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Sample records for attentional set-shifting task

  1. Subtype-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists can improve cognitive flexibility in an attentional set shifting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Christopher; Kohli, Shivali; Malcolm, Emma; Allison, Claire; Shoaib, Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are considered to be viable targets to enhance cognition in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Activation of nAChRs with selective nicotinic receptor agonists may provide effective means to pharmacologically treat cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia. Cognitive flexibility is one aspect of cognition, which can be assessed in a rodent model of the attentional set-shifting task (ASST). The aim of the present study was two-fold, firstly, to evaluate the efficacy of a series of subtype selective nAChR agonists, such as those that target α7 and α4β2 nAChR subtypes in non-compromised rodents. Secondly, nicotine as a prototypic agonist was evaluated for its effects to restore attentional deficits produced by sub-chronic ketamine exposure in the ASST. Male hooded Lister rats underwent habituation, consisting of a simple odour and medium discrimination with subsequent assessment 24 h later. In experimentally naïve rats, α7 subtype selective agonists, compound-A and SSR180711 along with PNU-120596, an α7 positive allosteric modulator (PAM), were compared against the β2* selective agonist, 5IA-85380. All compounds except for PNU-120596 were observed to significantly improve extra-dimensional (ED) shift performance, nicotine, 5IA-85380 and SSR180711 further enhanced the final reversal (REV3) stage of the task. In another experiment, sub-chronic ketamine treatment produced robust deficits during the ED and the REV3 stages of the discriminations; rodents required significantly more trials to reach criterion during these discriminations. These deficits were attenuated in rodents treated acutely with nicotine (0.1 mg/kg SC) 10 min prior to the ED shift. These results highlight the potential utility of targeting nAChRs to enhance cognitive flexibility, particularly the α7 and β2* receptor subtypes. The improvement with nicotine was much greater in rodents that were impaired following the sub-chronic ketamine

  2. Set Shifting Training with Categorization Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Soveri; Otto Waris; Matti Laine

    2013-01-01

    The very few cognitive training studies targeting an important executive function, set shifting, have reported performance improvements that also generalized to untrained tasks. The present randomized controlled trial extends set shifting training research by comparing previously used cued training with uncued training. A computerized adaptation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test was utilized as the training task in a pretest-posttest experimental design involving three groups of university s...

  3. A Domain-Independent Source of Cognitive Control for Task Sets: Shifting Spatial Attention and Switching Categorization Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Yu-Chin; Yantis, Steven

    2009-01-01

    In order to optimize task performance as circumstances unfold, cognitive control mechanisms configure the brain to prepare for upcoming events through voluntary shifts in task set. A foundational unanswered question concerns whether different domains of cognitive control (e.g., spatial attention shifts, shifts between categorization rules, or shifts between stimulus-response mapping rules) are associated with separate, domain-specific control mechanisms, or whether a common, domain-independen...

  4. Set shifting training with categorization tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Soveri

    Full Text Available The very few cognitive training studies targeting an important executive function, set shifting, have reported performance improvements that also generalized to untrained tasks. The present randomized controlled trial extends set shifting training research by comparing previously used cued training with uncued training. A computerized adaptation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test was utilized as the training task in a pretest-posttest experimental design involving three groups of university students. One group received uncued training (n = 14, another received cued training (n = 14 and the control group (n = 14 only participated in pre- and posttests. The uncued training group showed posttraining performance increases on their training task, but neither training group showed statistically significant transfer effects. Nevertheless, comparison of effect sizes for transfer effects indicated that our results did not differ significantly from the previous studies. Our results suggest that the cognitive effects of computerized set shifting training are mostly task-specific, and would preclude any robust generalization effects with this training.

  5. Attentional Set-Shifting in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Molen, M. J. W.; Van der Molen, M. W.; Ridderinkhof, K. R.; Hamel, B. C. J.; Curfs, L. M. G.; Ramakers, G. J. A.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to flexibly adapt to the changing demands of the environment is often reported as a core deficit in fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, the cognitive processes that determine this attentional set-shifting deficit remain elusive. The present study investigated attentional set-shifting ability in fragile X syndrome males with the…

  6. Effects of methylphenidate on attentional set-shifting in a genetic model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Cao Ai-hua; Yu Lin; Wang Yu-wei; Wang Jun-mei; Yang Le-jin; Lei Ge-fei

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although deficits of attentional set-shifting have been reported in individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it is rarely examined in animal models. Methods This study compared spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs; a genetic animal model of ADHD) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (normoactive control strains), on attentional set-shifting task (ASST) performance. Furthermore, the dose-effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on attentiona...

  7. One Week of Exposure to Intermittent Hypoxia Impairs Attentional Set-shifting in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, John G.; McKenna, James T.; Connolly, Nina P.; Poeta, Devon L.; Ling, Liming; McCARLEY, ROBERT W.; Strecker, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH), a characteristic of sleep apnea, was modeled in Fischer Brown Norway rats (10 h/day for 7 days) followed by cognitive testing in an attentional set-shifting task. The ability to shift attention from one sensory modality (e.g., odor) to another (e.g., digging medium) was impaired, a finding that could not be attributed to deficits in attention, discrimination, learning, or motor performance. Instead, the deficit is likely to reflect impaired allocation of attentional...

  8. Effects of methylphenidate on attentional set-shifting in a genetic model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Ai-hua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although deficits of attentional set-shifting have been reported in individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, it is rarely examined in animal models. Methods This study compared spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs; a genetic animal model of ADHD and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY and Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (normoactive control strains, on attentional set-shifting task (ASST performance. Furthermore, the dose-effects of methylphenidate (MPH on attentional set-shifting of SHR were investigated. In experiment 1, ASST procedures were conducted in SHR, WKY and SD rats of 8 each at the age of 5 weeks. Mean latencies at the initial phase, error types and numbers, and trials to criteria at each stage were recorded. In experiment 2, 24 SHR rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 8 each-- MPH-L (lower dose, MPH-H (higher dose, and SHR-vehicle groups. From 3 weeks, they were administered 2.5 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg MPH or saline respectively for 14 consecutive days. All rats were tested in the ASST at the age of 5 weeks. Results The SHRs generally exhibited poorer performance on ASST than the control WKY and SD rats. Significant strain effects on mean latency [F (2, 21 = 639.636, p p p p p Conclusions The SHR may be impaired in discrimination learning, reversal learning and attentional set-shifting. Our study provides evidence that MPH may improve the SHR's performance on attentional set-shifting and lower dose is more effective than higher dose.

  9. Atomoxetine facilitates Attentional Set Shifting in adolescent rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cain, Rachel E.; Wasserman, Michelle C.; Waterhouse, Barry D.; McGaughy, Jill A.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent rats show immaturities in executive function and are less able than adult rats to learn reinforcement reversals and shift attentional set. These two forms of executive function rely on the functional integrity of the orbitofrontal and prelimbic cortices respectively. Drugs used to treat attention deficit disorder, such as atomoxetine, that increase cortical catecholamine levels improve executive functions in humans, non-human primates and adult rats with prefrontal lesions. Cortica...

  10. Attentional set-shifting deficit in Parkinson's disease is associated with prefrontal dysfunction: an FDG-PET study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Sawada

    Full Text Available The attentional set-shifting deficit that has been observed in Parkinson's disease (PD has long been considered neuropsychological evidence of the involvement of meso-prefrontal and prefrontal-striatal circuits in cognitive flexibility. However, recent studies have suggested that non-dopaminergic, posterior cortical pathologies may also contribute to this deficit. Although several neuroimaging studies have addressed this issue, the results of these studies were confounded by the use of tasks that required other cognitive processes in addition to set-shifting, such as rule learning and working memory. In this study, we attempted to identify the neural correlates of the attentional set-shifting deficit in PD using a compound letter task and 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG positron emission tomography during rest. Shift cost, which is a measure of attentional set-shifting ability, was significantly correlated with hypometabolism in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, including the putative human frontal eye field. Our results provide direct evidence that dysfunction in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex makes a primary contribution to the attentional set-shifting deficit that has been observed in PD patients.

  11. Attentional Set-Shifting Deficit in Parkinson’s Disease Is Associated with Prefrontal Dysfunction: An FDG-PET Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sawada, Yoichi; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Kyoko; Hirayama, Kazumi; Takeda, Atsushi; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Ishioka, Toshiyuki; Itoyama, Yasuto; Takahashi, Shoki; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Mori, Etsuro

    2012-01-01

    The attentional set-shifting deficit that has been observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD) has long been considered neuropsychological evidence of the involvement of meso-prefrontal and prefrontal-striatal circuits in cognitive flexibility. However, recent studies have suggested that non-dopaminergic, posterior cortical pathologies may also contribute to this deficit. Although several neuroimaging studies have addressed this issue, the results of these studies were confounded by the use of tasks...

  12. Factor analysis of attentional set-shifting performance in young and aged mice

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    Geyer Mark A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Executive dysfunction may play a major role in cognitive decline with aging because frontal lobe structures are particularly vulnerable to advancing age. Lesion studies in rats and mice have suggested that intradimensional shifts (IDSs, extradimensional shifts (EDSs, and reversal learning are mediated by the anterior cingulate cortex, the medial prefrontal cortex, and the orbitofrontal cortex, respectively. We hypothesized that the latent structure of cognitive performance would reflect functional localization in the brain and would be altered by aging. Methods Young (4 months, n = 16 and aged (23 months, n = 18 C57BL/6N mice performed an attentional set-shifting task (ASST that evaluates simple discrimination (SD, compound discrimination (CD, IDS, EDS, and reversal learning. The performance data were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis to extract the latent structures of ASST performance in young and aged mice. Results The factor analysis extracted two- and three-factor models. In the two-factor model, the factor associated with SD and CD was clearly separated from the factor associated with the rest of the ASST stages in the young mice only. In the three-factor model, the SD and CD loaded on distinct factors. The three-factor model also showed a separation of factors associated with IDS, EDS, and CD reversal. However, the other reversal learning variables, ID reversal and ED reversal, had somewhat inconsistent factor loadings. Conclusions The separation of performance factors in aged mice was less clear than in young mice, which suggests that aged mice utilize neuronal networks more broadly for specific cognitive functions. The result that the factors associated with SD and CD were separated in the three-factor model may suggest that the introduction of an irrelevant or distracting dimension results in the use of a new/orthogonal strategy for better discrimination.

  13. Transient inactivation of the neonatal ventral hippocampus impairs attentional set-shifting behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Julie M; Pershing, Michelle L; Thomsen, Morten Skøtt;

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive deficits represent a core symptom cluster in schizophrenia that are thought to reflect developmental dysregulations within a neural system involving the ventral hippocampus (VH), nucleus accumbens (NAC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). The present experiments determined the cognitive effec...... of transient hippocampal inactivation as an animal model for studying the cognitive impairments in schizophrenia as well as the pro-cognitive therapeutic potential of α7 nAChR agonists.......Cognitive deficits represent a core symptom cluster in schizophrenia that are thought to reflect developmental dysregulations within a neural system involving the ventral hippocampus (VH), nucleus accumbens (NAC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). The present experiments determined the cognitive effects...... the partial α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist SSR 180711 (3.0 mg/kg) eliminated the TTX-induced performance deficits. Given that patients with schizophrenia exhibit hippocampal pathophysiology and deficits in the ED stages of set-shifting tasks, our results support the significance...

  14. Impaired fear recognition and attentional set-shifting is associated with brain structural changes in alcoholic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trick, Leanne; Kempton, Matthew J; Williams, Steven C R; Duka, Theodora

    2014-11-01

    Alcoholic patients with multiple detoxifications/relapses show cognitive and emotional deficits. We performed structural magnetic resonance imaging and examined performance on a cognitive flexibility task (intra-extradimensional set shift and reversal; IED). We also presented subjects with fearful, disgust and anger facial emotional expressions. Participants were abstaining, multiply detoxified (MDTx; n = 12) or singly detoxified patients (SDTx; n = 17) and social drinker controls (n = 31). Alcoholic patients were less able than controls to change their behavior in accordance with the changing of the rules in the IED and they were less accurate in recognizing fearful expressions in particular. They also showed lower gray matter volume compared with controls in frontal brain areas, including inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and insula that mediate emotional processing, inferior parietal lobule and medial frontal cortex that mediate attentional and motor planning processes, respectively. Impairments in performance and some of the regional decreases in gray matter were greater in MDTx. Gray matter volume in IFC in patients was negatively correlated with the number of detoxifications, whereas inferior parietal lobule was negatively correlated with the control over drinking score (impaired control over drinking questionnaire). Performance in IED was also negatively correlated with gray matter volume in IFC/BA47, whereas recognition of fearful faces was positively correlated with the IFC gray matter. Repeated episodes of detoxification from alcohol, related to severity of dependency, are coupled with altered brain structure in areas of emotional regulation, attention and motor planning. Such changes may confer increased inability to switch behavior according to environmental demands and social incompetence, contributing to relapse. PMID:25123156

  15. Impaired fear recognition and attentional set-shifting is associated with brain structural changes in alcoholic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Trick, Leanne; Kempton, Matthew J.; Williams, Steven C.R.; Duka, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic patients with multiple detoxifications/relapses show cognitive and emotional deficits. We performed structural magnetic resonance imaging and examined performance on a cognitive flexibility task (intra-extradimensional set shift and reversal; IED). We also presented subjects with fearful, disgust and anger facial emotional expressions. Participants were abstaining, multiply detoxified (MDTx; n = 12) or singly detoxified patients (SDTx; n = 17) and social drinker controls (n = 31). A...

  16. Task-specific effects of tDCS-induced cortical excitability changes on cognitive and motor sequence set shifting performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Leite

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the effects of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS on two set shifting tasks. Set shifting ability is defined as the capacity to switch between mental sets or actions and requires the activation of a distributed neural network. Thirty healthy subjects (fifteen per site received anodal, cathodal and sham stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC or the primary motor cortex (M1. We measured set shifting in both cognitive and motor tasks. The results show that both anodal and cathodal single session tDCS can modulate cognitive and motor tasks. However, an interaction was found between task and type of stimulation as anodal tDCS of DLPFC and M1 was found to increase performance in the cognitive task, while cathodal tDCS of DLPFC and M1 had the opposite effect on the motor task. Additionally, tDCS effects seem to be most evident on the speed of changing sets, rather than on reducing the number of errors or increasing the efficacy of irrelevant set filtering.

  17. Effects of acamprosate on attentional set-shifting and cellular function in the prefrontal cortex of chronic alcohol-exposed mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei

    Background: The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) inhibits impulsive and compulsive behaviors that characterize drug abuse and dependence. Acamprosate is the leading medication approved for the maintenance of abstinence, shown to reduce craving and relapse in animal models and human alcoholics. Whether acamprosate can modulate executive functions that are impaired by chronic ethanol exposure is unknown. Here we explored the effects of acamprosate on an attentional set-shifting task, and tested whether these behavioral effects are correlated with modulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission and intrinsic excitability of mPFC neurons. Methods: We induced alcohol dependence in mice via chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure in vapor chambers and measured changes in alcohol consumption in a limited access 2-bottle choice paradigm. Impairments of executive function were assessed in an attentional set-shifting task. Acamprosate was applied subchronically for 2 days during withdrawal before the final behavioral test. Alcohol-induced changes in cellular function of layer 5/6 pyramidal neurons, and the potential modulation of these changes by acamprosate, were measured using patch clamp recordings in brain slices. Results: Chronic ethanol exposure impaired cognitive flexibility in the attentional set-shifting task. Acamprosate improved overall performance and reduced perseveration. Recordings of mPFC neurons showed that chronic ethanol exposure increased use-dependent presynaptic transmitter release and enhanced postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function. Moreover, CIE-treatment lowered input resistance, and decreased the threshold and the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) of action potentials, suggesting chronic ethanol exposure also impacted membrane excitability of mPFC neurons. However, acamprosate treatment did not reverse these ethanol-induced changes cellular function. Conclusion: Acamprosate improved attentional control of ethanol exposed animals

  18. NORADRENERGIC, BUT NOT CHOLINERGIC, DEAFFERENTATION OF PREFRONTAL CORTEX IMPAIRS ATTENTIONAL SET-SHIFTING

    OpenAIRE

    McGAUGHY, J.; Ross, R S; Eichenbaum, H.

    2008-01-01

    Both norepinephrine and acetylcholine have been shown to be critically involved in mediating attention but there remains debate about whether they serve similar or unique functions. Much of what is known about the role of these neurochemicals in cognition is based on manipulations done at the level of the cell body but these findings are difficult to reconcile with data regarding the unique contribution of cortical subregions, e.g. the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, to attention. In the curr...

  19. Evaluation of a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia - Early postnatal PCP treatment in attentional set-shifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, B.V.; Dias, R.; Olsen, C.K.;

    2008-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) was administered to male and female Lister hooded rats on postnatal days (PND) 7, 9 and 11. All PCP animals tested in adulthood (PND 53-93) showed deficits in cognitive flexibility, specifically in their ability to shift attentional set, compared to controls. This novel findin...... is reminiscent of the impairment observed in schizophrenia patients, and supports the validity of the early postnatal PCP regimen as a disease-like model. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2008......Phencyclidine (PCP) was administered to male and female Lister hooded rats on postnatal days (PND) 7, 9 and 11. All PCP animals tested in adulthood (PND 53-93) showed deficits in cognitive flexibility, specifically in their ability to shift attentional set, compared to controls. This novel finding...

  20. The effects of PDE10 inhibition on attentional set-shifting do not depend on the activation of dopamine D1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Potasiewicz, Agnieszka; Rafa, Dominik; Drescher, Karla; Bespalov, Anton; Popik, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) represent a novel class of potential antipsychotic compounds. These principles increase the level of cAMP and cGMP in the medium spiny neurons of the striatum and resemble the neurochemical consequences of dopamine D2 receptor inhibition and dopamine D1 receptor stimulation. Cognitive dysfunctions, including an impaired ability to shift perceptual attentional set, are core features of schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of D1 receptors in the procognitive action of the PDE10A inhibitor using the attentional set-shifting task in rats. The performance of the rats in the extradimensional shift stage of the attentional set-shifting task was taken as an index of cognitive flexibility. We first assessed the effects of the D1 agonist in otherwise untreated animals and in animals pretreated with the D1 receptor antagonist. We then investigated the procognitive effects of the PDE10A inhibitor, MP-10, in otherwise untreated animals and in animals pretreated with the D1 receptor antagonist. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 produced cognitive impairment at the dose of 0.0125 mg/kg, but not at 0.0063 mg/kg. The D1 receptor agonist, SKF-81,297, produced a procognitive effect that was abolished by 0.0063 mg/kg of SCH-23390. The compound MP-10 produced a procognitive effect at the dose of 0.3 mg/kg, but not at 0.1 mg/kg. Rat pretreatment with 0.0063 mg/kg of SCH-23390 did not block the procognitive effect of 0.3 mg/kg of MP-10. The present study demonstrates that the blockade of dopamine D1 receptors is unlikely to affect the procognitive effects of PDE10A inhibition. PMID:26580130

  1. Evaluation of a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia--early postnatal PCP treatment in attentional set-shifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian Villumsen; Dias, Rebecca; Glenthøj, Birte Yding;

    2008-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) was administered to male and female Lister hooded rats on postnatal days (PND) 7, 9 and 11. All PCP animals tested in adulthood (PND 53-93) showed deficits in cognitive flexibility, specifically in their ability to shift attentional set, compared to controls. This novel findin...

  2. Evaluation of a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia--early postnatal PCP treatment in attentional set-shifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian Villumsen; Dias, Rebecca; Glenthøj, Birte Yding;

    2008-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) was administered to male and female Lister hooded rats on postnatal days (PND) 7, 9 and 11. All PCP animals tested in adulthood (PND 53-93) showed deficits in cognitive flexibility, specifically in their ability to shift attentional set, compared to controls. This novel findin...... is reminiscent of the impairment observed in schizophrenia patients, and supports the validity of the early postnatal PCP regimen as a disease-like model.......Phencyclidine (PCP) was administered to male and female Lister hooded rats on postnatal days (PND) 7, 9 and 11. All PCP animals tested in adulthood (PND 53-93) showed deficits in cognitive flexibility, specifically in their ability to shift attentional set, compared to controls. This novel finding...

  3. Set-shifting in healthy children and in children with idiopathic or cryptogenic epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, A; Oostrom, KJ; Verloop, D; Jennekens-Schinkel, A

    2000-01-01

    Set-shifting is an important aspect of attention and regulation of behaviour. The ability of young children to shift set is debated. Set-shifting is usually examined using sorting tasks that are designed for adults and hence are inadequate for children. In this study, an experimental Sorting Task fo

  4. Reversal of cognitive deficits by an ampakine (CX516) and sertindole in two animal models of schizophrenia--sub-chronic and early postnatal PCP treatment in attentional set-shifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian Villumsen; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Dias, Rebecca;

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE: Therapies treating cognitive impairments in schizophrenia especially deficits in executive functioning are not available at present. OBJECTIVE: The current study evaluated the effect of ampakine CX516 in reversing deficits in executive functioning as represented in two animal models of...... schizophrenia and assessed by a rodent analog of the intradimensional-extradimensional (ID-ED) attentional set-shifting task. The second generation antipsychotic, sertindole, provided further validation of the schizophrenia-like disease models. METHODS: Animals were subjected to (a) sub-chronic or (b) early...... extradimensional deficits produced by sub-chronic or early postnatal PCP treatment were significantly attenuated by sertindole and dose-dependently by CX516. CONCLUSION: Findings here further establish PCP treatment as model of executive functioning deficits related to schizophrenia and provide evidence that...

  5. Learning to Model Task-Oriented Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaochun; Zhao, Xinbo; Wang, Jian; Yang, Yongjia

    2016-01-01

    For many applications in graphics, design, and human computer interaction, it is essential to understand where humans look in a scene with a particular task. Models of saliency can be used to predict fixation locations, but a large body of previous saliency models focused on free-viewing task. They are based on bottom-up computation that does not consider task-oriented image semantics and often does not match actual eye movements. To address this problem, we collected eye tracking data of 11 subjects when they performed some particular search task in 1307 images and annotation data of 2,511 segmented objects with fine contours and 8 semantic attributes. Using this database as training and testing examples, we learn a model of saliency based on bottom-up image features and target position feature. Experimental results demonstrate the importance of the target information in the prediction of task-oriented visual attention. PMID:27247561

  6. Learning to Model Task-Oriented Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaochun; Zhao, Xinbo; Wang, Jian; Yang, Yongjia

    2016-01-01

    For many applications in graphics, design, and human computer interaction, it is essential to understand where humans look in a scene with a particular task. Models of saliency can be used to predict fixation locations, but a large body of previous saliency models focused on free-viewing task. They are based on bottom-up computation that does not consider task-oriented image semantics and often does not match actual eye movements. To address this problem, we collected eye tracking data of 11 subjects when they performed some particular search task in 1307 images and annotation data of 2,511 segmented objects with fine contours and 8 semantic attributes. Using this database as training and testing examples, we learn a model of saliency based on bottom-up image features and target position feature. Experimental results demonstrate the importance of the target information in the prediction of task-oriented visual attention. PMID:27247561

  7. Learning to Model Task-Oriented Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For many applications in graphics, design, and human computer interaction, it is essential to understand where humans look in a scene with a particular task. Models of saliency can be used to predict fixation locations, but a large body of previous saliency models focused on free-viewing task. They are based on bottom-up computation that does not consider task-oriented image semantics and often does not match actual eye movements. To address this problem, we collected eye tracking data of 11 subjects when they performed some particular search task in 1307 images and annotation data of 2,511 segmented objects with fine contours and 8 semantic attributes. Using this database as training and testing examples, we learn a model of saliency based on bottom-up image features and target position feature. Experimental results demonstrate the importance of the target information in the prediction of task-oriented visual attention.

  8. Differential optimal dopamine levels for set-shifting and working memory in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Sean James; Smulders, Katrijn; Esselink, Rianne A; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Cools, Roshan

    2015-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an important model for the role of dopamine in supporting human cognition. However, despite the uniformity of midbrain dopamine depletion only some patients experience cognitive impairment. The neurocognitive mechanisms of this heterogeneity remain unclear. A genetic polymorphism in the catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme, predominantly thought to exert its cognitive effect through acting on prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopamine transmission, provides us with an experimental window onto dopamine's role in cognitive performance in PD. In a large cohort of PD patients (n=372), we examined the association between COMT genotype and two tasks known to implicate prefrontal dopamine (spatial working memory and attentional set-shifting) and on a task less sensitive to prefrontal dopamine (paired associates learning). Consistent with the known neuroanatomical locus of its effects, differences between the COMT genotype groups were observed on dopamine-dependant tasks, but not the paired associates learning task. However, COMT genotype had differential effects on the two prefrontal dopamine tasks. Putative prefrontal dopamine levels influenced spatial working memory in an 'Inverted-U'-shaped fashion, whereas a linear, dose-dependant pattern was observed for attentional set-shifting. Cumulatively, these results revise our understanding of when COMT genotype modulates cognitive functioning in PD patients by showing that the behavioural consequences of genetic variation vary according to task demands, presumably because set-shifting and working memory have different optimal dopamine levels. PMID:26239947

  9. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms are marginal. We hypothesize that basic deficits in sustaining attention explain more complex attentional dysfunction in persons with ADHD and relate to ADHD symptoms. Attentional function was analyzed by computing ex-Gaussian parameters for 3 time Blocks in a 20 min test of sustained alertness. Changes in performance across these blocks were analyzed by comparing adult persons with ADHD (n = 24) with healthy matched controls (n = 24) and correlated with neuropsychological measures of selective and divided attention as well as self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. We found a significantly steeper increase in the number of slow responses (ex-Gaussian parameter τ) in persons with ADHD with time on task in basic sustained alertness. They also performed significantly worse in tasks of sustained selective and divided attention. However, after controlling for an increase in τ during the alertness task, significant differences between groups disappeared for divided and partly selective attention. Increases in τ in the sustained alertness task correlated significantly with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. Our results provide evidence that very basic deficits in sustaining attention in adults with ADHD are related to infrequent slow responses (=attentional lapses), with changes over time being relevant for more complex attentional function and experienced ADHD symptoms in everyday life. PMID:27193369

  10. Differentiation of rodent behavioral phenotypes and methylphenidate action in sustained and flexible attention tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Richard; Shumsky, Jed; Waterhouse, Barry D

    2016-06-15

    Methyphenidate (MPH) is the primary drug treatment of choice for ADHD. It is also frequently used off-label as a cognitive enhancer by otherwise healthy individuals from all age groups and walks of life. Military personnel, students, and health professionals use MPH illicitly to increase attention and improve workplace performance over extended periods of work activity. Despite the frequency of its use, the efficacy of MPH to enhance cognitive function across individuals and in a variety of circumstances is not well characterized. We sought to better understand MPH׳s cognitive enhancing properties in two different rodent models of attention. We found that MPH could enhance performance in a sustained attention task, but that its effects in this test were subject dependent. More specifically, MPH increased attention in low baseline performing rats but had little to no effect on high performing rats. MPH exerted a similar subject specific effect in a test of flexible attention, i.e. the attention set shifting task. In this test MPH increased behavioral flexibility in animals with poor flexibility but impaired performance in more flexible animals. Overall, our results indicate that the effects of MPH are subject-specific and depend on the baseline level of performance. Furthermore, good performance in in the sustained attention task was correlated with good performance in the flexible attention task; i.e. animals with better vigilance exhibited greater behavioral flexibility. The findings are discussed in terms of potential neurobiological substrates, in particular noradrenergic mechanisms, that might underlie subject specific performance and subject specific responses to MPH. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. PMID:26688113

  11. Learning to Model Task-Oriented Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaochun Zou; Xinbo Zhao; Jian Wang; Yongjia Yang

    2016-01-01

    For many applications in graphics, design, and human computer interaction, it is essential to understand where humans look in a scene with a particular task. Models of saliency can be used to predict fixation locations, but a large body of previous saliency models focused on free-viewing task. They are based on bottom-up computation that does not consider task-oriented image semantics and often does not match actual eye movements. To address this problem, we collected eye tracking data of 11 ...

  12. Increased set shifting costs in fasted healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Bolton

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of temporary food restriction on a set shifting task requiring participants to judge clusters of pictures against a frequently changing rule. 60 healthy female participants underwent two testing sessions: once after fasting for 16 hours and once in a satiated state. Participants also completed a battery of questionnaires (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]; Persistence, Perseveration and Perfectionism Questionnaire [PPPQ-22]; and Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire [EDE-Q6]. Set shifting costs were significantly increased after fasting; this effect was independent of self-reported mood and perseveration. Furthermore, higher levels of weight concern predicted a general performance decrement under conditions of fasting. We conclude that relatively short periods of fasting can lead to set shifting impairments. This finding may have relevance to studies of development, individual differences, and the interpretation of psychometric tests. It also could have implications for understanding the etiology and maintenance of eating disorders, in which impaired set shifting has been implicated.

  13. CNTRICS final animal model task selection: Control of attention

    OpenAIRE

    Lustig, C.; Kozak, R; Sarter, M.; Young, J.W.; Robbins, T. W.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with impaired attention. The top-down control of attention, defined as the ability to guide and refocus attention in accordance with internal goals and representations, was identified by the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative as an important construct for task development and research. A recent CNTRICS meeting identified three tasks commonly used with rodent models as having high construct validity a...

  14. Task specificity of attention training: the case of probability cuing

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.; Won, Bo-Yeong; Cistera, Julia D.; Rosenbaum, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Statistical regularities in our environment enhance perception and modulate the allocation of spatial attention. Surprisingly little is known about how learning-induced changes in spatial attention transfer across tasks. In this study, we investigated whether a spatial attentional bias learned in one task transfers to another. Most of the experiments began with a training phase in which a search target was more likely to be located in one quadrant of the screen than in the other quadrants. An...

  15. Serum glutamine, set-shifting ability and anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collier David A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Set-shifting is impaired in people with anorexia nervosa (AN, but the underlying physiological and biochemical processes are unclear. Animal studies have established that glutamatergic pathways in the prefrontal cortex play an important role in set-shifting ability. However, it is not yet understood whether levels of serum glutamatergic amino acids are associated with set-shifting performance in humans. The aim of this study was to determine whether serum concentrations of amino acids related to glutamatergic neurotransmission (glutamine, glutamate, glycine, l-serine, d-serine are associated with set-shifting ability in people with acute AN and those after recovery. Methods Serum concentrations of glutamatergic amino acids were measured in 27 women with current AN (AN group, 18 women recovered from AN (ANRec group and 28 age-matched healthy controls (HC group. Set-shifting was measured using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST and the Trail Making Task (TMT. Dimensional measures of psychopathology were used, including the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDEQ, the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Results Serum glutamine concentrations in the AN group (1,310.2 ± 265.6 μM, mean ± SD were significantly higher (by approximately 20% than those in the HC group (1,102.9 ± 152.7 μM, mean ± SD (F(2, 70 = 6.3, P = 0.003, 95% CI 61.2 to 353.4. Concentrations of serum glutamine were positively associated with markers of the illness severity: a negative correlation was present between serum glutamine concentrations and body mass index (BMI and lowest BMI and a positive correlation was found between duration of illness and EDEQ. The AN group showed significantly impaired set shifting in the WCST, both total errors, and perseverative errors. In the AN group, there were no correlations between serum glutamine concentrations and set shifting. Conclusions Serum

  16. Trail making and cognitive set-shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVERA-SOUZA RICARDO DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that Part B of the Trail Making Test (TMT is a measure of cognitive set-shifting ability in 55 normal subjects with the conventional (written TMT and a verbal adaptation, the "verbal TMT" (vTMT. The finding of a significant association between Parts B of TMT and vTMT (r = 0,59, p < 0,001, after correcting for age and education, supports the view that Part B of TMT is a valid measure of the ability to alternate between cognitive categories.

  17. Household Task Participation of Children with and without Attentional Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Louise; Coster, Wendy J.; Orsmond, Gael I.; Cohn, Ellen S.

    2009-01-01

    Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often demonstrate problems in their participation in family occupations, such as household tasks, due to their needs for assistance and their behavior. Because participation in household tasks is part of family life and may be one way that families prepare children for adult roles, it…

  18. Attention Capacity and Task Difficulty in Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liqiang; Pashler, Harold

    2005-01-01

    When a visual search task is very difficult (as when a small feature difference defines the target), even detection of a unique element may be substantially slowed by increases in display set size. This has been attributed to the influence of attentional capacity limits. We examined the influence of attentional capacity limits on three kinds of…

  19. Task-based working memory guidance of visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Tsou, Brian H

    2011-05-01

    Previous research has established that holding a stimulus in working memory (WM) facilitates the deployment of visual attention to that stimulus relative to other stimuli. The present study examined whether maintaining a specific task in WM would also bias the allocation of attention to the stimuli associated with that task. Participants performed a speeded letter search task while simultaneously keeping in WM one of two task cues shown at the beginning of each trial. The results showed that task-based WM guidance of attention was modulated by response latencies. Whereas the participants with fast reaction times showed little influence of WM contents, the participants with slow reaction times took longer to respond when the letter target appeared in a distractor stimulus consistent with the task cue held in mind. A subsequent Stroop experiment found a larger Stroop interference effect from the participants in the slow group compared with those in the fast group, suggesting that the differential WM effect between the two groups may be associated with an individual's ability to inhibit task-irrelevant information. Taken together, these results expanded the realm of previous research and provided further evidence for a close link between attention and WM. PMID:21264740

  20. Reduced theta connectivity during set-shifting in children with autism

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    Sam McLeod Doesburg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a characterized by deficits in social cognition and executive function. An area of particular difficulty for children with ASD is cognitive flexibility, such as the ability to shift between attentional or response sets. The biological basis of such deficits remains poorly understood, although atypical development of structural and functional brain connectivity have been reported in ASD, suggesting that disruptions of normal patterns of inter-regional communication may contribute to cognitive problems in this group. The present MEG study measured inter-regional phase synchronization while children with ASD and typically developing matched controls (6-14 years of age performed a set-shifting task. Reduced theta-band phase synchronization was observed in children with ASD during extradimensional set-shifting. This reduction in task-dependent inter-regional connectivity encompassed numerous areas including multiple frontal lobe regions, and indicates that problems with communication among brain areas may contribute to difficulties with executive function in ASD.

  1. Attentional modulation of emotional conflict processing with flanker tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingyan Zhou

    Full Text Available Emotion processing has been shown to acquire priority by biasing allocation of attentional resources. Aversive images or fearful expressions are processed quickly and automatically. Many existing findings suggested that processing of emotional information was pre-attentive, largely immune from attentional control. Other studies argued that attention gated the processing of emotion. To tackle this controversy, the current study examined whether and to what degrees attention modulated processing of emotion using a stimulus-response-compatibility (SRC paradigm. We conducted two flanker experiments using color scale faces in neutral expressions or gray scale faces in emotional expressions. We found SRC effects for all three dimensions (color, gender, and emotion and SRC effects were larger when the conflicts were task relevant than when they were task irrelevant, suggesting that conflict processing of emotion was modulated by attention, similar to those of color and face identity (gender. However, task modulation on color SRC effect was significantly greater than that on gender or emotion SRC effect, indicating that processing of salient information was modulated by attention to a lesser degree than processing of non-emotional stimuli. We proposed that emotion processing can be influenced by attentional control, but at the same time salience of emotional information may bias toward bottom-up processing, rendering less top-down modulation than that on non-emotional stimuli.

  2. Statistical Regularities Attract Attention when Task-Relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamia, Andrea; Zénon, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Visual attention seems essential for learning the statistical regularities in our environment, a process known as statistical learning. However, how attention is allocated when exploring a novel visual scene whose statistical structure is unknown remains unclear. In order to address this question, we investigated visual attention allocation during a task in which we manipulated the conditional probability of occurrence of colored stimuli, unbeknown to the subjects. Participants were instructed to detect a target colored dot among two dots moving along separate circular paths. We evaluated implicit statistical learning, i.e., the effect of color predictability on reaction times (RTs), and recorded eye position concurrently. Attention allocation was indexed by comparing the Mahalanobis distance between the position, velocity and acceleration of the eyes and the two colored dots. We found that learning the conditional probabilities occurred very early during the course of the experiment as shown by the fact that, starting already from the first block, predictable stimuli were detected with shorter RT than unpredictable ones. In terms of attentional allocation, we found that the predictive stimulus attracted gaze only when it was informative about the occurrence of the target but not when it predicted the occurrence of a task-irrelevant stimulus. This suggests that attention allocation was influenced by regularities only when they were instrumental in performing the task. Moreover, we found that the attentional bias towards task-relevant predictive stimuli occurred at a very early stage of learning, concomitantly with the first effects of learning on RT. In conclusion, these results show that statistical regularities capture visual attention only after a few occurrences, provided these regularities are instrumental to perform the task. PMID:26903846

  3. Distributed Attentional Deficits in Chronic Methamphetamine Abusers: Evidence from the Attentional Network Task (ANT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Ruth; Gabay, Shai; Fassbender, Catherine; Henik, Avishai

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The goal of the present study was to examine distributed attentional functions in long-term but currently abstinent methamphetamine (MA) abusers using a task that measures attentional alertness, orienting, and conflict resolution. Methods: Thirty currently abstinent MA abusers (1 month-5 years) and 22 healthy non-substance using adults…

  4. Task-irrelevant memories rapidly gain attentional control with learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunseli, Eren; Olivers, Christian N L; Meeter, Martijn

    2016-03-01

    Although many of our perceptual biases stem from long-term, repeated exposure, current theories of visual search assume a central role for visual working memory (VWM) in guiding attention to target information. Crucially, whether a VWM representation guides attention depends on the relative priority that the memory has within VWM. Here, in a combined visual search/VWM task, we used attentional guidance by irrelevant memories to measure how long a target representation remains prioritized in VWM when observers repeatedly search for the same target. Irrelevant memories started guiding attention already when the target was repeated once, indicating that the target representation rapidly lost priority within VWM as it moved to long-term memory. By showing that training can lead to interference from irrelevant memories, the findings resolve a long-standing paradox on why VWM appears central to, yet at the same time not sufficient nor necessary for attentional guidance. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26436527

  5. Set shifting, central coherence and starvation in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    McConnellogue, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This review aims to evaluate and synthesise previous research on set shifting in eating disorders in order to determine whether individuals with eating disorders have impaired set shifting. It also aims to determine whether set shifting difficulties are a risk factor for eating disorders or a consequence of starvation. Method: A summary and critique of the 13 papers specifically exploring set shifting in eating disorders is presented and followed by a synthesis of the results. Results: ...

  6. Anxiety, emotional distraction, and attentional control in the Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanthroff, Eyal; Henik, Avishai; Derakshan, Nazanin; Usher, Marius

    2016-04-01

    Using a Stroop task, we investigated the effect of task-irrelevant emotional distractors on attentional proactive control and its interaction with trait anxiety. On the basis of recent findings showing opposed neural responses in the dorsal-executive versus the ventral-emotional systems in response to emotional distractors and of the attentional control theory (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), we hypothesized that negative distractors will result in a reduction of proactive task control in the executive system, especially for high-trait-anxious individuals. Using a computational model of the Stroop task, we derive 2 specific behavioral predictions of reduced proactive task control: increased Stroop interference and reversed Stroop facilitation. Twenty-five high- and 25 low-trait-anxious participants completed a Stroop task in which the target stimuli were preceded by brief (neutral vs. aversive) emotional distractors. While no effects of picture valence on proactive control was found in the low-anxious group, the predicted signatures of reduced proactive control were observed in the high-anxiety group. These results indicate that trait anxiety influences the interaction between irrelevant emotional stimuli and proactive control. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26571078

  7. Friendly Fire and the Sustained Attention to Response Task

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Kyle M.; Head, James; de Joux, Neil R.; Finkbeiner, Kristin M.; Helton, William S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether losses of inhibitory control could be responsible for some friendly-fire incidents. Background: Several factors are commonly cited to explain friendly-fire incidents, but failure of inhibitory control has not yet been explored. The Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) could be a valid model for inhibition failures in some combat scenarios. Method: Participants completed small-arms simulations using near infrared emitter guns, confronting researc...

  8. Serum glutamine, set-shifting ability and anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Collier David A; Campbell Iain C; Tchanturia Kate; Schmidt Ulrike; Hashimoto Kenji; Nakazato Michiko; Iyo Masaomi; Treasure Janet

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Set-shifting is impaired in people with anorexia nervosa (AN), but the underlying physiological and biochemical processes are unclear. Animal studies have established that glutamatergic pathways in the prefrontal cortex play an important role in set-shifting ability. However, it is not yet understood whether levels of serum glutamatergic amino acids are associated with set-shifting performance in humans. The aim of this study was to determine whether serum concentrations o...

  9. Transient Distraction and Attentional Control during a Sustained Selective Attention Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, Elise; Woldorff, Marty G

    2016-07-01

    Distracting stimuli in the environment can pull our attention away from our goal-directed tasks. fMRI studies have implicated regions in right frontal cortex as being particularly important for processing distractors [e.g., de Fockert, J. W., & Theeuwes, J. Role of frontal cortex in attentional capture by singleton distractors. Brain and Cognition, 80, 367-373, 2012; Demeter, E., Hernandez-Garcia, L., Sarter, M., & Lustig, C. Challenges to attention: A continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) study of the effects of distraction on sustained attention. Neuroimage, 54, 1518-1529, 2011]. Less is known, however, about the timing and sequence of how right frontal or other brain regions respond selectively to distractors and how distractors impinge upon the cascade of processes related to detecting and processing behaviorally relevant target stimuli. Here we used EEG and ERPs to investigate the neural consequences of a perceptually salient but task-irrelevant distractor on the detection of rare target stimuli embedded in a rapid, serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream. We found that distractors that occur during the presentation of a target interfere behaviorally with detection of those targets, reflected by reduced detection rates, and that these missed targets show a reduced amplitude of the long-latency, detection-related P3 component. We also found that distractors elicited a right-lateralized frontal negativity beginning at 100 msec, whose amplitude negatively correlated across participants with their distraction-related behavioral impairment. Finally, we also quantified the instantaneous amplitude of the steady-state visual evoked potentials elicited by the RSVP stream and found that the occurrence of a distractor resulted in a transient amplitude decrement of the steady-state visual evoked potential, presumably reflecting the pull of attention away from the RSVP stream when distracting stimuli occur in the environment. PMID:26967946

  10. Mental Set Shifting in Childhood: The Role of Working Memory and Inhibitory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocki, Karin C.; Tillman, Carin

    2014-01-01

    The role of working memory (WM) and inhibition in mental set shifting was examined from an individual difference perspective in children aged 5-14?years (N?=?117). Using the Hearts and Flowers task the rationale of the present study was to directly test the theoretical assumption that mental set shifiting in childhood primarily builds on WM and…

  11. Set shifting impairments in an outpatient eating disorder sample

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Helen M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Patients with anorexia nervosa have been consistently reported to show impairments in set shifting ability. Such deficits may be associated with characteristics commonly observed in this patient group, such as obsessive thoughts and behaviours around eating, maladaptive problem solving and a rigid thinking style. Objective: Much of the preceding literature on set shifting ability has involved inpatient samples meeting strict diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa....

  12. 利他林对注意缺陷多动障碍大鼠注意定势转移能力与内侧前额叶神经递质及其代谢产物的影响%The effects of ritalin on the both attentional set shifting and levels of neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the mPFC in rat as a model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 苏巧荣; 曹枫林; 苏程

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the enhancement effects of ritalin enhancement of attentional set shifting and motor activity by assessing ability of attentional set shifting in juvenile spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs)as an animal model of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder.Methods Sixteen male 4 week-old SHRs were randomly divided into titalin(SR)and saline(SN),control groups(WN)respectively.The number of trails were recorded as the sign of the ability of attentional set shifting.Results The number of trails to reach the criterion of six consecutive was significantly more in the SN group than those of WN group in SD,CD,CDR,IDS,EDS(P<0.05,P<0.01).The same was observed in the SN group than in the ritalin-treated group(SR)in all stages except IDSR(P<0.05,P<0.01).Ventral subdivisions of mPFC:(1)At the base line,SN((504.142±100.96)ng·g~(-1))group have exhibited a higher NE((354.42±125.38)ng·g~(-1),P=0.001)level,MHPG/DOPAC ratio,a lower utilization ratio(MHPG/NE=3.28±1.11,DOPAC/DA=0.93±0.31)and a lower MHPG level((1560.04±159.69)ng·g~(-1))when compared with the WN subgroup((1709.95±322.29)ng·g~(-1),P=0.000).(2)The ritalin treatment in SHRs decreased MHPG/DOPAC ratio and also increased the utilization ratio(MHPG/NE:1.95±0.37,3.28±1.11,P=0.000;DOPAC/DA:0.31±0.15,0.93±0.31,P=0.000),and MHPG,DOPAC level when compared with the SN group(P<0.05~P<0.01).Conclusions(1)The juvenile SHRs have the disability of attentional set shifting,ritalin has shown effect to improve the ability of attentional set shifting in SHRs.(2)Decreased utilization ratios(DOPAC/DA,MHPG/NE)were found in in the ventral subdivision of mPFC in the SHRs while a relative unbalance between hypodopaminergic and hypemoradrenergic activity was also noted.(3)Effects of ritalin has been observed in enhancement of cognitive flexibility by way of increasing the utilization ratios(DOPAC/DA,MHPG/NE)and hence the relative unbalance hypodopaminergic and hypemoradrenergic activity is

  13. Monitoring attentional processes for intelligent channelling of educational tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Heyer Wollenberg, Patrick; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Herrera Vega, Javier; Sucar, Luis Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Aims: - Detection of attention: Map a lexicon of body postures to binarizedattentionallevels (Experiment I). - Attribution of attention: Identify postural features leading to appreciation of attention by third parties (e.g. educators) (Experiment II).

  14. The coupling between spatial attention and other components of task-set: A task-switching investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Cai S; Lavric, Aureliu; Monsell, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    Is spatial attention reconfigured independently of, or in tandem with, other task-set components when the task changes? We tracked the eyes of participants cued to perform one of three digit-classification tasks, each consistently associated with a distinct location. Previously we observed, on task switch trials, a substantial delay in orientation to the task-relevant location and tendency to fixate the location of the previously relevant task-"attentional inertia". In the present experiments the cues specified (and instructions emphasized) the relevant location rather than the current task. In Experiment 1, with explicit spatial cues (arrows or spatial adverbs), the previously documented attentional handicaps all but disappeared, whilst the performance "switch cost" increased. Hence, attention can become decoupled from other aspects of task-set, but at a cost to the efficacy of task-set preparation. Experiment 2 used arbitrary single-letter cues with instructions and a training regime that encouraged participants to interpret the cue as indicating the relevant location rather than task. As in our previous experiments, and unlike in Experiment 1, we now observed clear switch-induced attentional delay and inertia, suggesting that the natural tendency is for spatial attention and task-set to be coupled and that only quasi-exogenous location cues decouple their reconfiguration. PMID:27033987

  15. Perceived mental effort correlates with changes in tonic arousal during attentional tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Dan J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that perceived mental effort reflects changes in arousal during tasks of attention. Such changes in arousal may be tonic or phasic, and may be mediated by the locus-coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE system. We hypothesized that perceived mental effort during attentional tasks would correlate with tonic changes in cortical arousal, as assessed by relative electroencephalogram (EEG band power and theta/beta ratio, and not with phasic changes in cortical arousal, assessed by P300 amplitude and latency. Methods Forty-six healthy individuals completed tasks that engage the anterior and posterior attention networks (continuous performance task, go/no-go task, and cued target detection task. During completion of the three attentional tasks a continuous record of tonic and phasic arousal was taken. Cortical measures of arousal included frequency band power, theta/beta ratios over frontal and parietal cortices, and P300 amplitude and latency over parietal cortices. Peripheral measures of arousal included skin conductance responses, heart rate and heart rate variance. Participants reported their perceived mental effort during each of the three attentional tasks. Results First, changes in arousal were seen from rest to completion of the three attentional tasks and between the attentional tasks. Changes seen between the attentional tasks being related to the task design and the attentional network activated. Second, perceived mental effort increased when demands of the task increased and correlated with left parietal beta band power during the three tasks of attention. Third, increased mental effort during the go/no-go task and the cued target detection task was inversely related to theta/beta ratios. Conclusion These results indicate that perceived mental effort reflects tonic rather than phasic changes in arousal during tasks of attention. We suggest that perceived mental effort may reflect in part tonic activity of

  16. More Attention to Attention? An Eye-Tracking Investigation of Selection of Perceptual Attributes during a Task Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Cai S.; Lavric, Aureliu; Monsell, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Switching tasks prolongs response times, an effect reduced but not eliminated by active preparation. To explore the role of attentional selection of the relevant stimulus attribute in these task-switch costs, we measured eye fixations in participants cued to identify either a face or a letter displayed on its forehead. With only 200 ms between cue…

  17. Time reproduction during high and low attentional tasks in Alzheimer's Disease. "A watched kettle never boils".

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Omigie, Diana; Moroni, Christine

    2014-07-01

    A wealth of empirical evidence suggests that directing attention to temporal processing increases perceived duration, whereas drawing attention away from it has the opposite effect. Our work investigates this phenomenon by comparing perceived duration during a high attentional and a low attentional task in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients since these participants tend to show attentional deficits. In the high attentional task, AD patients and older adults were asked to perform the interference condition of the Stroop test for 15s while in the low attentional task, they had to fixate on a cross for the same length of time. In both conditions, participants were not aware they would be questioned about timing until the end of the task when they had to reproduce the duration of the previously-viewed stimulus. AD patients under-reproduced the duration of previously-exposed stimulus in the high attentional relative to the low attentional task, and the same pattern was observed in older adults. Due to their attentional deficits, AD patients might be overwhelmed by the demand of the high attentional task, leaving very few, if any, attentional resources for temporal processing. PMID:24794142

  18. Psychometric Intelligence and Visual Focused Attention: Relationships in Nonsearch Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Manuel J.; Alvarez, Antonio A.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between general intelligence and the ability to ignore irrelevant stimuli appearing in the same visual field as an attended target was studied for 167 college students. Results indicate that psychometric intelligence does not tap visual focused attention. (SLD)

  19. Role of Gestalt grouping in selective attention: Evidence from the Stroop task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, M.J.M.; Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Selective attention has been intensively studied using the Stroop task. Evidence suggests that Stroop interference in a color-naming task arises partly because of visual attention sharing between color and word: Removing the target color after 150 msec reduces interference (Neumann, 1986). Moreover,

  20. Brain activity during divided and selective attention to auditory and visual sentence comprehension tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona eMoisala

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured brain activity of human participants while they performed a sentence congruence judgment task in either the visual or auditory modality separately, or in both modalities simultaneously. Significant performance decrements were observed when attention was divided between the two modalities compared with when one modality was selectively attended. Compared with selective attention (i.e., single tasking, divided attention (i.e., dual-tasking did not recruit additional cortical regions, but resulted in increased activity in medial and lateral frontal regions which were also activated by the component tasks when performed separately. Areas involved in semantic language processing were revealed predominantly in the left lateral prefrontal cortex by contrasting incongruent with congruent sentences. These areas also showed significant activity increases during divided attention in relation to selective attention. In the sensory cortices, no crossmodal inhibition was observed during divided attention when compared with selective attention to one modality. Our results suggest that the observed performance decrements during dual-tasking are due to interference of the two tasks because they utilize the same part of the cortex. Moreover, semantic dual-tasking did not appear to recruit additional brain areas in comparison with single tasking, and no crossmodal inhibition was observed during intermodal divided attention.

  1. Differential neural correlates of set-shifting in the bingeing-purging and restrictive subtypes of anorexia nervosa : An fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Autreve, Sara; De Baene, W.; Baeken, Chris; van Heeringen, Kees; Vancayseele, Nikita; Vervaet, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    In this study, possible differences in the neural correlates of set-shifting abilities between the restrictive (AN-R) and bingeing/purging (AN-BP) subtypes of anorexia nervosa have been explored. Three groups of participants performed a set-shifting task during functional magnetic resonance imaging:

  2. Selective attention to task-irrelevant emotional distractors is unaffected by the perceptual load associated with a foreground task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hindi Attar

    Full Text Available A number of studies have shown that emotionally arousing stimuli are preferentially processed in the human brain. Whether or not this preference persists under increased perceptual load associated with a task at hand remains an open question. Here we manipulated two possible determinants of the attentional selection process, perceptual load associated with a foreground task and the emotional valence of concurrently presented task-irrelevant distractors. As a direct measure of sustained attentional resource allocation in early visual cortex we used steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs elicited by distinct flicker frequencies of task and distractor stimuli. Subjects either performed a detection (low load or discrimination (high load task at a centrally presented symbol stream that flickered at 8.6 Hz while task-irrelevant neutral or unpleasant pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS flickered at a frequency of 12 Hz in the background of the stream. As reflected in target detection rates and SSVEP amplitudes to both task and distractor stimuli, unpleasant relative to neutral background pictures more strongly withdrew processing resources from the foreground task. Importantly, this finding was unaffected by the factor 'load' which turned out to be a weak modulator of attentional processing in human visual cortex.

  3. Attention effects on the processing of task-relevant and task-irrelevant speech sounds and letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittag, Maria; Inauri, Karina; Huovilainen, Tatu; Leminen, Miika; Salo, Emma; Rinne, Teemu; Kujala, Teija; Alho, Kimmo

    2013-01-01

    We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to study effects of selective attention on the processing of attended and unattended spoken syllables and letters. Participants were presented with syllables randomly occurring in the left or right ear and spoken by different voices and with a concurrent foveal stream of consonant letters written in darker or lighter fonts. During auditory phonological (AP) and non-phonological tasks, they responded to syllables in a designated ear starting with a vowel and spoken by female voices, respectively. These syllables occurred infrequently among standard syllables starting with a consonant and spoken by male voices. During visual phonological and non-phonological tasks, they responded to consonant letters with names starting with a vowel and to letters written in dark fonts, respectively. These letters occurred infrequently among standard letters with names starting with a consonant and written in light fonts. To examine genuine effects of attention and task on ERPs not overlapped by ERPs associated with target processing or deviance detection, these effects were studied only in ERPs to auditory and visual standards. During selective listening to syllables in a designated ear, ERPs to the attended syllables were negatively displaced during both phonological and non-phonological auditory tasks. Selective attention to letters elicited an early negative displacement and a subsequent positive displacement (Pd) of ERPs to attended letters being larger during the visual phonological than non-phonological task suggesting a higher demand for attention during the visual phonological task. Active suppression of unattended speech during the AP and non-phonological tasks and during the visual phonological tasks was suggested by a rejection positivity (RP) to unattended syllables. We also found evidence for suppression of the processing of task-irrelevant visual stimuli in visual ERPs during auditory tasks involving left-ear syllables

  4. Attentional modulation of the carry over of eye-movements between tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Peter J; Thompson, Catherine; Jones, Scott P; Piech, Richard M; Painter, Lee; Pake, J Michael

    2016-06-01

    Task demands that influence scanning behaviour in one task can cause that behaviour to persist to a second unrelated task (carry over). This can also affect performance on a second task (e.g., hazard perception ratings), and has been attributed to a process of attentional bias that is modulated by top-down influences (Thompson & Crundall, 2011). In a series of experiments we explored how these top-down influences impact upon carry over. In all experiments, participants searched letters that were presented horizontally, vertically, or in a random array. They were then presented with a driving scene and rated the hazardousness of the scene. Carry over of eye-movements from the letter search to the scene was observed in all experiments. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that this carry over effect influenced hazard perception accuracy. The magnitude of carry over was correlated with task switching abilities, attentional conflicting, and attentional orienting (Experiment 1), and was affected by predictability of the primary task (Experiment 2). Furthermore, direct current stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and parietal areas affected the magnitude of the effect (Experiment 3). These results indicate that carry over is modulated by the specific ability to orient attention and disengage from this orientation. Over orienting leads to increased carry over and insufficient task switching is detrimental to task performance. As a result the current experiments provide evidence that the carry over effect is strongly influenced by attentional processes, namely orienting, inhibition, and task switching. PMID:27065011

  5. The Attentional Boost Effect: Transient Increases in Attention to One Task Enhance Performance in a Second Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Khena M.; Jiang, Yuhong V.

    2010-01-01

    Recent work on event perception suggests that perceptual processing increases when events change. An important question is how such changes influence the way other information is processed, particularly during dual-task performance. In this study, participants monitored a long series of distractor items for an occasional target as they…

  6. Blinded by fear? Prior exposure to fearful faces enhances attentional processing of task-irrelevant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Nick; Derakshan, Nazanin

    2013-01-01

    Threatening information has been shown to both capture attention and enhance sensory processing. Recent evidence has also suggested that exposure to fearful stimuli may enhance perceptual processing of subsequently presented information, as well as increase attentional capacity. However, these results are inconsistent with other findings that fearful stimuli reduce task-irrelevant distraction and improve selective attention. Here, we investigated the effect of prior exposure to fearful faces on performance in the Eriksen flanker task. Across experiments, fearful cues led to increased task-irrelevant distraction for items positioned across visual space, in contrast to other emotional expressions and inverted face items, and under conditions of attentional load. Findings support the view that fearful images enhance attentional capacity, allowing one to attend to as much visual information as possible when danger is implied. Conflicting findings on the effect of fear and selective attention are discussed. PMID:23510073

  7. Probing attention prioritization during dual-task step initiation: a novel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruopeng; Shea, John B

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the attention allocation during reactive stepping using a continuous finger-tapping task. Ten healthy young subjects were recruited to participate in this study. Subjects were required to perform a rapid voluntary step with either left or right leg after hearing an auditory tone while tapping their right index finger on a handhold numeric keypad. Step initiation conditions included simple and choice reaction forward stepping with three variants of continuous tapping task that were: (1) single task-no concurrent finger-tapping task; (2) dual task easy-one-button tapping task; (3) dual task hard-four-button tapping task. Types of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) were determined by the center of pressure trajectory. Reaction time, APA duration, and stepping latency were compared between APA types and various dual-task conditions. Wavelet analysis was performed on the stimulus-locked finger-tapping data to determine the frequency change of tapping speed related to reactive stepping. Results showed that postural performance was negatively affected only by the high-attention-demanding cognitive task. Significant reduction of finger-tapping speed post-stimulus presentation was observed across all test conditions, indicating attention shift during the execution of a step. In addition, the DTH condition induced early postural prioritization in choice reaction stepping when different motor programs needed to be planned and executed. Error APA also triggered larger deterioration of tapping performance compared to correct APA, indicating the perceived error and the remedial action require additional attentional resources. PMID:26708519

  8. Visual Attention Allocation Between Robotic Arm and Environmental Process Control: Validating the STOM Task Switching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher; Vieanne, Alex; Clegg, Benjamin; Sebok, Angelia; Janes, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Fifty six participants time shared a spacecraft environmental control system task with a realistic space robotic arm control task in either a manual or highly automated version. The former could suffer minor failures, whose diagnosis and repair were supported by a decision aid. At the end of the experiment this decision aid unexpectedly failed. We measured visual attention allocation and switching between the two tasks, in each of the eight conditions formed by manual-automated arm X expected-unexpected failure X monitoring- failure management. We also used our multi-attribute task switching model, based on task attributes of priority interest, difficulty and salience that were self-rated by participants, to predict allocation. An un-weighted model based on attributes of difficulty, interest and salience accounted for 96 percent of the task allocation variance across the 8 different conditions. Task difficulty served as an attractor, with more difficult tasks increasing the tendency to stay on task.

  9. Task-Irrelevant Novel Sounds Improve Attentional Performance in Children With and Without ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Tegelbeckers, Jana; Schares, Laura; Lederer, Annette; Bonath, Bjoern; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Task-irrelevant salient stimuli involuntarily capture attention and can lead to distraction from an ongoing task, especially in children with ADHD. However, there has been tentative evidence that the presentation of novel sounds can have beneficial effects on cognitive performance. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the influence of novel sounds compared to no sound and a repeatedly presented standard sound on attentional performance in children and adolescents with and without ADH...

  10. Perceived mental effort correlates with changes in tonic arousal during attentional tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Stein Dan J; Howells Fleur M; Russell Vivienne A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background It has been suggested that perceived mental effort reflects changes in arousal during tasks of attention. Such changes in arousal may be tonic or phasic, and may be mediated by the locus-coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. We hypothesized that perceived mental effort during attentional tasks would correlate with tonic changes in cortical arousal, as assessed by relative electroencephalogram (EEG) band power and theta/beta ratio, and not with phasic changes in cortical...

  11. Genetic Influence on Slope Variability in a Childhood Reflexive Attention Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Lundwall

    Full Text Available Individuals are not perfectly consistent, and interindividual variability is a common feature in all varieties of human behavior. Some individuals respond more variably than others, however, and this difference may be important to understanding how the brain works. In this paper, we explore genetic contributions to response time (RT slope variability on a reflexive attention task. We are interested in such variability because we believe it is an important part of the overall picture of attention that, if understood, has the potential to improve intervention for those with attentional deficits. Genetic association studies are valuable in discovering biological pathways of variability and several studies have found such associations with a sustained attention task. Here, we expand our knowledge to include a reflexive attention task. We ask whether specific candidate genes are associated with interindividual variability on a childhood reflexive attention task in 9-16 year olds. The genetic makers considered are on 11 genes: APOE, BDNF, CHRNA4, COMT, DRD4, HTR4, IGF2, MAOA, SLC5A7, SLC6A3, and SNAP25. We find significant associations with variability with markers on nine and we discuss the results in terms of neurotransmitters associated with each gene and the characteristics of the associated measures from the reflexive attention task.

  12. Measuring attention in rodents: comparison of a modified signal detection task and the 5-choice serial reaction time task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karly Maree Turner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric research has utilised cognitive testing in rodents to improve our understanding of cognitive deficits and for preclinical drug development. However, more sophisticated cognitive tasks have not been as widely exploited due to low throughput and the extensive training time required. We developed a modified signal detection task (SDT based on the growing body of literature aimed at improving cognitive testing in rodents. This study directly compares performance on the modified SDT with the traditional test for measuring attention, the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on either the 5CSRTT or the SDT. Briefly, the 5CSRTT required rodents to pay attention to a spatial array of 5 apertures and respond with a nose poke when an aperture was illuminated. The SDT required the rat to attend to a light panel and respond either left or right to indicate the presence of a signal. In addition, modifications were made to the reward delivery, timing, control of body positioning and the self-initiation of trials. It was found that less training time was required for the SDT, with both sessions to criteria and daily session duration significantly reduced. Rats performed with a high level of accuracy (>87% on both tasks, however omissions were far more frequent on the 5CSRTT. The signal duration was reduced on both tasks as a manipulation of task difficulty relevant to attention and a similar pattern of decreasing accuracy was observed on both tasks. These results demonstrate some of the advantages of the SDT over the traditional 5CSRTT as being higher throughput with reduced training time, fewer omission responses and their body position at stimulus onset was controlled. In addition, rats performing the SDT had comparable high levels of accuracy. These results highlight the differences and similarities between the 5CSRTT and a modified SDT as tools for assessing attention in preclinical animal

  13. Design and validation of HABTA: Human Attention-Based Task Allocator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Koning, L. de; Dongen, C.J. van

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of an adaptive cooperative agent in a domain that suffers from human error in the allocation of attention. The design is discussed of a component of this adaptive agent, called Human Attention-Based Task Allocator (HABTA), capable of managing agent and human atte

  14. Enhancing perceptual and attentional skills requires common demands between the action video games and transfer tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Adam C; Patterson, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that shows action video game play improves perceptual and cognitive skills, the mechanisms of transfer are not well-understood. In line with previous work, we suggest that transfer is dependent upon common demands between the game and transfer task. In the current study, participants played one of four action games with varying speed, visual, and attentional demands for 20 h. We examined whether training enhanced performance for attentional blink, selective attention, attending to multiple items, visual search and auditory detection. Non-gamers who played the game (Modern Combat) with the highest demands showed transfer to tasks of attentional blink and attending to multiple items. The game (MGS Touch) with fewer attentional demands also decreased attentional blink, but to a lesser degree. Other games failed to show transfer, despite having many action game characteristics but at a reduced intensity. The results support the common demands hypothesis. PMID:25713551

  15. Residual attentional capacity amongst young and elderly during dual and triple task walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Uffe; Hoeck, Hans C.; Simonsen, Ole;

    2008-01-01

    detected by a simple examination of the individuals gait performance. This study investigated the use of challenging dual task combinations to detect age related changes in gait performance. Eleven community-dwelling elderly (mean age 76 years) and 13 young subjects (mean age 26 years) participated in the...... were found. A combination of sufficiently challenging motor tasks and concurrent cognitive tasks can reveal signs of limited residual attentional capacity during walking amongst the elderly....

  16. Effects of Auditory Attention Training with the Dichotic Listening Task: Behavioural and Neurophysiological Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Jussi Tallus; Anna Soveri; Heikki Hämäläinen; Jyrki Tuomainen; Matti Laine

    2015-01-01

    Facilitation of general cognitive capacities such as executive functions through training has stirred considerable research interest during the last decade. Recently we demonstrated that training of auditory attention with forced attention dichotic listening not only facilitated that performance but also generalized to an untrained attentional task. In the present study, 13 participants underwent a 4-week dichotic listening training programme with instructions to report syllables presented to...

  17. Age-related changes in attentional selection: quality of task set or degradation of task set across time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jonathan D; Balota, David A

    2013-09-01

    The present study explores the nature of attentional selection in younger and older adults. Following R. De Jong, E. Berendsen, and R. Cools (1999, Acta Psychologica, Vol. 101, pp. 379-394), we manipulated the response to stimulus interval (RSI) in two attentional selection paradigms to examine if there are age-related differences in the quality of task set and/or the maintenance of task set across time. In Experiment 1, we found that the interference effect in a spatial interference task was (a) overall larger in older adults compared with younger adults, and (b) smaller at the short RSI (200 ms) compared with the long RSI (2000 ms), and (c) not associated with an interaction between age and RSI. The second experiment explored the same variables in a Stroop color interference paradigm. Again, older adults produced a disproportionately larger interference effect than younger adults, the interference effect was smaller at the short RSI compared with the long RSI, and there was no evidence of an interaction between age and RSI. In both experiments, the larger interference effect could not be attributed to age-related general slowing and there was evidence from Vincentile analyses of increasing interference and age effects at the slower response latencies. These results indicate that attentional selection deficits in these two experiments were due to a breakdown in the quality of the task set as opposed to age-related differences in the maintenance of the task set across time. PMID:23834491

  18. Force control tasks with pure haptic feedback promote short-term focused attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhang, Yuru; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Gaofeng; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Focused attention has great impact on our quality of life. Our learning, social skills and even happiness are closely intertwined with our capacity for focused attention. Attention promotion is replete with examples of training-induced increases in attention capability, most of which rely on visual and auditory stimulation. Pure haptic stimulation to increase attention capability is rarely found. We show that accurate force control tasks with pure haptic feedback enhance short-term focused attention. Participants were trained by a force control task in which information from visual and auditory channels was blocked, and only haptic feedback was provided. The trainees were asked to exert a target force within a pre-defined force tolerance for a specific duration. The tolerance was adaptively modified to different levels of difficulty to elicit full participant engagement. Three attention tests showed significant changes in different aspects of focused attention in participants who had been trained as compared with those who had not, thereby illustrating the role of haptic-based sensory-motor tasks in the promotion of short-term focused attention. The findings highlight the potential value of haptic stimuli in brain plasticity and serve as a new tool to extend existing computer games for cognitive enhancement. PMID:25296407

  19. Increased attentional focus modulates eye movements in a mixed antisaccade task for younger and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Wang

    Full Text Available We examined performance in the antisaccade task for younger and older adults by comparing latencies and errors in what we defined as high attentional focus (mixed antisaccades and prosaccades in the same block and low attentional focus (antisaccades and prosaccades in separate blocks conditions. Shorter saccade latencies for correctly executed eye movements were observed for both groups in mixed, compared to blocked, antisaccade tasks, but antisaccade error rates were higher for older participants across both conditions. The results are discussed in relation to the inhibitory hypothesis, the goal neglect theory and attentional control theory.

  20. Effect of Peripheral Communication Pace on Attention Allocation in a Dual-Task Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueddana, Sofiane; Roussel, Nicolas

    Peripheral displays allow continuous awareness of information while performing other activities. Monitoring such a display while performing a central task has a cognitive cost that depends on its perceptual salience and the distraction it causes, i.e. the amount of attention it attracts away from the user’s primary action. This paper considers the particular case of peripheral displays for interpersonal communication. It reports on an experiment that studied the effect of peripheral communication pace on subjects’ allocation of attention in a dual-task situation: a snapshot-based peripheral monitoring task where participants need to assess the presence of a remote person, and a central text-correcting task against the clock. Our results show that the addition of the peripheral task caused a drop in the success rate of the central task. As the pace of snapshots increased, success rate decreased on the peripheral task while on the central one, success rate remained the same but failures to reply in time occurred more frequently. These results suggest that the increase in pace of snapshots caused participants to change their strategy for the central task and allocate more attention to the peripheral one, not enough to maintain peripheral performance but also not to the point where it would affect central performance. Overall, our work suggests that peripheral communication pace subtly influences attention allocation in dual-task situations. We conclude by discussing how control over information pace could help users of communication systems to adjust their local distraction as well as the attention they draw from remote users.

  1. Emotion has no impact on attention in a change detection flicker task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colin Alan Bendall

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Past research provides conflicting findings regarding the influence of emotion on visual attention. Early studies suggested a broadening of attentional resources in relation to positive mood. However, more recent evidence indicates that positive emotions may not have a beneficial impact on attention, and that the relationship between emotion and attention may be mitigated by factors such as task demand or stimulus valence. The current study explored the effect of emotion on attention using the change detection flicker paradigm. Participants were induced into positive, neutral, and negative mood states and then completed a change detection task. A series of neutral scenes were presented and participants had to identify the location of a disappearing item in each scene. The change was made to the centre or the periphery of each scene and it was predicted that peripheral changes would be detected quicker in the positive mood condition and slower in the negative mood condition, compared to the neutral condition. In contrast to previous findings emotion had no influence on attention and whilst central changes were detected faster than peripheral changes, change blindness was not affected by mood. The findings suggest that the relationship between emotion and visual attention is influenced by the characteristics of a task, and any beneficial impact of positive emotion may be related to processing style rather than a broadening of attentional resources.

  2. Intra- and Inter-Task Reliability of Spatial Attention Measures in Pseudoneglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Gemma; Gallagher, Aodhan; Gibson, Jamie; Thut, Gregor; Harvey, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Healthy young adults display a leftward asymmetry of spatial attention (“pseudoneglect”) that has been measured with a wide range of different tasks. Yet at present there is a lack of systematic evidence that the tasks commonly used in research today are i) stable measures over time and ii) provide similar measures of spatial bias. Fifty right-handed young adults were tested on five tasks (manual line bisection, landmark, greyscales, gratingscales and lateralised visual detection) on two different days. All five tasks were found to be stable measures of bias over the two testing sessions, indicating that each is a reliable measure in itself. Surprisingly, no strongly significant inter-task correlations were found. However, principal component analysis revealed left-right asymmetries to be subdivided in 4 main components, namely asymmetries in size judgements (manual line bisection and landmark), luminance judgements (greyscales), stimulus detection (lateralised visual detection) and judgements of global/local features (manual line bisection and grating scales). The results align with recent research on hemispatial neglect which conceptualises the condition as multi-component rather than a single pathological deficit of spatial attention. We conclude that spatial biases in judgment of visual stimulus features in healthy adults (e.g., pseudoneglect) is also a multi-component phenomenon that may be captured by variations in task demands which engage task-dependent patterns of activation within the attention network. PMID:26378925

  3. The relationship between poor performance on attention tasks and increased suicidal ideation in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seog Ju; Kang, Seung-Gul; Cho, In Hee; Lee, Yu-Jin G; Hong, Jin Pyo; Park, Juhyun; Lee, Yu Jin

    2015-11-01

    Our goal was to examine the relationship between attention and suicidal ideation in a school-based adolescent population. This cross-sectional study involved 2,462 students from eight high schools in South Korea (1,021 males and 1,441 females, mean age 17.3 ± 0.6 years). The participants completed the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and took part in computerized attention tasks. Participants with high SSI scores (16 or higher) exhibited a higher mean number of omission errors (OEs) and commission errors (CEs) on the visual sustained attention tasks than did participants with low SSI scores (p suicidal ideation in adolescents after controlling for depressed mood. The current results suggest a direct link between attention deficits and increased suicidality independent of depressive symptoms in adolescents. PMID:25663429

  4. Attentional Capture by Salient Distractors during Visual Search Is Determined by Temporal Task Demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiss, Monika; Grubert, Anna; Petersen, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    until response onset. Equally strong evidence for top–down control of attentional capture was obtained in spatial cueing experiments in which display durations were very brief. To demonstrate the critical role of temporal task demands on salience-driven attentional capture, we measured ERP indicators of...... capture by task-irrelevant color singletons in search arrays that could also contain a shape target. In Experiment 1, all displays were visible until response onset. In Experiment 2, display duration was limited to 200 msec. With long display durations, color singleton distractors elicited an N2pc...

  5. Attentional bias modification based on visual probe task: methodological issues, results and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado Lopes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attentional bias, the tendency that a person has to drive or maintain attention to a specific class of stimuli, may play an important role in the etiology and persistence of mental disorders. Attentional bias modification has been studied as a form of additional treatment related to automatic processing. Objectives: This systematic literature review compared and discussed methods, evidence of success and potential clinical applications of studies about attentional bias modification (ABM using a visual probe task. Methods: The Web of Knowledge, PubMed and PsycInfo were searched using the keywords attentional bias modification, attentional bias manipulation and attentional bias training. We selected empirical studies about ABM training using a visual probe task written in English and published between 2002 and 2014. Results: Fifty-seven studies met inclusion criteria. Most (78% succeeded in training attention in the predicted direction, and in 71% results were generalized to other measures correlated with the symptoms. Conclusions: ABM has potential clinical utility, but to standardize methods and maximize applicability, future studies should include clinical samples and be based on findings of studies about its effectiveness.

  6. Combined effects of attention and motivation on visual task performance: transient and sustained motivational effects

    OpenAIRE

    Engelmann, Jan B.; Damaraju, Eswar; Padmala, Srikanth; Pessoa, Luiz

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how the brain integrates motivational and attentional signals by using a neuroimaging paradigm that provided separate estimates for transient cue- and target-related signals, in addition to sustained block-related responses. Participants performed a Posner-type task in which an endogenous cue predicted target location on 70% of trials, while motivation was manipulated by varying magnitude and valence of a cash incentive linked to task performance. Our findings revealed increas...

  7. Attentional bias in high math-anxious individuals: evidence from an emotional Stroop task

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, Maria Isabel; Colomé, Àngels

    2015-01-01

    Attentional bias toward threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias toward math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present stu...

  8. Enhancing perceptual and attentional skills requires common demands between the action video games and transfer tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Oei, Adam C.; Patterson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that shows action video game play improves perceptual and cognitive skills, the mechanisms of transfer are not well-understood. In line with previous work, we suggest that transfer is dependent upon common demands between the game and transfer task. In the current study, participants played one of four action games with varying speed, visual, and attentional demands for 20 h. We examined whether training enhanced performance for attentional blink, selective attenti...

  9. Advert saliency distracts children's visual attention during task-oriented internet use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils eHolmberg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The general research question of the present study was to assess the impact of visually salient online adverts on children's task-oriented internet use. In order to answer this question, an experimental study was constructed in which 9-year-old and 12-year-old Swedish children were asked to solve a number of tasks while interacting with a mockup website. In each trial, web adverts in several saliency conditions were presented. By both measuring children's task accuracy, as well as the visual processing involved in solving these tasks, this study allows us to infer how two types of visual saliency affect children's attentional behavior, and whether such behavioral effects also impacts their task performance. Analyses show that low-level visual features and task relevance in online adverts have different effects on performance measures and process measures respectively. Whereas task performance is stable with regard to several advert saliency conditions, a marked effect is seen on children's gaze behavior. On the other hand, task performance is shown to be more sensitive to individual differences such as age, gender and level of gaze control. The results provide evidence about cognitive and behavioral distraction effects in children's task-oriented internet use caused by visual saliency in online adverts. The experiment suggests that children to some extent are able to compensate for behavioral effects caused by distracting visual stimuli when solving prospective memory tasks. Suggestions are given for further research into the interdiciplinary area between media research and cognitive science.

  10. Advert saliency distracts children's visual attention during task-oriented internet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Nils; Sandberg, Helena; Holmqvist, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The general research question of the present study was to assess the impact of visually salient online adverts on children's task-oriented internet use. In order to answer this question, an experimental study was constructed in which 9- and 12-year-old Swedish children were asked to solve a number of tasks while interacting with a mockup website. In each trial, web adverts in several saliency conditions were presented. By both measuring children's task accuracy, as well as the visual processing involved in solving these tasks, this study allows us to infer how two types of visual saliency affect children's attentional behavior, and whether such behavioral effects also impacts their task performance. Analyses show that low-level visual features and task relevance in online adverts have different effects on performance measures and process measures respectively. Whereas task performance is stable with regard to several advert saliency conditions, a marked effect is seen on children's gaze behavior. On the other hand, task performance is shown to be more sensitive to individual differences such as age, gender and level of gaze control. The results provide evidence about cognitive and behavioral distraction effects in children's task-oriented internet use caused by visual saliency in online adverts. The experiment suggests that children to some extent are able to compensate for behavioral effects caused by distracting visual stimuli when solving prospective memory tasks. Suggestions are given for further research into the interdiciplinary area between media research and cognitive science. PMID:24575057

  11. Effects of Thermal Stress on Dual Task Performance and Attention Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Chase, Bradley; Karwowski, Waldemar; Benedict, Michael E.; Queseda, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    A visual-visual dual task was designed to test the effect of the thermal environment on dual task performance and attention allocation. The temperatures selected for testing were 20 and 35°C Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) in experiment 1 and 25, 30 and 35°C Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) in experiment 2. In experiment 1, 34 volunteers were randomly assigned to one of the two temperature conditions. A variable representing accuracy on both tasks was coded such that a correct response was...

  12. Attention Capture by Direct Gaze is Robust to Context and Task Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanica, Adam; Itier, Roxane J

    2012-06-01

    Eye-tracking was used to investigate whether gaze direction would influence the visual scanning of faces, when presented in the context of a full character, in different social settings, and with different task demands. Participants viewed individual computer agents against either a blank background or a bar scene setting, during both a free-viewing task and an attractiveness rating task for each character. Faces with a direct gaze were viewed longer than faces with an averted gaze regardless of body context, social settings, and task demands. Additionally, participants evaluated characters with a direct gaze as more attractive than characters with an averted gaze. These results, obtained with pictures of computer agents rather than real people, suggest that direct gaze is a powerful attention grabbing stimulus that is robust to background context or task demands. PMID:24976664

  13. Attention as a Cueing Function during Kindergarten Children's Dimensional Change Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldren, Jeffrey T.; Colombo, John

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to test whether shift flexibility in kindergarten children is a joint function of rule-usage and inhibition of attention. Sixty-six children were given either a distraction or facilitation condition in a computerized version of the dimensional change card sort task. In the distraction condition, the background of…

  14. Effects of Attentional Focus and Age on Suprapostural Task Performance and Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNevin, Nancy; Weir, Patricia; Quinn, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Suprapostural task performance (manual tracking) and postural control (sway and frequency) were examined as a function of attentional focus, age, and tracking difficulty. Given the performance benefits often found under external focus conditions, it was hypothesized that external focus instructions would promote superior tracking and…

  15. Mindfulness Training Improves Attentional Task Performance in Incarcerated Youth: A Group Randomized Controlled Intervention Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle R Leonard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in attention over the high-stress interval of incarceration. Using a group randomized controlled trial design, we randomly assigned dormitories of incarcerated youth, ages 16 to 18, to a CBT/MT intervention (youth n = 147 or an active control intervention (youth n = 117. Both arms received approximately 750 minutes of intervention in a small-group setting over a 3-5 week period. Youth in the CBT/MT arm also logged the amount of out-of-session time spent practicing MT exercises. The Attention Network Test was used to index attentional task performance at baseline and 4 months post-baseline. Overall, task performance degraded over time in all participants. The magnitude of performance degradation was significantly less in the CBT/MT vs. control arm. Further, within the CBT/MT arm, performance degraded over time in those with no outside-of-class practice time, but remained stable over time in those who practiced mindfulness exercises outside of the session meetings. Thus, these findings suggest that sufficient CBT/MT practice may protect against functional attentional impairments associated with high-stress intervals. Keywords: adolescent development, incarcerated adolescents, detained adolescents, stress, attention, mindfulness meditation.

  16. Searching for inhibition of return in the rat using the covert orienting of attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ulf; Baker, Lucy; Rostron, Claire

    2014-09-01

    Inhibition of return (IOR) is an important psychological construct describing inhibited responses to previously attended locations. In humans, it is investigated using Posner's cueing paradigm. This paradigm requires central visual fixation and detection of cued stimuli to the left or right of the fixation point. Stimuli can be validly or invalidly cued, appearing in the same or opposite location to the cue. Although a rat version of the spatial cueing paradigm (the covert orienting of attention task) does exist, IOR has so far not been demonstrated. We therefore investigated whether IOR could be robustly demonstrated in adult male rats using the covert orienting of attention task. This task is conducted in holed wall operant chambers with the central three holes mimicking the set-up for Posner cueing. Across four samples of rats (overall n = 84), we manipulated the following task parameters: stimulus onset asynchronies (Experiments 1-3), cue brightness (Experiment 1b) and the presence of a central reorienting event (Experiment 4). In Experiment 1, we also investigated strain differences by comparing Lister Hooded rats to Sprague-Dawley rats. Although Lister Hooded rats briefly showed evidence of IOR (Experiment 1a, and see Online Resource 1 data), we were unable to replicate this finding in our other experiments using different samples of this strain. Taken together, our findings suggest that IOR cannot be robustly demonstrated in the rat using the covert orienting of attention task conducted in holed wall operant chambers. PMID:24682709

  17. Attention demanding tasks during treadmill walking reduce step width variability in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Karen L

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The variability of step time and step width is associated with falls by older adults. Further, step time is significantly influenced when performing attention demanding tasks while walking. Without exception, step time variability has been reported to increase in normal and pathologically aging older adults. Because of the role of step width in managing frontal plane dynamic stability, documenting the influence of attention-demanding tasks on step width variability may provide insight to events that can disturb dynamic stability during locomotion and increase fall risk. Preliminary evidence suggests performance of an attention demanding task significantly decreases step width variability of young adults walking on a treadmill. The purpose of the present study was to confirm or refute this finding by characterizing the extent and direction of the effects of a widely used attention demanding task (Stroop test on the step width variability of young adults walking on a motorized treadmill. Methods Fifteen healthy young adults walked on a motorized treadmill at a self-selected velocity for 10 minutes under two conditions; without performing an attention demanding task and while performing the Stroop test. Step width of continuous and consecutive steps during the collection was derived from the data recorded using a motion capture system. Step width variability was computed as the standard deviation of all recorded steps. Results Step width decreased four percent during performance of the Stroop test but the effect was not significant (p = 0.10. In contrast, the 16 percent decrease in step width variability during the Stroop test condition was significant (p = 0.029. Conclusion The results support those of our previous work in which a different attention demanding task also decreased step width variability of young subjects while walking on a treadmill. The decreased step width variability observed while performing an attention

  18. Effects of Auditory Attention Training with the Dichotic Listening Task: Behavioural and Neurophysiological Evidence.

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    Jussi Tallus

    Full Text Available Facilitation of general cognitive capacities such as executive functions through training has stirred considerable research interest during the last decade. Recently we demonstrated that training of auditory attention with forced attention dichotic listening not only facilitated that performance but also generalized to an untrained attentional task. In the present study, 13 participants underwent a 4-week dichotic listening training programme with instructions to report syllables presented to the left ear (FL training group. Another group (n = 13 was trained using the non-forced instruction, asked to report whichever syllable they heard the best (NF training group. The study aimed to replicate our previous behavioural results, and to explore the neurophysiological correlates of training through event-related brain potentials (ERPs. We partially replicated our previous behavioural training effects, as the FL training group tended to show more allocation of auditory spatial attention to the left ear in a standard dichotic listening task. ERP measures showed diminished N1 and enhanced P2 responses to dichotic stimuli after training in both groups, interpreted as improvement in early perceptual processing of the stimuli. Additionally, enhanced anterior N2 amplitudes were found after training, with relatively larger changes in the FL training group in the forced-left condition, suggesting improved top-down control on the trained task. These results show that top-down cognitive training can modulate the left-right allocation of auditory spatial attention, accompanied by a change in an evoked brain potential related to cognitive control.

  19. Self-regulation of frontal-midline theta facilitates memory updating and mental set shifting

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    Stefanie eEnriquez-Geppert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Frontal-midline (fm theta oscillations as measured via the electroencephalogram (EEG have been suggested as neural working language of executive functioning. Their power has been shown to increase when cognitive processing or task performance is enhanced. Thus, the question arises whether learning to increase fm-theta amplitudes would functionally impact the behavioral performance in tasks probing executive functions (EFs. Here, the effects of neurofeedback, a learning method to self-up-regulate fm-theta over frontal-midline electrodes, on the four most representative EFs, memory updating, set shifting, conflict monitoring, and motor inhibition are presented. Before beginning and after completing an individualized, eight-session gap-spaced neurofeedback intervention, the three-back, letter/number task-switching, Stroop, and stop-signal tasks were tested while measuring the EEG. Self-determined up-regulation of fm-theta and its putative role for executive functioning were compared to an active control group, the so-called pseudo-neurofeedback group. Task-related fm-theta activity after training differed significantly between groups. More importantly, though, after neurofeedback significantly enhanced behavioral performance was observed. The training group showed higher accuracy scores in the three-back task and reduced mixing and shifting costs in letter/number task-switching. However, this specific protocol type did not affect performance in tasks probing conflict monitoring and motor inhibition. Thus, our results suggest a modulation of proactive but not reactive mechanisms of cognitive control. In sum, the modulation of fm-theta via neurofeedback may serve as potent treatment approach for executive dysfunctions.

  20. Central as well as peripheral attentional bottlenecks in dual-task performance activate lateral prefrontal cortices

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    Andre J Szameitat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human information processing suffers from severe limitations in parallel processing. In particular, when required to respond to two stimuli in rapid succession, processing bottlenecks may appear at central and peripheral stages of task processing. Importantly, it has been suggested that executive functions are needed to resolve the interference arising at such bottlenecks. The aims of the present study were to test whether central attentional limitations (i.e., bottleneck at the decisional response selection stage as well as peripheral limitations (i.e., bottleneck at response initiation both demand executive functions located in the lateral prefrontal cortex. For this, we re-analysed two previous studies, in which a total of 33 participants performed a dual-task according to the paradigm of the psychological refractory period (PRP during fMRI. In one study (N=17, the PRP task consisted of two two-choice response tasks known to suffer from a central bottleneck (CB group. In the other study (N=16, the PRP task consisted of two simple-response tasks known to suffer from a peripheral bottleneck (PB group. Both groups showed considerable dual-task costs in form of slowing of the second response in the dual-task (PRP effect. Imaging results are based on the subtraction of both single-tasks from the dual-task within each group. In the CB group, the bilateral middle frontal gyri and inferior frontal gyri were activated. Higher activation in these areas was associated with lower dual-task costs. In the PB group, the right middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus were activated. Here, higher activation was associated with higher dual-task costs. In conclusion we suggest that central and peripheral bottlenecks both demand executive functions located in lateral prefrontal cortices. Differences between the CB and PB groups with respect to the exact prefrontal areas activated and the correlational patterns suggest that the executive functions resolving

  1. Measured attention in prolonged over-learned response tasks and its correlation to high level scientific reasoning and school achievement

    OpenAIRE

    R. Hotulainen; H. Thuneberg; J. Hautamäki; M.-P. Vainikainen

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between attention and academic performance has been of interest starting with early studies on academic success and failure. In this study we examine how attention measured in simple and prolonged over-learned response tasks correlates with and contributes to scientific reasoning and school achievement (GPA). To study attention, the Attention Concentration Test (ACT) was used and to study scientific reasoning, a modified version of Science Reasoning Tasks, tapping control-of-...

  2. Task-Irrelevant Novel Sounds Improve Attentional Performance in Children With and Without ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegelbeckers, Jana; Schares, Laura; Lederer, Annette; Bonath, Bjoern; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Task-irrelevant salient stimuli involuntarily capture attention and can lead to distraction from an ongoing task, especially in children with ADHD. However, there has been tentative evidence that the presentation of novel sounds can have beneficial effects on cognitive performance. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the influence of novel sounds compared to no sound and a repeatedly presented standard sound on attentional performance in children and adolescents with and without ADHD. We therefore had 32 patients with ADHD and 32 typically developing children and adolescents (8 to 13 years) execute a flanker task in which each trial was preceded either by a repeatedly presented standard sound (33%), an unrepeated novel sound (33%) or no auditory stimulation (33%). Task-irrelevant novel sounds facilitated attentional performance similarly in children with and without ADHD, as indicated by reduced omission error rates, reaction times, and reaction time variability without compromising performance accuracy. By contrast, standard sounds, while also reducing omission error rates and reaction times, led to increased commission error rates. Therefore, the beneficial effect of novel sounds exceeds cueing of the target display by potentially increased alerting and/or enhanced behavioral control. PMID:26779082

  3. Multiple Electrophysiological Markers of Visual-Attentional Processing in a Novel Task Directed toward Clinical Use

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    Julie Bolduc-Teasdale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who have sustained a mild brain injury (e.g., mild traumatic brain injury or mild cerebrovascular stroke are at risk to show persistent cognitive symptoms (attention and memory after the acute postinjury phase. Although studies have shown that those patients perform normally on neuropsychological tests, cognitive symptoms remain present, and there is a need for more precise diagnostic tools. The aim of this study was to develop precise and sensitive markers for the diagnosis of post brain injury deficits in visual and attentional functions which could be easily translated in a clinical setting. Using electrophysiology, we have developed a task that allows the tracking of the processes involved in the deployment of visual spatial attention from early stages of visual treatment (N1, P1, N2, and P2 to higher levels of cognitive processing (no-go N2, P3a, P3b, N2pc, SPCN. This study presents a description of this protocol and its validation in 19 normal participants. Results indicated the statistically significant presence of all ERPs aimed to be elicited by this novel task. This task could allow clinicians to track the recovery of the mechanisms involved in the deployment of visual-attentional processing, contributing to better diagnosis and treatment management for persons who suffer a brain injury.

  4. Functional neuroimaging of visuospatial working memory tasks enables accurate detection of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

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    Rubi Hammer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding neurobiological markers for neurodevelopmental disorders, such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, is a major objective of clinicians and neuroscientists. We examined if functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI data from a few distinct visuospatial working memory (VSWM tasks enables accurately detecting cases with ADHD. We tested 20 boys with ADHD combined type and 20 typically developed (TD boys in four VSWM tasks that differed in feedback availability (feedback, no-feedback and reward size (large, small. We used a multimodal analysis based on brain activity in 16 regions of interest, significantly activated or deactivated in the four VSWM tasks (based on the entire participants' sample. Dimensionality of the data was reduced into 10 principal components that were used as the input variables to a logistic regression classifier. fMRI data from the four VSWM tasks enabled a classification accuracy of 92.5%, with high predicted ADHD probability values for most clinical cases, and low predicted ADHD probabilities for most TDs. This accuracy level was higher than those achieved by using the fMRI data of any single task, or the respective behavioral data. This indicates that task-based fMRI data acquired while participants perform a few distinct VSWM tasks enables improved detection of clinical cases.

  5. GUTI: a measure of urgent task involvement among adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, M M; Dodd, D K

    1998-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been proposed to represent adaptive responding to highly urgent situations as in primitive hunting. In the present study, 31 adults with self-reported ADHD were compared with 33 normal adults on a newly developed, 10-item measure of urgent task involvement. The internal consistency of the scale was suitable, and the group with ADHD scored significantly higher than the control group, as predicted. Validation and further development of this scale is required for it to become a tool for the study of performance of highly urgent tasks. PMID:9621734

  6. Set-Shifting Ability Is Associated with Gray Matter Volume in Older People with Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Kota Tsutsumimoto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: An understanding of the association between gray matter volume and executive functioning could provide strategies to reduce dementia risk in older people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: In a cross-sectional analysis, we assessed executive functioning in 83 older people with MCI using three standard neuropsychological tests: set shifting (difference between Trail Making Test Parts B and A, working memory (difference between Digit Span forward and backward from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV, and selective attention/response inhibition (difference between the second and third conditions of the color- and picture-word Stroop test. Gray matter volume was computed from brain MRIs and SIENAX from FSL software. Results: Gray matter volume was significantly associated with set-shifting performance after accounting for age, gender, body mass index, education, and global cognition (standardized β = -0.376, p = 0.001, but not with working memory or selective attention/response inhibition. Conclusion: The executive function of set-shifting ability was correlated with gray matter volume in older people with MCI.

  7. Distraction task rather than focal attention modulates gamma activity associated with auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griskova-Bulanova, Inga; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Dapsys, Kastytis; Maciulis, Valentinas; Arnfred, Sidse Marie Hemmingsen

    2011-01-01

    To explore the modulation of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) by experimental tasks, differing in attentional focus and arousal level.......To explore the modulation of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) by experimental tasks, differing in attentional focus and arousal level....

  8. Working memory benefits creative insight, musical improvisation, and original ideation through maintained task-focused attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Nijstad, Bernard A; Baas, Matthijs; Wolsink, Inge; Roskes, Marieke

    2012-05-01

    Anecdotes from creative eminences suggest that executive control plays an important role in creativity, but scientific evidence is sparse. Invoking the Dual Pathway to Creativity Model, the authors hypothesize that working memory capacity (WMC) relates to creative performance because it enables persistent, focused, and systematic combining of elements and possibilities (persistence). Study 1 indeed showed that under cognitive load, participants performed worse on a creative insight task. Study 2 revealed positive associations between time-on-task and creativity among individuals high but not low in WMC, even after controlling for general intelligence. Study 3 revealed that across trials, semiprofessional cellists performed increasingly more creative improvisations when they had high rather than low WMC. Study 4 showed that WMC predicts original ideation because it allows persistent (rather than flexible) processing. The authors conclude that WMC benefits creativity because it enables the individual to maintain attention focused on the task and prevents undesirable mind wandering. PMID:22301457

  9. The conflict adaptation is affected by attentional strategies: evidence from the arrow flanker task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Recently, several studies have considered factors affecting the occurrence of congruency sequence effect (CSE) in the arrow flanker task. In the present study, the influence of the following factors was examined: the presentation of a fixation and the intertrial interval (ITI) were considered. Results of the study showed that the CSE was significant when there was no fixation and when the ITI was long for response repetitions and response changes, but disappeared for response change trials in other conditions. These results showed that, even in the arrow flanker task, the conflict adaptation effect did contribute to the CSE. The current results suggested that the conflict adaptation effect in the arrow flanker task was based on the appropriate application of attention strategies.

  10. Attentional bias in high math-anxious individuals: evidence from an emotional Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, Maria Isabel; Colomé, Àngels

    2015-01-01

    Attentional bias toward threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias toward math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present study seeks to avoid. Twenty high math-anxious (HMA) and 20 low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with an emotional Stroop task including math-related and neutral words. Participants in the two groups did not differ in trait anxiety or depression. We found that the HMA group showed slower response times to math-related words than to neutral words, as well as a greater attentional bias (math-related - neutral difference score) than the LMA one, which constitutes the first demonstration of an attentional bias toward math-related words in HMA individuals. PMID:26539137

  11. Allocation of Attentional Resources toward a Secondary Cognitive Task Leads to Compromised Ankle Proprioceptive Performance in Healthy Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuhiro Yasuda; Yuki Sato; Naoyuki Iimura; Hiroyasu Iwata

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether increased attentional demands influence the assessment of ankle joint proprioceptive ability in young adults. We used a dual-task condition, in which participants performed an ankle ipsilateral position-matching task with and without a secondary serial auditory subtraction task during target angle encoding. Two experiments were performed with two different cohorts: one in which the auditory subtraction task was easy (experiment 1a) a...

  12. Relationships between the Color-Word Matching Stroop Task and the Go/NoGo Task:Toward Multifaceted Assessment of Attention and Inhibition Abilities of Children

    OpenAIRE

    Oka,Makio; Hanafusa,Kaoru; Takeuchi, Akihito; Ogino,Tatsuya; Morooka,Teruko; Ohtsuka, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    Both selective attention and response inhibition can be assessed through the Stroop task and the Go/NoGo task (Go/NoGo). The color-word matching Stroop task (cwmStroop) differs from the traditional Stroop task in ways that make it easy to administer, and it enables the examiners to analyze reaction time. It is expected that the cwmStroop and Go/NoGo tasks will be useful as clinical assessments for children with developmental disorders and in combination with functional magnetic resonance imag...

  13. Hemodynamic Responses on Prefrontal Cortex Related to Meditation and Attentional Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh eDeepeshwar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies state that meditation increases regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC. The present study employed functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS to evaluate the relative hemodynamic changes in prefrontal cortex during a cognitive task. Twenty-two healthy male volunteers with ages between 18 and 30 years (group mean age ± SD; 22.9 ± 4.6 years performed a color-word stroop task before and after 20 minutes of meditation and random thinking. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed followed by a post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons between the mean values of ‘During’ and ‘Post’ with ‘Pre’ state. During meditation there was an increased in oxy-hemoglobin (∆HbO and total hemoglobin (∆THC concentration with reduced deoxy-hemoglobin (∆HbR concentration over the right prefrontal cortex (rPFC, whereas in random thinking there was increased ∆HbR with reduced total hemoglobin concentration on the rPFC. The mean reaction time was shorter in stroop color word task with reduced ∆THC after meditation, suggestive of improved performance and efficiency in task related to attention. Our findings demonstrated that meditation increased cerebral oxygenation and enhanced performance, which was associated with prefrontal cortex activation.

  14. How attention can create synaptic tags for the learning of working memories in sequential tasks.

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    Jaldert O Rombouts

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence is our ability to learn appropriate responses to new stimuli and situations. Neurons in association cortex are thought to be essential for this ability. During learning these neurons become tuned to relevant features and start to represent them with persistent activity during memory delays. This learning process is not well understood. Here we develop a biologically plausible learning scheme that explains how trial-and-error learning induces neuronal selectivity and working memory representations for task-relevant information. We propose that the response selection stage sends attentional feedback signals to earlier processing levels, forming synaptic tags at those connections responsible for the stimulus-response mapping. Globally released neuromodulators then interact with tagged synapses to determine their plasticity. The resulting learning rule endows neural networks with the capacity to create new working memory representations of task relevant information as persistent activity. It is remarkably generic: it explains how association neurons learn to store task-relevant information for linear as well as non-linear stimulus-response mappings, how they become tuned to category boundaries or analog variables, depending on the task demands, and how they learn to integrate probabilistic evidence for perceptual decisions.

  15. Attentional spreading to task-irrelevant object features: Experimental support and a 3-step model of attention for object-based selection and feature-based processing modulation

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    Detlef eWegener

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Directing attention to a specific feature of an object has been linked to different forms of attentional modulation. Object-based attention theory founds on the finding that even task-irrelevant features at the selected object are subject to attentional modulation, while feature-based attention theory proposes a global processing benefit for the selected feature even at other objects. Most studies investigated either the one or the other form of attention, leaving open the possibility that both object- and feature-specific attentional effects do occur at the same time and may just represent two sides of a single attention system. We here investigate this issue by testing attentional spreading within and across objects, using reaction time measurements to changes of attended and unattended features on both attended and unattended objects. We asked subjects to report color and speed changes occurring on one of two overlapping random dot patterns, presented at the center of gaze. The key property of the stimulation was that only one of the features (e.g. motion direction was unique for each object, whereas the other feature (e.g. color was shared by both. The results of two experiments show that co-selection of unattended features even occurs when those features have no means for selecting the object. At the same time, they demonstrate that this processing benefit is not restricted to the selected object but spreads to the task-irrelevant one. We conceptualize these findings by a 3-step model of attention that assumes a task-dependent top-down gain, object-specific feature selection based on task- and binding characteristics, and a global feature-specific processing enhancement. The model allows for the unification of a vast amount of experimental results into a single model, and makes various experimentally testable predictions for the interaction of object- and feature-specific processes.

  16. The roles of reward, default, and executive control networks in set-shifting impairments in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Waltz

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia (SZ show deficits on tasks of rapid reinforcement learning, like probabilistic reversal learning (PRL, but the neural bases for those impairments are not known. Recent evidence of relatively intact sensitivity to negative outcomes in the ventral striatum (VS in many SZ patients suggests that PRL deficits may be largely attributable to processes downstream from feedback processing, involving both the activation of executive control task regions and deactivation of default mode network (DMN components. We analyzed data from 29 chronic SZ patients and 21 matched normal controls (NCs performing a PRL task in an MRI scanner. Subjects were presented with eight pairs of fractal stimuli, for 50 trials each. For each pair, subjects learned to choose the more frequently-rewarded (better stimulus. Each time a criterion was reached, the better stimulus became the worse one, and the worse became the better. Responses to feedback events were assessed through whole-brain and regions-of-interest (ROI analyses in DMN. We also assessed correlations between BOLD signal contrasts and clinical measures in SZs. Relative to NCs, SZ patients showed comparable deactivation of VS in response to negative feedback, but reduced deactivation of DMN components including medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. The magnitudes of patients' punishment-evoked deactivations in VS and ventromedial PFC correlated significantly with clinical ratings for avolition/anhedonia. These findings suggest that schizophrenia is associated with a reduced ability to deactivate components of default mode networks, following the presentation of informative feedback and that motivational deficits in SZ relate closely to feedback-evoked activity in reward circuit components. These results also confirm a role for ventrolateral and dorsomedial PFC in the execution of response-set shifts.

  17. The Persistence of Experience: Prior Attentional and Emotional State Affects Network Functioning in a Target Detection Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Emily R; Muratore, Alexandra F; Taylor, Stephan F; Abelson, James L; Hof, Patrick R; Goodman, Wayne K

    2015-09-01

    Efficient, adaptive behavior relies on the ability to flexibly move between internally focused (IF) and externally focused (EF) attentional states. Despite evidence that IF cognitive processes such as event imagination comprise a significant amount of awake cognition, the consequences of internal absorption on the subsequent recruitment of brain networks during EF tasks are unknown. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study employed a novel attentional state switching task. Subjects imagined positive and negative events (IF task) or performed a working memory task (EF task) before switching to a target detection (TD) task also requiring attention to external information, allowing for the investigation of neural functioning during external attention based on prior attentional state. There was a robust increase of activity in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions during TD when subjects were previously performing the EF compared with IF task, an effect that was most pronounced following negative IF. Additionally, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was less negatively coupled with ventromedial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices during TD following IF compared with EF. These findings reveal the striking consequences for brain activity following immersion in an IF attentional state, which have strong implications for psychiatric disorders characterized by excessive internal focus. PMID:24904075

  18. The deployment of attention in short-term memory tasks: trade-offs between immediate and delayed deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Michael F; Cowan, Nelson; Colflesh, Greg H

    2008-06-01

    Memory at times depends on attention, as when attention is used to encode incoming, serial verbal information. When encoding and rehearsal are difficult or when attention is divided during list presentation, more attention is needed in the time following the presentation and just preceding the response. Across 12 experimental conditions observed in several experiments, we demonstrated this by introducing a nonverbal task with three levels of effort (no task, a natural nonverbal task, or an unnatural version of the task) during a brief retention interval in a short-term digit recall task. Interference from the task during the retention interval was greater when resources were drawn away from the encoding of the stimuli by other factors, including unpredictability of the end point of the list, rapid presentation, and a secondary task during list presentation. When those conditions complicate encoding of the list, we argue, attention is needed after the list so that the contents of passive memory (i.e., postcategorical phonological storage and/or precategorical sensory memory) may be retrieved and become the focus of attention for recall. PMID:18604962

  19. Neural substrates of attentive listening assessed with a novel auditory Stroop task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Christensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A common explanation for the interference effect in the classic visual Stroop test is that reading a word (the more automatic semantic response must be suppressed in favor of naming the text color (the slower sensory response. Neuroimaging studies also consistently report anterior cingulate/medial frontal, lateral prefrontal, and anterior insular structures as key components of a network for Stroop-conflict processing. It remains unclear, however, whether automatic processing of semantic information can explain the interference effect in other variants of the Stroop test. It also is not known if these frontal regions serve a specific role in visual Stroop conflict, or instead play a more universal role as components of a more generalized, supramodal executive-control network for conflict processing. To address these questions, we developed a novel auditory Stroop test in which the relative dominance of semantic and sensory feature processing is reversed. Listeners were asked to focus either on voice gender (a more automatic sensory discrimination task or on the gender meaning of the word (a less automatic semantic task while ignoring the conflicting stimulus feature. An auditory Stroop effect was observed when voice features replaced semantic content as the "to-be-ignored" component of the incongruent stimulus. Also, in sharp contrast to previous Stroop studies, neural responses to incongruent stimuli studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed greater recruitment of conflict loci when selective attention was focused on gender meaning (semantic task over voice gender (sensory task. Furthermore, in contrast to earlier Stroop studies that implicated dorsomedial cortex in visual conflict processing, interference-related activation in both of our auditory tasks was localized ventrally in medial frontal areas, suggesting a dorsal-to-ventral separation of function in medial frontal cortex that is sensitive to stimulus context.

  20. Intrinsic motivation and attentional capture from gamelike features in a visual search task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Andrew T; Palmer, Evan M

    2014-03-01

    In psychology research studies, the goals of the experimenter and the goals of the participants often do not align. Researchers are interested in having participants who take the experimental task seriously, whereas participants are interested in earning their incentive (e.g., money or course credit) as quickly as possible. Creating experimental methods that are pleasant for participants and that reward them for effortful and accurate data generation, while not compromising the scientific integrity of the experiment, would benefit both experimenters and participants alike. Here, we explored a gamelike system of points and sound effects that rewarded participants for fast and accurate responses. We measured participant engagement at both cognitive and perceptual levels and found that the point system (which invoked subtle, anonymous social competition between participants) led to positive intrinsic motivation, while the sound effects (which were pleasant and arousing) led to attentional capture for rewarded colors. In a visual search task, points were awarded after each trial for fast and accurate responses, accompanied by short, pleasant sound effects. We adapted a paradigm from Anderson, Laurent, and Yantis (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108(25):10367-10371, 2011b), in which participants completed a training phase during which red and green targets were probabilistically associated with reward (a point bonus multiplier). During a test phase, no points or sounds were delivered, color was irrelevant to the task, and previously rewarded targets were sometimes presented as distractors. Significantly longer response times on trials in which previously rewarded colors were present demonstrated attentional capture, and positive responses to a five-question intrinsic-motivation scale demonstrated participant engagement. PMID:23835649

  1. Attentional control adjustments in Eriksen and Stroop task performance can be independent of response conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Martijn J M; Roelofs, Ardi

    2011-06-01

    In the Eriksen flanker and colour-word Stroop tasks, the response time (RT) difference between incongruent and congruent trials is smaller following incongruent trials than following congruent trials: the "Gratton effect" (Gratton, Coles, & Donchin, 1992). According to the prevailing conflict-monitoring theory (Botvinick, Braver, Barch, Carter, & Cohen, 2001), the Gratton effect reflects attentional control adjustment following response conflict on incongruent trials. However, because previous studies compared incongruent and congruent trials, it remains unclear to what extent the Gratton effect is driven by incongruent rather than congruent trials. To resolve this issue, we included neutral trials in addition to incongruent and congruent trials in the Eriksen (Experiment 1) and Stroop (Experiment 2) tasks. Participants responded manually and vocally in both tasks. Moreover, we assessed responding to Stroop stimuli that were preceded by neutral cues or by incongruent- or congruent-predicting cues (Experiment 3). In all three experiments, the RT difference between incongruent and congruent trials was larger for postcongruent trials than for postincongruent and postneutral trials. These findings suggest that control adjustments can be independent of response conflict, challenging conflict-monitoring theory. PMID:21113864

  2. Reward favors the prepared: Incentive and task-informative cues interact to enhance attentional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiew, Kimberly S; Braver, Todd S

    2016-01-01

    The dual mechanisms of control account suggests that cognitive control may be implemented through relatively proactive mechanisms in anticipation of stimulus onset, or through reactive mechanisms, triggered in response to changing stimulus demands. Reward incentives and task-informative cues (signaling the presence/absence of upcoming cognitive demand) have both been found to influence cognitive control in a proactive or preparatory fashion; yet, it is currently unclear whether and how such cue effects interact. We investigated this in 2 experiments using an adapted flanker paradigm, where task-informative and reward incentive cues were orthogonally manipulated on a trial-by-trial basis. In Experiment 1, results indicated that incentives not only speed reaction times, but specifically reduce both interference and facilitation effects when combined with task-informative cues, suggesting enhanced proactive attentional control. Experiment 2 manipulated the timing of incentive cue information, demonstrating that such proactive control effects were only replicated with sufficient time to process the incentive cue (early incentive); when incentive signals were presented close to target onset (late incentive) the primary effect was a speed-accuracy trade-off. Together, results suggest that advance cueing may trigger differing control strategies, and that these strategies may critically depend on both the timing-and the motivational incentive-to use such cues. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26322689

  3. Relationships between the Color-Word Matching Stroop Task and the Go/NoGo Task:Toward Multifaceted Assessment of Attention and Inhibition Abilities of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oka,Makio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Both selective attention and response inhibition can be assessed through the Stroop task and the Go/NoGo task (Go/NoGo. The color-word matching Stroop task (cwmStroop differs from the traditional Stroop task in ways that make it easy to administer, and it enables the examiners to analyze reaction time. It is expected that the cwmStroop and Go/NoGo tasks will be useful as clinical assessments for children with developmental disorders and in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. The objectives of this study were to elucidate the pattern of developmental change in cwmStroop scores and Go/NoGo scores and to determine whether and how cwmStroop scores are related to Go/NoGo scores. The subjects consisted of 108 healthy Japanese children aged 6-14 years. We found that cwmStroop and Go/NoGo scores displayed clear developmental changes between 6 and 14 years of age. The childrenʼs scores on the 2 tasks followed different developmental courses, however, and the correlation between scores on the two tasks was weak on the whole. These results indicate that the cwmStroop and Go/NoGo tasks tap different aspects of selective attention and response inhibition. Therefore it is expected that the combination of both tests will be useful in the multifaceted assessment of selective attention and response inhibition in childhood.

  4. ERP Components Activated by the "GO!" and "WITHHOLD!" Conflict in the Random Sustained Attention to Response Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zordan, Lara; Sarlo, Michela; Stablum, Franca

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the event related potential (ERP) components associated with the random version of the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART). The random SART is a Go/No-Go task in which the No-Go target appears unpredictably and rarely. In the present experiment, the EEG was recorded from 58 electrodes with mastoids as…

  5. Investigation of attention via the counting Stroop task in patients with functional constipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yi; LI Xiao-yi; YAO Lin-yan; ZHAO Lan; DAI Ning; WU Hao

    2012-01-01

    Background The etiology and pathology of functional constipation (FC) is unclear.Some researches suggest that psychological factors may be related to this common problem.This study aimed to investigate the relationship between attention processing and emotional status in FC patients compared with healthy controls.Methods We investigated selective attention and emotional status in patients with FC using the counting Stroop task.Thirty-five FC patients (FCP group) and 24 healthy controls (HCs) underwent an event-related potential (ERP) study while performing the task.Response time,latency and amplitude of P300 were collected and compared between the two groups.The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17),Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA),Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) were administered prior to the counting Stroop task.Results Scores for the FCP group differed significantly from those for the HCs on the HAMD-17,HAMA,SCL-90 (Global Severity Index,Positive Symptoms Total,dimensions of somatization,obsessive-compulsive,depression,anxiety,and psychosis),as well as extraversion and neurosis dimensions of the EPQ (P<0.05).There was no significant difference in response time or accuracy rate between the two groups (P>0.05).ERP results showed prolonged latency at F4,additionally found enhanced activation at F3,FC1 and T8,and decreased activation at sites FC6 and P7 in the patients with FC.Statistically,significant differences of P300 latency at site F4 (P <0.05) and P300 amplitude at F3,F4,T8,P7,FC1 and FC6 (P<0.05) between the patients with FC and the HC were revealed.Conclusions The findings suggest that patients with FC are more susceptible to depression and anxiety,as well as somatization,obsessive-compulsive tendencies and other neurotic personality characteristics.Patients may employ psychological defense mechanisms to avoid the pain of depression and anxiety.ERP results imply there may be some brain dysfunction and

  6. Specifying Associations Between Conscientiousness and Executive Functioning: Mental Set Shifting, Not Prepotent Response Inhibition or Working Memory Updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Kimberly A; Heintzelman, Samantha J; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2016-06-01

    Conscientiousness is characterized by self-control, organization, and goal orientation and is positively related to a number of health and professional outcomes. Thus, it is commonly suggested that conscientiousness should be related to superior executive functioning (EF) abilities, especially prepotent response inhibition. However, little empirical support for this notion has emerged, perhaps due to oversimplified and underspecified modeling of EF. The current study sought to fill this gap by testing relations between conscientiousness and three facets of EF using a nested factors latent variable approach. Participants (N = 420; Mage  = 22.5; 50% male; 91% Caucasian) completed a measure of conscientiousness and nine EF tasks designed to tap three related yet distinguishable facets of EF: working memory updating, mental set shifting, and prepotent response inhibition. Structural equation models showed that conscientiousness is positively associated with the EF facet of mental set shifting but not response inhibition or working memory updating. Despite the common notion that conscientiousness is associated with cognitive abilities related to rigid control over impulses (i.e., inhibition), the current results suggest the cognitive ability most associated with conscientiousness is characterized by flexibility and the ability to adapt to changing environmental contingencies and task demands. PMID:25564728

  7. Altered visual-spatial attention to task-irrelevant information is associated with falls risk in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nagamatsu, Lindsay S.; Munkacsy, Michelle; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Handy, Todd C

    2013-01-01

    Executive cognitive functions play a critical role in falls risk – a pressing health care issue in seniors. In particular, intact attentional processing is integral for safe mobility and navigation. However, the specific contribution of impaired visual-spatial attention in falls remains unclear. In this study, we examined the association between visual-spatial attention to task-irrelevant stimuli and falls risk in community-dwelling older adults. Participants completed a visual target discrim...

  8. Effects of task and image properties on visual-attention deployment in image-quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alers, Hani; Redi, Judith; Liu, Hantao; Heynderickx, Ingrid

    2015-03-01

    It is important to understand how humans view images and how their behavior is affected by changes in the properties of the viewed images and the task they are given, particularly the task of scoring the image quality (IQ). This is a complex behavior that holds great importance for the field of image-quality research. This work builds upon 4 years of research work spanning three databases studying image-viewing behavior. Using eye-tracking equipment, it was possible to collect information on human viewing behavior of different kinds of stimuli and under different experimental settings. This work performs a cross-analysis on the results from all these databases using state-of-the-art similarity measures. The results strongly show that asking the viewers to score the IQ significantly changes their viewing behavior. Also muting the color saturation seems to affect the saliency of the images. However, a change in IQ was not consistently found to modify visual attention deployment, neither under free looking nor during scoring. These results are helpful in gaining a better understanding of image viewing behavior under different conditions. They also have important implications on work that collects subjective image-quality scores from human observers.

  9. Aging, Emotion, Attention, and Binding in the Taboo Stroop Task: Data and Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald G. MacKay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available How does aging impact relations between emotion, memory, and attention? To address this question, young and older adults named the font colors of taboo and neutral words, some of which recurred in the same font color or screen location throughout two color-naming experiments. The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference; better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versus neutral words (taboo context-memory enhancement; and greater speed-up in color-naming RTs with repetition of color-consistent than color-inconsistent taboo words, but no analogous speed-up with repetition of location-consistent or location-inconsistent taboo words (the consistency type by repetition interaction for taboo words. All three phenomena remained constant with aging, consistent with the transmission deficit hypothesis and binding theory, where familiar emotional words trigger age-invariant reactions for prioritizing the binding of contextual features to the source of emotion. Binding theory also accurately predicted the interaction between consistency type and repetition for taboo words. However, one or more aspects of these phenomena failed to support the inhibition deficit hypothesis, resource capacity theory, or socio-emotional selectivity theory. We conclude that binding theory warrants further test in a range of paradigms, and that relations between aging and emotion, memory, and attention may depend on whether the task and stimuli trigger fast-reaction, involuntary binding processes, as in the taboo Stroop paradigm.

  10. Aging, Emotion, Attention, and Binding in the Taboo Stroop Task: Data and Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Donald G; Johnson, Laura W; Graham, Elizabeth R; Burke, Deborah M

    2015-10-01

    How does aging impact relations between emotion, memory, and attention? To address this question, young and older adults named the font colors of taboo and neutral words, some of which recurred in the same font color or screen location throughout two color-naming experiments. The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs) for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference); better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versus neutral words (taboo context-memory enhancement); and greater speed-up in color-naming RTs with repetition of color-consistent than color-inconsistent taboo words, but no analogous speed-up with repetition of location-consistent or location-inconsistent taboo words (the consistency type by repetition interaction for taboo words). All three phenomena remained constant with aging, consistent with the transmission deficit hypothesis and binding theory, where familiar emotional words trigger age-invariant reactions for prioritizing the binding of contextual features to the source of emotion. Binding theory also accurately predicted the interaction between consistency type and repetition for taboo words. However, one or more aspects of these phenomena failed to support the inhibition deficit hypothesis, resource capacity theory, or socio-emotional selectivity theory. We conclude that binding theory warrants further test in a range of paradigms, and that relations between aging and emotion, memory, and attention may depend on whether the task and stimuli trigger fast-reaction, involuntary binding processes, as in the taboo Stroop paradigm. PMID:26473909

  11. Can task-switching training enhance executive control functioning in children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Kray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The key cognitive impairments of children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD include executive control functions such as inhibitory control, task switching, and working memory. In this training study we examined whether task-switching training leads to improvements in these functions. Twenty children with combined type ADHD and stable methylphenidate medication performed a single-task and a task-switching training in a crossover training design. The children were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group started with the single-task training and then performed the task-switching training and the other group vice versa. The effectiveness of the task-switching training was measured as performance improvements (relative to the single-task training on a structurally similar but new switching task and on other executive control tasks measuring inhibitory control and verbal working memory as well as on fluid intelligence (reasoning. The children in both groups showed improvements in task switching, that is, a reduction of switching costs, but not in performing the single tasks across four training sessions. Moreover, the task-switching training lead to selective enhancements in task-switching performance, that is, the reduction of task-switching costs was found to be larger after task-switching than after single-task training. Similar selective improvements were observed for inhibitory control and verbal working memory, but not for reasoning. Results of this study suggest that task-switching training is an effective cognitive intervention that helps to enhance executive control functioning in children with ADHD.

  12. Virtual environment to quantify the influence of colour stimuli on the performance of tasks requiring attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frère Annie F

    2011-08-01

    where tasks, that require attention, were most affected. Conclusions The game proved to be a user-friendly tool capable to detect and quantify the influence of color on the performance of people executing tasks that require attention and showed to be attractive for people with ADHD.

  13. Differential Neural Correlates of Set-Shifting in the Bingeing-Purging and Restrictive Subtypes of Anorexia Nervosa: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Autreve, Sara; De Baene, Wouter; Baeken, Chris; van Heeringen, Kees; Vancayseele, Nikita; Vervaet, Myriam

    2016-07-01

    In this study, possible differences in the neural correlates of set-shifting abilities between the restrictive (AN-R) and bingeing/purging (AN-BP) subtypes of anorexia nervosa have been explored. Three groups of participants performed a set-shifting task during functional magnetic resonance imaging: patients with AN-R (N = 16), AN-BP (N = 13) and healthy control participants (N = 15). As in a typical set-shifting experiment, participants had to switch between two easy tasks (i.e. 'Is the presented number odd/even' or 'Is the presented number smaller/larger than 5'). The trials in which the task was repeated (repeat trials) were compared with trials in which the task was switched (switch trials). With regards to the level of task performance, no significant group differences could be established. However, when comparing switch specific brain activity across study groups, a stronger activation was found in the insula and the precuneus in AN-R when compared to AN-BP and HC. These results suggest that the both subtypes of AN might have different neurobiological correlates, and thus, might benefit from different treatment approaches. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26856396

  14. Measured attention in prolonged over-learned response tasks and its correlation to high level scientific reasoning and school achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hotulainen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between attention and academic performance has been of interest starting with early studies on academic success and failure. In this study we examine how attention measured in simple and prolonged over-learned response tasks correlates with and contributes to scientific reasoning and school achievement (GPA. To study attention, the Attention Concentration Test (ACT was used and to study scientific reasoning, a modified version of Science Reasoning Tasks, tapping control-of-variable schemata, was used. Of special interest was the highest performing attention group (+ 1 SD formed from the ACT results. We gathered our data from Finnish ninth graders (n = 358; including 166 girls from the city located in the eastern part of Finland. Statistically analysed results showed that attention contributed to scientific reasoning, which in turn explained the largest share of the GPA variance. The highest attention group differed from the lowest two attention groups in GPA and from all attention groups in scientific reasoning. For educational practitioners the ACT seems to be a useful tool in assessing exceptional academic learning potential in students.

  15. N2pc and attentional capture by colour and orientation-singletons in pure and mixed visual search tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Holguín, Socorro; Doallo, Sonia; Vizoso, Carmen; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2009-09-01

    The capture of attention by singleton stimuli in visual search is a matter of contention. Some authors propose that singletons capture attention in a bottom-up fashion if they are salient. Others propose that capture is contingent upon whether or not the stimuli share task-relevant attributes with the target. This study assessed N2pc elicited by colour and orientation singletons in a mixed task (the singleton defined as target changed block-to-block), and a pure task (the target was the same across the whole task). Both singletons elicited N2pc when acting as targets; when acting as non-targets, orientation singletons elicited N2pc only in the mixed task. The results suggest that the singletons were not salient enough to engage attention in a purely bottom-up fashion. Elicitation of N2pc by non-targets in the mixed task should be attributed to top-down processes associated with the current task. Stimuli that act as targets in part of the blocks become not completely irrelevant when non-targets. PMID:19409424

  16. Influence of low-level stimulus features, task dependent factors, and spatial biases on overt visual attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepp Kollmorgen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Visual attention is thought to be driven by the interplay between low-level visual features and task dependent information content of local image regions, as well as by spatial viewing biases. Though dependent on experimental paradigms and model assumptions, this idea has given rise to varying claims that either bottom-up or top-down mechanisms dominate visual attention. To contribute toward a resolution of this discussion, here we quantify the influence of these factors and their relative importance in a set of classification tasks. Our stimuli consist of individual image patches (bubbles. For each bubble we derive three measures: a measure of salience based on low-level stimulus features, a measure of salience based on the task dependent information content derived from our subjects' classification responses and a measure of salience based on spatial viewing biases. Furthermore, we measure the empirical salience of each bubble based on our subjects' measured eye gazes thus characterizing the overt visual attention each bubble receives. A multivariate linear model relates the three salience measures to overt visual attention. It reveals that all three salience measures contribute significantly. The effect of spatial viewing biases is highest and rather constant in different tasks. The contribution of task dependent information is a close runner-up. Specifically, in a standardized task of judging facial expressions it scores highly. The contribution of low-level features is, on average, somewhat lower. However, in a prototypical search task, without an available template, it makes a strong contribution on par with the two other measures. Finally, the contributions of the three factors are only slightly redundant, and the semi-partial correlation coefficients are only slightly lower than the coefficients for full correlations. These data provide evidence that all three measures make significant and independent contributions and that none can be

  17. Measuring attention in rodents: comparison of a modified signal detection task and the 5-choice serial reaction time task

    OpenAIRE

    Karly Maree Turner; Thomas Burne

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric research has utilised cognitive testing in rodents to improve our understanding of cognitive deficits and for preclinical drug development. However, more sophisticated cognitive tasks have not been as widely exploited due to low throughput and the extensive training time required. We developed a modified signal detection task (SDT) based on the growing body of literature aimed at improving cognitive testing in rodents. This study directly compares performance on the modified ...

  18. Speed impairs attending on the left: comparing attentional asymmetries for neglect patients in speeded and unspeeded cueing tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Dukewich, Kristie R.; Eskes, Gail A; Lawrence, Michael A.; MacIsaac, Mary-Beth; Phillips, Stephen J.; Klein, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Visuospatial neglect after stroke is often characterized by a disengage deficit on a cued orienting task, in which individuals are disproportionately slower to respond to targets presented on the contralesional side of space following an ispilesional cue as compared to the reverse. The purpose of this study was to investigate the generality of the finding of a disengage deficit on another measure of cued attention, the temporal order judgment (TOJ) task, that does not depend upon speeded manu...

  19. Speed impairs attending on the left: Comparing attentional asymmetries for neglect patients in speeded and unspeeded cueing tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Eskes, Gail A; Lawrence, Michael A.; Mary Beth MacIsaac; Phillips, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Visuospatial neglect after stroke is often characterized by a disengage deficit on a cued orienting task, in which individuals are disproportionately slower to respond to targets presented on the contralesional side of space following an ispilesional cue as compared to the reverse. The purpose of this study was to investigate the generality of the finding of a disengage deficit on another measure of cued attention, the temporal order judgment (TOJ) task, that does not depend upon speeded man...

  20. To separate or not to separate investment from commercial banking? An empirical analysis of attention distortion under multiple tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Gropp, Reint E.; Park, Kyounghoon

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the 2008/2009 financial crisis, a number of policy reports (Vickers, Liikanen, Volcker) proposed to separate investment banking from commercial banking to increase financial stability. This paper empirically examines one theoretical justification for these proposals, namely attention distortion under multiple tasks as in Holmstrom and Milgrom (1991). Universal banks can be viewed as combining two different tasks (investment banking and commercial banking) in the same organizati...

  1. Dissociation in performance of children with ADHD and high-functioning autism on a task of sustained attention

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Louise; Gill, Michael; JOHNSON, KATHERINE ANNE; Robertson, Ian

    2007-01-01

    (242) PMID: 17433378 ABSTRACT: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism are two neurodevelopmental disorders associated with prominent executive dysfunction, which may be underpinned by disruption within fronto-striatal and fronto-parietal circuits. We probed executive function in these disorders using a sustained attention task with a validated brain-behaviour basis. Twenty-three children with ADHD, 21 children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and 18 control children were...

  2. Spatial attention increases performance but not subjective confidence in a discrimination task

    OpenAIRE

    Wilimzig, Claudia; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Fahle, Manfred; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Koch, Christof

    2008-01-01

    Selective attention to a target yields faster and more accurate responses. Faster response times, in turn, are usually associated with increased subjective confidence. Could the decrease in reaction time in the presence of attention therefore simply reflect a shift toward more confident responses? We here addressed the extent to which attention modulates accuracy, processing speed, and confidence independently. To probe the effect of spatial attention on performance, we used two attentional m...

  3. IQ-Related fMRI Differences during Cognitive Set Shifting

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Steven; Jiang, Jiaying; Manning, Victoria; Nejad, Ayna Baladi; Zhisheng, Koh; Salleh, Shan R.; Golay, Xavier; Berne, Yeh Ing; McKenna, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    This event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared neural correlates of executive function (cognitive set-shifting) in 28 healthy participants with either high (HIQ) or average (AIQ) intelligence. Despite comparable behavioral performance (except for slower reactions), the AIQ participants showed greater (especially prefrontal) activation during response selection; the HIQ participants showed greater activation (especially parietal) during feedback evaluation. HIQ partici...

  4. Speed impairs attending on the left: Comparing attentional asymmetries for neglect patients in speeded and unspeeded cueing tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail A Eskes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Visuospatial neglect after stroke is often characterized by a disengage deficit on a cued orienting task, in which individuals are disproportionately slower to respond to targets presented on the contralesional side of space following an ispilesional cue as compared to the reverse. The purpose of this study was to investigate the generality of the finding of a disengage deficit on another measure of cued attention, the temporal order judgment (TOJ task, that does not depend upon speeded manual responses. Individuals with right hemisphere stroke with and without spatial neglect and older healthy controls were tested with both a speeded RT cueing task and an unspeeded TOJ-with-cuing task. All stroke patients evidenced a disengage deficit on the speeded RT cueing task, although the size and direction of the bias was not associated with the severity of neglect. In contrast, few neglect patients showed a disengage deficit on the TOJ task. This discrepancy suggests that the disengage deficit may be related to task demands, rather than solely due to impaired attentional mechanisms per se. Further, the results of our study show that the disengage deficit is neither necessary nor sufficient for neglect to manifest.

  5. The cerebral correlates of set-shifting: an fMRI study of the trail making test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moll Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The trail making test (TMT pertains to a family of tests that tap the ability to alternate between cognitive categories. However, the value of the TMT as a localizing instrument remains elusive. Here we report the results of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study of a verbal adaptation of the TMT (vTMT. The vTMT takes advantage of the set-shifting properties of the TMT and, at the same time, minimizes the visuospatial and visuomotor components of the written TMT. Whole brain BOLD fMRI was performed during the alternating execution of vTMTA and vTMTB in seven normal adults with more than 12 years of formal education. Brain activation related to the set-shifting component of vTMTB was investigated by comparing performance on vTMTB with vTMTA, a simple counting task. There was a marked asymmetry of activation in favor of the left hemisphere, most notably in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 6 lateral, 44 and 46 and supplementary motor area/cingulate sulcus (BA 6 medial and 32. The intraparietal sulcus (BA 7 and 39 was bilaterally activated. These findings are in line with clinico-anatomic and functional neuroimaging data that point to a critical role of the dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortices as well as the intraparietal sulci in the regulation of cognitive flexibility, intention, and the covert execution of saccades/anti-saccades. Many commonly used neuropsychological paradigms, such as the Stroop, Wisconsin Card Sorting, and go - no go tasks, share some patterns of cerebral activation with the TMT.

  6. Automatic Shifts of Attention in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task: Subtle Changes in Task Materials Lead to Flexible Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Anna V.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments tested a hypothesis that reducing demands on executive control in a Dimensional Change Card Sort task will lead to improved performance in 3-year-olds. In Experiment 1, the shape dimension was represented by two dissimilar values ("stars" and "flowers"), and the color dimension was represented by two similar values ("red" and…

  7. Goal Priming and the Emotional Experience of Students with and without Attention Problems: An Application of the Emotional Stroop Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideridis, Georgios; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Shiakalli, Maria; Georgiou, Maria; Irakleous, Ioanna; Tsigourla, Ioanna; Fragioudaki, Eirini

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study is to evaluate the emotional experience of students with (n = 52) and without attention problems (n = 272) during an achievement task. A secondary purpose of the present study is to compare students' emotional response to various stimuli, when motivated by various achievement goals. Participants were…

  8. Integrating Mindfulness Practices into the Elementary Curriculum to Improve Attention-to-Task Behaviors and Social Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagy-Borofka, Lori

    2013-01-01

    This study examined effects of integrating mindfulness practices into the 5th grade curriculum to improve attention-to-task, including inattention and executive functioning, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and social relations. As academic requirements become more rigorous, students have been expected to demonstrate increased skills in…

  9. Flexible attention allocation to visual and auditory working memory tasks : manipulating reward induces a trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Candice Coker; Cowan, Nelson; Morey, Richard D.; Rouder, Jeffery N.

    2011-01-01

    Prominent roles for general attention resources are posited in many models of working memory, but the manner in which these can be allocated differs between models or is not sufficiently specified. We varied the payoffs for correct responses in two temporally-overlapping recognition tasks, a visual

  10. The Roles of Feature-Specific Task Set and Bottom-Up Salience in Attentional Capture: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Martin; Kiss, Monika; Press, Clare; Sauter, Disa

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the roles of top-down task set and bottom-up stimulus salience for feature-specific attentional capture. Spatially nonpredictive cues preceded search arrays that included a color-defined target. For target-color singleton cues, behavioral spatial cueing effects were accompanied by cue-induced N2pc components, indicative of…

  11. Attention to irrelevant contexts decreases as training increases: Evidence from eye-fixations in a human predictive learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, José A; Ramos-Álvarez, Manuel M; Callejas-Aguilera, José E; Rosas, Juan M

    2016-03-01

    Participants were trained in a human predictive learning task in which they had to predict whether the ingestion of a given food (cue) by the imaginary customer of an imaginary restaurant (context) was followed by gastric malaise (outcome). One food was always followed by gastric malaise in one of the contexts, while other foods were not followed by gastric malaise in the same, or in an alternative context. Predictive responses and eye-fixations were recorded throughout the 48 training trials with each cue involved in the task. In agreement with the predictions of the Attentional Theory of Context Processing, attention to the contexts measured through eye-fixations decreased while attention to the cues increased as training progressed. The results of this study give support to the idea that contexts are actively processed at the beginning of acquisition, and that this processing decreases as training increases. PMID:26746587

  12. Attention Capture by Direct Gaze is Robust to Context and Task Demands

    OpenAIRE

    Palanica, Adam; Itier, Roxane J.

    2012-01-01

    Eye-tracking was used to investigate whether gaze direction would influence the visual scanning of faces, when presented in the context of a full character, in different social settings, and with different task demands. Participants viewed individual computer agents against either a blank background or a bar scene setting, during both a free-viewing task and an attractiveness rating task for each character. Faces with a direct gaze were viewed longer than faces with an averted gaze regardless...

  13. Decoding of attentional selection in a cocktail party environment from single-trial EEG is robust to task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauteslager, Timo; O'Sullivan, James A; Reilly, Richard B; Lalor, Edmund C

    2014-01-01

    Recently it has been shown to be possible to ascertain the target of a subject's attention in a cocktail party environment from single-trial (~60 s) electroencephalography (EEG) data. Specifically, this was shown in the context of a dichotic listening paradigm where subjects were cued to attend to a story in one ear while ignoring a different story in the other and were required to answer questions on both stories. This paradigm resulted in a high decoding accuracy that correlated with task performance across subjects. Here, we extend this finding by showing that the ability to accurately decode attentional selection in a dichotic speech paradigm is robust to the particular attention task at hand. Subjects attended to one of two dichotically presented stories under four task conditions. These conditions required subjects to 1) answer questions on the content of both stories, 2) detect irregular frequency fluctuations in the voice of the attended speaker 3) answer questions on both stories and detect frequency fluctuations in the attended story, and 4) detect target words in the attended story. All four tasks led to high decoding accuracy (~89%). These results offer new possibilities for creating user-friendly brain computer interfaces (BCIs). PMID:25570209

  14. The distribution of attention in RSVP tasks and its sensitivity to affect, personality traits and estradiol

    OpenAIRE

    Dhinakaran, Janani

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, the influences of positive and negative affect state, the personality trait neuroticism, and the hormone estradiol on selective attention are explored in three studies. In Study 1 a double-stream RSVP paradigm was used to explore if attention can be spatially diffused and focused by affect. A spatial interpretation of the diffuse mental state was not found. Study 2 studied the distribution of attention as influenced by neuroticism and cognitive control. Results confirmed that ...

  15. Executive and attentional functions in chronic pain: Does performance decrease with increasing task load?

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterman, Joukje M; Derksen, Laura C; van Wijck, Albert JM; Kessels, Roy PC; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diminished executive function and attentional control has been reported in chronic pain patients. However, the precise pattern of impairment in these aspects of cognition in chronic pain remains unclear. Moreover, a decline in psychomotor speed could potentially influence executive and attentional control performance in pain patients.OBJECTIVE: To examine different aspects of executive and attentional control in chronic pain together with the confounding role of psychomotor slowin...

  16. Generalizing attentional control across dimensions and tasks: evidence from transfer of proportion-congruent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wühr, Peter; Duthoo, Wout; Notebaert, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments investigated transfer of list-wide proportion congruent (LWPC) effects from a set of congruent and incongruent items with different frequency (inducer task) to a set of congruent and incongruent items with equal frequency (diagnostic task). Experiments 1 and 2 mixed items from horizontal and vertical Simon tasks. Tasks always involved different stimuli that varied on the same dimension (colour) in Experiment 1 and on different dimensions (colour, shape) in Experiment 2. Experiment 3 mixed trials from a manual Simon task with trials from a vocal Stroop task, with colour being the relevant stimulus in both tasks. There were two major results. First, we observed transfer of LWPC effects in Experiments 1 and 3, when tasks shared the relevant dimension, but not in Experiment 2. Second, sequential modulations of congruency effects transferred in Experiment 1 only. Hence, the different transfer patterns suggest that LWPC effects and sequential modulations arise from different mechanisms. Moreover, the observation of transfer supports an account of LWPC effects in terms of list-wide cognitive control, while being at odds with accounts in terms of stimulus-response (contingency) learning and item-specific control. PMID:25380403

  17. Attentional Modulation of Word Recognition by Children in a Dual-Task Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sangsook; Lotto, Andrew; Lewis, Dawna; Hoover, Brenda; Stelmachowicz, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated an account of limited short-term memory capacity for children's speech perception in noise using a dual-task paradigm. Method: Sixty-four normal-hearing children (7-14 years of age) participated in this study. Dual tasks were repeating monosyllabic words presented in noise at 8 dB signal-to-noise ratio and…

  18. Separable roles for attentional control sub-systems in reading tasks: a combined behavioral and fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihnen, S K Z; Petersen, Steven E; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2015-05-01

    Attentional control is important both for learning to read and for performing difficult reading tasks. A previous study invoked 2 mechanisms to explain reaction time (RT) differences between reading tasks with variable attentional demands. The present study combined behavioral and neuroimaging measures to test the hypotheses that there are 2 mechanisms of interaction between attentional control and reading; that these mechanisms are dissociable both behaviorally and neuro-anatomically; and that the 2 mechanisms involve functionally separable control systems. First, RT evidence was found in support of the 2-mechanism model, corroborating the previous study. Next, 2 sets of brain regions were identified as showing functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygen level-dependent activity that maps onto the 2-mechanism distinction. One set included bilateral Cingulo-opercular regions and mostly right-lateralized Dorsal Attention regions (CO/DA+). This CO/DA+ region set showed response properties consistent with a role in reporting which processing pathway (phonological or lexical) was biased for a particular trial. A second set was composed primarily of left-lateralized Frontal-parietal (FP) regions. Its signal properties were consistent with a role in response checking. These results demonstrate how the subcomponents of attentional control interact with subcomponents of reading processes in healthy young adults. PMID:24275830

  19. The role of time on task performance in modifying the effects of gum chewing on attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William

    2011-01-01

    Recent research examined the effects of chewing gum on attention and reported a significant interaction of gum chewing with time. Using a crossover within-subject design, the present study examined the effect of gum chewing on sustained attention in healthy adults over a period of 30 min. The result

  20. Learned Predictiveness Influences Rapid Attentional Capture: Evidence from the Dot Probe Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pelley, Mike E.; Vadillo, Miguel; Luque, David

    2013-01-01

    Attentional theories of associative learning and categorization propose that learning about the predictiveness of a stimulus influences the amount of attention that is paid to that stimulus. Three experiments tested this idea by looking at the extent to which stimuli that had previously been experienced as predictive or nonpredictive in a…

  1. Executive and Attentional Functions in Chronic Pain: Does Performance Decrease with Increasing Task Load?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joukje M Oosterman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diminished executive function and attentional control has been reported in chronic pain patients. However, the precise pattern of impairment in these aspects of cognition in chronic pain remains unclear. Moreover, a decline in psychomotor speed could potentially influence executive and attentional control performance in pain patients.

  2. Attentional Performance in Children and Adolescents with Tic Disorder and Co-Occurring Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: New Insights from a 2 × 2 Factorial Design Study

    OpenAIRE

    Greimel, Ellen; Wanderer, Sina; Rothenberger, Aribert; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Roessner, Veit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of both tic disorder (TD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on attentional functions. N = 96 children and adolescents participated in the study, including n = 21 subjects with TD, n = 23 subjects with ADHD, n = 25 subjects with TD+ADHD, and n = 27 controls. Attentional performance was tested based on four computerized attention tasks (sustained attention, divided attention, go/nogo and set shifting). The effect of TD...

  3. Advert saliency distracts children's visual attention during task-oriented internet use

    OpenAIRE

    NilsHolmberg

    2014-01-01

    The general research question of the present study was to assess the impact of visually salient online adverts on children's task-oriented internet use. In order to answer this question, an experimental study was constructed in which 9-year-old and 12-year-old Swedish children were asked to solve a number of tasks while interacting with a mockup website. In each trial, web adverts in several saliency conditions were presented. By both measuring children's task accuracy, as well as the visual ...

  4. Investigating Glutamatergic Mechanism in Attention and Impulse Control Using Rats in a Modified 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task

    OpenAIRE

    Abigail Benn; Emma S J Robinson

    2014-01-01

    The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) has been widely used to study attention and impulse control in rodents. In order to mimic cognitive impairments in psychiatry, one approach has been to use acute administration of NMDA antagonists. This disruption in glutamatergic transmission leads to impairments in accuracy, omissions, and premature responses although findings have been inconsistent. In this study, we further investigated glutamatergic mechanisms using a novel version of the 5...

  5. Acute aerobic exercise enhances attentional modulation of somatosensory event-related potentials during a tactile discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovich, Christina; Staines, W Richard

    2015-03-15

    Neuroimaging research has shown that acute bouts of moderate intensity aerobic exercise can enhance attention-based neuronal activity in frontal brain regions, namely in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as improve cognitive performance. The circuitry of the PFC is complex with extensive reciprocal corticocortical and thalamocortical connections, yet it remains unclear if aerobic exercise can also assist attentional control over modality-specific sensory cortices. To test this, we used a tactile discrimination task to compare tactile event-related potentials (ERPs) prior to and following an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. We hypothesized that exercise preceding performance of the task would result in more efficient sensory gating of irrelevant/non-attended and enhancement of relevant/attended sensory information, respectively. Participants received vibrotactile stimulation to the second and fifth digit on the left hand and reported target stimuli on one digit only. ERP amplitudes for the P50, P100, N140 and long latency positivity (LLP) were quantified for attended and non-attended trials at FC4, C4, CP4 and P4 while P300 amplitudes were quantified in response to attended target stimuli at electrodes FCZ, CZ and CPZ. Results showed no effect of attention on the P50, however, both P100 and LLP amplitudes were significantly greater during attended, task-relevant trials, while the N140 was enhanced for non-attended, task-irrelevant stimuli. Moreover, unattended N140 amplitudes over parietal sites contralateral to stimulation were significantly greater post-exercise versus pre-exercise, while LLP modulation varied with greater unattended amplitudes post-exercise over frontal sites and greater attended amplitudes post-exercise over parietal sites. These results suggest that a single session of moderate intensity aerobic exercise facilitated the sensory gating of task-irrelevant tactile stimuli so that relevant sensory signals could be enhanced at

  6. Associations between neural correlates of visual stimulus processing and set-shifting in ill and recovered women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultson, Hedvig; van Meer, Floor; Sanders, Nicole; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Danner, Unna N; Hoek, Hans W; Adan, Roger A H; Smeets, Paul A M

    2016-09-30

    Women ill with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been shown to exhibit altered cognitive functioning, particularly poor set-shifting (SS). In this study, we investigated whether brain activation in frontal and parietal regions during visual stimulus processing correlates with SS ability. Women currently ill with AN (AN; N=14), recovered women (REC; N=14) and healthy controls (HC; N=15), viewed alternating blocks of food and non-food pictures during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The Berg's Card Sorting Task was completed outside the scanner to measure SS. A priori regions of interest (ROIs) were defined in frontal and parietal regions. The activation during visual stimulus processing in several ROIs correlated positively with poor SS ability in REC, particularly in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). The correlations with poor SS ability were opposite in AN patients, particularly in the right dACC. These findings underscore that addressing heightened levels of cognitive control associated with higher frontal activation could reduce cognitive inflexibility in recovered women. In AN, greater activation in frontal and parietal regions might be necessary to perform at normal levels during various tasks. Thus, weight restoration could be necessary for AN patients prior to addressing cognitive inflexibility. PMID:27518327

  7. Modulating rest-break length induces differential recruitment of automatic and controlled attentional processes upon task reengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Julian; Teng, James; Wong, Kian Foong; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-07-01

    Rest breaks are commonly administered as a countermeasure to reduce on-the-job fatigue, both physical and mental. However, this practice makes the assumption that recovery from fatigue, as measured by the reversal of performance declines, is the sole effect of taking a break on behavior. Here, through administering rest breaks of differing lengths in between blocks of a mentally demanding symbol decoding task, we show that this assumption may not be strictly true. First, we replicate previous work by showing that taking a longer break leads to two correlated effects: greater immediate rebound in performance, and greater subsequent time-on-task decline. Using fMRI, we reveal that time-on-task in this paradigm is associated with increasing recruitment of fronto-parietal areas associated with top-down control, and decreasing deactivation in the default-mode network. Finally, by analyzing individual differences, we reveal a potential neural basis for our behavioral observation: greater recovery following long breaks is associated with greater activity in the putamen, an area associated with the automatic generation of motor responses, followed by greater activity in left middle frontal gyrus by the end of those task periods. Taken together, this suggests a shift in the implicit engagement of automatic and controlled attentional processing following longer breaks. This shift may be undesirable or detrimental in real-world situations where maintaining a stable level of attention over time is necessary. PMID:27039697

  8. Different attentional abilities among inbred mice strains using virtual object recognition task (VORT): SNAP25⁺/⁻ mice as a model of attentional deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braida, Daniela; Ponzoni, Luisa; Matteoli, Michela; Sala M, Mariaelvina

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease are characterized by attentional deficits. In the present study we first applied the virtual object recognition test (VORT), where 3D objects were replaced with highly discriminated geometrical shapes and presented on two 3.5-inch widescreen displays, in different inbred mice strains (C57BL/6N, DBA/2J, BALB/cJ), in comparison with the standard object recognition test (NOR). In both NOR and VORT, there was a progressive decay of performance in terms of reduced discrimination index from 5 min to 72 h of inter-trial delay in all strains. However, BALB/cJ inbred mice showed a better long lasting performance than C57BL/6N and DBA/2J, when tested in NOR. In VORT, BALB/cJ showed the best performance. Total exploration time was always higher in BALB/cJ than C57BL/6N and DBA/2J mice. C57BL/6N were less explorative strain than DBA/2J and BALB/cJ mice. When VORT was applied to SNAP-25(+/-) mice, an impairment in both NOR and VORT was shown. However, when moving shapes were applied, these heterozygous mice improved their performance, suggesting that the introduction of motion is a strong cue that makes the task more valuable to study attention deficits. Taken together, these data indicate that VORT provides a useful and rapid tool to identify the attentional deficit in different inbred strains and genetically modified mice, enhancing the value of psychiatric mouse models. PMID:26300453

  9. Electrophysiological evidence of atypical processing underlying mental set shifting in ecstasy polydrug and polydrug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Carl A; Fairclough, Stephen H; McGlone, Francis P; Fisk, John E; Montgomery, Catharine

    2013-12-01

    Executive functioning deficits are reported in ecstasy users. However research into mental set switching has been equivocal, with behavioral studies suggesting the function is preserved. The current study sought to address the issue of switching deficits in ecstasy users by combining behavioral performance with electrophysiological correlates (electroencephalography; EEG). Twenty ecstasy polydrug users, 20 nonecstasy polydrug users, and 20 drug naive controls were recruited. Participants completed questionnaires about their drug use, sleep quality, fluid intelligence, and current mood state. Each participant completed a mental set switching task (the number-letter task) while EEG measures were recorded. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed no between-group differences on performance of the task; however a regression suggested that ecstasy use was a significant predictor for performance, after controlling for cannabis use. Mixed ANOVA revealed a significant effect of group on the P3, with significant differences between both drug groups and naives. There was also an interaction between electrode and group on the P2 component, with ecstasy users differing from both other groups. On the P3 component the results suggest a reduction in positivity at parieto-occipital electrodes for drug users compared to controls. Furthermore a significant increase in negativity in ecstasy users compared to control groups could be observed in several occipito-parietal electrodes at an N2 component as well as observable atypicalities in early processing (P2) displayed by ecstasy users and polydrug controls. The present study provides evidence of atypical processing of attentional shifting in ecstasy and polydrug users. Deficits in this executive function could reflect cognitive inflexibility and paucity of rapid behavioral adjustment, which may be problematic in real world situations. PMID:24080019

  10. Antecedent Assessment and Assessment-Based Treatment of Off-Task Behavior in a Child Diagnosed with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, William A.; Wilder, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Antecedent assessment and assessment-based intervention for off-task behavior by an 11-year-old with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is reported. Assessment correlated off-task behavior with difficult academic tasks; intervention included functional communication training that focused on teaching the child to request assistance, as well…

  11. Connectivity Analysis and Feature Classification in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Sub-Types: A Task Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bo-Yong; Kim, Mansu; Seo, Jongbum; Lee, Jong-Min; Park, Hyunjin

    2016-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive neuropsychiatric disorder. Patients with different ADHD subtypes show different behaviors under different stimuli and thus might require differential approaches to treatment. This study explores connectivity differences between ADHD subtypes and attempts to classify these subtypes based on neuroimaging features. A total of 34 patients (13 ADHD-IA and 21 ADHD-C subtypes) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with six task paradigms. Connectivity differences between ADHD subtypes were assessed for the whole brain in each task paradigm. Connectivity measures of the identified regions were used as features for the support vector machine classifier to distinguish between ADHD subtypes. The effectiveness of connectivity measures of the regions were tested by predicting ADHD-related Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) scores. Significant connectivity differences between ADHD subtypes were identified mainly in the frontal, cingulate, and parietal cortices and partially in the temporal, occipital cortices and cerebellum. Classifier accuracy for distinguishing between ADHD subtypes was 91.18 % for both gambling punishment and emotion task paradigms. Linear prediction under the two task paradigms showed significant correlation with DSM hyperactive/impulsive score. Our study identified important brain regions from connectivity analysis based on an fMRI paradigm using gambling punishment and emotion task paradigms. The regions and associated connectivity measures could serve as features to distinguish between ADHD subtypes. PMID:26602102

  12. Expectations impact short-term memory through changes in connectivity between attention- and task-related brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinke, Christopher; Forkmann, Katarina; Schmidt, Katharina; Wiech, Katja; Bingel, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    Over the recent years, neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the influence of expectations on perception. However, it seems equally reasonable to assume that expectations impact cognitive functions. Here we used fMRI to explore the role of expectations on task performance and its underlying neural mechanisms. 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to two groups. Using verbal instructions, group 1 was led to believe that pain enhances task performance while group 2 was instructed that pain hampers their performance. All participants performed a Rapid-Serial-Visual-Presentation (RSVP) Task (target detection and short-term memory component) with or without concomitant painful heat stimulation during 3T fMRI scanning. As hypothesized, short-term memory performance showed an interaction between painful stimulation and expectation. Positive expectations induced stronger neural activation in the right inferior parietal cortex (IPC) during painful stimulation than negative expectation. Moreover, IPC displayed differential functional coupling with the left inferior occipital cortex under pain as a function of expectancy. Our data show that an individual's expectation can influence cognitive performance in a visual short-term memory task which is associated with activity and connectivity changes in brain areas implicated in attentional processing and task performance. PMID:26967589

  13. Interference within the Focus of Attention: Working Memory Tasks Reflect More than Temporary Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipstead, Zach; Engle, Randall W.

    2013-01-01

    One approach to understanding working memory (WM) holds that individual differences in WM capacity arise from the amount of information a person can store in WM over short periods of time. This view is especially prevalent in WM research conducted with the visual arrays task. Within this tradition, many researchers have concluded that the average…

  14. Diffusion Models of the Flanker Task: Discrete versus Gradual Attentional Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Corey N.; Ratcliff, Roger; Starns, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study tested diffusion models of processing in the flanker task, in which participants identify a target that is flanked by items that indicate the same (congruent) or opposite response (incongruent). Single- and dual-process flanker models were implemented in a diffusion-model framework and tested against data from experiments that…

  15. Design and Implementation of Cancellation Tasks for Visual Search Strategies and Visual Attention in School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsui-Ying; Huang, Ho-Chuan; Huang, Hsiu-Shuang

    2006-01-01

    We propose a computer-assisted cancellation test system (CACTS) to understand the visual attention performance and visual search strategies in school children. The main aim of this paper is to present our design and development of the CACTS and demonstrate some ways in which computer techniques can allow the educator not only to obtain more…

  16. Impaired Conflict Resolution and Alerting in Children with ADHD: Evidence from the Attention Network Task (ANT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine A.; Robertson, Ian H.; Barry, Edwina; Mulligan, Aisling; Daibhis, Aoife; Daly, Michael; Watchorn, Amy; Gill, Michael; Bellgrove, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: An important theory of attention suggests that there are three separate networks that execute discrete cognitive functions. The "alerting" network acquires and maintains an alert state, the "orienting" network selects information from sensory input and the "conflict" network resolves conflict that arises between potential responses.…

  17. Attentional capture by irrelevant transients leads to perceptual errors in a competitive change detection task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DanielSchneider

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Theories on visual change detection imply that attention is a necessary but not sufficient prerequisite for aware perception. Misguidance of attention due to salient irrelevant distractors can therefore lead to severe deficits in change detection. The present study investigates the mechanisms behind such perceptual errors and their relation to error processing on higher cognitive levels. Participants had to detect a luminance change that occasionally occurred simultaneously with an irrelevant orientation change in the opposite hemi-field (conflict condition. By analyzing event-related potentials in the EEG separately in those error prone conflict trials for correct and erroneous change detection, we demonstrate that only correct change detection was associated with the allocation of attention to the relevant luminance change. Erroneous change detection was associated with an initial capture of attention towards the irrelevant orientation change in the N1 time window and a lack of subsequent target selection processes (N2pc. Errors were additionally accompanied by an increase of the fronto-central N2 and a kind of error negativity (Ne or ERN, which, however, peaked prior to the response. These results suggest that a strong perceptual conflict by salient distractors can disrupt the further processing of relevant information and thus affect its aware perception. Yet, it does not impair higher cognitive processes for conflict and error detection, indicating that these processes are independent from awareness.

  18. Childhood anxiety and attention to emotion faces in a modified stroop task

    OpenAIRE

    Hadwin, Julie A.; Donnelly, Nick; Richards, Anne; French, Christopher C.; Patel, Umang

    2009-01-01

    This study used an emotional face stroop task to investigate the effects of self-report trait anxiety, social concern and chronological age on reaction time to match coloured outlines of angry, happy and neutral faces (and control faces with scrambled features) with coloured buttons in a community sample of 74 children aged six to twelve years. The results showed an interference of colour matching for angry (relative to neutral) faces in children with elevated social concern. The same effect ...

  19. Visual Attention During Brand Choice: The Impact of Time Pressure and Task Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Pieters, R.; L. WARLOP

    1998-01-01

    Measures derived from eye-movement data reveal that during brand choice consumers adapt to time pressure by accelerating the visual scanning sequence, by filtering information and by changing their scanning strategy. In addition, consumers with high task motivation filter brand information less and pictorial information more. Consumers under time pressure filter textual ingredient information more, and pictorial information less. The results of a conditional logit analysis reveal that the cho...

  20. Static and dynamic posterior cingulate cortex nodal topology of default mode network predicts attention task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pan; Yang, Yong; Jovicich, Jorge; De Pisapia, Nicola; Wang, Xiang; Zuo, Chun S; Levitt, James Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of the default mode network (DMN) as a complex network of functionally interacting dynamic systems has received great interest for the study of DMN neural mechanisms. In particular, understanding the relationship of intrinsic resting-state DMN brain network with cognitive behaviors is an important issue in healthy cognition and mental disorders. However, it is still unclear how DMN functional connectivity links to cognitive behaviors during resting-state. In this study, we hypothesize that static and dynamic DMN nodal topology is associated with upcoming cognitive task performance. We used graph theory analysis in order to understand better the relationship between the DMN functional connectivity and cognitive behavior during resting-state and task performance. Nodal degree of the DMN was calculated as a metric of network topology. We found that the static and dynamic posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) nodal degree within the DMN was associated with task performance (Reaction Time). Our results show that the core node PCC nodal degree within the DMN was significantly correlated with reaction time, which suggests that the PCC plays a key role in supporting cognitive function. PMID:25904156

  1. Aging, Emotion, Attention, and Binding in the Taboo Stroop Task: Data and Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Donald G. MacKay; Johnson, Laura W.; Graham, Elizabeth R.; Burke, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    How does aging impact relations between emotion, memory, and attention? To address this question, young and older adults named the font colors of taboo and neutral words, some of which recurred in the same font color or screen location throughout two color-naming experiments. The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs) for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference); better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versu...

  2. Verbal and facial-emotional Stroop tasks reveal specific attentional interferences in sad mood

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Mood congruence refers to the tendency of individuals to attend to information more readily when it has the same emotional content as their current mood state. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether attentional interference occurred for participants in sad mood states for emotionally relevant stimuli (mood-congruence), and to determine whether this interference occurred for both valenced words and valenced faces. A mood induction procedure was administered to 116 undergraduate ...

  3. Multiple Electrophysiological Markers of Visual-Attentional Processing in a Novel Task Directed toward Clinical Use

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Bolduc-Teasdale; Pierre Jolicoeur; Michelle McKerral

    2012-01-01

    Individuals who have sustained a mild brain injury (e.g., mild traumatic brain injury or mild cerebrovascular stroke) are at risk to show persistent cognitive symptoms (attention and memory) after the acute postinjury phase. Although studies have shown that those patients perform normally on neuropsychological tests, cognitive symptoms remain present, and there is a need for more precise diagnostic tools. The aim of this study was to develop precise and sensitive markers for the diagnosis of ...

  4. The effect of practice on a sustained attention task in cocaine abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Rita Z.; Tomasi, Dardo; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Zhang, Lei; Telang, Frank; Volkow, Nora D.

    2007-01-01

    Habituation enables the organism to attend selectively to novel stimuli by diminishing no-longer necessary responses to repeated stimuli. Because the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has a core role in monitoring attention and behavioral control especially under novelty, neural habituation responses may be modified in drug addiction, a psychopathology that entails PFC abnormalities in both structure and function. Sixteen cocaine abusers and 12 gender-, race-, education-, and intelligence-matched healt...

  5. Attentional capture by emotional scenes across episodes in bipolar disorder: Evidence from a free-viewing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Blanco, Ana; Salmerón, Ladislao; Perea, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    We examined whether the initial orienting, subsequent engagement, and overall allocation of attention are determined exogenously (i.e. by the affective valence of the stimulus) or endogenously (i.e. by the participant's mood) in the manic, depressive and euthymic episodes of bipolar disorder (BD). Participants were asked to compare the affective valence of two pictures (happy/threatening/neutral [emotional] vs. neutral [control]) while their eye movements were recorded in a free-viewing task. Results revealed that the initial orienting was exogenously captured by emotional images relative to control images. Importantly, engagement and overall allocation were endogenously captured by threatening images relative to neutral images in BD patients, regardless of their episode--this effect did not occur in a group of healthy controls. The threat-related bias in BD, which occurs even at the early stages of information processing (i.e. attentional engagement), may reflect a vulnerability marker. PMID:25796341

  6. Environmental heat stress enhances mental fatigue during sustained attention task performing: evidence from an ASL perfusion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shaowen; Li, Min; Li, Guoying; Liu, Kai; Li, Bo; Jiang, Qingjun; Li, Li; Yang, Zhen; Sun, Gang

    2015-03-01

    This study was to investigate the potential enhancing effect of heat stress on mental fatigue progression during sustained attention task using arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging. Twenty participants underwent two thermal exposures in an environmental chamber: normothermic (NT) condition (25°C, 1h) and hyperthermic (HT) condition (50°C, 1h). After thermal exposure, they performed a twenty-minute psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) in the scanner. Behavioral analysis revealed progressively increasing subjective fatigue ratings and reaction time as PVT progressed. Moreover, heat stress caused worse performance. Perfusion imaging analyses showed significant resting-state cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations after heat exposure. Specifically, increased CBF mainly gathered in thalamic-brainstem area while decreased CBF predominantly located in fronto-parietal areas, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and medial frontal cortex. More importantly, diverse CBF distributions and trend of changes between both conditions were observed as the fatigue level progressed during subsequent PVT task. Specifically, higher CBF and enhanced rising trend were presented in superior parietal lobe, precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, while lower CBF or inhibited rising trend was found in dorsolateral frontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, inferior parietal lobe and thalamic-brainstem areas. Furthermore, the decrease of post-heat resting-state CBF in fronto-parietal cortex was correlated with subsequent slower reaction time, suggesting prior disturbed resting-state CBF might be indicator of performance potential and fatigue level in following task. These findings may provide proof for such a view: heat stress has a potential fatigue-enhancing effect when individual is performing highly cognition-demanding attention task. PMID:25435315

  7. Virual world users evaluated according to environment design, task based adn affective attention measures

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Breen; Adams, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents research that engages with virtual worlds for education users to understand design of these applications for their needs. An in-depth multi-method investigation from 12 virtual worlds participants was undertaken in three stages; initially a small scale within-subjects eye-tracking comparison was made between the role playing game 'RuneScape' and the virtual social world 'Second Life', secondly an in-depth evaluation of eye-tracking data for Second Life tasks (i.e. avatar, ...

  8. Behavioral and ERP measures of attentional bias to threat in the dot-probe task: Poor reliability and lack of correlation with anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S. Kappenman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The dot-probe task is often considered a gold standard in the field for investigating attentional bias to threat. However, serious issues with the task have been raised. Specifically, a number of studies have demonstrated that the traditional reaction time measure of attentional bias to threat in the dot-probe task has poor internal reliability and poor test-retest reliability. In addition, although threatening stimuli capture attention in other paradigms, attentional bias to threat has not usually been found in typical research participants in the dot-probe task. However, when attention is measured in the dot-probe task with the N2pc component of the event-related potential (ERP waveform, substantial attentional orienting to threat is observed, and the internal reliability is moderate. To provide a rigorous comparison of the reliability of this N2pc measure and the conventional behavioral measure, as well as to examine the relationship of these measures to anxiety, the present study examined the N2pc in conjunction with reaction time in the dot-probe task in a large sample of participants (N = 96. As in previous studies, reaction time showed no bias to threatening images across the sample and exhibited poor internal reliability. Moreover, this measure did not relate to trait anxiety. By contrast, the N2pc revealed a significant initial shift of attention to threat, and this measure was internally reliable. However, the N2pc was not correlated with trait anxiety, indicating that it does not provide a meaningful index of individual differences in anxiety in the dot-probe task. Together, these results indicate a serious need to develop new tasks and methods to more reliably investigate attentional bias to threat and its relationship to anxiety in both clinical and non-clinical populations.

  9. Behavioral and ERP measures of attentional bias to threat in the dot-probe task: poor reliability and lack of correlation with anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappenman, Emily S; Farrens, Jaclyn L; Luck, Steven J; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak

    2014-01-01

    The dot-probe task is often considered a gold standard in the field for investigating attentional bias to threat. However, serious issues with the task have been raised. Specifically, a number of studies have demonstrated that the traditional reaction time (RT) measure of attentional bias to threat in the dot-probe task has poor internal reliability and poor test-retest reliability. In addition, although threatening stimuli capture attention in other paradigms, attentional bias to threat has not usually been found in typical research participants in the dot-probe task. However, when attention is measured in the dot-probe task with the N2pc component of the event-related potential waveform, substantial attentional orienting to threat is observed, and the internal reliability is moderate. To provide a rigorous comparison of the reliability of this N2pc measure and the conventional behavioral measure, as well as to examine the relationship of these measures to anxiety, the present study examined the N2pc in conjunction with RT in the dot-probe task in a large sample of participants (N = 96). As in previous studies, RT showed no bias to threatening images across the sample and exhibited poor internal reliability. Moreover, this measure did not relate to trait anxiety. By contrast, the N2pc revealed a significant initial shift of attention to threat, and this measure was internally reliable. However, the N2pc was not correlated with trait anxiety, indicating that it does not provide a meaningful index of individual differences in anxiety in the dot-probe task. Together, these results indicate a serious need to develop new tasks and methods to more reliably investigate attentional bias to threat and its relationship to anxiety in both clinical and non-clinical populations. PMID:25538644

  10. Behavioral and ERP measures of attentional bias to threat in the dot-probe task: poor reliability and lack of correlation with anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappenman, Emily S.; Farrens, Jaclyn L.; Luck, Steven J.; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak

    2014-01-01

    The dot-probe task is often considered a gold standard in the field for investigating attentional bias to threat. However, serious issues with the task have been raised. Specifically, a number of studies have demonstrated that the traditional reaction time (RT) measure of attentional bias to threat in the dot-probe task has poor internal reliability and poor test-retest reliability. In addition, although threatening stimuli capture attention in other paradigms, attentional bias to threat has not usually been found in typical research participants in the dot-probe task. However, when attention is measured in the dot-probe task with the N2pc component of the event-related potential waveform, substantial attentional orienting to threat is observed, and the internal reliability is moderate. To provide a rigorous comparison of the reliability of this N2pc measure and the conventional behavioral measure, as well as to examine the relationship of these measures to anxiety, the present study examined the N2pc in conjunction with RT in the dot-probe task in a large sample of participants (N = 96). As in previous studies, RT showed no bias to threatening images across the sample and exhibited poor internal reliability. Moreover, this measure did not relate to trait anxiety. By contrast, the N2pc revealed a significant initial shift of attention to threat, and this measure was internally reliable. However, the N2pc was not correlated with trait anxiety, indicating that it does not provide a meaningful index of individual differences in anxiety in the dot-probe task. Together, these results indicate a serious need to develop new tasks and methods to more reliably investigate attentional bias to threat and its relationship to anxiety in both clinical and non-clinical populations. PMID:25538644

  11. Mice discriminate between stationary and moving 2D shapes: application to the object recognition task to increase attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braida, Daniela; Donzelli, Andrea; Martucci, Roberta; Ponzoni, Luisa; Pauletti, Alberto; Langus, Alan; Sala, Mariaelvina

    2013-04-01

    Selective attention can be assessed with the novel object recognition (NOR) test. In the standard version of this test the selection of objects to be used is critical. We created a modified version of NOR, the virtual object recognition test (VORT) in mice, where the 3D objects were replaced with highly discriminated geometrical shapes and presented on two 3.5-inch widescreen displays. No difference in the discrimination index (from 5min to 96h of inter-trial) was found between NOR and VORT. Scopolamine and mecamylamine decreased the discrimination index. Conversely, the discrimination index increased when nicotine was given to mice. No further improvement in the discrimination index was observed when nicotine was injected in mice presented with highly discriminable shapes. To test the possibility that object movements increased mice's attention in the VORT, different movements were applied to the same geometrical shapes previously presented. Mice were able to distinguish among different movements (horizontal, vertical, oblique). Notably, the shapes previously found not distinguishable when stationary were better discriminated when moving. Collectively, these findings indicate that VORT, based on virtual geometric simple shapes, offers the possibility to obtain rapid information on amnesic/pro-amnestic potential of new drugs. The introduction of motion is a strong cue that makes the task more valuable to study attention. PMID:23291156

  12. Deficits in Interval Timing Measured by the Dual-Task Paradigm among Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shoou-Lian; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Hsu, Wen-Yau; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Background: The underlying mechanism of time perception deficit in long time intervals in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is still unclear. This study used the time reproduction dual task to explore the role of the attentional resource in time perception deficits among children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods: Participants…

  13. BDNF polymorphism associates with decline in set shifting in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kolk, Nicolien M; Speelman, Arlene D; van Nimwegen, Marlies; Kessels, Roy P C; IntHout, Joanna; Hakobjan, Marina; Munneke, Marten; Bloem, Bastiaan R; van de Warrenburg, Bart P

    2015-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key protein in brain plasticity and is particularly important for survival of dopaminergic neurons. The Val66Met polymorphism of BDNF (rs6265) has been associated with functional differences (mainly cognitive) between healthy adults and also with differences in the clinical expression of several other neuropsychiatric illnesses including PD. However, these studies used different outcome measures, have not been replicated, and were cross sectional, making it difficult to establish the role of BDNF in the clinical variability of PD. Here, a large cohort of 384 PD patients were followed up for 2 years, and associations between BDNF genotype and various clinical characteristics were examined. The BDNF Met-allele carriers showed a significantly smaller decline in set shifting during follow-up compared with the homozygous BDNF Val-allele carriers. Contrary to previous assumptions, these results indicate that mental flexibility is one of the cognitive processes that may benefit from the BDNF Met allele in PD patients. PMID:25444596

  14. The Communication of Culturally Dominant Modes of Attention from Parents to Children: A Comparison of Canadian and Japanese Parent-Child Conversations during a Joint Scene Description Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senzaki, Sawa; Masuda, Takahiko; Takada, Akira; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have indicated that, when presented with visual information, North American undergraduate students selectively attend to focal objects, whereas East Asian undergraduate students are more sensitive to background information. However, little is known about how these differences are driven by culture and socialization processes. In this study, two experiments investigated how young children and their parents used culturally unique modes of attention (selective vs. context sensitive attention). We expected that children would slowly learn culturally unique modes of attention, and the experience of communicating with their parents would aid the development of such modes of attention. Study 1 tested children's solitary performance by examining Canadian and Japanese children's (4-6 vs. 7-9 years old) modes of attention during a scene description task, whereby children watched short animations by themselves and then described their observations. The results confirmed that children did not demonstrate significant cross-cultural differences in attention during the scene description task while working independently, although results did show rudimentary signs of culturally unique modes of attention in this task scenario by age 9. Study 2 examined parent-child (4-6 and 7-9 years old) dyads using the same task. The results indicated that parents communicated to their children differently across cultures, replicating attentional differences among undergraduate students in previous cross-cultural studies. Study 2 also demonstrated that children's culturally unique description styles increased significantly with age. The descriptions made by the older group (7-9 years old) showed significant cross-cultural variances in attention, while descriptions among the younger group (4-6 years old) did not. The significance of parental roles in the development of culturally unique modes of attention is discussed in addition to other possible facilitators of this

  15. The Communication of Culturally Dominant Modes of Attention from Parents to Children: A Comparison of Canadian and Japanese Parent-Child Conversations during a Joint Scene Description Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawa Senzaki

    Full Text Available Previous findings have indicated that, when presented with visual information, North American undergraduate students selectively attend to focal objects, whereas East Asian undergraduate students are more sensitive to background information. However, little is known about how these differences are driven by culture and socialization processes. In this study, two experiments investigated how young children and their parents used culturally unique modes of attention (selective vs. context sensitive attention. We expected that children would slowly learn culturally unique modes of attention, and the experience of communicating with their parents would aid the development of such modes of attention. Study 1 tested children's solitary performance by examining Canadian and Japanese children's (4-6 vs. 7-9 years old modes of attention during a scene description task, whereby children watched short animations by themselves and then described their observations. The results confirmed that children did not demonstrate significant cross-cultural differences in attention during the scene description task while working independently, although results did show rudimentary signs of culturally unique modes of attention in this task scenario by age 9. Study 2 examined parent-child (4-6 and 7-9 years old dyads using the same task. The results indicated that parents communicated to their children differently across cultures, replicating attentional differences among undergraduate students in previous cross-cultural studies. Study 2 also demonstrated that children's culturally unique description styles increased significantly with age. The descriptions made by the older group (7-9 years old showed significant cross-cultural variances in attention, while descriptions among the younger group (4-6 years old did not. The significance of parental roles in the development of culturally unique modes of attention is discussed in addition to other possible facilitators of

  16. Desynchronization of Theta-Phase Gamma-Amplitude Coupling during a Mental Arithmetic Task in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Won Kim

    Full Text Available Theta-phase gamma-amplitude coupling (TGC measurement has recently received attention as a feasible method of assessing brain functions such as neuronal interactions. The purpose of this electroencephalographic (EEG study is to understand the mechanisms underlying the deficits in attentional control in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD by comparing the power spectra and TGC at rest and during a mental arithmetic task.Nineteen-channel EEGs were recorded from 97 volunteers (including 53 subjects with ADHD from a camp for hyperactive children under two conditions (rest and task performance. The EEG power spectra and the TGC data were analyzed. Correlation analyses between the Intermediate Visual and Auditory (IVA continuous performance test (CPT scores and EEG parameters were performed.No significant difference in the power spectra was detected between the groups at rest and during task performance. However, TGC was reduced during the arithmetic task in the ADHD group compared with the normal group (F = 16.70, p < 0.001. The TGC values positively correlated with the IVA CPT scores but negatively correlated with theta power.Our findings suggest that desynchronization of TGC occurred during the arithmetic task in ADHD children. TGC in ADHD children is expected to serve as a promising neurophysiological marker of network deactivation during attention-demanding tasks.

  17. Psychophysiological correlates of sexually and non-sexually motivated attention to film clips in a workload task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Carvalho

    Full Text Available Some authors have speculated that the cognitive component (P3 of the Event-Related Potential (ERP can function as a psychophysiological measure of sexual interest. The aim of this study was to determine if the P3 ERP component in a workload task can be used as a specific and objective measure of sexual motivation by comparing the neurophysiologic response to stimuli of motivational relevance with different levels of valence and arousal. A total of 30 healthy volunteers watched different films clips with erotic, horror, social-positive and social-negative content, while answering an auditory oddball paradigm. Erotic film clips resulted in larger interference when compared to both the social-positive and auditory alone conditions. Horror film clips resulted in the highest levels of interference with smaller P3 amplitudes than erotic and also than social-positive, social-negative and auditory alone condition. No gender differences were found. Both horror and erotic film clips significantly decreased heart rate (HR when compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. The erotic film clips significantly increased the skin conductance level (SCL compared to the social-negative films. The horror film clips significantly increased the SCL compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. Both the highly arousing erotic and non-erotic (horror movies produced the largest decrease in the P3 amplitude, a decrease in the HR and an increase in the SCL. These data support the notion that this workload task is very sensitive to the attentional resources allocated to the film clip, although they do not act as a specific index of sexual interest. Therefore, the use of this methodology seems to be of questionable utility as a specific measure of sexual interest or as an objective measure of the severity of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder.

  18. Neuropsychological weaknesses in anorexia nervosa : Set-shifting, central coherence, and decision making in currently ill and recovered women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danner, Unna N.; Sanders, Nicole; Smeets, Paul A. M.; van Meer, Floor; Adan, Roger A. H.; Hoek, Hans W.; van Elburg, Annemarie A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine set-shifting, central coherence, and decision making in women currently ill with anorexia nervosa (AN), women recovered from AN, and healthy control women. We aim to test whether these neuropsychological weaknesses persist after recovery, and explor

  19. Self-Monitoring During Spelling Practice: Effects on Spelling Accuracy and On-Task Behavior of Three Students Diagnosed With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rafferty, Lisa A; Arroyo, Jenna; Ginnane, Shaunna; Wilczynski, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    We used a multiple baseline across subjects design to investigate the effects of self-monitoring on the on-task behavior and spelling accuracy of three fifth-grade students diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during an independent spelling practice period in the general education environment. We also compared their on-task levels to that of peers without disabilities in the same classroom context before and after the self-monitoring intervention. Our results showed ...

  20. Measuring the stigma-sensitivity of psychotic patients in Hong Kong : the effect of stigma-related stimuli on emotional stroop task and attentional probe task

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Wing-ying; 戴穎盈

    2013-01-01

    Psychological distress aroused by stigma may lead to impairments in attentional functioning because it calls attention to the experience of stigma-related stress. Very few studies have actually considered whether stigma could disrupt attentional functioning by serving as distractors with emotional valence in the schizophrenia spectrum, given that there is a possible dysfunctional affective system in response to processing of emotional information. This research employed the paradigm of em...

  1. 两种注意方式对前瞻记忆任务的影响%Influence of Two Types of Attention on the Prospective Memory Task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茗

    2014-01-01

    It examined the effect of the top-down and bottom-up attentional resources on the prospective memory by adopting double-task paradigm .It showed that the top-down attentional resources affect the performance of prospective memory task , the higher the task of prospective memory occupies , the better the prospective memory scores .The bottom-up attentional resources also had a marginal significant effect on prospective memory .The interaction between top-down attentional resources and bottom-up attentional resources would be a significant factor to prospective memory .The result supported the dual-processing theory .%采用双任务实验范式探讨自下而上和自上而下的两种注意方式对前瞻记忆的影响。结果表明:自上而下的注意对前瞻记忆成绩有影响,前瞻记忆任务的任务权重越高,前瞻记忆成绩越好;自下而上的注意对前瞻记忆的成绩呈现边缘显著;两者交互作用达到显著性水平。实验结果支持双重加工理论。

  2. The impact of road traffic noise on cognitive performance in attention-based tasks depends on noise level even within moderate-level ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlittmeier, Sabine J; Feil, Alexandra; Liebl, Andreas; Hellbr Ck, J Rgen

    2015-01-01

    Little empirical evidence is available regarding the effects of road traffic noise on cognitive performance in adults, although traffic noise can be heard at many offices and home office workplaces. Our study tested the impact of road traffic noise at different levels (50 dB(A), 60 dB(A), 70 dB(A)) on performance in three tasks that differed with respect to their dependency on attentional and storage functions, as follows: The Stroop task, in which performance relied predominantly on attentional functions (e.g., inhibition of automated responses; Experiment 1: n = 24); a non-automated multistage mental arithmetic task calling for both attentional and storage functions (Exp. 2: n = 18); and verbal serial recall, which placed a burden predominantly on storage functions (Experiment 3: n = 18). Better performance was observed during moderate road traffic noise at 50 dB(A) compared to loud traffic noise at 70 dB(A) in attention-based tasks (Experiments 1-2). This contrasted with the effects of irrelevant speech (60 dB(A)), which was included in the experiments as a well-explored and common noise source in office settings. A disturbance impact of background speech was only given in the two tasks that called for storage functions (Experiments 2-3). In addition to the performance data, subjective annoyance ratings were collected. Consistent with the level effect of road traffic noise found in the performance data, a moderate road traffic noise at 50 dB(A) was perceived as significantly less annoying than a loud road traffic noise at 70 dB(A), which was found, however, independently of the task at hand. Furthermore, the background sound condition with the highest detrimental performance effect in a task was also rated as most annoying in this task, i.e., traffic noise at 70 dB(A) in the Stroop task, and background speech in the mental arithmetic and serial recall tasks. PMID:25913554

  3. The impact of road traffic noise on cognitive performance in attention-based tasks depends on noise level even within moderate-level ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine J Schlittmeier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little empirical evidence is available regarding the effects of road traffic noise on cognitive performance in adults, although traffic noise can be heard at many offices and home office workplaces. Our study tested the impact of road traffic noise at different levels (50 dB(A, 60 dB(A, 70 dB(A on performance in three tasks that differed with respect to their dependency on attentional and storage functions, as follows: The Stroop task, in which performance relied predominantly on attentional functions (e.g., inhibition of automated responses; Experiment 1: n = 24; a non-automated multistage mental arithmetic task calling for both attentional and storage functions (Exp. 2: n = 18; and verbal serial recall, which placed a burden predominantly on storage functions (Experiment 3: n = 18. Better performance was observed during moderate road traffic noise at 50 dB(A compared to loud traffic noise at 70 dB(A in attention-based tasks (Experiments 1-2. This contrasted with the effects of irrelevant speech (60 dB(A, which was included in the experiments as a well-explored and common noise source in office settings. A disturbance impact of background speech was only given in the two tasks that called for storage functions (Experiments 2-3. In addition to the performance data, subjective annoyance ratings were collected. Consistent with the level effect of road traffic noise found in the performance data, a moderate road traffic noise at 50 dB(A was perceived as significantly less annoying than a loud road traffic noise at 70 dB(A, which was found, however, independently of the task at hand. Furthermore, the background sound condition with the highest detrimental performance effect in a task was also rated as most annoying in this task, i.e., traffic noise at 70 dB(A in the Stroop task, and background speech in the mental arithmetic and serial recall tasks.

  4. Set-Shifting Ability Is Associated with Gray Matter Volume in Older People with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Doi, Takehiko; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims An understanding of the association between gray matter volume and executive functioning could provide strategies to reduce dementia risk in older people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods In a cross-sectional analysis, we assessed executive functioning in 83 older people with MCI using three standard neuropsychological tests: set shifting (difference between Trail Making Test Parts B and A), working memory (difference between Digit Span forward and backward from th...

  5. Self-monitoring during spelling practice: effects on spelling accuracy and on-task behavior of three students diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Lisa A; Arroyo, Jenna; Ginnane, Shaunna; Wilczynski, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    We used a multiple baseline across subjects design to investigate the effects of self-monitoring on the on-task behavior and spelling accuracy of three fifth-grade students diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during an independent spelling practice period in the general education environment. We also compared their on-task levels to that of peers without disabilities in the same classroom context before and after the self-monitoring intervention. Our results showed that time on-task and spelling accuracy increased for the students diagnosed with ADHD during independent spelling practice after the teacher taught them how to self-monitor. These same students' on-task behavior also increased to levels comparable to that of their peers. Suggestions for educators interested in teaching their students self-monitoring strategies are included following a discussion of the results of the analysis. PMID:22532902

  6. The relationship between language proficiency and attentional control in Cantonese-English bilingual children: Evidence from Simon, Simon switching, and working memory tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Shing eTse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available By administering Simon, Simon switching, and operation-span working memory tasks to Cantonese-English bilingual children who varied in their first-language (L1, Cantonese and second-language (L2, English proficiencies, as quantified by standardized vocabulary test performance, the current study examined the effects of L1 and L2 proficiency on attentional control performance. Apart from mean performance, we conducted ex-Gaussian analyses to capture the modal and positive-tail components of participants’ reaction time distributions in the Simon task. Bilinguals’ L2 proficiency was associated with higher scores in the operation span task, and a shift of reaction time distributions in incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials (Simon effect in µ, and the tail size of reaction time distributions (τ regardless of trial types. Bilinguals’ L1 proficiency, which was strongly associated with participants’ age, showed similar results, except that it was not associated with the Simon effect in µ. In contrast, neither bilinguals’ L1 nor L2 proficiency modulated the global switch cost or local switch cost in the Simon switching task. After taking into account potential cognitive maturation by partialling out the participants’ age, only (a scores in the working memory task and (b RT in incongruent trials and (c Simon effect in µ in the Simon task could still be predicted by bilinguals’ L2 proficiency. Overall, the current findings suggest that bilingual children’s L2 proficiency was associated with their conflict resolution and working memory capacity, but not goal maintenance or task-set switching, when they performed the cognitive tasks that demanded attentional control. This was not entirely consistent with the findings of college-age bilinguals reported in previous studies.

  7. Working Memory Capacity in a Go/No-Go Task: Age Differences in Interference, Processing Speed, and Attentional Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Villagra, Odir Antonio; Göthe, Katrin; Oberauer, Klaus; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    We tested the limits of working-memory capacity (WMC) of young adults, old adults, and children with a memory-updating task. The task consisted of mentally shifting spatial positions within a grid according to arrows, their color signaling either only go (control) or go/no-go conditions. The interference model (IM) of Oberauer and Kliegl (2006)…

  8. Non-Threatening Other-Race Faces Capture Visual Attention: Evidence from a Dot-Probe Task

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Janabi, Shahd; MacLeod, Colin; Rhodes, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Visual attentional biases towards other-race faces have been attributed to the perceived threat value of such faces. It is possible, however, that they reflect the relative visual novelty of other-race faces. Here we demonstrate an attentional bias to other-race faces in the absence of perceived threat. White participants rated female East Asian faces as no more threatening than female own-race faces. Nevertheless, using a new dot-probe paradigm that can distinguish attentional capture and ho...

  9. A system of token economy associated to response cost applied to the out of the task behaviour of two adolescents suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Chaves Cruz; Rosangela Bertelli; Agostinho Jorge Assanção Marafão

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a program of token economy, that is, positive reinforcement, associated to negative punishment, that is, response cost, on the “out of the task” behaviour of two adolescents diagnosed as suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The program involved presenting or removing points contingent to the emission of adequate or inadequate behaviour, respectively, considering the task at hand. The token economy system was carrie...

  10. Medio-Frontal and Anterior Temporal abnormalities in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during an acoustic antisaccade task as revealed by electro-cortical source reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Rockstroh Brigitte; Kissler Johanna; Goepel Johanna; Paul-Jordanov Isabella

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent disorders in children and adolescence. Impulsivity is one of three core symptoms and likely associated with inhibition difficulties. To date the neural correlate of the antisaccade task, a test of response inhibition, has not been studied in children with (or without) ADHD. Methods Antisaccade responses to visual and acoustic cues were examined in nine unmedicated boys with ADHD (mean age 122.44 ±...

  11. EFFECTS OF TAI CHI EXERCIE ON ATTENTION IN HEALTHY ELDERLY SUBJECTS AS MEASURED BY NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY DURING THE STROOP TASK

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenchao; Qiu, Chen; Ota, Toyosaku; Sawada, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Naoko; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Background: To our knowledge,there is no study that has examined the effect of Tai Chi exercise(Tai Chi) on attention function using functional brain imaging methodologies. Recent developments in near-infrared spectroscopy(NIRS) have enabled non-invasive clarification of brain functions by measurement of hemoglobin concentrations as cerebral blood volume. So, in the present study, we examined the effects of Tai Chi in the healthy elderly as measured by NIRS during the Stroop task. Methods: Tw...

  12. Age Changes in Cardiac Deceleration within a Fixed Foreperiod Reaction-Time Task: An Index of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan

    1971-01-01

    Thirty 6-, 8-, and 10-year-old boys were subjects in this study whose findings suggest that the obtained differences in anticipatory heart-rate deceleration reflect developmental changes in the ability to maintain attention. (WY)

  13. The cerebral correlates of set-shifting: an fMRI study of the trail making test

    OpenAIRE

    Moll Jorge; Oliveira-Souza Ricardo de; Moll Fernanda Tovar; Bramati Ivanei Edson; Andreiuolo Pedro Angelo

    2002-01-01

    The trail making test (TMT) pertains to a family of tests that tap the ability to alternate between cognitive categories. However, the value of the TMT as a localizing instrument remains elusive. Here we report the results of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of a verbal adaptation of the TMT (vTMT). The vTMT takes advantage of the set-shifting properties of the TMT and, at the same time, minimizes the visuospatial and visuomotor components of the written TMT. Whole brain B...

  14. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and the pesticide chlorpyrifos modulate attention, motivation and impulsivity in female mice in the 5-choice serial reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris-Sampedro, Fiona; Reverte, Ingrid; Basaure, Pia; Cabré, Maria; Domingo, José L; Colomina, Maria Teresa

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphate pesticides - and chlorpyrifos (CPF) in particular - contribute to a wide range of neurobehavioural disorders. Most experimental research focuses on learning and memory processes, while other behaviours remain understudied. The isoforms of the human apolipoprotein E (apoE) confer different cognitive skills on their carriers, but data on this topic are still limited. The current study was performed to assess whether the APOE genotypic variability differently modulates the effects of CPF on attentional performance, inhibitory control and motivation. Human apoE targeted replacement adult female mice (apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4) were trained to stably perform the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). Animals were then subjected to daily dietary CPF (3.75 mg/kg body weight) for 4 weeks. After CPF exposure, we established a 4-week CPF-free period to assess recovery. All individuals acquired the task, apoE2 mice showed enhanced learning, while apoE4 mice displayed increased premature and perseverative responding. This genotype-dependent lack of inhibitory control was reversed by CPF. Overall, the pesticide induced protracted impairments in sustained attention and motivation, and it reduced anticipatory responding. ApoE3 mice exhibited delayed attentional disruptions throughout the wash-out period. Taken together, these findings provide notable evidence on the emergence of CPF-related attentional and motivational deficits. PMID:27106138

  15. Involuntary attentional capture by task-irrelevant objects that match the search template for category detection in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Reshanne R; van Zoest, Wieske; Peelen, Marius V

    2015-05-01

    Theories of visual search postulate that the selection of targets amongst distractors involves matching visual input to a top-down attentional template. Previous work has provided evidence that feature-based attentional templates affect visual processing globally across the visual field. In the present study, we asked whether more naturalistic, category-level attentional templates also modulate visual processing in a spatially global and obligatory way. Subjects were cued to detect people or cars in a diverse set of photographs of real-world scenes. On a subset of trials, silhouettes of people and cars appeared in search-irrelevant locations that subjects were instructed to ignore, and subjects were required to respond to the location of a subsequent dot probe. In three experiments, results showed a consistency effect on dot-probe trials: dot probes were detected faster when they appeared in the location of the cued category compared with the non-cued category, indicating attentional capture by template-matching stimuli. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that this capture was involuntary: consistency effects persisted under conditions in which attending to silhouettes of the cued category was detrimental to performance. Experiment 3 tested whether these effects could be attributed to non-attentional effects related to the processing of the category cues. Results showed a consistency effect when subjects searched for category exemplars but not when they searched for objects semantically related to the cued category. Together, these results indicate that attentional templates for familiar object categories affect visual processing across the visual field, leading to involuntary attentional capture by template-matching stimuli. PMID:25810159

  16. D-amphetamine improves attention performance in adolescent Wistar, but not in SHR rats, in a two-choice visual discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizot, Jean-Charles; Cogrel, Nicolas; Massé, Fabienne; Chauvin, Virgile; Brault, Léa; David, Sabrina; Trovero, Fabrice

    2015-09-01

    The validity of spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR) as a model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been explored by comparing SHR with Wistar rats in a test of attention, the two-choice visual discrimination task (2-CVDT). Animals were 4-5 weeks old during the training phase of the experiment and 6-7 weeks old during the testing phase in which they were tested with D-amphetamine, a stimulant drug used for the treatment of ADHD. As compared to Wistar, SHR showed a slightly better attention performance, a slightly lower impulsivity level, and a lower general activity during the training phase, but these differences disappeared or lessened thereafter, during the testing phase. D-amphetamine (0.5, 1 mg/kg) improved attention performance in Wistar, but not in SHR, and did not modify impulsivity and activity in the two strains. In conclusion, the present study did not demonstrate that SHR represents a valid model of ADHD, since it did not show face validity regarding the behavioral symptoms of ADHD and predictive validity regarding the effect of a compound used for the treatment of ADHD. On the other hand, this study showed that the 2-CVDT may represent a suitable tool for evaluating in adolescent Wistar rats the effect on attention of compounds intended for the treatment of ADHD. PMID:26037943

  17. Spotting from The Rightmost Deep: A Temporal Field Advantage in A Behavioural Task of Attention And Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Gálvez-García

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, animal and human physiological studies have suggested that subcortical structures that are part of the extrageniculate pathways have an important role to play in the attentive selection of targets and the filtering of distractors. However, not much has been done to investigate the filtering of distractors in purely behavioural experiments through cues that might reveal extrageniculate functions, such as the asymmetry in performance between the nasal and the temporal visual fields. Here, under monocular conditions, participants viewed laterally and tachistoscopically presented sets of visual stimuli and were required to decide whether a target was present in the set or not. The manipulation of attention demands was achieved by varying the degree of spatial organization of the stimuli. A temporal field advantage in detection accuracy was found, and was observed only for disorganised sets of stimuli, that is, when demands on attention were greater. Furthermore, this pattern was found only for stimuli projected to the right hemisphere. The results suggest that the extrageniculate pathways of the right hemisphere in humans are involved in filtering out distractors. They are discussed in light of findings and theories about extrageniculate mediation of selective attention.

  18. Evaluation of Planning Dysfunction in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorders Using the Zoo Map Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Marin, M. D.; Moreno-Granados, J. M.; Ruiz-Veguilla, M.; Ferrin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorders (ADHD) and Autistic-Spectrum-Disorders (ASD) share overlapping clinical and cognitive features that may confuse the diagnosis. Evaluation of executive problems and planning dysfunction may aid the clinical diagnostic process and help disentangle the neurobiological process underlying these conditions. This…

  19. Brain wave correlates of attentional states: Event related potentials and quantitative EEG analysis during performance of cognitive and perceptual tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Frederick G.

    1993-01-01

    The increased use of automation in the cockpits of commercial planes has dramatically decreased the workload requirements of pilots, enabling them to function more efficiently and with a higher degree of safety. Unfortunately, advances in technology have led to an unexpected problem: the decreased demands on pilots have increased the probability of inducing 'hazardous states of awareness.' A hazardous state of awareness is defined as a decreased level of alertness or arousal which makes an individual less capable of reacting to unique or emergency types of situations. These states tend to be induced when an individual is not actively processing information. Under such conditions a person is likely to let his/her mind wander, either to internal states or to irrelevant external conditions. As a result, they are less capable of reacting quickly to emergency situations. Since emergencies are relatively rare, and since the high automated cockpit requires progressively decreasing levels of engagement, the probability of being seduced into a lowered state of awareness is increasing. This further decreases the readiness of the pilot to react to unique circumstances such as system failures. The HEM Lab at NASA-Langley Research Center has been studying how these states of awareness are induced and what the physiological correlates of these different states are. Specifically, they have been interested in studying electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of different states of alertness to determine if such states can be identified and, hopefully, avoided. The project worked on this summer involved analyzing the EEG and the event related potentials (ERP) data collected while subjects performed under two conditions. Each condition required subjects to perform a relatively boring vigilance task. The purpose of using these tasks was to induce a decreased state of awareness while still requiring the subject to process information. Each task involved identifying an infrequently

  20. Will Working Memory Training Generalize to Improve Off-Task Behavior in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Chloe T.; Long, Debra L.; Green,David; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Dixon, J. Faye; Miller, Meghan R.; Fassbender, Catherine; Schweitzer, Julie B.

    2012-01-01

    Computerized working memory and executive function training programs designed to target specific impairments in executive functioning are becoming increasingly available, yet how well these programs generalize to improve functional deficits in disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), beyond the training context is not well-established. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which working memory (WM) training in children with ADHD would diminish a core dy...

  1. Rejection Positivity Predicts Trial-to-Trial Reaction Times in an Auditory Selective Attention Task: A Computational Analysis of Inhibitory Control

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    Sufen eChen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of computer simulations using variants of a formal model of attention (Melara & Algom, 2003 probed the role of rejection positivity (RP, a slow-wave electroencephalographic (EEG component, in the inhibitory control of distraction. Behavioral and EEG data were recorded as participants performed auditory selective attention tasks. Simulations that modulated processes of distractor inhibition accounted well for reaction-time (RT performance, whereas those that modulated target excitation did not. A model that incorporated RP from actual EEG recordings in estimating distractor inhibition was superior in predicting changes in RT as a function of distractor salience across conditions. A model that additionally incorporated momentary fluctuations in EEG as the source of trial-to-trial variation in performance precisely predicted individual RTs within each condition. The results lend support to the linking proposition that RP controls the speed of responding to targets through the inhibitory control of distractors.

  2. Neural correlates of response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A controlled version of the stop-signal task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Tieme W P; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; van Mourik, Rosa; Logan, Gordon D; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2015-08-30

    The stop-signal task has been used extensively to investigate the neural correlates of inhibition deficits in children with ADHD. However, previous findings of atypical brain activation during the stop-signal task in children with ADHD may be confounded with attentional processes, precluding strong conclusions on the nature of these deficits. In addition, there are recent concerns on the construct validity of the SSRT metric. The aim of this study was to control for confounding factors and improve the specificity of the stop-signal task to investigate inhibition mechanisms in children with ADHD. FMRI was used to measure inhibition related brain activation in 17 typically developing children (TD) and 21 children with ADHD, using a highly controlled version of the stop-signal task. Successful inhibition trials were contrasted with control trials that were comparable in frequency, visual presentation and absence of motor response. We found reduced brain activation in children with ADHD in key inhibition areas, including the right inferior frontal gyrus/insula, and anterior cingulate/dorsal medial prefrontal cortex. Using a more stringent controlled design, this study replicated and specified previous findings of atypical brain activation in ADHD during motor response inhibition. PMID:26195296

  3. The set-shifting profiles of anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorder using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Westwood, H.; D. Stahl; Mandy, W.; Tchanturia, K.

    2016-01-01

    Difficulties in set-shifting are commonly reported in both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and anorexia nervosa (AN) populations. Despite this, it is not known whether this cognitive profile persists across different ages, or whether the profiles seen in ASD and AN are comparable. This systematic review and meta-analyses aimed to compare the set-shifting profiles, as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in adults and younger people with either ASD or AN, relative to healthy contr...

  4. The set-shifting profiles of anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorder using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Westwood, H.; D. Stahl; Mandy, W.; Tchanturia, K.

    2016-01-01

    Difficulties in set-shifting are commonly reported in both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and anorexia nervosa (AN) populations. Despite this, it is not known whether this cognitive profile persists across different ages, or whether the profiles seen in ASD and AN are comparable. This systematic review and meta-analyses aimed to compare the set-shifting profiles, as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in adults and younger people with either ASD or AN, relative to healthy contr...

  5. Volatiles emitted from the roots of Vetiveria zizanioides suppress the decline in attention during a visual display terminal task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Eri; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Fukagawa, Mio; Ishizi, Yuka; Kakoi, Chikako; Hatayama, Tomoko; Nagano, Jun; Okamoto, Tsuyoshi; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2012-01-01

    The perennial grass Vetiveria zizanioides (vetiver) is mainly cultivated for its fragrant essential oil. Although the components of the oil and their biological activities have been studied extensively, the effect of the volatiles emitted from the roots of V. zizanioides on humans has so far remained unexplored. We investigated the effects of volatile compounds emitted from the cut roots of V. zizanioides (1.0 g, low-dose conditions; 30 g, high-dose conditions) on individuals during a visual display terminal task. Participants who breathed the volatile compounds emitted under low-dose conditions showed faster reaction times and stimulation of sympathetic nerve activity as measured by electrocardiography. These effects were not observed under high-dose conditions. The total amounnt of volatiles emitted during the experiment was 0.25 μg under low-dose conditions and 1.35 μg under high-dose conditions. These findings indicate that volatile compounds emitted from the roots of V. zizanioides under low-dose conditions may have helped subjects to maintain performance in visual discrimination tasks while maintaining high sympathetic nerve system activity. PMID:23124250

  6. Behavioral, Cognitive, and Motor Preparation Deficits in a Visual Cued Spatial Attention Task in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhadze, Estate M; Tasman, Allan; Sokhadze, Guela E; El-Baz, Ayman S; Casanova, Manuel F

    2016-03-01

    Abnormalities in motor skills have been regarded as part of the symptomatology characterizing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It has been estimated that 80 % of subjects with autism display "motor dyspraxia" or clumsiness that are not readily identified in a routine neurological examination. In this study we used behavioral measures, event-related potentials (ERP), and lateralized readiness potential (LRP) to study cognitive and motor preparation deficits contributing to the dyspraxia of autism. A modified Posner cueing task was used to analyze motor preparation abnormalities in children with autism and in typically developing children (N = 30/per group). In this task, subjects engage in preparing motor response based on a visual cue, and then execute a motor movement based on the subsequent imperative stimulus. The experimental conditions, such as the validity of the cue and the spatial location of the target stimuli were manipulated to influence motor response selection, preparation, and execution. Reaction time and accuracy benefited from validly cued targets in both groups, while main effects of target spatial position were more obvious in the autism group. The main ERP findings were prolonged and more negative early frontal potentials in the ASD in incongruent trials in both types of spatial location. The LRP amplitude was larger in incongruent trials and had stronger effect in the children with ASD. These effects were better expressed at the earlier stages of LRP, specifically those related to response selection, and showed difficulties at the cognitive phase of stimulus processing rather that at the motor execution stage. The LRP measures at different stages reflect the chronology of cognitive aspects of movement preparation and are sensitive to manipulations of cue correctness, thus representing very useful biomarker in autism dyspraxia research. Future studies may use more advance and diverse manipulations of movement preparation demands in testing more

  7. Spatial attention: differential shifts in pseudoneglect direction with time-on-task and initial bias support the idea of observer subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benwell, Christopher S Y; Thut, Gregor; Learmonth, Gemma; Harvey, Monika

    2013-11-01

    Asymmetry in human spatial attention has long been documented. In the general population the majority of individuals tend to misbisect horizontal lines to the left of veridical centre. Nonetheless in virtually all previously reported studies on healthy participants, there have been subsets of people displaying rightward biases. In this study, we report differential time-on task effects depending on participants' initial pseudoneglect bias: participants with an initial left bias in a landmark task (in which they had to judge whether a transection mark appeared closer to the right or left end of a line) showed a significant rightward shift over the course of the experimental session, whereas participants with an initial right bias shifted leftwards. We argue that these differences in initial biases as well as the differential shifts with time-on task reflect genuine observer subtypes displaying diverging behavioural patterns. These observer subtypes could be driven by differences in brain organisation and/or lateralisation such as varying anatomical pathway asymmetries (Thiebaut de Schotten et al., 2011). PMID:24076376

  8. Aging, exercise, and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, H L; Kramer, A F; Capaldi, D

    1992-12-01

    The authors investigated the relationship among aging, attentional processes, and exercise in 2 experiments. First they examined age differences on 2 attentional tasks, a time-sharing task and an attentional flexibility task. Young adults alternated attention between 2 sequenced tasks more rapidly and time-shared the processing of 2 tasks more efficiently than older adults. They then investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on the same 2 attentional tasks in older adults. Following the 10-week exercise program, older exercisers showed substantially more improvement in alternation speed and time-sharing efficiency than older controls. Interestingly, this exercise effect was specific to dual-task processing. Both groups of subjects showed equivalent effects on single-task performance. These results indicate that aerobic exercise can exert a beneficial influence on the efficiency of at least 2 different attentional processes in older adults. PMID:1466833

  9. 17β-estradiol replacement in ovariectomized female rats slows set 1 dorsolateral striatial-dependent learning and enhances learning of set 2 in an extradimensional set-shifting paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatova, Olga; Wiener, Nicholas; Andrews, Kelly; Kirshenbaum, Ari P; Green, John T; Toufexis, Donna J

    2016-02-01

    The role of estrogen in extradimensional set-shifting was evaluated with replacement of 17β-estradiol (E2) in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. Rats were reinforced with food when they entered an arm of a plus-maze that was distinguished by visual and/or tactile cues (Set 1). In Set 2, reinforcement was shifted to construct a new association between food and visual/tactile cues that were different from Set 1. The purpose of using this extradimensional set-shifting task was to differentiate the effect of acute or continuous E2 on the dorsolateral (DLS) versus dorsomedial (DMS) striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), because Set 1 and 2 learning, respectively, are associated with these particular brain regions. Results showed that compared to controls, acute E2-replaced female rats required more training trials to reach criterion in Set 1. Moreover, E2-replaced females showed a significant delay in the rate of acquisition of Set 1 learning compared to controls. In Set 2 there were no group differences in perseverative errors, which are reduced by mPFC activation, or when learning took place in a previously reinforced arm, a DMS-mediated effect. Despite this, control females required more training trials to learn Set 2 compared to Set 1, suggesting that prior learning in Set 1 interfered with Set 2 performance in non-E-replaced rats. In contrast, E2 groups learned Set 2 in fewer training trials than Set 1. These data suggest that E2 facilitates set shifting, apart from any apparent enhancement of DMS or mPFC function, perhaps by interfering with DLS-mediated Set 1 learning. PMID:26795582

  10. Theta-band oscillatory activity differs between gamblers and nongamblers comorbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in a probabilistic reward-learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzari, Mehdi; Oberg, Scott; Tata, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    Problemgambling is thought to be comorbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We tested whether gamblers and ADHD patients exhibit similar reward-related brain activity in response to feedback in a gambling task. A series of brain electrical responses can be observed in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and the stimulus-locked event-related potentials (ERP), when participants in a gambling task are given feedback regardless of winning or losing the previous bet. Here, we used a simplified computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to assess differences in reinforcement-driven choice adaptation between unmedicated ADHD patients with or without problem gambling traits and contrasted with a sex- and age-matched control group. EEG was recorded from the participants while they were engaged in the task which contained two choice options with different net payouts and win/loss probabilities. Learning trend which shows the ability to acquire and use knowledge of the reward outcomes to obtain a positive financial outcome was not observed in ADHD gamblers versus nongamblers. Induced theta-band (4-8Hz) power over frontal cortex was significantly higher in gamblers versus nongamblers in all different high-risk/low-risk win/lose conditions. Whereas induced low alpha (9-11Hz) power at frontal electrodes could only differentiate high-risk lose between gamblers and nongamblers but not the other three conditions between the two groups. The results indicate that ADHD nongamblers do not share with problem gamblers underlying deficits in reward learning. These pilot data highlight the need for studies of ADHD in gambling to elucidate how motivational states are represented during feedback processing. PMID:27318102

  11. Delta, theta, and alpha event-related oscillations in alcoholics during Go/NoGo task: Neurocognitive deficits in execution, inhibition, and attention processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ashwini K; Kamarajan, Chella; Manz, Niklas; Chorlian, David B; Stimus, Arthur; Porjesz, Bernice

    2016-02-01

    Higher impulsivity observed in alcoholics is thought to be due to neurocognitive functional deficits involving impaired inhibition in several brain regions and/or neuronal circuits. Event-related oscillations (EROs) offer time-frequency measure of brain rhythms during perceptual and cognitive processing, which provide a detailed view of neuroelectric oscillatory responses to external/internal events. The present study examines evoked power (temporally locked to events) of oscillatory brain signals in alcoholics during an equal probability Go/NoGo task, assessing their functional relevance in execution and inhibition of a motor response. The current study hypothesized that increases in the power of slow frequency bands and their topographical distribution is associated with tasks that have increased cognitive demands, such as the execution and inhibition of a motor response. Therefore, it is hypothesized that alcoholics would show lower spectral power in their topographical densities compared to controls. The sample consisted of 20 right-handed abstinent alcoholic males and 20 age and gender-matched healthy controls. Evoked delta (1.0-3.5Hz; 200-600ms), theta (4.0-7.5Hz; 200-400ms), slow alpha (8.0-9.5Hz; 200-300ms), and fast alpha (10.0-12.5Hz; 100-200ms) ERO power were compared across group and task conditions. Compared to controls, alcoholics had higher impulsiveness scores on the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and made more errors on Go trials. Alcoholics showed significantly lower evoked delta, theta, and slow alpha power compared to controls for both Go and NoGo task conditions, and lower evoked fast alpha power compared to controls for only the NoGo condition. The results confirm previous findings and are suggestive of neurocognitive deficits while executing and suppressing a motor response. Based on findings in the alpha frequency ranges, it is further suggested that the inhibitory processing impairments in alcoholics may arise from inadequate early

  12. Distinct changes in CREB phosphorylation in frontal cortex and striatum during contingent and non-contingent performance of a visual attention task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana eCarli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB family of transcription factors has been implicated in numerous forms of behavioural plasticity. We investigated CREB phosphorylation along some nodes of corticostriatal circuitry such as frontal cortex (FC and dorsal (caudate putamen, CPu and ventral (nucleus accumbens, NAC striatum in response to the contingent or non-contingent performance of the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT used to assess visuospatial attention. Three experimental manipulations were used; an attentional performance group (contingent, master, a group trained previously on the task but for whom the instrumental contingency coupling responding with stimulus detection and reward was abolished (non-contingent, yoked and a control group matched for food deprivation and exposure to the test apparatus (untrained. Rats trained on the 5-CSRTT (both master and yoked had higher levels of CREB protein in the FC, CPu and NAC compared to untrained controls. Despite the divergent behaviour of master and yoked rats CREB activity in the FC was not substantially different. In rats performing the 5-CSRTT (master, CREB activity was completely abolished in the CPu whereas in the NAC it remained unchanged. In contrast, CREB phosphorylation in CPu and NAC increased only when the contingency changed from goal-dependent to goal-independent reinforcement (yoked. The present results indicate that up-regulation of CREB protein expression across cortical and striatal regions possibly reflects the extensive instrumental learning and performance whereas increased CREB activity in striatal regions may signal the unexpected change in the relationship between instrumental action and reinforcement.

  13. Medio-Frontal and Anterior Temporal abnormalities in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD during an acoustic antisaccade task as revealed by electro-cortical source reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockstroh Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most prevalent disorders in children and adolescence. Impulsivity is one of three core symptoms and likely associated with inhibition difficulties. To date the neural correlate of the antisaccade task, a test of response inhibition, has not been studied in children with (or without ADHD. Methods Antisaccade responses to visual and acoustic cues were examined in nine unmedicated boys with ADHD (mean age 122.44 ± 20.81 months and 14 healthy control children (mean age 115.64 ± 22.87 months, three girls while an electroencephalogram (EEG was recorded. Brain activity before saccade onset was reconstructed using a 23-source-montage. Results When cues were acoustic, children with ADHD had a higher source activity than control children in Medio-Frontal Cortex (MFC between -230 and -120 ms and in the left-hemispheric Temporal Anterior Cortex (TAC between -112 and 0 ms before saccade onset, despite both groups performing similarly behaviourally (antisaccades errors and saccade latency. When visual cues were used EEG-activity preceding antisaccades did not differ between groups. Conclusion Children with ADHD exhibit altered functioning of the TAC and MFC during an antisaccade task elicited by acoustic cues. Children with ADHD need more source activation to reach the same behavioural level as control children.

  14. The role of social cues in the deployment of spatial attention: Head-body relationships automatically activate directional spatial codes in a Simon task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona ePomianowska

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of body orientation in the orienting and allocation of social attention was examined using an adapted Simon paradigm. Participants categorized the facial expression of forward facing, computer-generated human figures by pressing one of two response keys, each located left or right of the observers’ body midline, while the orientation of the stimulus figure’s body (trunk, arms, and legs, which was the task-irrelevant feature of interest, was manipulated (oriented towards the left or right visual hemifield with respect to the spatial location of the required response. We found that when the orientation of the body was compatible with the required response location, responses were slower relative to when body orientation was incompatible with the response location. This reverse compatibility effect suggests that body orientation is automatically processed into a directional spatial code, but that this code is based on an integration of head and body orientation within an allocentric-based frame of reference. Moreover, we argue that this code may be derived from the motion information implied in the image of a figure when head and body orientation are incongruent. Our results have implications for understanding the nature of the information that affects the allocation of attention for social orienting.

  15. Information processing becomes slower and predominantly serial in aging: Characterization of response-related brain potentials in an auditory-visual distraction-attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid-Fernández, Susana; Lindín, Mónica; Díaz, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging and attentional capture provoked by novel auditory stimuli on behavior (reaction time [RT], hits) and on response-related brain potentials (preRFP, CRN, postRFP, parietalRP) to target visual stimuli. Twenty-two young, 27 middle-aged, and 24 old adults performed an auditory-visual distraction-attention task. The RTs and latencies of preRFP, postRFP and parietalRT were longer in old and middle-aged than in young participants, reflecting the well-established age-related slowing of processing and performance. The inter-peak latencies (P3b-preRFP, preRFP-parietalRP, parietalRP-postRFP) were also longer in old and middle-aged than in young participants, further indicating an age-related tendency to increased predominance of serial (rather than parallel) processing of information, and that preRFP, CRN, postRFP, and parietalRP represent different cognitive processes from those indexed by the stimulus-related P3b. Finally, a distraction effect in performance (all three groups) and in postRFP latency (only middle-aged group) was also observed. PMID:26589359

  16. The Effects of Classroom Interventions on Off-Task and Disruptive Classroom Behavior in Children with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldina F Gaastra

    Full Text Available Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD often exhibit problem behavior in class, which teachers often struggle to manage due to a lack of knowledge and skills to use classroom management strategies. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to determine the effectiveness of several types of classroom interventions (antecedent-based, consequence-based, self-regulation, combined that can be applied by teachers in order to decrease off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD. A second aim was to identify potential moderators (classroom setting, type of measure, students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use. Finally, it was qualitatively explored whether the identified classroom interventions also directly or indirectly affected behavioral and academic outcomes of classmates. Separate meta-analyses were performed on standardized mean differences (SMDs for 24 within-subjects design (WSD and 76 single-subject design (SSD studies. Results showed that classroom interventions reduce off-task and disruptive classroom behavior in children with symptoms of ADHD (WSDs: MSMD = 0.92; SSDs: MSMD = 3.08, with largest effects for consequence-based (WSDs: MSMD = 1.82 and self-regulation interventions (SSDs: MSMD = 3.61. Larger effects were obtained in general education classrooms than in other classroom settings. No reliable conclusions could be formulated about moderating effects of type of measure and students' age, gender, intelligence, and medication use, mainly because of power problems. Finally, classroom interventions appeared to also benefit classmates' behavioral and academic outcomes.

  17. A system of token economy associated to response cost applied to the out of the task behaviour of two adolescents suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Chaves Cruz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a program of token economy, that is, positive reinforcement, associated to negative punishment, that is, response cost, on the “out of the task” behaviour of two adolescents diagnosed as suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. The program involved presenting or removing points contingent to the emission of adequate or inadequate behaviour, respectively, considering the task at hand. The token economy system was carried out through the adoption of colourful individual cards numbered from one to 10 points. Points were also removed when the student showed at the present session an increased frequence of inadequate behaviour compared to the last session. When reaching 10 points, the cards were exchanged for the privilegies (positive reinforcers previously negotiated between teacher and student. Statistical treatment was carried out through the use of Levene and Student t tests. The significance of the difference between means (p < 0.0001 revealed the efficacy of the intervention treatment on the behaviour of both participants. It was concluded that the merging effect of the positive reinforcement and negative punishment (= response cost learning principles leads to the modification of classroom disruptive behaviours in children with ADHD.

  18. The use of music with young children to improve sustained attention during a vigilance task in the presence of auditory distractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, David E; Noguchi, Laura K

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of music to sustain attention of young children during conditions of auditory distractions. Kindergarten students (N=76) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions/groups: (a) spoken story with no distraction, (b) spoken story with distraction, (c) musical story with no distraction, musical story with distraction. Participants were asked to listen to the story and to identify specific "actions" and "animals" that were presented (i.e., spoken or sung) within the story. A tally of correct responses (child pointed to correct actions/animals at appropriate times) was recorded during the listening task. Observations of participants' behaviors while listening were also made by the experimenter using narrative recording procedures. A one-way ANOVA was computed to assess the difference in mean scores across the four experimental conditions. Significant results were found. Further analysis employing a Tukey post hoc/multiple comparisons test revealed significant differences between the spoken story with distraction condition and the musical story with distraction condition. These statistical results, along with the observations of listening behaviors, were discussed in terms of providing suggestions for future research and in lending support to the use of music with young children to improve vigilance within educational and clinical settings. PMID:19256733

  19. The set-shifting profiles of anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorder using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, H; Stahl, D; Mandy, W; Tchanturia, K

    2016-07-01

    Difficulties in set-shifting are commonly reported in both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and anorexia nervosa (AN) populations. Despite this, it is not known whether this cognitive profile persists across different ages, or whether the profiles seen in ASD and AN are comparable. This systematic review and meta-analyses aimed to compare the set-shifting profiles, as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in adults and younger people with either ASD or AN, relative to healthy controls (HCs) and to statistically compare performance on the WCST between ASD and AN. In all, 24 studies on ASD and 22 studies on AN were identified. In ASD, there were significant differences between the clinical group and HCs, with the ASD group making significantly more perseverative errors, indicating greater difficulty in set-shifting [pooled effect size of d = 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53-0.81, p ⩽ 0.001]. This effect was consistent across the age span. For AN studies, there was a significant difference between adults with AN and HCs (d = 0.52, 95% CI 0.36-0.68, p ⩽ 0.001) but a non-significant effect in child studies (d = 0.25, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.55, z = 1.66, p = 0.096). Meta-regression indicated no effect of diagnosis (AN or ASD) on performance in adult studies but there was a non-significant trend (p = 0.053) towards children with ASD performing worse than children with AN. While difficulties with set-shifting appear to be stable in ASD, there may be differences between children and adults with AN, which warrant further investigation. PMID:27109830

  20. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Towards a Unified Developmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control…

  1. Learners' Attention to Input during Focus on Form Listening Tasks: The Role of Mobile Technology in the Second Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, María José

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the differential effects of medium of delivery of aural input during listening tasks on learners noticing and type of comprehension (top-down and bottom-up) of Spanish object pronouns during focus on form listening tasks. Twenty-two college students enrolled in second year Spanish in a technology-enhanced classroom participated…

  2. A Comparison of the Visual Attention Patterns of People with Aphasia and Adults without Neurological Conditions for Camera-Engaged and Task-Engaged Visual Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Amber; Beukelman, David; Hux, Karen; Longenecker, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to compare the visual attention patterns of adults with aphasia and adults without neurological conditions when viewing visual scenes with 2 types of engagement. Method: Eye-tracking technology was used to measure the visual attention patterns of 10 adults with aphasia and 10 adults without neurological…

  3. The cerebral correlates of set-shifting: an fMRI study of the trail making test Correlatos cerebrais da flexibilidade cognitiva: RM funcional do teste das trilhas

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Moll; Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza; Fernanda Tovar Moll; Ivanei Edson Bramati; Pedro Angelo Andreiuolo

    2002-01-01

    The trail making test (TMT) pertains to a family of tests that tap the ability to alternate between cognitive categories. However, the value of the TMT as a localizing instrument remains elusive. Here we report the results of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of a verbal adaptation of the TMT (vTMT). The vTMT takes advantage of the set-shifting properties of the TMT and, at the same time, minimizes the visuospatial and visuomotor components of the written TMT. Whole brain B...

  4. Impaired Set-Shifting Ability in Patients with Eating Disorders, Which Is Not Moderated by Their Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met Genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Youl-Ri; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Mi Hyun

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the set-shifting ability in women with both anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) and to investigate whether it is contributed by the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genotype. A total of 102 Korean participants-40 women with lifetime AN, 28 women with lifetime BN, and 34 healthy women of comparable age and intelligence quotient- were examined. A neuropsychological battery of tests was applied and blood samples were obtained for COMT ...

  5. The Attentional Demand of Automobile Driving Revisited: Occlusion Distance as a Function of Task- Relevant Event Density in Realistic Driving Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Kujala, Tuomo; Mäkelä, Jakke; Kotilainen, Ilkka; Tokkonen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We studied the utility of occlusion distance as a function of task-relevant event density in realistic traffic scenarios with self-controlled speed. Background: The visual occlusion technique is an established method for assessing visual demands of driving. However, occlusion time is not a highly informative measure of environmental task-relevant event density in self-paced driving scenarios because it partials out the effects of changes in driving speed. Method: Self-determi...

  6. Implicit attention to negative social, in contrast to nonsocial, words in the Stroop task differs between individuals high and low in loneliness: Evidence from event-related brain microstates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Balogh, Stephen; Cacioppo, John T

    2015-09-01

    Being on the social perimeter is not only sad, it is dangerous. Our evolutionary model of the effects of perceived social isolation (loneliness) on the brain as well as a growing body of behavioral research suggests that loneliness promotes short-term self-preservation, including an increased implicit vigilance for social, in contrast to nonsocial, threats. However, this hypothesis has not been tested previously in a neuroimaging study. We therefore used high density EEG and a social Stroop interference task to test the hypothesis that implicit attention to negative social, in contrast to nonsocial, Words in the Stroop task differs between individuals high versus low in loneliness and to investigate the brain dynamics of implicit processing for negative social (vs nonsocial) stimuli in lonely individuals, compared to nonlonely individuals (N = 70). The present study provides the first evidence that negative social stimuli are differentiated from negative nonsocial stimuli more quickly in the lonely than nonlonely brains. Given the timing of this differentiation in the brain and the fact that participants were performing a Stroop task, these results also suggest that these differences reflect implicit rather than explicit attentional differences between lonely and nonlonely individuals. Source estimates were performed for purposes of hypothesis generation regarding underlying neural mechanisms, and the results implicated the neural circuits reminiscent of orienting and executive control aspects of attention as contributing to these differences. Together, the results are in accord with the evolutionary model of loneliness. PMID:26195152

  7. The Effects of Cueing Temporal and Spatial Attention on Word Recognition in a Complex Listening Task in Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    OpenAIRE

    Gatehouse, Stuart; Akeroyd, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    In a complex listening situation such as a multiperson conversation, the demands on an individual's attention are considerable: There will often be many sounds occurring simultaneously, with continual changes in source and direction. A laboratory analog of this was designed to measure the benefit that helping attention (by visual cueing) would have on word identification. These words were presented unpredictably but were sometimes cued with a temporal cue or a temporal-and-spatial cue. Two gr...

  8. Attention to Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael Eric

    a psychic prerequisite for the social interaction between pupils and teachers. New kinds of “split attention” arise and new kinds of social mediation (regulation and “use”) of psychic attention become necessary if teaching in the new digital medium milieu shall be beneficial. In this paper we...... against Facebook, online games etc. neither unconcern and ignorance of the new media and their consequences for attention) - we argue - can generate adequate social norms regulating psychic awareness in the new digital learning environment....

  9. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Juan A. Amador-Campos; J. Antonio Aznar-Casanova; Izabela Bezerra; Nelson Torro-Alves; Manuel M. Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]).Method:Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, part...

  10. Individual Differences in Asymmetric Resting-State Frontal Cortical Activity Modulate ERPs and Performance in a Global-Local Attention Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, Maarten A. S.; Kostermans, Evelien; Tops, Mattie; De Cremer, David

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that individual differences in approach motivation modulate attentional scope. In turn, approach and inhibition have been related to different neural systems that are associated with asymmetries in relative frontal activity (RFA). Here, we investigated whether such i

  11. Can Motivation Normalize Working Memory and Task Persistence in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder? The Effects of Money and Computer-Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovis, Sebastiaan; van der Oord, Saskia; Wiers, Reinout W.; Prins, Pier J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Visual-spatial "Working Memory" (WM) is the most impaired executive function in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Some suggest that deficits in executive functioning are caused by motivational deficits. However, there are no studies that investigate the effects of motivation on the visual-spatial WM of children with-…

  12. Overriding auditory attentional capture

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Polly; Lavie, Nilli

    2007-01-01

    Attentional capture by color singletons during shape search can be eliminated when the target is not a feature singleton (Bacon & Egeth, 1994). This suggests that a "singleton detection" search strategy must be adopted for attentional capture to occur. Here we find similar effects on auditory attentional capture. Irrelevant high-intensity singletons interfered with an auditory search task when the target itself was also a feature singleton. However, singleton interference was eliminated when ...

  13. Can Motivation Normalize Working Memory and Task Persistence in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder? The Effects of Money and Computer-Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Dovis, S.; Oord, van der, S.; Wiers, R.W.; Prins, P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Visual-spatial Working Memory (WM) is the most impaired executive function in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Some suggest that deficits in executive functioning are caused by motivational deficits. However, there are no studies that investigate the effects of motivation on the visual-spatial WM of children with- and without ADHD. Studies examining this in executive functions other than WM, show inconsistent results. These inconsistencies may be related to diffe...

  14. Changes in frontal EEG coherence across infancy predict cognitive abilities at age 3: The mediating role of attentional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whedon, Margaret; Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-09-01

    Theoretical perspectives of cognitive development have maintained that functional integration of the prefrontal cortex across infancy underlies the emergence of attentional control and higher cognitive abilities in early childhood. To investigate these proposed relations, we tested whether functional integration of prefrontal regions across the second half of the first year predicted observed cognitive performance in early childhood 1 year prior indirectly through observed attentional control (N = 300). Results indicated that greater change in left-but not right-frontal EEG coherence between 5 and 10 months was positively associated with attentional control, cognitive flexibility, receptive language, and behavioral inhibitory control. Specifically, a larger increase in coherence between left frontal regions was positively associated with accuracy on a visual search task at Age 2, and visual search accuracy was positively associated with receptive vocabulary, performance on a set-shifting task (DCCS), and delay of gratification at Age 3. Finally, the indirect effects from the change in left frontal EEG coherence to 3-year cognitive flexibility, receptive language, and behavioral inhibitory control were significant, suggesting that internally controlled attention is a mechanism through which early neural maturation influences children's cognitive development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27441486

  15. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Toward a Unified Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children’s performances in an attention switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control during the preschool years. The second literature encompasses a large and robust set of phenomena for the same developmental period that indicate a ...

  16. Drug treatment and familiar music aids an attention shift from vision to somatosensation in Parkinson's disease on the reach-to-eat task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Travis, Scott G; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2011-03-01

    Sensory control of the natural skilled movement of reaching for a food target to eat (reach-to-eat) is closely coupled to the successive phases of the movement. Control subjects visually fixate the target from hand movement onset to the point that the digits contact the food, at which point they look away. This relationship between sensory attention and limb movement suggests that whereas limb advance is under visual control, grasping, limb withdrawal, and releasing the food to the mouth is guided by somatosensation. The pattern of sensory control is altered in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD subjects may visually fixate the target for longer durations prior to movement initiation, during the grasp, and during the initial portion of hand withdrawal suggesting that vision compensates for a somatosensory impairment. Because both medication and listening to favorite musical pieces have been reported to normalize some movements in subjects with PD, the present study compared the effect of medication and listening to preferred musical pieces on sensory attention shifts from vision to somatosensation during the reach-to-eat movement. Biometric measures of eye movement and the movement of the reaching limb were collected from PD subjects and aged-matched control subjects in four conditions in their own homes: off medication, off medication with music, on medication, and on medication with music. Unmedicated PD subjects were slower to visually disengage the target after grasping it. Their disengage latency was shortened by both music and medication. Medication and music did not improve other aspects of reaching, including reaching duration and the ratings of the movement elements of limb advance, grasping, and limb withdrawal. The results are discussed in relation to the idea that one way in which medication and music may aid movement in PD by normalizing somatosensory control of forelimb movement thus reducing compensatory visual monitoring. PMID:21073905

  17. Attention allocation before antisaccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapetek, Anna; Jonikaitis, Donatas; Deubel, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the distribution of attention before antisaccades. We used a dual task paradigm, in which participants made prosaccades or antisaccades and discriminated the orientation of a visual probe shown at the saccade goal, the visual cue location (antisaccade condition), or a neutral location. Moreover, participants indicated whether they had made a correct antisaccade or an erroneous prosaccade. We observed that, while spatial attention in the prosaccade task was allocated only to the saccade goal, attention in the antisaccade task was allocated both to the cued location and to the antisaccade goal. This suggests parallel attentional selection of the cued and antisaccade locations. We further observed that in error trials--in which participants made an incorrect prosaccade instead of an antisaccade--spatial attention was biased towards the prosaccade goal. These erroneous prosaccades were mostly unnoticed and were often followed by corrective antisaccades with very short latencies (programming of the reflexive prosaccade to the cue and the antisaccade to the intended location. Taken together, our results suggest that attention allocation and saccade goal selection in the antisaccade task are mediated by a common competitive process. PMID:26790843

  18. A novel variable delay Go/No-Go task to study attention, motivation and working memory in the head-fixed rodent [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1sn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel D Dolzani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to parse the causal elements underlying complex behaviors and decision-making processes, appropriate behavioral methods must be developed and used in concurrence with molecular, pharmacological, and electrophysiological approaches. Presented is a protocol for a novel Go/No-Go behavioral paradigm to study the brain attention and motivation/reward circuitry in awake, head-restrained rodents. This experimental setup allows: (1 Pharmacological and viral manipulation of various brain regions via targeted guide cannula; (2 Optogenetic cell-type specific activation and silencing with simultaneous electrophysiological recording and; (3 Repeated electrophysiological single and multiple unit recordings during ongoing behavior. The task consists of three components. The subject first makes an observing response by initiating a trial by lever pressing in response to distinctive Go or No-Go tones.  Then, after a variable delay period, the subject is presented with a challenge period cued by white noise during which they must respond with a lever press for the Go condition or withhold from lever pressing for the duration of the cue in the No-Go condition. After correctly responding during the challenge period (Challenge and a brief delay, a final reward tone of the same frequency as the initiation tone is presented and sucrose reward delivery is available and contingent upon lever pressing. Here, we provide a novel procedure and validating data set that allows researchers to study and manipulate components of behavior such as attention, motivation, impulsivity, and reward-related working memory during an ongoing operant behavioral task while limiting interference from non task-related behaviors.

  19. Emotional distractors can enhance attention

    OpenAIRE

    Sussman, Tamara J.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2013-01-01

    The deleterious effects of emotional distractors on attention are well demonstrated. However, it is unclear if emotional distractors inevitably disrupt task-relevant attention. Using multilevel modeling (MLM), the present study examined the impact of valence and arousal dimensions of distracting emotional stimuli and individual differences in anxiety on task-relevant processing. Consistent with prior literature, high-arousal negative distractors were associated with poor task-relevant attenti...

  20. Overriding auditory attentional capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Polly; Lavie, Nilli

    2007-02-01

    Attentional capture by color singletons during shape search can be eliminated when the target is not a feature singleton (Bacon & Egeth, 1994). This suggests that a "singleton detection" search strategy must be adopted for attentional capture to occur. Here we find similar effects on auditory attentional capture. Irrelevant high-intensity singletons interfered with an auditory search task when the target itself was also a feature singleton. However, singleton interference was eliminated when the target was not a singleton (i.e., when nontargets were made heterogeneous, or when more than one target sound was presented). These results suggest that auditory attentional capture depends on the observer's attentional set, as does visual attentional capture. The suggestion that hearing might act as an early warning system that would always be tuned to unexpected unique stimuli must therefore be modified to accommodate these strategy-dependent capture effects. PMID:17557587

  1. Gaming the Attention Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Daniel; Lawhead, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The future of human computation (HC) benefits from examining tasks that agents already perform and designing environments to give those tasks computational significance. We call this natural human computation (NHC). We consider the possible future of NHC through the lens of Swarm!, an application under development for Google Glass. Swarm! motivates users to compute the solutions to a class of economic optimization problems by engaging the attention dynamics of crowds. We argue that anticipati...

  2. Dissociation between spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) andWistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats in baseline performance and methylphenidate response on measures of attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity in a Visual Stimulus Position Discrimination Task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.

    2009-10-08

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a widely accepted rodent model of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and methylphenidate (MP) is a central nervous systemstimulant that has been shown to have a dose-related positive effect on attention task performance in humans with ADHD. The current study was undertaken to compare SHR to its typical control strain, Wistar-Kyoto(WKY) rats, on the performance of a Visual Stimulus Position Discrimination Task (VSPDT) as well as of the responsiveness of the two rat strains to MP treatment. The rats were initially trained on the VSPDT, in which a light cue was presented randomly at three different cue-light intervals (1 s, 300 ms and 100 ms) over one of two levers, and presses on the lever corresponding to the light cue were reinforced with a food pellet. Once rats reached stable performance, the treatment phase of the study began, during which they received daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of saline, 2 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg of MP in a randomized order immediately prior to being tested on the VSPDT. Baseline performance accuracy on the VSPDT did not differ between the groups. Furthermore, a striking strain dissociation was evident in the response of the two strains to treatment; VSPDT performance was substantially disrupted by the 5 and 10 mg/kg dose in the WKY rats but only mildly in the SHR rats. Response omissions were also increased only in WKY rats. Finally, both strains had increased locomotor activity in the operant chamber following MP treatment. These findings point to an important difference in response tendency toMP in the two strains that supports a view that a critical difference between these strains may suggest neurochemical and neuroadaptive differences associated with the behavioral impairments of ADHD.

  3. Emotional distractors can enhance attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Tamara J.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious effects of emotional distractors on attention are well demonstrated. However, it is unclear if emotional distractors inevitably disrupt task-relevant attention. Using multilevel modeling (MLM), the present study examined the impact of valence and arousal dimensions of distracting emotional stimuli and individual differences in anxiety on task-relevant processing. Consistent with prior literature, high-arousal negative distractors were associated with poor task-relevant attention compared to positive and neutral distractors. However, low-arousal negative distractors were associated with better task-relevant performance than were positive and neutral distractors. Furthermore, these effects were accentuated by individual differences in worry. These findings challenge assumptions that distraction and worry must be minimized for augmented attentional performance. Overall, these results emphasize the importance of taking into account emotional dimensions of arousal and valence as well as individual differences in anxiety when examining attention in the presence of emotional distractors. PMID:24058065

  4. Learning to Pay Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Slagter, Heleen A.; LUTZ, ANTOINE; Greischar, Lawrence L; Francis, Andrew D; Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Davis, James M.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The information processing capacity of the human mind is limited, as is evidenced by the so-called “attentional-blink” deficit: When two targets (T1 and T2) embedded in a rapid stream of events are presented in close temporal proximity, the second target is often not seen. This deficit is believed to result from competition between the two targets for limited attentional resources. Here we show, using performance in an attentional-blink task and scalp-recorded brain potentials, that meditatio...

  5. Dysfunctional attention in autistic savants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, B J; Gordon, C T; Mannheim, G B; Rumsey, J M

    1993-11-01

    A dysfunctional attention hypothesis of the basis of savant skills was tested with a series of computerized tasks that assessed the ability to divide, shift, direct, and sustain attention. Ten healthy men with pervasive developmental disorders and unusual calendar-calculating skill, and 10 age- and sex-matched controls were tested. There were four general findings. First, the savants and controls did not differ on a measure of visual sustained attention. Second, the savants failed to detect rare auditory targets significantly more than did the controls. Third, the savants were unable to efficiently divide their attention when required to detect both visual and auditory targets simultaneously. Finally, deficient orienting or a deficit in shifting selective attention from one stimulus location to another was evidenced in overall slower reaction times for the savants across tasks requiring shifts and redirecting of attention. This deficit was attributed to an inability to disengage attention as a result of deficient orienting and overselectivity. PMID:8120129

  6. The Effects of Focused Attention on Inhibition and State Regulation in Children with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketch, Karen M.; Brodeur, Darlene A.; McGee, Robin

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of response rate and attention focusing on performance of ADHD, clinical-control (CRNA) and non-clinical control children in response inhibition tasks. All children completed the "Go-NoGo" task, a computer-based task of attention and impulsivity. Focused attention on this task was manipulated using a priming…

  7. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  8. Now, Pay Attention! The Effects of Instruction on Children's Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannass, Kathleen N.; Colombo, John; Wyss, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of instructions to "stay on task" on preschoolers' attention and cognitive performance in the face of either incomprehensible or comprehensible distraction. Three- and 4-year-olds completed problem-solving tasks while a distracting event played continuously in the background under conditions of (a) no instruction, (b)…

  9. Predictive coding in autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Chennu, Srivas; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Rattazzi, Alexia; Beraudi, Ana; Tripicchio, Paula; Moyano, Beatriz; Soffita, Yamila; Steinberg, Laura; Adolfi, Federico; Sigman, Mariano; Marino, Julian; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2015-11-01

    Predictive coding has been proposed as a framework to understand neural processes in neuropsychiatric disorders. We used this approach to describe mechanisms responsible for attentional abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We monitored brain dynamics of 59 children (8-15 yr old) who had ASD or ADHD or who were control participants via high-density electroencephalography. We performed analysis at the scalp and source-space levels while participants listened to standard and deviant tone sequences. Through task instructions, we manipulated top-down expectation by presenting expected and unexpected deviant sequences. Children with ASD showed reduced superior frontal cortex (FC) responses to unexpected events but increased dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation to expected events. In contrast, children with ADHD exhibited reduced cortical responses in superior FC to expected events but strong PFC activation to unexpected events. Moreover, neural abnormalities were associated with specific control mechanisms, namely, inhibitory control in ASD and set-shifting in ADHD. Based on the predictive coding account, top-down expectation abnormalities could be attributed to a disproportionate reliance (precision) allocated to prior beliefs in ASD and to sensory input in ADHD. PMID:26311184

  10. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Anita D.; Jacobson, Lisa A.; Joanna L. Wexler; Mary Beth Nebel; Caffo, Brian S.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain–behavior associations...

  11. A Deficit in Shifting Attention Present in High-Functioning Autism but Not Asperger's Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Nicole J.; Bradshaw, John L.; Moss, Simon A.; Brereton, Avril V.; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined the executive functioning, in particular the attentional set-shifting deficits in Australian individuals ages 6-20 with high-functioning autism (n=12) and Asperger's disorder (n=12). Results indicate that individuals with autism had a deficiency in shifting from local to global processing, however, this was not observed in…

  12. Caffeine Modulates Attention Network Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a flanker task designed to test Posner's three visual attention network functions: alerting, orienting, and executive control [Posner, M. I. (2004). "Cognitive neuroscience of attention". New York, NY: Guilford Press]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind…

  13. Voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, Jared; Barbot, Antoine; Carrasco, Marisa

    2010-01-01

    Voluntary covert attention selects relevant sensory information for prioritized processing. The behavioral and neural consequences of such selection have been extensively documented, but its phenomenology has received little empirical investigation. Involuntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency (Gobell & Carrasco, 2005), but involuntary attention can differ from voluntary attention in its effects on performance in tasks mediated by spatial resolution (Yeshurun, Montagna, & Carra...

  14. Revealed Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Masatlioglu, Yusufcan; NAKAJIMA, Daisuke; Ozbay, Erkut Y

    2012-01-01

    The standard revealed preference argument relies on an implicit assumption that a decision maker considers all feasible alternatives. The marketing and psychology literatures, however, provide wellestablished evidence that consumers do not consider all brands in a given market before making a purchase (Limited Attention). In this paper, we illustrate how one can deduce both the decision maker's preference and the alternatives to which she pays attention and inattention from the observed behav...

  15. Revealed Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Yusufcan Masatlioglu; Daisuke Nakajima; Ozbay, Erkut Y

    2012-01-01

    The standard revealed preference argument relies on an implicit assumption that a decision maker considers all feasible alternatives. The marketing and psychology literatures, however, provide well-established evidence that consumers do not consider all brands in a given market before making a purchase (Limited Attention). In this paper, we illustrate how one can deduce both the decision maker's preference and the alternatives to which she pays attention and inattention from the observed beha...

  16. Shared Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shteynberg, Garriy

    2015-09-01

    Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior. Here, I advance a psychological theory of shared attention, defining its properties as a mental state and outlining its cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. I review empirical findings that are uniquely predicted by shared-attention theory and discuss the possibility of integrating shared-attention, social-facilitation, and social-loafing perspectives. Finally, I reflect on what shared-attention theory implies for living in the digital world. PMID:26385997

  17. Attention in emotion regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gelow, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The concept of emotion and how to regulate it is a central aspect of modern psychology. Within the process model of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998), one issue is how attentional deployment affects emotion regulation and how this can be measured. In task 1, pictures of positive or negative valence were showed in two conditions, either attend or decrease emotional reaction, while participants’ eye movements were followed with an eye tracker. Ratings of arousal and valence were significantly af...

  18. Attention in Urban Foraging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm McCullough

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This position paper argues how there has to be much more to smart city learning than just wayshowing, and something better as augmented reality than covering the world with instructions. Attention has become something for many people to know better in an age of information superabundance. Embodied cognition explains how the work-ings of attention are not solely a foreground task, as if attention is something to pay. As digital media appear in ever more formats and contexts, their hybrids with physical form increasing influence how habitual engagement with persistent situations creates learning. Ambient information can just add to the distraction by multitasking, or it can support more favorable processes of shifting among different kinds of information with a particular intent. As one word for this latter process, foraging deserves more consideration in smart city learning

  19. Effect of Backward Walking on Attention: Possible Application on ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The human requires attentive effort as assessed in dual-task experiments. Consistently, an attentive task can modify the walking pattern and a attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accompanied by gait modifications. Here we investigated the relationships between backward walking and attentive performances in ADHD children (n=13) and healthy age-, height and weight matched controls (n=17). We evaluated the attentive/impulsive profile by means of a Go/No-Go task and the backwar...

  20. Common and disease-specific dysfunctions of brain systems underlying attentional and executive control in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Tobias; Wolter, Sarah; Falck, Stefanie; Wild, Eva; Wild, Florian; Gruber, Eva; Falkai, Peter; Gruber, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder broadly overlap in multiple areas involving clinical phenomenology, genetics, and neurobiology. Still, the investigation into specific elementary (sub-)processes of executive functioning may help to define clear points of distinction between these categorical diagnoses to validate the nosological dichotomy and, indirectly, to further elucidate their pathophysiological underpinnings. In the present behavioral study, we sought to separate common from diagnosis-specific deficits in a series of specific elementary sub-functions of executive processing in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. For our purpose, we administered a modern and multi-purpose neuropsychological task paradigm to equal-sized and matched groups of schizophrenia patients, patients with bipolar disorder, and healthy control subjects. First, schizophrenia patients compared to the bipolar group exhibited a more pronounced deficit in general measures of task performance comprising both response speed and accuracy. Additionally, bipolar patients showed increased advance task preparation, i.e., were better able to compensate for response speed deficits when longer preparation intervals were provided. Set-shifting, on the other hand, was impaired to a similar degree in both patient groups. Finally, schizophrenia patients exhibited a specific deficit in conflict processing (inhibitory control) and the shielding of task-relevant processing from distraction (i.e., attentional maintenance). The present investigation suggests that specific neuropsychological measures of elementary executive functions may represent important points of dissociation between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, which may help to differentiate the pathophysiological underpinnings of these major psychiatric disorders. In this context, the present findings highlight the measures of inhibitory control and attentional maintenance as promising candidates. PMID:24061607

  1. Transport Task Force Leadership, Task 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transport Task Force (TTF) was initiated as a broad-based US magnetic fusion community activity during the fall of 1988 to focus attention on and encourage development of an increased understanding of anomalous transport in tokamaks. The overall TTF goal is to make progress on Characterizing, Understanding and Identifying how to Reduce plasma transport in tokamaks -- to CUIR transport

  2. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Amador-Campos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task in which two letters (T1 and T2 were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB].Method:Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, participants simply had to identify a target letter (T1, whereas in the dual task, they had to identify a target letter (T1 and a probe letter (T2.Results:The ADHD and control groups were equivalent in their single-task performance. However, in the dual-task condition, there were significant between-group differences in the rate of detection of the probe letter (T2 at lag + 1 and lag + 4. The ADHD group exhibited a larger overall AB compared with controls.Conclusion:Our findings provide support for a link between ADHD and attentional blink.

  3. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built us

  4. Attention Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Börner, Dirk; KALZ Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment and the open source computer vision library OpenCV for Processing. Available under the GNU LGPL licence version 3 or higher.

  5. A relational structure of voluntary visual-attention abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Skogsberg, KatieAnn; Grabowecky, Marcia; Wilt, Joshua; Revelle, William; Iordanescu, Lucica; Suzuki, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have examined attention mechanisms involved in specific behavioral tasks (e.g., search, tracking, distractor inhibition). However, relatively little is known about the relationships among those attention mechanisms. Is there a fundamental attention faculty that makes a person superior or inferior at most types of attention tasks, or do relatively independent processes mediate different attention skills? We focused on individual differences in voluntary visual-attention abilities ...

  6. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hirano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64% showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5% showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23% showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9% showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  7. A dopaminergic basis for working memory, learning and attentional shifting in Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed A; Sherman, Scott J; Frank, Michael J

    2008-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients exhibit cognitive deficits, including reinforcement learning, working memory (WM) and set shifting. Computational models of the basal ganglia-frontal system posit similar mechanisms for these deficits in terms of reduced dynamic range of striatal dopamine (DA) signals in both medicated and non-medicated states. Here, we report results from the first study that tests PD patients on and off dopaminergic medications in a modified version of the AX continuous performance (AX-CPT) working memory task, consisting of three performance phases and one phase requiring WM associations to be learned via reinforcement feedback. Patients generally showed impairments relative to controls. Medicated patients showed deficits specifically when having to ignore distracting stimuli during the delay. Our models suggest that this impairment is due to medication causing excessive WM updating by enhancing striatal "Go" signals that facilitate such updating, while concurrently suppressing "NoGo" signals. In contrast, patients off medication showed deficits consistent with an overall reduction in striatal DA and associated Go updating signals. Supporting this dichotomy, patients on and off medication both showed attentional shifting deficits, but for different reasons. Deficits in non-medicated patients were consistent with an inability to update the new attentional set, whereas those in medicated patients were evident when having to ignore distractors that had previously been task relevant. Finally, in the feedback-based WM phase, medicated patients were better than unmedicated patients, suggesting a key role of striatal DA in using feedback to update information into WM. These results lend further insight into the role of basal ganglia dopamine in WM and broadly support predictions from neurocomputational models. PMID:18687347

  8. Mental Fatigue Affects Visual Selective Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Léon G.; Maurits, Natasha M.; Lorist, Monicque M.

    2012-01-01

    Mental fatigue is a form of fatigue, induced by continuous task performance. Mentally fatigued people often report having a hard time keeping their attention focussed and being easily distracted. In this study, we examined the relation between mental fatigue, as induced by time on task, and attention-related changes in event-related potentials (ERPs). EEG, reaction times and response accuracies were obtained from 17 healthy volunteers during two hours of task performance on an adapted Eriksen...

  9. Deficient maturation of aspects of attention and executive functions in early onset schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik L; Jepsen, Jens Richardt M; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine; Christensen, Anne Marie R; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2010-01-01

    -organic, non-affective psychoses (EOP) (N = 11). Speed of processing of executive functions, set shifting, and attention improved significantly in the healthy controls and reflected continuous functional maturation during late adolescence and early adulthood. The developmental progression of attention and set...... shifting but not speed of processing of executive functions was significantly subnormal in EOS patients. Other specific cognitive functions that had attained functional maturity in the healthy controls before or around the time of the baseline assessment showed normal development in EOS patients during the...... follow-up period, indicating stable cognitive deficits. These results suggest post-onset developmental deficits in two out of the three aspects of attention and executive functions that have protracted maturational trajectories and that overlap the age of onset of EOS. No significant difference in the...

  10. Attention: A Machine Learning Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai

    2012-01-01

    We review a statistical machine learning model of top-down task driven attention based on the notion of ‘gist’. In this framework we consider the task to be represented as a classification problem with two sets of features — a gist of coarse grained global features and a larger set of low...... problem, we can evaluate the strategy simply by estimating error rates on a test data set. We illustrate the attention mechanism on a simple simulated visual domain in which the choice is over nine patches in which a binary pattern has to be classified. The performance of the classifier equipped with the...

  11. Effects of noise and task loading on a communication task loading on a communication task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrell, Dean H., II

    Previous research had shown the effect of noise on a single communication task. This research has been criticized as not being representative of a real world situation since subjects allocated all of their attention to only one task. In the present study, the effect of adding a loading task to a standard noise-communication paradigm was investigated. Subjects performed both a communication task (Modified Rhyme Test; House et al. 1965) and a short term memory task (Sternberg, 1969) in simulated levels of aircraft noise (95, 105 and 115 dB overall sound pressure level (OASPL)). Task loading was varied with Sternberg's task by requiring subjects to memorize one, four, or six alphanumeric characters. Simulated aircraft noise was varied between levels of 95, 105 and 115 dB OASPL using a pink noise source. Results show that the addition of Sternberg's task and little effect on the intelligibility of the communication task while response time for the communication task increased.

  12. Social reward shapes attentional biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Paying attention to stimuli that predict a reward outcome is important for an organism to survive and thrive. When visual stimuli are associated with tangible, extrinsic rewards such as money or food, these stimuli acquire high attentional priority and come to automatically capture attention. In humans and other primates, however, many behaviors are not motivated directly by such extrinsic rewards, but rather by the social feedback that results from performing those behaviors. In the present study, I examine whether positive social feedback can similarly influence attentional bias. The results show that stimuli previously associated with a high probability of positive social feedback elicit value-driven attentional capture, much like stimuli associated with extrinsic rewards. Unlike with extrinsic rewards, however, such stimuli also influence task-specific motivation. My findings offer a potential mechanism by which social reward shapes the information that we prioritize when perceiving the world around us. PMID:25941868

  13. Does mindfulness meditation improve attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Farahmand, Pantea; Chaplin, Margaret; Sarro, Lauren

    2015-12-22

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mindfulness training, derived from Eastern meditation practices, may improve self-regulation of attention. It may also be a useful strategy to augment standard ADHD treatments and may be used as a potential tool to reduce impairments in patients with residual symptoms of ADHD. Clinically, this would manifest by an increased ability to suppress task-unrelated thoughts and distractions resulting in improved attention, completion of tasks and potential improvement in occupational and social function. PMID:26740931

  14. Developmental Changes in Infants' and Toddlers' Attention to Gender Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kristen E.; Bittinger, Kathleen; Smith, Amy; Madole, Kelly L.

    2001-01-01

    Three studies examined the emergence of attention to gender categories in toddlers. Results suggested that 18-month-olds showed little attention to gender on a sequential touching task. The possibility that they could not discriminate the dolls used in the task by gender was ruled out. There was a sharp increase in attention to gender between 18…

  15. Defining the Focus of Attention: Effects of Attention on Perceived Exertion and Fatigue.

    OpenAIRE

    Keith eLohse; SHERWOOD, DAVID E.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript presents two experiments designed to explore the effects of attention on perceived exertion and time to failure in a fatiguing athletic task. There were two major motivating factors for these experiments. First, there are few studies evaluating attentional focus effects in endurance tasks and, second, there is a lack of integration between studies of attentional focus as external/internal (e.g., Wulf, 2007a) compared to associative/dissociative (e.g., Stevinson and Biddle, 199...

  16. Performance Enhancements Under Dual-task Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, A. F.; Wickens, C. D.; Donchin, E.

    1984-01-01

    Research on dual-task performance has been concerned with delineating the antecedent conditions which lead to dual-task decrements. Capacity models of attention, which propose that a hypothetical resource structure underlies performance, have been employed as predictive devices. These models predict that tasks which require different processing resources can be more successfully time shared than tasks which require common resources. The conditions under which such dual-task integrality can be fostered were assessed in a study in which three factors likely to influence the integrality between tasks were manipulated: inter-task redundancy, the physical proximity of tasks and the task relevant objects. Twelve subjects participated in three experimental sessions in which they performed both single and dual-tasks. The primary task was a pursuit step tracking task. The secondary tasks required the discrimination between different intensities or different spatial positions of a stimulus. The results are discussed in terms of a model of dual-task integrality.

  17. Can Rhesus Monkey Learn Executive Attention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Bramlett-Parker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of data indicates that, compared to humans, rhesus monkeys perform poorly on tasks that assess executive attention, or voluntary control over selection for processing, particularly under circumstances in which attention is attracted elsewhere by competing stimulus control. In the human-cognition literature, there are hotly active debates about whether various competencies such as executive attention, working memory capacity, and fluid intelligence can be improved through training. In the current study, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta completed an attention-training intervention including several inhibitory-control tasks (a Simon task, numerical Stroop task, global/local interference task, and a continuous performance task to determine whether generalized improvements would be observed on a version of the Attention Network Test (ANT of controlled attention, which was administered before and after the training intervention. Although the animals demonstrated inhibition of prepotent responses and improved in executive attention with practice, this improvement did not generalize to the ANT at levels consistently better than were observed for control animals. Although these findings fail to encourage the possibility that species differences in cognitive competencies can be ameliorated through training, they do advance our understanding of the competition between stimulus-control and cognitive-control in performance by nonhuman and human primates.

  18. Can Rhesus Monkey Learn Executive Attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramlett-Parker, Jessica; Washburn, David A

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of data indicates that, compared to humans, rhesus monkeys perform poorly on tasks that assess executive attention, or voluntary control over selection for processing, particularly under circumstances in which attention is attracted elsewhere by competing stimulus control. In the human-cognition literature, there are hotly active debates about whether various competencies such as executive attention, working memory capacity, and fluid intelligence can be improved through training. In the current study, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed an attention-training intervention including several inhibitory-control tasks (a Simon task, numerical Stroop task, global/local interference task, and a continuous performance task) to determine whether generalized improvements would be observed on a version of the Attention Network Test (ANT) of controlled attention, which was administered before and after the training intervention. Although the animals demonstrated inhibition of prepotent responses and improved in executive attention with practice, this improvement did not generalize to the ANT at levels consistently better than were observed for control animals. Although these findings fail to encourage the possibility that species differences in cognitive competencies can be ameliorated through training, they do advance our understanding of the competition between stimulus-control and cognitive-control in performance by nonhuman and human primates. PMID:27304969

  19. Neurocognitive correlates of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a Turkish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicegi-Dinn, Ayse; Dervent-Ozbek, Sevinc; Yazgan, Yanki; Bicer, Duygu; Dinn, Wayne M

    2011-03-01

    We established a neuropsychological testing profile among Turkish adults presenting with ADHD controlling for general intelligence and comorbid psychiatric conditions. Adults with ADHD frequently present with comorbid conditions (e.g., mood and substance use/abuse disorders) that may have a detrimental impact on neurocognitive function. Hence, we excluded patients with ADHD meeting criteria for comorbid psychiatric syndromes. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to adults with ADHD attending a general psychiatry clinic in Istanbul, Turkey, and healthy control participants. Adults with ADHD demonstrated performance deficits on tests of attention, information processing speed, and general and working memory. Patients with ADHD also reported a significantly greater number of symptoms associated with frontal lobe syndromes (i.e., dysexecutive symptoms and disinhibition). Patients with ADHD demonstrated rather striking deficits on tests of verbal and nonverbal memory. Once information was encoded, however, patients with ADHD do not demonstrate significant information loss. Patients with ADHD and healthy controls did not differ on tests of alternation learning, inhibitory control (error rates), and ToM skills. Findings support the contention that dorsal-prefrontal (rather than ventral-prefrontal) dysfunction is associated with adult ADHD. Unexpectedly, groups did not differ on executive control and fluency tasks. Yet patients with ADHD obtained substantially higher scores on a self-report measure of executive dysfunction. This suggests that dysexecutive symptoms among patients with ADHD in the current study do not reflect set-shifting or organizational deficits. Rather, symptoms may reflect attentional and working memory deficits as well as diminished information processing speed. PMID:21432617

  20. Deficient maturation of aspects of attention and executive functions in early onset schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt M.; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine; Christensen, Anne Marie R.; Nordentoft, Merete; Erik L. Mortensen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The few existing long-term, neuropsychological follow-up studies of early onset schizophrenia (EOS) patients have reported relative stability in some cognitive functions but abnormal developmental trajectories in verbal memory, set shifting, aspects of attention, and speed of information processing throughout late adolescence into early adulthood. The current 5-year follow-up study compared the development of specific cognitive functions in EOS patients (N = 17) from the t...

  1. Cognitive programs: software for attention's executive

    OpenAIRE

    Tsotsos, John K; Kruijne, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    What are the computational tasks that an executive controller for visual attention must solve? This question is posed in the context of the Selective Tuning model of attention. The range of required computations go beyond top-down bias signals or region-of-interest determinations, and must deal with overt and covert fixations, process timing and synchronization, information routing, memory, matching control to task, spatial localization, priming, and coordination of bottom-up with top-down in...

  2. The effects of advertisement location and familiarity on selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Tanja Lund; Rodway, Paul

    2010-06-01

    This study comprised two experiments to examine the distracting effects of advertisement familiarity, location, and onset on the performance of a selective attention task. In Exp. 1, familiar advertisements presented in peripheral vision disrupted selective attention when the attention task was more demanding, suggesting that the distracting effect of advertisements is a product of task demands and advertisement familiarity and location. In Exp. 2, the onset of the advertisement shortly before, or after, the attention task captured attention and disrupted attentional performance. The onset of the advertisement before the attention task reduced target response time without an increase in errors and therefore facilitated performance. Despite being instructed to ignore the advertisements, the participants were able to recall a substantial proportion of the familiar advertisements. Implications for the presentation of advertisements during human-computer interaction were discussed. PMID:20681345

  3. Effect of attention control on sustained attention during induced anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillon, Christian; Robinson, Oliver J; Mathur, Ambika; Ernst, Monique

    2016-06-01

    Anxiety has wide-reaching and complex effects on cognitive performance. Although it can intrude on cognition and interfere with performance, it can also facilitate information processing and behavioural responses. In a previous study, we showed that anxiety induced by threat of shock facilitates performance on the Sustained Attention to Response Task, a vigilance test, which probes response inhibition to infrequent nogo stimuli. The present study sought to identify factors that may have contributed to such improved performance, including on- and off-task thinking (assessed with thought probes) and individual differences in attention control, as measured with the Attention Control Scale. Replicating our prior finding, we showed that shock threat significantly reduced errors of commission on the nogo trials. However, we extended this finding in demonstrating that this effect was driven by subjects with low attention control. We therefore confirm that anxiety increases inhibitory control of prepotent responses-a mechanism which is adaptive under threat-and show that this effect is greater in those who rely more upon such prepotent responding, i.e., those with low attentional control. PMID:25899613

  4. [Alpha ERD and human visual selective attention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermachenko, N S; Ermachenko, A A; Latanov, A V

    2011-01-01

    We compared the alpha band EEG depression (event-related desynchnization, ERD) level in two tasks, involving activation of different attentional processes: visual search for a deviant relevant stimulus among many similar ones and visual oddball. Control data for the visual search task consisted of simple viewing of several stimuli being of the same shape as the relevant stimulus in the search trials. Gaze position was verified by eye tracking method. We interpreted alpha band ERD as a correlate of activation of attentional processes. Fixating the target in visual search task caused a significantly larger ERD than fixating the same stimuli in control trials over all leads. We suppose this to be related with task and visual environment complexities. The frontal ERD domination may indicate attentional control over voluntary movements execution (top-down attention). The caudal ERD may be related with updating of visual information as a result of search process (bottom-up attention). Both relevant and irrelevant stimuli in the oddball task also induced alpha band ERD, but it was larger in response to relevant one and reached maximum level over occipital leads. Domination of caudal ERD in oddball task is supposed to indicate bottom-up attention processes. PMID:22332425

  5. Attention, Joint Attention, and Social Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Mundy, Peter; Newell, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Before social cognition there is joint processing of information about the attention of self and others. This joint attention requires the integrated activation of a distributed cortical network involving the anterior and posterior attention systems. In infancy, practice with the integrated activation of this distributed attention network is a major contributor to the development of social cognition. Thus, the functional neuroanatomies of social cognition and the anterior–posterior attention ...

  6. Adults with Dyslexia Demonstrate Attentional Orienting Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Judy; Davies, Anne Aimola

    2008-01-01

    Alerting, orienting and executive control of attention are investigated in five adult cases of dyslexia. In comparison with a control group, alerting and executive control were found to be generally intact for each case. Two spatial cueing tasks were employed. For the task requiring target detection, orienting difficulties were evident only in…

  7. Attentional Costs in Multiple-Object Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombu, Michael; Seiffert, Adriane E.

    2008-01-01

    Attentional demands of multiple-object tracking were demonstrated using a dual-task paradigm. Participants were asked to make speeded responses based on the pitch of a tone, while at the same time tracking four of eight identical dots. Tracking difficulty was manipulated either concurrent with or after the tone task. If increasing tracking…

  8. Attention Supports Verbal Short-Term Memory via Competition between Dorsal and Ventral Attention Networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Majerus, Steve; Attout, Lucie; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Degueldre, Christian; Fias, W.; Maquet, Pierre; Martinez Perez, Trecy; Stawarczyk, David; Salmon, Eric; Van der Linden, Martial; Phillips, Christophe; Balteau, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between the neural correlates of short-term memory (STM) and attention have been actively studied in the visual STM domain but much less in the verbal STM domain. Here we show that the same attention mechanisms that have been shown to shape the neural networks of visual STM also shape those of verbal STM. Based on previous research in visual STM, we contrasted the involvement of a dorsal attention network centered on the intraparietal sulcus supporting task-related attention and ...

  9. Interactions between working memory and selective attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) was used to examine the interactions between working memory and selective attention. We combined two unrelated tasks, one requiring working memory and the other selective attention, which were performed by some undergraduates. The ERP results revealed that both congruent and incongruent stimuli in the selective attention task evoked an N400 component, reaching the peak point at around 500 ms. The N400 evoked by incongruent stimuli was more negative than that of congruent, which indicated the difference of semantic N400. Furthermore, working memory load had a significant influence on the N400 evoked by selective attention task in parietal region. And working memory load showed difference in the ERPs of working memory retrieval in central and parietal regions. The ERPs of probe under high working memory load were more positive from 350 to 550 ms post-stimulus; however, stimulus type of selective attention had no influence on working memory retrieval. The present study shows that working memory does not play a major role in the selective attention, especially in ignoring distracter, but it influences the performance of the selective attention as the background. The congruency of target and distracter in the selective attention task does not influence the working memory retrieval.

  10. The Attentional Boost Effect and Context Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Smith, S. Adam; Spataro, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli co-occurring with targets in a detection task are better remembered than stimuli co-occurring with distractors--the attentional boost effect (ABE). The ABE is of interest because it is an exception to the usual finding that divided attention during encoding impairs memory. The effect has been demonstrated in tests of item memory but it is…

  11. Attentional Disregulation: A Benefit for Implicit Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Gillian; Valderrama, Steven; Hasher, Lynn; Lenartowicz, Agatha

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effect of age and time of testing on the ability to control attention, and addressed the possibility that older adults’ susceptibility to distraction may sometimes facilitate performance on a later cognitive task. Using a modification of Rees et al. (1999), participants made same/different judgements on line-drawings superimposed with task-irrelevant letter strings. Memory for the distractors was subsequently tested using an implicit memory task. Both older and younger adu...

  12. Reward and Attentional Control in Visual Search

    OpenAIRE

    Yantis, Steven; Anderson, Brian A.; Wampler, Emma K.; Laurent, Patryk A.

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that the control of attention in visual search depends both on voluntary, top-down deployment according to context-specific goals, and on involuntary, stimulus-driven capture based on the physical conspicuity of perceptual objects. Recent evidence suggests that pairing target stimuli with reward can modulate the voluntary deployment of attention, but there is little evidence that reward modulates the involuntary deployment of attention to task-irrelevant distractors. We...

  13. Remediation of attention deficits in head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Nag S; Rao S

    1999-01-01

    Head injury is associated with psychological sequelae which impair the patient′s psychosocial functioning. Information processing, attention and memory deficits are seen in head injuries of all severity. We attempted to improve deficits of focused, sustained and divided attention. The principle of overlapping sources of attention resource pools was utilised in devising the remediation programme. Tasks used simple inexpensive materials. Four head injured young adult males with post conc...

  14. Infant Visual Attention and Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the role visual attention plays in the recognition of objects in infancy. Research and theory on the development of infant attention and recognition memory are reviewed in three major sections. The first section reviews some of the major findings and theory emerging from a rich tradition of behavioral research utilizing preferential looking tasks to examine visual attention and recognition memory in infancy. The second section examines research utilizing neural measures of attention and object recognition in infancy as well as research on brain-behavior relations in the early development of attention and recognition memory. The third section addresses potential areas of the brain involved in infant object recognition and visual attention. An integrated synthesis of some of the existing models of the development of visual attention is presented which may account for the observed changes in behavioral and neural measures of visual attention and object recognition that occur across infancy. PMID:25596333

  15. Predictive performance models and multiple task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Larish, Inge; Contorer, Aaron

    1989-01-01

    Five models that predict how performance of multiple tasks will interact in complex task scenarios are discussed. The models are shown in terms of the assumptions they make about human operator divided attention. The different assumptions about attention are then empirically validated in a multitask helicopter flight simulation. It is concluded from this simulation that the most important assumption relates to the coding of demand level of different component tasks.

  16. The Commingled Division of Visual Attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuechuan Sun

    Full Text Available Many critical activities require visual attention to be distributed simultaneously among distinct tasks where the attended foci are not spatially separated. In our two experiments, participants performed a large number of trials where both a primary task (enumeration of spots and a secondary task (reporting the presence/absence or identity of a distinctive shape required the division of visual attention. The spots and the shape were commingled spatially and the shape appeared unpredictably on a relatively small fraction of the trials. The secondary task stimulus (the shape was reported in inverse proportion to the attentional load imposed by the primary task (enumeration of spots. When the shape did appear, performance on the primary task (enumeration suffered relative to when the shape was absent; both speed and accuracy were compromised. When the secondary task required identification in addition to detection, reaction times increased by about 200 percent. These results are broadly compatible with biased competition models of perceptual processing. An important area of application, where the commingled division of visual attention is required, is the augmented reality head-up display (AR-HUD. This innovation has the potential to make operating vehicles safer but our data suggest that there are significant concerns regarding driver distraction.

  17. Supramodal Executive Control of Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFREDO eSPAGNA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The human attentional system can be subdivided into three functional networks of alerting, orienting, and executive control. Although these networks have been extensively studied in the visuospatial modality, whether the same mechanisms are deployed across different sensory modalities remains unclear. In this study we used the attention network test for visuospatial modality, in addition to two auditory variants with spatial and frequency manipulations to examine cross-modal correlations between network functions. Results showed that among the visual and auditory tasks the effects of executive control, but not effects of alerting and orienting were significantly correlated. These findings suggest that while alerting and orienting functions rely more upon modality specific processes, the executive control of attention coordinates complex behavior via supramodal mechanisms.

  18. Attention and Olfactory Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to ...

  19. Analysis of Attention and Analogical Reasoning in Children of Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherholt, Tara N.; Harris, Ruby C.; Burns, Barbara M.; Clement, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between specific attentional aspects of processing capacity and analogical reasoning in children from low-income families. 77 children aged 48-77 (M = 56.7) months were assessed on an analogical reasoning task (matrices subtest of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test) and on computerized attention tasks designed…

  20. Establishing the Attention-Distractibility Trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Sophie; Lavie, Nilli

    2016-02-01

    Failures to focus attention will affect any task engagement (e.g., at work, in the classroom, when driving). At the clinical end, distractibility is a diagnostic criterion of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we examined whether the inability to maintain attentional focus varies in the overall population in the form of an attention-distractibility trait. To test this idea, we administered an ADHD diagnostic tool to a sample of healthy participants and assessed the relationship between ADHD symptoms and task distraction. ADHD symptom summary scores were significantly positively associated with distractor interference in letter-search and name-classification tasks (as measured by reaction time), as long as the distractors were irrelevant (cartoon images) rather than relevant (i.e., compatible or incompatible with target names). Higher perceptual load during a task eliminated distraction irrespective of ADHD score. These findings suggest the existence of an attention-distractibility trait that confers vulnerability to irrelevant distraction, which can be remedied by increasing the level of perceptual load during the task. PMID:26667659

  1. Effects of ritalin and reboxetine on attentional set shifting in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in rats.%呱醋甲酯、瑞波西汀对注意缺陷多动障碍大鼠注意定势转移能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 苏林雁; 李飞; 曹枫林; 龚梅恩

    2007-01-01

    目的 通过测评注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)动物模型幼年自发性高血压大鼠(SHR)的注意定势转移能力,探讨呱醋甲酯(利地林)和瑞波西汀对 ADHD 大鼠模型注意定势转移能力的改善作用.方法 4周雄性SHR 27只随机分为SHR呱醋甲酯组(SR)9只、SHR瑞波西汀组(SRB)10 只和 sHR 生理盐水对照组(SN)8 只,WKY大鼠对照组(WN) 8 只.SR组腹腔注射"呱醋甲酯"5 mg·kg-1·d-19 d,SRB组腹腔注射瑞波西汀10 mg·kg-1·d-1 9 d,SN对照组按同期对照原则注射等量生理盐水.投药的第6~9 d连续完成注意定势转移能力测评,记录评定注意定势转移任务的循环数.结果 ①sHR在简单辨别阶段(SD)、复杂辨别阶段(CD)、复杂辨别反向阶段(CDR)、内维度转换阶段(IDS)、外维度转换阶段(EDS)能够连续6次正确完成操作任务所需要的次数明显多于WKY大鼠(P<0.05~P<0.01).②SR组大鼠在上述所有阶段完成任务所需要的循环次数都较SN对照组减少(P<0.05),不过在内维度转换反向阶段(IDSR)两组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).③SRB组大鼠在完成所有阶段任务所需要的循环次数都较SN对照组减少(P<0.05),不过在复习辨别反向阶段(CDRre)两组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 幼年SHR存在注意定势转移能力缺陷,"呱醋甲酯"和瑞波西汀均可以改善SHR注意定势转移能力.

  2. The effects of sequential attention shifts within visual working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qi; Saiki, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown conflicting data as to whether it is possible to sequentially shift spatial attention among visual working memory (VWM) representations. The present study investigated this issue by asynchronously presenting attentional cues during the retention interval of a change detection task. In particular, we focused on two types of sequential attention shifts: (1) orienting attention to one location, and then withdrawing attention from it, and (2) switching the focus of att...

  3. The effects of sequential attention shifts within visual working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Qi eLi; Jun eSaiki

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown conflicting data as to whether it is possible to sequentially shift spatial attention among visual working memory (VWM) representations. The present study investigated this issue by asynchronously presenting attentional cues during the retention interval of a change detection task. In particular, we focused on two types of sequential attention shifts: 1) orienting attention to one location, and then withdrawing attention from it, and 2) switching the focus of atten...

  4. Modality-specific attention in foraging bumblebees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nityananda, Vivek; Chittka, Lars

    2015-10-01

    Attentional demands can prevent humans and other animals from performing multiple tasks simultaneously. Some studies, however, show that tasks presented in different sensory modalities (e.g. visual and auditory) can be processed simultaneously. This suggests that, at least in these cases, attention might be modality-specific and divided differently between tasks when present in the same modality compared with different modalities. We investigated this possibility in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) using a biologically relevant experimental set-up where they had to simultaneously choose more rewarding flowers and avoid simulated predatory attacks by robotic 'spiders'. We found that when the tasks had to be performed using visual cues alone, bees failed to perform both tasks simultaneously. However, when highly rewarding flowers were indicated by olfactory cues and predators were indicated by visual cues, bees managed to perform both tasks successfully. Our results thus provide evidence for modality-specific attention in foraging bees and establish a novel framework for future studies of crossmodal attention in ecologically realistic settings. PMID:26587245

  5. Face-gender discrimination is possible in the near-absence of attention

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Leila; Wilken, Patrick; Koch, Christof

    2004-01-01

    The attentional cost associated with the visual discrimination of the gender of a face was investigated. Participants performed a face-gender discrimination task either alone (single-task) or concurrently (dual-task) with a known attentional demanding task (5-letter T/L discrimination). Overall performance on face-gender discrimination suffered remarkably little under the dual-task condition compared to the single-task condition. Similar results were obtained in experiments that controlled fo...

  6. Executive Function and Attention Profiles of Children with ADHD and / or Reading Disorder: Developmental Neuropsychology and Genetic Contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Marzocchi,

    2006-01-01

    The object of this study was to analyze Attention and EF in children with ADHD and/or Reading Disability. Four groups of children aged between 7 and 12 years (38 ADHD-only, 39 RD-only, 17 ADHD+RD and 37 Normal Controls) were tested Energization Processing, Executive Functioning (Inhibition, Set-shifting, Strategy Application and Verbal Fluency) and Episodic Memory. Children with ADHD-only may present a double deficit of Energization and Strategy Application. Energization and Inhibition defici...

  7. Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Kai eChang; Caterina ePesce; Yi-Te eChiang; Cheng-Yuh eKuo; Dong-Yang eFong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict) control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT), with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate inte...

  8. Attention trees and semantic paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura

    2007-02-01

    In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial

  9. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties. PMID:25763856

  10. Entirely irrelevant distractors can capture and captivate attention

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Sophie; Lavie, Nilli

    2011-01-01

    The question of whether a stimulus onset may capture attention when it is entirely irrelevant to the task and even in the absence of any attentional settings for abrupt onset or any dynamic changes has been highly controversial. In the present study, we designed a novel irrelevant capture task to address this question. Participants engaged in a continuous task making sequential forced choice (letter or digit) responses to each item in an alphanumeric matrix that remained on screen throughout ...

  11. Neural Effects of Auditory Distraction on Visual Attention in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Smucny, Jason; Rojas, Donald C.; Eichman, Lindsay C.; Tregellas, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Sensory flooding, particularly during auditory stimulation, is a common problem for patients with schizophrenia. The functional consequences of this impairment during cross-modal attention tasks, however, are unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine how auditory distraction differentially affects task-associated response during visual attention in patients and healthy controls. To that end, 21 outpatients with schizophrenia and 23 healthy comparison subjects performed a visual attent...

  12. Modelling auditory attention: Insights from the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, K. L.; Andersen, Tobias; Kyllingsbæk, Søren;

    , and that there is a ‘race’ for selection and representation in visual short term memory (VSTM). In the basic TVA task, participants view a brief display of letters and are asked to report either all of the letters (whole report) or a subset of the letters (e.g., the red letters; partial report...... to be measured for auditory attention; providing insights into impaired auditory attention in old adults and neuropsychological patients, and allowing direct comparisons with visual attention. In the visual task, the stimuli are simultaneous, stationary (unchanging over time), and separated in space...

  13. Alcohol, selective attention and sexual arousal in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G T; Niaura, R S; Adler, J L

    1985-03-01

    Thirty-two men social drinkers were randomly assigned to the cells of a balanced placebo design to investigate the effects of expected and actual alcohol consumption on sexual responsiveness. Using a dichotic listening task, erotic and nonerotic information was presented in the nonattended channel while subjects performed simple (low-attention demand) and complex (high-attention demand) numerical tasks presented in the attended channel. Penile tumescence was recorded continuously in response to all audiotaped information. The high-attention demand task significantly interfered with sexual arousal compared with the low-attention demand task, primarily because of the significant suppressant effect of alcohol on arousal during the complex task. The lack of differences in tumescence under the two cognitive tasks when subjects were sober is inconsistent with the cognitive interference model of sexual arousal. Alcohol expectations increased arousal during the low-attention demand task, whereas actual alcohol consumption decreased arousal only during the high-attention demand task. Both effects are attributed to the different effects of these separate variables on attentional processes. The clinical implications are discussed. PMID:3990295

  14. Attentional Control and the Relatedness Proportion Effect in Semantic Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2 experiments, participants completed both an attentional control battery (OSPAN, antisaccade, and Stroop tasks) and a modified semantic priming task. The priming task measured relatedness proportion (RP) effects within subjects, with the color of the prime indicating the probability that the to-be-named target would be related. In Experiment…

  15. The Development of Attention and Response Inhibition in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartgis, Jami; Thomas, David G.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the development of attention and response inhibition from ages 5 to 7. Forty children (20 5-year-olds and 20 7-year-olds) completed four counterbalanced phases of a continuous performance task. Phase 1 was designed to measure attention without distraction, Phase 2 was designed to measure attention with…

  16. Relating Dopaminergic and Cholinergic Polymorphisms to Spatial Attention in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markant, Julie; Cicchetti, Dante; Hetzel, Susan; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Early selective attention skills are a crucial building block for cognitive development, as attention orienting serves as a primary means by which infants interact with and learn from the environment. Although several studies have examined infants' attention orienting using the spatial cueing task, relatively few studies have examined…

  17. Vigilance and Sustained Attention in Children and Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver; Walitza, Susanne; Sontag, Thomas A.; Laufkotter, Rainer; Linder, Martin; Lange, Klaus W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present article tests the hypothesis of a sustained attention deficit in children and adults suffering from ADHD. Method: Vigilance and sustained attention of 52 children with ADHD and 38 adults with ADHD were assessed using a computerized vigilance task. Furthermore, the attentional performance of healthy children (N = 52) and…

  18. Eye Movements during Auditory Attention Predict Individual Differences in Dorsal Attention Network Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rodrigo M.; Fu, Richard Z.; Seemungal, Barry M.; Wise, Richard J. S.; Leech, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms supporting auditory attention are not fully understood. A dorsal frontoparietal network of brain regions is thought to mediate the spatial orienting of attention across all sensory modalities. Key parts of this network, the frontal eye fields (FEF) and the superior parietal lobes (SPL), contain retinotopic maps and elicit saccades when stimulated. This suggests that their recruitment during auditory attention might reflect crossmodal oculomotor processes; however this has not been confirmed experimentally. Here we investigate whether task-evoked eye movements during an auditory task can predict the magnitude of activity within the dorsal frontoparietal network. A spatial and non-spatial listening task was used with on-line eye-tracking and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). No visual stimuli or cues were used. The auditory task elicited systematic eye movements, with saccade rate and gaze position predicting attentional engagement and the cued sound location, respectively. Activity associated with these separate aspects of evoked eye-movements dissociated between the SPL and FEF. However these observed eye movements could not account for all the activation in the frontoparietal network. Our results suggest that the recruitment of the SPL and FEF during attentive listening reflects, at least partly, overt crossmodal oculomotor processes during non-visual attention. Further work is needed to establish whether the network’s remaining contribution to auditory attention is through covert crossmodal processes, or is directly involved in the manipulation of auditory information. PMID:27242465

  19. Color and luminance contrasts attract independent attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrone, Maria Concetta; Denti, Valentina; Spinelli, Donatella

    2002-07-01

    Paying attention can improve vision in many ways, including some very basic functions such as contrast discrimination, a task that probably reflects very early levels of visual processing. Electrophysiological, psychophysical, and imaging studies on humans as well as single recordings in monkey show that attention can modulate the neuronal response at an early stage of visual processing, probably by acting on the response gain. Here, we measure incremental contrast thresholds for luminance and color stimuli to derive the contrast response of early neural mechanisms and their modulation by attention. We show that, for both cases, attention improves contrast discrimination, probably by multiplicatively increasing the gain of the neuronal response to contrast. However, the effects of attention are highly specific to the visual modality: concurrent attention to a competing luminance, but not chromatic pattern, greatly impedes luminance contrast discrimination; and attending to a competing chromatic, but not luminance, task impedes color contrast discrimination. Thus, the effects of attention are highly modality specific, implying separate attentional resources for different fundamental visual attributes at early stages of visual processing. PMID:12121622

  20. Exogenous spatial attention decreases audiovisual integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Stoep, N; Van der Stigchel, S; Nijboer, T C W

    2015-02-01

    Multisensory integration (MSI) and spatial attention are both mechanisms through which the processing of sensory information can be facilitated. Studies on the interaction between spatial attention and MSI have mainly focused on the interaction between endogenous spatial attention and MSI. Most of these studies have shown that endogenously attending a multisensory target enhances MSI. It is currently unclear, however, whether and how exogenous spatial attention and MSI interact. In the current study, we investigated the interaction between these two important bottom-up processes in two experiments. In Experiment 1 the target location was task-relevant, and in Experiment 2 the target location was task-irrelevant. Valid or invalid exogenous auditory cues were presented before the onset of unimodal auditory, unimodal visual, and audiovisual targets. We observed reliable cueing effects and multisensory response enhancement in both experiments. To examine whether audiovisual integration was influenced by exogenous spatial attention, the amount of race model violation was compared between exogenously attended and unattended targets. In both Experiment 1 and Experiment 2, a decrease in MSI was observed when audiovisual targets were exogenously attended, compared to when they were not. The interaction between exogenous attention and MSI was less pronounced in Experiment 2. Therefore, our results indicate that exogenous attention diminishes MSI when spatial orienting is relevant. The results are discussed in terms of models of multisensory integration and attention. PMID:25341648

  1. Interaural attention modulates outer hair cell function

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Sridhar; Keil, Andreas; Stratis, Kyle; Osborne, A. Fletcher; Cerwonka, Colin; Wong, Jennifer; Rieger, Brenda L.; Polcz, Valerie; Smith, David W

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that auditory attention tasks may modulate the sensitivity of the cochlea by way of the corticofugal and the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent pathways. Here, we studied the extent to which a separate efferent tract, the “uncrossed” MOC, which functionally connects the two ears, mediates inter-aural selective attention. We compared distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in one ear to binaurally-presented primaries, using an intermodal target detection t...

  2. Attention-Orienting and Attention-Holding Effects of Faces on 4- to 8-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNicola, Christopher A.; Holt, Nicholas A.; Lambert, Amy J.; Cashon, Cara H.

    2013-01-01

    Attention-orienting and attention-holding effects of faces were investigated in a sample of 64 children, aged 4 to 8 months old. A visual preference task was used, in which pairs of faces and toys were presented in eight 10-second trials. Effects of age and sitting-ability were examined. Attention-orienting toward faces was measured using the…

  3. Mindful movement and skilled attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations. PMID

  4. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  5. Brain activations during bimodal dual tasks depend on the nature and combination of component tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Salo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activations during nine different dual tasks in which the participants were required to simultaneously attend to concurrent streams of spoken syllables and written letters. They performed a phonological, spatial or “simple” (speaker-gender or font-shade discrimination task within each modality. We expected to find activations associated specifically with dual tasking especially in the frontal and parietal cortices. However, no brain areas showed systematic dual task enhancements common for all dual tasks. Further analysis revealed that dual tasks including component tasks that were according to Baddeley’s model “modality atypical”, that is, the auditory spatial task or the visual phonological task, were not associated with enhanced frontal activity. In contrast, for other dual tasks, activity specifically associated with dual tasking was found in the left or bilateral frontal cortices. Enhanced activation in parietal areas, however, appeared not to be specifically associated with dual tasking per se, but rather with intermodal attention switching. We also expected effects of dual tasking in left frontal supramodal phonological processing areas when both component tasks required phonological processing and in right parietal supramodal spatial processing areas when both tasks required spatial processing. However, no such effects were found during these dual tasks compared with their component tasks performed separately. Taken together, the current results indicate that activations during dual tasks depend in a complex manner on specific demands of component tasks.

  6. Manipulating attentional load in sequence learning through random number generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchoń, Michał; Gaillard, Vinciane; Asanowicz, Dariusz; Cleeremans, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Implicit learning is often assumed to be an effortless process. However, some artificial grammar learning and sequence learning studies using dual tasks seem to suggest that attention is essential for implicit learning to occur. This discrepancy probably results from the specific type of secondary task that is used. Different secondary tasks may engage attentional resources differently and therefore may bias performance on the primary task in different ways. Here, we used a random number generation (RNG) task, which may allow for a closer monitoring of a participant’s engagement in a secondary task than the popular secondary task in sequence learning studies: tone counting (TC). In the first two experiments, we investigated the interference associated with performing RNG concurrently with a serial reaction time (SRT) task. In a third experiment, we compared the effects of RNG and TC. In all three experiments, we directly evaluated participants’ knowledge of the sequence with a subsequent sequence generation task. Sequence learning was consistently observed in all experiments, but was impaired under dual-task conditions. Most importantly, our data suggest that RNG is more demanding and impairs learning to a greater extent than TC. Nevertheless, we failed to observe effects of the secondary task in subsequent sequence generation. Our studies indicate that RNG is a promising task to explore the involvement of attention in the SRT task. PMID:22723816

  7. Attentional Bias to Trauma-related Cues in Dating Violence Survivors: Using NeuroVR

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong Ha Lee; H. K JI

    2009-01-01

    Dating violence survivors show cognitive impairment such as attentional bias. The modified Stroop task and the dot-probe task have been used to examine attentional bias towards trauma-related cues in PTSD. However, these tasks provide only a snapshot of bias processing, as attentional bias is measured by reaction time. Few PTSD studies have actually investigated time-course in attentional bias. The present study is designed to directly examine time-course characteristics of selective attentio...

  8. Plasticity of visual attention in Isha yoga meditation practitioners before and after a 3-month retreat

    OpenAIRE

    ClaireBraboszcz; ArnaudDelorme; B. RaelCahn; BhavaniBalakrishnan; RajK.Maturi

    2013-01-01

    Meditation has lately received considerable interest from cognitive neuroscience. Studies suggest that daily meditation leads to long lasting attentional and neuronal plasticity. We present changes related to the attentional systems before and after a 3 month intensive meditation retreat. We used 3 behavioral psychophysical tests - a Stroop task, an attentional blink task, and a global-local letter task - to assess the effect of Isha yoga meditation on attentional resource allocation. 82 Isha...

  9. Attention Mosaics: Studies of Organizational Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho de Mesquita Ferreira, Luciana

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOrganizational studies emphasizing the role of attention in organizational behavior depart from the idea that organizations, like individuals, have limited capacity to attend to environmental stimuli. The bounded capacity of the organizations to respond to stimuli is conditioned by the limited cognitions of individuals and by the limited capability of organizations to distribute, coordinate and integrate those cognitions. The cross-level nature of organizational attention, its dua...

  10. Encoding attentional states during visuomotor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hee Yeon; Bédard, Patrick; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    We recently showed that visuomotor adaptation acquired under attentional distraction is better recalled under a similar level of distraction compared to no distraction. This paradoxical effect suggests that attentional state (e.g., divided or undivided) is encoded as an internal context during visuomotor learning and should be reinstated for successful recall (Song & Bédard, 2015). To investigate if there is a critical temporal window for encoding attentional state in visuomotor memory, we manipulated whether participants performed the secondary attention-demanding task concurrently in the early or late phase of visuomotor learning. Recall performance was enhanced when the attentional states between recall and the early phase of visuomotor learning were consistent. However, it reverted to untrained levels when tested under the attentional state of the late-phase learning. This suggests that attentional state is primarily encoded during the early phase of learning before motor errors decrease and reach an asymptote. Furthermore, we demonstrate that when divided and undivided attentional states were mixed during visuomotor adaptation, only divided attention was encoded as an internal cue for memory retrieval. Therefore, a single attentional state appears to be primarily integrated with visuomotor memory while motor error reduction is in progress during learning. PMID:26114683

  11. Understanding Attention Deficit Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Orlando; And Others

    This booklet provides basic information regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), in their separate modalities, with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Explanations are offered concerning short attention span, impulsive behavior, hyperactivity, and beginning new activities before completing the previous one. Theories…

  12. Effects of spatial and selective attention on basic multisensory integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Blurton, Steven Paul; Hughes, F.;

    2011-01-01

    underlying the RSE. We investigated the role of spatial and selective attention on the RSE in audiovisual redundant signals tasks. In Experiment 1, stimuli were presented either centrally (narrow attentional focus) or at 1 of 3 unpredictable locations (wide focus). The RSE was accurately described by a...... coactivation model assuming linear superposition of modality-specific activation. Effects of spatial attention were explained by a shift of the evidence criterion. In Experiment 2, stimuli were presented at 3 locations; participants had to respond either to all signals regardless of location (simple response...... task) or to central stimuli only (selective attention task). The RSE was consistent with task-specific coactivation models; accumulation of evidence, however, differed between the 2 tasks....

  13. Plant intelligence and attention

    OpenAIRE

    Marder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article applies the phenomenological model of attention to plant monitoring of environmental stimuli and signal perception. Three complementary definitions of attention as selectivity, modulation and perdurance are explained with reference to plant signaling and behaviors, including foraging, ramet placement and abiotic stress communication. Elements of animal and human attentive attitudes are compared with plant attention at the levels of cognitive focus, context and margin. It is argue...

  14. Attention Competition with Advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2012-01-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when a...

  15. Dynamics of Media Attention

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Traag; Reinanda, R.; Hicks, J.; Klinken, van, J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of human attention dynamics analyses how attention is focused on specific topics, issues or people. In online social media, there are clear signs of exogenous shocks, bursty dynamics, and an exponential or powerlaw lifetime distribution. We here analyse the attention dynamics of traditional media, focussing on co-occurrence of people in newspaper articles. The results are quite different from online social networks and attention. Different regimes seem to be operating at two different...

  16. Single-Trial Inference on Visual Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrholm, Mads; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we take a step towards single-trial behavioral modeling within a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). In selective attention tasks, such as the Partial Report paradigm, the subject is asked to ignore distractors and only report stimuli that belong to the target class. Nothing about a...... Report trial. This result retrodicts a latent attentional state of the subject using the observed response from that particular trial and thus differs from other predictions made with TVA which are based on expected values of observed variables. We show an example of the result in single-trial analysis...

  17. Single-Trial Inference on Visual Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrholm, Mads; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup;

    In this paper we take a step towards single-trial behavioral modeling within a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). In selective attention tasks, such as the Partial Report paradigm, the subject is asked to ignore distractors and only report stimuli that belong to the target class. Nothing about a...... Report trial. This result retrodicts a latent attentional state of the subject using the observed response from that particular trial and thus differs from other predictions made with TVA which are based on expected values of observed variables. We show an example of the result in single-trial analysis...

  18. Scope of Attention, Control of Attention, and Intelligence in Children and Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, Nelson; Fristoe, Nathanael M.; Elliott, Emily M.; Brunner, Ryan P.; Saults, J. Scott

    2006-01-01

    Recent experimentation has shown that cognitive aptitude measures are predicted by tests of the scope of an individual’s attention or capacity in simple working-memory tasks, and also by the ability to control attention. However, these experiments do not indicate how separate or related the scope and control of attention are. An experiment with 52 children 10 to 11 years old and 52 college students included measures of the scope and control of attention as well as verbal and nonverbal aptitud...

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Doğangün, Burak; Yavuz, Mesut

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is characterized by excessive overactiviy inattention and impulsiveness It is reported that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder affects 5 12 of children worldwide It has significant negative effects on psychological and social development and academic functioning of the children if it remains nbsp; untreated The etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is unknown Genetic neurodevelopmental neurophysiological and psychosocial factors ar...

  20. Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Pesce, Caterina; Chiang, Yi-Te; Kuo, Cheng-Yuh; Fong, Dong-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict) control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT), with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate intensity spinning wheel exercise or without antecedent exercise. The ANT combined warning signals prior to targets, spatial cueing of potential target locations and target stimuli surrounded by congruent or incongruent flankers, which were provided to assess three attentional networks. Event-related brain potentials and task performance were measured during the ANT. Exercise resulted in a larger P3 amplitude in the alerting and executive control subtasks across frontal, central and parietal midline sites that was paralleled by an enhanced reaction speed only on trials with incongruent flankers of the executive control network. The P3 latency and response accuracy were not affected by exercise. These findings suggest that after spinning, more resources are allocated to task-relevant stimuli in tasks that rely on the alerting and executive control networks. However, the improvement in performance was observed in only the executively challenging conflict condition, suggesting that whether the brain resources that are rendered available immediately after acute exercise translate into better attention performance depends on the cognitive task complexity. PMID:25914634

  1. Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai eChang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT, with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate-intensity spinning wheel exercise or without antecedent exercise. The ANT combined warning signals prior to targets, spatial cueing of potential target locations and target stimuli surrounded by congruent or incongruent flankers, which were provided to assess three attentional networks. Event-related brain potentials and task performance were measured during the ANT. Exercise resulted in a larger P3 amplitude in the alerting and executive control subtasks across frontal, central and parietal midline sites that was paralleled by an enhanced reaction speed only on trials with incongruent flankers of the executive control network. The P3 latency and response accuracy were not affected by exercise. These findings suggest that after spinning, more resources are allocated to task-relevant stimuli in tasks that rely on the alerting and executive control networks. However, the improvement in performance was observed in only the executively challenging conflict condition, suggesting that whether the brain resources that are rendered available immediately after acute exercise translate into better attention performance depends on the cognitive task complexity.

  2. Sustained Attention in Children With Two Etiologies of Early Hydrocephalus

    OpenAIRE

    Swartwout, Maegan D.; Cirino, Paul T.; Hampson, Amy W.; Fletcher, Jack M.; BRANDT, MICHAEL E.; Dennis, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have shown that children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) and hydrocephalus have attention problems on parent ratings and difficulties in stimulus orienting associated with a posterior brain attention system. Less is known about response control and inhibition associated with an anterior brain attention system. Using the Gordon Vigilance Task (Gordon, 1983), we studied error rate, reaction time, and performance over time for sustained attention, a key anterior attentio...

  3. Distribution of attention modulates salience signals in early visual cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Mulckhuyse, M.; Belopolsky, A.V.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Talsma, D.; Theeuwes, J

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the extent to which people spread attention across the visual field plays a crucial role in visual selection and the occurrence of bottom-up driven attentional capture. Consistent with previous findings, we show that when attention was diffusely distributed across the visual field while searching for a shape singleton, an irrelevant salient color singleton captured attention. However, while using the very same displays and task, no capture was observed when ob...

  4. Hierarchical nonlinear dynamics of human attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I; Tristan, Irma; Varona, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Attention is the process of focusing mental resources on a specific cognitive/behavioral task. Such brain dynamics involves different partially overlapping brain functional networks whose interconnections change in time according to the performance stage, and can be stimulus-driven or induced by an intrinsically generated goal. The corresponding activity can be described by different families of spatiotemporal discrete patterns or sequential dynamic modes. Since mental resources are finite, attention modalities compete with each other at all levels of the hierarchy, from perception to decision making and behavior. Cognitive activity is a dynamical process and attention possesses some universal dynamical characteristics. Thus, it is time to apply nonlinear dynamical theory for the description and prediction of hierarchical attentional tasks. Such theory has to include the analyses of attentional control stability, the time cost of attention switching, the finite capacity of informational resources in the brain, and the normal and pathological bifurcations of attention sequential dynamics. In this paper we have integrated today's knowledge, models and results in these directions. PMID:25869439

  5. Selective and sustained attention in children with spina bifida myelomeningocele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Ida Dyhr; Habekost, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    large individual variation was evident in their performance patterns, which highlights the relevance of an effective case-based assessment method in this patient group. Overall, the study demonstrates the strengths of a new testing approach for evaluating attention function in children with SBM.......Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neural tube defect that has been related to deficits in several cognitive domains including attention. Attention function in children with SBM has often been studied using tasks that are confounded by complex motor demands or tasks that do not clearly...... distinguish perceptual from response-related components of attention. We used a verbal-report paradigm based on the Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990) and a new continuous performance test, the Dual Attention to Response Task (Dockree et al., 2006), for measuring parameters of selective and sustained...

  6. Attention competition with advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  7. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another. PMID:26966228

  8. Principles of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas

    The nature of attention is one of the oldest and most central problems in psychology. A huge amount of research has been produced on this subject in the last half century, especially on attention in the visual modality, but a general explanation has remained elusive. Many still view attention...... mechanisms are described in a set of simple equations, which allow TVA to mathematically model a large number of classical results in the attention literature. The theory explains psychological and neuroscientific findings by the same equations; TVA is a complete theory of visual attention, linking mind and...... brain. Aimed at advanced students and professional researchers, Principles of Visual Attention contains a detailed review of the most important research done on attention in vision, spanning cognitive psychology, brain imaging, patient studies, and recordings from single cells in the visual cortex. The...

  9. What determines consumer attention to nutrition labels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    To identify the key determinants of consumer attention to nutrition labels, visual search tasks (present – absent; one – two targets) were used as an effective experimental tool. The main manipulation concerned: set size (number of labels on front of pack); label characteristics (display size, posit

  10. Influence of attentional capture on oculomotor control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, J.; Kramer, A.F.; Hahn, S.

    1999-01-01

    Previous research has shown that when searching for a color singleton. top-down control cannot prevent attentional capture by an abrupt visual onset. The present research addressed whether a task-irrelevant abrupt onset would affect eye movement behavior when searching for a color singleton. Results

  11. Acute Alcohol Effects on Attentional Bias are Mediated by Subcortical Areas Associated with Arousal and Salience Attribution

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaou, Kyriaki; Field, Matt; Critchley, Hugo; Duka, Theodora

    2013-01-01

    Acute alcohol ingestion increases attentional bias to alcohol-related stimuli; however, the underlying cognitive and brain mechanisms remain unknown. We combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with performance of a dual task that probed attentional distraction by alcohol-related stimuli during ‘conflict' processing: the Concurrent Flanker/Alcohol-Attentional bias task (CFAAT). In this task, an Eriksen Flanker task is superimposed on task-unrelated background pictures with alcoho...

  12. Training-associated changes and stability of attention bias in youth: Implications for Attention Bias Modification Treatment for pediatric anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Britton, Jennifer C.; Bar-Haim, Yair; Clementi, Michelle A.; Sankin, Lindsey S.; Chen, Gang; Shechner, Tomer; Norcross, Maxine A.; Spiro, Carolyn N.; Lindstrom, Kara M.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Attention Bias Modification Treatment (ABMT), an emerging treatment for anxiety disorders, is thought to modify underlying, stable patterns of attention. Therefore, ABMT research should take into account the impact of attention bias stability on attention training response, especially in pediatric populations. ABMT research typically relies on the dot-probe task, where individuals detect a probe following an emotional-neutral stimulus pair. The current research presents two dot-probe experime...

  13. Emotion regulation meets emotional attention: the influence of emotion suppression on emotional attention depends on the nature of the distracters

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Julia; De Houwer, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested a crucial role of people’s current goals in attention to emotional information. This asks for research investigating how and what kinds of goals shape emotional attention. The present study investigated how the goal to suppress a negative emotional state influences attention to emotion-congruent events. After inducing disgust, we instructed participants to suppress all feelings of disgust during a subsequent dot probe task. Attention to disgusting images was modu...

  14. Interaural attention modulates outer hair cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sridhar; Keil, Andreas; Stratis, Kyle; Osborne, Aaron F; Cerwonka, Colin; Wong, Jennifer; Rieger, Brenda L; Polcz, Valerie; Smith, David W

    2014-12-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that auditory attention tasks may modulate the sensitivity of the cochlea by way of the corticofugal and the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent pathways. Here, we studied the extent to which a separate efferent tract, the 'uncrossed' MOC, which functionally connects the two ears, mediates inter-aural selective attention. We compared distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in one ear with binaurally presented primaries, using an intermodal target detection task in which participants were instructed to report the occurrence of brief target events (visual changes, tones). Three tasks were compared under identical physical stimulation: (i) report brief tones in the ear in which DPOAE responses were recorded; (ii) report brief tones presented to the contralateral, non-recorded ear; and (iii) report brief phase shifts of a visual grating at fixation. Effects of attention were observed as parallel shifts in overall DPOAE contour level, with DPOAEs relatively higher in overall level when subjects ignored the auditory stimuli and attended to the visual stimulus, compared with both of the auditory-attending conditions. Importantly, DPOAE levels were statistically lowest when attention was directed to the ipsilateral ear in which the DPOAE recordings were made. These data corroborate notions that top-down mechanisms, via the corticofugal and medial efferent pathways, mediate cochlear responses during intermodal attention. New findings show attending to one ear can significantly alter the physiological response of the contralateral, unattended ear, probably through the uncrossed-medial olivocochlear efferent fibers connecting the two ears. PMID:25302959

  15. Urban task force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubović Ljiljana V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Urban Task Force Report has brought to our attention, that English towns and cities today require a new renaissance. The comprehensive planning has retarded urban living (Urban Renaissance, Sharing the Vision 01.99, 1999. Forty percent of inner-urban housing stock is subsidized 'social' housing. A review of the demographic and development trends have lead to the UK Government’s new urban policy that prioritizes the regeneration of towns and cities by building on recycled urban land and protecting the countryside. As result, Urban Task Force (UTF was founded the with the following aims To identify causes of urban decline in England; To recommend practical solutions how to bring people back into cities; To establish a new vision for urban regeneration based on the principles of design excellence, social well being and environmental responsibility within a viable economic and legislative framework (Urban Task Force, 1999:1. This paper represents the analysis of the economic and political effects of the program and its viability.

  16. Components of attentional set-switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushworth, M F S; Passingham, R E; Nobre, A C

    2005-01-01

    A series of distinct event-related potentials (ERPs) have been recorded from the scalp of human subjects as they switch from one task to another. It is possible that task switching may depend on different mechanisms depending on whether the switch requires a change in attentional set, in other words the redirecting of attention to different aspects of a sensory stimulus, or whether it requires a change in intentional set, in others words a change in the way that responses are selected. To address this issue, the current study recorded ERPs while subjects switched between attentional sets and the results were compared with those of a previous investigation in which subjects switched between intentional sets. Subjects selected stimuli according to two conflicting attentional sets, each emphasizing one visual stimulus dimension (colour, shape). Pairs of stimuli, only one of which was to be attended, were presented for between eight and seventeen trials then either a switch or a stay cue was shown. The switch cue instructed subjects to switch from the current attentional set to the other set, while the stay cue instructed subjects to maintain the current set. Comparing ERPs time-locked to the switch and stay cues revealed neural correlates of the initiation of a task switch. Comparing the ERPs time locked to the first stimuli after either stay or switch cues identified neural correlates of the implementation of a task switch. A similar modulation over parietal electrodes was seen when subjects were switching between either attentional or intentional sets. While an intentional set switch began with a medial frontal modulation, attentional set switching began with a lateral frontal modulation. Implementing a new attentional set was associated with modulation of relatively early visual potentials, while implementing a new intentional set was associated with modulation of later response-related potentials. The results confirm that task switching consists of a number of

  17. Attentional Focusing Instructions and Force Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Marchant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research progress assessing the role of attentional focusing instructions on skill acquisition and performance has lead researchers to apply this approach to force production tasks. Initial converging evidence indicates that force production tasks are sensitive to verbal instruction; externally focused instructions (onto movement outcomes, or onto the object force is being exerted against are shown to be more beneficial than internally focused instructions (focusing attention onto the movements being executed. These benefits are observed for maximal and accurate force production, as well as the maintenance of force production in prolonged tasks. A range of mechanisms are identified supporting the proposal that an external focus promotes movement efficiency in line with energy and effort conservation. Future research is required to assess how this developing body of work interacts with the broader understanding of psychological and physiological factors implicated in the effective production, maintenance and limitation of maximal or sub-maximal forces.

  18. Attention Mosaics: Studies of Organizational Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Carvalho de Mesquita Ferreira (Luciana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOrganizational studies emphasizing the role of attention in organizational behavior depart from the idea that organizations, like individuals, have limited capacity to attend to environmental stimuli. The bounded capacity of the organizations to respond to stimuli is conditioned by the l

  19. The Diversity of Attention Deficits in ADHD: The Prevalence of Four Cognitive Factors in ADHD Versus Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsal, Yehoshua; Shalev, Lilach; Mevorach, Carmel

    2005-01-01

    The performance of participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relative to control participants was measured on four tasks uniquely assessing the functions of selective attention, executive attention, sustained attention, and orienting of attention. The results showed that deficits in sustained attention were the most…

  20. Visual short-term memory load strengthens selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Zachary J J; Vecera, Shaun P

    2014-04-01

    Perceptual load theory accounts for many attentional phenomena; however, its mechanism remains elusive because it invokes underspecified attentional resources. Recent dual-task evidence has revealed that a concurrent visual short-term memory (VSTM) load slows visual search and reduces contrast sensitivity, but it is unknown whether a VSTM load also constricts attention in a canonical perceptual load task. If attentional selection draws upon VSTM resources, then distraction effects-which measure attentional "spill-over"-will be reduced as competition for resources increases. Observers performed a low perceptual load flanker task during the delay period of a VSTM change detection task. We observed a reduction of the flanker effect in the perceptual load task as a function of increasing concurrent VSTM load. These findings were not due to perceptual-level interactions between the physical displays of the two tasks. Our findings suggest that perceptual representations of distractor stimuli compete with the maintenance of visual representations held in memory. We conclude that access to VSTM determines the degree of attentional selectivity; when VSTM is not completely taxed, it is more likely for task-irrelevant items to be consolidated and, consequently, affect responses. The "resources" hypothesized by load theory are at least partly mnemonic in nature, due to the strong correspondence they share with VSTM capacity. PMID:24002967

  1. Attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews studies on eye movements in decision making, and compares their observations to theoretical predictions concerning the role of attention in decision making. Four decision theories are examined: rational models, bounded rationality, evidence accumulation, and parallel constraint...... that these assumptions are implausible, and that more accurate assumptions could have been made based on prior attention and eye movement research. Future decision making research would benefit from greater integration with attention research....

  2. Novelty and Collective Attention

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Fang

    2007-01-01

    The subject of collective attention is central to an information age where millions of people are inundated with daily messages. It is thus of interest to understand how attention to novel items propagates and eventually fades among large populations. We have analyzed the dynamics of collective attention among one million users of an interactive website -- \\texttt{digg.com} -- devoted to thousands of novel news stories. The observations can be described by a dynamical model characterized by a single novelty factor. Our measurements indicate that novelty within groups decays with a stretched-exponential law, suggesting the existence of a natural time scale over which attention fades.

  3. Changes in Standing and Walking Performance Under Dual-Task Conditions Across the Lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffieux, Jan; Keller, Martin; Lauber, Benedikt; Taube, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous performance of a postural and a concurrent task is rather unproblematic as long as the postural task is executed in an automatic way. However, in situations where postural control requires more central processing, cognitive resources may be exceeded by the addition of an attentionally demanding task. This may lead to interference between the two tasks, manifested in a decreased performance in one or both tasks (dual-task costs). Owing to changes in attentional demands of postural...

  4. EEG-Based Attention Tracking During Distracted Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Kai; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Lin, Chin-Teng

    2015-11-01

    Distracted driving might lead to many catastrophic consequences. Developing a countermeasure to track drivers' focus of attention (FOA) and engagement of operators in dual (multi)-tasking conditions is thus imperative. Ten healthy volunteers participated in a dual-task experiment that comprised two tasks: a lane-keeping driving task and a mathematical problem-solving task (e.g., 24+15=37?) during which their electroencephalogram (EEG) and behaviors were concurrently recorded. Independent component analysis (ICA) was employed as a spatial filter to separate the contributions of independent sources from the recorded EEG data. The power spectra of six components (i.e., frontal, central, parietal, occipital, left motor, and right motor) extracted from single-task conditions were fed into support vector machine (SVM) based on the radial basis function (RBF) kernel to build an FOA assessment system. The system achieved 84.6±5.8% and 86.2±5.4% classification accuracies in detecting the participants' FOAs on the math versus driving tasks, respectively. This FOA assessment system was then applied to evaluate participants' FOAs during dual-task conditions. The detected FOAs revealed that participants' cognitive attention and strategies dynamically changed between tasks to optimize the overall performance, as attention was limited and competed. The empirical results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of a practical system to continuously estimating cognitive attention through EEG spectra. PMID:25850090

  5. Effects of Awareness on the Control of Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Taylor W; Kean, Hope H; Graziano, Michael S A

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies show that it is possible to attend to a stimulus without awareness of it. Whether attention and awareness are independent or have a specific relationship, however, remains debated. Here, we tested three aspects of visual attention with and without awareness of the visual stimulus. Metacontrast masking rendered participants either subjectively aware or not aware of the stimulus. Attention drawn to the stimulus was measured by using the stimulus as a cue in a spatial attention task. We found that attention was drawn to the stimulus regardless of whether or not people were aware of it. However, attention changed significantly in the absence of awareness in at least three ways. First, attention to a task-relevant stimulus was less stable over time. Second, inhibition of return, the automatic suppression of attention to a task-irrelevant stimulus, was reduced. Third, attention was more driven by the luminance contrast of the stimulus. These findings add to the growing information on the behavior of attention with and without awareness. The findings are also consistent with our recently proposed account of the relationship between attention and awareness. In the attention schema theory, awareness is the internal model of attention. Just as the brain contains a body schema that models the body and helps control the body, so it contains an attention schema that helps control attention. In that theory, in the absence of awareness, the control of attention should suffer in basic ways predictable from dynamical systems theory. The present results confirm some of those predictions. PMID:26836517

  6. The lasting memory enhancements of retrospective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Sarah; Strunk, Jonathan; Phillips, Shekinah; Verhaeghen, Paul; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-07-01

    Behavioral research has shown that spatial cues that orient attention toward task relevant items being maintained in visual short-term memory (VSTM) enhance item memory accuracy. However, it is unknown if these retrospective attentional cues ("retro-cues") enhance memory beyond typical short-term memory delays. It is also unknown whether retro-cues affect the spatial information associated with VSTM representations. Emerging evidence suggests that processes that affect short-term memory maintenance may also affect long-term memory (LTM) but little work has investigated the role of attention in LTM. In the current event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigated the duration of retrospective attention effects and the impact of retrospective attention manipulations on VSTM representations. Results revealed that retro-cueing improved both VSTM and LTM memory accuracy and that posterior maximal ERPs observed during VSTM maintenance predicted subsequent LTM performance. N2pc ERPs associated with attentional selection were attenuated by retro-cueing suggesting that retrospective attention may disrupt maintenance of spatial configural information in VSTM. Collectively, these findings suggest that retrospective attention can alter the structure of memory representations, which impacts memory performance beyond short-term memory delays. PMID:27038756

  7. Focusing on Attention: The Effects of Working Memory Capacity and Load on Selective Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Lubna Ahmed; de Fockert, Jan W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM) is imperative for effective selective attention. Distractibility is greater under conditions of high (vs. low) concurrent working memory load (WML), and in individuals with low (vs. high) working memory capacity (WMC). In the current experiments, we recorded the flanker task performance of individuals with high and low WMC during low and high WML, to investigate the combined effect of WML and WMC on selective attention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experi...

  8. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity, and...

  9. Dynamics of Media Attention

    CERN Document Server

    Traag, V A; Hicks, J; van Klinken, G

    2014-01-01

    Studies of human attention dynamics analyses how attention is focused on specific topics, issues or people. In online social media, there are clear signs of exogenous shocks, bursty dynamics, and an exponential or powerlaw lifetime distribution. We here analyse the attention dynamics of traditional media, focussing on co-occurrence of people in newspaper articles. The results are quite different from online social networks and attention. Different regimes seem to be operating at two different time scales. At short time scales we see evidence of bursty dynamics and fast decaying edge lifetimes and attention. This behaviour disappears for longer time scales, and in that regime we find Poissonian dynamics and slower decaying lifetimes. We propose that a cascading Poisson process may take place, with issues arising at a constant rate over a long time scale, and faster dynamics at a shorter time scale.

  10. Special Attention Network

    CERN Document Server

    Indekeu, J O

    2003-01-01

    In this Note a social network model for opinion formation is proposed in which a person connected to $q$ partners pays an {\\em attention} $1/q$ to each partner. The mutual attention between two connected persons $i$ and $j$ is taken equal to the geometric mean $1/\\sqrt{q_iq_j}$. Opinion is represented as usual by an Ising spin $s=\\pm 1$ and mutual attention is given through a two-spin coupling $J_{ij} = J Q/\\sqrt{q_iq_j}$, $Q$ being the average connectivity in the network. Connectivity diminishes attention and only persons with low connectivity can pay special attention to each other leading to a durable common (or opposing) opinion. The model is solved in "mean-field" approximation and a critical "temperature" $T_c$ proportional to $JQ$ is found, which is independent of the number of persons $N$, for large $N$.

  11. Mobile EEG on the bike: disentangling attentional and physical contributions to auditory attention tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Rob; Hunyadi, Borbála; Van Huffel, Sabine; De Vos, Maarten

    2016-08-01

    Objective. In the past few years there has been a growing interest in studying brain functioning in natural, real-life situations. Mobile EEG allows to study the brain in real unconstrained environments but it faces the intrinsic challenge that it is impossible to disentangle observed changes in brain activity due to increase in cognitive demands by the complex natural environment or due to the physical involvement. In this work we aim to disentangle the influence of cognitive demands and distractions that arise from such outdoor unconstrained recordings. Approach. We evaluate the ERP and single trial characteristics of a three-class auditory oddball paradigm recorded in outdoor scenario’s while peddling on a fixed bike or biking freely around. In addition we also carefully evaluate the trial specific motion artifacts through independent gyro measurements and control for muscle artifacts. Main results. A decrease in P300 amplitude was observed in the free biking condition as compared to the fixed bike conditions. Above chance P300 single-trial classification in highly dynamic real life environments while biking outdoors was achieved. Certain significant artifact patterns were identified in the free biking condition, but neither these nor the increase in movement (as derived from continuous gyrometer measurements) can explain the differences in classification accuracy and P300 waveform differences with full clarity. The increased cognitive load in real-life scenarios is shown to play a major role in the observed differences. Significance. Our findings suggest that auditory oddball results measured in natural real-life scenarios are influenced mainly by increased cognitive load due to being in an unconstrained environment.

  12. Does walking in nature restore directed attention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Mental fatigue is commonly understood and experienced as mental exhaustion, irritability and foggy thinking. Research indicates mental fatigue is indicative of depleted directed attention resources. Thus, restoration of directed attention is thought to alleviate mental fatigue. This research sought to determine if walking in nature compared to walking on a treadmill provided enhanced performance on tasks of directed attention. Method: Twenty-two participants completed a 30-min walk on a treadmill and a walk in the local Botanic Garden on separate days. Two directed attention tasks (Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP and Necker Cube reversal task were conducted both before and after each walk as well as a Perceived Arousal Scale and a Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Results: Total hits and sensitivity to a target on a RVIP task improved significantly in both locations F(1, 20 = 11.892, p = .003, F(1, 20 = 12.364, p = .002 respectively. However, there was no significant difference between the nature walk and the treadmill walk. Significant order effects were found for sensitivity to targets pre/post walks, F(1, 19 = 10.309, p = .005 and F(1, 19 = 8.578, p = .009 respectively. Necker cube baseline scores indicated a significant reduction in reversals after 30 minutes of walking in both locations. Arousal was higher overall in the nature walk compared to the treadmill walk, F(1, 20 = 11.626, p = .003. Conclusions: No evidence was obtained to suggest that walking in nature leads to improved directed attention compared to walking on a treadmill. Results indicate that improvements were due to significant learning affects. The significantly higher overall score on the arousal scale in the natural environment suggests that participants were more alert in this environment.

  13. At the Heart of the Ventral Attention System: the Right Anterior Insula

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, Mark A.; Menon, Vinod; Walczak, Adam; Ahlstrom, Jayne; Denslow, Stewart; Horwitz, Amy; Dubno, Judy R.

    2009-01-01

    The anterior insula has been hypothesized to provide a link between attention-related problem solving and salience systems during the coordination of and evaluation of task performance. Here we test the hypothesis that the anterior insula/medial frontal operculum (aI/fO) provides linkage across systems supporting task demands and attention systems by examining patterns of functional connectivity during word recognition and spatial attention functional imaging tasks. A shared set of frontal re...

  14. Evaluating comparative and equality judgments in contrast perception: Attention alters appearance

    OpenAIRE

    Anton-Erxleben, Katharina; Abrams, Jared; Carrasco, Marisa

    2010-01-01

    Covert attention not only improves performance in many visual tasks but also modulates the appearance of several visual features. Studies on attention and appearance have assessed subjective appearance using a task contingent upon a comparative judgment (e.g., M. Carrasco, S. Ling, & S. Read, 2004). Recently, K. A. Schneider and M. Komlos (2008) questioned the validity of those results because they did not find a significant effect of attention on contrast appearance using an equality task. T...

  15. Attentional flexibility and memory capacity in conductors and pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöllner, Clemens; Halpern, Andrea R

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with high working memory (WM) capacity also tend to have better selective and divided attention. Although both capacities are essential for skilled performance in many areas, evidence for potential training and expertise effects is scarce. We investigated the attentional flexibility of musical conductors by comparing them to equivalently trained pianists. Conductors must focus their attention both on individual instruments and on larger sections of different instruments. We studied students and professionals in both domains to assess the contributions of age and training to these skills. Participants completed WM span tests for auditory and visual (notated) pitches and timing durations, as well as long-term memory tests. In three dichotic attention tasks, they were asked to detect small pitch and timing deviations from two melodic streams presented in baseline (separate streams), selective-attention (concentrating on only one stream), and divided-attention (concentrating on targets in both streams simultaneously) conditions. Conductors were better than pianists in detecting timing deviations in divided attention, and experts detected more targets than students. We found no group differences for WM capacity or for pitch deviations in the attention tasks, even after controlling for the older age of the experts. Musicians' WM spans across multimodal conditions were positively related to selective and divided attention. High-WM participants also had shorter reaction times in selective attention. Taken together, conductors showed higher attentional flexibility in successfully switching between different foci of attention. PMID:26404532

  16. Evidence against mood-congruent attentional bias in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Philip; Preston, Stephanie D; Jonides, John; Mohr, Alicia Hofelich; Thummala, Kirti; Casement, Melynda; Hsing, Courtney; Deldin, Patricia J

    2015-12-15

    Depression is consistently associated with biased retrieval and interpretation of affective stimuli, but evidence for depressive bias in earlier cognitive processing, such as attention, is mixed. In five separate experiments, individuals with depression (three experiments with clinically diagnosed major depression, two experiments with dysphoria measured via the Beck Depression Inventory) completed three tasks designed to elicit depressive biases in attention, including selective attention, attentional switching, and attentional inhibition. Selective attention was measured using a modified emotional Stroop task, while attentional switching and inhibition was examined via an emotional task-switching paradigm and an emotional counter task. Results across five different experiments indicate that individuals with depression perform comparably with healthy controls, providing corroboration that depression is not characterized by biases in attentional processes. PMID:26477954

  17. Attention and the testing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W; Picklesimer, Milton

    2016-06-01

    Memory retrieval often enhances still later memory as evidenced by the testing effect. Divided attention (DA) is known to produce different effects on encoding and retrieval, substantially disrupting the former and often producing little effect on the latter. The present experiments examine whether the mnemonic consequences of retrieval are similarly resilient in the face of distraction or if they have a similar sensitivity to DA as study-based encoding. In 2 experiments, participants initially studied a set of word pairs (Phase 1) then engaged in restudy of some pairs and retrieval practice of others (Phase 2), followed by either an immediate or (24-hr) delayed final cued-recall test (Phase 3). Phase 2 restudy and retrieval practice occurred under full attention (FA) or DA. Phase 2 performance replicated earlier research in finding little effect of DA on retrieval success, and greater disruption to the secondary task in the retrieval than restudy condition. More importantly, the testing effect on the final test (the difference between the retrieval and restudy conditions) was greater in the DA than FA condition. Final recall was substantially reduced by DA in the restudy condition but not in the retrieval condition. This pattern was found for related and unrelated word pairs, with feedback during retrieval practice and without, for immediate as well as delayed final tests, and for high as well as low performance on the secondary task. The encoding effects of retrieval appear to be more resilient in the face of distraction than the encoding effects of restudy. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26618913

  18. Focused Attention Deficits in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinoff, E.J.; Saumier, D.; Chertkow, H.

    2005-01-01

    Reaction time (RT) tasks take various forms, and can assess psychomotor speed, (i.e., simple reaction time task), and focused attention (i.e., choice reaction time (CRT) task). If cues are provided before stimulus presentation (i.e., cued choice reaction time (CCRT) task), then a cueing effect can also be assessed. A limited number of studies have…

  19. Development of Attention Networks and Their Interactions in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozuelos, Joan P.; Paz-Alonso, Pedro M.; Castillo, Alejandro; Fuentes, Luis J.; Rueda, M. Rosario

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated developmental trajectories of alerting, orienting, and executive attention networks and their interactions over childhood. Two cross-sectional experiments were conducted with different samples of 6-to 12-year-old children using modified versions of the attention network task (ANT). In Experiment 1 (N = 106),…

  20. An integrated agent model for attention and functional state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Lambalgen, R. van; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2012-01-01

    To provide personalized intelligent ambient support for persons performing demanding tasks, it is important to have insight in their state of attention. Existing models for attention have difficulties in distinguishing between stressed and relaxed states. To solve this problem, this paper proposes t

  1. Enclothed Cognition and Controlled Attention during Insight Problem-Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stockum, Charles A., Jr.; DeCaro, Marci S.

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) increase the ability and tendency to devote greater attentional control to a task--improving performance on a wide range of skills. In addition, recent research on enclothed cognition demonstrates that the situational influence of wearing a white lab coat increases controlled attention, due…

  2. Role of Frontal Cortex in Attentional Capture by Singleton Distractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fockert, Jan W.; Theeuwes, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The role of frontal cortex in selective attention to visual distractors was examined in an attentional capture task in which participants searched for a unique shape in the presence or absence of an additional colour singleton distractor. The presence of the additional singleton was associated with slower behavioural responses to the shape target,…

  3. Attentional Control and Suppressing Negative Thought Intrusions in Pathological Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Elaine; Dutton, Kevin; Yates, Alan; Georgiou, George A.; Mouchlianitis, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior relies on the ability to effectively and efficiently ignore irrelevant information, an important component of attentional control. The current research found that fundamental difficulties in ignoring irrelevant material are related to dispositional differences in trait propensity to worry, suggesting a core deficit in attentional control in high worriers. The degree of deficit in attentional control correlated with the degree of difficulty in suppressing negative thought intrusions in a worry assessment task. A cognitive training procedure utilizing a flanker task was used in an attempt to improve attentional control. Although the cognitive training was largely ineffective, improvements in attentional control were associated with improvements in the ability to suppress worry-related thought intrusions. Across two studies, the findings indicate that the inability to control worry-related negative thought intrusions is associated with a general deficiency in attentional control. PMID:26504672

  4. Attentional Disengagement from Emotional Stimuli in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Llerena, Katiah; Gold, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that abnormal attention-emotion interactions are related to symptom presentation in individuals with schizophrenia. However, the individual components of attention responsible for this dysfunction are unclear. In the current study we examined the possibility that schizophrenia patients with higher levels of negative symptoms (HI-NEG: n = 14) have greater difficulty disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli than patients with low negative symptoms (LOW-NEG: n = 18) or controls (CN: n = 27). Participants completed an exogenous emotional cueing task that required them to focus on an initial emotional or neutral cue and subsequently shift attention to a separate location outside of foveal vision to detect a target stimulus (letter). Results indicated that HI-NEG patients had greater difficulty disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli than CN or LOW-NEG patients; however, behavioral performance did not differ among the groups for pleasant stimuli. Higher self-reported trait negative affect was also associated with greater difficulty disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli. Abnormalities in disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli may thus play a critical role in the formation and maintenance of both negative symptoms and trait negative affect in individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:21703824

  5. More than meets the eye: The attentional blink in multisensory environments. Commentary on Kranczioch and Thorne

    OpenAIRE

    Till R. Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Temporal fluctuations of attention can influence performance of cognitive tasks substantially. A common paradigm to investigate temporal fluctuations of attention is the attentional blink paradigm. Kranczioch and Thorne (2013) report new evidence for the impact of auditory stimuli on the visual attentional blink in the current issue of Advances in Cognitive Psychology.

  6. Using Goal Setting and Task Analysis to Enhance Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching has received sustained attention from teachers and researchers for over thirty years. It is a well-established pedagogy that includes the following characteristics: major focus on authentic and real-world tasks, choice of linguistic resources by learners, and a clearly defined non-linguistic outcome. This…

  7. Using Direct and Indirect Input Devices: Attention Demands and Age-Related Differences

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, Anne Collins; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that attention is a key moderating variable predicting performance with an input device [e.g., Greenstein & Arnaut, 1988] without directly assessing the attention demands of devices We hypothesized that the attentional demands of input devices would be intricately linked to whether the device matched the input requirements of the on-screen task. Further, matching task and device should be more important for attentionally reduced groups, such as older adults. Younger...

  8. Attention samples stimuli rhythmically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Ayelet Nina; Fries, Pascal

    2012-06-01

    Overt exploration or sampling behaviors, such as whisking, sniffing, and saccadic eye movements, are often characterized by a rhythm. In addition, the electrophysiologically recorded theta or alpha phase predicts global detection performance. These two observations raise the intriguing possibility that covert selective attention samples from multiple stimuli rhythmically. To investigate this possibility, we measured change detection performance on two simultaneously presented stimuli, after resetting attention to one of them. After a reset flash at one stimulus location, detection performance fluctuated rhythmically. When the flash was presented in the right visual field, a 4 Hz rhythm was directly visible in the time courses of behavioral performance at both stimulus locations, and the two rhythms were in antiphase. A left visual field flash exerted only partial reset on performance and induced rhythmic fluctuation at higher frequencies (6-10 Hz). These findings show that selective attention samples multiple stimuli rhythmically, and they position spatial attention within the family of exploration behaviors. PMID:22633805

  9. Attention enhances feature integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Liza; Schyns, Philippe G

    2003-08-01

    Perceptual processing delays between attribute dimensions (e.g. color, form and motion) [Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 264 (1997) 1407] have been attributed to temporal processing asynchronies resulting from functional segregation of visual information [Science 240 (1988) 740]. In addition, several lines of evidence converge to suggest that attention plays an important role in the integration of functionally processed information. However, exactly how attention modulates the temporal integration of information remains unclear. Here, we examined how attention modulates the integration of color and form into a unitary perception. Results suggest that attending to the location of an object enhances the integration of its defining attributes by speeding up the perceptual processing of each attribute dimension. Moreover, the perceptual asynchrony between attributes remains constant across attended and unattended conditions because attention seems to offer each processing dimension an equal processing advantage. PMID:12826102

  10. Divided Attention Can Enhance Memory Encoding: The Attentional Boost Effect in Implicit Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataro, Pietro; Mulligan, Neil W.; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2013-01-01

    Distraction during encoding has long been known to disrupt later memory performance. Contrary to this long-standing result, we show that detecting an infrequent target in a dual-task paradigm actually improves memory encoding for a concurrently presented word, above and beyond the performance reached in the full-attention condition. This absolute…

  11. Task inhibition and task repetition in task switching

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp, A; Koch, I.

    2006-01-01

    To explore the effect of exogenous processes on cognitive control, we used a cueing task-switching paradigm with two spatial judgement tasks and added an irrelevant colour attribute to the task-relevant spatial attribute of the target. The colour was not related to any specific Stimulus-Response relation in the tasks. A correlation was created between stimulus colour and task identity. This correlation was strong but imperfect in Experiment 1 and perfect in Experiment 2. As a result of the co...

  12. Iconic memory requires attention

    OpenAIRE

    Persuh, Marjan; Genzer, Boris; Melara, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change detection paradigm (Experiment 1) or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2). In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization) even when co...

  13. Modelling imperfect attention

    OpenAIRE

    Manzini, Paola; Mariotti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel method to model an agent who is imperfectly attentive in the sense that she may consider only some of the alternatives available. Our methodology departs from the standard 'revealed preference' one: we make plausible assumptions on the values to the imperfectly attentive agent of different choice situations. We derive in this way a simple reduced-form model that is compatible with several cognitive processes underlying choice: the agent stochastically forms a consideration ...

  14. Switch Attention to Listen

    OpenAIRE

    Dhamani, Imran; Leung, Johahn; Carlile, Simon; Sharma, Mridula

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the ability to switch attention and selectively attend to relevant information in children (10–15 years) with persistent listening difficulties in noisy environments. A wide battery of clinical tests indicated that children with complaints of listening difficulties had otherwise normal hearing sensitivity and auditory processing skills. Here we show that these children are markedly slower to switch their attention compared to their age-matched peers. T...

  15. Attenuation of Attention Bias in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, Nader; Najmi, Sadia; Morrison, Amanda S.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive theories of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) suggest that the disorder is characterized by an attention bias towards personally relevant threatening material. However, existing research on attention bias in OCD has yielded conflicting findings. One possibility that might account for the null findings is that attention bias may diminish over the course of the experiment. The present study tested this hypothesis using a visual dot-probe task with idiographic word selection. Results...

  16. Hierarchical Object-Based Visual Attention for Machine Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yaoru

    2003-01-01

    Human vision uses mechanisms of covert attention to selectively process interesting information and overt eye movements to extend this selectivity ability. Thus, visual tasks can be effectively dealt with by limited processing resources. Modelling visual attention for machine vision systems is not only critical but also challenging. In the machine vision literature there have been many conventional attention models developed but they are all space-based only and cannot perform ...

  17. Emotional cuing to test attentional network functioning in trait anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Íñiguez, Consolación; Luis J Fuentes; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco; Campoy, Guillermo; Montoro, Pedro J.; Palmero Cantero, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The Attention Networks Test (ANT) has been widely used to assess the three attentional networks proposed by Posner and his collaborators. Here we present a version of the ANT that uses emotionally laden words as cues to evaluate the functioning of the attention networks and their interactions. University students participated in the task and the results replicated those found in previous studies with the original version of the test. Then, those with extreme scores on a trai...

  18. Electrophysiological correlates of attention networks in childhood and early adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Abundis-Gutierrez, Alicia; Checa Fernández, Purificación; Castellanos, Concepción; Rueda Cuerva, Mª Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Attention has been related to functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control, which are associated with distinct brain networks. This study aimed at understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the development of attention functions during childhood. A total of 46 healthy 4–13-year-old children and 15 adults performed an adapted version of the Attention Network Task (ANT) while brain activation was registered with a high-density EEG system. Performance of the ANT revealed changes i...

  19. Attentional Control Theory in Childhood: Enhanced Attentional Capture by Non-Emotional and Emotional Distractors in Anxiety and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszczuk, Monika A; Brown, Hannah M; Eley, Thalia C; Lester, Kathryn J

    2015-01-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) proposes that anxiety is associated with executive functioning deficits. The theory has been widely investigated in adults. The current study tested whether symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression were associated with experimentally measured attentional control in the context of non-emotional and emotional stimuli. Sixty-one children (mean age = 9.23 years, range = 8.39-10.41) reported their trait anxiety and depression symptoms and completed three visual search tasks. The tasks used a variant of an irrelevant singleton paradigm and measured attentional capture by task-irrelevant non-emotional (color) and emotional (facial expressions) distractors. Significant attentional capture by both non-emotional and emotional distractors was observed, and was significantly correlated with trait anxiety and symptoms of depression. The strength of relationship between attentional capture and the symptoms did not differ significantly for non-emotional and emotional distractors. The results suggest that symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression are associated with poorer attentional control both in the presence of emotional and non-emotional stimuli, supporting ACT in younger populations. This attentional deficit in the context of non-emotional information might be as central to childhood internalizing symptoms as attentional biases often observed on tasks investigating processing of emotional stimuli. PMID:26599268

  20. The Speed of Visual Attention and Motor-Response Decisions in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cross-Villasana, Fernando; Finke, Kathrin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) exhibit slowed reaction times (RTs) in various attention tasks. The exact origins of this slowing, however, have not been yet established. Potential candidates are early sensory processes mediating the deployment of ...

  1. Attentional Control Theory in Childhood: Enhanced Attentional Capture by Non-Emotional and Emotional Distractors in Anxiety and Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika A Waszczuk

    Full Text Available Attentional control theory (ACT proposes that anxiety is associated with executive functioning deficits. The theory has been widely investigated in adults. The current study tested whether symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression were associated with experimentally measured attentional control in the context of non-emotional and emotional stimuli. Sixty-one children (mean age = 9.23 years, range = 8.39-10.41 reported their trait anxiety and depression symptoms and completed three visual search tasks. The tasks used a variant of an irrelevant singleton paradigm and measured attentional capture by task-irrelevant non-emotional (color and emotional (facial expressions distractors. Significant attentional capture by both non-emotional and emotional distractors was observed, and was significantly correlated with trait anxiety and symptoms of depression. The strength of relationship between attentional capture and the symptoms did not differ significantly for non-emotional and emotional distractors. The results suggest that symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression are associated with poorer attentional control both in the presence of emotional and non-emotional stimuli, supporting ACT in younger populations. This attentional deficit in the context of non-emotional information might be as central to childhood internalizing symptoms as attentional biases often observed on tasks investigating processing of emotional stimuli.

  2. Moving to Capture Children’s Attention: Developing a Methodology for Measuring Visuomotor Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Rachel O.; Mushtaq, Faisal; Williams, Justin H. G.; Aucott, Lorna S.; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Attention underpins many activities integral to a child’s development. However, methodological limitations currently make large-scale assessment of children’s attentional skill impractical, costly and lacking in ecological validity. Consequently we developed a measure of ‘Visual Motor Attention’ (VMA)—a construct defined as the ability to sustain and adapt visuomotor behaviour in response to task-relevant visual information. In a series of experiments, we evaluated the capability of our method to measure attentional processes and their contributions in guiding visuomotor behaviour. Experiment 1 established the method’s core features (ability to track stimuli moving on a tablet-computer screen with a hand-held stylus) and demonstrated its sensitivity to principled manipulations in adults’ attentional load. Experiment 2 standardised a format suitable for use with children and showed construct validity by capturing developmental changes in executive attention processes. Experiment 3 tested the hypothesis that children with and without coordination difficulties would show qualitatively different response patterns, finding an interaction between the cognitive and motor factors underpinning responses. Experiment 4 identified associations between VMA performance and existing standardised attention assessments and thereby confirmed convergent validity. These results establish a novel approach to measuring childhood attention that can produce meaningful functional assessments that capture how attention operates in an ecologically valid context (i.e. attention's specific contribution to visuomanual action). PMID:27434198

  3. Cognition, emotion, and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Deficits of attention, emotion, and cognition occur in individuals with alcohol abuse and addiction. This review elucidates the concepts of attention, emotion, and cognition and references research on the underlying neural networks and their compromise in alcohol use disorder. Neuroimaging research on adolescents with family history of alcoholism contributes to the understanding of pre-existing brain structural conditions and characterization of cognition and attention processes in high-risk individuals. Attention and cognition interact with other brain functions, including perceptual selection, salience, emotion, reward, and memory, through interconnected neural networks. Recent research reports compromised microstructural and functional network connectivity in alcoholism, which can have an effect on the dynamic tuning between brain systems, e.g., the frontally based executive control system, the limbic emotion system, and the midbrain-striatal reward system, thereby impeding cognitive flexibility and behavioral adaptation to changing environments. Finally, we introduce concepts of functional compensation, the capacity to generate attentional resources for performance enhancement, and brain structure recovery with abstinence. An understanding of the neural mechanisms of attention, emotion, and cognition will likely provide the basis for better treatment strategies for developing skills that enhance alcoholism therapy adherence and quality of life, and reduce the propensity for relapse. PMID:25307584

  4. Interocular conflict attracts attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffen, Chris L E; Hessels, Roy S; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    During binocular rivalry, perception alternates.between dissimilar images presented dichoptically. Since.its discovery, researchers have debated whether the phenomenon is subject to attentional control. While it is now clear that attentional control over binocular rivalry is possible, the opposite is less evident: Is interocular conflict (i.e., the situation leading to binocular rivalry) able to attract attention?In order to answer this question, we used a change blindness paradigm in which observers looked for salient changes in two alternating frames depicting natural scenes. Each frame contained two images: one for the left and one for the right eye. Changes occurring in a single image (monocular) were detected faster than those occurring in both images (binocular). In addition,monocular change detection was also faster than detection in fused versions of the changed and unchanged regions. These results show that interocular conflict is capable of attracting attention, since it guides visual attention toward salient changes that otherwise would remain unnoticed for longer. The results of a second experiment indicated that interocular conflict attracts attention during the first phase of presentation, a phase during which the stimulus is abnormally fused [added]. PMID:22167536

  5. Executive functions and selective attention are favored in middle-aged healthy women carriers of the Val/Val genotype of the catechol-o-methyltransferase gene: a behavioral genetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez-Muñoz Mayra

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive deficits such as poor memory, the inability to concentrate, deficits in abstract reasoning, attention and set-shifting flexibility have been reported in middle-aged women. It has been suggested that cognitive decline may be due to several factors which include hormonal changes, individual differences, normal processes of aging and age-related changes in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, a common functional polymorphism, has been related to executive performance in young healthy volunteers, old subjects and schizophrenia patients. The effect of this polymorphism on cognitive function in middle-aged healthy women is not well known. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether measures of executive function, sustained attention, selective attention and verbal fluency would be different depending on the COMT genotype and task demand. Method We genotyped 74 middle-aged healthy women (48 to 65 years old for the COMT Val158Met polymorphism. We analyzed the effects of this polymorphism on executive functions (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, selective attention (Stroop test, sustained attention (Continuous Performance Test and word generation (Verbal Fluency test, which are cognitive functions that involve the frontal lobe. Results There were 27 women with the Val/Val COMT genotype, 15 with the Met/Met genotype, and 32 with the Val/Met genotype. Women carriers of the Val/Val genotype performed better in executive functions, as indicated by a lower number of errors committed in comparison with the Met/Met or Val/Met groups. The correct responses on selective attention were higher in the Val/Val group, and the number of errors committed was higher in the Met/Met group during the incongruence trial in comparison with the Val/Val group. Performance on sustained attention and the number of words generated did not show significant differences between the three genotypes. Conclusion These

  6. Attention demands of spoken word planning: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardi Roelofs

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Attention and language are among the most intensively researched abilities in the cognitive neurosciences, but the relation between these abilities has largely been neglected. There is increasing evidence, however, that linguistic processes, such as those underlying the planning of words, cannot proceed without paying some form of attention. Here, we review evidence that word planning requires some but not full attention. The evidence comes from chronometric studies of word planning in picture naming and word reading under divided attention conditions. It is generally assumed that the central attention demands of a process are indexed by the extent that the process delays the performance of a concurrent unrelated task. The studies measured the speed and accuracy of linguistic and nonlinguistic responding as well as eye gaze durations reflecting the allocation of attention. First, empirical evidence indicates that in several task situations, processes up to and including phonological encoding in word planning delay, or are delayed by, the performance of concurrent unrelated nonlinguistic tasks. These findings suggest that word planning requires central attention. Second, empirical evidence indicates that conflicts in word planning may be resolved while concurrently performing an unrelated nonlinguistic task, making a task decision, or making a go/no-go decision. These findings suggest that word planning does not require full central attention. We outline a computationally implemented theory of attention and word planning, and describe at various points the outcomes of computer simulations that demonstrate the utility of the theory in accounting for the key findings. Finally, we indicate how attention deficits may contribute to impaired language performance, such as in individuals with specific language impairment.

  7. A dissociation between attention and selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, R. W.; Folk, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    It is widely assumed that the allocatian of spatial attention results in the "selection" of attended objects or regions of space. That is, once a stimulus is attended, all its feature dimensions are processed irrespective of their relevance to behavioral goals. This assumption is based in part on experiments showing significant interference for attended stimuli when the response to an irrelevant dimension conflicts with the response to the relevant dimension (e.g., the Stroop effect). Here we show that such interference is not due to attending per se. In two spatial cuing experiments, we found that it was possible to restrict processing of attended stimuli to task-relevant dimensions. This new evidence supports two novel conclusions: (a) Selection involves more than the focusing of attention per se: and (b) task expectations play a key role in detertnining the depth of processing of the elementary feature dimensions of attended stimuli.

  8. Individual working memory capacity is uniquely correlated with feature-based attention when combined with spatial attention

    OpenAIRE

    Bengson, Jesse J.; Mangun, George R.

    2011-01-01

    A growing literature suggests that working memory and attention are closely related constructs. Both involve the selection of task-relevant information, and both are characterized by capacity limits. Furthermore, studies using a variety of methodological approaches have demonstrated convergent working memory and attention-related processing at the individual, neural and behavioral level. Given the varieties of both constructs, the specific kinds of attention and WM must be considered. We find...

  9. EEG predictors of covert vigilant attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Adrien; Dähne, Sven; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Objective. The present study addressed the question whether neurophysiological signals exhibit characteristic modulations preceding a miss in a covert vigilant attention task which mimics a natural environment in which critical stimuli may appear in the periphery of the visual field. Approach. Subjective, behavioural and encephalographic (EEG) data of 12 participants performing a modified Mackworth Clock task were obtained and analysed offline. The stimulus consisted of a pointer performing regular ticks in a clockwise sequence across 42 dots arranged in a circle. Participants were requested to covertly attend to the pointer and press a response button as quickly as possible in the event of a jump, a rare and random event. Main results. Significant increases in response latencies and decreases in the detection rates were found as a function of time-on-task, a characteristic effect of sustained attention tasks known as the vigilance decrement. Subjective sleepiness showed a significant increase over the duration of the experiment. Increased activity in the α-frequency range (8-14 Hz) was observed emerging and gradually accumulating 10 s before a missed target. Additionally, a significant gradual attenuation of the P3 event-related component was found to antecede misses by 5 s. Significance. The results corroborate recent findings that behavioural errors are presaged by specific neurophysiological activity and demonstrate that lapses of attention can be predicted in a covert setting up to 10 s in advance reinforcing the prospective use of brain-computer interface (BCI) technology for the detection of waning vigilance in real-world scenarios. Combining these findings with real-time single-trial analysis from BCI may pave the way for cognitive states monitoring systems able to determine the current, and predict the near-future development of the brain's attentional processes.

  10. Effects of stimulant medication on the lateralisation of line bisection judgements of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, D; Bradshaw, J. (Jonathan); MATTINGLEY, J; Lee, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Deficits in the maintenance of attention may underlie problems in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children with ADHD also show asymmetric attention deficits in traditional lateralisation and visuospatial orienting tasks, suggesting right hemispheric (and left hemispace) attentional disturbance. This study aimed to examine the lateralisation of selective attention in ADHD; specifically, the effect of a moving, random dot background, and stimulan...

  11. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D. Barber

    2015-01-01

    While CON–DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON–DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other hand, greater DMN–occipital anti-correlation supported better attentional control in TD children.

  12. Dissociating temporal attention from spatial attention and motor response preparation: A high-density EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugeras, Frédéric; Naccache, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    Engagement of various forms of attention and response preparation determines behavioral performance during stimulus-response tasks. Many studies explored the respective properties and neural signatures of each of these processes. However, very few experiments were conceived to explore their interaction. In the present work we used an auditory target detection task during which both temporal attention on the one side, and spatial attention and motor response preparation on the other side could be explicitly cued. Both cueing effects speeded response times, and showed strictly additive effects. Target ERP analysis revealed modulations of N1 and P3 responses by these two forms of cueing. Cue-target interval analysis revealed two main effects paralleling behavior. First, a typical contingent negative variation (CNV), induced by the cue and resolved immediately after target onset, was found larger for temporal attention cueing than for spatial and motor response cueing. Second, a posterior and late cue-P3 complex showed the reverse profile. Analyses of lateralized readiness potentials (LRP) revealed both patterns of motor response inhibition and activation. Taken together these results help to clarify and disentangle the respective effects of temporal attention on the one hand, and of the combination of spatial attention and motor response preparation on the other hand on brain activity and behavior. PMID:26433120

  13. Reduced attentional scope in cocaine polydrug users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza S Colzato

    Full Text Available Cocaine is Europe's second preferred recreational drug after cannabis but very little is known about possible cognitive impairments in the upcoming type of recreational cocaine user (monthly consumption. We asked whether recreational use of cocaine impacts early attentional selection processes. Cocaine-free polydrug controls (n = 18 and cocaine polydrug users (n = 18 were matched on sex, age, alcohol consumption, and IQ (using the Raven's progressive matrices, and were tested by using the Global-Local task to measure the scope of attention. Cocaine polydrug users attended significantly more to local aspects of attended events, which fits with the idea that a reduced scope of attention may be associated with the perpetuation of the use of the drug.

  14. Feature-based attention enhances performance by increasing response gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Katrin; Heeger, David J; Carrasco, Marisa

    2012-12-01

    Covert spatial attention can increase contrast sensitivity either by changes in contrast gain or by changes in response gain, depending on the size of the attention field and the size of the stimulus (Herrmann et al., 2010), as predicted by the normalization model of attention (Reynolds & Heeger, 2009). For feature-based attention, unlike spatial attention, the model predicts only changes in response gain, regardless of whether the featural extent of the attention field is small or large. To test this prediction, we measured the contrast dependence of feature-based attention. Observers performed an orientation-discrimination task on a spatial array of grating patches. The spatial locations of the gratings were varied randomly so that observers could not attend to specific locations. Feature-based attention was manipulated with a 75% valid and 25% invalid pre-cue, and the featural extent of the attention field was manipulated by introducing uncertainty about the upcoming grating orientation. Performance accuracy was better for valid than for invalid pre-cues, consistent with a change in response gain, when the featural extent of the attention field was small (low uncertainty) or when it was large (high uncertainty) relative to the featural extent of the stimulus. These results for feature-based attention clearly differ from results of analogous experiments with spatial attention, yet both support key predictions of the normalization model of attention. PMID:22580017

  15. Cognitive Control Network Contributions to Memory-Guided Visual Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Maya L; Stern, Chantal E; Michalka, Samantha W; Devaney, Kathryn J; Somers, David C

    2016-05-01

    Visual attentional capacity is severely limited, but humans excel in familiar visual contexts, in part because long-term memories guide efficient deployment of attention. To investigate the neural substrates that support memory-guided visual attention, we performed a set of functional MRI experiments that contrast long-term, memory-guided visuospatial attention with stimulus-guided visuospatial attention in a change detection task. Whereas thedorsal attention networkwas activated for both forms of attention, thecognitive control network(CCN) was preferentially activated during memory-guided attention. Three posterior nodes in the CCN, posterior precuneus, posterior callosal sulcus/mid-cingulate, and lateral intraparietal sulcus exhibited the greatest specificity for memory-guided attention. These 3 regions exhibit functional connectivity at rest, and we propose that they form a subnetwork within the broader CCN. Based on the task activation patterns, we conclude that the nodes of this subnetwork are preferentially recruited for long-term memory guidance of visuospatial attention. PMID:25750253

  16. Scheduling of Dependent Tasks Application using Random Search Technique

    OpenAIRE

    vegda, Deepak. c.; Prajapati, Harshad B.

    2013-01-01

    Since beginning of Grid computing, scheduling of dependent tasks application has attracted attention of researchers due to NP-Complete nature of the problem. In Grid environment, scheduling is deciding about assignment of tasks to available resources. Scheduling in Grid is challenging when the tasks have dependencies and resources are heterogeneous. The main objective in scheduling of dependent tasks is minimizing make-span. Due to NP-complete nature of scheduling problem, exact solutions can...

  17. Attention, Predation, Counterintuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    of Dracula to account for the novel’s impact and resilience. Dracula connected squarely with late-Victorian anxieties, but the novel also appeals to trans-historical adaptive dispositions. I analyze Stoker’s use of narrative strategies to grab and sustain attention, and Count Dracula as a...

  18. Neural effects of auditory distraction on visual attention in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smucny, Jason; Rojas, Donald C; Eichman, Lindsay C; Tregellas, Jason R

    2013-01-01

    Sensory flooding, particularly during auditory stimulation, is a common problem for patients with schizophrenia. The functional consequences of this impairment during cross-modal attention tasks, however, are unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine how auditory distraction differentially affects task-associated response during visual attention in patients and healthy controls. To that end, 21 outpatients with schizophrenia and 23 healthy comparison subjects performed a visual attention task in the presence or absence of distracting, environmentally relevant "urban" noise while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. The task had two conditions (difficult and easy); task-related neural activity was defined as difficult - easy. During task performance, a significant distraction (noise or silence) by group (patient or control) interaction was observed in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right hippocampus, left temporoparietal junction, and right fusiform gyrus, with patients showing relative hypoactivation during noise compared to controls. In patients, the ability to recruit the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the task in noise was negatively correlated with the effect of noise on reaction time. Clinically, the ability to recruit the fusiform gyrus during the task in noise was negatively correlated with SANS affective flattening score, and hippocampal recruitment during the task in noise was positively correlated with global functioning. In conclusion, schizophrenia may be associated with abnormalities in neural response during visual attention tasks in the presence of cross-modal noise distraction. These response differences may predict global functioning in the illness, and may serve as a biomarker for therapeutic development. PMID:23560100

  19. Neural effects of auditory distraction on visual attention in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Smucny

    Full Text Available Sensory flooding, particularly during auditory stimulation, is a common problem for patients with schizophrenia. The functional consequences of this impairment during cross-modal attention tasks, however, are unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine how auditory distraction differentially affects task-associated response during visual attention in patients and healthy controls. To that end, 21 outpatients with schizophrenia and 23 healthy comparison subjects performed a visual attention task in the presence or absence of distracting, environmentally relevant "urban" noise while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. The task had two conditions (difficult and easy; task-related neural activity was defined as difficult - easy. During task performance, a significant distraction (noise or silence by group (patient or control interaction was observed in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right hippocampus, left temporoparietal junction, and right fusiform gyrus, with patients showing relative hypoactivation during noise compared to controls. In patients, the ability to recruit the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the task in noise was negatively correlated with the effect of noise on reaction time. Clinically, the ability to recruit the fusiform gyrus during the task in noise was negatively correlated with SANS affective flattening score, and hippocampal recruitment during the task in noise was positively correlated with global functioning. In conclusion, schizophrenia may be associated with abnormalities in neural response during visual attention tasks in the presence of cross-modal noise distraction. These response differences may predict global functioning in the illness, and may serve as a biomarker for therapeutic development.

  20. Emotional Stroop Dilution: The boundary conditions of attentional capture by threat words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G; Langerak, Robin M

    2015-07-01

    It is widely believed that threatening stimuli in our environment capture attention. Much of the core evidence for attentional capture by threatening stimuli comes from the Emotional Stroop task. Yet recent evidence suggests that the Emotional Stroop task does not measure attentional capture (e.g., Algom et al., 2004). The present paper assesses whether threat words can capture attention using a modified Stroop Dilution procedure (e.g., Kahneman & Chajczyk, 1983), where attentional capture by a threat word is inferred from a reduction in color-word interference for threat words compared to non-threat words (emotional Stroop Dilution). The outcome of the present experiments indicates that threat words can capture attention, but only when task demands do not require that a word be attended. It is suggested that threat words produce (1) cognitive slowing, and influence two processes of selective attention (2) attentional capture and (3) the ability to filter irrelevant dimensions of an attended stimulus. PMID:26093219

  1. Attentional bias training in reducing symptoms of anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kłosowska; Agata Blaut; Borysław Paulewicz

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety is related to attentional bias, i.e. a tendency to pay attention to threatening stimuli. This occurs both in individuals suffering from anxiety disorders, and in healthy individuals with elevated levels of trait anxiety. This article is an analysis of a research paradigm, used to modify attentional bias (CBM-A Cognitive Bias Modification – Attention). A growing number of studies indicate that with the help of computer methods such as a modified version of the dot-probe task we can tra...

  2. Domain Specific Attentional Impairments in Children with Chromosome 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, Joel P.; Chiodo, Renee; Mattei, Victoria; Simon, Tony J.

    2007-01-01

    One of the defining cognitive characteristics of the chromosome 22q deletion syndrome (DS22q11.2) is visuospatial processing impairments. The purpose of this study was to investigate and extend the specific attentional profile of children with this disorder using both an object-based attention task and an inhibition of return task. A group of…

  3. Attention Deficits in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC): Rethinking the Pathways to the Endstate

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, P. J.; Watson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder associated with a range of neurocognitive manifestations, including neuropsychological attention deficits most notably in dual tasking/divided attention. These dual-task deficits have so far been interpreted as evidence of a vulnerable "cognitive module" in TSC. Here, we suggest…

  4. Sustained Attention to Local and Global Target Features Is Different: Performance and Tympanic Membrane Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, William S.; Hayrynen, Lauren; Schaeffer, David

    2009-01-01

    Vision researchers have investigated the differences between global and local feature perception. No one has, however, examined the role of global and local feature discrimination in sustained attention tasks. In this experiment participants performed a sustained attention task requiring either global or local letter target discriminations or…

  5. rTMS over bilateral inferior parietal cortex induces decrement of spatial sustained attention

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jeyeon; Ku, Jeonghun; Han, Kiwan; Park, Jinsick; Lee, Hyeongrae; Kim, Kyung Ran; Lee, Eun; Husain, Masud; Yoon, Kang Jun; Kim, In Young; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, Sun I.

    2013-01-01

    Sustained attention is an essential brain function that enables a subject to maintain attention level over the time of a task. In previous work, the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL) has been reported as one of the main brain regions related to sustained attention, however, the right lateralization of vigilance/sustained attention is unclear because information about the network for sustained attention is traditionally provided by neglect patients who typically have right brain damage. Here,...

  6. Relevance of attention in auditory sensory gating paradigms in schizophrenia A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Gjini, Klevest; Burroughs, Scott; Boutros, Nash N.

    2011-01-01

    The paired-click paradigm (PCP) is widely used to study sensory habituation or gating in a number of psychiatric and neurological conditions. The classic paradigm does not control for attentional factors. In order to assess the influences of incorporating attentional control measures we administered the auditory PCP (S1–S2) in three different attention (passive, auditory attention to S2, visual attention to a concurrent continuous performance task [CPT]) conditions to a group of chronic, medi...

  7. Attention-deficit disorder (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder without hyperactivity): A neurobiologically and behaviorally distinct disorder from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (with hyperactivity)

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, Adele

    2005-01-01

    Most studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have focused on the combined type and emphasized a core problem in response inhibition. It is proposed here that the core problem in the truly inattentive type of ADHD (not simply the subthreshold combined type) is in working memory. It is further proposed that laboratory measures, such as complex-span and dual-task dichotic listening tasks, can detect this. Children with the truly inattentive type of ADHD, rather than being dist...

  8. The modality effect of ego depletion: Auditory task modality reduces ego depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Wang, Zhenhong

    2016-08-01

    An initial act of self-control that impairs subsequent acts of self-control is called ego depletion. The ego depletion phenomenon has been observed consistently. The modality effect refers to the effect of the presentation modality on the processing of stimuli. The modality effect was also robustly found in a large body of research. However, no study to date has examined the modality effects of ego depletion. This issue was addressed in the current study. In Experiment 1, after all participants completed a handgrip task, one group's participants completed a visual attention regulation task and the other group's participants completed an auditory attention regulation task, and then all participants again completed a handgrip task. The ego depletion phenomenon was observed in both the visual and the auditory attention regulation task. Moreover, participants who completed the visual task performed worse on the handgrip task than participants who completed the auditory task, which indicated that there was high ego depletion in the visual task condition. In Experiment 2, participants completed an initial task that either did or did not deplete self-control resources, and then they completed a second visual or auditory attention control task. The results indicated that depleted participants performed better on the auditory attention control task than the visual attention control task. These findings suggest that altering task modality may reduce ego depletion. PMID:27241617

  9. Popularity, Novelty and Attention

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Fang

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the role that popularity and novelty play in attracting the attention of users to dynamic websites. We do so by determining the performance of three different strategies that can be utilized to maximize attention. The first one prioritizes novelty while the second emphasizes popularity. A third strategy looks myopically into the future and prioritizes stories that are expected to generate the most clicks within the next few minutes. We show that the first two strategies should be selected on the basis of the rate of novelty decay, while the third strategy performs sub-optimally in most cases. We also demonstrate that the relative performance of the first two strategies as a function of the rate of novelty decay changes abruptly around a critical value, resembling a phase transition in the physical world. 1

  10. Does attention exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Keith

    2007-01-01

    In the introduction to the Phenomenology of Perception, Merleau-Ponty (2002: 34) states that ‘Attention, [...] as a general and formal activity, does not exist’. This paper examines the meaning and truth of this difficult and surprising statement, along with its implications for the account of perception given by theorists such as Dretske (1988) and Peacocke (1983). In order to elucidate Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenological account of human perception, I will present two alternative models1 of ho...

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic t...

  12. Attentive Turkers: MTurk participants perform better on online attention checks than do subject pool participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, David J; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    Participant attentiveness is a concern for many researchers using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Although studies comparing the attentiveness of participants on MTurk versus traditional subject pool samples have provided mixed support for this concern, attention check questions and other methods of ensuring participant attention have become prolific in MTurk studies. Because MTurk is a population that learns, we hypothesized that MTurkers would be more attentive to instructions than are traditional subject pool samples. In three online studies, participants from MTurk and collegiate populations participated in a task that included a measure of attentiveness to instructions (an instructional manipulation check: IMC). In all studies, MTurkers were more attentive to the instructions than were college students, even on novel IMCs (Studies 2 and 3), and MTurkers showed larger effects in response to a minute text manipulation. These results have implications for the sustainable use of MTurk samples for social science research and for the conclusions drawn from research with MTurk and college subject pool samples. PMID:25761395

  13. Neural correlates of executive attention in adults born very preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daamen, Marcel; Bäuml, Josef G.; Scheef, Lukas; Meng, Chun; Jurcoane, Alina; Jaekel, Julia; Sorg, Christian; Busch, Barbara; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter; Wohlschläger, Afra; Boecker, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Very preterm birth is associated with an increased prevalence of attention problems and may especially impair executive attention, i.e., top-down control of attentional selection in situations where distracting information interferes with the processing of task-relevant stimuli. While there are initial findings linking structural brain alterations in preterm-born individuals with attention problems, the functional basis of these problems are not well understood. The present study used an fMRI adaptation of the Attentional Network Test to examine the neural correlates of executive attention in a large sample of N = 86 adults born very preterm and/or with very low birth weight (VP/VLBW), and N = 100 term-born controls. Executive attention was measured by comparing task behavior and brain activations associated with the processing of incongruent vs. congruent arrow flanker stimuli. Consistent with subtle impairments of executive attention, the VP/VLBW group showed lower accuracy and a tendency for increased response times during the processing of incongruent stimuli. Both groups showed similar activation patters, especially within expected fronto-cingulo-parietal areas, but no significant between-group differences. Our results argue for a maintained attention-relevant network organization in high-functioning preterm born adults in spite of subtle deficits in executive attention. Gestational age and neonatal treatment variables showed associations with task behavior, and brain activation in the dorsal ACC and lateral occipital areas, suggesting that the degree of prematurity (and related neonatal complications) has subtle modulatory influences on executive attention processing. PMID:26640769

  14. Attention-Seeking Displays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Számadó

    Full Text Available Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest.

  15. Attention-Seeking Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Számadó, Szabolcs

    2015-01-01

    Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest. PMID:26287489

  16. Robotic Attention Processing And Its Application To Visual Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Matthew; Inoue, Hirochika

    1988-03-01

    This paper describes a method of real-time visual attention processing for robots performing visual guidance. This robot attention processing is based on a novel vision processor, the multi-window vision system that was developed at the University of Tokyo. The multi-window vision system is unique in that it only processes visual information inside local area windows. These local area windows are quite flexible in their ability to move anywhere on the visual screen, change their size and shape, and alter their pixel sampling rate. By using these windows for specific attention tasks, it is possible to perform high speed attention processing. The primary attention skills of detecting motion, tracking an object, and interpreting an image are all performed at high speed on the multi-window vision system. A basic robotic attention scheme using the attention skills was developed. The attention skills involved detection and tracking of salient visual features. The tracking and motion information thus obtained was utilized in producing the response to the visual stimulus. The response of the attention scheme was quick enough to be applicable to the real-time vision processing tasks of playing a video 'pong' game, and later using an automobile driving simulator. By detecting the motion of a 'ball' on a video screen and then tracking the movement, the attention scheme was able to control a 'paddle' in order to keep the ball in play. The response was faster than that of a human's, allowing the attention scheme to play the video game at higher speeds. Further, in the application to the driving simulator, the attention scheme was able to control both direction and velocity of a simulated vehicle following a lead car. These two applications show the potential of local visual processing in its use for robotic attention processing.

  17. Improved control of exogenous attention in action video game players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Cain

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Action video game players have demonstrated a number of attentional advantages over non-players. Here, we propose that many of those benefits might be underpinned by improved control over exogenous (i.e., stimulus-driven attention. To test this we used an anti-cuing task, in which a sudden-onset cue indicated that the target would likely appear in a separate location on the opposite side of the fixation point. When the time between the cue onset and the target onset was short (40 ms, non-players (nVGPs showed a typical exogenous attention effect. Their response times were faster to targets presented at the cued (but less probable location compared with the opposite (more probable location. Video game players (VGPs, however, were less likely to have their attention drawn to the location of the cue. When the onset asynchrony was long (600 ms, VGPs and nVGPs were equally able to endogenously shift their attention to the likely (opposite target location. In order to rule out processing-speed differences as an explanation for this result, we also tested VGPs and nVGPs on an attentional blink task. In a version of the attentional blink task that minimized demands on task switching and iconic memory, VGPs and nVGPs did not differ in second target identification performance (i.e., VGPs had the same magnitude of attentional blink as nVGPs, suggesting that the anti-cuing results were due to flexible control over exogenous attention rather than to more general speed-of-processing differences.

  18. Quantifying collective attention from tweet stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Hirata, Yoshito; Toyoda, Masashi; Kitsuregawa, Masaru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Online social media are increasingly facilitating our social interactions, thereby making available a massive "digital fossil" of human behavior. Discovering and quantifying distinct patterns using these data is important for studying social behavior, although the rapid time-variant nature and large volumes of these data make this task difficult and challenging. In this study, we focused on the emergence of "collective attention" on Twitter, a popular social networking service. We propose a simple method for detecting and measuring the collective attention evoked by various types of events. This method exploits the fact that tweeting activity exhibits a burst-like increase and an irregular oscillation when a particular real-world event occurs; otherwise, it follows regular circadian rhythms. The difference between regular and irregular states in the tweet stream was measured using the Jensen-Shannon divergence, which corresponds to the intensity of collective attention. We then associated irregular incidents with their corresponding events that attracted the attention and elicited responses from large numbers of people, based on the popularity and the enhancement of key terms in posted messages or "tweets." Next, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method using a large dataset that contained approximately 490 million Japanese tweets by over 400,000 users, in which we identified 60 cases of collective attentions, including one related to the Tohoku-oki earthquake. "Retweet" networks were also investigated to understand collective attention in terms of social interactions. This simple method provides a retrospective summary of collective attention, thereby contributing to the fundamental understanding of social behavior in the digital era. PMID:23637913

  19. Learning-induced changes in attentional allocation during categorization: a sizable catalog of attention change as measured by eye movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlyn M McColeman

    Full Text Available Learning how to allocate attention properly is essential for success at many categorization tasks. Advances in our understanding of learned attention are stymied by a chicken-and-egg problem: there are no theoretical accounts of learned attention that predict patterns of eye movements, making data collection difficult to justify, and there are not enough datasets to support the development of a rich theory of learned attention. The present work addresses this by reporting five measures relating to the overt allocation of attention across 10 category learning experiments: accuracy, probability of fixating irrelevant information, number of fixations to category features, the amount of change in the allocation of attention (using a new measure called Time Proportion Shift - TIPS, and a measure of the relationship between attention change and erroneous responses. Using these measures, the data suggest that eye-movements are not substantially connected to error in most cases and that aggregate trial-by-trial attention change is generally stable across a number of changing task variables. The data presented here provide a target for computational models that aim to account for changes in overt attentional behaviors across learning.

  20. Handwriting Skills: Attention Co-varies with Graphic Pattern Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostrubiec V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Attentional cost of graphic patterns generation was investigated using the classic dual-task procedure, in which a concurrent reaction time (RT task was used as an index of the attentional cost incurred by the motor task. Participants had to trace graphic patterns characterized by 0°, 45°, 90°, 135° and 180° relative phase, while responding by a keypress as fast as possible to an auditory signal. The results evidenced a strong and significant correlation between the stability of the produced pattern and the associated attentional cost measures. The size of minor and major axes of the ellipsoids, capturing the amplitude of graphic patterns, decreased as movement frequency increased, as expected by nonlinear models of pattern generation. In cursive writing, this decrease in amplitude with increasing movement frequency is at origin of most frequent letter malformation.

  1. Attention and P300-based BCI performance in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Riccio, Angela; Simione, Luca; Schettini, Francesca; Pizzimenti, Alessia; Inghilleri, Maurizio; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Mattia, Donatella; Cincotti, Febo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the support of attentional and memory processes in controlling a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI) in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Eight people with ALS performed two behavioral tasks: (i) a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task, screening the temporal filtering capacity and the speed of the update of the attentive filter, and (ii) a change detection task, screening the memory capacity and the spatial filtering ca...

  2. Relevance-based control over visual attention is fast and interdependent with stimulus-driven capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordfang, Maria; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    high local feature contrast attracts attention independently of task-relevance. Yet, recent studies have provided evidence that effects of task-irrelevant feature contrast interact with the task-relevance of the object in question (Nordfang, 2011). In a new experiment, display size was kept constant...... target. In summary, the study provided new evidence that both contrast and relevance influence attentional selection at very short exposure durations and the effects of the two factors are interdependent....

  3. Attentional bias toward safety predicts safety behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Wang, Guangxi; Yuan, Xiao; Ding, Weidong; Shen, Zhongxiang

    2014-10-01

    Safety studies have primarily focused on how explicit processes and measures affect safety behavior and subsequent accidents and injuries. Recently, safety researchers have paid greater attention to the role of implicit processes. Our research focuses on the role of attentional bias toward safety (ABS) in workplace safety. ABS is a basic, early-stage cognitive process involving the automatic and selective allocation of attentional resources toward safety cues, which reflect the implicit motivational state of employees regarding safety goal. In this study, we used two reaction time-based paradigms to measure the ABS of employees in three studies: two modified Stroop tasks (Studies 1 and 2) and a visual dot-probe task (Study 3). Results revealed that employees with better safety behavior showed significant ABS (Study 2), and greater ABS than employees with poorer safety behavior (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, ABS was positively associated with the perceived safety climate and safety motivation of employees, both of which mediate the effect of ABS on safety behavior (Study 3). These results contributed to a deeper understanding of how early-stage automatic perceptual processing affects safety behavior. The practical implications of these results were also discussed. PMID:24922613

  4. Joint attention, shared goals, and social bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Wouter; Launay, Jacques; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-05-01

    There has recently been interest in the ways in which coordinated movements encourage coactors to feel socially closer to one another, but this has generally overlooked the importance of necessary precursors to this joint action. Here we target two low-level behaviours involved in social coordination that may mediate a relationship between joint actions and social bonding, namely joint attention and shared goals. Participants engaged in a simple reaction time task while sitting next to a partner performing the same task. In a joint attention condition, both participants attended to stimuli presented on the same half of a computer screen, while in a control condition, they attended to opposite sides of the computer screen. Shared goals were manipulated by giving participants the instruction to keep below a threshold score for both individual response times and accuracy (individual goal), or their joint mean response time and accuracy (i.e., averaging their mean response time and accuracy with that of their partner: shared goal). Attending to the same side of the screen led to higher ratings on a composite social bonding index directed towards a partner, while shared goals did not cause any effects on partner ratings. Joint attention was sufficient to encourage social closeness with an interaction partner, which suggests that any activities which encourage attending to the same point in space could have some influence on how connected coactors feel about one another. PMID:26256821

  5. Eye Movements Reveal Dynamics of Task Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Ulrich; Kuhns, David; Rieter, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    With the goal to determine the cognitive architecture that underlies flexible changes of control settings, we assessed within-trial and across-trial dynamics of attentional selection by tracking of eye movements in the context of a cued task-switching paradigm. Within-trial dynamics revealed a switch-induced, discrete delay in onset of…

  6. Plasticity of visual attention in Isha yoga meditation practitioners before and after a 3-month retreat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ClaireBraboszcz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Meditation has lately received considerable interest from cognitive neuroscience. Studies suggest that daily meditation leads to long lasting attentional and neuronal plasticity. We present changes related to the attentional systems before and after a 3 month intensive meditation retreat. We used 3 behavioral psychophysical tests - a Stroop task, an attentional blink task, and a global-local letter task - to assess the effect of Isha yoga meditation on attentional resource allocation. 82 Isha yoga practitioners were tested at the beginning and at the end of the retreat. Our results showed an increase in correct responses specific to incongruent stimuli in the Stroop task. Congruently, a positive correlation between previous meditation experience and accuracy to incongruent Stroop stimuli was also observed at baseline. We also observed a reduction of the attentional blink. Unexpectedly, a negative correlation between previous meditation experience and attentional blink performance at baseline was observed. Regarding spatial attention orientation as assessed using the global-local letter task, participants showed a bias toward local processing. Only slight differences in performance were found pre- vs. post- meditation retreat. Previous meditation experience influenced the Stroop and attentional blink tasks in opposite directions – for the Stroop task congruent with the improvements seen after the retreat whereas for the attentional blink previous experience correlated negatively with performance. Biasing towards the local stimuli in the global-local task and negative correlation of previous meditation experience with attentional blink performance is consistent with Isha practices being more focused-attention practices. Given the relatively small effect sizes and the absence of a control group, our results do not allow clear support nor rejection of the hypothesis of meditation-driven neuronal plasticity in the attentional system for Isha yoga

  7. All set, indeed! N2pc components reveal simultaneous attentional control settings for multiple target colours

    OpenAIRE

    Grubert, Anna; Eimer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    To study whether top-down attentional control processes can be set simultaneously for different visual features, we employed a spatial cueing procedure to measure behavioural and electrophysiological markers of task-set contingent attentional capture during search for one or two possible colour-defined targets (One Colour and Two Colour tasks). Search arrays were preceded by spatially non-predictive colour singleton cues. Behavioural spatial cueing effects indicative of attentional capture we...

  8. Selective visual-spatial attention alters induced gamma band responses in the human EEG

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Thomas; Müller, Matthias M.; Keil, Andreas; Elbert, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was designed to investigate the attentional modulation of gamma band responses in a visual spatial attention task using a 128-channel-EEG-montage.Methods: Colored rectangles were presented on a screen. After 500 ms an arrow indicated whether subjects had to shift their attention to the left or right half of the screen to detect target stimuli. During the task, either the attended half of the screen rotated horizontally while the unattended part remained motionles...

  9. Emotion and attention interaction: a trade-off between stimuli relevance, motivation and individual differences

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Leticia de; Mocaiber, Izabela; David, Isabel A.; Erthal, Fátima; Volchan, Eliane; Pereira, Mirtes G.

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the neural processing of emotional stimuli is prioritized. However, whether the processing of emotional stimuli is dependent on attention remains debatable. Several studies have investigated this issue by testing the capacity of emotional distracters to divert processing resources from an attentional main task. The attentional load theory postulates that the perceptual load of the main task determines the selective processing of the distracter. Although we agre...

  10. Short-term effects of an action video game on attention

    OpenAIRE

    Onstad, Malin Bjørklund

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine whether an action video game had short-term effects on selective attention and temporal attention, as measured by the Attentional blink, Simon task and Stroop task. The design was experimental in which the participants (N = 20) completed 1 hour of action video game playing or reading in a book on two occasions, separated by 7 days. All participants completed both conditions. The design was randomized, counterbalanced and with cross-over trials. A Kolmogor...

  11. The Normalization Model of Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, John H.; Heeger, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Attention has been found to have a wide variety of effects on the responses of neurons in visual cortex. We describe a model of attention that exhibits each of these different forms of attentional modulation, depending on the stimulus conditions and the spread (or selectivity) of the attention field in the model. The model helps reconcile proposals that have been taken to represent alternative theories of attention. We argue that the variety and complexity of the results reported in the liter...

  12. Abnormal negative feedback processing in first episode schizophrenia: evidence from an oculomotor rule switching task

    OpenAIRE

    Huddy, Vyv C.; Hodgson, Timothy L.; Ron, Maria A; Barnes, Thomas RE; Joyce, Eileen M

    2011-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia are impaired on executive tasks, where positive and negative feedbacks are used to update task rules or switch attention. However, research to date using saccadic tasks has not revealed clear deficits in task switching in these patients. The present study used an oculomotor ‘ rule switching ’ task to investigate the use of negative feedback when switching between task rules in people with schizophrenia. M...

  13. Is a Responsive Default Mode Network Required for Successful Working Memory Task Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Čeko, Marta; Gracely, John L.; Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann; Seminowicz, David A.; Schweinhardt, Petra; Bushnell, M. Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In studies of cognitive processing using tasks with externally directed attention, regions showing increased (external-task-positive) and decreased or “negative” [default-mode network (DMN)] fMRI responses during task performance are dynamically responsive to increasing task difficulty. Responsiveness (modulation of fMRI signal by increasing load) has been linked directly to successful cognitive task performance in external-task-positive regions but not in DMN regions. To investigate whether ...

  14. [Attentional bias training in reducing symptoms of anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłosowska, Joanna; Blaut, Agata; Paulewicz, Borysław

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety is related to attentional bias, i.e. a tendency to pay attention to threatening stimuli. This occurs both in individuals suffering from anxiety disorders, and in healthy individuals with elevated levels of trait anxiety. This article is an analysis of a research paradigm, used to modify attentional bias (CBM-A Cognitive Bias Modification - Attention). A growing number of studies indicate that with the help of computer methods such as a modified version of the dot-probe task we can train individuals to direct attention away from threatening stimuli, which in turn reduces symptoms of anxiety. This effect was observed in adults, adolescents and children suffering from social phobia, generalised anxiety disorder and subclinical symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Effectiveness of this method constitutes the evidence for attentional bias being among the causes of anxiety disorders. The article also analyses the still not completely clear mechanisms of CBM-A and limitations of this method. PMID:25844410

  15. Attentional bias training in reducing symptoms of anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kłosowska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is related to attentional bias, i.e. a tendency to pay attention to threatening stimuli. This occurs both in individuals suffering from anxiety disorders, and in healthy individuals with elevated levels of trait anxiety. This article is an analysis of a research paradigm, used to modify attentional bias (CBM-A Cognitive Bias Modification – Attention. A growing number of studies indicate that with the help of computer methods such as a modified version of the dot-probe task we can train individuals to direct attention away from threatening stimuli, which in turn reduces symptoms of anxiety. This effect was observed in adults, adolescents and children suffering from social phobia, generalised anxiety disorder and subclinical symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Effectiveness of this method constitutes the evidence for attentional bias being among the causes of anxiety disorders. The article also analyses the still not completely clear mechanisms of CBM-A and limitations of this method.

  16. Attentional demands influence vocal compensations to pitch errors heard in auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumber, Anupreet K; Scheerer, Nichole E; Jones, Jeffery A

    2014-01-01

    Auditory feedback is required to maintain fluent speech. At present, it is unclear how attention modulates auditory feedback processing during ongoing speech. In this event-related potential (ERP) study, participants vocalized/a/, while they heard their vocal pitch suddenly shifted downward a ½ semitone in both single and dual-task conditions. During the single-task condition participants passively viewed a visual stream for cues to start and stop vocalizing. In the dual-task condition, participants vocalized while they identified target stimuli in a visual stream of letters. The presentation rate of the visual stimuli was manipulated in the dual-task condition in order to produce a low, intermediate, and high attentional load. Visual target identification accuracy was lowest in the high attentional load condition, indicating that attentional load was successfully manipulated. Results further showed that participants who were exposed to the single-task condition, prior to the dual-task condition, produced larger vocal compensations during the single-task condition. Thus, when participants' attention was divided, less attention was available for the monitoring of their auditory feedback, resulting in smaller compensatory vocal responses. However, P1-N1-P2 ERP responses were not affected by divided attention, suggesting that the effect of attentional load was not on the auditory processing of pitch altered feedback, but instead it interfered with the integration of auditory and motor information, or motor control itself. PMID:25303649

  17. Neurofibromatozis and Attention Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ERYILMAZ et al.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type VI, a disease characterized by the presence of café-au-lait spots withoutthe presence of neurofibromas typically present in neurofibromatosis, as well as cognitivefunction and speech problems, often shows neurological involvement. We describe a case of a14-year-old child who has speech problems and isolated cafè-au-lait macules. We performedan IQ test on him and he scored 70 points. His problems started when he was approximately 5years old (school age. He was diagnosed with attention deficit disorder syndrome withouthyperactivity after neuropsychiatric investigation. We reported this case to improve recognitionof NF VI in children who have cognitive function problems.

  18. Controlling attention to nociceptive stimuli with working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéry Legrain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because pain often signals the occurrence of potential tissue damage, a nociceptive stimulus has the capacity to involuntarily capture attention and take priority over other sensory inputs. Whether distraction by nociception actually occurs may depend upon the cognitive characteristics of the ongoing activities. The present study tested the role of working memory in controlling the attentional capture by nociception. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants performed visual discrimination and matching tasks in which visual targets were shortly preceded by a tactile distracter. The two tasks were chosen because of the different effects the involvement of working memory produces on performance, in order to dissociate the specific role of working memory in the control of attention from the effect of general resource demands. Occasionally (i.e. 17% of the trials, tactile distracters were replaced by a novel nociceptive stimulus in order to distract participants from the visual tasks. Indeed, in the control conditions (no working memory, reaction times to visual targets were increased when the target was preceded by a novel nociceptive distracter as compared to the target preceded by a frequent tactile distracter, suggesting attentional capture by the novel nociceptive stimulus. However, when the task required an active rehearsal of the visual target in working memory, the novel nociceptive stimulus no longer induced a lengthening of reaction times to visual targets, indicating a reduction of the distraction produced by the novel nociceptive stimulus. This effect was independent of the overall task demands. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Loading working memory with pain-unrelated information may reduce the ability of nociceptive input to involuntarily capture attention, and shields cognitive processing from nociceptive distraction. An efficient control of attention over pain is best guaranteed by the ability to maintain active goal

  19. Obesity impact on the attentional cost for controlling posture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Mignardot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effects of obesity on attentional resources allocated to postural control in seating and unipedal standing. METHODS: Ten non obese adults (BMI = 22.4±1.3, age = 42.4±15.1 and 10 obese adult patients (BMI = 35.2±2.8, age = 46.2±19.6 maintained postural stability on a force platform in two postural tasks (seated and unipedal. The two postural tasks were performed (1 alone and (2 in a dual-task paradigm in combination with an auditory reaction time task (RT. Performing the RT task together with the postural one was supposed to require some attentional resources that allowed estimating the attentional cost of postural control. 4 trials were performed in each condition for a total of 16 trials. FINDINGS: (1 Whereas seated non obese and obese patients exhibited similar centre of foot pressure oscillations (CoP, in the unipedal stance only obese patients strongly increased their CoP sway in comparison to controls. (2 Whatever the postural task, the additional RT task did not affect postural stability. (3 Seated, RT did not differ between the two groups. (4 RT strongly increased between the two postural conditions in the obese patients only, suggesting that body schema and the use of internal models was altered with obesity. INTERPRETATION: Obese patients needed more attentional resources to control postural stability during unipedal stance than non obese participants. This was not the case in a more simple posture such as seating. To reduce the risk of fall as indicated by the critical values of CoP displacement, obese patients must dedicate a strong large part of their attentional resources to postural control, to the detriment of non-postural events. Obese patients were not able to easily perform multitasking as healthy adults do, reflecting weakened psycho-motor abilities.

  20. Attention in aviation. [to aircraft design and pilot performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher D.

    1987-01-01

    The relevance of four principles or mechanisms of human attention to the design of aviation systems and the performance of pilots in multitask environments, including workload prediction and measurement, control-display integration, and the use of voice and head-up displays is discussed. The principles are: the mental energy that supplies task performance (resources), the resulting cross-talk between tasks as they are made more similar (confusion), the combination of different task elements (integration), and the way in which one task is processed and another is ignored (selection or tunneling). The introduction of greater levels of complexity into the validation of attentional theories in order to approach the demands of the cockpit or ATC console is proposed.

  1. Selective Attention and Inhibitory Deficits in ADHD: Does Subtype or Comorbidity Modulate Negative Priming Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Verena E.; Neumann, Ewald; Rucklidge, Julia J.

    2008-01-01

    Selective attention has durable consequences for behavior and neural activation. Negative priming (NP) effects are assumed to reflect a critical inhibitory component of selective attention. The performance of adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was assessed across two conceptually based NP tasks within a selective…

  2. Attentional Profiles and White Matter Correlates in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, aged 7-15 years, had their attentional abilities assessed through the Conners' continuous performance test. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected for all of the participants using a 3.0-T MRI system. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained for 20 fiber tracts, and brain-behavior correlations were calculated for 42 of the children. The ADHD-I children differed significantly from the typically developing (TD) children with respect to attentional measures, such as the ability to maintain response-time consistency throughout the task (Hit RT SE and Variability), vigilance (Hit RT ISI and Hit RT ISI SE), processing speed (Hit RT), selective attention (Omissions), sustained attention (Hit RT Block Change), error profile (Response Style), and inhibitory control (Perseverations). Evidence of significant differences between the ADHD-I and the TD participants was not found with respect to the mean FA values in the fiber tracts analyzed. Moderate and strong correlations between performance on the attention indicators and the tract-average FA values were found for the ADHD-I group. Our results contribute to a better characterization of the attentional profile of ADHD-I individuals and suggest that in children and adolescents with ADHD-I, attentional performance is mainly associated with the white matter structure of the long associative fibers that connect anterior-posterior brain areas. PMID:26441684

  3. Does oculomotor readiness mediate exogenous capture of visual attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Gregory H; Klein, Raymond M; Hilchey, Matthew D

    2015-10-01

    The oculomotor readiness hypothesis makes 2 predictions: Shifts in covert attention are accompanied by preparedness to move one's eyes to the attended region, and preparedness to move one's eyes to a region in space is accompanied by a shift in covert attention to the prepared location. Both predictions have been disconfirmed using an endogenous attention task. In the 2 experiments presented here, the same 2 predictions were tested using an exogenous attention task. It was found that participants experienced covert capture without accompanying oculomotor activation and experienced oculomotor activation without accompanying covert capture. While under everyday conditions the overt and covert orienting systems may be strongly linked, apparently they can nonetheless operate with a high degree of independence from one another. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26076176

  4. Attention to the color of a moving stimulus modulates motion-signal processing in macaque area MT: evidence for a unified attentional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Busse

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Directing visual attention to spatial locations or to non-spatial stimulus features can strongly modulate responses of individual cortical sensory neurons. Effects of attention typically vary in magnitude, not only between visual cortical areas but also between individual neurons from the same area. Here, we investigate whether the size of attentional effects depends on the match between the tuning properties of the recorded neuron and the perceptual task at hand. We recorded extracellular responses from individual direction-selective neurons in area MT of rhesus monkeys trained to attend either to the color or the motion signal of a moving stimulus. We found that effects of spatial and feature-based attention in MT, which are typically observed in tasks allocating attention to motion, were very similar even when attention was directed to the color of the stimulus. We conclude that attentional modulation can occur in extrastriate cortex, even under conditions without a match between the tuning properties of the recorded neuron and the perceptual task at hand. Our data are consistent with theories of object-based attention describing a transfer of attention from relevant to irrelevant features, within the attended object and across the visual field. These results argue for a unified attentional system that modulates responses to a stimulus across cortical areas, even if a given area is specialized for processing task-irrelevant aspects of that stimulus.

  5. Attention decay in science

    CERN Document Server

    Parolo, Pietro Della Briotta; Ghosh, Rumi; Huberman, Bernardo A; Kaski, Kimmo; Fortunato, Santo

    2015-01-01

    The exponential growth in the number of scientific papers makes it increasingly difficult for researchers to keep track of all the publications relevant to their work. Consequently, the attention that can be devoted to individual papers, measured by their citation counts, is bound to decay rapidly. In this work we make a thorough study of the life-cycle of papers in different disciplines. Typically, the citation rate of a paper increases up to a few years after its publication, reaches a peak and then decreases rapidly. This decay can be described by an exponential or a power law behavior, as in ultradiffusive processes, with exponential fitting better than power law for the majority of cases. The decay is also becoming faster over the years, signaling that nowadays papers are forgotten more quickly. However, when time is counted in terms of the number of published papers, the rate of decay of citations is fairly independent of the period considered. This indicates that the attention of scholars depends on th...

  6. Altered intrinsic organisation of brain networks implicated in attentional processes in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a resting-state study of attention, default mode and salience network connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidlauskaite, Justina; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Roeyers, Herbert; Wiersema, Jan R

    2016-06-01

    Deficits in task-related attentional engagement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been hypothesised to be due to altered interrelationships between attention, default mode and salience networks. We examined the intrinsic connectivity during rest within and between these networks. Six-minute resting-state scans were obtained. Using a network-based approach, connectivity within and between the dorsal and ventral attention, the default mode and the salience networks was compared between the ADHD and control group. The ADHD group displayed hyperconnectivity between the two attention networks and within the default mode and ventral attention network. The salience network was hypoconnected to the dorsal attention network. There were trends towards hyperconnectivity within the dorsal attention network and between the salience and ventral attention network in ADHD. Connectivity within and between other networks was unrelated to ADHD. Our findings highlight the altered connectivity within and between attention networks, and between them and the salience network in ADHD. One hypothesis to be tested in future studies is that individuals with ADHD are affected by an imbalance between ventral and dorsal attention systems with the former playing a dominant role during task engagement, making individuals with ADHD highly susceptible to distraction by salient task-irrelevant stimuli. PMID:26260900

  7. Attentional Biases in Currently Depressed Children: An Eye-Tracking Study of Biases in Sustained Attention to Emotional Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Ashley Johnson; Gibb, Brandon E

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theories state attentional biases contribute to the development and maintenance of depression. Like depressed adults, there is growing evidence for the presence of attentional biases to sad stimuli in depressed youth. Although the direction of this bias among children remains unclear, preliminary evidence indicates attentional avoidance of sad stimuli in children. This is the first known sudy to use eye-tracking to investigate the exact nature of attention biases among depressed children. To assess sustained attention, the current study used eye-tracking and a passive viewing task in which children viewed a series of four facial expressions (angry, happy, sad, neutral) presented simultatiously for 20 s on a computer screen. The current study compared the attentional allocation of currently depressed children (n = 19; M age = 11.21) to a group of never depressed children (n = 22; M age = 10.82). Consistent with earlier research with children, we found that children with current major or minor depression, compared to children with no history of depression, exhibited attentional avoidance of sad facial stimuil as well as some evidence for preferential attention to happy faces. This study provides additional evidence that although depressed children demonstrate mood congruent attentional biases like that observed depressed adults, the nature of these biases may reflect attentional avoidance of sad stimuli, rather than preferential attention. PMID:25010145

  8. Counterproductive effect of saccadic suppression during attention shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Zénon

    Full Text Available During saccadic eye movements, the processing of visual information is transiently interrupted by a mechanism known as "saccadic suppression" [1] that is thought to ensure perceptual stability [2]. If, as proposed in the premotor theory of attention [3], covert shifts of attention rely on sub-threshold recruitment of oculomotor circuits, then saccadic suppression should also occur during covert shifts. In order to test this prediction, we designed two experiments in which participants had to orient towards a cued letter, with or without saccades. We analyzed the time course of letter identification score in an "attention" task performed without saccades, using the saccadic latencies measured in the "saccade" task as a marker of covert saccadic preparation. Visual conditions were identical in all tasks. In the "attention" task, we found a drop in perceptual performance around the predicted onset time of saccades that were never performed. Importantly, this decrease in letter identification score cannot be explained by any known mechanism aligned on cue onset such as inhibition of return, masking, or microsaccades. These results show that attentional allocation triggers the same suppression mechanisms as during saccades, which is relevant during eye movements but detrimental in the context of covert orienting.

  9. Counterproductive effect of saccadic suppression during attention shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zénon, Alexandre; Corneil, Brian D; Alamia, Andrea; Filali-Sadouk, Nabil; Olivier, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    During saccadic eye movements, the processing of visual information is transiently interrupted by a mechanism known as "saccadic suppression" [1] that is thought to ensure perceptual stability [2]. If, as proposed in the premotor theory of attention [3], covert shifts of attention rely on sub-threshold recruitment of oculomotor circuits, then saccadic suppression should also occur during covert shifts. In order to test this prediction, we designed two experiments in which participants had to orient towards a cued letter, with or without saccades. We analyzed the time course of letter identification score in an "attention" task performed without saccades, using the saccadic latencies measured in the "saccade" task as a marker of covert saccadic preparation. Visual conditions were identical in all tasks. In the "attention" task, we found a drop in perceptual performance around the predicted onset time of saccades that were never performed. Importantly, this decrease in letter identification score cannot be explained by any known mechanism aligned on cue onset such as inhibition of return, masking, or microsaccades. These results show that attentional allocation triggers the same suppression mechanisms as during saccades, which is relevant during eye movements but detrimental in the context of covert orienting. PMID:24466181

  10. Effects of Smoking Opportunity on Attentional Bias in Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Wertz, Joan M.; Sayette, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    The emotional Stroop task was used to examine the influence of opportunity to smoke on attentional bias to smoking-related stimuli. At the outset of the study, 92 nicotine-deprived smokers were told that they (a) would, (b) would not, or (c) might be able to smoke during the experiment. Next, participants completed an emotional Stroop task, in which they were presented with smoking-related or -unrelated words in an unblocked format. Smokers demonstrated interference to the smoking words, rela...

  11. Attention and awareness in human learning and decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Aczel, Balazs

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents an investigation of the modifying role of attention and awareness in human learning and decision making. A series of experiments showed that performance in a range of tests of unconscious cognition can be better explained as resulting from conscious attention rather than from implicit processes. The first three experiments utilised a modification of the Serial Reaction Time task in order to measure the interaction of implicit and explicit learning processes. The ...

  12. The influence of scopolamine on motor control and attentional processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bestaven, Emma; Kambrun, Charline; Guehl, Dominique; Cazalets, Jean-René; Guillaud, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Motion sickness may be caused by a sensory conflict between the visual and the vestibular systems. Scopolamine, known to be the most effective therapy to control the vegetative symptoms of motion sickness, acts on the vestibular nucleus and potentially the vestibulospinal pathway, which may affect balance and motor tasks requiring both attentional process and motor balance. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of scopolamine on motor control and attentional processes. M...

  13. Detection is unaffected by the deployment of focal attention

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff eMoher; Brandon K Ashinoff; Howard E Egeth

    2013-01-01

    There has been much debate regarding how much information humans can extract from their environment without the use of limited attentional resources. In a recent study, Theeuwes, Van der Burg, and Belopolsky (2008) argued that even detection of simple feature targets is not possible without selection by focal attention. Supporting this claim, they found response time benefits in a simple feature (color) detection task when a target letter’s identity was repeated on consecutive trials, sugge...

  14. Control of attention before reflexive and intentional saccades

    OpenAIRE

    Casana-Perez, Susana Maria

    2004-01-01

    The relation between covert and overt spatial attention and saccadic eye movements was investigated in control subjects, Parkinson’s Disease (PD) patients, and cerebellar patients in a dual-task paradigm. The main question was how different types of cues (reflexive/intentional) guide the spatial attention during fixation or during the preparation phase of a saccade. The subjects were asked to follow a reflexive or intentional cue, to discriminate a character that appeared either at the cued s...

  15. Signal Enhancement and Suppression During Visual-Spatial Selective Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Couperus, J. W.; Mangun, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    Selective attention involves the relative enhancement of relevant versus irrelevant stimuli. However, whether this relative enhancement involves primarily enhancement of attended stimuli, or suppression of irrelevant stimuli, remains controversial. Moreover, if both enhancement and suppression are involved, whether they result from a single mechanism or separate mechanisms during attentional control or selection is not known. In two experiments using a spatial cuing paradigm with task-relevan...

  16. Visuospatial Attention in Schizophrenia: Deficits in Broad Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Britta; Robinson, Benjamin M.; Harvey, Alexander N.; Kaiser, Samuel T.; Leonard, Carly J.; Luck, Steven J.; Gold, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Although selective attention is thought to be impaired in people with schizophrenia (PSZ), prior research has found no deficit in the ability to select 1 location and withdraw attention from another. PSZ and healthy control subjects (HCS) performed a stimulus detection task in which 1, 2, or all 4 peripheral target locations were cued. When 1 or 2 locations were cued, both PSZ and HCS responded faster when the target appeared at a cued than uncued location. However, increases in the number of...

  17. A Prototyping Environment for Integrated Artificial Attention Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tünnermann, Jan; Hennig, Markus; Silbernagel, Michael; Mertsching, Bärbel

    2013-01-01

    Artificial visual attention systems aim to support technical systems in visual tasks by applying the concepts of selective attention observed in humans and other animals. Such systems are typically evaluated against ground truth obtained from human gaze-data or manually annotated test images. When applied to robotics, the systems are required to be adaptable to the target system. Here, we describe a flexible environment based on a robotic middleware layer allowing the development and testing ...

  18. Processing of task-irrelevant emotional faces impacted by implicit sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ming; Cai, Mengfei; Zhou, Renlai

    2015-12-01

    Attentional load may be increased by task-relevant attention, such as difficulty of task, or task-irrelevant attention, such as an unexpected light-spot in the screen. Several studies have focused on the influence of task-relevant attentional load on task-irrelevant emotion processing. In this study, we used event-related potentials to examine the impact of task-irrelevant attentional load on task-irrelevant expression processing. Eighteen participants identified the color of a word (i.e. the color Stroop task) while a picture of a fearful or a neutral face was shown in the background. The task-irrelevant attentional load was increased by regularly presented congruence trials (congruence between the color and the meaning of the word) in the regular condition because implicit sequence learning was induced. We compared the task-irrelevant expression processing between the regular condition and the random condition (the congruence and incongruence trials were presented randomly). Behaviorally, reaction times for the fearful face condition were faster than the neutral faces condition in the random condition, whereas no significant difference was found in the regular condition. The event-related potential results indicated enhanced positive amplitudes in P2, N2, and P3 components relative to neutral faces in the random condition. In comparison, only P2 differed significantly for the two types of expressions in the regular condition. The study showed that attentional load increased by implicit sequence learning influenced the late processing of task-irrelevant expression. PMID:26445285

  19. Salivary a-Amylase Reflects Change in Attentional Demands during Postural Control: Comparison with Probe Reaction Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Ohashi, Yukari

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The influence of attention on postural control and the relationship between attention and falling has been reported in previous studies. Although a dual-task procedure is commonly used to measure attentional demand, such procedures are affected by allocation policy, which is a mental strategy to divide attention between simultaneous…

  20. Task preparation processes related to reward prediction precede those related to task-difficulty expectation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schevernels, Hanne; Krebs, Ruth M.; Santens, Patrick; Woldorff, Marty G.; Boehler, C. Nico

    2013-01-01

    Recently, attempts have been made to disentangle the neural underpinnings of preparatory processes related to reward and attention. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research showed that neural activity related to the anticipation of reward and to attentional demands invokes neural activity patterns featuring large-scale overlap, along with some differences and interactions. Due to the limited temporal resolution of fMRI, however, the temporal dynamics of these processes remain unclear. Here, we report an event-related potentials (ERP) study in which cued attentional demands and reward prospect were combined in a factorial design. Results showed that reward prediction dominated early cue processing, as well as the early and later parts of the contingent negative variation (CNV) slow-wave ERP component that has been associated with task-preparation processes. Moreover these reward-related electrophysiological effects correlated across participants with response-time speeding on reward-prospect trials. In contrast, cued attentional demands affected only the later part of the CNV, with the highest amplitudes following cues predicting high-difficulty potential-reward targets, thus suggesting maximal task preparation when the task requires it and entails reward prospect. Consequently, we suggest that task-preparation processes triggered by reward can arise earlier, and potentially more directly, than strategic top-down aspects of preparation based on attentional demands. PMID:24064071