, Nannocalanus minor, Paracalanus parvus, Eucalanus subcrassus, and Temora longicornis. Cyclopoids comprised 13 species of which Acanthocyclops americanus, Halicyclops magniceps, Oithona attenuata, and Oithona nana were the most abundant adult copepods. Eleven Harpacticoid species were also recorded with Euterpina acutifrons, Microsetella norvegica, Onychocamptus mohammed being the most prevalent. It was found however, that two Poecilostomatoida species were rarely encountered in the plankton Oncaea minuta and Corycaeus typicus. Copepod larvae and copepodite stages formed the main bulk of copepod Fauna as noticed in the El-Mex Bay during the investigation period. Their percentage was 36.7% of the total count and their total numbers were 74,629 individuals with an average of 1866 organisms/m3. The persistent relationships between total copepod counts, copepod orders, and physico-chemical variables suggested that physical factors operate on the copepod communities, either directly to limit maximum distribution along the bay, or indirectly on abundance.

  5. 基于层次分析法对姜黄属植物的观赏应用综合评价%Ornamental evaluation of Curcuma based on analytic hierarchy process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丽珍; 吴永辉; 岳保超; 刘念

    2015-01-01

    运用层次分析法对姜黄属(CurcumaL.)植物的10个种12份材料进行了鲜切花应用、盆栽观花应用、盆栽观叶应用与地栽应用等方面的观赏特性综合评价,并对就该12份材料的株高、花梗长度、花梗粗度、花序长度、花序直径等28个单项指标进行了综合考察评分,按评分标准计算其综合得分.结果显示,在姜黄属植物的观赏应用上,上部苞片先端颜色与花序直径是较为重要的评价指标;在观赏应用综合评价上,等级为I的有大莪术(C.elata)、春秋姜黄(C.attenuata)的顶生花与侧生花、南昆山莪术(C.nankunshanensis)的顶生花与侧生花、顶花莪术(C.yunnanensis),其中大莪术得分最高,是开发应用的首选种类.南岭莪术(C.kwangsiensis var.nanlingensis、姜黄(C.longa、红艳郁金(C.rubescens)、Curcuma sp.1、Curcuma sp.2被评定为等级Ⅱ,Curcuma sp.2、姜黄较其他得分高.郁金因其花色淡,花梗长度短,开花率低等因素,总体得分明显落后其他种,被评定为等级Ⅲ.

  6. Ecotoxicity of selected nano-materials to aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, C; Gagné, F; Férard, J F; Eullaffroy, P

    2008-10-01

    Present knowledge concerning the ecotoxic effects of nano-materials is very limited and merits to be documented more fully. For this purpose, we appraised the toxicity of nine metallic nano-powders (copper zinc iron oxide, nickel zinc iron oxide, yttrium iron oxide, titanium dioxide, strontium ferrite, indium tin oxide, samarium oxide, erbium oxide, and holmium oxide) and of two organic nano- powders (fullerene-C60 and single-walled carbon nanotube or SWCNT). After a simple process where nano-powders (NPs) were prepared in aqueous solution and filtered, they were then bioassayed across several taxonomic groups including decomposers (bacteria), primary producers (micro-algae), as well as primary and secondary consumers (micro-invertebrates and fish). Toxicity data generated on the 11 NPs reflected a wide spectrum of sensitivity that was biological level-, test-, and endpoint-specific. With all acute and chronic tests confounded for these 11 NPs, toxicity responses spanned over three orders of magnitude: >463 mg/L (24 h LC50 of the invertebrate Thamnoplatyurus platyurus for fullerene-C60) / 0.3 mg/L (96 h EC50 of the invertebrate Hydra attenuata for indium tin oxide), that is a ratio of 1543. On the basis of the MARA (Microbial Array for Risk Assessment) assay toxic fingerprint concept, it is intimated that NPs may have different modes of toxic action. When mixed in a 1:1 ratio with a certified reference material (CRM) sediment, two solid phase assays and an elutriate assay, respectively, showed that five NPs (copper zinc iron oxide, samarium oxide, erbium oxide, holmium oxide, and SWCNT) were able to increase both CRM sediment toxicity and its elutriate toxicity. This initial investigation suggests that chemicals emerging from nanotechnology may pose a risk to aquatic life in water column and sediment compartments and that further studies on their adverse effects are to be encouraged.

  7. The physical characteristics and usage patterns of stone axe and pounding hammers used by long-tailed macaques in the Andaman Sea region of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumert, Michael D; Kluck, Marius; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2009-07-01

    Stone hammering in natural conditions has been extensively investigated in chimpanzees and bearded capuchins. In contrast, knowledge of stone tool use in wild Old World monkeys has been limited to anecdotal reports, despite having known for over 120 years that Macaca fascicularis aurea use stone tools to process shelled foods from intertidal zones on islands in the Andaman Sea. Our report is the first scientific investigation to look at the stone tools used by these macaques. We observed they were skilled tool users and used stone tools daily. They selected tools with differing qualities for differing food items, and appeared to use at least two types of stone tools. Pounding hammers were used to crush shellfish and nuts on anvils and axe hammers were used to pick or chip at oysters attached to boulders or trees. We found significant physical differences between these two tools. Tools at oyster beds were smaller and exhibited scarring patterns focused more often on the points, whereas tools found at anvils were larger and showed more scarring on the broader surfaces. We also observed grip differences between the two tool types. Lastly, macaques struck targets with axe hammers more rapidly and over a wider range of motion than with pounding hammers. Both our behavioral and lithic data support that axe hammers might be used with greater control and precision than pounding hammers. Hand-sized axe hammers were used for controlled chipping to crack attached oysters, and larger pounding hammers were used to crush nuts and unattached shellfish on anvils. In addition to stones, they also used hand-sized auger shells (Turritella attenuata) as picks to axe attached oysters. Pound hammering appears similar to the stone tools used by chimpanzees and capuchins, but axe hammering has not yet been documented in other nonhuman primates in natural conditions.

  8. Navigating natural variation in herbivory-induced secondary metabolism in coyote tobacco populations using MS/MS structural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dapeng; Baldwin, Ian T; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2015-07-28

    Natural variation can be extremely useful in unraveling the determinants of phenotypic trait evolution but has rarely been analyzed with unbiased metabolic profiling to understand how its effects are organized at the level of biochemical pathways. Native populations of Nicotiana attenuata, a wild tobacco species, have been shown to be highly genetically diverse for traits important for their interactions with insects. To resolve the chemodiversity existing in these populations, we developed a metabolomics and computational pipeline to annotate leaf metabolic responses to Manduca sexta herbivory. We selected seeds from 43 accessions of different populations from the southwestern United States--including the well-characterized Utah 30th generation inbred accession--and grew 183 plants in the glasshouse for standardized herbivory elicitation. Metabolic profiles were generated from elicited leaves of each plant using a high-throughput ultra HPLC (UHPLC)-quadrupole TOFMS (qTOFMS) method, processed to systematically infer covariation patterns among biochemically related metabolites, as well as unknown ones, and finally assembled to map natural variation. Navigating this map revealed metabolic branch-specific variations that surprisingly only partly overlapped with jasmonate accumulation polymorphisms and deviated from canonical jasmonate signaling. Fragmentation analysis via indiscriminant tandem mass spectrometry (idMS/MS) was conducted with 10 accessions that spanned a large proportion of the variance found in the complete accession dataset, and compound spectra were computationally assembled into spectral similarity networks. The biological information captured by this networking approach facilitates the mining of the mass spectral data of unknowns with high natural variation, as demonstrated by the annotation of a strongly herbivory-inducible phenolic derivative, and can guide pathway analysis. PMID:26170304

  9. An ecological analysis of the herbivory-elicited JA burst and its metabolism: plant memory processes and predictions of the moving target model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stork

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid herbivore-induced jasmonic acid (JA accumulation is known to mediate many induced defense responses in vascular plants, but little is known about how JA bursts are metabolized and modified in response to repeated elicitations, are propagated throughout elicited leaves, or how they directly influence herbivores. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found the JA burst in a native population of Nicotiana attenuata to be highly robust despite environmental variation and we examined the JA bursts produced by repeated elicitations with Manduca sexta oral secretions (OS at whole- and within-leaf spatial scales. Surprisingly, a 2(nd OS-elicitation suppressed an expected JA burst at both spatial scales, but subsequent elicitations caused more rapid JA accumulation in elicited tissue. The baseline of induced JA/JA-Ile increased with number of elicitations in discrete intervals. Large veins constrained the spatial spread of JA bursts, leading to heterogeneity within elicited leaves. 1(st-instar M. sexta larvae were repelled by elicitations and changed feeding sites. JA conjugated with isoleucine (JA-Ile translates elicitations into defense production (e.g., TPIs, but conjugation efficiency varied among sectors and depended on NaWRKY3/6 transcription factors. Elicited TPI activity correlated strongly with the heterogeneity of JA/JA-Ile accumulations after a single elicitation, but not repeated elicitations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ecologically informed scaling of leaf elicitation reveals the contribution of repeated herbivory events to the formation of plant memory of herbivory and the causes and importance of heterogeneity in induced defense responses. Leaf vasculature, in addition to transmitting long-distance damage cues, creates heterogeneity in JA bursts within attacked leaves that may be difficult for an attacking herbivore to predict. Such unpredictability is a central tenet of the Moving Target Model of defense, which posits that

  10. Revision of Poliaspis (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Diaspididae, with descriptions of 8 new species from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nate Hardy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight new Australian species of Poliaspis are described and illustrated: P. alluvia sp. n., P. araucariae sp. n., P. ceraflora sp. n., P. naamba sp. n., P. nalbo sp. n., P. narungga sp. n., P. ozothamnae sp. n., and P. waibenensis sp. n. Two described species are transferred into Poliaspis and are redescribed and illustrated: Lineaspis callitris (Laing originally described by Laing as a species of Poliaspis, is transferred back into Poliaspis as P. callitris Laing comb. rev., and Leonardaspis wilga (Leonardi is transferred to Poliaspis as P. wilga (Leonardi comb. n. Descriptions and illustrations are also provided for six of the fourteen previously-named Poliaspis species, including five from Australia: P. attenuata Brimblecombe, P. elongata Brimblecombe, P. exocarpi Maskell, P. nitens Fuller, and P. syringae Laing. Both P. cycadis Comstock and P. gaultheriae Green become junior synonyms of P. media Maskell. The species not treated here are P. intermedia Fuller (the location of the types is unknown and Fuller’s description is inadequate, P. casuarinicola Lindinger (missing types, P. incisa Takagi and de Faveri (recently, and well described in Takagi and de Faveri 2011, and the six New Zealand species recently revised by Henderson (2011. In addition, Laingaspis lanigera (Laing, the adult female of which has 8 clusters of perivulvar pores – as in Poliaspis species – is redescribed and illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for L. lanigera, P. callitris, P. exocarpi, P. media, and P. wilga. A key is provided to the species of Poliaspis, excluding P. casuarinicola and P. intermedia but including P. incisa and the New Zealand species: P. chathamica Henderson, P. floccosa Henderson, P. lactea (Maskell, P. media Maskell, P. raouliae Henderson and P. salicornicola Henderson.

  11. Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Cetaceans in the Subtropical Southwestern Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf and Slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tullio, Juliana Couto; Gandra, Tiago B R; Zerbini, Alexandre N; Secchi, Eduardo R

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of cetacean diversity and distribution were investigated through eight ship-based surveys carried out during spring and autumn between 2009 and 2014 on the outer continental shelf (~150m) and slope (1500m) off southeastern and southern Brazil (~23°S to ~34°S). The survey area was divided into southeast and south areas according to their oceanographic characteristics. Twenty-one species were observed in 503 sightings. The overall number of species was similar between the two areas, though it was higher in the spring in the south area. Five species were dominant and diversity varied more seasonally than spatially. ANOVA and kernel analyses showed that overall cetacean densities were higher in spring compared to autumn. Physeter macrocephalus, the most frequent species, concentrated throughout the south area at depths over 1000m in both seasons. Despite the overlapped occurrence at a broader scale, small delphinids presented latitudinal and in-offshore gradients as well as seasonal variation in distribution patterns, which could indicate habitat partitioning between some species. Delphinus delphis was only recorded in the south and its density decreased in areas where the presence of Stenella frontalis increased, mainly beyond the 250m isobath. Densities of S. longirostris and S. attenuata increased in lower latitudes and beyond the shelf break. The large delphinids Tursiops truncatus and Globicephala melas formed mixed groups in many occasions and were observed along the study area around depths of 500m. Grampus griseus was twice as frequent in the south area and densities increased in waters deeper than 600m. As expected, densities of both small and large migratory whales were higher during spring, over the continental slope, in the southeast area. The results presented here provided strong evidence on the importance of the outer continental shelf and slope to a diverse community of cetaceans occurring in the subtropical Southwestern

  12. Prenatal development of the integument in Delphinidae (Cetacea: Odontoceti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, W; Neurand, K; Klima, M

    1995-03-01

    The prenatal development of epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis was studied in embryos of different age of two delphinid species (Stenella attenuata, Delphinus delphis), using light and transmission electron microscopical methods. The delphinid embryo is covered by a multilayered tissue formed by four different epidermal generations (periderm, stratum intermedium-I, str. intermedium-II, str. spinosum) produced by the str. basale. The first layer appears at about 40-50 mm of body length, the second type (s.i.-I) about 60-160 mm, and the third type (s.i.-II) is present at 160-500 mm. The first spinosal cells are produced at 225-260 mm body length; thenceforth, the epidermis increases continuously in thickness. Epidermal ridge formation begins about 400-mm body length. The development of the dermis is characterized by the early production of thin connective tissue fibers (40-70-mm body length) and simultaneously the cutaneous muscle matures in structure. Vascular development intensifies between embryos of 150-225 mm, and collagen production increases markedly in fetuses of 225-260-mm length. These events are paralleled by an increase in dermal thickness. The first elastic fibers can be recognized in the skin from the abdomen at about 600-mm body length. The development of the hypodermis is marked by very rapid and constantly progressing growth, beginning about 60-mm body length. The first typical fat cells appear in animals of 360-400 mm. Regional differences are obvious for all skin layers with regard to the flippers, where structural maturation proceeds more rapidly than in dorsal or abdominal regions. PMID:7714905

  13. Histological, immunohistochemical and pathological features of the pituitary gland of odontocete cetaceans from the Western gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, D F; Haubold, E M; Tajima, Y

    2008-01-01

    Pituitary glands were recovered from dolphins and small whales found stranded along the Texas coast of the Gulf of Mexico over a 15-year period (1991-2006). One hundred animals of 14 species were found to be suitable for inclusion in this study. Of these, 72 were Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Other species included were the melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra), spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris), striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata), pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps), dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), the short finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhyncha), false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), Fraser's dolphin (Lagenorhynchus hosei), rough-tooth dolphin (Steno bredanensis), Gervais's beaked whale (Mesoplodon europaeus) and an infant sperm whale (Physeter catodon). The pituitary weights in T. truncatus ranged from 0.69 g in a 109-cm long neonate to 3.44 g in a large (277 cm) male. More typical weights were in the range of 0.95-2.35 g (mean=1.65+/-0.70 g) The cetacean pituitary consisted of two distinct parts, the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis, which were separated by a thin fibrous membrane in all species examined, in contrast to terrestrial mammals in which the parts are apposed and joined through a pars intermedia. Cell types were identified with conventional stains and immunohistochemistry. Cells positive for adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, growth hormone, melanocyte stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and prolactin were identified with appropriate antibodies. Lesions, which were few, included one pituicytoma of the pars nervosa and a squamous cyst in T. truncatus, and colloid cysts in several species. Nodular aggregates of single cell types were common, probably representing a physiological variant. PMID:18621384

  14. Time, pattern, and heterochrony: a study of hyperphalangy in the dolphin embryo flipper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Michael K; Oelschläger, Helmut H A

    2002-01-01

    The forelimb of whales and dolphins is a flipper that shows hyperphalangy (numerous finger bones). Hyperphalangy is also present in marine reptiles, including ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs. The developmental basis of hyper-phalangy is unclear. Kükenthal suggested that phalanx anlagen split into three pieces during cetacean development, thereby multiplying the ancestral number. Alternatively, Holder suggested that apical ectodermal ridge (AER)-directed limb outgrowth might be prolonged by a timing shift (heterochrony), leading to terminal addition of extra phalanges. We prepared a series of whole mounted and serially sectioned embryonic flipper buds of the spotted dolphin Stenella attenuata. This cetacean shows marked hyperphalangy on digits II and III. We confirm previous reports that the proximodistal laying down of phalanges is prolonged in digits II and III. Histology showed that the apical ectoderm was thickened into a cap. There was a weak ridge-like structure in some embryos. The cap or ridge formed part of a bud-like mass that persisted on digits II and III at stages when it had disappeared from other digits. Thus the dolphin differs from other mammals in showing a second period of limb outgrowth during which localized hyperphalangy develops. New phalanges only formed at the tip of the digits. These findings are consistent with a model in which heterochrony leads to the terminal addition of new phalanges. Our results are more easily reconciled with the progress zone model than one in which the AER is involved in the expansion of a prepattern. We suggest that patterning mechanisms with a temporal component (i.e., the "progress zone" mechanism) are potential targets for heterochrony during limb evolution. PMID:12492144

  15. Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Cetaceans in the Subtropical Southwestern Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf and Slope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Couto Di Tullio

    Full Text Available Temporal and spatial patterns of cetacean diversity and distribution were investigated through eight ship-based surveys carried out during spring and autumn between 2009 and 2014 on the outer continental shelf (~150m and slope (1500m off southeastern and southern Brazil (~23°S to ~34°S. The survey area was divided into southeast and south areas according to their oceanographic characteristics. Twenty-one species were observed in 503 sightings. The overall number of species was similar between the two areas, though it was higher in the spring in the south area. Five species were dominant and diversity varied more seasonally than spatially. ANOVA and kernel analyses showed that overall cetacean densities were higher in spring compared to autumn. Physeter macrocephalus, the most frequent species, concentrated throughout the south area at depths over 1000m in both seasons. Despite the overlapped occurrence at a broader scale, small delphinids presented latitudinal and in-offshore gradients as well as seasonal variation in distribution patterns, which could indicate habitat partitioning between some species. Delphinus delphis was only recorded in the south and its density decreased in areas where the presence of Stenella frontalis increased, mainly beyond the 250m isobath. Densities of S. longirostris and S. attenuata increased in lower latitudes and beyond the shelf break. The large delphinids Tursiops truncatus and Globicephala melas formed mixed groups in many occasions and were observed along the study area around depths of 500m. Grampus griseus was twice as frequent in the south area and densities increased in waters deeper than 600m. As expected, densities of both small and large migratory whales were higher during spring, over the continental slope, in the southeast area. The results presented here provided strong evidence on the importance of the outer continental shelf and slope to a diverse community of cetaceans occurring in the

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging of dolphin brains reveals direct auditory pathway to temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Gregory S; Cook, Peter F; Foxley, Sean; Jbabdi, Saad; Miller, Karla L; Marino, Lori

    2015-07-22

    The brains of odontocetes (toothed whales) look grossly different from their terrestrial relatives. Because of their adaptation to the aquatic environment and their reliance on echolocation, the odontocetes' auditory system is both unique and crucial to their survival. Yet, scant data exist about the functional organization of the cetacean auditory system. A predominant hypothesis is that the primary auditory cortex lies in the suprasylvian gyrus along the vertex of the hemispheres, with this position induced by expansion of 'associative' regions in lateral and caudal directions. However, the precise location of the auditory cortex and its connections are still unknown. Here, we used a novel diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequence in archival post-mortem brains of a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and a pantropical dolphin (Stenella attenuata) to map their sensory and motor systems. Using thalamic parcellation based on traditionally defined regions for the primary visual (V1) and auditory cortex (A1), we found distinct regions of the thalamus connected to V1 and A1. But in addition to suprasylvian-A1, we report here, for the first time, the auditory cortex also exists in the temporal lobe, in a region near cetacean-A2 and possibly analogous to the primary auditory cortex in related terrestrial mammals (Artiodactyla). Using probabilistic tract tracing, we found a direct pathway from the inferior colliculus to the medial geniculate nucleus to the temporal lobe near the sylvian fissure. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of post-mortem DTI in archival specimens to answer basic questions in comparative neurobiology in a way that has not previously been possible and shows a link between the cetacean auditory system and those of terrestrial mammals. Given that fresh cetacean specimens are relatively rare, the ability to measure connectivity in archival specimens opens up a plethora of possibilities for investigating neuroanatomy in cetaceans and other species

  17. Using the knowns to discover the unknowns: MS-based dereplication uncovers structural diversity in 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycoside production in the Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiling, Sven; Khanal, Santosh; Barsch, Aiko; Zurek, Gabriela; Baldwin, Ian T; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2016-02-01

    Exploring the diversity of plant secondary metabolism requires efficient methods to obtain sufficient structural insights to discriminate previously known from unknown metabolites. De novo structure elucidation and confirmation of known metabolites (dereplication) remain a major bottleneck for mass spectrometry-based metabolomic workflows, and few systematic dereplication strategies have been developed for the analysis of entire compound classes across plant families, partly due to the complexity of plant metabolic profiles that complicates cross-species comparisons. 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides (HGL-DTGs) are abundant defensive secondary metabolites whose malonyl and glycosyl decorations are induced by jasmonate signaling in the ecological model plant Nicotiana attenuata. The multiple labile glycosidic bonds of HGL-DTGs result in extensive in-source fragmentation (IS-CID) during ionization. To reconstruct these IS-CID clusters from profiling data and identify precursor ions, we applied a deconvolution algorithm and created an MS/MS library from positive-ion spectra of purified HGL-DTGs. From this library, 251 non-redundant fragments were annotated, and a workflow to characterize leaf, flower and fruit extracts of 35 solanaceous species was established. These analyses predicted 105 novel HGL-DTGs that were restricted to Nicotiana, Capsicum and Lycium species. Interestingly, malonylation is a highly conserved step in HGL-DTG metabolism, but is differentially affected by jasmonate signaling among Nicotiana species. This MS-based workflow is readily applicable for cross-species re-identification/annotation of other compound classes with sufficient fragmentation knowledge, and therefore has the potential to support hypotheses regarding secondary metabolism diversification.

  18. Circadian rhythms in floral scent emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myles eFenske

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To successfully recruit pollinators, plants often release attractive floral scents at specific times of day to coincide with pollinator foraging. This timing of scent emission is thought to be evolutionarily beneficial to maximize resource efficiency while attracting only useful pollinators. Temporal regulation of scent emission is tied to the activity of the specific metabolic pathways responsible for scent production. Although floral volatile profiling in various plants indicated a contribution by the circadian clock, the mechanisms by which the circadian clock regulates timing of floral scent emission remained elusive. Recent studies using two species in the Solanaceae family provided initial insight into molecular clock regulation of scent emission timing. In Petunia hybrida, the benzenoid/phenylpropanoid (FVBP pathway is the major metabolic pathway that produces floral volatiles. Three MYB-type transcription factors, ODORANT1 (ODO1, EMISSION OF BENZENOIDS I (EOBI, and EOBII, all of which show diurnal rhythms in mRNA expression, act as positive regulators for several enzyme genes in the FVBP pathway. Recently, in P. hybrida and Nicotiana attenuata, homologs of the Arabidopsis clock gene LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY have been shown to have a similar role in the circadian clock in these plants, and to also determine the timing of scent emission. In addition, in P. hybrida, PhLHY directly represses ODO1 and several enzyme genes in the FVBP pathway during the morning as an important negative regulator of scent emission. These findings facilitate our understanding of the relationship between a molecular timekeeper and the timing of scent emission, which may influence reproductive success.

  19. Microscale ecotoxicity testing of Moselle river watershed (Lorraine Province, France sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean François Férard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ecotoxic potential of seven Moselle river watershed sediments was assessed with a battery of bioassays comprised of rapid phototrophic [LuminoTox solid phase (L-SPA and elutriate (L-ELU assays] and bacterial [Microtox solid phase assay (M-SPA] exposure tests, as well as with two micro-invertebrate solid phase tests conducted with Hydra attenuata (lethal and sublethal effects solid phase assay, HL-SPA and HSL-SPA and Chironomus riparius. Measured effects of sediments and their elutriates were varied and reflected responses that were ecotoxicity test-, endpoint- and site-dependent, suggesting some degree of risk toward benthic and water column organisms, respectively, at specific sites. Correlation analysis demonstrated that L-SPA and M-SPA ecotoxicity responses were significantly linked with the Hydra HSL-SPA assay, indicating their ability to predict ecotoxicity towards an invertebrate taxonomic group representing secondary consumers. While the L-SPA and M-SPA assays hold promise as rapid screens for sediment ecotoxicity, correlation analysis with grain size (L-SPA: r=-0.795, P=0.033; M-SPA: r=-0.73, P=0.07 points out that their responses can be influenced by the presence of fines (i.e., sediment particles ≤0.063 mm in size and that this information is essential to properly interpret ecotoxicity data generated with these assays. Finally, notable differences observed in trophic level sensitivities once again recall the importance of employing a test battery to adequately appraise the ecotoxicity of sediments.

  20. Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Cetaceans in the Subtropical Southwestern Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf and Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tullio, Juliana Couto; Gandra, Tiago B. R.; Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of cetacean diversity and distribution were investigated through eight ship-based surveys carried out during spring and autumn between 2009 and 2014 on the outer continental shelf (~150m) and slope (1500m) off southeastern and southern Brazil (~23°S to ~34°S). The survey area was divided into southeast and south areas according to their oceanographic characteristics. Twenty-one species were observed in 503 sightings. The overall number of species was similar between the two areas, though it was higher in the spring in the south area. Five species were dominant and diversity varied more seasonally than spatially. ANOVA and kernel analyses showed that overall cetacean densities were higher in spring compared to autumn. Physeter macrocephalus, the most frequent species, concentrated throughout the south area at depths over 1000m in both seasons. Despite the overlapped occurrence at a broader scale, small delphinids presented latitudinal and in-offshore gradients as well as seasonal variation in distribution patterns, which could indicate habitat partitioning between some species. Delphinus delphis was only recorded in the south and its density decreased in areas where the presence of Stenella frontalis increased, mainly beyond the 250m isobath. Densities of S. longirostris and S. attenuata increased in lower latitudes and beyond the shelf break. The large delphinids Tursiops truncatus and Globicephala melas formed mixed groups in many occasions and were observed along the study area around depths of 500m. Grampus griseus was twice as frequent in the south area and densities increased in waters deeper than 600m. As expected, densities of both small and large migratory whales were higher during spring, over the continental slope, in the southeast area. The results presented here provided strong evidence on the importance of the outer continental shelf and slope to a diverse community of cetaceans occurring in the subtropical Southwestern

  1. Studies on the Community Structures of Meiofauna and Marine Nematode at Six Stations in the Southern Yellow Sea, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yong; ZHANG Zhinan; LIU Xiaoshou

    2005-01-01

    Meiofauna (0.031-0.5 mm) were sampled and studied at a grid of six stations during the cruise of investigation for over winter ground of anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) in the Southern Yellow Sea, China in January 2003. Total meiofauna individuals averaged (1.162± 0.347) × 106 ind m-2 and the corresponding biomass 1.748 ± 0.72 g dwt m-2 with the maximum2.35 g dwtm-2 at Station 9594 and the minimum 0.537 g dwt m-2 at Station 11794. A total of fourteen taxa were identified.Free living marine nematodes were the most dominant group with an average abundance of (1.026 ± 0.206) × 106 indm-2, accounting for 88.5% of total numbers, and an average of 85.4% lived in the surface layer (0-2cm) of sediments. The individual dry weight was calculated, which ranges from 0.01μg to 31.32μg with an average of 0.261μg. One hundred and forty two species or taxa of free-living marine nematodes belonging to 89 genera, 24 families and 4 orders were identified. Six of them were new species. The common dominant species were Dorylaimopsis rabalaisi, Sphaerolaimus balticus, Sphaerolaimus minitus, Metalinhomoeus longicauda, Prochromadorella attenuata., Campylaimus sp. 1, Vasostoma sp. 1, Daptonema normandicum, Paramonohystera riemanni, and Promonhystera sp. 1. According to cluster analysis of Primer 5.0, the six stations were clustered into 2 groups with similar species composition at 40% similarity. The species diversity index (H), evenness index (J) and species richness index (d) of nematode were calculated and analyzed. Correlation analysis with respect to environmental factors showed that the abundance of meiofauna had a significant correlation with the median diameter of sediment (Mdφ). The species richness of nematodes had a highly significant correlation with Chl-a and significant correlations with Pha-a and Chl-a + Pha-a.

  2. Feeding ecology of the Stomiiformes (Pisces) of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. 1. The Sternoptychidae and Phosichthyidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Vanda; Sutton, Tracey; Menezes, Gui; Falkenhaug, Tone; Bergstad, Odd Aksel

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive trophic studies in the vast mid-oceanic regions are rare compared to coastal and fisheries-oriented investigations. Field sampling conducted by the multidisciplinary, international Census of Marine Life project MAR-ECO, namely the 2004 G.O. Sars cruise, has generated one of the largest open ocean deep-pelagic sample collections ever obtained. With the overall goal of understanding carbon flow processes within and through the deep-pelagic nekton associated with the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge system (N MAR), quantitative trophic analyses were conducted in order to identify the major intraspecific patterns in diet of characteristic members of the midwater fish community. Diets of five abundant species of zooplanktivorous fishes were examined in detail in terms of prey taxonomy and variability in space, ontogeny and diel cycle. Two major patterns of feeding were identified. Pattern 1 included three species preying primarily on copepods, Argyropelecus hemigymnus, Maurolicus muelleri and Vinciguerria attenuata, the former two of which revealed spatial differences in diet with latitude, mostly likely related to latitudinal prey distributions and densities. Maurolicus demonstrated ecological differences in diet that mirrored phenotypic variation North and South of the Subpolar Front, an 'oceanic species concept' question that warrants further research. Pattern 2 included two species feeding primarily on amphipods, Argyropelecus aculeatus and Sternoptyx diaphana, both of which showed ontogenetic variability in feeding primarily related to specific amphipod taxon sizes, rather than prey switching to other major prey taxa. This is the first study that highlights the importance of amphipods in the diets of these species. All fish species showed selectivity in prey choice, possibly related to competition with the other major nekton components along the N MAR, namely the Myctophidae and other zooplanktivorous Stomiiformes. Daily ration fell within the expected

  3. 北部湾海域热带点斑原海豚体内的重金属含量测定与评价%Contents and evaluation of heavy metals in Pantropical spotted dolphin from Beibu Bay in South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦春艳; 方展强; 周海云; 安东

    2009-01-01

    应用原子吸收分光光度计对北部湾海域热带点斑原海豚(Stenella attenuata)的肌肉、肝脏、胃、心脏、胆囊、胰脏、肾脏、肺脏和肠管道等器官组织样品中的镉(Cd)、铜(Cu)、锌(Zn)、铅(Pb)、铬(Cr)、镍(Ni)、铁(Fe)和锰(Mn)的含量进行测定,并使用标准物作了对照分析.结果显示,热带点斑原海豚体内各器官组织中的Cd、Cu、Zn、Pb、Cr、Ni、Fe和Mn的平均含量分别为0.04~67.35、2.68~24.24、32.26~118.54、1.01~4.17、0.30~1.52、ND~1.25、162.11~1190.63和0.88~12.84μg/g(干重).热带点斑原海豚体内重金属含量高低的基本趋势是Fe>Zn>Cu>Pb>Mn>Cd>Cr>Ni.肝、肾脏等内脏器官中的重金属含量远高于肌肉组织中的含量;多数器官组织中没有测出Ni的存在.与北部湾海域、渤海湾海域的中华白海豚和江豚比较,北部湾海域热带点斑原海豚体内各器官组织中的重金属含量偏高,表明不同种类的海豚对重金属的富集能力存在一定的差异.

  4. Myoglobin in pelagic small cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolar, M L; Suarez, P; Ponganis, P J; Kooyman, G L

    1999-02-01

    Although myoglobin (Mb) is considered to contribute significantly to the oxygen and diving capacity of marine mammals, few data are available for cetaceans. Cetacean by-catch in the tuna driftnet fisheries in the Sulu Sea, Philippines, afforded the opportunity to examine Mb content and distribution, and to determine muscle mass composition, in Fraser's (Lagenodelphis hosei) and spinner (Stenella longirostris) dolphins and a pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata). Age was estimated by body length determination. Stomach contents were analyzed for the presence or absence of milk and solid foods. It was hypothesized (a) that Mb concentration ([Mb]) would be higher in Fraser's and spinner dolphins than in other small cetaceans because of the known mesopelagic distribution of their prey, (b) that [Mb] would vary among different muscles according to function during diving, and (c) that [Mb] would increase with age during development. The results were as follows. (1) Myoglobin concentrations of the longissimus muscle in adult Fraser's (6.8-7.2 g 100 g-1 muscle) and spinner (5-6 g 100 g-1 muscle) dolphins and in an immature pygmy killer whale (5.7 g 100 g-1 muscle) were higher than those reported previously for small cetaceans. (2) [Mb] varied significantly among the different muscle types in adult dolphins but not in calves; in adults, swimming muscles had significantly higher [Mb] than did non-swimming muscles, contained 82-86 % of total Mb, and constituted 75-80 % of total muscle mass. (3) Myoglobin concentrations in Fraser's and spinner dolphins increased with size and age and were 3-4 times greater in adults than in calves. The high Mb concentrations measured in the primary locomotory muscles of these pelagic dolphins are consistent with the known mesopelagic foraging behaviour of Fraser's and spinner dolphins and suggest that the pygmy killer whale is also a deep-diving species. The high Mb concentrations in epaxial, hypaxial and abdominal muscle groups also support

  5. Response of marine copepods to a changing tropical environment: winners, losers and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Li Lee; Chong, Ving Ching

    2016-01-01

    Background. Climate change concurrent with anthropogenic disturbances can initiate serial changes that reverberate up the food chain with repercussions for fisheries. To date, there is no information available concerning the combined effects of global warming and human impacts on tropical marine food webs. While temperate copepods respond differently to warming and environmental stressors, the extent to which tropical copepods can adapt to rising temperature of already warm waters remains unknown. We hypothesize that sea warming and other anthropogenic disturbances over the long term will have the greatest impact on the copepod community in nearshore waters where their effects are accentuated, and therefore vulnerable and resilient species could be identified. Methods. Zooplankton samples were collected during two time periods (1985-86 and 2014-15) interposed by marked anthropogenic disturbances, and at the same five stations located progressively from inshore to offshore in Klang Strait, Malaysia, following the asymmetrical before-after-control-impact (BACI) design. Copepods were identified to species, and results were interpreted by univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate (PERMANOVA, PCO) analyses of the computed species abundance and diversity measures. Results. Copepod total abundance was not significantly different among stations but higher after disturbance than before disturbance. However, changes in the abundance of particular species and the community structure between time periods were dramatic. Coastal large-bodied calanoid species (e.g., Acartia spinicauda, Calanopia thompsoni, Pseudodiaptomus bowmani and Tortanus forcipatus) were the most vulnerable group to disturbance. This however favored the opportunistic species (e.g., Oithona simplex, O. attenuata, Hemicyclops sp., Pseudomacrochiron sp. and Microsetella norvegica). Small-bodied copepods (e.g., Paracalanus sp., Parvocalanus crassirostris and Euterpina acutifrons) were unaffected. Centropages

  6. 基于13个内含子的序列探讨鲸目的系统发育关系%Molecular phylogenetics of cetaceans: an insight from 13 nuclear intron sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊晔; 周旭明; 杨梅; 张盼; 杨云霞; 杨光

    2011-01-01

    本文基于实验室筛选得到的13对内含子标记,在鲸偶蹄目的15个物种中进行有效扩增,并重建了这15个物种的系统发育关系.结果表明,抹香鲸总科(Physeteroidea)位于齿鲸亚目(Odontoceti)的基部,从而支持了传统的齿鲸亚目的单系性.在海豚总科(Delphinoidea)内部,贝斯分析结果支持了鼠海豚科(Phocoenidae)和一角鲸科(Monodontidae)的姐妹群关系,而后再与海豚科(Delphinidae)相聚.系统发育分析同时还强烈支持了海豚科的四个属(Sousa,Tursiops,Stenella,Delphinus)组成一个单系的"复合体".另外,我们的分析结果并不支持瓶鼻海豚属(Tursiops)和原海豚属(Stenella)的单系性.基于松散分子钟的分歧时间估算与以往文献中的结果没有明显差异.这些研究结果提示,核基因内含子序列有希望解决一些长期存在的鲸类系统发育问题.%Sequences of 13 introns from 15 Cetartiodactyla species were determined to reveal the phylogeny of cetaceans.Our results support the monophyly of the traditionally accepted suborder Odontoceti ( toothed whales ), placing the dwarf sperm whale ( Kogia sima), a representative species of superfamily Physeteroidea, as sister to other toothed whales. Within the superfamily Delphinoidea, phylogenetic analyses identified a sister relationship between Delphinidae and Monodontidae + Phocoenidae. A close relationship among four genera ( Sousa, Tursiops, Stenella, and Delphinus) is strongly supported,which suggested the monophyly of the Sousa-Stenella-Tursiops-Delphinus complex. Neither the two Tursiops species ( T.truncates and T. aduncus ) nor the two Stenella species (S. coeruleoalba and S. attenuata ) examined in present study clustered together, which strongly supported the paraphyly of these two genera as suggested in previous studies. Furthermore,the present Bayesian inference with a lognormal relaxed molecular clock provided divergence time for each clade, which is consistent with

  7. Studies on the community structures of meiofauna and marine nematode at six stations in the Southern Yellow Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Zhang, Zhinan; Liu, Xiaoshou

    2005-01-01

    Meiofauna (0.031-0.5 mm) were sampled and studied at a grid of six stations during the cruise of investigation for over winter ground of anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) in the Southern Yellow Sea, China in January 2003. Total meiofauna individuals averaged (1.162±0.347) × 106 ind m-2 and the corresponding biomass 1.748 ± 0.72 g dwt m-2 with the maximum 2.35g dwt m-2 at Station 9594 and the minimum 0.537g dwt m-2 at Station 11794. A total of fourteen taxa were identified. Free living marine nematodes were the most dominant group with an average abundance of (1.026 ± 0.206) × 106 ind m-2, accounting for 88.5% of total numbers, and an average of 85.4% lived in the surface layer (0-2 cm) of sediments. The individual dry weight was calculated, which ranges from O.Ol µg to 31.32f*g with an average of 0.261 µg. One hundred and forty two species or taxa of free-living marine nematodes belonging to 89 genera, 24 families and 4 orders were identified. Six of them were new species. The common dominant species were Dorylaimopsis rabalaisi, Sphaerolaimus balticus, Sphaerolaimus minitus, Metalinhomoeus longicauda, Prochromadorella attenuata., Campylaimus sp. 1, Vasostoma sp. 1, Daptonema normandicum, Paramonohystera riemanni, and Promonhystera sp.1. According to cluster analysis of Primer 5.0, the six stations were clustered into 2 groups with similar species composition at 40% similarity. The species diversity index (J), evenness index (d) and species richness index (d) of nematode were calculated and analyzed. Correlation analysis with respect to environmental factors showed that the abundance of meiofauna had a significant correlation with the median diameter of sediment (Mdø). The species richness of nematodes had a highly significant correlation with Chl-a and significant correlations with Pha-a and Chl-a + Pha-a.

  8. Effect of adrenomedullin on the activity of barosensitive neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of rats%肾上腺髓质素对大鼠延髓头端腹外侧区压力反射敏感神经元的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊明欣; 李霞; 王锦; 曹银祥; 沈霖霖; 朱大年

    2006-01-01

    采用多管微电泳结合细胞外记录的方法研究了肾上腺髓质素(adrenomedullin,ADM)对大鼠延髓头端腹外侧区(rostral ventrolateral medulla,rVLM)压力反射敏感性神经元电活动的作用及其可能机制.结果显示:在29个rVLM压力反射敏感神经元中,20个神经元在30、60和90 nA的电流微电泳大鼠ADM(rADM)过程中,放电频率由(10.8±2.7)spikes/s分别增加到(14.6±3.6)、(19.8±4.7)和(31.9±6.4)spikes/s(P<0.05,n=20).微电泳rADM特异性受体阻断剂人ADM(human ADM,hADM)(22-52)可明显减小神经元放电频率的增加幅度,比正常放电频率仅增加15.4%[(11.4±2.5)sipkes/s,P<0.05,n=10],而降钙素基因相关肽1(CGRP1)受体阻断剂hCGRP(8-37)对rADM兴奋性神经元电活动影响较小.在另外23个神经元中,10个神经元的放电频率在10、20和40 nA电流微电泳神经型NOS(nNOS)抑制剂7-NiNa过程中放电减少,由正常的(10.1±3.5)spikes/s分别减少为(7.5±2.5)、(5.3±2.1)和(3.1±1.4)spikes/s(P<0.05,n=10).在微电泳7-NiNa过程中同时微电泳rADM,则rADM增加神经元放电频率的效应减弱,增加幅度为基础水平的17%[(6.2±1.9)spikes/s].8个神经元在10、20和40 nA电流微电泳诱导型NOS抑制剂(iNOS)aminoguanidine(AG)过程中放电频率由(11.5±5.1)spikes/s增加到(17.8±5.6)、(22.5±6.3)和(29.1±6.4)spikes/s(P<0.05,n=8),rADM与AG同时微电泳时,AG对rADM本身增加神经元放电的效应无明显影响.上述结果提示,rADM在rVLM可通过其特异性受体或来源于nNOS的NO作用于压力反射敏感神经元,使其活动增强而发挥调节心血管活动的作用.%To investigate the eletrophysiological effect of rat adrenomedullin (rADM) on barosensitive neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM) and its potential mechanisms, the extracellular recording and multi-barrel iontophoresis methods were used. Of the 29 barosensitive neurons in the rVLM, 20 neurons demonstrated excitatory response to

  9. Population dynamics and monitoring applied to decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conroy, M. J.

    2004-06-01

    influence diagrams to capture the stochastic, temporal processes of managing cheetah population in Kenya. The model predicts likely anagement decisions made by various actors within these countries, (e.g., the President, the Environmental Protection Agency, and rural residents and the resulting probability of cheetah extinction following these decisions. By approaching the problem in both its political and ecological contexts one avoids consideration of decisions that, while beneficial from a purely conservation point of view, are unlikely to be implemented because of conflicting political objectives. Haas’s analysis demonstrates both the promise and challenges of this type of modeling, and he offers suggestions for overcoming inherent technical difficulties such as model calibration. The second paper, by Simon Hoyle and Mark Maunder (Hoyle & Maunder, 2004, uses a Bayesian approach to model population dynamics and the effects of commercial fishing bycatch for the eastern Pacific Ocean spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata. Their paper provides a good example of why Bayesian analysis is particularly suited to many management problems. Namely, because it allows the integration of disparate pieces of monitoring data in the simultaneous estimation of population parameters; allows forincorporation of expert judgment and data from other systems and species; and provides for explicit consideration of uncertainty in decision–making. Alternative management scenarios can then be explored via forward simulations. In the third paper, Chris Fonnesbeck and Mike Conroy (Fonnesbeck & Conroy, 2004 present an integrated approach for estimating parameters and predicting abundance of American black duck (Anas rubripes populations. They also employ a ayesian approach and overcome some of the computational challenges by using Markov chain–Monte Carlo methods. Ring–recovery and harvest data are used to estimate fall age ratios under alternative reproductive models. These in turn are used to

  10. Antarctic Starfish (Echinodermata, Asteroidea from the ANDEEP3 expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Danis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This dataset includes information on sea stars collected during the ANDEEP3 expedition, which took place in 2005. The expedition focused on deep-sea stations in the Powell Basin and Weddell Sea.Sea stars were collected using an Agassiz trawl (3m, mesh-size 500µm, deployed in 16 stations during the ANTXXII/3 (ANDEEP3, PS72 expedition of the RV Polarstern. Sampling depth ranged from 1047 to 4931m. Trawling distance ranged from 731 to 3841m. The sampling area ranges from -41°S to -71°S (latitude and from 0 to -65°W (longitude. A complete list of stations is available from the PANGAEA data system (http://www.pangaea.de/PHP/CruiseReports.php?b=Polarstern, including a cruise report (http://epic-reports.awi.de/3694/1/PE_72.pdf.The dataset includes 50 records, with individual counts ranging from 1-10, reaching a total of 132 specimens.The andeep3-Asteroidea is a unique dataset as it covers an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean, and that very little information was available regarding Antarctic deep-sea starfish. Before this study, most of the information available focused on starfish from shallower depths than 1000m. This dataset allowed to make unique observations, such as the fact that some species were only present at very high depths (Hymenaster crucifer, Hymenaster pellucidus, Hymenaster praecoquis, Psilaster charcoti, Freyella attenuata, Freyastera tuberculata, Styrachaster chuni and Vemaster sudatlanticus were all found below -3770m, while others displayed remarkable eurybathy, with very high depths amplitudes (Bathybiaster loripes (4842m, Lysasterias adeliae (4832m, Lophaster stellans (4752m, Cheiraster planeta (4708m, Eremicaster crassus (4626m, Lophaster gaini (4560m and Ctenodiscus australis (4489m.Even if the number of records is relatively small, the data bring many new insights on the taxonomic, bathymetric and geographic distributions of Southern starfish, covering a very large sampling zone. The dataset also brings to light

  11. Fungal Planet description sheets: 400-468.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Richardson, D M; Le Roux, J J; Strasberg, D; Edwards, J; Roets, F; Hubka, V; Taylor, P W J; Heykoop, M; Martín, M P; Moreno, G; Sutton, D A; Wiederhold, N P; Barnes, C W; Carlavilla, J R; Gené, J; Giraldo, A; Guarnaccia, V; Guarro, J; Hernández-Restrepo, M; Kolařík, M; Manjón, J L; Pascoe, I G; Popov, E S; Sandoval-Denis, M; Woudenberg, J H C; Acharya, K; Alexandrova, A V; Alvarado, P; Barbosa, R N; Baseia, I G; Blanchette, R A; Boekhout, T; Burgess, T I; Cano-Lira, J F; Čmoková, A; Dimitrov, R A; Dyakov, M Yu; Dueñas, M; Dutta, A K; Esteve-Raventós, F; Fedosova, A G; Fournier, J; Gamboa, P; Gouliamova, D E; Grebenc, T; Groenewald, M; Hanse, B; Hardy, G E St J; Held, B W; Jurjević, Ž; Kaewgrajang, T; Latha, K P D; Lombard, L; Luangsa-Ard, J J; Lysková, P; Mallátová, N; Manimohan, P; Miller, A N; Mirabolfathy, M; Morozova, O V; Obodai, M; Oliveira, N T; Ordóñez, M E; Otto, E C; Paloi, S; Peterson, S W; Phosri, C; Roux, J; Salazar, W A; Sánchez, A; Sarria, G A; Shin, H-D; Silva, B D B; Silva, G A; Smith, M Th; Souza-Motta, C M; Stchigel, A M; Stoilova-Disheva, M M; Sulzbacher, M A; Telleria, M T; Toapanta, C; Traba, J M; Valenzuela-Lopez, N; Watling, R; Groenewald, J Z

    2016-06-01

    Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Vermiculariopsiella eucalypti, Mulderomyces natalis (incl. Mulderomyces gen. nov.), Fusicladium paraamoenum, Neotrimmatostroma paraexcentricum, and Pseudophloeospora eucalyptorum on leaves of Eucalyptus spp., Anungitea grevilleae (on leaves of Grevillea sp.), Pyrenochaeta acaciae (on leaves of Acacia sp.), and Brunneocarpos banksiae (incl. Brunneocarpos gen. nov.) on cones of Banksia attenuata. Novel foliicolous taxa from South Africa include Neosulcatispora strelitziae (on Strelitzia nicolai), Colletotrichum ledebouriae (on Ledebouria floridunda), Cylindrosympodioides brabejum (incl. Cylindrosympodioides gen. nov.) on Brabejum stellatifolium, Sclerostagonospora ericae (on Erica sp.), Setophoma cyperi (on Cyperus sphaerocephala), and Phaeosphaeria breonadiae (on Breonadia microcephala). Novelties described from Robben Island (South Africa) include Wojnowiciella cissampeli and Diaporthe cissampeli (both on Cissampelos capensis), Phaeotheca salicorniae (on Salicornia meyeriana), Paracylindrocarpon aloicola (incl. Paracylindrocarpon gen. nov.) on Aloe sp., and Libertasomyces myopori (incl. Libertasomyces gen. nov.) on Myoporum serratum. Several novelties are recorded from La Réunion (France), namely Phaeosphaeriopsis agapanthi (on Agapanthus sp.), Roussoella solani (on Solanum mauritianum), Vermiculariopsiella acaciae (on Acacia heterophylla), Dothiorella acacicola (on Acacia mearnsii), Chalara clidemiae (on Clidemia hirta), Cytospora tibouchinae (on Tibouchina semidecandra), Diaporthe ocoteae (on Ocotea obtusata), Castanediella eucalypticola, Phaeophleospora eucalypticola and Fusicladium eucalypticola (on Eucalyptus robusta), Lareunionomyces syzygii (incl. Lareunionomyces gen. nov.) and Parawiesneriomyces syzygii (incl. Parawiesneriomyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Syzygium jambos. Novel taxa from the USA include Meristemomyces arctostaphylos (on Arctostaphylos patula

  12. Vegetation-induced soil water repellency as a strategy in arid ecosystems. A geochemical approach in Banksia woodlands (SW Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, Jose Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; Jordan, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Banksia woodlands (BW) are iconic ecosystems of Western Australia (WA) composed by an overstorey dominated by Proteaceae, e.g. Banksia menziesii and Banksia attenuata, in combination with other species, such as Eucalyptus spp., Verticordia spp. or Melaleuca spp. Although located in very poor dune soils, BW provide numerous ecosystem services and sustain a high biodiversity. In this area, annual rainfall is relatively high (about 800 mm) but permeability of the sandy substrate leads to a functionally arid ecosystem. Currently, BW are threatened by sand mining activities and urban expansion; therefore conservation and restoration of these woodlands are critical. Despite numerous efforts, the success of restoration plans is usually poor mostly due to the high sensitivity to drought stress and poor seedling survival rates (5-30%) (Benigno et al., 2014). A characteristic feature of BW is their root architecture, formed by a proteoid (cluster) system that spreads to form thick mats below the soil surface, favouring the uptake of nutrients (especially, P), and preventing soil erosion. Root exudates are related to numerous plant functions, as they facilitate penetration of roots in soil and enhance the extraction of scarce mineral nutrients and its further assimilation. Exudates may also interact directly with soil or indirectly through microbial mediated events being also related to soil water repellency (SWR; Lozano et al, 2014). Knowledge about the specific compounds able to induce SWR is limited (Doerr et al., 2000), but it is generally accepted that is caused by organic molecules coating the surface of soil mineral particles and aggregates (Jordán et al., 2013). Proteaceae release short-chained organic acids to enhance phosphate acquisition, which have been also reported to be related with SWR (Jiménez-Morillo et al., 2014). It is hypothesized that disruption of water dynamics in mature BW soils is underlying the failure of restoration plans. This

  13. Vegetation-induced soil water repellency as a strategy in arid ecosystems. A geochemical approach in Banksia woodlands (SW Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, Jose Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; Jordan, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Banksia woodlands (BW) are iconic ecosystems of Western Australia (WA) composed by an overstorey dominated by Proteaceae, e.g. Banksia menziesii and Banksia attenuata, in combination with other species, such as Eucalyptus spp., Verticordia spp. or Melaleuca spp. Although located in very poor dune soils, BW provide numerous ecosystem services and sustain a high biodiversity. In this area, annual rainfall is relatively high (about 800 mm) but permeability of the sandy substrate leads to a functionally arid ecosystem. Currently, BW are threatened by sand mining activities and urban expansion; therefore conservation and restoration of these woodlands are critical. Despite numerous efforts, the success of restoration plans is usually poor mostly due to the high sensitivity to drought stress and poor seedling survival rates (5-30%) (Benigno et al., 2014). A characteristic feature of BW is their root architecture, formed by a proteoid (cluster) system that spreads to form thick mats below the soil surface, favouring the uptake of nutrients (especially, P), and preventing soil erosion. Root exudates are related to numerous plant functions, as they facilitate penetration of roots in soil and enhance the extraction of scarce mineral nutrients and its further assimilation. Exudates may also interact directly with soil or indirectly through microbial mediated events being also related to soil water repellency (SWR; Lozano et al, 2014). Knowledge about the specific compounds able to induce SWR is limited (Doerr et al., 2000), but it is generally accepted that is caused by organic molecules coating the surface of soil mineral particles and aggregates (Jordán et al., 2013). Proteaceae release short-chained organic acids to enhance phosphate acquisition, which have been also reported to be related with SWR (Jiménez-Morillo et al., 2014). It is hypothesized that disruption of water dynamics in mature BW soils is underlying the failure of restoration plans. This

  14. Research advances on stress responsive WRKY transcription factors in plants%植物中逆境反应相关的 WRKY 转录因子研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冉; 娄永根

    2011-01-01

    ethylene ( ET)are the three most known defense signal molecules in plants. SA-dependent defense pathway plays a central role in pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance ( SAR) and NPRl is a key regulator of SAR downstream of SA. In Arabidopsis, rice and tobacco, some WRKY TFs lying upstream or downstream of NPRI are involved in NPRI-mediated defense responses , and thus regulate plant resistance to pathogen. Induced plant herbivore resistance is mainly related to JA signaling pathway. Two WRKY TFs , NaWRKY3 and NaWRKY6 , in tobacco Nicotiana attenuata have been found to regulate herbivore-induced JA levels and the subsequent defense responses , suggesting their important roles in plant defense against herbivores. WRKY TFs may also be regulators for cross-talk between SA- and JA-dependent signal pathways. In Arabidopsis, for example, AtWRKY70 activates SA- but inhibits JA-mediated responses; in contrast, AtWRKY25 and AtWRKY33 have a different role: both of them activate JA- whereas inhibit SA-mediated responses. In addition to the regulation mechanisms stated as above, WRKY TFs can also manipulate the plant stress responses by interacting with other molecules, such as receptor proteins and biochemical enzymes. Moreover, WRKY TFs may be implicated in miRNAsmediated pathways , which regulate a lot of processes in plant growth and development, and defense responses. Because of a large family, WRKY proteins have been found to have distinct and overlapping functions. Therefore, elucidating how these WRKY proteins regulate the plant defense and how they interact with each other will be hot topics for future studies.