WorldWideScience

Sample records for attentional dwell time

  1. Modelling of Attentional Dwell Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    into the temporal domain. In the neural interpretation of TVA (NTVA; Bundesen, Habekost and Kyllingsbæk, 2005), processing resources are implemented as allocation of cortical cells to objects in the visual field. A feedback mechanism is then used to keep encoded objects in VSTM alive. The proposed model...... of attentional dwell time extends these mechanisms by proposing that the processing resources (cells) already engaged in a feedback loop (i.e. allocated to an object) are locked in VSTM and therefore cannot be allocated to other objects in the visual field before the encoded object has been released...

  2. The effect of masking in the attentional dwell time paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    A temporary functional blindness to the second of two spatially separated targets has been identified in numerous studies of temporal visual attention. This effect is known as attentional dwell time and is maximal 200 to 500 ms after presentation of the first target (e.g. Duncan, Ward, Shapiro......, 1994). In most studies of attentional dwell time, two masked targets have been used. Moore et al. (1996) have criticised the masking of the first target when measuring the attentional dwell time, finding a shorter attentional dwell time when the first mask was omitted. In the presented work, the effect...... an impairment of the second target. Hence, the attentional dwell time may be a combined effect arising from attending to both the first target and its mask....

  3. Critical dwell time of switched linear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun ZHANG; Chunwen LI

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the relation between the switching dwell time and the stabilization of switched linear control systems. First of all, a concept of critical dwell time is given for switched linear systems without control inputs, and the critical dwell time is taken as an arbitrary given positive constant for a switched linear control systems with controllable switching models. Secondly, when a switched linear system has many stabilizable switching models, the problem of stabilization of the overall system is considered. An on-line feedback control is designed such that the overall system is asymptotically stabilizable under switching laws which depend only on those of uncontrollable subsystems of the switching models. Finally, when a switched system is partially controllable (While some switching models are probably unstabilizable), an on-line feedback control and a cyclic switching strategy are designed such that the overall system is asymptotically stabilizable if all switching models of this uncontrollable subsystems are asymptotically stable. In addition,algorithms for designing switching laws and controls are presented.

  4. Dwell time modulation restrictions do not necessarily improve treatment plan quality for prostate HDR brachytherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balvert, M.; Gorissen, B.L.; den Hertog, D.; Hoffmann, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Inverse planning algorithms for dwell time optimisation in interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy may produce solutions with large dwell time variations within catheters, which may result in undesirable selective high-dose subvolumes. Extending the dwell time optimisation model with a dwell

  5. Effects of Improvement on Selective Attention: Developing Appropriate Somatosensory Video Game Interventions for Institutional-Dwelling Elderly with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Ti; Chiang, I-Tsun; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Chang, Maiga

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop appropriate somatosensory video game interventions on enhancing selective attention of institutional-dwelling elderly with disabilities. Fifty-eight participants aged 65[approximately]92 were recruited and divided into four groups, 4-week and 8-week experimental and two control groups, for evaluating the…

  6. Estimation of train dwell time at short stops based on track occupation event data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, D.; Daamen, W.; Goverde, R.M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Train dwell time is one of the most unpredictable components of railway operations mainly due to the varying volumes of alighting and boarding passengers. For reliable estimations of train running times and route conflicts on main lines it is however necessary to obtain accurate estimations of dwell

  7. Dwell time modulation restrictions do not necessarily improve treatment plan quality for prostate HDR brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balvert, Marleen; Gorissen, Bram L.; den Hertog, Dick; Hoffmann, Aswin L.

    2015-01-01

    Inverse planning algorithms for dwell time optimisation in interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy may produce solutions with large dwell time variations within catheters, which may result in undesirable selective high-dose subvolumes. Extending the dwell time optimisation model with a dwell time modulation restriction (DTMR) that limits dwell time differences between neighboring dwell positions has been suggested to eliminate this problem. DTMRs may additionally reduce the sensitivity for uncertainties in dwell positions that inevitably result from catheter reconstruction errors and afterloader source positioning inaccuracies. This study quantifies the reduction of high-dose subvolumes and the robustness against these uncertainties by applying a DTMR to template-based prostate HDR brachytherapy implants. Three different DTMRs were consecutively applied to a linear dose-based penalty model (LD) and a dose-volume based model (LDV), both obtained from literature. The models were solved with DTMR levels ranging from no restriction to uniform dwell times within catheters in discrete steps. Uncertainties were simulated on clinical cases using in-house developed software, and dose-volume metrics were calculated in each simulation. For the assessment of high-dose subvolumes, the dose homogeneity index (DHI) and the contiguous dose volume histogram were analysed. Robustness was measured by the improvement of the lowest D90% of the planning target volume (PTV) observed in the simulations. For (LD), a DTMR yields an increase in DHI of approximately 30% and reduces the size of the largest high-dose volume by 2-5 cc. However, this comes at a cost of a reduction in D90% of the PTV of 10%, which often implies that it drops below the desired minimum of 100%. For (LDV), none of the DTMRs were able to improve high-dose volume measures. DTMRs were not capable of improving robustness of PTV D90% against uncertainty in dwell positions for both models.

  8. A Fuzzy Logic-Based Approach for Estimation of Dwelling Times of Panama Metro Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranzazu Berbey Alvarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Passenger flow modeling and station dwelling time estimation are significant elements for railway mass transit planning, but system operators usually have limited information to model the passenger flow. In this paper, an artificial-intelligence technique known as fuzzy logic is applied for the estimation of the elements of the origin-destination matrix and the dwelling time of stations in a railway transport system. The fuzzy inference engine used in the algorithm is based in the principle of maximum entropy. The approach considers passengers’ preferences to assign a level of congestion in each car of the train in function of the properties of the station platforms. This approach is implemented to estimate the passenger flow and dwelling times of the recently opened Line 1 of the Panama Metro. The dwelling times obtained from the simulation are compared to real measurements to validate the approach.

  9. Stability analysis of switched cellular neural networks: A mode-dependent average dwell time approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuangxia; Cao, Jie; Cao, Jinde

    2016-10-01

    This paper addresses the exponential stability of switched cellular neural networks by using the mode-dependent average dwell time (MDADT) approach. This method is quite different from the traditional average dwell time (ADT) method in permitting each subsystem to have its own average dwell time. Detailed investigations have been carried out for two cases. One is that all subsystems are stable and the other is that stable subsystems coexist with unstable subsystems. By employing Lyapunov functionals, linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), Jessen-type inequality, Wirtinger-based inequality, reciprocally convex approach, we derived some novel and less conservative conditions on exponential stability of the networks. Comparing to ADT, the proposed MDADT show that the minimal dwell time of each subsystem is smaller and the switched system stabilizes faster. The obtained results extend and improve some existing ones. Moreover, the validness and effectiveness of these results are demonstrated through numerical simulations.

  10. Finite-frequency model reduction of continuous-time switched linear systems with average dwell time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Da-Wei; Du, Xin

    2016-11-01

    This paper deals with the model reduction problem of continuous-time switched linear systems with finite-frequency input signals. The objective of the paper is to propose a finite-frequency model reduction method for such systems. A finite-frequency ? performance index is first defined in frequency domain, and then a finite-frequency performance analysis condition is derived by Parseval's theorem. Combined with the average dwell time approach, sufficient conditions for the existence of exponentially stable reduced-order models are derived. An algorithm is proposed to construct the desired reduced-order models. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by a numerical example.

  11. An ELM-Based Approach for Estimating Train Dwell Time in Urban Rail Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-jun Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dwell time estimation plays an important role in the operation of urban rail system. On this specific problem, a range of models based on either polynomial regression or microsimulation have been proposed. However, the generalization performance of polynomial regression models is limited and the accuracy of existing microsimulation models is unstable. In this paper, a new dwell time estimation model based on extreme learning machine (ELM is proposed. The underlying factors that may affect urban rail dwell time are analyzed first. Then, the relationships among different factors are extracted and modeled by ELM neural networks, on basis of which an overall estimation model is proposed. At last, a set of observed data from Beijing subway is used to illustrate the proposed method and verify its overall performance.

  12. Influence of overloads on dwell time fatigue crack growth in Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarimäki, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.saarimaki@liu.se [Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Moverare, Johan [Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Materials Technology, SE-61283 Finspång (Sweden); Eriksson, Robert; Johansson, Sten [Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-08-26

    Inconel 718 is one of the most commonly used superalloys for high temperature applications in gasturbines and aeroengines and is for example used for components such as turbine discs. Turbine discs can be subjected to temperatures up to ∼700 °C towards the outer radius of the disc. During service, the discs might start to develop cracks due to fatigue and long dwell times. Additionally, temperature variations during use can lead to large thermal transients during start-up and shutdown which can lead to overload peaks in the normal dwell time cycle. In this study, tests at 550 °C with an overload prior to the start of each dwell time, have been performed. The aim of the investigation was to get a better understanding of the effects of overloads on the microstructure and crack mechanisms. The microstructure was studied using electron channelling contrast imaging (ECCI). The image analysis toolbox in Matlab was used on cross sections of the cracks to quantify: crack length, branch length, and the number of branches in each crack. It was found that the amount of crack branching increases with an increasing overload and that the branch length decreases with an increasing overload. When the higher overloads were applied, the dwell time effect was almost cancelled out. There is a strong tendency for an increased roughness of the crack path with an increasing crack growth rate.

  13. Adaptive Output-Feedback Neural Control of Switched Uncertain Nonlinear Systems With Average Dwell Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lijun; Zhao, Jun

    2015-07-01

    This paper investigates the problem of adaptive neural tracking control via output-feedback for a class of switched uncertain nonlinear systems without the measurements of the system states. The unknown control signals are approximated directly by neural networks. A novel adaptive neural control technique for the problem studied is set up by exploiting the average dwell time method and backstepping. A switched filter and different update laws are designed to reduce the conservativeness caused by adoption of a common observer and a common update law for all subsystems. The proposed controllers of subsystems guarantee that all closed-loop signals remain bounded under a class of switching signals with average dwell time, while the output tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. As an application of the proposed design method, adaptive output feedback neural tracking controllers for a mass-spring-damper system are constructed.

  14. Attention and Reaction Time in Shotokan Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António VencesBrito

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the attention capacity and the reaction time in Portuguese karate Shotokan athletes. Participated 96 Shotokan athletes from the Portuguese Karate Association. We physically characterized the sample (weight, height, body mass index, and body fat mass percentage and evaluated Simple Reaction Time (TRS, Choice Reaction Time (TRE, Decision Time (TD and the Distributed Attention (AD. Data was analyzed according to athletes’ group age (15 to 19 yr, 20 to 35 yr and more than 35 yr, level of graduation (9th to 4th kyu, 3rd to 1st kyu, DAN and by gender (male and female. Male athletes present significant differences from female athletes in height, weight, years of practice and body fat mass. In relation to TRS all groups tend to a value near to 300 ms without significant differences among them, but the TRE and the TD are significantly higher in the Dan athletes and in the +35 yrs athletes than in the other groups. On the other hand the Dan and +35 yrs athletes tend to do less mistakes. Gender does not influence significantly the reaction time in the Shotokan karate athletes, but it seems that women tend to have smaller reaction times than men. Athletes with more years of practice and more graduation need more time to reply to the stimulus than the other athletes, but they tend to do fewer mistakes on their choices than other subjects. As for distributed attention, no significant differences were found in function of the athlete graduation, nor in function of gender. However, for distributed attention, we found statistical significant differences in function of the age, with the oldest athletes presenting lower levels of distributed attention. Our results seem to show that is necessary to do some modifications in the training process of Portuguese Shotokan karate athletes.

  15. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem with Flexible Dwell Times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Joao Filipe Paiva; Larsen, Allan; van der Hurk, Evelien;

    times at important transfer points based on expected passenger ows. We introduce a compact mixed integer linear formulation of the SVSPSP-FDT able to address small instances. We also present a meta-heuristic approach to solve medium/large instances of the problem. The e ectiveness of the proposed......In this talk, we deal with a generalization of the well-known Vehicle Scheduling Problem(VSP) that we call Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem with Flexible Dwell Times (SVSPSP-FDT). The SVSPSP-FDT generalizes the VSP because the original timetables of the trips can...

  16. Timing attention : Cuing target onset interval attenuates the attentional blink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, S; Johnson, A

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments tested whether the attentional blink (AB; a deficit in reporting the second of two targets when it occurs 200-500 msec after the first) can be attenuated by providing information about the target onset asynchrony (TOA) of the second target relative to the first. Blocking the TOA di

  17. Distribution of dwell times of a ribosome: effects of infidelity, kinetic proofreading and ribosome crowding

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Ajeet K

    2010-01-01

    Ribosome is a molecular machine that polymerizes a protein where the sequence of the amino acid subunits of the protein is dictated by the sequence of codons (triplets of nucleotide subunits) on a messenger RNA (mRNA) that serves as the template. The ribosome is a molecular motor that utilizes the template mRNA strand also as the track. Thus, in each step the ribosome moves forward by one codon and, simultaneously, elongates the protein by one amino acid. We present a theoretical model that captures most of the main steps in the mechano-chemical cycle of a ribosome. The stochastic movement of the ribosome consists of an alternating sequence of pause and translocation; the sum of the durations of a pause and the following translocation is defined as the time of dwell of the ribosome at the corresponding codon. We present an analytical calculation of the distribution of the dwell times of a ribosome in our model. Our theoretical prediction is consistent with the experimental results reported in the literature.

  18. Distribution of dwell times of a ribosome: effects of infidelity, kinetic proofreading and ribosome crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajeet K; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2011-04-01

    Ribosome is a molecular machine that polymerizes a protein where the sequence of the amino acid residues, the monomers of the protein, is dictated by the sequence of codons (triplets of nucleotides) on a messenger RNA (mRNA) that serves as the template. The ribosome is a molecular motor that utilizes the template mRNA strand also as the track. Thus, in each step the ribosome moves forward by one codon and, simultaneously, elongates the protein by one amino acid. We present a theoretical model that captures most of the main steps in the mechanochemical cycle of a ribosome. The stochastic movement of the ribosome consists of an alternating sequence of pause and translocation; the sum of the durations of a pause and the following translocation is the time of dwell of the ribosome at the corresponding codon. We derive the analytical expression for the distribution of the dwell times of a ribosome in our model. Wherever experimental data are available, our theoretical predictions are consistent with those results. We suggest appropriate experiments to test the new predictions of our model, particularly the effects of the quality control mechanism of the ribosome and that of their crowding on the mRNA track.

  19. Fission yeast mtr1p regulates interphase microtubule cortical dwell-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Carlier-Grynkorn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The microtubule cytoskeleton plays important roles in cell polarity, motility and division. Microtubules inherently undergo dynamic instability, stochastically switching between phases of growth and shrinkage. In cells, some microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs and molecular motors can further modulate microtubule dynamics. We present here the fission yeast mtr1+, a new regulator of microtubule dynamics that appears to be not a MAP or a motor. mtr1-deletion (mtr1Δ primarily results in longer microtubule dwell-time at the cell tip cortex, suggesting that mtr1p acts directly or indirectly as a destabilizer of microtubules. mtr1p is antagonistic to mal3p, the ortholog of mammalian EB1, which stabilizes microtubules. mal3Δ results in short microtubules, but can be partially rescued by mtr1Δ, as the double mutant mal3Δ mtr1Δ exhibits longer microtubules than mal3Δ single mutant. By sequence homology, mtr1p is predicted to be a component of the ribosomal quality control complex. Intriguingly, deletion of a predicted ribosomal gene, rps1801, also resulted in longer microtubule dwell-time similar to mtr1Δ. The double-mutant mal3Δ rps1801Δ also exhibits longer microtubules than mal3Δ single mutant alone. Our study suggests a possible involvement of mtr1p and the ribosome complex in modulating microtubule dynamics.

  20. The Application of Gas Dwell Time Control for Rapid Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Forest Synthesis to Acetylene Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Matsumoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of carbon nanotube (CNT synthesis that remains an obstacle to realize industrial mass production is the growth efficiency. Many approaches have been reported to improve the efficiency, either by lengthening the catalyst lifetime or by increasing the growth rate. We investigated the applicability of dwell time and carbon flux control to optimize yield, growth rate, and catalyst lifetime of water-assisted chemical vapor deposition of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT forests using acetylene as a carbon feedstock. Our results show that although acetylene is a precursor to CNT synthesis and possesses a high reactivity, the SWCNT forest growth efficiency is highly sensitive to dwell time and carbon flux similar to ethylene. Through a systematic study spanning a wide range of dwell time and carbon flux levels, the relationship of the height, growth rate, and catalyst lifetime is found. Further, for the optimum conditions for 10 min growth, SWCNT forests with ~2500 μm height, ~350 μm/min initial growth rates and extended lifetimes could be achieved by increasing the dwell time to ~5 s, demonstrating the generality of dwell time control to highly reactive gases.

  1. The Application of Gas Dwell Time Control for Rapid Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Forest Synthesis to Acetylene Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Oshima, Azusa; Sakurai, Shunsuke; Yamada, Takeo; Yumura, Motoo; Hata, Kenji; Futaba, Don N.

    2015-01-01

    One aspect of carbon nanotube (CNT) synthesis that remains an obstacle to realize industrial mass production is the growth efficiency. Many approaches have been reported to improve the efficiency, either by lengthening the catalyst lifetime or by increasing the growth rate. We investigated the applicability of dwell time and carbon flux control to optimize yield, growth rate, and catalyst lifetime of water-assisted chemical vapor deposition of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) forests using acetylene as a carbon feedstock. Our results show that although acetylene is a precursor to CNT synthesis and possesses a high reactivity, the SWCNT forest growth efficiency is highly sensitive to dwell time and carbon flux similar to ethylene. Through a systematic study spanning a wide range of dwell time and carbon flux levels, the relationship of the height, growth rate, and catalyst lifetime is found. Further, for the optimum conditions for 10 min growth, SWCNT forests with ~2500 μm height, ~350 μm/min initial growth rates and extended lifetimes could be achieved by increasing the dwell time to ~5 s, demonstrating the generality of dwell time control to highly reactive gases.

  2. Signature of the N=126 shell closure in dwell times of alpha-particle tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Kelkar, N G

    2016-01-01

    Characteristic quantities such as the penetration and preformation probabilities, assault frequency and tunneling times in the tunneling description of alpha decay of heavy nuclei are explored to reveal their sensitivity to neutron numbers in the vicinity of the magic neutron number $N$ = 126. Using realistic nuclear potentials, the sensitivity of these quantities to the parameters of the theoretical approach is also tested. An investigation of the region from $N=116$ to $N=132$ in Po nuclei reveals that the tunneling $\\alpha$ particle spends the least amount of time with an $N=126$ magic daughter nucleus. The shell closure at $N=126$ seems to affect the behaviour of the dwell times of the tunneling alpha particles and this occurs through the influence of the $Q$-values involved.

  3. Signature of the N = 126 shell closure in dwell times of alpha-particle tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, N. G.; Nowakowski, M.

    2016-10-01

    Characteristic quantities such as the penetration and preformation probabilities, assault frequency and tunneling times in the tunneling description of alpha decay of heavy nuclei are explored to reveal their sensitivity to neutron numbers in the vicinity of the magic neutron number N = 126. Using realistic nuclear potentials, the sensitivity of these quantities to the parameters of the theoretical approach is also tested. An investigation of the region from N = 116 to N = 132 in Po nuclei reveals that the tunneling α particle spends the least amount of time with an N = 126 magic daughter nucleus. The shell closure at N = 126 seems to affect the behavior of the dwell times of the tunneling alpha particles and this occurs through the influence of the Q-values involved.

  4. Asynchronous H∞ filtering for linear switched systems with average dwell time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Hongbin; Wang, Gang; Dang, Chuangyin

    2016-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the H∞ filtering problem for a class of continuous-time linear switched systems with the asynchronous behaviours, where 'asynchronous' means that the switching of the filters to be designed has a lag to the switching of the system modes. By using the Lyapunov-like functions and the average dwell time technique, a sufficient condition is obtained to guarantee the asymptotic stability with a weighted H∞ performance index for the filtering error system. Moreover, the results are formulated in the form of linear matrix inequalities that are numerical feasible. As a result, the filter design problem is solved. Finally, an illustrative numerical example is presented to show the effectiveness of the results.

  5. Output regulation of switched linear multi-agent systems: an agent-dependent average dwell time method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongwei; Zhao, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The output regulation problem of switched linear multi-agent systems with stabilisable and unstabilisable subsystems is investigated in this paper. A sufficient condition for the solvability of the problem is given. Owing to the characteristics of switched multi-agent systems, even if each agent has its own dwell time, the multi-agent systems, if viewed as an overall switched system, may not have a dwell time. To overcome this difficulty, we present a new approach, called an agent-dependent average dwell time method. Due to the limited information exchange between agents, a distributed dynamic observer network for agents is provided. Further, a distributed dynamic controller based on observer is designed. Finally, simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed solutions.

  6. Tandem-ring dwell time ratio in Nigeria: dose comparisons of two loading patterns in standard high-dose-rate brachytherapy planning for cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BT), the source dwell times and dwell positions are essential treatment planning parameters. An optimal choice of these factors is fundamental to obtain the desired target coverage with the lowest achievable dose to the organs at risk (OARs). This study evaluates relevant dose parameters in cervix brachytherapy in order to assess existing tandem-ring dwell time ratio used at the first HDR BT center in Nigeria, and compare it with an alternative s...

  7. The Scaling of the RMS with Dwell Time in NANOGrav Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Handzo, Emma; Lommen, Andrea N; Perrodin, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTAs) are collections of well-timed millisecond pulsars that are being used as detectors of gravitational waves (GWs). Given current sensitivity, projected improvements in PTAs and the predicted strength of the GW signals, the detection of GWs with PTAs could occur within the next decade. One way we can improve a PTA is to reduce the measurement noise present in the pulsar timing residuals. If the pulsars included in the array display uncorrelated noise, the root mean square (RMS) of the timing residuals is predicted to scale as $\\mathrm{T}^{-1/2}$, where T is the dwell time per observation. In this case, the sensitivity of the array can be increased by increasing T. We studied the 17 pulsars in the five year North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) data set to determine if the noise in the timing residuals of the pulsars observed was consistent with this property. For comparison, we performed the same analysis on PSR B1937+21, a pulsar that is known to dis...

  8. 5 CFR 551.425 - Time spent receiving medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time spent receiving medical attention... Relation to Other Activities § 551.425 Time spent receiving medical attention. (a) Time spent waiting for and receiving medical attention for illness or injury shall be considered hours of work if: (1)...

  9. Moving attention - Evidence for time-invariant shifts of visual selective attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, R.; Pierce, L.

    1984-01-01

    Two experiments measured the time to shift spatial selective attention across the visual field to targets 2 or 10 deg from central fixation. A central arrow cued the most likely target location. The direction of attention was inferred from reaction times to expected, unexpected, and neutral locations. The development of a spatial attentional set with time was examined by presenting target probes at varying times after the cue. There were no effects of distance on the time course of the attentional set. Reaction times for far locations were slower than for near, but the effects of attention were evident by 150 msec in both cases. Spatial attention does not shift with a characteristic, fixed velocity. Rather, velocity is proportional to distance, resulting in a movement time that is invariant over the distances tested.

  10. Attention searches nonuniformly in space and in time

    OpenAIRE

    Dugué, Laura; Mclelland, Douglas; Lajous, Mathilde; Vanrullen, Rufin

    2015-01-01

    Visual search is one of the primary tools to study attention in experimental psychology, yet the spatiotemporal behavior of attention during search remains controversial: Does attention focus on one item at a time or several, or even all, items? We used an innovative methodology that relies on simple yet elegant mathematical reasoning and only assumes (like most other attentional studies) that attentional strength is reflected in behavioral performance. We provide evidence against a strict pa...

  11. Cooperative action of KIF1A Brownian motors with finite dwell time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriola, David; Casademunt, Jaume

    2014-03-01

    We study in detail the cooperative action of small groups of KIF1A motors in its monomeric (single-headed) form within an arrangement relevant to vesicle traffic or membrane tube extraction. It has been recently shown that under these circumstances, the presence of a finite dwell time in the motor cycle contributes to remarkably enhance collective force generation [D. Oriola and J. Casademunt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 048103 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.048103]. We analyze this mechanism in detail by means of a two-state noise-driven ratchet model with hard-core repulsive interactions. We obtain staircase-shaped velocity-force curves and show that motors self-organize in clusters with a nontrivial force distribution that conveys a large part of the load to the central motors. Under heavy loads, large clusters adopt a synchronic mode of totally asymmetric steps. We also find a dramatic increase of the collective efficiency with the number of motors. Finally, we complete the study by addressing different interactions that impose spatial constraints such as rigid coupling and raft-induced confinement. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that the specificity of KIF1A to axonal vesicular transport may be deeply related to its high cooperativity.

  12. Sustained attention in adult ADHD : time-on-task effects of various measures of attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Koerts, Janneke; Buggenthin, Rieka; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Weisbrod, Matthias; Thome, Johannes; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychological research on adults with ADHD showed deficits in various aspects of attention. However, the majority of studies failed to explore the change of performance over time, so-called time-on-task effects. As a consequence, little is known about sustained attention performance of adults w

  13. Effect of Dwell Time on the Mental Health of U.S. Military Personnel with Multiple Combat Tours

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    government studies of health effects of the Gulf War. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;148(4):315---323. 18. Lazarus RS, Folkman S . Stress , appraisal, and coping ...the theory behind the stress ---exhaustion model is based on stressor duration, lack of an adequate dwell time may prevent the service member from...second deployment.8 Other studies have also identified increases in mental health symp- toms, particularly symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder

  14. Dwell Time and Psychological Screening Outcomes Among Military Service Members With Multiple Combat Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    on mental health outcomes and should be exam- ined to identify key determinants of resilience. The issues of a dwell-titTie policy and whether certain...Gahm GA, Swanson RD, Duma SJ; Association between number of deployments to Iraq and niental health screening outcomes in US Army soldiers. J Clin

  15. Time-course of attention biases in social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Casey A; Inhoff, Albrecht W; Coles, Meredith E

    2013-10-01

    Theoretical models of social phobia implicate preferential attention to social threat in the maintenance of anxiety symptoms, though there has been limited work characterizing the nature of these biases over time. The current study utilized eye-movement data to examine the time-course of visual attention over 1500ms trials of a probe detection task. Nineteen participants with a primary diagnosis of social phobia based on DSM-IV criteria and 20 non-clinical controls completed this task with angry, fearful, and happy face trials. Overt visual attention to the emotional and neutral faces was measured in 50ms segments across the trial. Over time, participants with social phobia attend less to emotional faces and specifically less to happy faces compared to controls. Further, attention to emotional relative to neutral expressions did not vary notably by emotion for participants with social phobia, but control participants showed a pattern after 1000ms in which over time they preferentially attended to happy expressions and avoided negative expressions. Findings highlight the importance of considering attention biases to positive stimuli as well as the pattern of attention between groups. These results suggest that attention "bias" in social phobia may be driven by a relative lack of the biases seen in non-anxious participants.

  16. Developmental trajectories of regulating attentional selection over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eHeim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior in learning environments requires both the maintenance of an attentional focus on a task-set and suppression of distracting stimuli. This may be especially difficult when the competing information is more appealing than the target event. The aptitude to pay attention and resist distraction has often been noted as an important prerequisite of successful acquisition of intellectual abilities in children. This focused review draws on research that highlights interindividual differences in the temporal dynamics of attentional engagement and disengagement under competition, and their relation with age and cognitive/academic skills. Although basic strategies of attention control are present in very young children, the more refined ability to manage attentional resources over time in an economic and adaptive fashion appears during early school years, dramatically improves until the early teen years, and continues to develop into late adolescence. Across studies, parameters of attention control over time predict specific aspects of academic performance, rather than general intellectual ability. We conclude that the ability to strategically regulate the dynamic allocation of attention at rapid rates may represent an important element of cognitive and academic development.

  17. Meditation-induced states predict attentional control over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Sellaro, Roberta; Samara, Iliana; Baas, Matthijs; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    Meditation is becoming an increasingly popular topic for scientific research and various effects of extensive meditation practice (ranging from weeks to several years) on cognitive processes have been demonstrated. Here we show that extensive practice may not be necessary to achieve those effects. Healthy adult non-meditators underwent a brief single session of either focused attention meditation (FAM), which is assumed to increase top-down control, or open monitoring meditation (OMM), which is assumed to weaken top-down control, before performing an Attentional Blink (AB) task - which assesses the efficiency of allocating attention over time. The size of the AB was considerably smaller after OMM than after FAM, which suggests that engaging in meditation immediately creates a cognitive-control state that has a specific impact on how people allocate their attention over time.

  18. Dwell-Time Distribution, Long Pausing and Arrest of Single-Ribosome Translation through the mRNA Duplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Proteins in the cell are synthesized by a ribosome translating the genetic information encoded on the single-stranded messenger RNA (mRNA. It has been shown that the ribosome can also translate through the duplex region of the mRNA by unwinding the duplex. Here, based on our proposed model of the ribosome translation through the mRNA duplex we study theoretically the distribution of dwell times of the ribosome translation through the mRNA duplex under the effect of a pulling force externally applied to the ends of the mRNA to unzip the duplex. We provide quantitative explanations of the available single molecule experimental data on the distribution of dwell times with both short and long durations, on rescuing of the long paused ribosomes by raising the pulling force to unzip the duplex, on translational arrests induced by the mRNA duplex and Shine-Dalgarno(SD-like sequence in the mRNA. The functional consequences of the pauses or arrests caused by the mRNA duplex and the SD sequence are discussed and compared with those obtained from other types of pausing, such as those induced by “hungry” codons or interactions of specific sequences in the nascent chain with the ribosomal exit tunnel.

  19. Multi-Train Energy Saving for Maximum Usage of Regenerative Energy by Dwell Time Optimization in Urban Rail Transit Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With its large capacity, the total urban rail transit energy consumption is very high; thus, energy saving operations are quite meaningful. The effective use of regenerative braking energy is the mainstream method for improving the efficiency of energy saving. This paper examines the optimization of train dwell time and builds a multiple train operation model for energy conservation of a power supply system. By changing the dwell time, the braking energy can be absorbed and utilized by other traction trains as efficiently as possible. The application of genetic algorithms is proposed for the optimization, based on the current schedule. Next, to validate the correctness and effectiveness of the optimization, a real case is studied. Actual data from the Beijing subway Yizhuang Line are employed to perform the simulation, and the results indicate that the optimization method of the dwell time is effective.

  20. Repeated and time-correlated morphological convergence in cave-dwelling harvestmen (Opiliones, Laniatores from Montane Western North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahan Derkarabetian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many cave-dwelling animal species display similar morphologies (troglomorphism that have evolved convergent within and among lineages under the similar selective pressures imposed by cave habitats. Here we study such ecomorphological evolution in cave-dwelling Sclerobuninae harvestmen (Opiliones from the western United States, providing general insights into morphological homoplasy, rates of morphological change, and the temporal context of cave evolution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We gathered DNA sequence data from three independent gene regions, and combined these data with Bayesian hypothesis testing, morphometrics analysis, study of penis morphology, and relaxed molecular clock analyses. Using multivariate morphometric analysis, we find that phylogenetically unrelated taxa have convergently evolved troglomorphism; alternative phylogenetic hypotheses involving less morphological convergence are not supported by Bayesian hypothesis testing. In one instance, this morphology is found in specimens from a high-elevation stony debris habitat, suggesting that troglomorphism can evolve in non-cave habitats. We discovered a strong positive relationship between troglomorphy index and relative divergence time, making it possible to predict taxon age from morphology. Most of our time estimates for the origin of highly-troglomorphic cave forms predate the Pleistocene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While several regions in the eastern and central United States are well-known hotspots for cave evolution, few modern phylogenetic studies have addressed the evolution of cave-obligate species in the western United States. Our integrative studies reveal the recurrent evolution of troglomorphism in a perhaps unexpected geographic region, at surprisingly deep time depths, and in sometimes surprising habitats. Because some newly discovered troglomorphic populations represent undescribed species, our findings stress the need for further biological

  1. Fine tuning of dwelling time in friction stir welding for preventing material overheating, weld tensile strength increase and weld nugget size decrease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijajlović Miroslav M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After successful welding, destructive testing into test samples from Al 2024-T351 friction stir butt welds showed that tensile strength of the weld improve along the joint line, while dimensions of the weld nugget decrease. For those welds, both the base material and the welding tool constantly cool down during the welding phase. Obviously, the base material became overheated during the long dwelling phase what made conditions for creation of joints with the reduced mechanical properties. Preserving all process parameters but varying the dwelling time from 5-27 seconds a new set of welding is done to reach maximal achievable tensile strength. An analytical-numerical-experimental model is used for optimising the duration of the dwelling time while searching for the maximal tensile strength of the welds

  2. Stabilization for a Class of Switched Nonlinear Systems With Novel Average Dwell Time Switching by T-S Fuzzy Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xudong; Yin, Yunfei; Niu, Ben; Zheng, Xiaolong

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the problem of switching stabilization for a class of switched nonlinear systems is studied by using average dwell time (ADT) switching, where the subsystems are possibly all unstable. First, a new concept of ADT is given, which is different from the traditional definition of ADT. Based on the new proposed switching signals, a sufficient condition of stabilization for switched nonlinear systems with unstable subsystems is derived. Then, the T-S fuzzy modeling approach is applied to represent the underlying nonlinear system to make the obtained condition easily verified. A novel multiple quadratic Lyapunov function approach is also proposed, by which some conditions are provided in terms of a set of linear matrix inequalities to guarantee the derived T-S fuzzy system to be asymptotically stable. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of our developed results.

  3. Why does attention to web articles fall with time?

    CERN Document Server

    Simkin, M V

    2012-01-01

    We analyze access statistics for a few dozen blog entries for a period of several years. Access rate falls as an inverse power of time passed since publication. The power law holds for periods up to thousand days. The exponents are different for different blogs and are distributed between 1 and 3. Decay of attention to aging web articles has been reported before and two explanations were proposed. One explanation introduced some decaying with time novelty factor. Another used some intricate theory of human dynamics. We argue that the decay of attention to a web article is simply caused by the link to it first dropping down the list of links on the website's front page, disappearing from the front page and subsequent movement further into background.

  4. Children can implicitly, but not voluntarily, direct attention in time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine A; Burrowes, Emma; Coull, Jennifer T

    2015-01-01

    Children are able to use spatial cues to orient their attention to discrete locations in space from around 4 years of age. In contrast, no research has yet investigated the ability of children to use informative cues to voluntarily predict when an event will occur in time. The spatial and temporal attention task was used to determine whether children were able to voluntarily orient their attention in time, as well as in space: symbolic spatial and temporal cues predicted where or when an imperative target would appear. Thirty typically developing children (average age 11 yrs) and 32 adults (average age 27 yrs) took part. Confirming previous findings, adults made use of both spatial and temporal cues to optimise behaviour, and were significantly slower to respond to invalidly cued targets in either space or time. Children were also significantly slowed by invalid spatial cues, demonstrating their use of spatial cues to guide expectations. In contrast, children's responses were not slowed by invalid temporal cues, suggesting that they were not using the temporal cue to voluntarily orient attention through time. Children, as well as adults, did however demonstrate signs of more implicit forms of temporal expectation: RTs were faster for long versus short cue-target intervals (the variable foreperiod effect) and slower when the preceding trial's cue-target interval was longer than that on the current trial (sequential effects). Overall, our results suggest that although children implicitly made use of the temporally predictive information carried by the length of the current and previous trial's cue-target interval, they could not deliberately use symbolic temporal cues to speed responses. The developmental trajectory of the ability to voluntarily use symbolic temporal cues is therefore delayed, relative both to the use of symbolic (arrow) spatial cues, and to the use of implicit temporal information.

  5. Dwell time of a Brownian interacting molecule in a cellular microdomain

    CERN Document Server

    Taflia, A; Taflia, Adi; Holcman, David

    2006-01-01

    The time spent by an interacting Brownian molecule inside a bounded microdomain has many applications in cellular biology, because the number of bounds is a quantitative signal, which can initiate a cascade of chemical reactions and thus has physiological consequences. In the present article, we propose to estimate the mean time spent by a Brownian molecule inside a microdomain $\\Omega$ which contains small holes on the boundary and agonist molecules located inside. We found that the mean time depends on several parameters such as the backward binding rate (with the agonist molecules), the mean escape time from the microdomain and the mean time a molecule reaches the binding sites (forward binding rate). In addition, we estimate the mean and the variance of the number of bounds made by a molecule before it exits $\\Omega$. These estimates rely on a boundary layer analysis of a conditional mean first passage time, solution of a singular partial differential equation. In particular, we apply the present results ...

  6. Robust H_∞ static output feedback control of discrete-time switched polytopic linear systems with average dwell-time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU JianBin; FENG Gang; YANG Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the problem of robust exponential H_∞ static output feedback controller design for a class of discrete-time switched linear systems with polytopic-type time-varying parametric uncertainties.The objective is to design a switched static output feedback controller guaranteeing the exponential stability of the resulting closed-loop system with a minimized exponential H_∞ performance under average dwell-time switching scheme.Based on a parameter-dependent discontinuous switched Lyapunov function combined with Finsler's lemma and Dualization lemma,some novel conditions for exponential H_∞ performance analysis are first proposed and in turn the static output feedback controller designs are developed.It is shown that the controller gains can be obtained by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs),which are numerically efficient with commercially available software.Finally,a simulation example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  7. Cognitive tasks in information analysis: Use of event dwell time to characterize component activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanquist, Thomas F.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Slavich, Antoinette L.; Littlefield, Rik J.; Littlefield, Janis S.; Cowley, Paula J.

    2004-09-28

    Technology-based enhancement of information analysis requires a detailed understanding of the cognitive tasks involved in the process. The information search and report production tasks of the information analysis process were investigated through evaluation of time-stamped workstation data gathered with custom software. Model tasks simulated the search and production activities, and a sample of actual analyst data were also evaluated. Task event durations were calculated on the basis of millisecond-level time stamps, and distributions were plotted for analysis. The data indicate that task event time shows a cyclic pattern of variation, with shorter event durations (< 2 sec) reflecting information search and filtering, and longer event durations (> 10 sec) reflecting information evaluation. Application of cognitive principles to the interpretation of task event time data provides a basis for developing “cognitive signatures” of complex activities, and can facilitate the development of technology aids for information intensive tasks.

  8. Selective attention to temporal features on nested time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Molly J; Herrmann, Björn; Obleser, Jonas

    2015-02-01

    Meaningful auditory stimuli such as speech and music often vary simultaneously along multiple time scales. Thus, listeners must selectively attend to, and selectively ignore, separate but intertwined temporal features. The current study aimed to identify and characterize the neural network specifically involved in this feature-selective attention to time. We used a novel paradigm where listeners judged either the duration or modulation rate of auditory stimuli, and in which the stimulation, working memory demands, response requirements, and task difficulty were held constant. A first analysis identified all brain regions where individual brain activation patterns were correlated with individual behavioral performance patterns, which thus supported temporal judgments generically. A second analysis then isolated those brain regions that specifically regulated selective attention to temporal features: Neural responses in a bilateral fronto-parietal network including insular cortex and basal ganglia decreased with degree of change of the attended temporal feature. Critically, response patterns in these regions were inverted when the task required selectively ignoring this feature. The results demonstrate how the neural analysis of complex acoustic stimuli with multiple temporal features depends on a fronto-parietal network that simultaneously regulates the selective gain for attended and ignored temporal features.

  9. Attention Inhibition Training Can Reduce Betel-Nut Chewing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chou Ho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Betel nut (or areca is the fourth most commonly used drug worldwide after tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. Many chemical ingredients of betel nut are carcinogenic. We examined whether the manipulation of attentional inhibition toward the areca-related stimuli could affect betel-nut chewing time. Three matched groups of habitual chewers were recruited: inhibit-areca, inhibit-non-areca, and control. This study consisted of a Go/No-Go task for inhibition training, followed by a taste test for observing chewing behavior. The Go/No-Go task constituted three phases (pretest, training and posttest. In the taste test, the habitual chewers were asked to rate the flavors of one betel nut and one gum. The purpose (blind to the chewers of this taste test was to observe whether their picking order and chewing time were affected by experimental manipulation. Results from the Go/No-Go task showed successful training. Further, the training groups (the inhibit-areca and inhibit-non-areca groups showed a significant reduction in betel nut chewing time, in comparison to the control group. Since both training groups showed reduced chewing time, the inhibition training may affect general control ability, in regardless of the stimulus (areca or not to be inhibited. Reduced chewing time is important for reducing areca-related diseases.

  10. Object Representations Maintain Attentional Control Settings across Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreij, Daniel; Olivers, Christian N. L.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has revealed that we create and maintain mental representations for perceived objects on the basis of their spatiotemporal continuity. An important question is what type of information can be maintained within these so-called object files. We provide evidence that object files retain specific attentional control settings for…

  11. Compression Effects on the Phase Behaviour of Miconazole-Poly (1-Vinylpyrrolidone-Co-Vinyl Acetate) Solid Dispersions-Role of Pressure, Dwell Time, and Preparation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; De Bisschop, Cathérine; Schut, Henk; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Van Den Mooter, Guy

    2015-10-01

    Compression of miconazole-poly (1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVPVA64) solid dispersions prepared by spray drying and hot-melt extrusion was performed to gain insights into effect of compression pressure, dwell time, and preparation method on compression-dependent phase behavior. The solid dispersions prepared by spray drying were initially phase-separated showing two glass transition temperature (Tg), whereas the extruded samples showed one single Tg indicating better mixing. Compression caused mixing of spray-dried solid dispersions at high compression pressures and especially high dwell times. The extruded systems showed no statistically significant differences. However, physical mixtures made up from extruded samples containing 20% and 40% of active pharmaceutical ingredient underwent mixing upon compression. Coincidence Doppler measurements were performed to quantify the free volume of PVPVA64 which is a major contributor to the free volume in the solid dispersion matrix. A small but significant difference was found between the open free volume of the pure polymer subjected to varied manufacturing processes. Compression-induced plastic deformation and plastic flow enhances molecular mobility leading to mixing of different domains in solid dispersions. Different manufacturing methods may result in products with similar free volume, thereby showing similar molecular mobility.

  12. Longitudinal association of physical activity and sedentary behavior during leisure time with health-related quality of life in community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guallar-Castillón Pilar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence on the relation between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA and health-related quality of life (HRQoL in older adults is based primarily on clinical trials of physical exercise programs in institutionalized persons and on cross-sectional studies of community-dwelling persons. Moreover, there is no evidence on whether leisure-time sedentary behavior (LTSB is associated with HRQoL independently of LTPA. This study examined the longitudinal association between LTPA, LTSB, and HRQoL in older community-dwelling adults in Spain. Methods Prospective cohort study of 1,097 persons aged 62 and over. In 2003 LTPA in MET-hr/week was measured with a validated questionnaire, and LTSB was estimated by the number of sitting hours per week. In 2009 HRQoL was measured with the SF-36 questionnaire. Analyses were done with linear regression and adjusted for the main confounders. Results Compared with those who did no LTPA, subjects in the upper quartile of LTPA had better scores on the SF-36 scales of physical functioning (β 5.65; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32-9.98; p linear trend Conclusions Greater LTPA and less LTSB were independently associated with better long-term HRQoL in older adults.

  13. Tracking Time Evolution of Collective Attention Clusters in Twitter: Time Evolving Nonnegative Matrix Factorisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Saito

    Full Text Available Micro-blogging services, such as Twitter, offer opportunities to analyse user behaviour. Discovering and distinguishing behavioural patterns in micro-blogging services is valuable. However, it is difficult and challenging to distinguish users, and to track the temporal development of collective attention within distinct user groups in Twitter. In this paper, we formulate this problem as tracking matrices decomposed by Nonnegative Matrix Factorisation for time-sequential matrix data, and propose a novel extension of Nonnegative Matrix Factorisation, which we refer to as Time Evolving Nonnegative Matrix Factorisation (TENMF. In our method, we describe users and words posted in some time interval by a matrix, and use several matrices as time-sequential data. Subsequently, we apply Time Evolving Nonnegative Matrix Factorisation to these time-sequential matrices. TENMF can decompose time-sequential matrices, and can track the connection among decomposed matrices, whereas previous NMF decomposes a matrix into two lower dimension matrices arbitrarily, which might lose the time-sequential connection. Our proposed method has an adequately good performance on artificial data. Moreover, we present several results and insights from experiments using real data from Twitter.

  14. Tracking Time Evolution of Collective Attention Clusters in Twitter: Time Evolving Nonnegative Matrix Factorisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shota; Hirata, Yoshito; Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Micro-blogging services, such as Twitter, offer opportunities to analyse user behaviour. Discovering and distinguishing behavioural patterns in micro-blogging services is valuable. However, it is difficult and challenging to distinguish users, and to track the temporal development of collective attention within distinct user groups in Twitter. In this paper, we formulate this problem as tracking matrices decomposed by Nonnegative Matrix Factorisation for time-sequential matrix data, and propose a novel extension of Nonnegative Matrix Factorisation, which we refer to as Time Evolving Nonnegative Matrix Factorisation (TENMF). In our method, we describe users and words posted in some time interval by a matrix, and use several matrices as time-sequential data. Subsequently, we apply Time Evolving Nonnegative Matrix Factorisation to these time-sequential matrices. TENMF can decompose time-sequential matrices, and can track the connection among decomposed matrices, whereas previous NMF decomposes a matrix into two lower dimension matrices arbitrarily, which might lose the time-sequential connection. Our proposed method has an adequately good performance on artificial data. Moreover, we present several results and insights from experiments using real data from Twitter.

  15. Situations of dwelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen; Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Wiell Nordberg, Lene;

    2006-01-01

    values and needs in differnet situations, lifestyles and stages. The study is based on information from users in new housing schemes in and around Copenhagen - 'open building' dwellings that reveal a variety of approaches to these problems? The analysis of the dwellings show that the architecture...

  16. Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) applied to mice in the 5-choice serial reaction time task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzpatrick, Ciarán Martin; Woldbye, David Paul Drucker; Andreasen T., Jesper

    2017-01-01

    RATIONALE: The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is widely used to measure rodent attentional functions. In humans, many attention studies in healthy and clinical populations have used testing based on Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) to estimate visual processing speeds...... and other parameters of attentional capacity. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to bridge these research fields by modifying the 5-CSRTT's design and by mathematically modelling data to derive attentional parameters analogous to human TVA-based measures. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were tested in two 1-h sessions...... thresholds and motor response baselines. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time how 5-CSRTT performance in mice can be mathematically modelled to yield estimates of attentional capacity that are directly comparable to estimates from human studies....

  17. The role of time on task performance in modifying the effects of gum chewing on attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William

    2011-01-01

    Recent research examined the effects of chewing gum on attention and reported a significant interaction of gum chewing with time. Using a crossover within-subject design, the present study examined the effect of gum chewing on sustained attention in healthy adults over a period of 30 min. The result

  18. Everyday Attention and Lecture Retention: The Effects of Time, Fidgeting, and Mind Wandering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eFarley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We have all had our thoughts wander from the immediate task at hand. The emerging embodied cognition literature emphasizes the role that the body plays in human thought, and raises the possibility that changes in attentional focus may be associated with changes in body behaviour. Recent research has found that when individuals view a lecture, mind wandering increases as a function of time. In the present study we asked whether this decline in attention during lecture viewing was associated with fidgeting. Participants were filmed while they watched a 40-minute lecture video, and at regular 5 minute intervals provided ratings of their attentiveness. Following the lecture, participant's memory for the material was assessed. Fidgeting behaviour was coded from video recordings of each session. Results indicated that attention to, and retention of, lecture material declined as a function of time on task. Critically, and as predicted, fidgeting also increased with time on task. We also found that the relation between fidgeting and retention was significant even when the role of attention was factored into the equation, suggesting that fidgeting makes a unique contribution to retention of lecture material over and above that contributed by an individual’s attention. We propose a novel non-attentional stress-based account of fidgeting and how this impacts retention for lecture material over and above changes in levels in mind wandering vis-a-vis changes in attention.

  19. Everyday attention and lecture retention: the effects of time, fidgeting, and mind wandering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, James; Risko, Evan F.; Kingstone, Alan

    2013-01-01

    We have all had our thoughts wander from the immediate task at hand. The emerging embodied cognition literature emphasizes the role that the body plays in human thought, and raises the possibility that changes in attentional focus may be associated with changes in body behavior. Recent research has found that when individuals view a lecture, mind wandering increases as a function of time. In the present study we asked whether this decline in attention during lecture viewing was associated with fidgeting. Participants were filmed while they watched a 40-min lecture video, and at regular 5-min intervals provided ratings of their attentiveness. Following the lecture, participant's memory for the material was assessed. Fidgeting behavior was coded from video recordings of each session. Results indicated that attention to, and retention of, lecture material declined as a function of time on task. Critically, and as predicted, fidgeting also increased with time on task. We also found that the relation between fidgeting and retention was significant even when the role of attention was factored into the equation, suggesting that fidgeting makes a unique contribution to retention of lecture material over and above that contributed by an individual's attention. We propose a novel non-attentional stress-based account of fidgeting and how this impacts retention for lecture material over and above changes in levels in mind wandering vis-a-vis changes in attention. PMID:24065933

  20. Factores que inciden sobre el tiempo de permanencia de un catéter endovenoso central Factors that affect the dwell time of a central venous catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bello-Villalobos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar los factores que inciden en el tiempo de permanencia de un catéter endovenoso central. Antecedentes: En el paciente con cáncer existen factores propios del estado de inmunocompromiso por el tumor y los efectos colaterales de su tratamiento que aumentan la probabilidad de infección y consecuentemente reducen el tiempo de uso de un catéter. Sujetos: Se integró una cohorte de 306 pacientes con cáncer, con una edad promedio de 59 ± 14,5 años. Intervenciones: Se definió tiempo cero como el día de colocación del catéter. Diariamente se buscaron signos clínicos de infección por catéter, con toma de hemocultivos simultáneos cada 7 días. El desenlace primario fue infección del catéter y el alternativo fin de tratamiento, obstrucción o fallecimiento del paciente. Se comparó el tiempo de permanencia del catéter infectado vs no infectado y su relación con factores de riesgo potenciales. Resultados: Se colocaron 306 catéteres para un total de 4.043 días/catéter. Se infectaron 25 (8,2%. La sobrevida media global fue de 50 días. Se encontró que a mayor tiempo de permanencia, mayor fue la incidencia de infección. En el análisis de sobrevida ajustado, la presencia de infección a distancia (OR = 4,71, IC95% = 1,7-10,1, p = 0,002 fue el factor que mostró una asociación significativa. Conclusiones: El tiempo de vida útil de un catéter es amplia, limitada por la presencia de infección a distancia como factor de riesgo potencial de infección por catéter.Objective: To determine the factors that affect the dwell time of a central venous catheter. Background: The own immunodeficiency in cancer patient and the collateral effects of their treatment increase the probability of infection and reduce the time of use of a catheter. Subjects: Incipient cohort of 306 patients with cancer, with an average age of 59 ± 14.5 years. Interventions: Time zero like the day of the placement of the catheter was defined. Daily

  1. Time-dependent approach for single trial classification of covert visuospatial attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonin, L.; Leeb, R.; Millán, J. del R.

    2012-08-01

    Recently, several studies have started to explore covert visuospatial attention as a control signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Covert visuospatial attention represents the ability to change the focus of attention from one point in the space without overt eye movements. Nevertheless, the full potential and possible applications of this paradigm remain relatively unexplored. Voluntary covert visuospatial attention might allow a more natural and intuitive interaction with real environments as neither stimulation nor gazing is required. In order to identify brain correlates of covert visuospatial attention, classical approaches usually rely on the whole α-band over long time intervals. In this work, we propose a more detailed analysis in the frequency and time domains to enhance classification performance. In particular, we investigate the contribution of α sub-bands and the role of time intervals in carrying information about visual attention. Previous neurophysiological studies have already highlighted the role of temporal dynamics in attention mechanisms. However, these important aspects are not yet exploited in BCI. In this work, we studied different methods that explicitly cope with the natural brain dynamics during visuospatial attention tasks in order to enhance BCI robustness and classification performances. Results with ten healthy subjects demonstrate that our approach identifies spectro-temporal patterns that outperform the state-of-the-art classification method. On average, our time-dependent classification reaches 0.74 ± 0.03 of the area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve (AUC) value with an increase of 12.3% with respect to standard methods (0.65 ± 0.4). In addition, the proposed approach allows faster classification (<1 instead of 3 s), without compromising performances. Finally, our analysis highlights the fact that discriminant patterns are not stable for the whole trial period but are changing over short time

  2. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on soun...... exchanging experiences about constructions fulfilling different classes, reducing trade barriers, and finally increasing the sound insulation of dwellings.......Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on sound...... insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms...

  3. Introducing a Third Timed Up & Go Test Trial Improves Performances of Hospitalized and Community-Dwelling Older Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Mette L; Jønsson, Line R; Kristensen, Morten T

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Originally, the Timed Up & Go (TUG) test was described as including a practice trial before a timed trial, but recent studies in individuals with hip fracture have reported that performance improved with a third trial and that high intertester reliability was achieved when...

  4. Dynamic attentional modulation of vision across space and time after right hemisphere stroke and in ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Charlotte; Malhotra, Paresh; Deidda, Cristiana; Husain, Masud

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Attention modulates the availability of sensory information to conscious perception. In particular, there is evidence of pathological, spatial constriction of the effective field of vision in patients with right hemisphere damage when a central task exhausts available attentional capacity. In the current study we first examined whether this constriction might be modulated across both space and time in right hemisphere stroke patients without neglect. Then we tested healthy elderly people to determine whether non-pathological ageing also leads to spatiotemporal impairments of vision under conditions of high attention load. Methods Right hemisphere stroke patients completed a task at fixation while attempting to discriminate letters appearing in the periphery. Attentional load of the central task was modulated by increasing task difficulty. Peripheral letters appeared simultaneously with the central task or at different times (stimulus onset asynchronies, SOAs) after it. In a second study healthy elderly volunteers were tested with a modified version of this paradigm. Results Under conditions of high attention load right hemisphere stroke patients have a reduced effective visual field, over a significantly extended ‘attentional blink’, worse for items presented to their left. In the second study, older participants were unable to discriminate otherwise salient items across the visual field (left or right) when their attention capacity was loaded on the central task. This deficit extended temporally, with peripheral discrimination ability not returning to normal for up to 450 msec. Conclusions Dynamically tying up attention resources on a task at fixation can have profound effects in patient populations and in normal ageing. These results demonstrate that items can escape conscious detection across space and time, and can thereby impact significantly on visual perception in these groups. PMID:23245427

  5. The reliability of the quantitative timed up and go test (QTUG) measured over five consecutive days under single and dual-task conditions in community dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin; Walsh, Lorcan; Doyle, Julie; Greene, Barry; Blake, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The timed up and go (TUG) test is a commonly used assessment in older people with variations including the addition of a motor or cognitive dual-task, however in high functioning older adults it is more difficult to assess change. The quantified TUG (QTUG) uses inertial sensors to detect test and gait parameters during the test. If it is to be used in the longitudinal assessment of older adults, it is important that we know which parameters are reliable and under which conditions. This study aims to examine the relative reliability of the QTUG over five consecutive days under single, motor and cognitive dual-task conditions. Twelve community dwelling older adults (10 females, mean age 74.17 (3.88)) performed the QTUG under three conditions for five consecutive days. The relative reliability of each of the gait parameters was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC 3,1) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Five of the measures demonstrated excellent reliability (ICC>0.70) under all three conditions (time to complete test, walk time, number of gait cycles, number of steps and return from turn time). Measures of variability and turn derived parameters demonstrated weak reliability under all three conditions (ICC=0.05-0.49). For the most reliable parameters under single-task conditions, the addition of a cognitive task resulted in a reduction in reliability suggesting caution when interpreting results under these conditions. Certain sensor derived parameters during the QTUG test may provide an additional resource in the longitudinal assessment of older people and earlier identification of falls risk.

  6. Effectiveness of Time-Based Attention Schedules on Students in Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazak Pinar, Elif

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of fixed-time (FT) and variable-time (VT) schedules and attention on the problem behaviors and on-task behaviors of students with and without intellectual disabilities in inclusive classrooms in Turkey. Three second-grade students with intellectual disabilities, three students without intellectual…

  7. An integrated theory of prospective time interval estimation : The role of cognition, attention, and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taatgen, Niels A.; van Rijn, Hedderik; Anderson, John

    2007-01-01

    A theory of prospective time perception is introduced and incorporated as a module in an integrated theory of cognition, thereby extending existing theories and allowing predictions about attention and learning. First, a time perception module is established by fitting existing datasets (interval es

  8. Timing deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) : Evidence from neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M.; Rubia, Katya

    2013-01-01

    Relatively recently, neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies have indicated that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have deficits in a range of timing functions and their underlying neural networks. Despite this evidence, timing deficits in ADHD are still somewhat n

  9. The time course of temporal attention effects on nonconscious prime processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Torsten; Palazova, Marina; Hutt, Axel

    2013-11-01

    We presented a masked prime at various prime-target intervals (PTIs) before a target that required a speeded motor response and investigated the impact of temporal attention on the nonconscious prime processing. The allocation of temporal attention to the target was manipulated by presenting an accessory tone and comparing that condition with a no-tone condition. The results showed that, independently of the visibility of the prime, temporal attention led to an enhanced effect of prime-target congruency on the reaction times, and that the amount of the enhancement increased with increasing PTIs. This effect pattern is consistent with the assumption of increasing influences of temporal attention and of the increasing PTI on nonconscious prime processing; it argues against the hypothesis that temporal attention narrows the time period in which the prime may affect target processing. An accumulator model is proposed assuming that target-related temporal attention increases the accumulation rate for masked primes and, thus, enhances the impact of the prime on the speed of choice decisions.

  10. The joint choice of tenure, dwelling type and size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Eduard; Kaplan, Sigal

    Real-estate market trends regarding housing preferences for tenure, dwelling type and size carry long term implications for cities’ spatial development and compactness. Much attention have been given to the impact of household demographics and socio-economic characteristics on joint housing choices...... involving tenure, dwelling type and size. However, the increasing importance attributed to leisure activities as a lifestyle choice, in particular in knowledge-based economy, suggests that lifestyle may have a significant effect on these housing preferences. The current study investigates the hypothesis...... that active versus home-oriented lifestyle plays an important role in housing preferences of tenure, dwelling type and size, while controlling for household socio-economic characteristics. The choice model employed for tenure and dwelling type coupled with dwelling unit size is the multinomial logit ordered...

  11. Motor Timing Deficits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelaznik, Howard N.; Vaughn, Aaron J.; Green, John T.; Smith, Alan L.; Hoza, Betsy; Linnea, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are thought to have fundamental deficits in the allocation of attention for information processing. Furthermore, it is believed that these children possess a fundamental difficulty in motoric timing, an assertion that has been explored recently in adults and children. In the present study we extend this recent work by fully exploring the classic Wing and Kristofferson (1973) analysis of timing with typically developing children (n = 24) and children with ADHD (n = 27). We provide clear evidence that not only do children with ADHD have an overall timing deficit, they also time less consistently when using a similar strategy to typically developing children. The use of the Wing and Kristofferson approach to timing, we argue, will result in the discovery of robust ADHD-related timing differences across a variety of situations. PMID:21852012

  12. Time Perception: Modality and Duration Effects in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    Time perception performance was systematically investigated in adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specifically, the effects of manipulating modality (auditory and visual) and length of duration (200 and 1000 ms) were examined. Forty-six adolescents with ADHD and 44 controls were administered four duration…

  13. Attention, temporal predictability, and the time course of context effects in naming performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Ardi

    2010-01-01

    Models of attention and context effects in naming performance should be able to account for the time course of color-word Stroop interference revealed by manipulations of the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between color and word. Prominent models of Stroop task performance (Cohen, Dunbar, & McClell

  14. Attention Biases to Threat Link Behavioral Inhibition to Social Withdrawal over Time in Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; White, Lauren K.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Hane, Amie A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Behaviorally inhibited children display a temperamental profile characterized by social withdrawal and anxious behaviors. Previous research, focused largely on adolescents, suggests that attention biases to threat may sustain high levels of behavioral inhibition (BI) over time, helping link early temperament to social outcomes. However, no prior…

  15. Real-time decoding of the direction of covert visuospatial attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Patrik; Ramsey, Nick F.; Raemaekers, Mathijs; Viergever, Max A.; Pluim, Josien P. W.

    2012-08-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) make it possible to translate a person’s intentions into actions without depending on the muscular system. Brain activity is measured and classified into commands, thereby creating a direct link between the mind and the environment, enabling, e.g., cursor control or navigation of a wheelchair or robot. Most BCI research is conducted with scalp EEG but recent developments move toward intracranial electrodes for paralyzed people. The vast majority of BCI studies focus on the motor system as the appropriate target for recording and decoding movement intentions. However, properties of the visual system may make the visual system an attractive and intuitive alternative. We report on a study investigating feasibility of decoding covert visuospatial attention in real time, exploiting the full potential of a 7 T MRI scanner to obtain the necessary signal quality, capitalizing on earlier fMRI studies indicating that covert visuospatial attention changes activity in the visual areas that respond to stimuli presented in the attended area of the visual field. Healthy volunteers were instructed to shift their attention from the center of the screen to one of four static targets in the periphery, without moving their eyes from the center. During the first part of the fMRI-run, the relevant brain regions were located using incremental statistical analysis. During the second part, the activity in these regions was extracted and classified, and the subject was given visual feedback of the result. Performance was assessed as the number of trials where the real-time classifier correctly identified the direction of attention. On average, 80% of trials were correctly classified (chance level <25%) based on a single image volume, indicating very high decoding performance. While we restricted the experiment to five attention target regions (four peripheral and one central), the number of directions can be higher provided the brain activity patterns can

  16. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity....... Unfortunately, there is no sign on increasing harmonization, rather the contrary, i.e. evidence for an even more diverse situation in Europe. The studies conclude that harmonization is needed to facilitate exchange of data and construction experience between countries, to reduce trade barriers and to support...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...

  17. Sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity....... Unfortunately, there is no sign on increasing harmonization, rather the contrary, i.e. evidence for an even more diverse situation in Europe. The studies conclude that harmonization is needed to facilitate exchange of data and construction experience between countries, to reduce trade barriers and to support...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...

  18. Timing deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): evidence from neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M; Rubia, Katya

    2013-01-01

    Relatively recently, neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies have indicated that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have deficits in a range of timing functions and their underlying neural networks. Despite this evidence, timing deficits in ADHD are still somewhat neglected in the literature and mostly omitted from reviews on ADHD. There is therefore a lack of integrative reviews on the up-to-date evidence on neurocognitive and neurofunctional deficits of timing in ADHD and their significance with respect to other behavioural and cognitive deficits. The present review provides a synthetic overview of the evidence for neurocognitive and neurofunctional deficits in ADHD in timing functions, and integrates this evidence with the cognitive neuroscience literature of the neural substrates of timing. The review demonstrates that ADHD patients are consistently impaired in three major timing domains, in motor timing, perceptual timing and temporal foresight, comprising several timeframes spanning milliseconds, seconds, minutes and longer intervals up to years. The most consistent impairments in ADHD are found in sensorimotor synchronisation, duration discrimination, reproduction and delay discounting. These neurocognitive findings of timing deficits in ADHD are furthermore supported by functional neuroimaging studies that show dysfunctions in the key inferior fronto-striato-cerebellar and fronto-parietal networks that mediate the timing functions. Although there is evidence that these timing functions are inter-correlated with other executive functions that are well established to be impaired in the disorder, in particular working memory, attention, and to a lesser degree inhibitory control, the key timing deficits appear to survive when these functions are controlled for, suggesting independent cognitive deficits in the temporal domain. There is furthermore strong evidence for an association between timing deficits and behavioural

  19. Indoor radon measurements in Turkey dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Taskın, H; Bingoldag, N Albayrak

    2015-12-01

    In this work, indoor radon radioactivity concentration levels have been measured in dwellings of Turkey within the frame of the National Radon Monitoring Programme. The (222)Rn concentrations were measured with time-integrating passive nuclear etched track detectors in 7293 dwellings in 153 residential units of 81 provinces, and the radon map of Turkey was prepared. Indoor radon concentrations were distributed in the range of 1-1400 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic mean of the radon gas concentration was found to be 81 Bq m(-3); the geometric mean was 57 Bq m(-3) with a geometric standard deviation of 2.3.

  20. Disturbance of time orientation, attention, and verbal memory in amnesic patients with confabulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingaki, Honoka; Park, Paeksoon; Ueda, Keita; Murai, Toshiya; Tsukiura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Confabulation is often observed in amnesic patients after brain damage. However, evidence regarding the relationship between confabulation and other neuropsychological functions is scarce. In addition, previous studies have proposed two possibilities of the relationship between confabulation and false memory, in which patients with confabulation are likely to retrieve false memories, or confabulations are relatively independent of false memories. The present study investigated how confabulation is related to various cognitive functions, including orientation, attention, frontal lobe function, memory, and mental status, and to false memories, as assessed by the Deese-Roediger-Mcdermott (DRM) paradigm. Patients with organic amnesia participated, and confabulations were evaluated using the Confabulation Battery. Amnestic patients were classified into two groups: confabulating (CP) and nonconfabulating patients (NCP). The CP group was significantly impaired in time orientation, attention, and verbal memory, compared to the NCP group and age-matched healthy controls (HC). Results of the DRM paradigm revealed no significant difference in false memory retrieval induced by critical lures across CP, NCP, and HC groups. Confabulating responses in organic amnesia could be in part induced by disturbance of time consciousness and attention control in severe impairment of verbal memories, and confabulation and false memory could be modulated by different cognitive systems.

  1. Real-time computational attention model for dynamic scenes analysis: from implementation to evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courboulay, Vincent; Perreira Da Silva, Matthieu

    2012-06-01

    Providing real time analysis of the huge amount of data generated by computer vision algorithms in interactive applications is still an open problem. It promises great advances across a wide variety of fields. When using dynamics scene analysis algorithms for computer vision, a trade-off must be found between the quality of the results expected, and the amount of computer resources allocated for each task. It is usually a design time decision, implemented through the choice of pre-defined algorithms and parameters. However, this way of doing limits the generality of the system. Using an adaptive vision system provides a more flexible solution as its analysis strategy can be changed according to the new information available. As a consequence, such a system requires some kind of guiding mechanism to explore the scene faster and more efficiently. We propose a visual attention system that it adapts its processing according to the interest (or salience) of each element of the dynamic scene. Somewhere in between hierarchical salience based and competitive distributed, we propose a hierarchical yet competitive and non salience based model. Our original approach allows the generation of attentional focus points without the need of neither saliency map nor explicit inhibition of return mechanism. This new realtime computational model is based on a preys / predators system. The use of this kind of dynamical system is justified by an adjustable trade-off between nondeterministic attentional behavior and properties of stability, reproducibility and reactiveness.

  2. Emotional stimuli facilitate time perception in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Mohammad A; Mirloo, Mohammad M; Rezaei, Mazaher; Soltanlou, Mojtaba

    2016-08-27

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different emotional stimuli (neutral, positive, and negative) on time perception in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normal children in dual-task form. Five hundred and ninety-nine students from primary schools were randomly selected. The Conner's Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS) questionnaire was completed by teachers. A total of 100 children with a score above the cut-off point for the CTRS were further assessed using the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4). A total of 34 children with ADHD and 31 controls completed an emotional time discrimination task in two blocks of 1000 and 2000 ms duration. Children were asked to compare three image groups: neutral with neutral, neutral with positive, and neutral with negative images. Children with ADHD had significantly better performance in the emotional time discrimination task across all conditions when compared with controls: On average, discrimination thresholds were approximately 35 ms shorter for the children with ADHD. Our results indicate that children with ADHD have higher sensitivity to time relative to controls in a situation in which they must distribute resources between temporal and emotional processing. On the basis of the interference effect and the working memory capacity hypothesis, this dividing of attention causes a decrease of time accuracy in normal children.

  3. The McGurk effect: An investigation of attentional capacity employing response times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Nicholas; Lentz, Jennifer J; Townsend, James T; Wenger, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to assess audiovisual integration for both congruent and incongruent speech stimuli using reaction times (RT). The experiments are based on the McGurk effect, in which a listener is presented with incongruent audiovisual speech signals. A typical example involves the auditory consonant/b/combined with a visually articulated/g/, often yielding a perception of/d/. We quantify the amount of integration relative to the predictions of a parallel independent model as a function of attention and congruency between auditory and visual signals. We assessed RT distributions for congruent and incongruent auditory and visual signals in a within-subjects signal detection paradigm under conditions of divided versus focused attention. Results showed that listeners often received only minimal benefit from congruent auditory visual stimuli, even when such information could have improved performance. Incongruent stimuli adversely affected performance in divided and focused attention conditions. Our findings support a parallel model of auditory-visual integration with interactions between auditory and visual channels.

  4. Development of new punch shape to replicate scale-up issues in laboratory tablet press II: a new design of punch head to emulate consolidation and dwell times in commercial tablet press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Shigeru; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Ito, Manabu

    2014-06-01

    Differences between laboratory and commercial tablet presses are frequently observed during scale-up of tableting process. These scale-up issues result from the differences in total compression time that is the sum of consolidation and dwell times. When a lubricated blend is compressed into tablets, the tablet thickness produced by the commercial tablet press is often thicker than that by a laboratory tablet press. A new punch shape design, designated as shape adjusted for scale-up (SAS), was developed and used to demonstrate the ability to replicate scale-up issues in commercial-scale tableting processes. It was found that the consolidation time can be slightly shortened by changing the vertical curvature of the conventional punch head rim. However, this approach is not enough to replicate the consolidation time. A secondary two-stage SAS punch design and an embossed punch head was designed to replicate the consolidation and dwell times on a laboratory tablet press to match those of a commercial tablet press. The resulting tablet thickness using this second SAS punch on a laboratory tablet press was thicker than when using a conventional punch in the same laboratory tablet press. The secondary SAS punches are more useful tools for replicating and understanding potential scale-up issues. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci.

  5. Real-time performance modelling of a Sustained Attention to Response Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Grégoire S; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Pettitt, Anthony N

    2010-10-01

    Vigilance declines when exposed to highly predictable and uneventful tasks. Monotonous tasks provide little cognitive and motor stimulation and contribute to human errors. This paper aims to model and detect vigilance decline in real time through participants' reaction times during a monotonous task. A laboratory-based experiment adapting the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) is conducted to quantify the effect of monotony on overall performance. Relevant parameters are then used to build a model detecting hypovigilance throughout the experiment. The accuracy of different mathematical models is compared to detect in real time - minute by minute - the lapses in vigilance during the task. It is shown that monotonous tasks can lead to an average decline in performance of 45%. Furthermore, vigilance modelling enables the detection of vigilance decline through reaction times with an accuracy of 72% and a 29% false alarm rate. Bayesian models are identified as a better model to detect lapses in vigilance as compared with neural networks and generalised linear mixed models. This modelling could be used as a framework to detect vigilance decline of any human performing monotonous tasks. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Existing research on monotony is largely entangled with endogenous factors such as sleep deprivation, fatigue and circadian rhythm. This paper uses a Bayesian model to assess the effects of a monotonous task on vigilance in real time. It is shown that the negative effects of monotony on the ability to sustain attention can be mathematically modelled and predicted in real time using surrogate measures, such as reaction times. This allows the modelling of vigilance fluctuations.

  6. Timing of spatial priming within the fronto-parietal attention network: A TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrer, Stefanie; Kraft, Antje; Koch, Stefan P; Kathmann, Norbert; Irlbacher, Kerstin; Brandt, Stephan A

    2015-07-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) are known to be part of a cortical network involved in visual spatial attention. Top-down control can modulate processing at target and distractor positions over a sequence of trials, leading to positive priming at prior target positions and negative priming at prior distractor positions. In order to elucidate the exact time course of this top-down mechanism we here propose a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol. Single-pulses were applied over the right PPC, the right DLPFC or over the vertex (sham stimulation) at five time intervals (50, 100, 150, 200, 250 ms) after onset of a probe display during a spatial negative priming paradigm. Both suppression of the negative priming effect at a previous distractor position and enhancement of positive priming at a previous target position was found if a TMS pulse was applied 100 ms after the probe display onset either over the right DLPFC or the right PPC. We suggest that top-down mechanisms within the right fronto-parietal attention network are compromised during TMS interference in this time window.

  7. Sustained attention is associated with error processing impairment: evidence from mental fatigue study in four-choice reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yi; Ma, Feng; Lv, Yixuan; Cai, Gui; Teng, Peng; Xu, FengGang; Chen, Shanguang

    2015-01-01

    Attention is important in error processing. Few studies have examined the link between sustained attention and error processing. In this study, we examined how error-related negativity (ERN) of a four-choice reaction time task was reduced in the mental fatigue condition and investigated the role of sustained attention in error processing. Forty-one recruited participants were divided into two groups. In the fatigue experiment group, 20 subjects performed a fatigue experiment and an additional continuous psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) for 1 h. In the normal experiment group, 21 subjects only performed the normal experimental procedures without the PVT test. Fatigue and sustained attention states were assessed with a questionnaire. Event-related potential results showed that ERN (p attention and fatigue states in electrodes Fz, FC1, Cz, and FC2. These findings indicated that sustained attention was related to error processing and that decreased attention is likely the cause of error processing impairment.

  8. Time-of-day effects on postural control and attentional capacities in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccouch, Rym; Zarrouk, Nidhal; Chtourou, Hamdi; Rebai, Haithem; Sahli, Sonia

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of time-of-day on postural control, body temperature, and attentional capacities in 5-6 year old children. Twelve male children (5-6-year-old) were asked to maintain an upright bipedal stance on a force platform with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) at 07:00, 10:00, 14:00, and 18:00 h. Postural control was evaluated by center of pressure (CoP) surface area (CoPArea), CoP mean velocity (CoPVm), length of the CoP displacement as a function of the surface (LFS) ratio and Romberg's index (RI). Oral temperature and the simple reaction time were also recorded at the beginning of each test session. The one way ANOVA (4 time-of-day) showed significant time-of-day effects on CoPArea (pChildren's postural control was lower at 07:00 h and at 14:00 h in comparison with 10:00 h and 18:00 h. Likewise, the reaction time was significantly (pchildren's postural control fluctuates during the daytime (i.e., better postural control at 10:00 h and at 18:00 h) with a diurnal rhythm close to that of body temperature and attentional capacities. Therefore, the evaluation of changes in postural control of 5-6-year-old children using force plate measures is recommended in the middle morning or the late afternoon to avoid the post-awakening and the post-prandial phases.

  9. Temporal metastates are associated with differential patterns of time-resolved connectivity, network topology, and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, James M; Koyejo, Oluwasanmi; Poldrack, Russell A

    2016-08-30

    Little is currently known about the coordination of neural activity over longitudinal timescales and how these changes relate to behavior. To investigate this issue, we used resting-state fMRI data from a single individual to identify the presence of two distinct temporal states that fluctuated over the course of 18 mo. These temporal states were associated with distinct patterns of time-resolved blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) connectivity within individual scanning sessions and also related to significant alterations in global efficiency of brain connectivity as well as differences in self-reported attention. These patterns were replicated in a separate longitudinal dataset, providing additional supportive evidence for the presence of fluctuations in functional network topology over time. Together, our results underscore the importance of longitudinal phenotyping in cognitive neuroscience.

  10. Navigation of a telepresence robot via covert visuospatial attention and real-time fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Patrik; Pluim, Josien P W; Viergever, Max A; Ramsey, Nick F

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) allow people with severe neurological impairment and without ability to control their muscles to regain some control over their environment. The BCI user performs a mental task to regulate brain activity, which is measured and translated into commands controlling some external device. We here show that healthy participants are capable of navigating a robot by covertly shifting their visuospatial attention. Covert Visuospatial Attention (COVISA) constitutes a very intuitive brain function for spatial navigation and does not depend on presented stimuli or on eye movements. Our robot is equipped with motors and a camera that sends visual feedback to the user who can navigate it from a remote location. We used an ultrahigh field MRI scanner (7 Tesla) to obtain fMRI signals that were decoded in real time using a support vector machine. Four healthy subjects with virtually no training succeeded in navigating the robot to at least three of four target locations. Our results thus show that with COVISA BCI, realtime robot navigation can be achieved. Since the magnitude of the fMRI signal has been shown to correlate well with the magnitude of spectral power changes in the gamma frequency band in signals measured by intracranial electrodes, the COVISA concept may in future translate to intracranial application in severely paralyzed people.

  11. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between....... Descriptors, range of quality levels, number of quality classes, class intervals, denotations and descriptions vary across Europe. The diversity is an obstacle for exchange of experience about constructions fulfilling different classes, implying also trade barriers. Thus, a harmonized classification scheme...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  12. Separation of genetic influences on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and reaction time performance from those on IQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, A. C.; Asherson, P.; van der Meere, J. J.; Kuntsi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows a strong phenotypic and genetic association with reaction time (RI) variability, considered to reflect lapses in attention. Yet we know little about whether this aetiological pathway is shared with other affected cognitive processes i

  13. Attentional disengagement is modulated by the offset of unpleasant pictures: a saccadic reaction time study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Pinheiro, Walter; Faria, Aydamari; Braga, Filipe; Guerra, Pedro; Perakakis, Pandelis; Caldas, Ariane Leão; Mocaiber, Izabela; Oliveira, Letícia; Pereira, Mirtes Garcia; Volchan, Eliane; Vila, Jaime

    2013-12-01

    We studied the influence of passively viewing a picture on saccade latencies to peripheral targets. Thirty-two volunteers were instructed to look at a central picture, wait for the onset of a peripheral target, and execute a saccade toward it as quickly as possible - saccadic reaction time (SRT). The central picture (neutral or unpleasant) could be turned off simultaneously with target onset (the no-gap condition) or 200ms prior to target onset (the gap-200 condition). We found that saccade latencies were influenced by emotional valence and condition. In the no-gap condition, SRTs were longer after viewing unpleasant pictures. In the gap-200 condition, the pattern was reversed, and unpleasant pictures induced shorter SRTs in relation to neutral pictures. Furthermore, the influence of unpleasant pictures gradually decreased when images were re-exposed to the participants - affective habituation. The results are discussed in terms of attentional avoidance and disengagement from unpleasant emotional pictures.

  14. Sleep restriction may lead to disruption in physiological attention and reaction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbind Kumar Choudhary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sleepiness is the condition where for some reason fails to go into a sleep state and will have difficulty in remaining awake even while carrying out activities. Sleep restriction occurs when an individual fails to get enough sleep due to high work demands. The mechanism between sleep restriction and underlying brain physiology deficits is not well assumed. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mental attention (P300 and reaction time [visual (VRT and auditory (ART] among night watchmen, at subsequent; first (1st day, fourth (4th day and seventh (7th day of restricted sleep period. After exclusion and inclusion criteria, the study was performed among 50 watchmen (age=18–35 years (n=50 after providing written informed consent and divided into two group. Group I-(Normal sleep (n=28 working in day time and used to have normal sleep in night (≥8 h; Group II-(Restricted sleep (n=22 - working in night time and used to have less sleep in night (≤3 h. Statistical significance between the different groups was determined by the independent student ʻtʼ test and the significance level was fixed at p≤0.05. We observed that among all normal and restricted sleep watchmen there was not any significant variation in Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS score, VRT and ART, along with latency and amplitude of P300 on 1st day of restricted sleep. However at subsequent on 4th day and 7th day of restricted sleep, there was significant increase in (KSSscore, and prolongation of VRT and ART as well as alteration in latency and amplitude of P300 wave in restricted sleep watchmen when compare to normal sleep watchmen. The present finding concludes that loss of sleep has major impact in dynamic change in mental attention and reaction time among watchmen employed in night shift. Professional regulations and work schedules should integrate sleep schedules before and during the work period as an essential dimension for their healthy life.

  15. Accuracy of Timed Up and Go Test for screening risk of falls among community-dwelling elderly Acurácia do Timed Up and Go Test para rastrear risco de quedas em idosos da comunidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago S. Alexandre

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of the Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT for screening the risk of falls among community-dwelling elderly individuals. METHOD: This is a prospective cohort study with a randomly by lots without reposition sample stratified by proportional partition in relation to gender involving 63 community-dwelling elderly individuals. Elderly individuals who reported having Parkinson's disease, a history of transitory ischemic attack, stroke and with a Mini Mental State Exam lower than the expected for the education level, were on a wheelchair and that reported a single fall in the previous six months were excluded. The TUGT, a mobility test, was the measure of interested and the occurrence of falls was the outcome. The performance of basic activities of daily living (ADL and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL was determined through the Older American Resources and Services, and the socio-demographic and clinical data were determined through the use of additional questionnaires. Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves were used to analyze the sensitivity and specificity of the TUGT. RESULTS: Elderly individuals who fell had greater difficulties in ADL and IADL (pOBJETIVO: Determinar a acurácia do Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT para rastrear risco de quedas em idosos da comunidade. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo de coorte prospectivo com amostra sorteada aleatoriamente, sem reposição e estratificada por partilha proporcional em relação ao sexo de 63 idosos da comunidade. Excluíram-se idosos com doença de Parkinson, ataque isquêmico transitório, acidente vascular encefálico, Miniexame do Estado Mental inferior ao considerado normal de acordo com a escolaridade, movimentação exclusiva por cadeira de rodas e relato de uma queda nos seis meses anteriores à primeira entrevista. O TUGT, um teste de mobilidade, foi a medida testada, e o desfecho, a ocorrência de queda. Mensuraram-se atividades básicas (ABVD e

  16. Focused attention vs. crossmodal signals paradigm: Deriving predictions from the time-window-of-integration model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans eColonius

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the crossmodal signals paradigm (CSP participants are instructed to respond to a set of stimuli from different modalities, presented more or less simultaneously, as soon as a stimulus from any modality has been detected. In the focused attention paradigm (FAP, on the other hand, responses should only be made to a stimulus from a pre-defined target modality and stimuli from non-target modalities should be ignored. Whichever paradigm is being applied, a typical result is that responses tend to be faster to crossmodal stimuli than to unimodal stimuli, a phenomenon often referred to as 'crossmodal interaction'. Here we investigate predictions of the time-window-of-integration (TWIN modeling framework previously proposed by the authors. It is shown that TWIN makes specific qualitative and quantitative predictions on how the two paradigms differ with respect to the probability of multisensory integration and the amount of response enhancement, including the effect of stimulus intensity ('inverse effectiveness'. Introducing a decision-theoretic framework for TWIN further allows comparing the two paradigms with respect to the predicted optimal time window size and its dependence on the prior probability that the crossmodal stimulus information refers to the same event. In order to test these predictions, experimental studies that systematically compare crossmodal effects under stimulus conditions that are identical except for the CSP-FAP instruction should be performed in the future.

  17. Dwelling in New Delhi, dwelling in hybridity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Roselli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available I wake up in a ground floor bedroom of a fourth floor building. In the near dining room, the tv is kicking out loud Hindi voices, the musical refrain of a phone company ad. The family hosting me is a family of immigrants. The grandfather and the grandmother arrived in Delhi during the partition time. They originally grew up in Pakistan and met in the place where they live today, when the land was organized as a refugees camp. At the beginning, the refugees camp was only a wasteland. Then, with the passage of time, people started to build small pakka houses, a kind of self-built architecture made of simple oven-cooked red bricks, with a thatched roof.

  18. Temporal Architecture: Poetic Dwelling in Japanese buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lazarin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Heidegger’s thinking about poetic dwelling and Derrida’s impressions of Freudian estrangement are employed to provide a constitutional analysis of the experience of Japanese architecture, in particular, the Japanese vestibule (genkan. This analysis is supplemented by writings by Japanese architects and poets. The principal elements of Japanese architecture are: (1 ma, and (2 en. Ma is usually translated as ‘interval’ because, like the English word, it applies to both space and time.  However, in Japanese thinking, it is not so much an either/or, but rather a both/and. In other words, Japanese architecture emphasises the temporal aspect of dwelling in a way that Western architectural thinking usually does not. En means ‘joint, edge, the in-between’ as an ambiguous, often asymmetrical spanning of interior and exterior, rather than a demarcation of these regions. Both elements are aimed at producing an experience of temporality and transiency.

  19. The cognitive structure of time estimation impairments in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Isabel; Lopera, Francisco; Pineda, David; Casini, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    We compared the performance of 15 adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a group of 16 control adults on a temporal bisection task in auditory and visual modalities. The point of subjective equality (PSE) and the difference limen (DL) were computed to analyse performance. The main findings were that (a) individuals with ADHD overestimated the duration of both the auditory and visual stimuli in comparison to the control group, as evidenced by a shift in their mean PSE; (b) individuals with ADHD also showed less precision in their estimates than did the control group as evidenced by flatter psychometric functions; and (c) the degrees of overestimation and imprecision in subjects with ADHD were comparable across modalities. These results, discussed in the framework of the pacemaker-counter clock model of time estimation, suggest that temporal difficulties encountered by ADHD patients might be explained both by an alertness effect at the level of the switch that directs pulses into the accumulator and also by distortions of durations stored in reference memory.

  20. Effects of amphetamine and methylphenidate on attentional performance and impulsivity in the mouse 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Puntiverio, Maitane; Fitzpatrick, Ciarán Martin; Woldbye, David Paul Drucker

    2017-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated the effects of conventional attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication in the mouse 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), and rat studies have yielded inconsistent results. Objective: We aimed to examine the effects of acute...... assessed. Saline treatment data determined high- and lowattentive (LA), and high- and low-impulsive (LI) subgroups according to the upper and lower 30th percentiles, respectively. Results: In the LA subgroup accuracy was improved by 0.5 mg/kg AMPH and 2 mg/kg MPH, while no effect was found in the high-attentive......-CSRTT when investigating drug effects on attention and impulsivity....

  1. Mood impairs time-based prospective memory in young but not older adults: the mediating role of attentional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzspahn, Katharina M; Thorley, Craig; Phillips, Louise; Voigt, Babett; Threadgold, Emma; Hammond, Emily R; Mustafa, Besim; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    The present study examined age-by-mood interactions in prospective memory and the potential role of attentional control. Positive, negative, or neutral mood was induced in young and older adults. Subsequent time-based prospective memory performance was tested, incorporating a measure of online attentional control shifts between the ongoing and the prospective memory task via time monitoring behavior. Mood impaired prospective memory in the young, but not older, adults. Moderated mediation analyses showed that mood effects in the young were mediated by changes in time monitoring. Results are discussed in relation to findings from the broader cognitive emotional aging literature.

  2. Characterizing Student Attention in Technology-Infused Classrooms Using Real-time Active Window Data

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi-Aragh, Mahnas Jean

    2013-01-01

    As computers become more prevalent (and required) in engineering classrooms, it becomes increasingly important to address the dichotomy in our current understanding of their impact on student attention and learning. While some researchers report increased student learning, others report computers as a distraction to learning. To address this conflict, the research community must gain a fundamental understanding of how students use their computers in-class and how student attention is connecte...

  3. Varying the Wear Time of the Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Boellner, Samuel W.; Lopez, Frank A.; Turnbow, John M.; Wigal, Sharon B.; Childress, Ann C.; Abikoff, Howard B.; Manos, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    A study investigated the impact of variable wear times of the methylphenidate transdermal system in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It was concluded that duration of medication effect was directly related to the wear time of the methylphenidate transdermal system patch.

  4. Acute Stress Dysregulates the LPP ERP Response to Emotional Pictures and Impairs Sustained Attention: Time-Sensitive Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima A. Alomari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress can increase emotional vigilance at the cost of a decrease in attention towards non-emotional stimuli. However, the time-dependent effects of acute stress on emotion processing are uncertain. We tested the effects of acute stress on subsequent emotion processing up to 40 min following an acute stressor. Our measure of emotion processing was the late positive potential (LPP component of the visual event-related potential (ERP, and our measure of non-emotional attention was the sustained attention to response task (SART. We also measured cortisol levels before and after the socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT induction. We found that the effects of stress on the LPP ERP emotion measure were time sensitive. Specifically, the LPP ERP was only altered in the late time-point (30–40 min post-stress when cortisol was at its highest level. Here, the LPP no longer discriminated between the emotional and non-emotional picture categories, most likely because neutral pictures were perceived as emotional. Moreover, compared to the non-stress condition, the stress-condition showed impaired performance on the SART. Our results support the idea that a limit in attention resources after an emotional stressor is associated with the brain incorrectly processing non-emotional stimuli as emotional and interferes with sustained attention.

  5. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Children with and without Intellectual Disability: An Examination across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, C. L.; Baker, B. L.; Blacher, J.; Crnic, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities are at heightened risk for mental disorders, and disruptive behaviour disorders appear to be the most prevalent. The current study is a longitudinal examination of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children with and without intellectual disability (ID) across…

  6. When the Chips Are down: Taking Time to Pay Attention to Real Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Model, David

    2011-01-01

    Global warming, deforestation, destruction of the oceans, hunger, poverty, human rights abuses and war crimes will, at best, be redressed by empty words and token gestures unless the public imbibes massive doses of caffeine. Unfortunately the public's attention seems to be focused elsewhere. Blackberries, cell phones, social networks on the…

  7. Systematically Controlling for the Influence of Age, Sex, Hertz and Time Post-Whole-Body Vibration Exposure on Four Measures of Physical Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Randomized Cross-Over Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold L. Merriman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Though popular, there is little agreement on what whole-body vibration (WBV parameters will optimize performance. This study aimed to clarify the effects of age, sex, hertz and time on four physical function indicators in community-dwelling older adults (=32. Participants were exposed to 2 min WBV per session at either 2 Hz or 26 Hz and outcome measures were recorded at 2, 20 and 40 min post-WBV. Timed get up-and-go and chair sit-and-reach performances improved post-WBV for both sexes, were significantly different between 2 Hz and 26 Hz treatments (≤0.05 and showed statistically significant interactions between age and gender (≤0.01. Counter movement jump and timed one-legged stance performances showed a similar but non-significant response to 2 Hz and 26 Hz treatments, though male subjects showed a distinct trended response. Age and gender should be statistically controlled and both 2 Hz and 26 Hz exert a treatment effect.

  8. Vegetated fauna overpass enhances habitat connectivity for forest dwelling herpetofauna

    OpenAIRE

    Mel E. McGregor; Steve K. Wilson; Jones, Darryl N.

    2015-01-01

    The ecological impact of roads and traffic is now widely acknowledged, with a variety of mitigation strategies such as purpose designed fauna underpasses and overpasses commonly installed to facilitate animal movement. Despite often being designed for larger mammals, crossing structures appear to enable safe crossings for a range of smaller, ground dwelling species that exhibit high vulnerability to roads. Less attention has been paid to the extent to which fauna overpasses function as habita...

  9. Occurrence and Distribution of Cave Dwelling Frogs of Peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Biswas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The life in subterranean caves always needs a high degree of biological adaptability, due to its unusual ecosystem. The cave dwelling species usually get selected from preadapted biological traits for cave life. The cave dwelling tendencies in frog are very uncommon. Majority of reported cave frogs usually prefer cave for temporary shelter. In India, the biospeleological inventory is still in its primary stage. Till date no serious attempt has been taken to understand the cave dwelling habitat for any frog in India. Inspite of it, in India time to time various reports on natural histories of anurans reveal its cave dwelling tendencies. On the basis of personal observations and available literature in this report I have documented the occurrences and distributions of five cave dwelling frogs of India. Common biological traits from all the established cave frogs, which could be referred as preadapted for cave life, have been discussed. Further, the possible threats and IUCN status of each discussed species has been highlighted.

  10. Low-frequency fluctuation in continuous real-time feedback of finger force: a new paradigm for sustained attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang-Ye Dong; Dong-Qiang Liu; Jue Wang; Zhao Qing; Zhen-Xiang Zang; Chao-Gan Yan; Yu-Feng Zang

    2012-01-01

    Objective Behavioral studies have suggested a low-frequency (0.05 Hz) fluctuation of sustained attention on the basis of the intra-individual variability of reaction-time.Conventional task designs for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies are not appropriate for frequency analysis.The present study aimed to propose a new paradigm,real-time finger force feedback (RT-FFF),to study the brain mechanisms of sustained attention and neurofeedback.Methods We compared the low-frequency fluctuations in both behavioral and fMRI data from 38 healthy adults (19 males; mean age,22.3 years).Two fMRI sessions,in RT-FFF and sham finger force feedback (S-FFF) states,were acquired (TR 2 s,Siemens Trio 3-Tesla scanner,8 min each,counter-balanced).Behavioral data of finger force were obtained simultaneously at a sampling rate of 250 Hz.Results Frequency analysis of the behavioral data showed lower amplitude in the lowfrequency band (0.004-0.104 Hz) but higher amplitude in the high-frequency band (27.02-125 Hz) in the RT-FFF than the S-FFF states.The mean finger force was not significantly different between the two states.fMRI data analysis showed higher fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) in the S-FFF than in the RT-FFF state in the visual cortex,but higher fALFF in RT-FFF than S-FFF in the middle frontal gyrus,the superior frontal gyrus,and the default mode network.Conclusion The behavioral results suggest that the proposed paradigm may provide a new approach to studies of sustained attention.The fMRI results suggest that a distributed network including visual,motor,attentional,and default mode networks may be involved in sustained attention and/or real-time feedback.This paradigm may be helpful for future studies on deficits of attention,such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and mild traumatic brain injury.

  11. Measuring attention in rodents: comparison of a modified signal detection task and the 5-choice serial reaction time task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karly Maree Turner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric research has utilised cognitive testing in rodents to improve our understanding of cognitive deficits and for preclinical drug development. However, more sophisticated cognitive tasks have not been as widely exploited due to low throughput and the extensive training time required. We developed a modified signal detection task (SDT based on the growing body of literature aimed at improving cognitive testing in rodents. This study directly compares performance on the modified SDT with the traditional test for measuring attention, the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on either the 5CSRTT or the SDT. Briefly, the 5CSRTT required rodents to pay attention to a spatial array of 5 apertures and respond with a nose poke when an aperture was illuminated. The SDT required the rat to attend to a light panel and respond either left or right to indicate the presence of a signal. In addition, modifications were made to the reward delivery, timing, control of body positioning and the self-initiation of trials. It was found that less training time was required for the SDT, with both sessions to criteria and daily session duration significantly reduced. Rats performed with a high level of accuracy (>87% on both tasks, however omissions were far more frequent on the 5CSRTT. The signal duration was reduced on both tasks as a manipulation of task difficulty relevant to attention and a similar pattern of decreasing accuracy was observed on both tasks. These results demonstrate some of the advantages of the SDT over the traditional 5CSRTT as being higher throughput with reduced training time, fewer omission responses and their body position at stimulus onset was controlled. In addition, rats performing the SDT had comparable high levels of accuracy. These results highlight the differences and similarities between the 5CSRTT and a modified SDT as tools for assessing attention in preclinical animal

  12. Attentional switching in the sequential flanker task: age, location, and time course effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Karen Z H; Dupuis, Kate

    2008-02-01

    The sequential flanker task was developed to study sequential performance using methodology borrowed from studies of task switching. We investigated age differences in backward inhibition [BI: Mayr, U., & Keele, S. W. (2000). Changing internal constraints on action: The role of backward inhibition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 129, 4-26] during a sequential category search task. Participants learned four animal categories in a fixed order, and then searched for exemplars from those categories in runs of mis-ordered exemplars. Across three experiments, we observed robust BI facilitation effects. However, the magnitude of BI effects did not differ across age groups. This age-invariance held despite manipulations of distractibility (Experiment 2), and interstimulus interval (Experiment 3), suggesting that BI processes may be relatively automatic and obligatory in the context of sequential tasks. The findings are discussed in terms of the attentional mechanisms that underlie task set switching and sequential performance.

  13. Attention to Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael Eric

    In these years digital media and wireless networks are introduced in upper secondary schools in Denmark. This implies new “attentional objects” like updates on Facebook or tweets on Twitter within instant reach of the pupils and teachers. Also it implies new kinds of attention (awareness) like wh...

  14. Visual Attention During Brand Choice : The Impact of Time Pressure and Task Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, R.; Warlop, L.

    1998-01-01

    Measures derived from eye-movement data reveal that during brand choice consumers adapt to time pressure by accelerating the visual scanning sequence, by filtering information and by changing their scanning strategy. In addition, consumers with high task motivation filter brand information less and

  15. A comparative study of indoor radon concentrations between dwellings and schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapdan, E.; Altinsoy, N.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship of radon concentrations between dwellings and the schools located in the same regions and to obtain related indoor average radon concentration dwelling-school correction factor for similar locations. The research has been carried out by determining indoor radon concentrations at schools and dwellings located at the same districts in the selected two separate research fields called The Former Adapazari region and The New Adapazari region in the city of Adapazari using a total of 81 Cr-39 passive radon detectors for 75 days. The average radon concentrations have been determined for the dwellings and the schools in 15 districts of the Former Adapazari region as 59.9 Bq m-3 and 57.1 Bq m-3, respectively. The results in 4 districts of the New Adapazari region were 63.5 Bq m-3 for the dwellings and 61.0 Bq m-3 for the schools. Moreover, the annual effective doses were calculated as 1.33 mSv/y and 1.41 mSv/y for the dwellings of Former Adapazari and New Adapazari, respectively. It was seen that the doses received in the dwellings are about four times the doses received in the schools. The indoor radon concentration dwelling-school correction factor was found to be 1.04±0.01 for the research area.

  16. Dwelling Water Tanks in Diyarbakir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ceylan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this connection, the object of this study has been to identify and compare the microbiological contamination and residue chlorine levels in the main network water that is taken from the Dicle Dam and distributed in Diyarbakir Province Centre and in the tanks of dwellings that use this water as well as the effects of the maintenance, hygiene, and physical conditions of these tanks on microbiological contamination. METHODS: Water samples were taken from both the tank input side network water and tank output side tank waters of 200 dwellings with water tanks in Diyarbakir city centre (tank entrance network side water for 200 and tank output side tank water for 200 within the framework of the research study. RESULTS: Coliform bacteria were detected in 35% of the tank entrance side network water samples and in 52.0% percent of the tank output side water samples. Faecal coliform bacteria were not detected in tank entrance side network water samples, but they existed in 2.5% of the tank output side water samples. Free residue chlorine level was found to be over 0.2 ppm in 67% of tank entrance side network water samples and in 35% of the tank output side water samples. Coliform bacteria were detected in 95.5% of the tank entrance side network water samples, of which free residue chlorine level were below 0.2 ppm. Total germ growth was detected in 52.0% of the tank entrance side network water samples and in 67.5% of the tank output side water samples. The most frequently isolated bacteria both in tank entrance side network and tank output side water samples were found to be Bacillus spp. Bacillus type bacteria were found in 48% of tank entrance side network water samples and 57.5% of the tank output side water samples. Filamentous fungi were prevalent in 8% of all the samples examined within the study and the most commonly isolated filamentous fungi were Aspergillus spp (5.5% and Penicillum spp (2.5%. Water tanks of dwellings contain more

  17. The Effects of Heat Stress on Selective Attention and Reaction Time among Workers of a Hot Industry: Application of Computerized Version of Stroop Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Golbabaei

    2015-04-01

    .Conclusion: According to the findings in present study, heat stress causes an increase in reaction time and a decrease in selective attention. Thus, heat can be assumed as a stressor in hot work environments and the heat should be taken into account while design of job and tasks which needed selective attention or reaction time.

  18. Salivary a-Amylase Reflects Change in Attentional Demands during Postural Control: Comparison with Probe Reaction Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Ohashi, Yukari

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The influence of attention on postural control and the relationship between attention and falling has been reported in previous studies. Although a dual-task procedure is commonly used to measure attentional demand, such procedures are affected by allocation policy, which is a mental strategy to divide attention between simultaneous…

  19. Walking behaviour of healthy elderly: attention should be paid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt André

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have reported an association between executive function (EF and measures of gait, particularly among older adults. This study examined the relationship between specific components of executive functions and the relative dual task costs of gait (DTC in community-dwelling non-demented older adults, aged 65 years and older. Methods Temporal (stride time, stride velocity and spatial (stride length gait characteristics were measured using a GAITRite®-System among 62 healthy community dwelling older adults while walking with and without backward counting (BC at preferred and fast walking speeds. Specific executive functions divided attention, memory and inhibition were assessed using the Test for Attentional Performance (TAP. Other measures included Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, amount of daily medications taken, educational level and sociodemographic characteristics. Adjusted and unadjusted multivariable linear regression models were developed to assess the relations between variables. Results High relative DTC for stride time, stride velocity and stride length were associated with divided attention at fast walking speed. High relative DTC for stride time was associated with divided attention at preferred walking speed. The association between high DTC of stride length and memory was less robust and only observable at preferred walking speed. None of the gait measures was associated with inhibition. Conclusions Spatial and temporal dual task cost characteristics of gait are especially associated with divided attention in older adults. The results showed that the associated DTC differ by executive function and the nature of the task (preferred versus fast walking. Further research is warranted to determine whether improvement in divided attention translates to better performance on selected complex walking tasks.

  20. Time-referenced effects of an internal vs. external focus of attention on muscular activity and compensatory variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst-Joachim eHossner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paralysis-by-analysis phenomenon, i.e., attending to the execution of one’s movement impairs performance, has gathered a lot of attention over recent years (see Wulf, 2007, for a review. Explanations of this phenomenon, e.g., the hypotheses of constrained action (Wulf and colleagues, e.g., McNevin et al., 2003 or of step-by-step execution (Beilock et al., 2002; Masters, 1992, however, do not refer to the level of underlying mechanisms on the level of sensorimotor control. For this purpose, a nodal-point hypothesis is presented here with the core assumption that skilled motor behavior is internally based on sensorimotor chains of nodal points, that attending to intermediate nodal points leads to a muscular re-freezing of the motor system at exactly and exclusively these points in time, and that this re-freezing is accompanied by the disruption of compensatory processes, resulting in an overall decrease of motor performance. Two experiments, on lever sequencing and basketball free throws, respectively, are reported that successfully tested these time-referenced predictions, i.e., showing that muscular activity is selectively increased and compensatory variability selectively decreased at movement-related nodal points if these points are in the focus of attention.

  1. Time-Referenced Effects of an Internal vs. External Focus of Attention on Muscular Activity and Compensatory Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossner, Ernst-Joachim; Ehrlenspiel, Felix

    2010-01-01

    The paralysis-by-analysis phenomenon, i.e., attending to the execution of one's movement impairs performance, has gathered a lot of attention over recent years (see Wulf, 2007, for a review). Explanations of this phenomenon, e.g., the hypotheses of constrained action (Wulf et al., 2001) or of step-by-step execution (Masters, 1992; Beilock et al., 2002), however, do not refer to the level of underlying mechanisms on the level of sensorimotor control. For this purpose, a "nodal-point hypothesis" is presented here with the core assumption that skilled motor behavior is internally based on sensorimotor chains of nodal points, that attending to intermediate nodal points leads to a muscular re-freezing of the motor system at exactly and exclusively these points in time, and that this re-freezing is accompanied by the disruption of compensatory processes, resulting in an overall decrease of motor performance. Two experiments, on lever sequencing and basketball free throws, respectively, are reported that successfully tested these time-referenced predictions, i.e., showing that muscular activity is selectively increased and compensatory variability selectively decreased at movement-related nodal points if these points are in the focus of attention.

  2. Prevention of legionella in dwellings and buildings; Legionellapreventie in woningen en gebouwen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Mil, R.; Van der Kooij, D.; Kolner, W.P.P.; Wessels, R.; Offinga, M.; Scheffer, W.; Van Wolferen, H.; Doldersum, R.; Van der Lugt, W.; Bertrand, F.; Nijlant, E.

    2011-04-15

    In 10 articles and 1 interview attention is paid to several aspects of Legionella in water heaters, mains, and sanitary installations in dwellings and other buildings. [Dutch] In 10 artikelen en 1 interview wordt aandacht besteed aan verschillende aspecten met betrekking tot legionella in sanitaire installaties, waterverwarmingsinstallaties, en waterleidingen in woningen en andere gebouwen.

  3. Analytic solutions of tunneling time through smooth barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhi; Huang, Hai

    2016-03-01

    In the discussion of temporary behaviors of quantum tunneling, people usually like to focus their attention on rectangular barrier with steep edges, or to deal with smooth barrier with semi-classical or even numerical calculations. Very few discussions on analytic solutions of tunneling through smooth barrier appear in the literature. In this paper, we provide two such examples, a semi-infinite long barrier V ( x ) = /A 2 [ 1 + tanh ( x / a ) ] and a finite barrier V(x) = A sech2(x/a). To each barrier, we calculate the associated phase time and dwell time after obtaining the analytic solution. The results show that, different from rectangular barrier, phase time or dwell time does increase with the length parameter a controlling the effective extension of the barrier. More interestingly, for the finite barrier, phase time or dwell time exhibits a peak in k-space. A detailed analysis shows that this interesting behavior can be attributed to the strange tunneling probability Ts(k), i.e., Ts(k) displays a unit step function-like profile Θ(k - k0), especially when a is large, say, a ≫ 1/κ, 1/k. And k 0 ≡ √{ m A } / ħ is exactly where the peak appears in phase or dwell time k-spectrum. Thus only those particles with k in a very narrow interval around k0 are capable to dwell in the central region of the barrier sufficiently long.

  4. Chinese Climate and Vernacular Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The industrial and economic expansion of China, particularly its rapid urbanization, has resulted in dramatic increased consumption of energy resources and the resulting environmental impacts at local, regional and global levels. Although a national program aimed at the technological development of sustainable buildings with energy saving potential is ongoing, it is also appropriate to consult vernacular architectural tradition. This holds the potential to learn and adapt important cultural ideas developed over time on the art of balancing thermal comfort between climate and limited resources. This paper explores the five different climatic regions into which China is partitioned by the Chinese authorities: severe cold region, cold region, moderate region, hot summer and cold winter region, and hot summer and mild winter region. Analysis of each region covers the climate and its vernacular architecture with a special focus on how sustainability was addressed. Finally, regional climate scenario has been analyzed on the basis of data from Meteonorm V6.1 with special attention paid to passive design strategies.

  5. Increased gait unsteadiness in community-dwelling elderly fallers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Edelberg, H. K.; Mitchell, S. L.; Goldberger, A. L.; Wei, J. Y.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of gait unsteadiness are increased in community-dwelling elderly fallers. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, case-control study. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five community-dwelling elderly subjects older than 70 years of age who were capable of ambulating independently for 6 minutes were categorized as fallers (age, 82.2 +/- 4.9 yrs [mean +/- SD]; n = 18) and nonfallers (age, 76.5 +/- 4.0 yrs; n = 17) based on history; 22 young (age, 24.6 +/- 1.9 yrs), healthy subjects also participated as a second reference group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stride-to-stride variability (standard deviation and coefficient of variation) of stride time, stance time, swing time, and percent stance time measured during a 6-minute walk. RESULTS: All measures of gait variability were significantly greater in the elderly fallers compared with both the elderly nonfallers and the young subjects (p < .0002). In contrast, walking speed of the elderly fallers was similar to that of the nonfallers. There were little or no differences in the variability measures of the elderly nonfallers compared with the young subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Stride-to-stride temporal variations of gait are relatively unchanged in community-dwelling elderly nonfallers, but are significantly increased in elderly fallers. Quantitative measurement of gait unsteadiness may be useful in assessing fall risk in the elderly.

  6. What time periods of the day are concerning for parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Usami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: The questionnaire-children with difficulties (QCD is a parent-assessed questionnaire designed to evaluate a child's difficulties in functioning during specific time periods of the day. In this study, the QCD was applied to determine the time periods of the day that are concerning for the parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The results were compared with those for a community sample. METHODS: Elementary and junior high school students with ADHD (243 boys, 55 girls and a community sample of children (518 boys, 618 girls were enrolled in this study. Their behaviors were assessed by the QCD, the ADHD-rating scale (ADHD-RS, and the Oppositional Defiant Behavior Inventory (ODBI. The effects of gender (boy/girl and diagnosis (ADHD/community sample on the total QCD score were analyzed across each school grade (elementary/junior high school. Correlation coefficients between QCD and ADHD-RS/ODBI scores were analyzed. RESULTS: The QCD score for the ADHD group was significantly lower than that for the community sample (P 0.41, P 0.40, P < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Parents reported that children with ADHD faced greater difficulties in completing basic daily activities compared with the community controls, particularly in the evening. Furthermore, these difficulties were related to the severity of ADHD symptoms. The parents' perceptions depended on the gender, ADHD and oppositional symptoms, and the time period of the day. This study determined that children with ADHD face greater difficulties in daily functioning compared with community sample children, that these difficulties are time-dependent, and that these difficulties were particularly experienced in the evening.

  7. Exercise and risk of injurious fall in home-dwelling elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Iinattiniemi, Sari; Jokelainen, Jari; Luukinen, Heikki

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between different types of physical exercise and the risk of subsequent fall-related injury. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study of the home-dwelling elderly. METHODS: A population sample of home-dwelling subjects aged 85 years or older (n = 512) in northern Finland participated in the study. Baseline data were collected by home-nursing staff through postal questionnaires and clinical tests. Frequency and times of physical exercise--that is, walking exe...

  8. Language Development in Infants and Toddlers with Fragile X Syndrome: Change over Time and the Role of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Sara T.; McCary, Lindsay M.; Ingram, Alexandra M.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Roberts, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is associated with significant language and communication delays, as well as problems with attention. This study investigated early language abilities in infants and toddlers with FXS (n = 13) and considered visual attention as a predictor of those skills. We found that language abilities increased over the study period of…

  9. 社会学视野下南通农村乡土民居百年演变%Centurial Evolution of Nantong Rural Vernacular Dwellings under Sociological Research Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永战; 杨科

    2011-01-01

    Through reviewing and summarizing the centurial evolution history of Nantong rural dwellings, and combining with time characteristics and economic and cultural background, the cultural styles and architectural features of dwellings during 3 periods were analyzed, it pointed out that the disappearance of traditional characteristics of rural dwellings under new age should be paid more attention to. The centurial evolution of rural dwellings was viewed as an index, it proposed that the construction of rural residential housing should be laid emphasis on contemporary regional culture.%通过对南通农村民居百年变迁历史的回顾与总结,结合时代特征与经济文化背景,分析了3个时期民居的文化风格与建筑特色,强调了新时代下农村民居传统特色的消失应引起人们的重视.以南通农村百年民居的变迁为缩影,主张农村民居建设应注重对当代地域文化的表现.

  10. Increased risk for age-related impairment in visual attention associated with mild traumatic brain injury: Evidence from saccadic response times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, David M.; Ettenhofer, Mark L.

    2017-01-01

    It was hypothesized that risk for age-related impairment in attention would be greater among those with remote history of mild TBI than individuals without history of head injury. Twenty-seven adults with remote history of mild TBI and a well-matched comparison group of 54 uninjured controls completed a computerized test of visual attention while saccadic and manual response times were recorded. Within the mild TBI group only, older age was associated with slower saccadic responses and poorer saccadic inhibition. Saccadic slowing was mitigated in situations where the timing and location of attention targets was fully predictable. Mild TBI was not associated with age-related increases in risk for neuropsychological impairment or neurobehavioral symptoms. These results provide preliminary evidence that risk for age-related impairment in visual attention may be higher among those with a history of mild TBI. Saccadic measures may provide enhanced sensitivity to this subtle form of cognitive impairment. PMID:28166259

  11. Visual Attentional Engagement Deficits in Children with Specific Language Impairment and Their Role in Real-Time Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispaldro, Marco; Leonard, Laurence B.; Corradi, Nicola; Ruffino, Milena; Bronte, Tiziana; Facoetti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In order to become a proficient user of language, infants must detect temporal cues embedded within the noisy acoustic spectra of ongoing speech by efficient attentional engagement. According to the neuro-constructivist approach, a multi-sensory dysfunction of attentional engagement – hampering the temporal sampling of stimuli – might be responsible for language deficits typically shown in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). In the present study, the efficiency of visual attentional engagement was investigated in 22 children with SLI and 22 typically developing (TD) children by measuring attentional masking (AM). AM refers to impaired identification of the first of two sequentially presented masked objects (O1 and O2) in which the O1-O2 interval was manipulated. Lexical and grammatical comprehension abilities were also tested in both groups. Children with SLI showed a sluggish engagement of temporal attention, and individual differences in AM accounted for a significant percentage of unique variance in grammatical performance. Our results suggest that an attentional engagement deficit – probably linked to a dysfunction of the right fronto-parietal attentional network – might be a contributing factor in these children’s language impairments. PMID:23154040

  12. Lower white matter microstructure in the superior longitudinal fasciculus is associated with increased response time variability in adults with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfers, T.; Onnink, A.M.; Zwiers, M.P.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Hoogman, M.; Mostert, J.C.; Kan, C C; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Buitelaar, J.; Franke, B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Response time variability (RTV) is consistently increased in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A right-hemispheric frontoparietal attention network model has been implicated in these patients. The 3 main connecting fibre tracts in this network, the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and the cingulum bundle (CB), show microstructural abnormalities in patients with ADHD. We hypothesized that the microstructural...

  13. Attentional capture by social stimuli in young infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxie eGluckman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the possibility that a range of social stimuli capture the attention of 6-month-old infants when in competition with other non-face objects. Infants viewed a series of six-item arrays in which one target item was a face, body part, or animal as their eye movements were recorded. Stimulus arrays were also processed for relative salience of each item in terms of color, luminance, and amount of contour. Targets were rarely the most visually salient items in the arrays, yet infants’ first looks toward all three target types were above chance, and dwell times for targets exceeded other stimulus types. Girls looked longer at faces than did boys, but there were no sex differences for other stimuli. These results are interpreted in a context of learning to discriminate between different classes of animate stimuli, perhaps in line with affordances for social interaction, and origins of sex differences in social attention.

  14. Time Course of Visual Attention in Infant Categorization of Cats versus Dogs: Evidence for a Head Bias as Revealed through Eye Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul C.; Doran, Matthew M.; Reiss, Jason E.; Hoffman, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous looking time studies have shown that infants use the heads of cat and dog images to form category representations for these animal classes. The present research used an eye-tracking procedure to determine the time course of attention to the head and whether it reflects a preexisting bias or online learning. Six- to 7-month-olds were…

  15. Investigating glutamatergic mechanism in attention and impulse control using rats in a modified 5-choice serial reaction time task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Benn

    Full Text Available The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT has been widely used to study attention and impulse control in rodents. In order to mimic cognitive impairments in psychiatry, one approach has been to use acute administration of NMDA antagonists. This disruption in glutamatergic transmission leads to impairments in accuracy, omissions, and premature responses although findings have been inconsistent. In this study, we further investigated glutamatergic mechanisms using a novel version of the 5CSRTT, which we have previously shown to be more sensitive to cognitive enhancers. We first investigated the effects of systemic treatment with NMDA antagonists. We also carried out a preliminary investigation using targeted medial prefrontal cortex infusions of a NMDA antagonist (MK801, mGluR2/3 antagonist (LY341495, and mGluR7 negative allosteric modulator (MMPIP. Acute systemic administration of the different NMDA antagonists had no specific effects on accuracy. At higher doses PCP, ketamine, and memantine, increased omissions and affected other measures suggesting a general disruption in task performance. Only MK801 increased premature responses, and reduced omissions at lower doses suggesting stimulant like effects. None of the NMDA antagonists affected accuracy or any other measures when tested using a short stimulus challenge. Infusions of MK801 had no effect on accuracy but increased premature responses following infralimbic, but not prelimbic infusion. LY341495 had no effects in either brain region but a decrease in accuracy was observed following prelimbic infusion of MMPIP. Contrary to our hypothesis, disruptions to glutamate transmission using NMDA antagonists did not induce any clear deficits in accuracy in this modified version of the 5CSRTT. We also found that the profile of effects for MK801 differed from those observed with PCP, ketamine, and memantine. The effects of MK801 in the infralimbic cortex add to the literature indicating this brain

  16. Study on construction of temporary dwellings and problems caused by living long time on Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake; Hanshin / Awaji daishinsai ni okeru okyu kasetsu jutaku no secchi to chokikan shiyo suru baai no kadai ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Nakamura, Y. [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan)] Shimizu, Y. [Kumagai Gumi Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Two years after the above-titled earthquake, an examination was performed on inhabitants in the temporary dwelling houses in Kobe, center of the calamity, and problems caused by a long stay there were clarified together with a grasp of the evolving problems by comparing the result of survey carried out immediately after the disaster. The number of such temporary dwelling houses amounted to 29,128 within Kobe City and 3,168 outside of the city. According to the room arrangement, they were either one f 4 types : 2-rooms with a kitchen, 1 room with a kitchen, dormitory and those specifically for aged persons. There were 59,449 applications at the first offer of 2,702 houses. The priority of their assignments and so on are explained. As for the housing structure, numerous complaints concerned with the room temperature, noise and so forth. As for the living environment, lack of nearby commodity shop, omission of transportation access, ill drainage of the housing sites were pointed out and the matters of demand to the local authorities included the installation of mail post and street lights. As for the health management, insomnia, stiff shoulder, lumbago and other bad physical conditions were revealed. The financial difficulty and the high house rent were obstacles to migrate to other places. The prolonged temporary lives worsened the apprehension of dwellers for the earthquake, typhoon, fire and alike. Some features for the calamity are described in comparison with the result of survey on those who were compelled to live under similar conditions by the eruption of Mr. Fugen. 6 refs., 13 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Dwell fatigue in two Ti alloys: An integrated crystal plasticity and discrete dislocation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zebang; Balint, Daniel S.; Dunne, Fionn P. E.

    2016-11-01

    It is a well known and important problem in the aircraft engine industry that alloy Ti-6242 shows a significant reduction in fatigue life, termed dwell debit, if a stress dwell is included in the fatigue cycle, whereas Ti-6246 does not; the mechanistic explanation for the differing dwell debit of these alloys has remained elusive for decades. In this work, crystal plasticity modelling has been utilised to extract the thermal activation energies for pinned dislocation escape for both Ti alloys based on independent experimental data. This then allows the markedly different cold creep responses of the two alloys to be captured accurately and demonstrates why the observed near-identical rate sensitivity under non-dwell loading is entirely consistent with the dwell behaviour. The activation energies determined are then utilised within a recently developed thermally-activated discrete dislocation plasticity model to predict the strain rate sensitivities of the two alloys associated with nano-indentation into basal and prism planes. It is shown that Ti-6242 experiences a strong crystallographic orientation-dependent rate sensitivity while Ti-6246 does not which is shown to agree with recently published independent measurements; the dependence of rate sensitivity on indentation slip plane is also well captured. The thermally-activated discrete dislocation plasticity model shows that the incorporation of a stress dwell in fatigue loading leads to remarkable stress redistribution from soft to hard grains in the classical cold dwell fatigue rogue grain combination in alloy Ti-6242, but that no such load shedding occurs in alloy Ti-6246. The key property controlling the behaviour is the time constant of the thermal activation process relative to that of the loading. This work provides the first mechanistic basis to explain why alloy Ti-6242 shows a dwell debit but Ti-6246 does not.

  18. Short-Term Memory for Space and Time Flexibly Recruit Complementary Sensory-Biased Frontal Lobe Attention Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalka, Samantha W; Kong, Lingqiang; Rosen, Maya L; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Somers, David C

    2015-08-19

    The frontal lobes control wide-ranging cognitive functions; however, functional subdivisions of human frontal cortex are only coarsely mapped. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals two distinct visual-biased attention regions in lateral frontal cortex, superior precentral sulcus (sPCS) and inferior precentral sulcus (iPCS), anatomically interdigitated with two auditory-biased attention regions, transverse gyrus intersecting precentral sulcus (tgPCS) and caudal inferior frontal sulcus (cIFS). Intrinsic functional connectivity analysis demonstrates that sPCS and iPCS fall within a broad visual-attention network, while tgPCS and cIFS fall within a broad auditory-attention network. Interestingly, we observe that spatial and temporal short-term memory (STM), respectively, recruit visual and auditory attention networks in the frontal lobe, independent of sensory modality. These findings not only demonstrate that both sensory modality and information domain influence frontal lobe functional organization, they also demonstrate that spatial processing co-localizes with visual processing and that temporal processing co-localizes with auditory processing in lateral frontal cortex.

  19. Population and dwelling unit estimates from space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, C J

    1996-05-01

    "To increase the utility of satellite imagery as a source of cheap and current information for planning and managing cities some problems have to be resolved.... One answer is to adopt interpretation methods that use the increased information in a more detailed scene. This paper reports on attempts to measure the morphological patterns in an urban satellite scene and to use these for image interpretation. The interpretation task addressed is the estimation of residential dwelling units from the patterns discernible in high resolution satellite images of cities. The practical results include dwelling estimates that can be aggregated to any geographical unit of analysis, population estimates for cities and a dwelling density surface that can be categorised into any number of residential land-use classes."

  20. Attention Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Falkinger, Josef

    2003-01-01

    Attracting attention is a basic feature of economic life but no standard economic problem. A new theoretical model is developed which describes the general structure of competition for attention and characterizes equilibria. The exogenous fundamentals of an attention economy are the space of receiving subjects with their attention capacity, and the potential set of competing companies (senders) with their radiation technologies. The endogenous variables explained by the theory are equilibrium...

  1. Accessing information in working memory: Can the focus of attention grasp two elements at the same time?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberauer, K.; Bialkova, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    Processing information in working memory requires selective access to a subset of working-memory contents by a focus of attention. Complex cognition often requires joint access to 2 items in working memory. How does the focus select 2 items? Two experiments with an arithmetic task and 1 with a spati

  2. Attentional bias and approach/avoidance tendencies do not predict relapse or time to relapse in alcohol dependency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelleman, M.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Mheen, D. van de

    2015-01-01

    Background: Implicit processes such as attentional bias (AB) and automatic approach/avoidance tendencies (AA) play a role in substance use disorders. Whether these processes can predict a relapse in alcohol-dependent patients is still unclear and must be examined in more detail than has been done pr

  3. Electrophysiological evidence of the time course of attentional bias in nonpatients reporting symptoms of depression with and without co-occurring anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Sass

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is characterized by attentional biases to threat, but findings are inconsistent for depression. To address this inconsistency, the present study systematically assessed the role of co-occurring anxiety in attentional bias in depression. In addition, the role of emotional valence, arousal, and gender was explored. Ninety-two nonpatients completed the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ; Meyer et al., 1990; Molina & Borkovec, 1994 and portions of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ; Watson, Clark, et al., 1995; Watson, Weber, et al., 1995. Individuals reporting high levels of depression and low levels of anxiety (depression only, high levels of depression and anxiety (combined, or low levels of both (control completed an emotion-word Stroop task during event-related brain potential (ERP recording. Pleasant and unpleasant words were matched on emotional arousal level. An attentional bias was not evident in the depression-only group. Women in the combined group had larger N200 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, and the combined group as a whole had larger right-lateralized P300 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, consistent with an early and later attentional bias that is specific to unpleasant valence in the combined group. Men in the control group had larger N200 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, consistent with an early attentional bias that is specific to pleasant valence. The present study indicates that the nature and time course of attention prompted by emotional valence and not arousal differentiates depression with and without anxiety, with some evidence of gender moderating early effects. Overall, results suggest that co-occurring anxiety is more important than previously acknowledged in demonstrating evidence of attentional biases in depression.

  4. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 700.55. (b) May include existing dwellings for resale, new construction, modular homes, mobile homes... person if, after he receives a replacement housing payment and any available housing assistance payments... supplemental income payments received from public agencies. If the person's monthly income pattern is...

  5. The Nature of Decision Making in the Practice of Dwelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Håkon; Baron, Nina

    2016-01-01

    as the result of existing material conditions, meanings and competences. Rather than focusing on decisions and acts pertaining to refurbishment alone, we take one step back and observe the whole process of keeping a home habitable. Inspired by theories of Tim Ingold and Elizabeth Shove we call it the “practice...... of dwelling”. We see maintenance, refurbishment and reparations as part of an ongoing practice of dwelling. In this light, decision making is just one of many aspects that contribute to shaping the actions of homeowners when they invest time and money in their properties....

  6. The practice of dwelling and the nature of decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Nina; Fyhn, Håkon

    2016-01-01

    as the result of existing material conditions, meanings and competences. Rather than focusing on decisions and acts pertaining to refurbishment alone, we take one step back and observe the whole process of keeping a home habitable. Inspired by theories of Tim Ingold and Elizabeth Shove we call it the “practice...... of dwelling”. We see maintenance, refurbishment and reparations as part of an ongoing practice of dwelling. In this light, decision making is just one of many aspects that contribute to shaping the actions of homeowners when they invest time and money in their properties....

  7. Time-Referenced Effects of an Internal vs. External Focus of Attention on Muscular Activity and Compensatory Variability

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The paralysis-by-analysis phenomenon, i.e., attending to the execution of one’s movement impairs performance, has gathered a lot of attention over recent years (see Wulf, 2007, for a review). Explanations of this phenomenon, e.g., the hypotheses of constrained action (Wulf and colleagues, e.g., McNevin et al., 2003) or of step-by-step execution (Beilock et al., 2002; Masters, 1992), however, do not refer to the level of underlying mechanisms on the level of sensorimotor control. For this purp...

  8. Dynamics of Media Attention

    CERN Document Server

    Traag, V A; Hicks, J; van Klinken, G

    2014-01-01

    Studies of human attention dynamics analyses how attention is focused on specific topics, issues or people. In online social media, there are clear signs of exogenous shocks, bursty dynamics, and an exponential or powerlaw lifetime distribution. We here analyse the attention dynamics of traditional media, focussing on co-occurrence of people in newspaper articles. The results are quite different from online social networks and attention. Different regimes seem to be operating at two different time scales. At short time scales we see evidence of bursty dynamics and fast decaying edge lifetimes and attention. This behaviour disappears for longer time scales, and in that regime we find Poissonian dynamics and slower decaying lifetimes. We propose that a cascading Poisson process may take place, with issues arising at a constant rate over a long time scale, and faster dynamics at a shorter time scale.

  9. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  10. Sound classification of dwellings in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Turunen-Rise, Iiris

    1997-01-01

    A draft standard INSTA 122:1997 on sound classification of dwellings is for voting as a common national standard in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland) and in Estonia. The draft standard specifies a sound classification system with four classes A, B, C and D, where...... class C is proposed as the future minimum requirements for new dwellings. The classes B and A define criteria for dwellings with improved or very good acoustic conditions, whereas class D may be used for older, renovated dwellings in which the acoustic quality level of a new dwelling cannot reasonably...

  11. Impact of Dwell Angle on the Electromagnetic Torque Ripplesof the Switched Reluctance Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bhuvaneswari

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Switched reluctance motors (SRM are emerging as promising competitors to the vector-controlled induction motor (VCIM drives and permanent magnet (PM motor drives in the variable-speed drive market owing to their robust nature coupled with low cost, simplicity, and capabilityto operate in harsh environments. They are also suitable for nuclear and aerospace applicationsdue to their low inertia and capability to be fed from a dc supply through a simple power converter.The principle of torque production in SRM makes rotor position information mandatory foreffective control of the drive. The torque produced by any particular phase of the SRM isdependent upon the exciting current and the period during which the current is carried by thatphase winding. The conduction period of any particular phase is termed as dwell angle whenit is specified in terms of rotor angular position. In the present work, the SRM operation has beenanalysed in sensor mode and in sensor-less mode, paying special attention to the relationshipbetween dwell angle and output torque ripple. The performance has been studied for differentvalues of dwell angle and the resultant torque profile has been analysed. From the analysis, amethodology has been devised to deduce an appropriate value of dwell angle for minimising thetorque pulsations, given the values of speed and load torque, thus improving the performanceof the SRM drive.

  12. Dissociating Goal-Directed and Stimulus-Driven Determinants in Attentional Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis K. H. Chan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although attentional capture is now a commonplace finding, the exact roles played by goal-directed and stimulus-driven determents remain elusive. An unsettled issue is on the relative contribution of attentional set and visual saliency. In the present study, we investigated this issue by mixing color and orientation search trials, so that distractors of either feature dimension fell into the current attentional set. In our test, color features were more salient. As a result, in orientation search, whereas a color distractor produced huge capture (109 ms, an orientation distractor produced moderate capture (50 ms. With color targets, distractors were not interfering. On one hand, these results reflect that relative salience of the target and the distractor is critical for producing capture; on the other hand, a huge capture size associated with a nontarget dimension feature is novel. Similar previous measurements, but without matching the attentional set, consistently report attentional capture of only 20-30 ms. This comparison shows the role played by attentional set. Taken together, we suggest that visual saliency determines search order, and sets the platform for capture. However, attentional dwell time on the distractor is determined by how much it matches the current attentional set, and in turn explains the capture size.

  13. Dwelling on Courtyards. Exploring the energy efficiency and comfort potential of courtyards for dwellings in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taleghani

    2014-11-01

    -S, except for the courtyard. To explore their microclimates the simulations were done for the hottest day in the Netherlands (19th June 2000 according to the temperature data set provided in NEN5060. The results showed that the singular forms provide a long duration of solar radiation exposure for the outdoor environment. This causes the worst comfort situation among the models at the centre of the canyon for a hot summer day. In contrast, the courtyard provides a more protected microclimate which has less solar radiation in summer. Considering the physiological equivalent temperature (PET, the courtyard has the highest number of comfortable hours on a summer day. Regarding the different orientations of the models and their effect on outdoor thermal comfort, it is difficult to specify the differences between the singular E-W and N-S forms because they receive equal amounts of insolation and are equally exposed to wind. Nevertheless, the linear E-W and N-S forms are different in their thermal behaviour. The centre point at the linear E-W form receives sun for about 12 h. In contrast, this point at the linear N-S form receives 4 h of direct sunlight in that day. Therefore, in comparison with the E-W orientation this N-S orientation provides a cooler microclimate.To sum up the above findings, it should be said that this study showed that courtyard buildings as a passive design solution (originally from hot and arid climates can improve energy efficiency and thermal comfort for Dutch dwellings. This building archetype can reduce energy demands for cooling, as a result being a good alternative form for the expected warmer future of the Netherlands. Designing small scale courtyards (single- family house needs attention in winter. Courtyards provide more indoor and outdoor comfort in comparison with linear and singular forms. With this knowledge, it could be said that design strategies taken from one climate may be applicable in other climates but with serious attentions and

  14. A television in the bedroom is associated with higher weekday screen time among youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Charmaine B. Lo; Waring, Molly E.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A TV in the bedroom has been associated with screen time in youth. Youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) have higher rates of screen time, but associations with bedroom TVs are unknown in this population. We examined the association of having a bedroom TV with screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. Methods: Data were from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Youth 6–17 years whose parent/guardian reported a physician's diagnosis of ADD/ADHD (n ...

  15. Uncertainty analysis of energy consumption in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Trine Dyrstad

    1997-12-31

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study of an energy estimation model that can be used to examine the uncertainty of predicted energy consumption in a dwelling. The variation and uncertainty of input parameters due to the outdoor climate, the building construction and the inhabitants are studied as a basis for further energy evaluations. The occurring variations of energy consumption in nominal similar dwellings are also investigated due to verification of the simulated energy consumption. The main topics are (1) a study of expected variations and uncertainties in both input parameters used in energy consumption calculations and the energy consumption in the dwelling, (2) the development and evaluation of a simplified energy calculation model that considers uncertainties due to the input parameters, (3) an evaluation of the influence of the uncertain parameters on the total variation so that the most important parameters can be identified, and (4) the recommendation of a simplified procedure for treating uncertainties or possible deviations from average conditions. 90 refs., 182 figs., 73 tabs.

  16. Large sex difference in adolescents on a timed line judgment task: attentional contributors and task relationship to mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaer, Marcia L; Hill, Erica M

    2006-01-01

    Visuospatial performance, assessed with the new, group-administered Judgment of Line Angle and Position test (JLAP-13), varied with sex and mathematical competence in a group of adolescents. The JLAP-13, a low-level perceptual task, was modeled after a neuropsychological task dependent upon functioning of the posterior region of the right hemisphere [Benton et al, 1994 Contributions to Neuropsychological Assessment: A Clinical Manual (New York: Oxford University Press)]. High-school boys (N = 52) performed better than girls (N = 62), with a large effect for sex (d = 1.11). Performance increased with mathematical competence, but the sex difference did not vary significantly across different levels of mathematics coursework. On the basis of earlier work, it was predicted that male, but not female, performance in line judgment would decline with disruptions to task geometry (page frame), and that the sex difference would disappear with disruptions to geometry. These predictions were supported by a number of univariate and sex-specific analyses, although an omnibus repeated-measures analysis did not detect the predicted interaction, most likely owing to limitations in power. Thus, there is partial support for the notion that attentional predispositions or strategies may contribute to visuospatial sex differences, with males more likely than females to attend to, and rely upon, internal or external representations of task geometry. Additional support for this hypothesis may require development of new measures or experimental manipulations with more powerful geometrical disruptions.

  17. Shared Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shteynberg, Garriy

    2015-09-01

    Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior. Here, I advance a psychological theory of shared attention, defining its properties as a mental state and outlining its cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. I review empirical findings that are uniquely predicted by shared-attention theory and discuss the possibility of integrating shared-attention, social-facilitation, and social-loafing perspectives. Finally, I reflect on what shared-attention theory implies for living in the digital world.

  18. Impact of UK Building Regulations on design and thermal performance of dwellings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIM; D; 姚润明

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at the progressive impact of UK Building Regulations (Part L) on the energy consumption of dwellings with respect to thermal performance of the building envelope. It provides an overview of building legislation,highlighting progressive improvement in building elemental U-values and compliance methods. The focus centres on Building Regulations from 1965 to 2006,at a time when energy conservation has become an integral component of building control due to environmental concerns. Simulation software is used to compare energy consumption for 5 typical UK dwelling types through a series of case studies which illustrate the rate of impact over recent years.

  19. Embodied Infant Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Steven S.; Johnson, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    Does real time coupling between mental and physical activity early in development have functional significance? To address this question, we examined the habituation of visual attention and the subsequent response to change in two groups of 3-month-olds with different patterns of movement-attention coupling. In suppressors, the typical decrease in…

  20. Attention and Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    1981-01-01

    The authors discuss methodological and theoretical issues in psychological investigations of infant attention, fixation times, habituation, and intelligence. A consensus on how to measure individual differences in habituation has not been reached. The relation between IQ and attention is discussed. (RD)

  1. Rejection Positivity Predicts Trial-to-Trial Reaction Times in an Auditory Selective Attention Task: A Computational Analysis of Inhibitory Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufen eChen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of computer simulations using variants of a formal model of attention (Melara & Algom, 2003 probed the role of rejection positivity (RP, a slow-wave electroencephalographic (EEG component, in the inhibitory control of distraction. Behavioral and EEG data were recorded as participants performed auditory selective attention tasks. Simulations that modulated processes of distractor inhibition accounted well for reaction-time (RT performance, whereas those that modulated target excitation did not. A model that incorporated RP from actual EEG recordings in estimating distractor inhibition was superior in predicting changes in RT as a function of distractor salience across conditions. A model that additionally incorporated momentary fluctuations in EEG as the source of trial-to-trial variation in performance precisely predicted individual RTs within each condition. The results lend support to the linking proposition that RP controls the speed of responding to targets through the inhibitory control of distractors.

  2. Music and Sound Elements in Time Estimation and Production of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Rogerio Jorgensen Carrer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ADHD involves cognitive and behavioral aspects with impairments in many environments of children and their families’ lives. Music, with its playful, spontaneous, affective, motivational, temporal and rhythmic dimensions can be of great help for studying the aspects of time processing in ADHD. In this article we studied time processing with simple sounds and music in children with ADHD with the hypothesis that children with ADHD have a different performance when compared with children with normal development in tasks of time estimation and production. The main objective was to develop sound and musical tasks to evaluate and correlate the performance of children with ADHD, with and without methylphenidate, compared to a control group with typical development. The study involved 36 participants age 6 to 14 years, recruited at NANI-Unifesp/SP, sub-divided into three groups with 12 children in each. Data was collected through a musical keyboard using Logic Audio Software 9.0 on the computer that recorded the participant's performance in the tasks. Tasks were divided into sections: spontaneous time production, time estimation with simple sounds and time estimation with music. Results: 1. Performance of ADHD groups in temporal estimation of simple sounds in short time intervals (30 ms were statistically lower than control group (p<0,05; 2. In the task comparing musical excerpts of the same duration (7s, ADHD groups considered the tracks longer when the musical notes had longer durations, while in the control group, the duration was related to the density of musical notes in the track. The positive average performance observed in the three groups in most tasks perhaps indicates the possibility that music can, in some way, positively modulate the symptoms of inattention in ADHD.

  3. {sup 220}Rn and its progeny in dwellings of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang-Kyu [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: chang.kyu.kim@iaea.org; Kim, Young-Jae; Lee, Hwa-Yong; Chang, Byung-Uck [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, P.O. Box 114, Yusong, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Tokonami, Shinji [Radon Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    Concentrations of {sup 220}Rn and its progeny were measured in 450 dwellings from 2002 to 2004 using two kinds of simple passive {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn monitors, Radopot{sup TM} and {sup 220}Rn progeny monitor. The annual arithmetic mean (AM) and geometric mean (GM) of {sup 220}Rn concentrations were 40.4 and 10.7Bqm{sup -3}, respectively. The annual arithmetic mean (AM) of EEC{sub Tn} concentration was 0.89{+-}0.70Bqm{sup -3}, and the annual geometric mean (GM) was 0.60Bqm{sup -3} (95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.78Bqm{sup -3}). The concentrations of {sup 220}Rn in Korean-style houses built with mud block were about two times higher than those in apartments. The average annual effective dose due to inhalation exposure to {sup 220}Rn and its progeny in dwellings was 0.25mSvy{sup -1}.

  4. Falls and falls efficacy: the role of sustained attention in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Halloran Aisling M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous evidence indicates that older people allocate more of their attentional resources toward their gait and that the attention-related changes that occur during aging increase the risk of falls. The aim of this study was to investigate whether performance and variability in sustained attention is associated with falls and falls efficacy in older adults. Methods 458 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 60 years underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Mean and variability of reaction time (RT, commission errors and omission errors were recorded during a fixed version of the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART. RT variability was decomposed using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT procedure, to help characterise variability associated with the arousal and vigilance aspects of sustained attention. The number of self-reported falls in the previous twelve months, and falls efficacy (Modified Falls Efficacy Scale were also recorded. Results Significant increases in the mean and variability of reaction time on the SART were significantly associated with both falls (p Conclusions Greater variability in sustained attention is strongly correlated with retrospective falls and to a lesser degree with reduced falls efficacy. This cognitive measure may provide a novel and valuable biomarker for falls in older adults, potentially allowing for early detection and the implementation of preventative intervention strategies.

  5. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built us

  6. An influence of delayed reinforcement on the effectiveness of psychostimulants to enhance indices of attention under a five-choice serial reaction time procedure in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Jonathan M; Katz, Jonathan L

    2013-10-01

    The five-choice serial reaction time (5-CSRT) procedure has been considered a translational tool for assessments of the psychopharmacology of attention in preclinical research. Because greater sensitivity to delayed reinforcement may promote the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, effects of reinforcer delay and psychostimulants on performances under a 5-CSRT procedure were determined. Male rats were trained to respond under a 5-CSRT procedure with different delay-of-reinforcement conditions (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 s), and effects of d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and morphine (as a negative control) were assessed at 0- and 16-s delays. Under nondrug conditions, as the delay increased both response latency and the number of trials in which a response did not occur (omissions) increased, and the percent correct on trials when responses were emitted decreased. Only modest increases in the percent correct were found with psychostimulants during the 0-s delay condition; however, more substantial enhancements were found with a 16-s delay. Consistent effects of both psychostimulants at either delay on omissions and response latency were not observed. Morphine increased omissions and response latency at both delays and decreased the percent correct (16-s delay). Generally, responses during the intertrial interval were not systematically affected under any condition. The current results demonstrate that measures of attention in a 5-CSRT procedure are sensitive to changes in the delay to reinforcer delivery. More important, psychostimulants significantly enhanced a measure of attention only when reinforcers were delayed, which may be reflective of the psychopharmacological mechanisms involved with clinical treatment of ADHD symptoms.

  7. Computing an optimal time window of audiovisual integration in focused attention tasks: illustrated by studies on effect of age and prior knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonius, Hans; Diederich, Adele

    2011-07-01

    The concept of a "time window of integration" holds that information from different sensory modalities must not be perceived too far apart in time in order to be integrated into a multisensory perceptual event. Empirical estimates of window width differ widely, however, ranging from 40 to 600 ms depending on context and experimental paradigm. Searching for theoretical derivation of window width, Colonius and Diederich (Front Integr Neurosci 2010) developed a decision-theoretic framework using a decision rule that is based on the prior probability of a common source, the likelihood of temporal disparities between the unimodal signals, and the payoff for making right or wrong decisions. Here, this framework is extended to the focused attention task where subjects are asked to respond to signals from a target modality only. Evoking the framework of the time-window-of-integration (TWIN) model, an explicit expression for optimal window width is obtained. The approach is probed on two published focused attention studies. The first is a saccadic reaction time study assessing the efficiency with which multisensory integration varies as a function of aging. Although the window widths for young and older adults differ by nearly 200 ms, presumably due to their different peripheral processing speeds, neither of them deviates significantly from the optimal values. In the second study, head saccadic reactions times to a perfectly aligned audiovisual stimulus pair had been shown to depend on the prior probability of spatial alignment. Intriguingly, they reflected the magnitude of the time-window widths predicted by our decision-theoretic framework, i.e., a larger time window is associated with a higher prior probability.

  8. Localization of Dwell Fatigue Cracks in Ti-6242 Alloy Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhlin, S. I.; Kim, J.-Y.; Xie, B.; Yakovlev, V. A.; Zoofan, B.

    2003-03-01

    An in-situ ultrasonic guided wave technique is employed for real-time monitoring of crack initiation and evolution during dwell, cyclic fatigue and creep tests of Ti-6242 alloy samples. Ultrasonic signals are acquired continuously during the test at different levels of fatigue load using a high-speed data acquisition system. The initiation time and growth history of primary and multiple secondary cracks are assessed. Localization of the secondary cracks is performed by both the in-situ ultrasonic method and an ultrasonic immersion scanning method which we call "vertical C-scan" (VC scan). The VC scan is developed for imaging small cracks aligned normal to the fatigue sample axis. The fusion of ultrasonic and microradiographic images exhibits good agreement in crack location. Joint use of the three techniques provides location, shape, and size of the secondary cracks.

  9. Problematic video game play in a college sample and its relationship to time management skills and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolchinsky, Anatol; Jefferson, Stephen D

    2011-09-01

    Although numerous benefits have been uncovered related to moderate video game play, research suggests that problematic video game playing behaviors can cause problems in the lives of some video game players. To further our understanding of this phenomenon, we investigated how problematic video game playing symptoms are related to an assortment of variables, including time management skills and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Additionally, we tested several simple mediation/moderation models to better explain previous theories that posit simple correlations between these variables. As expected, the results from the present study indicated that time management skills appeared to mediate the relationship between ADHD symptoms and problematic play endorsement (though only for men). Unexpectedly, we found that ADHD symptoms appeared to mediate the relation between time management skills and problematic play behaviors; however, this was only found for women in our sample. Finally, future implications are discussed.

  10. No effect of an UMTS mobile phone-like electromagnetic field of 1.97 GHz on human attention and reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterlechner, Manuela; Sauter, Cornelia; Schmid, Gernot; Zeitlhofer, Josef

    2008-02-01

    Several studies in the past reported influences of electromagnetic emissions of GSM phones on reaction time in humans. However, there are currently only a few studies available dealing with possible effects of the electromagnetic fields emitted by UMTS mobile phones. In our study, 40 healthy volunteers (20 female, 20 male), aged 26.0 years (range 21-30 years) underwent four different computer tests measuring reaction time and attention under three different UMTS mobile phone-like exposure conditions (two exposure levels plus sham exposure). Exposure of the subjects was accomplished by small helical antennas operated close to the head and fed by a generic signal representing the emissions of a UMTS mobile phone under constant receiving conditions as well as under a condition of strongly varying transmit power. In the high exposure condition the resulting peak spatial average exposure of the test subjects in the cortex of the left temporal lobe of the brain was 0.63 W/kg (min. 0.25 W/kg, max. 1.49 W/kg) in terms of 1 g averaged SAR and 0.37 W/kg (min. 0.16 W/kg, max. 0.84 W/kg) in terms of 10 g averaged SAR, respectively. Low exposure condition was one-tenth of high exposure and sham was at least 50 dB below low exposure. Statistical analysis of the obtained test parameters showed that exposure to the generic UMTS signal had no statistically significant immediate effect on attention or reaction. Therefore, this study does not provide any evidence that exposure of UMTS mobiles interferes with attention under short-term exposure conditions.

  11. Sociodemographic and Individual Predictors of Performance in an Attentional Task with Alert, Orienting and Control Demands in Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo, Jorge A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the predictive value of socioeconomic status, maternal mental health and child temperament on the performance in the attentional network test (ANT, which assesses attentional processes of alert, orienting and control, administered to 203 4-to-5 years-old children (M = 4.78; SD = .59 from Unsatisfied and Satisfied Basic Needs homes (UBN and SBN, respectively. Results from the linear regression analysis indicated that gender, age, effortful control, and marginally parental occupation, predicted increments in reaction times of trials corresponding only to the control network. Predictors were not verified when sociodemographic variables (parental education and occupation, dwelling and overcrowding were replaced in the model by the predictor socioeconomic group (UBN, SBN. These results suggest a differential modulation of individual and environmental factors on different attentional processing networks.

  12. Mechanisms of attention for appetitive and aversive outcomes in Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, A J; Duka, T

    2010-11-12

    Different mechanisms of attention controlling learning have been proposed in appetitive and aversive conditioning. The aim of the present study was to compare attention and learning in a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm using visual stimuli of varying predictive value of either monetary reward (appetitive conditioning; 10p or 50p) or blast of white noise (aversive conditioning; 97 dB or 102 dB). Outcome values were matched across the two conditions with regard to their emotional significance. Sixty-four participants were allocated to one of the four conditions matched for age and gender. All participants underwent a discriminative learning task using pairs of visual stimuli that signalled a 100%, 50%, or 0% probability of receiving an outcome. Learning was measured using a 9-point Likert scale of expectancy of the outcome, while attention using an eyetracker device. Arousal and emotional conditioning were also evaluated. Dwell time was greatest for the full predictor in the noise groups, while in the money groups attention was greatest for the partial predictor over the other two predictors. The progression of learning was the same for both groups. These findings suggest that in aversive conditioning attention is driven by the predictive salience of the stimulus while in appetitive conditioning attention is error-driven, when emotional value of the outcome is comparable.

  13. Attention and Recall of Point-of-sale Tobacco Marketing: A Mobile Eye-Tracking Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maansi Bansal-Travers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: As tobacco advertising restrictions have increased, the retail ‘power wall’ behind the counter is increasingly invaluable for marketing tobacco products. Objective: The primary objectives of this pilot study were 3-fold: (1 evaluate the attention paid/fixations on the area behind the cash register where tobacco advertising is concentrated and tobacco products are displayed in a real-world setting, (2 evaluate the duration (dwell-time of these fixations, and (3 evaluate the recall of advertising displayed on the tobacco power wall. Methods: Data from 13 Smokers (S and 12 Susceptible or non-daily Smokers (SS aged 180–30 from a mobile eye-tracking study. Mobile-eye tracking technology records the orientation (fixation and duration (dwell-time of visual attention. Participants were randomized to one of three purchase tasks at a convenience store: Candy bar Only (CO; N = 10, Candy bar + Specified cigarette Brand (CSB; N = 6, and Candy bar + cigarette Brand of their Choice (CBC; N = 9. A post-session survey evaluated recall of tobacco marketing. Key outcomes were fixations and dwell-time on the cigarette displays at the point-of-sale. Results: Participants spent a median time of 44 seconds during the standardized time evaluated and nearly three-quarters (72% fixated on the power wall during their purchase, regardless of smoking status (S: 77%, SS: 67% or purchase task (CO: 44%, CSB: 71%, CBC: 100%. In the post session survey, nearly all participants (96% indicated they noticed a cigarette brand and 64% were able to describe a specific part of the tobacco wall or recall a promotional offer. Conclusions: Consumers are exposed to point-of-sale tobacco marketing, regardless of smoking status. FDA should consider regulations that limit exposure to point-of-sale tobacco marketing among consumers.

  14. Attention Sensitive Web Browsing

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    With a number of cheap commercial dry EEG kits available today, it is possible to look at user attention driven scenarios for interaction with the web browser. Using EEG to determine the user's attention level is preferable to using methods such as gaze tracking or time spent on the webpage. In this paper we use the attention level in three different ways. First, as a control mechanism, to control user interface elements such as menus or buttons. Second, to make the web browser responsive to ...

  15. The meaning of dwelling features: conceptual and methodological issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, H.C.C.H.

    2008-01-01

    This study is about the meaning of dwelling features. It relates the research areas of housing preferences and the meaning of a dwelling with each other and with aspects of the means-end approach as applied in marketing research. It results in a conceptual and methodological framework for studying t

  16. Origins and Application of Postmodern Trends in Private Dwelling-Houses of Lithuania, 1987–1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aistė Galaunytė

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available On 28 September 1987, the resolution No. 264 On Further Development of Individual Housing in the Republic passed by the Central Committee of the Council of Ministers of the Lithuanian SSR restored the typological group of private dwelling-houses to Lithuanian towns after a break of nearly three decades. Post-modern trends in architecture that prevailed in western countries at that time reached Lithuania in the form of limited spectrum of architectural press. Architectural expression of individual dwelling-houses in Lithuania relied specifically on projects published in foreign magazines (mostly, of Japan, the U.S.A and Western Europe, and later – in the local periodicals. Different features of such analogous architecture were adapted in Lithuanian dwelling-houses in different ways: the spatial structure of the building was used and interpreted in ones, while in the others – only certain specific details, most often published in such professional press. Three groups of individual dwelling-houses were formed: the elite – benchmark-type, typical -adapted and self-taught architecture. They represented examples of architecture, which over the ten-year’s period were built in parallel and intense mode, until finally the economic conditions prevalent in the post-Soviet Lithuania led to the more practical approach to one’s housing, and the style of post-modernism became unfashionable in Lithuania just like in the remaining part of the world.

  17. Marostica passive solar dwelling, Marostica, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scudo, G. [DPPPE, Milano (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    This project consists of four separate buildings; three terraces comprising 24 dwellings in all, and one four-storey housing block containing 16 flats. The principal objective was to build low-cost housing in which innovative passive solar components could be incorporated at costs acceptable for public housing schemes (maximum 10% of the overall cost). An 'open-loop passive system', developed in Italy about 20 years ago by Barra-Costantini, was chosen. Warm air produced in the solar air panel circulates freely in the storage ceiling, into the rooms and back to the bottom of the air panel by gravity. The system supplies 30% of the net space-heating load. (author)

  18. Estimating the cost of mental loading in a bimodal divided-attention task: Combining reaction time, heart-rate variability and signal-detection theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Patricia A.; Kantowitz, Barry H.

    1988-01-01

    Multiple approaches are necessary for understanding and measuring workload. In particular, physiological systems identifiable by employing cardiac measures are related to cognitive systems. One issue of debate in measuring cardiac output is the grain of analysis used in recording and summarizing data. Various experiments are reviewed, the majority of which were directed at supporting or contradicting Lacey's intake-rejection hypothesis. Two of the experiments observed heart rate in operational environments and found virtually no changes associated with mental load. The major problems facing researchers using heart rate variability, or sinus arrhthmia, as a dependent measure have been associated with valid and sensitive scoring and preventing contamination of observed results by influences unrelated to cognition. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability offers two useful procedures: analysis from the time domain and analysis from the frequency domain. Most recently, data have been collected in a divided attention experiment, the performance measures and cardiac measures of which are detailed.

  19. When sustained attention impairs perception

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Sam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2006-01-01

    Virtually all behavioral and neurophysiological studies have shown that sustained (endogenous, conceptually driven) attention enhances perception. But can this enhancement be held indefinitely? We assessed the time course of attention’s effects on contrast sensitivity, reasoning that if attention does indeed boost stimulus strength, the strengthened representation could result in stronger adaptation over time. We found that attention initially enhances contrast sensitivity, but that over time...

  20. Functional Balance and Motor Impairment Correlations with Gait Parameters during Timed Up and Go Test across Three Attentional Loading Conditions in Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidzir Manaf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether stroke survivor’s gait performance during dual-task Timed Up and Go (TUG test is correlated with the level of functional balance and motor impairment. Thirty stroke survivors (22 men, 8 women were recruited for this study. The level of functional balance (Berg Balance Scale and motor impairment (Fugl-Meyer assessment lower extremity were assessed prior to the TUG test. TUG test was conducted under three attentional loading conditions (single, dual motor, and dual-cognitive. The time and number of steps were used to quantify gait parameters. The Spearmen’s rank correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the relationship between these variables. There was moderate to strong negative correlation between functional balance and gait parameters (range −0.53 to −0.73, P<0.05. There was a weak negative correlation observed between the time taken to complete the single task and motor impairment (rs=-0.43; P=0.02 dual motor task and motor impairment (rs=-0.41; P=0.02. However, there were no significant correlations between lower limb motor impairment and the number of steps in all conditions. These findings suggest that functional balance may be an influential domain of successful dual-task TUG in stroke.

  1. Detection versus sustained attention to drug cues have dissociable roles in mediating drug seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Lee; Dickinson, Anthony; Duka, Theodora

    2009-02-01

    It is commonly thought that attentional bias for drug cues plays an important role in motivating human drug-seeking behavior. To assess this claim, two groups of smokers were trained in a discrimination task in which a tobacco-seeking response was rewarded only in the presence of 1 particular stimulus (the S+). The key manipulation was that whereas 1 group could control the duration of S+ presentation, for the second group, this duration was fixed. The results showed that the fixed-duration group acquired a sustained attentional bias to the S+ over training, indexed by greater dwell time and fixation count, which emerged in parallel with the control exerted by the S+ over tobacco-seeking behavior. By contrast, the controllable-duration group acquired no sustained attentional bias for S+ and instead used efficient detection of the S+ to achieve a comparable level of control over tobacco seeking. These data suggest that detection and sustained attention to drug cues have dissociable roles in enabling drug cues to motivate drug-seeking behavior, which has implications for attentional retraining as a treatment for addiction.

  2. Psychopathic traits are associated with reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces among adult male non-offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Mark Gillespie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathic traits are linked with impairments in emotional facial expression recognition. These impairments may, in part, reflect reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces. Although reduced attention to the eyes has been noted among children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits, similar findings are yet to be found in relation to psychopathic traits among adult male participants. Here we investigated the relationship of primary (selfish, uncaring and secondary (impulsive, antisocial psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes among adult male non-offenders during an emotion recognition task. We measured the number of fixations, and overall dwell time, on the eyes and the mouth of male and female faces showing the six basic emotions at varying levels of intensity. We found no relationship of primary or secondary psychopathic traits with recognition accuracy. However, primary psychopathic traits were associated with a reduced number of fixations, and lower overall dwell time, on the eyes relative to the mouth across expressions, intensity, and sex. Furthermore, the relationship of primary psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes of angry and fearful faces was influenced by the sex and intensity of the expression. We also showed that a greater number of fixations on the eyes, relative to the mouth, was associated with increased accuracy for angry and fearful expression recognition. These results are the first to show effects of psychopathic traits on attention to the eyes of emotional faces in an adult male sample, and may support amygdala based accounts of psychopathy. These findings may also have methodological implications for clinical studies of emotion recognition.

  3. Wind turbine sound pressure level calculations at dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Stephen E; Feder, Katya; Voicescu, Sonia A; Soukhovtsev, Victor; Denning, Allison; Tsang, Jason; Broner, Norm; Leroux, Tony; Richarz, Werner; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides calculations of outdoor sound pressure levels (SPLs) at dwellings for 10 wind turbine models, to support Health Canada's Community Noise and Health Study. Manufacturer supplied and measured wind turbine sound power levels were used to calculate outdoor SPL at 1238 dwellings using ISO [(1996). ISO 9613-2-Acoustics] and a Swedish noise propagation method. Both methods yielded statistically equivalent results. The A- and C-weighted results were highly correlated over the 1238 dwellings (Pearson's linear correlation coefficient r > 0.8). Calculated wind turbine SPLs were compared to ambient SPLs from other sources, estimated using guidance documents from the United States and Alberta, Canada.

  4. Occupant behaviour and control of indoor environment in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2007-01-01

    Repeated surveys on occupant behaviour and indoor climate were carried out in Danish dwellings from September to October 2006 and again from February to March 2007. The summer survey comprised 933 respondents and the winter survey 636 respondents. The surveys were carried out by sending 5000...... heating had the largest effect on the proportion of dwellings with the heating on. The outdoor solar radiation and the perceived illumination had the largest effect on the proportion of dwellings with lights on. The most frequent reason listed for opening the windows in summer and winter was to obtain...

  5. Nonretinotopic exogenous attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boi, Marco; Vergeer, Mark; Ogmen, Haluk; Herzog, Michael H

    2011-10-25

    Attention is crucial for visual perception because it allows the visual system to effectively use its limited resources by selecting behaviorally and cognitively relevant stimuli from the large amount of information impinging on the eyes. Reflexive, stimulus-driven attention is essential for successful interactions with the environment because it can, for example, speed up responses to life-threatening events. It is commonly believed that exogenous attention operates in the retinotopic coordinates of the early visual system. Here, using a novel experimental paradigm [1], we show that a nonretinotopic cue improves both accuracy and reaction times in a visual search task. Furthermore, the influence of the cue is limited both in space and time, a characteristic typical of exogenous cueing. These and other recent findings show that many more aspects of vision are processed nonretinotopically than previously thought.

  6. Sustained attention, attentional selectivity, and attentional capacity across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvinue, Laura P; Habekost, Thomas; Johnson, Katherine A; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus; Robertson, Ian H

    2012-11-01

    Changes in sustained attention, attentional selectivity, and attentional capacity were examined in a sample of 113 participants between the ages of 12 and 75. To measure sustained attention, we employed the sustained-attention-to-response task (Robertson, Manly, Andrade, Baddeley, & Yiend, Neuropsychologia 35:747-58, 1997), a short continuous-performance test designed to capture fluctuations in sustained attention. To measure attentional selectivity and capacity, we employed a paradigm based on the theory of visual attention (Bundesen, Psychological Review 97:523-547, 1990), which enabled the estimation of parameters related to attentional selection, perceptual threshold, visual short-term memory capacity, and processing capacity. We found evidence of age-related decline in each of the measured variables, but the declines varied markedly in terms of magnitude and lifespan trajectory. Variables relating to attentional capacity showed declines of very large effect sizes, while variables relating to attentional selectivity and sustained attention showed declines of medium to large effect sizes, suggesting that attentional control is relatively preserved in older adults. The variables relating to sustained attention followed a U-shaped, curvilinear trend, and the variables relating to attentional selectivity and capacity showed linear decline from early adulthood, providing further support for the differentiation of attentional functions.

  7. Capture of exogenous attention modulates the attentional blink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    T1 processing time, this should cause a greater AB. Attention capture hypotheses suggest that T1 captures attention, which cannot be reallocated to T2 in time. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty, decreases saliency, this should cause a smaller AB. Studies examining how T1 difficulty affects...

  8. Simplified hourly method to calculate summer temperatures in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Aggerholm, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method for hourly calculation of the operating temperature in order to evaluate summer comfort in dwellings to help improve building design. A simplified method was developed on the basis of the simple hourly method of the standard ISO 13790...... program for thermal simulations of buildings. The results are based on one year simulations of two cases. The cases were based on a low energy dwelling of 196 m². The transmission loss for the building envelope was 3.3 W/m², not including windows and doors. The dwelling was tested in two cases, a case...... for the fulfilment of summer comfort. Thus it is very important to address both opening areas and ventilation rates. The developed simplified method makes it possible to test whether or not a building design for a dwelling will prevent excess of the summer comfort limits set by the building regulations....

  9. Dwelling habitus and urban out-migration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aner, Louise Glerup

    2014-01-01

    dwelling habitus” is central. By applying the analytical framework to the study of Danish middle-income families with children, their motives for out-migrating from Copenhagen are explored. Two broad categories of motives for moving are identified: the housing and the anti-urban. The housing motive...... of habitus and sense of place, the “dwelling habitus”, can inform studies of migration processes and make them more nuanced....

  10. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms are marginal. We hypothesize that basic deficits in sustaining attention explain more complex attentional dysfunction in persons with ADHD and relate to ADHD symptoms. Attentional function was analyzed by computing ex-Gaussian parameters for 3 time Blocks in a 20 min test of sustained alertness. Changes in performance across these blocks were analyzed by comparing adult persons with ADHD (n = 24) with healthy matched controls (n = 24) and correlated with neuropsychological measures of selective and divided attention as well as self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. We found a significantly steeper increase in the number of slow responses (ex-Gaussian parameter τ) in persons with ADHD with time on task in basic sustained alertness. They also performed significantly worse in tasks of sustained selective and divided attention. However, after controlling for an increase in τ during the alertness task, significant differences between groups disappeared for divided and partly selective attention. Increases in τ in the sustained alertness task correlated significantly with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. Our results provide evidence that very basic deficits in sustaining attention in adults with ADHD are related to infrequent slow responses (=attentional lapses), with changes over time being relevant for more complex attentional function and experienced ADHD symptoms in everyday life.

  11. Timing and force control in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: subtype differences and the effect of comorbid developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Thelma M; Piek, Jan P; Barrett, Nicholas C

    2002-12-01

    This study examined the motor and performance outcomes of boys with subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (DSM-IV, [American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed., Washington, DC, 1994]). It also examined the differences between boys with a single diagnosis of ADHD versus those who have the dual categorisation of ADHD and developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The participants were 157 boys, aged 7.70-12.98 years recruited from a community sample. Parent report was used to classify 143 boys into either a comparison group or one of the three DSM-IV ADHD subtypes. Participants were given a battery of tests that included the Movement Assessment Battery for Children [Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Psychological Corporation/Harcourt Brace-Jovanovich, New York, 1992], the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children--Third Edition [Manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Psychological Corporation, New York, 1992] and a finger tapping task targeting motor processing, preparation, and execution. Boys with subtypes that included inattentive symptomatology had significant difficulties with timing, force output and showed greater variability in motor outcomes. Boys with the comorbid condition (i.e., ADHD and DCD) had particular difficulty with force control. These outcomes identify a need for increased recognition of the clinical and research implications of the relationship between ADHD and motor dysfunction. This potentially impacts on assessment, intervention, theoretical modelling and the general interpretation of cognitive abilities research with children with ADHD.

  12. Change over time in adolescent and friend alcohol use: Differential associations for youth with and without childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belendiuk, Katherine A; Pedersen, Sarah L; King, Kevin M; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for experiencing alcohol-related problems by adulthood. However, few studies have examined contextual factors that may contribute to this risk. The current study examined 1 widely investigated social-contextual risk factor, friend alcohol use, in a sample of adolescents with and without a history of ADHD. One hundred and 59 adolescents (14-17 years old) with childhood ADHD and 117 demographically similar youth without ADHD were interviewed annually in the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study. Adolescents reported the frequency of their own alcohol use in the prior 12 months and the number of friends who used alcohol regularly or occasionally (perceived friend alcohol use). Multiple-group parallel process models indicated that increases in friend alcohol use were more strongly associated with increases in adolescent alcohol use over time for individuals with ADHD (r = .15, SE = 0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.08, 0.22]) than for those without ADHD (r = .06, SE = 0.03; 95% CI [0.00, 0.11]). These results suggest that social factors are an important part of escalating alcohol use among adolescents with ADHD histories, and they highlight the possibility that interventions focused on the peer context could be important for these at-risk youth. Additional social network research on adolescent alcohol use within the larger context of other relationships (e.g., family and romantic relationships) is indicated.

  13. Falls and falls efficacy: the role of sustained attention in older adults

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Halloran, Aisling M

    2011-12-19

    Abstract Background Previous evidence indicates that older people allocate more of their attentional resources toward their gait and that the attention-related changes that occur during aging increase the risk of falls. The aim of this study was to investigate whether performance and variability in sustained attention is associated with falls and falls efficacy in older adults. Methods 458 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 60 years underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Mean and variability of reaction time (RT), commission errors and omission errors were recorded during a fixed version of the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART). RT variability was decomposed using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) procedure, to help characterise variability associated with the arousal and vigilance aspects of sustained attention. The number of self-reported falls in the previous twelve months, and falls efficacy (Modified Falls Efficacy Scale) were also recorded. Results Significant increases in the mean and variability of reaction time on the SART were significantly associated with both falls (p < 0.01) and reduced falls efficacy (p < 0.05) in older adults. An increase in omission errors was also associated with falls (p < 0.01) and reduced falls efficacy (p < 0.05). Upon controlling for age and gender affects, logistic regression modelling revealed that increasing variability associated with the vigilance (top-down) aspect of sustained attention was a retrospective predictor of falling (p < 0.01, OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03 - 1.26) in the previous year and was weakly correlated with reduced falls efficacy in non-fallers (p = 0.07). Conclusions Greater variability in sustained attention is strongly correlated with retrospective falls and to a lesser degree with reduced falls efficacy. This cognitive measure may provide a novel and valuable biomarker for falls in older adults, potentially allowing for early detection and the implementation of preventative intervention

  14. Feasibility of Dual-Task Gait Training for Community-Dwelling Adults after Stroke: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Plummer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This case series explored the feasibility and efficacy of cognitive-motor dual-task gait training in community-dwelling adults within 12 months of stroke. A secondary aim was to assess transfer of training to different dual-task combinations. Seven male participants within 12 months of stroke participated in 12 sessions of dual-task gait training. We examined single and dual-task performance in four different dual-task combinations at baseline, after 6 and 12 sessions, and if possible, at 1-month followup. Feasibility was assessed by asking participants to rate mental and physical fatigue, perceived difficulty, anxiety, and fear of falling at the end of each session. Five of the seven participants demonstrated reduced dual-task cost in gait speed in at least one of the dual-task combinations after the intervention. Analysis of the patterns of interference in the gait and cognitive tasks suggested that the way in which the participants allocated their attention between the simultaneous tasks differed across tasks and, in many participants, changed over time. Dual-task gait training is safe and feasible within the first 12 months after stroke, and may improve dual-task walking speed. Individuals with a combination of physical and cognitive impairments may not be appropriate for dual-task gait training.

  15. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (Kiirguskeskus), Tallinn (Spain); Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m{sup 3}, in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m{sup 3}. In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m{sup 3}. Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m{sup 3}, and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m{sup 3}. The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated

  16. Body Composition Outcomes of a Qigong Intervention Among Community-Dwelling Aging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Ying; Chen, Hsiao-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Aging causes various changes in body composition, which are critical implications for health and physical functioning in aging adults. The aim of this study was to explore the body composition outcomes of a qigong intervention among community-dwelling aging adults. This was a quasi-experimental study in which 90 participants were recruited. Forty-eight participants (experimental group) attended a 30-min qigong program 3 times per week for 12 weeks, whereas 42 participants (control group) continued performing their usual daily activities. The experimental group achieved a greater reduction in the fat mass percentage at the posttest, and exhibited increased fat-free mass, lean body mass percentage, and lean body mass to fat mass ratio compared with the controls. No difference between the two groups in body mass index, fat mass, and lean body mass was observed. These results indicated that the qigong intervention showed beneficial outcomes of body composition among community-dwelling aging adults.

  17. Predictors of participation in physical activity for community-dwelling elderly Italians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Marcellini, Fiorella

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses variables associated with community-dwelling older people's engagement in physical activity (PA). Data were examined using the results from the European ZINCAGE study on 306 community-dwelling Italians aged 65 years and over. The lifestyle questionnaire was used to evaluate the data. Levels of regular/non-regular PA were based on ≥ 1 h of weekly exercise. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the predictors of PA. Participants reported the time they had spent per week engaging in PA over the last year. Overall, 56.2% of them engaged in regular physical exercise. PA levels decreased in subjects with probable cognitive decline, depression and high perceived stress levels (p<0.001). Lower age, a lower body mass index (BMI), better health status, absence of depression, being married, were all associated with regular PA. The importance of monitoring PA in the elderly emerged, in particular in those having some certain social-demographic characteristics.

  18. Distributed interactive communication in simulated space-dwelling groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Joseph V; Hienz, Robert D; Hursh, Steven R; Ragusa, Leonard C; Rouse, Charles O; Gasior, Eric D

    2004-03-01

    This report describes the development and preliminary application of an experimental test bed for modeling human behavior in the context of a computer generated environment to analyze the effects of variations in communication modalities, incentives and stressful conditions. In addition to detailing the methodological development of a simulated task environment that provides for electronic monitoring and recording of individual and group behavior, the initial substantive findings from an experimental analysis of distributed interactive communication in simulated space dwelling groups are described. Crews of three members each (male and female) participated in simulated "planetary missions" based upon a synthetic scenario task that required identification, collection, and analysis of geologic specimens with a range of grade values. The results of these preliminary studies showed clearly that cooperative and productive interactions were maintained between individually isolated and distributed individuals communicating and problem-solving effectively in a computer-generated "planetary" environment over extended time intervals without benefit of one another's physical presence. Studies on communication channel constraints confirmed the functional interchangeability between available modalities with the highest degree of interchangeability occurring between Audio and Text modes of communication. The effects of task-related incentives were determined by the conditions under which they were available with Positive Incentives effectively attenuating decrements in performance under stressful time pressure.

  19. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hirano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64% showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5% showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23% showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9% showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  20. Chewing and attention: a positive effect on sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  1. Paying Attention to the Cid's Dwelling Quality%关注老年人居住质量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常怀生

    2001-01-01

    就《老年人建筑设计规范》的编制与施行,论述了我国人口老龄化的形势、养老观念的变化、现有老年设施、老年人体能心态特征与老化进程等老年人建筑设计相关问题。%Through the review of compiling and implementing of the Code for Design of Buildings for Elderly Persons, this paper discusses the general situation of eldelization in China, the changing idea about care taking of old people, the valuation to the existing facilities for the old; the psychological and physical features of the old, the process of getting old, etc. and the relevant problems about the design for the old people.

  2. Adaptive thermal comfort opportunities for dwellings: Providing thermal comfort only when and where needed in dwellings in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje Alders

    2016-08-01

    .A different approach to the comfort boundaries used in modern standards was introduced, creating insight in the spread in activity patterns and the comfort demand in the context of individual preferences and vulnerabilities. Information of sociology and thermal comfort studies were brought together creating occupancy and thermal comfort profiles for the Dutch situation. By recognizing the differences in occupancy patterns it becomes possible to design adaptive systems to be able to deliver the comfort demanded only when and where necessary in different occupancy scenarios. This is an opportunity to achieve a significantly better energy performance.Furthermore, a method for dynamic analysis of weather conditions related to the thermal comfort was proposed in order to map the opportunities and threats of weather change. This makes the system able to seize upon every reasonably to be expected situation to create an optimal dynamic filter for the outdoor to indoor thermal environment at any time and place. This preliminary study was performed by presuming a simple shelter that can create shielding from wind and solar radiation without any form of thermal storage or insulation.In this study it is emphasised that there is no need for active cooling in the residential sector of the Netherlands if the dwelling is well designed; blocking solar radiation when needed and to allow built up excess heat to be discarded.An inventory is provided of the possibilities for adaptivity for a thermal comfort system which are used in common practice and which improvements and new techniques can be implemented to increase these possibilities for adaptivity of the Adaptive Thermal Comfort System. 2. The effect of applying the detailed information and adaptive opportunities framed in step 1 on the energy saving and comfort delivery of the Thermal Comfort Systems was researched.Firstly, the most appropriate calculation methods for the research were determined comparing various levels of detail and

  3. Adaptive thermal comfort opportunities for dwellings: Providing thermal comfort only when and where needed in dwellings in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje Alders

    2016-08-01

    .A different approach to the comfort boundaries used in modern standards was introduced, creating insight in the spread in activity patterns and the comfort demand in the context of individual preferences and vulnerabilities. Information of sociology and thermal comfort studies were brought together creating occupancy and thermal comfort profiles for the Dutch situation. By recognizing the differences in occupancy patterns it becomes possible to design adaptive systems to be able to deliver the comfort demanded only when and where necessary in different occupancy scenarios. This is an opportunity to achieve a significantly better energy performance.Furthermore, a method for dynamic analysis of weather conditions related to the thermal comfort was proposed in order to map the opportunities and threats of weather change. This makes the system able to seize upon every reasonably to be expected situation to create an optimal dynamic filter for the outdoor to indoor thermal environment at any time and place. This preliminary study was performed by presuming a simple shelter that can create shielding from wind and solar radiation without any form of thermal storage or insulation.In this study it is emphasised that there is no need for active cooling in the residential sector of the Netherlands if the dwelling is well designed; blocking solar radiation when needed and to allow built up excess heat to be discarded.An inventory is provided of the possibilities for adaptivity for a thermal comfort system which are used in common practice and which improvements and new techniques can be implemented to increase these possibilities for adaptivity of the Adaptive Thermal Comfort System. 2. The effect of applying the detailed information and adaptive opportunities framed in step 1 on the energy saving and comfort delivery of the Thermal Comfort Systems was researched.Firstly, the most appropriate calculation methods for the research were determined comparing various levels of detail and

  4. 29 CFR 785.43 - Medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical attention. 785.43 Section 785.43 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.43 Medical attention. Time spent by an employee in waiting for and receiving medical attention on the premises or at the...

  5. Sound classification of dwellings - Comparison of schemes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    National sound classification schemes for dwellings exist in nine countries in Europe, and proposals are under preparation in more countries. The schemes specify class criteria concerning several acoustic aspects, the main criteria being about airborne and impact sound insulation between dwellings......, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The quality classes reflect dierent levels of acoustical comfort. The paper presents and compares the sound classification schemes in Europe. The schemes have been implemented and revised gradually since the 1990es. However, due to lack of coordination....... The current variety of descriptors and classes also causes trade barriers. Thus, there is a need to harmonize concepts and other characteristics of the schemes....

  6. Measurements of radon in dwellings with CR-39 track detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, Benny

    1986-01-01

    A passive integrating dosemeter has been designed for measuring natural radiation in dwellings. The dosemeter contains one or two CR-39 track detectors to measure radon and three thermoluminescence dosemeters to measure external radiation. The dosemeter was investigated in a pilot study in 1983....../84, and it is now used in a nationwide survey of natural radiation in Danish dwellings. The characteristics of the dosemeter with respect to radon measurements are presented, and the radon monitoring results obtained in the pilot study are summarized...

  7. The Effect of High Versus Low Teacher Affect and Passive Versus Active Student Activity During Music Listening on Preschool Children's Attention, Piece Preference, Time Spent Listening, and Piece Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Wendy L.

    1986-01-01

    Small-group listening lessons and subsequent individual posttests were used to judge 94 three- through five-year-old subjects' attention, paired-comparison piece preference, time spent listening, and piece recognition. Research procedures included a modified multiple baseline design and split-screen video taping of instructional sessions.…

  8. Estimation of the residential radon levels and the population annual effective dose in dwellings of Al-kharj, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Maghraby

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indoor radon levels and the annual effective dose are measured in Al-kharj city, Saudi Arabia dwellings using CR-39 detector. The dwellings are classified according their types (schools, homes and working area. The influence of some factors like number of floors and ventilation conditions on indoor radon levels, equilibrium factor and radon effective doses were studied. Can and bare method is used for determine the equilibrium factor between radon and its daughters. Based on the dosemetric approach and epidemiological determinations conversions convention for radon exposures, the annual effective doses are calculated and compared. The average radon concentration varies from 76 ± 38 Bq m−3 in work places to 114 ± 41 Bq m−3 in homes. About 77% of the studied dwellings give radon concentration in the range from 50 to 150 Bq m−3. The overall weighted mean of radon level is equal to 94 ± 41 Bq m−3 which about 2.5 times the global average. The equilibrium factor has a wide range from 0.1 to 0.6 with overall weighted average equal to 0.308 ± 0.13. The variety of living style, constructed materials and ventilation rates are responsible for this wide range and subsequently the obtained high uncertainty (42%. Homes showed larger annual effective dose (3.186 ± 0.75 mSv than other dwellings which locate in the range of the recommended action level but about three times the global average. The result shows that the ventilation condition is the major but not the only factor affects the results. Poor ventilated dwellings showed the maximum annual effective dose on the other hand the number of floor has insignificant difference.

  9. Attention and Olfactory Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas eKeller

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to ...

  10. Evolutionary diversification of coral-dwelling gall crabs (Cryptochiridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, Sancia Esmeralda Theonilla van der

    2015-01-01

    Gall crabs (Crustacea : Cryptochiridae) are small, coral-dwelling crabs that live in obligate association with their host corals (Scleractinia), on which they rely for food and shelter. They have been recorded from shallow and deeper waters (over 500 m), but the majority of the species live in reef

  11. Interactions between higher plants and soil-dwelling organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyper, T.W.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers interactions between higher plants and soil-dwelling organisms, with sections on ecologically important biota in the rhizosphere, the soil community as cause and consequence of plant and community composition, specificity and selectivity, feedback mechanisms, soil communities and

  12. The spectrum of worry in the community-dwelling elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Golden, Jeannette

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we examine the prevalence and distribution of worry, its content, and its associations with quality of life and depression, based on a large sample of community-dwelling elderly. We will attempt to distinguish between pathological and non-pathological worry based on these associations.

  13. Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…

  14. Methods of radon remediation in Finnish dwellings; Asuntojen radonkorjauksen menetelmaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvela, H.

    1995-12-01

    A study was made of remedial measures taken in dwellings with high indoor radon concentrations and the results obtained. The data regarding the remedial measures taken in 400 dwellings was obtained from a questionnaire study. The mean annual average indoor radon concentration before the remedies was 1.500 Bq/m{sup 3}, the concentration exceeding in nearly every house the action level of 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. After the measures were taken the mean indoor radon concentration was 500 Bq/m{sup 3}. The resulting indoor radon concentration was less than 400 Bq/m{sup 3} in 60 percent of the dwellings. The best results were achieved using sub-slab-suction and radon well. These methods effectively decrease both the flow of radon bearing air from soil into dwellings and the radon concentration of leakage air. Typical reduction rates in radon concentration were 70-95 percent. The action level was achieved in more than 70 percent of the houses. Sealing the entry routes and improvement of the ventilation resulted typically in reduction rates of 10-50 percent. The goal of the report is to give useful information for the house owners, the do-it-yourself-mitigators, the mitigation firms and the local authorities. The report includes practical guidance, price information and examples of remedial measures. (13 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.).

  15. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings and workplaces of Curitiba urban area, Parana state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Schelin, Hugo R., E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Considering that radon and its progeny exposure is proved to be the main cause of lung cancer among nonsmokers and occupation-time at some commercial establishments and workplaces is equal or even bigger then at domiciles and dwelling, present study has been spread to the constructed closed environment and workplaces of commerce and productive sector. The measurements were performed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of UTFPR in 2009 - 2011 when 120 detectors were installed at domiciles and workplaces of Curitiba, Parana St., Brazil. Experimental setup was based at CR-39 detectors that were installed in diffusion chambers protected with filters. In collaboration with CDTN/CNEN it was performed the calibration of CR-39 detectors at the NIRS in Japan. The exposure time was set to be of 100 days. Alpha particle track development was performed using 6.25M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution and ethanol (2%) during 14 hours at 70 deg C. The counting was conducted using an optical microscope. Measured {sup 222}Rn activity levels in dwellings varied between 4.37 Bq/m{sup 3} and 320.82 Bq/m{sup 3} resulting at an average of 46.94 Bq/m{sup 3}. Indoor measurements at workplaces presented the variation of radon activity concentration between 3.08 Bq/m{sup 3} and 67.50 Bq/m{sup 3} resulting at the average of 34.51 Bq/m{sup 3}. Considering the recommendations of the World Health Organization, UNSCEAR and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) concerning the radon-in-air concentration inside the dwellings that can reach 200 Bq/m{sup 3} taking into account the occupation-time of 7000 hours/year, obtained results are within normal limits and no mitigation measures have to be performed. (author)

  16. Attention and Olfactory Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eKeller

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to the discussion: attention to the olfactory modality. I will first clarify the position of attention to smells in a general taxonomy of attention. I will then review the mechanisms and neuroanatomy of attention and consciousness in the olfactory system before using the newly introduced system to provide evidence that attention is necessary for consciousness.

  17. What Attracts Decision Makers' Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Eric; Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2011-01-01

    that might explain decision makers' attention are identified. The analysis shows that the quality of information was not significant for explaining variations of decision makers' attention; but, even more surprisingly, differences in project status did not explain variations in attention. Delayed projects...... did not get significantly more attention than those delivered on time. By controlling for other project characteristics, the newness of projects to the corporate portfolio was found to be the most important parameter. Originality/value – First, the analysis is based on observations from actual...... meetings rather than from surveys. Second, several observations contradict prior research on product development, e.g. it has been argued that decision makers should pay special attention to certain phases and projects having trouble meeting expectations towards planned deadlines. It is also new...

  18. Drivers anticipate lead-vehicle conflicts during automated longitudinal control: Sensory cues capture driver attention and promote appropriate and timely responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morando, Alberto; Victor, Trent; Dozza, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) has been shown to reduce the exposure to critical situations by maintaining a safe speed and headway. It has also been shown that drivers adapt their visual behavior in response to the driving task demand with ACC, anticipating an impending lead vehicle conflict by directing their eyes to the forward path before a situation becomes critical. The purpose of this paper is to identify the causes related to this anticipatory mechanism, by investigating drivers' visual behavior while driving with ACC when a potential critical situation is encountered, identified as a forward collision warning (FCW) onset (including false positive warnings). This paper discusses how sensory cues capture attention to the forward path in anticipation of the FCW onset. The analysis used the naturalistic database EuroFOT to examine visual behavior with respect to two manually-coded metrics, glance location and glance eccentricity, and then related the findings to vehicle data (such as speed, acceleration, and radar information). Three sensory cues (longitudinal deceleration, looming, and brake lights) were found to be relevant for capturing driver attention and increase glances to the forward path in anticipation of the threat; the deceleration cue seems to be dominant. The results also show that the FCW acts as an effective attention-orienting mechanism when no threat anticipation is present. These findings, relevant to the study of automation, provide additional information about drivers' response to potential lead-vehicle conflicts when longitudinal control is automated. Moreover, these results suggest that sensory cues are important for alerting drivers to an impending critical situation, allowing for a prompt reaction.

  19. Radon in Dwellings in the Republic of Kalmykia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerblom, Gustav (Aakerblom och Aakerblom HP, Skaerholmen (Sweden)); German, Olga; Soederman, Ann-Louise (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Stamat, Ivan; Venkov, Vladimir (Research Inst. of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    2009-02-15

    The National Radon Survey in the Republic of Kalmykia, Russian Federation during 2006-2007 was carried out in a cooperation project between the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) and the Russian Institute of Radiation Hygiene (RIRH). In August 2006 SSI, RIRH, federal and local authorities carried out a field study in Kalmykia when radon daughter measurements (equilibrium equivalent radon concentrations in the air) and gamma radiation measurements were made in 103 buildings. Gamma spectrometry measurements were made at several sites. During the visit the cooperating parties devoted some time to the education of local authorities on radon related issues. During three months in the winter season 2006-2007, long term radon trace measurements were made in 525 randomly chosen dwellings in the Republic of Kalmykia. The radon gas activity varied between 3 and 973 Bq/m3, with a mean value of 122 Bq/m3. In 19 of a total of 835 measurement points, the radon activity exceeded the maximum permitted value in Russia of 200 Bq/m3 of EERC. The year-round radon trace measurement were made in 20 houses in Elista, the capital of the Republic of Kalmykia, for comparison with the three-month measurements. The year-round measurements showed some higher values for the radon activity, and a correction factor of 0.85 was applied. Using data on the number of people living in detached houses and apartments, and applying the radon activities measured, the number of new lung cancer cases caused by radon was calculated to be 20 to 40 of the 100 new cases reported annually. The methods of construction of the dwellings in Kalmykia is greatly influenced by the history and culture. Most of them were built after World War II and there are only a few that are newly built because of the poor economic situation and the low population growth rate in the Republic. Most people live in detached houses, one-storied with 3-5 rooms, built directly on the ground or on coquina blocks or on a cast

  20. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  1. Leisure activity participation as predictor of quality of life in Korean urban-dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Hyun; Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Soo Hyun

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated participation in leisure activities in urban-dwelling elderly persons in Korea and its role in predicting quality of life. The participated activities over a 48-hour period were recorded by each participant, and amount of participated time for each activity was calculated. Correlational analysis examined the relationship between the degree of participation in domains of leisure activity and quality of life. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which leisure activity participation predicted quality of life. The results indicated that the participants spent the most time in "use of media". Quality of life showed a positive correlation with "use of media", "sports and outdoor leisure activity" and "hobby and other leisure activity". The results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis found that use of media, "religious activity", sports and outdoor leisure activity and hobby and other leisure activity significantly predicted quality of life after controlling for the effects of demographic variables. Of these variables, hobby and other leisure activity was the strongest predictor of quality of life. The results will augment treatment planning and activity management in enhancing quality of life by allied health professionals, especially occupational therapists. The findings are limited in that the sample consisted of urban-dwelling elderly primarily with a religious affiliation. It is recommended that a cross-cultural investigation using standard assessment measures be conducted to validate whether there is indeed similarities in time use and leisure activity participation in the elderly in different cultures.

  2. Commissioning of Varian ring & tandem HDR applicators: reproducibility and interobserver variability of dwell position offsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Ryan; Zhuang, Tingliang; Steffey, Beverly A; Song, Haijun; Craciunescu, Oana I

    2011-11-15

    Studies have shown that source dwells within Varian's HDR CT/MR compatible ring applicators can deviate from intended positions by several millimeters. Quantifying this offset is an important part of commissioning. The aims of this study were to: 1) determine the reproducibility of the offset, 2) study the interobserver variation in the offset's measurement, and 3) quantify the dosimetric impact of the offset. Offsets were measured for four ring applicators: two 30°, one 45°, and one 60°. Dwell positions were measured five times for each ring to determine the reproducibility of source positioning. Experiments were done to compare two separate source wires, as well as different time points within a single source wire's lifecycle. Data were analyzed by three independent observers. To quantify the dosimetric impact of the offset, a treatment plan was generated using BrachyVision. The dose to point A, and the D(2cc) metric for rectum and bladder were calculated with and without the offset. For the 45° and 60° rings, measured offsets were 3.0 mm and 3.6 mm, respectively. The 30° ring showed substantial variation in distal dwell positions (maximum difference between the five experiments of 2.9 mm). Subsequent testing of a replacement ring showed an offset of 2.4 mm that was more reproducible. Offsets varied less than 1 mm between different source wires, and changed less than 1 mm over the course of a source wire's lifecycle. When comparing observers, the average range in a measurement of a dwell position was 0. 5 mm (σ = 0.2 mm, max 1.3 mm). The offset resulted in dose variations to point A, bladder, and rectum of less than 1%, 2%, and 5%, respectively. Results indicate that Varian rings can show systematic and random offsets of more than 3 mm. Some can be considered defective and should be replaced. Each applicator should be individually commissioned and reproducibility should be confirmed with multiple tests.

  3. Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klocke, S.; Faakye, O.; Puttagunta, S.

    2014-10-01

    ​While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of CARB's multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  4. Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klocke, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Faakye, O. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2014-10-01

    While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of Consortium for Advanced Residential Building's (CARB’s) multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  5. Combining segmentation and attention: a new foveal attention model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca eMarfil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial vision systems cannot process all the information that they receive from the world in real time because it is highly expensive and inefficient in terms of computational cost. Inspired by biological perception systems, articial attention models pursuit to select only the relevant part of the scene. Besides, it is well established that the units of attention on human vision are not merely spatial but closely related to perceptual objects (proto-objects. This implies a strong bidirectional relationship between segmentation and attention processes. Therefore, while the segmentation process is the responsible to extract the proto-objects from the scene, attention can guide segmentation, arising the concept of foveal attention. When the focus of attention is deployed from one visual unit to another, the rest of the scene is perceived but at a lower resolution that the focused object. The result is a multi-resolution visual perception in which the fovea, a dimple on the central retina, provides the highest resolution vision. In this paper, a bottom-up foveal attention model is presented. In this model the input image is a foveal image represented using a Cartesian Foveal Geometry (CFG, which encodes the field of view of the sensor as a fovea (placed in the focus of attention surrounded by a set of concentric rings with decreasing resolution. Then multirresolution perceptual segmentation is performed by building a foveal polygon using the Bounded Irregular Pyramid (BIP. Bottom-up attention is enclosed in the same structure, allowing to set the fovea over the most salient image proto-object. Saliency is computed as a linear combination of multiple low level features such us colour and intensity contrast, symmetry, orientation and roundness. Obtained results from natural images show that the performance of the combination of hierarchical foveal segmentation and saliency estimation is good in terms of accuracy and speed.

  6. Window opening behaviour modelled from measurements in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Fabi, Valentina; Toftum, Jorn;

    2013-01-01

    A method of defining occupants' window opening behaviour patterns in simulation programs, based on measurements is proposed.Occupants' window opening behaviour has a strong effect on indoor environment and the energy consumed to sustain it. Only few models of window opening behaviour exist...... and these are solely based on the thermal indoor/outdoor environment. Consequently, users of simulation software are often left with little or no guidance for the modelling of occupants' window opening behaviour, resulting in potentially large discrepancies between real and simulated energy consumption and indoor...... environment.Measurements of occupant's window opening behaviour were conducted in 15 dwellings in Denmark during eight months. Indoor and outdoor environmental conditions were monitored in an effort to relate the behaviour of the occupants to the environmental conditions. The dwellings were categorized...

  7. A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, A.; Andersen, C.E.; Majborn, B.;

    1996-01-01

    basement/slab-on-grade foundation built on either fractured granitic basement rocks, or fractured limestone. Clayey till areas were also included in the profile in order to confirm earlier findings. Three areas representing these surface geologies were selected for indoor radon measurements with CR-39...... track detectors, and a total of 200 houses matching the profile underwent radon measurements during the winter 1994-95. The distribution of the measured radon concentrations were found in most cases to comply with log-normal distributions. Measurements in the living rooms of houses in each of the three......A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels has been employed to investigate possibly radon-prone areas in Denmark and to find houses suitable for radon mitigation studies. The profile is defined as dwellings which are single-family houses with slab-on-grade foundation or partly...

  8. Attention Mosaics: Studies of Organizational Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho de Mesquita Ferreira, Luciana

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOrganizational studies emphasizing the role of attention in organizational behavior depart from the idea that organizations, like individuals, have limited capacity to attend to environmental stimuli. The bounded capacity of the organizations to respond to stimuli is conditioned by the limited cognitions of individuals and by the limited capability of organizations to distribute, coordinate and integrate those cognitions. The cross-level nature of organizational attention, its dua...

  9. Physical performance measures that predict faller status in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, P G; Lacourse, M; Moldavon, R

    1992-01-01

    Falls are a leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries among the elderly. Accurate determination of risk factors associated with falls in older adults is necessary, not only for individual patient management, but also for the development of fall prevention programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of clinical measures, such as the one-legged stance test (OLST), sit-to-stand test (STST), manual muscle tests (MMT), and response speed in predicting faller status in community-dwelling older adults (N = 94, age 60-89 years). The variables assessed were single-leg standing (as measured by OLST), STST, and MMT of 12 different muscle groups (hip flexors, hip abductors, hip adductors, knee flexors, knee extensors, ankle dorsiflexors, ankle plantarflexors, shoulder flexors, shoulder abductors, elbow flexors, elbow extensors, and finger flexors), and speed of response (as measured by a visual hand reaction and movement time task). Of the 94 older adults assessed, 28 (29.7%) reported at least one fall within the previous year. The discriminant analysis revealed that there were six variables that significantly discriminated between fallers and nonfallers. These variables included MMT of the ankle dorsiflexors, knee flexors, hip abductors, and knee extensors, as well as time on the OLST and the STST. The results indicate that simple clinical measures of musculoskeletal function can discriminate fallers from nonfallers in community-dwelling older adults. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1992;16(3):123-128.

  10. Dwelling Buildings’ Energy Certification by Total Energy Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Belindževa-Korkla, O; Krēsliņš, A; Borodiņecs, A

    2005-01-01

    One of the requirements of the Directive 2002/91/EC on the energy performance of buildings is introduction in the EU member countries of energy certification of buildings. It has to be implemented starting from 2006. In Latvia the energy certification scheme for dwelling buildings was developed in RTU in 2000 and successfully implemented in Ogre in 2002-2004. The existing buildings’ energy certification scheme takes into account only energy consumption of space heating and hot water supply. I...

  11. The research of the stock utilization plans in aged housing estate by remodeling of dwelling units -I By Experimental self-aide remodeling of dwelling units in Nishimuko housing estate

    OpenAIRE

    大坪, 明

    2009-01-01

    The students in 5 universities who learn architecture and pretended to be tenants implemented the experi-mental self-aid remodeling of dwelling units in a collective housing. Those dwelling units in the aged hous-ing estate were revived by them with a remarkable personality. This result proved that the aged dwelling unit stocks will be still utilized sufficiently. There will be many ways of continuing to use those remodeled dwell-ing units.

  12. Dwelling Price Ranking versus Socioeconomic Clustering: Possibility of Imputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleishman Larisa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the socioeconomic profile of various geographic units, it is common practice to use aggregated indices. However, the process of calculating such indices requires a wide variety of variables from various data sources available concurrently. Using a number of administrative databases for 2001 and 2003, this study examines the question of whether dwelling prices in a given locality can serve as a proxy for its socioeconomic level. Based on statistical and geographic criteria, we developed a Dwelling Price Ranking (DPR methodology. Our findings show that the DPR can serve as a good approximation for the socioeconomic cluster (SEC calculated by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics for years when the required data was available. As opposed to the SEC, the suggested DPR indicator can easily be calculated, thus ensuring a continuum of socioeconomic index series. Both parametric and nonparametric statistical analyses have been carried out in order to examine the additional social, demographic, location, crime and security effects that are exogenous to SEC. Complementary analysis on recently published SEC series for 2006 and 2008 show that our conclusions remain valid. The proposed methodology and the obtained findings may be applicable for different statistical purposes in other countries which possess dwelling transactions data.

  13. Attention Breaks in Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, A. H.; Percival, F.

    1976-01-01

    Describes research into student attention patterns during lectures that suggests that student attention declines steadily during a lecture, and that the rate of decrease is dependent upon several variables including subject difficulty. (MLH)

  14. Understanding Attention Deficit Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Orlando; And Others

    This booklet provides basic information regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), in their separate modalities, with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Explanations are offered concerning short attention span, impulsive behavior, hyperactivity, and beginning new activities before completing the previous one. Theories…

  15. Attention Competition with Advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2012-01-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when a...

  16. Association of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with physical activity, media time, and food intake in children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas W A van Egmond-Fröhlich

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to assess the association between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms and potentially obesogenic behaviors. METHODS: Data of 11,676 German children and adolescents (6-17 years were analyzed. Television/video exposure, physical activity, food frequency and portion size were assessed using questionnaires. A dietary quality index, energy density and volumes of consumed food, and total energy intake were calculated. The parent-rated hyperactivity/inattention subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-HI was used as a continuous measure of ADHD symptoms. Associations were analyzed with general linear models adjusting for sex, age, socioeconomic status, migrant status, parental BMI, and parental smoking. RESULTS: SDQ-HI scores correlated positively with physical activity, average energy density of food, volume of beverages, total energy intake, and television exposure and negatively with the nutritional quality score (HuSKY even after adjustment for parental variables (BMI, smoking, socioeconomic status, migrant status, age, sex, as well as the other SDQ subscales. The adjusted association of the SDQ-HI scores with the nutritional quality score was stronger in girls and the associations with food volume, food energy, and total energy intake was significant only in girls. CONCLUSIONS: Poor nutritional quality, high energy intake and television exposure appear to be independently associated with ADHD symptoms. The relationship between food energy intake and ADHD symptoms was especially pronounced in girls and this may help to explain the reported association of ADHD symptoms with overweight in adolescent girls.

  17. Attentional Processes in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Gerald; Johnson, Cynthia R.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2001-01-01

    Attention processes in 103 children and adults with high functioning autism were compared with a matched control group using a battery of attention measures. Differences were found only on tasks which placed demands on cognitive flexibility or psychomotor speed, suggesting that purported attention deficits in autism may actually be primary…

  18. Factors Influencing Dwell Fatigue Cracking in Notches of Powder Metallurgy Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, T. P.; Telesman, J.; Ghosn, L.; Garg, A.; Gayda, J.

    2011-01-01

    The influences of heat treatment and cyclic dwells on the notch fatigue resistance of powder metallurgy disk superalloys were investigated for low solvus high refractory (LSHR) and ME3 disk alloys. Disks were processed to produce material conditions with varied microstructures and associated mechanical properties. Notched specimens were first subjected to baseline dwell fatigue cycles having a dwell at maximum load, as well as tensile, stress relaxation, creep rupture, and dwell fatigue crack growth tests at 704 C. Several material heat treatments displayed a bimodal distribution of fatigue life with the lives varying by two orders-of-magnitude, while others had more consistent fatigue lives. This response was compared to other mechanical properties, in search of correlations. The wide scatter in baseline dwell fatigue life was observed only for material conditions resistant to stress relaxation. For selected materials and conditions, additional tests were then performed with the dwells shifted in part or in total to minimum tensile load. The tests performed with dwells at minimum load exhibited lower fatigue lives than max dwell tests, and also exhibited early crack initiation and a substantial increase in the number of initiation sites. These results could be explained in part by modeling evolution of peak stresses in the notch with continued dwell fatigue cycling. Fatigue-environment interactions were determined to limit life for the fatigue cycles with dwells.

  19. Culture, attention, and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Igor; Ellsworth, Phoebe C; Hong, Ying-yi

    2012-02-01

    This research provides experimental evidence for cultural influence on one of the most basic elements of emotional processing: attention to positive versus negative stimuli. To this end, we focused on Russian culture, which is characterized by brooding and melancholy. In Study 1, Russians spent significantly more time looking at negative than positive pictures, whereas Americans did not show this tendency. In Study 2, Russian Latvians were randomly primed with symbols of each culture, after which we measured the speed of recognition for positive versus negative trait words. Biculturals were significantly faster in recognizing negative words (as compared with baseline) when primed with Russian versus Latvian cultural symbols. Greater identification with Russian culture facilitated this effect. We provide a theoretical discussion of mental processes underlying cultural differences in emotion research.

  20. Plant intelligence and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Michael

    2013-05-01

    This article applies the phenomenological model of attention to plant monitoring of environmental stimuli and signal perception. Three complementary definitions of attention as selectivity, modulation and perdurance are explained with reference to plant signaling and behaviors, including foraging, ramet placement and abiotic stress communication. Elements of animal and human attentive attitudes are compared with plant attention at the levels of cognitive focus, context and margin. It is argued that the concept of attention holds the potential of becoming a cornerstone of plant intelligence studies.

  1. Attention competition with advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  2. Attention competition with advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  3. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another.

  4. Principles of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas

    The nature of attention is one of the oldest and most central problems in psychology. A huge amount of research has been produced on this subject in the last half century, especially on attention in the visual modality, but a general explanation has remained elusive. Many still view attention...... research as a field that is fundamentally fragmented. This book takes a different perspective and presents a unified theory of visual attention: the TVA model. The TVA model explains the many aspects of visual attention by just two mechanisms for selection of information: filtering and pigeonholing....... These mechanisms are described in a set of simple equations, which allow TVA to mathematically model a large number of classical results in the attention literature. The theory explains psychological and neuroscientific findings by the same equations; TVA is a complete theory of visual attention, linking mind...

  5. Mindfulness training affects attention--or is it attentional effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Vangkilde, Signe; Frokjaer, Vibe; Hasselbalch, Steen G

    2012-02-01

    Improvements in attentional performance are at the core of proposed mechanisms for stress reduction in mindfulness meditation practices. However, this claim can be questioned because no previous studies have actively manipulated test effort in control groups and controlled for effects of stress reduction per se. In a blinded design, 48 young, healthy meditation novices were randomly assigned to a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), nonmindfulness stress reduction (NMSR), or inactive control group. At posttest, inactive controls were randomly split into nonincentive and incentive controls, the latter receiving a financial reward to improve attentional performance. Pre- and postintervention, 5 validated attention paradigms were employed along with self-report scales on mindfulness and perceived stress and saliva cortisol samples to measure physiological stress. Attentional effects of MBSR, NMSR, and the financial incentive were comparable or significantly larger in the incentive group on all reaction-time-based measures. However, selective attention in the MBSR group improved significantly more than in any other group. Similarly, only the MBSR intervention improved the threshold for conscious perception and visual working memory capacity. Furthermore, stress-reducing effects of MBSR were supported because those in the MBSR group showed significantly less perceived and physiological stress while increasing their mindfulness levels significantly. We argue that MBSR may contribute uniquely to attentional improvements but that further research focusing on non-reaction-time-based measures and outcomes less confounded by test effort is needed. Critically, our data demonstrate that previously observed improvements of attention after MBSR may be seriously confounded by test effort and nonmindfulness stress reduction.

  6. Characteristics of indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling while using air appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornnumpa, C; Tokonami, S; Sorimachi, A; Kranrod, C

    2015-11-01

    Characteristics of radon and its progeny were investigated in different air conditions by turning four types of indoor air appliances on and off in a two-story concrete Japanese dwelling. The four appliances were air conditioner, air cleaner, gas heater and cooker hood. The measurements were done using two devices: (1) a Si-based semiconductor detector for continuous measurement of indoor radon concentration and (2) a ZnS(Ag) scintillation counting system for equilibrium-equivalent radon concentration. Throughout the entire experiment, the cooker hood was the most effective in decreasing indoor radon concentration over a long period of time and the less effective was the air conditioner, while the air cleaner and gas heater did not affect the concentration of radon. However, the results measured in each air condition will differ according to the lifestyles and activities of the inhabitants. In this study, indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling will be characterised by the different air conditions.

  7. Loss of connectivity among island-dwelling Peary caribou following sea ice decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Deborah A; Lecomte, Nicolas; Schaefer, James A; Olsen, Steffen M; Swingedouw, Didier; Côté, Steeve D; Pellissier, Loïc; Yannic, Glenn

    2016-09-01

    Global warming threatens to reduce population connectivity for terrestrial wildlife through significant and rapid changes to sea ice. Using genetic fingerprinting, we contrasted extant connectivity in island-dwelling Peary caribou in northern Canada with continental-migratory caribou. We next examined if sea-ice contractions in the last decades modulated population connectivity and explored the possible impact of future climate change on long-term connectivity among island caribou. We found a strong correlation between genetic and geodesic distances for both continental and Peary caribou, even after accounting for the possible effect of sea surface. Sea ice has thus been an effective corridor for Peary caribou, promoting inter-island connectivity and population mixing. Using a time series of remote sensing sea-ice data, we show that landscape resistance in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago has increased by approximately 15% since 1979 and may further increase by 20-77% by 2086 under a high-emission scenario (RCP8.5). Under the persistent increase in greenhouse gas concentrations, reduced connectivity may isolate island-dwelling caribou with potentially significant consequences for population viability.

  8. Benzodiazepines for insomnia in community-dwelling elderly: a review of benefit and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grad, R M

    1995-11-01

    To critically assess and summarize the beneficial effects of benzodiazepine therapy for insomnia in community-dwelling elders, a systematic search was undertaken to review all published clinical trials and sleep laboratory studies. The risk of injury for benzodiazepine users was also reviewed. Ten studies met inclusion criteria for assessing benefit. There are no studies regarding the long-term effectiveness of benzodiazepines for the treatment of sleep disorders in the elderly. In the sleep laboratory setting, triazolam 0.125 mg, flurazepam 15 mg, and estazolam 1 mg improved sleep latency by 27 to 30 minutes and increased total sleep time by 47 to 81 minutes for the first 2 to 3 nights of treatment, compared with baseline measurements taken while the patients were receiving placebo. In contrast to these modest short-term benefits, there is an association between the use of benzodiazepines with a long half-life, eg, flurazepam, diazepam, and chlordiazepoxide, and an increased risk of hip fracture in the elderly. Triazolam can cause rebound insomnia as well as anterograde amnesia. Clinicians should discontinue their prescribing of long-acting benzodiazepines for elderly patients with insomnia. More research is needed on the effects of nondrug interventions as well as on short- and intermediate-acting benzodiazepines, such as oxazepam and temazepam, to treat insomnia in community-dwelling elderly.

  9. Procedure for the characterization of radon potential in existing dwellings and to assess the annual average indoor radon concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignan, Bernard; Powaga, Emilie

    2014-11-01

    Risk assessment due to radon exposure indoors is based on annual average indoor radon activity concentration. To assess the radon exposure in a building, measurement is generally performed during at least two months during heating period in order to be representative of the annual average value. This is because radon presence indoors could be very variable during time. This measurement protocol is fairly reliable but may be a limiting in the radon risk management, particularly during a real estate transaction due to the duration of the measurement and the limitation of the measurement period. A previous field study defined a rapid methodology to characterize radon entry in dwellings. The objective of this study was at first, to test this methodology in various dwellings to assess its relevance with a daily test. At second, a ventilation model was used to assess numerically the air renewal of a building, the indoor air quality all along the year and the annual average indoor radon activity concentration, based on local meteorological conditions, some building characteristics and in-situ characterization of indoor pollutant emission laws. Experimental results obtained on thirteen individual dwellings showed that it is generally possible to obtain a representative characterization of radon entry into homes. It was also possible to refine the methodology defined in the previous study. In addition, numerical assessments of annual average indoor radon activity concentration showed generally a good agreement with measured values. These results are encouraging to allow a procedure with a short measurement time to be used to characterize long-term radon potential in dwellings.

  10. A taxonomy of external and internal attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Marvin M; Golomb, Julie D; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2011-01-01

    Attention is a core property of all perceptual and cognitive operations. Given limited capacity to process competing options, attentional mechanisms select, modulate, and sustain focus on information most relevant for behavior. A significant problem, however, is that attention is so ubiquitous that it is unwieldy to study. We propose a taxonomy based on the types of information that attention operates over--the targets of attention. At the broadest level, the taxonomy distinguishes between external attention and internal attention. External attention refers to the selection and modulation of sensory information. External attention selects locations in space, points in time, or modality-specific input. Such perceptual attention can also select features defined across any of these dimensions, or object representations that integrate over space, time, and modality. Internal attention refers to the selection, modulation, and maintenance of internally generated information, such as task rules, responses, long-term memory, or working memory. Working memory, in particular, lies closest to the intersection between external and internal attention. The taxonomy provides an organizing framework that recasts classic debates, raises new issues, and frames understanding of neural mechanisms.

  11. Solar Energy Gain and Space-Heating Energy Supply Analyses for Solid-Wall Dwelling Retrofitted with the Experimentally Achievable U-value of Novel Triple Vacuum Glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saim Memon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A considerable effort is devoted to devising retrofit solutions for reducing space-heating energy in the domestic sector. Existing UK solid-wall dwellings, which have both heritage values and historic fabric, are being improved but they tend to have meagre thermal performance, partly, due to the heat-loss through glazings. This paper takes comparative analyses approach to envisage space-heating supply required in order to maintain thermal comfort temperatures and attainable solar energy gains to households with the retrofit of an experimentally achievable thermal performance of the fabricated sample of triple vacuum glazing to a UK solid-wall dwelling. 3D dynamic thermal models (timely regimes of heating, occupancy, ventilation and internal heat gains of an externally-insulated solid-wall detached dwelling with a range of existing glazing types along with triple vacuum glazings are modelled. A dramatic decrease of space-heating load and moderate increase of solar gains are resulted with the dwelling of newly achievable triple vacuum glazings (having centre-of-pane U-value of 0.33 Wm-2K-1 compared to conventional glazing types. The space-heating annual cost of single glazed dwellings was minimised to 15.31% (≈USD 90.7 with the retrofit of triple-vacuum glazings. An influence of total heat-loss through the fabric of solid-wall dwelling was analysed with steady-state calculations which indicates a fall of 10.23 % with triple vacuum glazings compared to single glazings.

  12. Attention Mosaics: Studies of Organizational Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Carvalho de Mesquita Ferreira (Luciana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOrganizational studies emphasizing the role of attention in organizational behavior depart from the idea that organizations, like individuals, have limited capacity to attend to environmental stimuli. The bounded capacity of the organizations to respond to stimuli is conditioned by the l

  13. Announcements to Attentive Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans; Herzig, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    In public announcement logic it is assumed that all agents pay attention to the announcement. Weaker observational conditions can be modelled in action model logic. In this work, we propose a version of public announcement logic wherein it is encoded in the states of the epistemic model which...... agents pay attention to the announcement. This logic is called attention-based announcement logic. We give an axiomatization of the logic and prove that complexity of satisfiability is the same as that of public announcement logic, and therefore lower than that of action model logic. An attention......-based announcement can also be described as an action model. We extend our logic by integrating attention change. Finally, we add the notion of common belief to the language, we exploit this to formalize the concept of joint attention, that has been widely discussed in the philosophical and cognitive science...

  14. MEASUREMENT OF RADON, THORON AND THEIR PROGENY IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF DWELLING IN ALMORA DISTRICT OF KUMAUN HIMALAYAN REGION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuldeep; Semwal, Poonam; Pant, Preeti; Gusain, G S; Joshi, Manish; Sapra, B K; Ramola, R C

    2016-10-01

    The indoor concentrations of radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn) and their daughter products were measured in the dwellings of Almora district in Kumaun Himalaya, India using pin-hole dosemeters and deposition progeny sensors. The measurements were made in the residential houses built of mud, stone with cement plaster and cemented house during winter season. Average [geometric mean (GM) values] radon and thoron concentrations for all dwellings were found to be 99.82 and 79.70 Bq m(-3), respectively, while average equilibrium equivalent radon concentration and equilibrium equivalent thoron concentration (measured for the first time for this region) were measured at 35.22 and 2.52 Bq m(-3), respectively. Radon concentration (GM values) was found to be 110.73, 97.00 and 93.85 Bq m(-3) for mud houses, stone with cemented plaster houses and cemented houses, respectively. On the other hand, thoron concentration values were 87.10, 75.79 and 75.68 Bq m(-3) for cemented houses, mud houses and stone with cemented plaster houses, respectively. Interpretations have been made on the basis of measured radon/thoron and progeny concentration values with respect to the difference of construction material of the dwellings.

  15. Neural Mechanisms of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-21

    315-335). : Elsevier Science Publishers BV. Andrew, R.J. (1991). Testosterone, attention and memory. In P. Bateson (Ed.),The development and...reflects global stimulus properties. Nature, M,334-337. Gregory , S. D., Heath, J. A., & Rosenberg, M. E. (1989). Does selective attention influence...properties. Nature, 338,334-337. Gregory , S. D., Heath, J. A., & Rosenberg, M. E. (1989). Does selective attention influence the brain-stem auditory evoked

  16. Calibration of diffusion barrier charcoal detectors and application to radon sampling in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero C, M.E.; Colmenero S, L.; Villalba, L.; Saenz P, J.; Cano J, A.; Moreno B, A.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E.F. [Cento de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Cruz G, S. De la [Facultad de Enfermeria y Nutriologia, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Av. Politecnico Nacional 2714, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Lopez M, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Some calibration conditions of diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) detectors for measuring radon concentration in air were studied. A series of functional expressions and graphs were developed to describe relationship between radon concentration in air and the activity adsorbed in DBCC, when placed in small chambers. A semi-empirical expression for the DBCC calibration was obtained, based on the detector integration time and the adsorption coefficient of radon on activated charcoal. Both, the integration time for 10 % of DBCC of the same batch, and the adsorption coefficient of radon for the activated charcoal used in these detectors, were experimentally determined. Using these values as the calibration parameters, a semi-empirical calibration function was used for the interpretation of the radon activities in the detectors used for sampling more than 200 dwellings in the major cities of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. (Author)

  17. Control strategies for demand controlled ventilation in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Drivsholm, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Ventilation of Danish and many other European dwellings has in the past mainly been achieved by natural ventilation or mechanical exhaust systems. Requirements for energy efficiency is changing this picture and mechanical ventilation with balanced exhaust and supply, efficient heat recovery...... high. Too low ventilation rate results in poor air quality for the occupants and moisture risk. Too high ventilation rate results in unnecessary energy consumption. This paper presents results from a study where demand controlled ventilation was installed in an existing single family house...... was possible. The results showed that the ventilation rate in periods can be reduced significantly without significant increase in moisture or CO2-concentration....

  18. Estimation of radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gautam Kumar Dey; Projit Kumar Das

    2012-02-01

    It has been established that radon and its airborne decay products can present serious radiation hazards. A long term exposure to high concentration of radon causes lung cancer. Besides, it is also known that out of the total radiation dose received from natural and man-made sources, 60% of the dose is due to radon and its progeny. Taking this into account, an attempt has been made to estimate radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati using aluminium dosimeter cups with CR-39 plastic detectors. Results of preliminary investigation presented in this paper show that the mean concentration is 21.31 Bq m−3.

  19. Estimation of radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Gautam Kumar; Das, Projit Kumar

    2012-02-01

    It has been established that radon and its airborne decay products can present serious radiation hazards. A long term exposure to high concentration of radon causes lung cancer. Besides, it is also known that out of the total radiation dose received from natural and man-made sources, 60% of the dose is due to radon and its progeny. Taking this into account, an attempt has been made to estimate radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati using aluminium dosimeter cups with CR-39 plastic detectors. Results of preliminary investigation presented in this paper show that the mean concentration is 21.31 Bq m - 3.

  20. Attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews studies on eye movements in decision making, and compares their observations to theoretical predictions concerning the role of attention in decision making. Four decision theories are examined: rational models, bounded rationality, evidence accumulation, and parallel constraint...... satisfaction models. Although most theories were confirmed with regard to certain predictions, none of the theories adequately accounted for the role of attention during decision making. Several observations emerged concerning the drivers and down-stream effects of attention on choice, suggesting...... that attention processes plays an active role in constructing decisions. So far, decision theories have largely ignored the constructive role of attention by assuming that it is entirely determined by heuristics, or that it consists of stochastic information sampling. The empirical observations reveal...

  1. Verification of the Correlation between Cognitive Function and Lower Limb Muscle Strength for the Community-dwelling Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsugi, Hironori; Murata, Shin; Kubo, Atsuko; Hachiya, Mizuki; Hirao, Aya; Fujiwara, Kazuhiko; Kamijou, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lower limb muscle strength of the community-dwelling elderly, with or without cognitive decline, using isometric knee extension strength (IKES) and the 30-second chair stand test (CS-30). [Subjects] A total of 306 community-dwelling elderly participated in this study. Assessment items were the CS-30, IKES, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Trail-Making Test Part A (TMT-A). [Methods] Participants were divided into three groups according to their MMSE score: cognitive impairment (MMSE ≤ 24), cognitive decline (MMSE 25 to 27), and normal (MMSE ≥ 28). We compared IKES and CS-30 among the three groups. [Results] IKES was not significantly different among the three groups. However, the CS-30 was significantly different among the three groups. Upon further analysis the CS-30 score of each group, when adjusted for age and TMT-A, did not indicate a significant difference. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the lower limb muscle strength of the elderly does not differ with cognitive decline. Moreover, we suggest that when using the CS-30 score as an indicator of lower limb muscle strength attentional function should be taken into account.

  2. ATTENTIONAL NETWORKS AND SELECTIVE VISUAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO CASTILLO MORENO

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we checked the principal researches and theories to explain the attention system functioning.We are going to start reviewing along time about the concept of attention, from filter theories andresources distributor theories, to the current theories in which attention is conceived as a control system.From this last point of view, we will emphasize on the attentional networks theory of Posner, thatproposes different systems to explain diverse aspects of attention, but they are related to each other. Atlast in this paper, we will mention experimental results that have been important to characterize theselective attentional mechanisms of the human visual system, using the attentional spotlight model forthis aim.

  3. Psychological and socioeconomic health of community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuei-Min; Lin, Mei-Hui; Wang, Yueh-Chin; Li, Chun-Huw; Huang, Hsin-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Different dimensions of health are intertwined. The purposes of this study were: (1) to investigate the psychological and socioeconomic health status of community-dwelling older adults in Taiwan, and (2) to compare the psychological and socioeconomic health differences among people of different age groups, gender, marital status, and exercise habits. Using stratified random sampling, 384 Taiwanese community-dwelling older adults were recruited for this survey research. Based on the Health Model of Older Adults, seven constructs were measured: (1) psychological health: sleep quality, emotional health, cognitive functioning, and health promotion behaviors; (2) socioeconomic health: social engagement, social support, and financial status. Results showed that most participants were in a good state of psychological and socioeconomic health, except that 38.02% of them suffered from sleep disruptions, and the majority of them were not involved in any social group, nor engaged in any volunteer work. Young-old older adults had better psychological and socioeconomic health than middle-old and old-old older adults. Male older adults had better psychological health than female older adults; however, they had less social engagement and social support than female older adults. Married older adults and exercisers performed better in most of the psychological and socioeconomic health indicators than single/widowed older adults and non-exercisers.

  4. Environmental constraints and call evolution in torrent-dwelling frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutte, Sandra; Dubois, Alain; Howard, Samuel D; Marquez, Rafael; Rowley, Jodi J L; Dehling, J Maximilian; Grandcolas, Philippe; Rongchuan, Xiong; Legendre, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Although acoustic signals are important for communication in many taxa, signal propagation is affected by environmental properties. Strong environmental constraints should drive call evolution, favoring signals with greater transmission distance and content integrity in a given calling habitat. Yet, few empirical studies have verified this prediction, possibly due to a shortcoming in habitat characterization, which is often too broad. Here we assess the potential impact of environmental constraints on the evolution of advertisement call in four groups of torrent-dwelling frogs in the family Ranidae. We reconstruct the evolution of calling site preferences, both broadly categorized and at a finer scale, onto a phylogenetic tree for 148 species with five markers (∼3600 bp). We test models of evolution for six call traits for 79 species with regard to the reconstructed history of calling site preferences and estimate their ancestral states. We find that in spite of existing morphological constraints, vocalizations of torrent-dwelling species are most probably constrained by the acoustic specificities of torrent habitats and particularly their high level of ambient noise. We also show that a fine-scale characterization of calling sites allows a better perception of the impact of environmental constraints on call evolution.

  5. Attention Networks and Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael ePosner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The term consciousness is an important one in the vernacular of the western literature in many fields. It is no wonder that scientists have assumed that consciousness will be found as a component of the human brain and that we will come to understand its neural basis. However, there is rather little in common between consciousness as the neurologist would use it to diagnose the vegetative state, how the feminist would use it to support raising male consciousness of the economic plight of women and as the philosopher would use it when defining the really hard question of the subjective state of awareness induced by sensory qualities. When faced with this kind of problem it is usual to subdivide the term into more manageable perhaps partly operational definitions. Three meanings that capture aspects of consciousness are: (1 the neurology of the state of mind allowing coherent orientation to time and place (2 the selection of sensory or memorial information for awareness and (3 the voluntary control over overt responses. In each of these cases the mechanisms of consciousness overlap with one or more of the attentional networks that have been studied with the methods of cognitive neuroscience. In this paper we explore t

  6. Feasibility of nurses measuring gait speed in older community-dwelling Emergency Department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Paula W; Evans, Dian Dowling; Clevenger, Carolyn K; Ardisson, Michelle; Hwang, Ula

    Gait speed assessment is a rapid, simple and objective measure for predicting risk of unfavorable outcomes which may provide better prognostic and reliable information than existing geriatric ED (Emergency Department) screening tools. This descriptive pilot project was designed to determine feasibility of implementing gait speed screening into routine nursing practice by objectively identifying patients with sub-optimal gait speeds. Participants included community-dwelling adults 65 years and older with plans for discharge following ED treatment. Patients with a gait speed <1.0 m/s were identified as "high-risk" for an adverse event, and referred to the ED social worker for individualized resources prior to discharge. Thirty-five patients were screened and nurse initiated gait speed screens were completed 60% of the time. This project demonstrates ED gait speed screening may be feasible. Implications for practice should consider incorporating gait speed screening into routine nursing assessment to improve provider ED decision-making and disposition planning.

  7. Exposure to ultrafine particles in relation to indoor events and dwelling characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spilak, Michal; Frederiksen, Marie; Kolarik, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) in homes is associated with health risks such as cardiovascular disease and/or respiratory problems. These risks are heightened by the long time that people spend indoors. Therefore reducing the particle concentration in homes leads to improved health among i....... Furthermore, the winter season was associated significantly with high UFP levels indoors. Results of our study also indicated that owning a pet, wood-type floors and floor levels close to the ground are associated with increased UFP levels....... occupants. The use of particle filtration units may be an effective way of reducing UFP indoors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between UFP concentrations and dwelling characteristics, estimate UFP removal rates indoors and to assess the effectiveness of installed particle filtration...

  8. Preventive home visits to older home-dwelling people in Denmark: are invitational procedures of importance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, A; Vass, M; Avlund, K

    2010-01-01

    Since 1998 all municipalities in Denmark have been required by law to offer two annual preventive home visits to all home-dwelling citizens aged 75 or over. The influence of invitational procedures on acceptance rates has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to describe and investigate...... whether different invitational procedures were associated with first preventive home visit acceptance rates. The study was based on secondary analyses of data from the Danish Intervention Study on Preventive Home Visits. Data were collected from 1998 to 2002. Of the 4060 participants in the main study......, 3245 reported receiving an offer for an identifiable preventive home visit, of whom 2399 (73.9%) provided complete data for the main analyses in the present study. Invitational procedures were categorised as: (1) a letter with a proposed date and time for the visit, (2) a visitor telephone call, and (3...

  9. Dwell Notch Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of a Powder Metallurgy Nickel Disk Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Yamada, Y.; Ghosn, L. J.; Jayaraman, N.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the processes which govern dwell notch low cycle fatigue (NLCF) behavior of a powder metallurgy (P/M) ME3 disk superalloy. The emphasis was placed on the environmentally driven mechanisms which may embrittle the highly stressed notch surface regions and reduce NLCF life. In conjunction with the environmentally driven notch surface degradation processes, the visco-plastic driven mechanisms which can significantly change the notch root stresses were also considered. Dwell notch low cycle fatigue testing was performed in air and vacuum on a ME3 P/M disk alloy specimens heat treated using either a fast or a slow cooling rate from the solutioning treatment. It was shown that dwells at the minimum stress typically produced a greater life debit than the dwells applied at the maximum stress, especially for the slow cooled heat treatment. Two different environmentally driven failure mechanisms were identified as the root cause of early crack initiation in the min dwell tests. Both of these failure mechanisms produced mostly a transgranular crack initiation failure mode and yet still resulted in low NLCF fatigue lives. The lack of stress relaxation during the min dwell tests produced higher notch root stresses which caused early crack initiation and premature failure when combined with the environmentally driven surface degradation mechanisms. The importance of environmental degradation mechanisms was further highlighted by vacuum dwell NLCF tests which resulted in considerably longer NLCF lives, especially for the min dwell tests.

  10. The effect of coverplates on the dwell characteristics of silican carbide subject to KE impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickup, I.M.; Barker, A.K.; Elgy, I.D.; Peskes, G.J.J.M.; Voorde, M.J. van der

    2004-01-01

    The high ballistic efficiency of non-oxide ceramics such as silicon carbide against kinetic energy (KE) threats is largely due to penetrator dwell (the erosion of the tip of the rod prior to ceramic target penetration). This paper considers the effect of target surface conditions on the dwell charac

  11. Spatiotemporal and variability gait data in community-dwelling elderly women from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata N. Kirkwood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Gait is an extremely complex motor task; therefore, gait data should encompass as many gait parameters as possible. Objective To provide reference values for gait measurements obtained from a Brazilian group of community-dwelling elderly females between the ages of 65 and 89 years and to apply the PCA-biplot to yield insight into different walking strategies that might occur during the aging process. Method 305 elderly community-dwelling females living in Brazil were stratified into four age groups: 65-69 years (N=103; 70-74 years (N=95; 75-79 years (N=77; and ≥80 years (N=30. Age, height, and BMI were assessed to describe the characteristics of the groups. Gait spatiotemporal and variability data were obtained using the GAITRite® system. Principal component analysis, followed by MANOVA and the PCA-biplot approach were used to analyze the data. Results 95% CI showed that only three components – rhythm, variability, and support - together explained 74.2% of the total variance in gait that were different among the groups. The older groups (75-79 and ≥80 years walked with lower than average velocity, cadence, and step length and were above average for the variables stance, step, swing, and double support time and the ≥80 year old group presented the highest gait variability compared to the other groups. Conclusion Aging is associated with decreased gait velocity and cadence and increased stance, step time, and variability, but not associated with changes in base of support. In addition, the PCA-biplot indicates a decline towards decreased rhythm and increased variability with aging.

  12. Anxiety symptoms in 74+ community-dwelling elderly: associations with physical morbidity, depression and alcohol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Forlani

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Anxiety among community-dwelling older adults has not been studied sufficiently. The aims of this cross-sectional population-based study were to estimate the point prevalence of clinically relevant anxiety symptoms and to describe their socio-demographic and clinical features, with particular focus on the association with somatic illnesses. METHODS: Three-hundred-sixty-six non-demented older adults (mean age 83.7±6.2, range 74-99 years from the Faenza Project (Northern Italy were assessed using the Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination-Revised (CAMDEX-R and the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory short form (GAI-sf. Multi-adjusted regression analyses were used to estimate Odds Ratio (OR and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI. RESULTS: Clinically relevant anxiety symptoms occurred in one out of five participants (point prevalence 21.0% and were significantly associated with depression (OR 5.6 per rank; 95% CI: 3.1-10.1, physical morbidity (OR 3.5 per illness; 95% CI: 1.0-11.9 and female gender (OR 2.8; 95% CI: 1.4-5.5. Further, there were significant associations with a consumption of alcohol exceeding 1 alcoholic unit/day. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety symptoms are very common in older subjects, especially when medically ill. Depression and alcohol consumption often co-occur with late-life anxiety symptoms, thus requiring special attention in daily clinical practice.

  13. "Pandemic Public Health Paradox": Time Series Analysis of the 2009/10 Influenza A / H1N1 Epidemiology, Media Attention, Risk Perception and Public Reactions in 5 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintjes, Ralf; Das, Enny; Klemm, Celine; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Keßler, Verena; Ahmad, Amena

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, influenza A H1N1 caused the first pandemic of the 21st century. Although a vaccine against this influenza subtype was offered before or at the onset of the second epidemic wave that caused most of the fatal cases in Europe, vaccination rates for that season were lower than expected. We propose that the contradiction between high risk of infection and low use of available prevention measures represents a pandemic public health paradox. This research aims for a better understanding of this paradox by exploring the time-dependent interplay among changing influenza epidemiology, media attention, pandemic control measures, risk perception and public health behavior among five European countries (Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Spain and the UK). Findings suggest that asynchronicity between media curves and epidemiological curves may potentially explain the pandemic public health paradox; media attention for influenza A H1N1 in Europe declined long before the epidemic reached its peak, and public risk perceptions and behaviors may have followed media logic, rather than epidemiological logic.

  14. Dwell position inaccuracy in the Varian GammaMed HDR ring applicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Robin L; Liu, Tianxiao

    2010-09-07

    Varian has issued two Product Notification Letters warning of known inaccuracies in dwell positions for their GammaMed HDR ring applicator. This inaccuracy was measured for two sets of applicators. Autoexposed radiographs were taken of the HDR source at different dwell positions and analyzed per Varian recommendations using tools within the BrachyVision treatment planning program. Comparison between programmed and actual dwell positions showed the actual positions shifted distally by an average of 0.34 cm (0.17 cm-0.59 cm) across all positions in all rings. A correction method was developed and tested. During planning, the tip of the ring was extrapolated distally beyond its actual position in the patient image set and a proximal offset of the same distance was applied to the dwell positions. A global shift of 0.3 mm corrected all but the most proximal actual dwell position to within +2 mm of the planned position.

  15. OPTIMAL DESIGNS AND CAPABILITY LIMITS OF SINGLE ROLLER-TO-CAM INDEXING MECHANISMS FOR THREE DWELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. K. S. TRIPATHI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the continuous contact single roller-to-cam indexing mechanism for optimal designs and capability limits, based on generic transmission and curvature constraint for three dwell periods. First of all, the paper determines the solutions of the problems associated with multiple dwells and then develops optimal designs for three maximum extent dwell periods with equal indexing angles with curvature and transmission constraints. Next, stipulating that the three dwell periods should be equal; iteration is done. This gives optimal designs for three equal maximized dwells with equal indexing periods with curvature and transmission constraints. Final information in the form of capability limits will be very helpful to those who search for various alternative indexing mechanisms for several applications of automatic and packaging industries.

  16. Are You Paying Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørmen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    A still understudied area in media research is how people pay attention to news in daily life. To do so, the chapter develops a theoretical framework grounded in news audience research and practice theory. This framework conceptualizes practices as different ways in which attention is directed...... and sustained. To study such attention practices, 16 semi-structured interviews with adult Danes are carried out. Through a thematic analysis of these interviews, the chapter explores how ways of attending relate to individual media and how patterns of daily life enable some practices and constrain others....... In the concluding discussion, the chapter relates the findings to further perspectives on attention to news specifically and media content more generally. Accordingly, this chapter contributes to cross-media news research by analyzing ways in which people attend to news and how these ways of attending vary across...

  17. Adaptive visual attention model

    OpenAIRE

    Hügli, Heinz; Bur, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    Visual attention, defined as the ability of a biological or artificial vision system to rapidly detect potentially relevant parts of a visual scene, provides a general purpose solution for low level feature detection in a vision architecture. Well considered for its universal detection behaviour, the general model of visual attention is suited for any environment but inferior to dedicated feature detectors in more specific environments. The goal of the development presented in this paper is t...

  18. Attention allocation before antisaccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapetek, Anna; Jonikaitis, Donatas; Deubel, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the distribution of attention before antisaccades. We used a dual task paradigm, in which participants made prosaccades or antisaccades and discriminated the orientation of a visual probe shown at the saccade goal, the visual cue location (antisaccade condition), or a neutral location. Moreover, participants indicated whether they had made a correct antisaccade or an erroneous prosaccade. We observed that, while spatial attention in the prosaccade task was allocated only to the saccade goal, attention in the antisaccade task was allocated both to the cued location and to the antisaccade goal. This suggests parallel attentional selection of the cued and antisaccade locations. We further observed that in error trials--in which participants made an incorrect prosaccade instead of an antisaccade--spatial attention was biased towards the prosaccade goal. These erroneous prosaccades were mostly unnoticed and were often followed by corrective antisaccades with very short latencies (parallel programming of the reflexive prosaccade to the cue and the antisaccade to the intended location. Taken together, our results suggest that attention allocation and saccade goal selection in the antisaccade task are mediated by a common competitive process.

  19. Dwelling habitus and urban out-migration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aner, Louise G.

    2016-01-01

    dwelling habitus” is central. By applying the analytical framework to the study of Danish middle-income families with children, their motives for out-migrating from Copenhagen are explored. Two broad categories of motives for moving are identified: the housing and the anti-urban. The housing motive...... is based on changes in housing needs during family formation and on the limited opportunities in the Copenhagen housing market. The anti-urban motive is based on a wish to bring up children in a non-urban milieu. The paper argues that an understanding of motives that focuses on the interrelationship......This paper examines young Danish families’ motives for leaving the city. By drawing on theories of Bourdieu and Giddens and combining them with a notion of place drawn from human geography, an analytical framework for studying people’s motives for moving is developed. In this framework the concept...

  20. Indoor radon survey in dwellings of some regions in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khayrat, A.H. E-mail: akhayrat@yahoo.com; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Fazal-ur-Rehman, X.; Abu-Jarad, F

    2003-06-01

    Indoor radon survey in a total of 241 dwellings, distributed in some regions of Yemen was performed, using CR-39 based radon monitors. The objective of this radon survey is to get representative indoor radon data of three regions, namely Dhamar, Taiz and Hodeidah, situated at different altitudes above sea level. The radon concentrations varied from 3 to 270 Bq m{sup -3} with an average of 42 Bq m{sup -3}. It was found that the average radon concentration in the surveyed areas increases with altitudes. The highest average radon concentration of 59 Bq m{sup -3} was found in Dhamar city while the lowest average concentration of 8 Bq m{sup -3} was found in Hodeidah city.

  1. Body-size spectra of biofilm-dwelling protozoa and their seasonal shift in coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; Xu, Guangjian; Wang, Zheng; Xu, Henglong

    2016-10-01

    Community-based assessment of protozoa is usually performed at a taxon-dependent resolution. As an inherent 'taxon-free' trait, however, body-size spectrum has proved to be a highly informative indicator to summarize the functional structure of a community in both community research and monitoring programs in aquatic ecosystems. To demonstrate the relationships between the taxon-free resolution of protozoan communities and water conditions, the body-size spectra of biofilm-dwelling protozoa and their seasonal shift and environmental drivers were explored based on an annual dataset collected monthly from coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China. Body sizes were calculated in equivalent spherical diameter (ESD). Among a total of 8 body-size ranks, S2 (19-27μm), S3 (28-36μm), S4 (37-50μm) and S5 (53-71μm) were the top four levels in frequency of occurrence, while rank S1 (13-17μm), S2 and S4 were the dominant levels in abundance. These dominants showed a clear seasonal succession: S2/S4 (spring)→S2/S4 (summer)→S4 (autumn)→S2 (winter) in frequency of occurrence; S1 (spring)→S4 (summer)→S2 (autumn)→S1 (winter) in abundance. Bootstrapped average analysis showed a clear seasonal shift in body-size spectra of the protozoa during a 1-year cycle, and the best-matching analysis demonstrated that the temporal variations in frequency of occurrence and abundance were significantly correlated with water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), alone or in combination with chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrients. Thus, the body-size spectra of biofilm-dwelling protozoa were seasonally shaped and might be used as a time and cost efficient bioindicator of water quality in marine ecosystems.

  2. Metabolic and adaptive immune responses induced in mice infected with tissue-dwelling nematode Trichinella zimbabwensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onkoba, N.; Chimbari, M.J.; Kamau, J.M.; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-dwelling helminths are known to induce intestinal and systemic inflammation accompanied with host compensatory mechanisms to counter balance nutritional and metabolic deficiencies. The metabolic and immune responses of the host depend on parasite species and tissues affected by the parasite. This study investigated metabolic and immuno-inflammatory responses of mice infected with tissue-dwelling larvae of Trichinella zimbabwensis and explored the relationship between infection, metabolic parameters and Th1/Th17 immune responses. Sixty (60) female BALB/c mice aged between 6 to 8 weeks old were randomly assigned into T. zimbabwensis-infected and control groups. Levels of Th1 (interferon-γ) and Th17 (interleukin-17) cytokines, insulin and blood glucose were determined as well as measurements of body weight, food and water intake. Results showed that during the enteric phase of infection, insulin and IFN-γ levels were significantly higher in the Trichinella infected group accompanied with a reduction in the trends of food intake and weight loss compared with the control group. During systemic larval migration, trends in food and water intake were significantly altered and this was attributed to compensatory feeding resulting in weight gain, reduced insulin levels and increased IL-17 levels. Larval migration also induced a Th1/Th17 derived inflammatory response. It was concluded that T. zimbabwensis alters metabolic parameters by instigating host compensatory feeding. Furthermore, we showed for the first time that non-encapsulated T. zimbabwensis parasite plays a role in immunomodulating host Th1/Th17 type responses during chronic infection. PMID:27882304

  3. The Effects of Socio-Economic Status on Infant Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearfield, Melissa W.; Jedd, Kelly E.

    2013-01-01

    The development of visual attention is a key component of cognitive functioning in infancy and childhood. By the time children in poverty reach school, deficits in attention are readily apparent; however, when these attention delays manifest is unknown. The current study tested attention longitudinally at 6, 9 and 12?months in infants from…

  4. Active suppression after involuntary capture of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaki, Risa; Luck, Steven J

    2013-04-01

    After attention has been involuntarily captured by a distractor, how is it reoriented toward a target? One possibility is that attention to the distractor passively fades over time, allowing the target to become attended. Another possibility is that the captured location is actively suppressed so that attention can be directed toward the target location. The present study investigated this issue with event-related potentials (ERPs), focusing on the N2pc component (a neural measure of attentional deployment) and the Pd component (a neural measure of attentional suppression). Observers identified a color-defined target in a search array, which was preceded by a task-irrelevant cue array. When the cue array contained an item that matched the target color, this item captured attention (as measured both behaviorally and with the N2pc component). This capture of attention was followed by active suppression (indexed by the Pd component), and this was then followed by a reorienting of attention toward the target in the search array (indexed by the N2pc component). These findings indicate that the involuntary capture of attention by a distractor is followed by an active suppression process that presumably facilitates the subsequent voluntary orienting of attention to the target.

  5. Attention alters the appearance of motion coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taosheng; Fuller, Stuart; Carrasco, Marisa

    2006-12-01

    Selective attention enhances visual information processing, as measured by behavioral performance and neural activity. However, little is known about its effects on subjective experience. Here, we investigated the effect of transient (exogenous) attention on the appearance of visual motion, using a psychophysical procedure that directly measures appearance and controls for response bias. Observers viewed pairs of moving dot patterns and reported the motion direction of the more coherent pattern. Directing attention (via a peripheral precue) to a stimulus location increased its perceived coherence level and improved performance on a direction discrimination task. In a control experiment, we ruled out response bias by lengthening the time interval between the cue and the stimuli, so that the effect of transient attention could no longer be exerted. Our results are consistent with those of neurophysiological studies showing that attention modulates motion processing and provide evidence of a subjective perceptual correlate of attention, with a concomitant effect on performance.

  6. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Towards a Unified Developmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control…

  7. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D. Barber

    2015-01-01

    While CON–DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON–DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other hand, greater DMN–occipital anti-correlation supported better attentional control in TD children.

  8. Human treadmill walking needs attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Olivier

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to assess the attentional requirements of steady state treadmill walking in human subjects using a dual task paradigm. The extent of decrement of a secondary (cognitive RT task provides a measure of the attentional resources required to maintain performance of the primary (locomotor task. Varying the level of difficulty of the reaction time (RT task is used to verify the priority of allocation of attentional resources. Methods 11 healthy adult subjects were required to walk while simultaneously performing a RT task. Participants were instructed to bite a pressure transducer placed in the mouth as quickly as possible in response to an unpredictable electrical stimulation applied on the back of the neck. Each subject was tested under five different experimental conditions: simple RT task alone and while walking, recognition RT task alone and while walking, walking alone. A foot switch system composed of a pressure sensitive sensor was placed under the heel and forefoot of each foot to determine the gait cycle duration. Results Gait cycle duration was unchanged (p > 0.05 by the addition of the RT task. Regardless of the level of difficulty of the RT task, the RTs were longer during treadmill walking than in sitting conditions (p 0.05 was found between the attentional demand of the walking task and the decrement of performance found in the RT task under varying levels of difficulty. This finding suggests that the healthy subjects prioritized the control of walking at the expense of cognitive performance. Conclusion We conclude that treadmill walking in young adults is not a purely automatic task. The methodology and outcome measures used in this study provide an assessment of the attentional resources required by walking on the treadmill at a steady state.

  9. Attention in Urban Foraging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm McCullough

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This position paper argues how there has to be much more to smart city learning than just wayshowing, and something better as augmented reality than covering the world with instructions. Attention has become something for many people to know better in an age of information superabundance. Embodied cognition explains how the work-ings of attention are not solely a foreground task, as if attention is something to pay. As digital media appear in ever more formats and contexts, their hybrids with physical form increasing influence how habitual engagement with persistent situations creates learning. Ambient information can just add to the distraction by multitasking, or it can support more favorable processes of shifting among different kinds of information with a particular intent. As one word for this latter process, foraging deserves more consideration in smart city learning

  10. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity...... to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...... networks that include several regions outside the visual system. The two visual capacity parameters are functionally separable, but seem to rely on largely overlapping brain areas....

  11. Survey of occupant behaviour and control of indoor environment in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Andersen, Klaus Kaae;

    2009-01-01

    separately by means of multiple logistic regression in order to quantify factors influencing occupants’ behaviour. The window opening behaviour was strongly related to the outdoor temperature. The perception of the environment and factors concerning the dwelling also impacted the window opening behaviour....... The proportion of dwellings with the heating turned on was strongly related to the outdoor temperature and the presence of a wood burning stove. The solar radiation, dwelling ownership conditions and the perception of the indoor environment also affected the use of heating. The results of the statistical...

  12. An Experimental Study of the Thermal Behavior of the Courtyard Style Cave Dwelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳峰; 刘亚; 刘加平

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the courtyard on moderating the hush climate and improving the thermal environment of the courtyard style cave dwelling, and the interaction amongst the ambient, the courtyard and its surrounding cave rooms were investigated. A field measurement was carried out in such a typical dwelling in the winter. The results presented in this paper prove the ability of this dwelling to transform an extreme winter environment outside cave rooms into a better outdoor community space and will be helpful for modern architects to seek a low cost housing solution with concern for sustainable development.

  13. Personality and Selective Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-28

    1977) have integrated information processing models of attention with social learning theory in order to conoeptualize the behavior change process...consistency at these loci. ’M Nielsen & Sarason 35 References Bandura, A. Social learning theory . Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice- Hall, Inc

  14. Visual attention and stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathot, Sebastiaan; Theeuwes, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In the present review, we address the relationship between attention and visual stability. Even though with each eye, head and body movement the retinal image changes dramatically, we perceive the world as stable and are able to perform visually guided actions. However, visual stability is not as co

  15. Attention and Distraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to examine the interrelationship between attention and distraction in the reception of video installation art, a genre which is commonly associated with "immersion" and an intensified feeling of presence in the discourses on new media art and installation art. This tends to veil...

  16. Pain and attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Jorian Hendry Gerwin

    2017-01-01

    The ability to sense pain may be considered as a prerequisite for human survival. The experience of pain helps humans to avoid the execution of actions that can seriously endanger their lives; pain is therefore evolutionarily predisposed to interrupt and capture attention. However, this supposed int

  17. Selective Attention and Drug Related Attention Bias in Methadone Maintenance Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Nejati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems of the drug abusers is drug related attention bias, which causes craving, and as a result drive the drug abusers to take narcotics. Methadone is used as a maintenance treatment for drug abusers. The purpose of this study is evaluation of the effect of Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT on selective attention and drug related attention bias. This study investigated drug cue-related attention bias and selective attention in 16 methadone-maintained patients before and 45 days after methadone therapy period. Stroop color-word test and addiction Stroop test were used as measurement methods. Results show less reaction time and higher accuracy in Color-Word Stroop Test after MMT and less delay for addict related word in addiction Stroop test. It is concluded that methadone can improve selective attention capability and reduce drug related attention bias.

  18. Factors influencing detection of eDNA from a stream-dwelling amphibian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Arkle, Robert S.; Waits, Lisette P.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) methods for detecting and estimating abundance of aquatic species are emerging rapidly, but little is known about how processes such as secretion rate, environmental degradation, and time since colonization or extirpation from a given site affect eDNA measurements. Using stream-dwelling salamanders and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis, we conducted three experiments to assess eDNA: (i) production rate; (ii) persistence time under different temperature and light conditions; and (iii) detectability and concentration through time following experimental introduction and removal of salamanders into previously unoccupied streams. We found that 44–50 g individuals held in aquaria produced 77 ng eDNA/h for 2 h, after which production either slowed considerably or began to equilibrate with degradation. eDNA in both full-sun and shaded treatments degraded exponentially to 2) and when samples were collected within 5 m of the animals. Concentrations of eDNA detected were very low and increased steadily from 6–24 h after introduction, reaching 0.0022 ng/L. Within 1 h of removing salamanders from the stream, eDNA was no longer detectable. These results suggest that eDNA detectability and concentration depend on production rates of individuals, environmental conditions, density of animals, and their residence time.

  19. Attention in schizophrenia and in epileptic psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.C.J Kairalla

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive behavior of human beings is usually supported by rapid monitoring of outstanding events in the environment. Some investigators have suggested that a primary attention deficit might trigger symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition, researchers have long discussed the relationship between schizophrenia and the schizophrenia-like psychosis of epilepsy (SLPE. On the basis of these considerations, the objective of the present study was to investigate attention performance of patients with both disorders. Patient age was 18 to 60 years, and all patients had received formal schooling for at least four years. Patients were excluded if they had any systemic disease with neurologic or psychiatric comorbidity, or a history of brain surgery. The computer-assisted TAVIS-2R test was applied to all patients and to a control group to evaluate and discriminate between selective, alternating and sustained attention. The TAVIS-2R test is divided into three parts: one for selective attention (5 min, the second for alternating attention (5 min, and the third for the evaluation of vigilance or sustained attention (10 min. The same computer software was used for statistical analysis of reaction time, omission errors, and commission errors. The sample consisted of 36 patients with schizophrenia, 28 with interictal SLPE, and 47 healthy controls. The results of the selective attention tests for both patient groups were significantly lower than that for controls. The patients with schizophrenia and SLPE performed differently in the alternating and sustained attention tests: patients with SLPE had alternating attention deficits, whereas patients with schizophrenia showed deficits in sustained attention. These quantitative results confirmed the qualitative clinical observations for both patient groups, that is, that patients with schizophrenia had difficulties in focusing attention, whereas those with epilepsy showed perseveration in attention focus.

  20. Assessment of postural balance in community-dwelling older adults - methodological aspects and effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech

    citizens' centers and/or in the home of the elderly. The results presented in this thesis suggest that strict control of time-of-day is an important methodological aspect when evaluating postural balance in older adults, and an assessment protocol using the Nintendo Wii-Balance Board is reproducible......The overall purpose of this thesis was to examine selected methodological aspects and novel approaches for measuring postural balance older adults, and to examine the effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training on selected physiological, psychological and functional outcome variables...... in community-dwelling older adults. In Study I balance control was investigated using force plate analysis of Centre of Pressure (COP) excursion during static bilateral standing in 32 community-dwelling older adults at three different time-points (09:00, 12:30, and 16:00) throughout the day. An overall...

  1. Indoor radon measurements in the dwellings of Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh, India, using LR-115 nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhiman, M. [Punjab Technical University (India); Mehra, R. [Department of Physics, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology (India); Tyagi, A.K. [Department of Applied Sciences, Shaheed Bhagat Singh College of Engineering and Technology (India)

    2014-07-01

    Study of indoor radon was carried out in the domestic environment of 15 villages of Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh, India. Time integrated track etch technique has been used for the measurement of indoor radon levels. Bare cellulose nitrate LR-115 type II films have been used as detectors in the survey of indoor radon for four seasons of three months each covering a period of one year from March 2012 to March 2013. The houses were chosen randomly in such a way that the dwellings constructed with different types of building materials such as soil, bricks, cement, marble, concrete, wood in different localities of the village are covered. It has been found that indoor radon concentration depends upon the type of house, ventilation condition etc. The calibration constant of 1 track cm{sup -2} day{sup -1} which is equal to 50 Bqm{sup -3} has been used to express radon concentration in Bqm{sup -3}. The conversion factors have been used to calculate the exposure (an exposure of an individual to radon progeny of 1 WLM is equivalent to 3.54 mJ h m{sup -3}), the annual effective dose (1 WLM=3.88 mSv) and the lifetime fatality risk (3 x 10{sup -4} WLM). Indoor radon concentrations were found to vary from 132.25 Bqm{sup -3} to 449.75 Bqm{sup -3} with an average value of 261.40 Bqm{sup -3}. Annual effective dose in these dwellings were found to vary form 2.78 mSv to 7.68 mSv with an average value of 4.5 mSv. The average radon concentration in dwellings in most of the villages falls in the action level (200-600 Bqm{sup -3}) recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  2. 陕北窑洞民居发展对策研究%Study on Development Countermeasures of Cave Dwellings in Northern Area of Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程军

    2011-01-01

    ,transportation was not convenient, indoor ventilation and lighting were insufficient, and pattern and space were simplified and stereotyped. In terms of opportunities, it stressed architectural ecology having received more and more attention in the world,and exploration and application of underground civil architecture. In terms of threats,it lied in construction technology of cave dwelling,contradiction between cave dwelling and urbanization and between cave dwelling and modern life,and management mode of restricted type. On this basis,it suggested that cave dwelling development in northern area of Shaanxi should transform people' s traditional concept through correct guidance of public voice; strive to eliminate weakness of cave dwelling; improve cave dwelling environment by enhancing infrastructure construction; develop characteristic cave dwelling cultural tourism in northern area of Shaanxi, and construct socialist new countryside of northern Shaanxi character.

  3. Mental training enhances attentional stability: neural and behavioral evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, A.; Slagter, H.A.; Rawlings, N.B.; Francis, A.D.; Greischar, L.L.; Davidson, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The capacity to stabilize the content of attention over time varies among individuals, and its impairment is a hallmark of several mental illnesses. Impairments in sustained attention in patients with attention disorders have been associated with increased trial-to-trial variability in reaction time

  4. Numerical Simulation Analysis and Ecological Evaluation on Wind Environment of Dwelling Groups in Severe Cold Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Jin; Teng Shao

    2014-01-01

    The wind environment around residential building groups is increasingly concerned, while the dwelling groups as the elementary unit of planning design, its quality of surrounding wind environment will directly affect people’ s life. This study based on the climatic conditions of severe cold regions, selects four dwellings groups with different openings scale and position as the research objects, and then simulates and analyzes the wind speed distribution characteristics of each pattern. Meanwhile, it extracts the wind speed values of one hundred points of each pattern and applies the coefficient of uniformity method to the ecological evaluation. It has been found that grouping pattern of buildings has a dramatic effect on the resulting airflow behavior. Configurations that contain a T⁃shaped central space with small opened side can effectively prevent and contain airflow in the site offer. The interactive influence between layout of dwelling groups and wind environment are explored, so as to provide basis for the planning design of dwelling groups.

  5. Determinants of ventilation behavior in naturally ventilated dwellings: Identification and quantification of relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levie, D.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Hoes-van Oeffelen, E.C.M.; Hofstetter, H.; Janssen, S.A.; Spiekman, M.E.; Koene, F.G.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ventilation in dwellings is essential for well-being and health. However, insight in determinants of ventilation behavior is still limited. Aim: Identifying determinants of ventilation behavior and quantifying relationships. Secondly, identifying households characteristics associated wit

  6. Perceived Environmental Barriers to Outdoor Mobility and Feelings of Loneliness Among Community-Dwelling Older People.

    OpenAIRE

    Rantakokko, Merja; Iwarsson, Susanne; Vahaluoto, Satu; Portegijs, Erja; Viljanen, Anne; Rantanen, Taina

    2014-01-01

    We examined the association between perceived environmental barriers to outdoor mobility and loneliness among community-dwelling older people. In addition, we studied whether walking difficulties and autonomy in participation outdoors affected this association.

  7. Stoichiometry of excreta and excretion rates of a stream-dwelling plethodontid salamander

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Stoichiometry of excreta and excretion rates of a stream-dwelling plethodontid salamander in Cincinnati, OH, USA. This dataset is associated with the following...

  8. Evaluation of doses and protection afforded by dwellings against atmospheric releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Grand, J.; Roux, Y. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire); Patau, J.P. (Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Faculte de Pharmacie)

    1985-01-01

    A computer program library allowing complete simulation of photon transport for a radioactive cloud surrounding a simplified dwelling and a human phantom are described. Results on radiation spectra, doses and protection factors are presented.

  9. Two systems drive attention to rewards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher K Kovach

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available How options are framed can dramatically influence choice preference. While salience of information plays a central role in this effect, precisely how it is mediated by attentional processes remains unknown. Current models assume a simple relationship between attention and choice, according to which attention should uniformly bias preference towards the attended item over the whole time-course of a decision between similarly valued items. To test this prediction we considered how framing alters attention during a simple choice between two options, using eye movements as a sensitive online measure of attention. In one condition participants selected the less preferred item to discard and in the other, the more preferred item to keep. We replicated the well-known observation that gaze gravitates towards the item ultimately selected, but did not observe the effect to be uniform over time. Instead, we found evidence for distinct early and late processes that guide attention according to preference in the first case and task demands in the second. We conclude that multiple time-dependent processes govern attention during choice, and that these may contribute to framing effects in different ways.

  10. Attentional mechanisms in the generation of sympathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Dickert

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Empathic responses, such as sympathy towards others, are a key ingredient in the decision to provide help to those in need. The determinants of empathic responses are usually thought to be the vividness, similarity, and proximity of the victim. However, recent research highlights the role that attention plays in the generation of feelings. We expanded on this idea by investigating whether sympathy depends on cognitive mechanisms such as attention. In two studies we found that sympathy responses were lower and reaction times were longer when targets were presented with distractors. In addition, online sympathy judgments that allow attentional focusing on a target lead to greater affective responses than judgments made from memory. We conclude that attention is an ingredient in the generation of sympathy, and discuss implications for research on prosocial behaviour and the interaction between attention and emotions.

  11. The dynamic pattern of human attention

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min

    2013-01-01

    A mass of traces of human activities show diverse dynamic patterns. In this paper, we comprehensively investigate the dynamic pattern of human attention defined by the quantity of interests on subdisciplines in an online academic communication forum. Both the expansion and exploration of human attention have a power-law scaling relation with browsing actions, of which the exponent is close to that in one-dimension random walk. Furthermore, the memory effect of human attention is characterized by the power-law distributions of both the return interval time and return interval steps, which is reinforced by studying the attention shift that monotonically increase with the interval order between pairs of continuously segmental sequences of expansion. At last, the observing dynamic pattern of human attention in the browsing process is analytically described by a dynamic model whose generic mechanism is analogy to that of human spatial mobility. Thus, our work not only enlarges the research scope of human dynamics,...

  12. Individual Differences in Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Psychology Technical Report, August, 1977. It Attention 50 References Atkinson , R.C., & Shiffrin , R.M. Human memory : A proposed system and its control...referred to as a continuous paired assoc- iates task. The present form was developed by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968), who used it to test their buffer...They found that digit memori - zation Interfered with sentence comprehension. Baddeley and Hitch’s inter- pretation was that the two tasks competed for

  13. Physiological ecology of the mangrove-dwelling varanid Varanus indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James G; Christian, Keith; Green, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Some species of terrestrial lizards in wet-dry tropical climates reduce their body temperatures (T(b)'s) and activity and lower their metabolic rates during the dry season when food and water resources are scarce. However, semiaquatic lizards have access to water and presumably food throughout the year, so it is possible that they will not have the seasonal response seen in terrestrial species. We studied the thermal biology, energetics, and water flux of Varanus indicus, a semiaquatic, mangrove-dwelling varanid in tropical northern Australia. Although V. indicus remained active all year, they reduced their activity in the dry season, but not to the extent of terrestrial varanids. Varanus indicus field metabolic rates decreased by 38% in the dry season mostly as a result of the reduction in activity. Although food and water depletion are the driving forces behind decreases in dry season T(b) selection and energetics for many varanids, V. indicus appears not to be subject to these pressures to the same extent. Thermoregulatory indices indicate that V. indicus actively thermoregulate in the wet and dry seasons, but they do not fully exploit the available thermal resources. These lizards are unusual among varanid lizards in that their midday T(b)'s are relatively low (about 31 degrees C) despite the availability of thermal resources that would allow them to attain substantially higher T(b)'s.

  14. Sustainable Housing in Chilean Patagonia: From Greenhouse to Dwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Osorio Schmied

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The complete lack of a sustainable housing market in the cold and rainy context of Valdivia, Southern Chile (39°49’ S, 73°14’ W, draws the need to find an affordable solution for the construction of energy-efficient living spaces. A team of architects undertook the challenge, whilst acknowledging other environmental issues such as the use of recycled materials. Based on research, the greenhouse principle was the focus of the design, as it dealt with prevailing weather conditions in a more proper fashion, by maximising daylight and solar gains during the long, cold winter, and also by allowing small-scale farming all year round, amongst other features. The greenhouse was thought to perform more as an in-between space -in terms of temperature and lightning- to all common zones in a house (e.g., a doorway or a living room, rather than applying to each inhabited space, individually. The architects researched on the above qualities to see whether they applied to the new prototype or not. Both potential overheating -in the short warm season- and glare risks were taken into account, by conducting specific environmental assessments (e.g., natural lighting levels on both physical and virtual models. Keywords: Environmental design, sustainable dwellings, Southern Chile, extreme weather.

  15. Electron microscopic examination of uncultured soil-dwelling bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amako, Kazunobu; Takade, Akemi; Taniai, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2008-05-01

    Bacteria living in soil collected from a rice paddy in Fukuoka, Japan, were examined by electron microscopy using a freeze-substitution fixation method. Most of the observed bacteria could be categorized, based on the structure of the cell envelope and overall morphology, into one of five groups: (i) bacterial spore; (ii) Gram-positive type; (iii) Gram-negative type; (iv) Mycobacterium like; and (v) Archaea like. However, a few of the bacteria could not be readily categorized into one of these groups because they had unique cell wall structures, basically resembling those of Gram-negative bacteria, but with the layer corresponding to the peptidoglycan layer in Gram-negative bacteria being extremely thick, like that of the cortex of a bacterial spore. The characteristic morphological features found in many of these uncultured, soil-dwelling cells were the nucleoid being in a condensed state and the cytoplasm being shrunken. We were able to produce similar morphologies in vitro using a Salmonella sp. by culturing under low-temperature, low-nutrient conditions, similar to those found in some natural environments. These unusual morphologies are therefore hypothesized to be characteristic of bacteria in resting or dormant stages.

  16. [association Between Insomnia Symptoms, Daytime Napping, And Falls In Community-dwelling Elderly].

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,Alexandre Alves; Ceolim, Maria Filomena; Neri,Anita Liberalesso

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on associations between insomnia symptoms, daytime napping, and falls in community-dwelling elderly, using a population-based cross-sectional design and probability sample with 689 community-dwelling elders. The protocol consisted of self-reported and physical performance variables. The study used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis with statistical significance set at p < 0.05. Prevalence rates for insomnia symptoms and daytime napping were 49.9% (n = ...

  17. Dual-tasking over an extended walking distance is associated with falls among community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirashima K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kenichi Hirashima,1,2 Yumi Higuchi,1 Masakazu Imaoka,1 Emiko Todo,1 Tomomi Kitagawa,1 Tetsuya Ueda11Graduate School of Comprehensive Rehabilitation, Osaka Prefecture University, Habikino Campus, Habikino City, Osaka, Japan; 2Faculty of Health and Welfare, Department of Physical Therapy, Tokushima Bunri University, Nishihamaboji, Yamashiro Town, Tokushima City, Tokushima, Japan Aim: Dual-task methods, in which walking is the primary task, are not sufficient for accurately screening for the risk of falls among healthy older adults. Therefore, the goal of this research was to investigate whether using a dual-task method over an extended walking distance can predict falls among community-dwelling older adults.Methods: We enrolled independent community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years. Physical performance, cognitive function, psychological function, and a dual-task test were assessed at baseline. Our dual-task test required the subjects to walk 60 m while stepping over lines. The intervals between the lines ranged from 50–100 cm and were unequal. Falls and fall-related injuries were measured over a 12-month follow-up period using monthly postal surveys. Results: Ninety-two of 118 subjects (mean age, 75.4±5.5 years completed the 12-month follow-up. Sixteen (17.4% of fallers had injurious falls or fell more than or equal to two times. There were no significant differences between the fallers and non-fallers, except in age and in the number of missteps during the dual-task test when walking ≥40 m. The Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed that those who had more than one misstep while walking ≥40 m had a significantly higher incidence of injurious or multiple falls than those who had no missteps.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the dual-task method with an extended walking distance may be able to predict falls among community-dwelling older adults. Keywords: cohort study, community-dwelling older adults, dual-task, falls

  18. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Toward a Unified Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children’s performances in an attention switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control during the preschool years. The second literature encompasses a large and robust set of phenomena for the same developmental period that indicate a ...

  19. Ontogenetic shifts in terrestrial reliance of stream-dwelling brown trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez-Hernández

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on terrestrial reliance of brown trout (Salmo trutta and compared it to the potential prey available (macrozoobenthos and drifting invertebrates in three temperate rivers (Galicia, NW Spain, with special emphasis on variations in terrestrial energy intake through the ontogeny of brown trout. Additionally, we paid particular attention to individual variation of terrestrial resource use within and between age classes. Prey items were grouped in four categories: i aquatic invertebrates; ii imagoes of aquatic invertebrates; iii terrestrial invertebrates; and iv fish prey. Next, energy composition was measured according to dry weight-energy equations for each individual in line with above-mentioned prey categories. Our findings illustrate that terrestrial invertebrates appeared to be scarce in the environment, whereas aquatic food resources were rather abundant and accessible. The use of terrestrial invertebrates tended to increase with age, but with a high degree of inter-individual variation in resource use. In fact, the individual reliance of brown trout on terrestrial invertebrates may vary considerably (between 0% and 76.9%. Besides, the frequency of terrestrial foragers, i.e., individuals with terrestrial invertebrates in their stomachs, increased with age, except in one population which had the maximum value in the age-2 class. The acquisition of terrestrial invertebrates thus appears to be a process strongly dependent upon the actual food availability in the environment, but with a high degree of individual variance in resource use within the same age class. Finally, we discuss that terrestrial invertebrates may largely contribute to cover the energy intake of the species, highlighting the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and thereby the importance of riparian canopy cover as a key factor for food supply of stream-dwelling salmonids species.

  20. Sustained Attention in Children With Two Etiologies of Early Hydrocephalus

    OpenAIRE

    Swartwout, Maegan D.; Cirino, Paul T.; Hampson, Amy W.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Brandt, Michael E.; Dennis, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have shown that children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) and hydrocephalus have attention problems on parent ratings and difficulties in stimulus orienting associated with a posterior brain attention system. Less is known about response control and inhibition associated with an anterior brain attention system. Using the Gordon Vigilance Task (Gordon, 1983), we studied error rate, reaction time, and performance over time for sustained attention, a key anterior attentio...

  1. Taxonomic study of Chinese species of the genus Macropsis Lewis, 1836 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae) III: a review of oak-dwelling species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu; Dai, Ren-Huai; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    The group of Chinese Macropsis species dwelling on oak (Quercus spp.) is reviewed and nine species are recognized. Among them, three new species, Macropsis huangbana sp. nov. from Shaanxi and Yunnan Provinces, M. latiprocessa sp. nov. from Guizhou Province and M. longiprocessa sp. nov. from Yunnan Province, are described and illustrated; M. irenae Viraktamath, 1981 (= M. irrorata Tishechkin, 2002, nec Matsumura, 1912) is recorded from China and Japan for the first time; M. meifengensis Huang & Viraktamath, 1993 and M. jozankeana (Matsumura, 1912) are redescribed based on examination of specimens from mainland China and adjacent territories of Russia respectively; translation of the original description of M. rubrosternalis Kuoh, 1992 from Chinese is provided, also a key to species of Oak-dwelling Macropsis from China is present.

  2. Dietary protein intake is associated with lean body mass in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsdottir, Olof G; Arnarson, Atli; Ramel, Alfons; Jonsson, Palmi V; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-08-01

    Lean body mass (LBM) is important to maintain physical function during aging. We hypothesized that dietary protein intake and leisure-time physical activity are associated with LBM in community-dwelling older adults. To test the hypothesis, participants (n = 237; age, 65-92 years) did 3-day weighed food records and reported physical activity. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Protein intake was 0.98 ± 0.28 and 0.95 ± 0.29 g/kg body weight in male and female participants, respectively. Protein intake (in grams per kilogram of body weight) was associated with LBM (in kilograms); that is, the differences in LBM were 2.3 kg (P protein intake, respectively. Only a minor part of this association was explained by increased energy intake, which follows an increased protein intake. Our study shows that dietary protein intake was positively associated with LBM in older adults with a mean protein intake higher than the current recommended daily allowance of 0.8 g/kg per day. Leisure-time physical activity, predominantly consisting of endurance type exercises, was not related to LBM in this group.

  3. A neurodynamic model of the attentional blink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragopanagos, Nickolaos; Kockelkoren, Stephanus; Taylor, John G

    2005-08-01

    A brain-based neural model of attention is used to simulate results for the 'attentional blink', observed when a subject is exposed to a rapid stream of stimuli and required to monitor for two successive targets in the stream. The 'blink' occurs when the time between the first and second targets is 200-500 ms, when there is reduced accuracy for report of the second target. The model gives a qualitative explanation of the phenomenon, especially of how attention is bolstered, during the processing to report of a given stimulus, in order to defend reportable information from attack by distracters.

  4. The effect of methylphenidate on sustained attention among adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufi, Dubi; Bassin-Savion, Shiry; Rubel, Lilach

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-seven adolescents diagnosed as having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were tested twice with a computerized MATH-CPT (mathematics continuous performance test). In one administration, the participants took medication (methylphenidate, MPH) 1.5 hr before being tested. In another administration, the MATH-CPT was administered without the medication. Treatment with MPH improved the "overall attention level" and in measures of "reaction time" and "impulsivity." MPH did not improve the performance in the four measures of sustained attention. Knowing that treatment with MPH does not improve sustained attention can be helpful in reaching a decision of whether or not a child should be treated with MPH.

  5. Odors enhance visual attention to congruent objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Han-Seok; Roidl, Ernst; Müller, Friedrich; Negoias, Simona

    2010-06-01

    Although it is well known that visual stimuli affect olfactory performance, little is known about the reverse case: the influence of odor on visual performance. This study aimed to determine whether odors can enhance attention towards visually presented objects congruent with the odors. Sixty healthy participants were presented with four odors (orange, lavender, coffee, and liquorice) before and during the presentation of photographic slides containing one congruent and three incongruent objects with the presented odors. The participants' visual attention was assessed as the total number and time of eye fixations by using an eye tracking system. When the participants smelled an odor, they looked more frequently and longer at a corresponding object as compared to the odorless condition. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate for the first time an olfactory priming effect on visual selective attention: odor can increase attention towards a congruent visual object as compared to a non-odor condition.

  6. Attention, Predation, Counterintuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Bram Stoker’s seminal horror novel Dracula (1897) has been subjected to a vast number of different critical readings, many of which are deeply flawed, e.g. by proceeding from defunct psychological theories. Incorporating recent advances in evolutionary social science, I offer a biocultural reading...... of Dracula to account for the novel’s impact and resilience. Dracula connected squarely with late-Victorian anxieties, but the novel also appeals to trans-historical adaptive dispositions. I analyze Stoker’s use of narrative strategies to grab and sustain attention, and Count Dracula as a supercharged...

  7. Neurofibromatozis and Attention Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ERYILMAZ et al.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type VI, a disease characterized by the presence of café-au-lait spots withoutthe presence of neurofibromas typically present in neurofibromatosis, as well as cognitivefunction and speech problems, often shows neurological involvement. We describe a case of a14-year-old child who has speech problems and isolated cafè-au-lait macules. We performedan IQ test on him and he scored 70 points. His problems started when he was approximately 5years old (school age. He was diagnosed with attention deficit disorder syndrome withouthyperactivity after neuropsychiatric investigation. We reported this case to improve recognitionof NF VI in children who have cognitive function problems.

  8. Strategies for energy saving in warm climate dwellings; Estrategias de ahorro de energia para viviendas en clima calido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilatowsky, I [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Ramos Niembro, Gaudencio [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia -CONAE (Mexico); Morillon, David [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Oskam, A. [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-04-15

    The domestic sector consumes almost one quarter of the national electrical energy. In order to reduce in an important manner the power consumption in dwellings there is an integral alternative based on three elements: the bio-climatic design, the saving and efficient use of the energy in equipment and apparatuses, and the use of centralized air conditioning systems. Besides saving the electrical and thermal power consumption, with this scheme, comfort conditions are pretended to be reached in dwellings and, contributing at the same time, to the diminution of polluting emissions. [Spanish] El sector domestico consume casi una cuarta parte de la energia electrica nacional. Con objeto de reducir de manera importante el consumo de energia en las viviendas, se presenta una alternativa integral, basada en tres elementos: el diseno bioclimatico, el ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia en equipos y aparatos, y la utilizacion de sistemas de climatizacion centralizados. Ademas del ahorro en el consumo de energia electrica y termica, con este esquema se pretende alcanzar condiciones de confort en las viviendas y, al mismo tiempo, contribuir a la disminucion de emisiones contaminantes.

  9. Seasonal Variation in Population Abundance and Chytrid Infection in Stream-Dwelling Frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Ruggeri

    Full Text Available Enigmatic amphibian declines were first reported in southern and southeastern Brazil in the late 1980s and included several species of stream-dwelling anurans (families Hylodidae and Cycloramphidae. At that time, we were unaware of the amphibian-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd; therefore, pollution, habitat loss, fragmentation and unusual climatic events were hypothesized as primary causes of these declines. We now know that multiple lineages of Bd have infected amphibians of the Brazilian Atlantic forest for over a century, yet declines have not been associated specifically with Bd outbreaks. Because stream-dwelling anurans occupy an environmental hotspot ideal for disease transmission, we investigated temporal variation in population and infection dynamics of three stream-adapted species (Hylodes asper, H. phyllodes, and Cycloramphus boraceiensis on the northern coast of São Paulo state, Brazil. We surveyed standardized transects along streams for four years, and show that fluctuations in the number of frogs correlate with specific climatic variables that also increase the likelihood of Bd infections. In addition, we found that Bd infection probability in C. boraceiensis, a nocturnal species, was significantly higher than in Hylodes spp., which are diurnal, suggesting that the nocturnal activity may either facilitate Bd zoospore transmission or increase susceptibility of hosts. Our findings indicate that, despite long-term persistence of Bd in Brazil, some hosts persist with seasonally variable infections, and thus future persistence in the face of climate change will depend on the relative effect of those changes on frog recruitment and pathogen proliferation.

  10. Improving the automated detection of refugee/IDP dwellings using the multispectral bands of the WorldView-2 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Thomas; Gueguen, Lionel; Soille, Pierre

    2012-06-01

    The enumeration of the population remains a critical task in the management of refugee/IDP camps. Analysis of very high spatial resolution satellite data proofed to be an efficient and secure approach for the estimation of dwellings and the monitoring of the camp over time. In this paper we propose a new methodology for the automated extraction of features based on differential morphological decomposition segmentation for feature extraction and interactive training sample selection from the max-tree and min-tree structures. This feature extraction methodology is tested on a WorldView-2 scene of an IDP camp in Darfur Sudan. Special emphasis is given to the additional available bands of the WorldView-2 sensor. The results obtained show that the interactive image information tool is performing very well by tuning the feature extraction to the local conditions. The analysis of different spectral subsets shows that it is possible to obtain good results already with an RGB combination, but by increasing the number of spectral bands the detection of dwellings becomes more accurate. Best results were obtained using all eight bands of WorldView-2 satellite.

  11. Ancient earthen constructions and antiseismic dwellings: Boni's project after the earthquake of 13th January 1915 (Avezzano, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Beranger

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available After the earthquake of 13th January 1915, the archaeologist Giacomo Boni (1859-1925, inspired by ancient building techniques. proposed the reconstruction of Marsica and the Middle Liri Valley with earthen dwellings. With the cooperation of the Italian Ministry of Agriculture, he organized an exhibition where he collected samples of vegetal trellises which were an essential support to implement these techniques. Furthermore, he rebuilt two huts on the Palatine (Orti Farnesiani: one rectangular, the other circular, inspired by terracotta urns which he himself had discovered a few years earlier exploring the famous ancient tombs in the Forum Romanum, near the temple of Antonino and Faustina, by the Via Sacra. Boni's unusual proposal was intended as an alternative to the plans put forward by seismic engineering which was developing in Italy at that time. This is a prime example of a clash between two different outlooks and cultures (humanism versus science each of which claimed to offer solutions to attenuate the effect of earthquakes. We have so far been unable to establish whether any earthen dwellings were actually constructed in Marsica or the surroundings of Sora for the survivors of the earthquake of 13th January 1915. Unfortunately, only one of the many houses built with this technique. still existing in the Soran countryside can be dated (1924.

  12. Physical activity, quality of life and symptoms of depression in community-dwelling and institutionalized older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salguero, Alfonso; Martínez-García, Raquel; Molinero, Olga; Márquez, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate in a sample of Spanish elderly whether measures of physical activity are related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and symptoms of depression in community dwelling and institutionalized elderly. The sample was a cohort of 436 elderly (234 women and 202 men, aged 60-98 years) from the North of Spain. 58% were community-dwellers and 42% were institutionalized in senior residences. Participants completed measures of physical activity (Yale Physical Activity Survey, YPAS), HRQoL (Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey, SF-36) and symptoms of depression (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS). All SF-36 domains, except role-emotional, were significantly correlated with the YPAS activity dimension summary index. Physical function, role-physical, general health and vitality correlated with total time activity, and correlations were observed between weekly energy expenditure and physical function, role physical, vitality and mental health. Depressive symptom scores correlated significantly with the YPAS activity dimension summary index and the weekly energy expenditure. Scores for various domains of the SF-36 and for depressive symptoms significantly differed among less and more active individuals of the same sex and institutionalization category. Differences generally reached a higher extent in institutionalized subjects in comparison to community dwellers. In conclusion, physical activity was related to different domains of both the physical and mental components of HRQoL and to decreased depressive symptoms. Results emphasize the positive effects of physical activity in both community-dwelling and institutionalized older adults.

  13. Individual differences in attentional modulation of cortical responses correlate with selective attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Inyong; Wang, Le; Bharadwaj, Hari; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    Many studies have shown that attention modulates the cortical representation of an auditory scene, emphasizing an attended source while suppressing competing sources. Yet, individual differences in the strength of this attentional modulation and their relationship with selective attention ability are poorly understood. Here, we ask whether differences in how strongly attention modulates cortical responses reflect differences in normal-hearing listeners' selective auditory attention ability. We asked listeners to attend to one of three competing melodies and identify its pitch contour while we measured cortical electroencephalographic responses. The three melodies were either from widely separated pitch ranges ("easy trials"), or from a narrow, overlapping pitch range ("hard trials"). The melodies started at slightly different times; listeners attended either the leading or lagging melody. Because of the timing of the onsets, the leading melody drew attention exogenously. In contrast, attending the lagging melody required listeners to direct top-down attention volitionally. We quantified how attention amplified auditory N1 response to the attended melody and found large individual differences in the N1 amplification, even though only correctly answered trials were used to quantify the ERP gain. Importantly, listeners with the strongest amplification of N1 response to the lagging melody in the easy trials were the best performers across other types of trials. Our results raise the possibility that individual differences in the strength of top-down gain control reflect inherent differences in the ability to control top-down attention.

  14. Radon concentrations in different types of dwellings in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, L; Koch, J; Riemer, T; Orion, I; Haquin, G

    2014-12-01

    The average radon concentration in Israeli dwellings was assessed by combining the results of a 2006 radon survey in single-family houses with the results of a 2011 radon survey in apartments of multistorey buildings. Both surveys were based on long-term measurements using CR-39 detectors. The survey in multistorey buildings was intended to assess the influence of recent practices in the local building industry on the radon concentrations. These practices include the use of building materials with higher concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the last 20 y than before, as well as the improvement in sealing techniques over that period. Another practice in place since the early 1990 s is the building of a shielded area in every apartment that is known as an RSS (residential secure space). The RSS is a room built from massive concrete walls, floor and ceiling that can be hermetically sealed and is intended to protect its residents from a missile attack. The influence of the above-mentioned features on radon concentrations was estimated by dividing the participating apartments into two groups: apartments in buildings >20 y, built using building materials with low concentrations of the natural radionuclides, regular sealing and without an RSS and apartments in buildings newer than 10 y, built using building materials with higher concentrations of the natural radionuclides, improved sealing and including an RSS. It was found that the average radon concentration in apartments in new buildings was significantly higher than in old buildings and the average radon concentration in single-family houses was significantly higher than in apartments in multistorey buildings. Doses due to indoor radon were estimated on the basis of the updated information included in the 2009 International Commission on Radiological Protection statement on radon.

  15. Policy Instruments to Improve Energy Performance of Existing Owner Occupied Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Colette Murphy

    2016-11-01

    receipt of instruments. Moreover, the complete range of national instruments available at the time of the survey were studied to present a complete picture. A more detailed description of the methodologies adopted is presented below.MethodologyAn aim of research was to offer qualified accounts and a deeper analysis of how instruments for energy performance improvement in existing dwellings function. Research components focused on both individual instruments and combinations using a triangulation of methods and sources: expert interviews, a survey and literature review.The first step towards meeting the aim of research was to characterise and assess national instruments in the Netherlands. In the absence of an assessment framework for policy instruments in this domain one was created using elements of the theory based evaluation method and concepts from literature. All national energy performance instruments operating at the time that could influence energy  performance improvement for space and water heating in existing dwellings were included in the evaluation. Data was obtained from face to face semi-structured interviews with 19 stakeholders involved in lobbying, designing, implementing and evaluating instruments. Interviewee data was complemented with secondary sources, including; evaluations of the national climate change programme, evaluations of individual instruments, cross country evaluations and European projects in which the Netherlands participated. An online survey of owner-occupiers covering the same instruments as the characterization and assessment of instruments described above was conducted to expand the investigation into instruments. More than 5,000 Dutch owner-occupiers participated in the survey. The survey consisted of 96 questions about energy saving measures adopted within the years preceding the survey. The focus lay on measures that involved significant investment to reduce energy consumed for space and water

  16. Association between physiological falls risk and physical performance tests among community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Devinder KA Singh,1 Sharmila GK Pillai,1 Sin Thien Tan,1 Chu Chiau Tai,1 Suzana Shahar2 1Physiotherapy Programme, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, 2Nutrition and Dietetics Programme, School of Healthcare Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Physical performance and balance declines with aging and may lead to increased risk of falls. Physical performance tests may be useful for initial fall-risk screening test among community-dwelling older adults. Physiological profile assessment (PPA, a composite falls risk assessment tool is reported to have 75% accuracy to screen for physiological falls risk. PPA correlates with Timed Up and Go (TUG test. However, the association between many other commonly used physical performance tests and PPA is not known. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between physiological falls risk measured using PPA and a battery of physical performance tests.Methods: One hundred and forty older adults from a senior citizens club in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (94 females, 46 males, aged 60 years and above (65.77±4.61, participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were screened for falls risk using PPA. A battery of physical performance tests that include ten-step test (TST, short physical performance battery (SPPB, functional reach test (FRT, static balance test (SBT, TUG, dominant hand-grip strength (DHGS, and gait speed test (GST were also performed. Spearman’s rank correlation and binomial logistic regression were performed to examine the significantly associated independent variables (physical performance tests with falls risk (dependent variable.Results: Approximately 13% older adults were at high risk of falls categorized using PPA. Significant differences (P<0.05 were demonstrated for age, TST, SPPB, FRT, SBT, TUG between high and low falls risk group. A significant (P<0.01 weak correlation

  17. THE EFFECT OF CHINESE YUANJI-DANCE ON DYNAMIC BALANCE AND THE ASSOCIATED ATTENTIONAL DEMANDS IN ELDERLY ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Lan Wu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Walking performance changes with age. This has implications for the problem of falls in older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Yuanji-Dance practice on walking balance and the associated attention demand in healthy elderly. Fifteen community-dwelling elderly (comparison group, no regular exercise habit and fifteen Yuanji- Dance elderly (exercise group, dancing experience: 5.40 ± 1.95 years, aged 60-70 years, were included in this study. The subjects in exercise group participated in a 90-minute Yuanji-Dance practice at least three times per week and the comparison group continued their normal daily physical activity. Walking balance measures (including walking velocity, step length, step width, and percentage of time spent in double limb support, COM velocity and COM-COP inclination angles and attentional demand tests (button reaction time and accuracy were conducted under different conditions. Our results showed that stride lengths, walking velocities, peak A/P velocities (AP V of the COM, medial COM-COP inclination (M angle angles, reaction time, and accuracy decrease significantly as the dual-task (walking plus hand button pressing tasks applied for either the comparison or exercise groups. These results demonstrated that walking performance is attenuated in our elderly participants as the cognitive tasks applied. Analysis also identified a significantly faster RT for our exercise group both in standing and walking conditions. This may indicate that physical exercise (Yuanji-Dance may have facilitating effects on general cognitive and perceptual- motor functions. This implies that Chinese Yuanji-Dance practice for elderly adults may improve their personal safety when walking especially under the condition of multiple task demand

  18. Reward reveals dissociable aspects of sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterman, Michael; Reagan, Andrew; Liu, Guanyu; Turner, Caroline; DeGutis, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    Although reward is known to have a powerful influence on performance, its effects on the ability to continuously sustain performance over time are poorly understood. The current study examines multiple measures of sustained attention (accuracy and variability) and their decrements over time, while introducing reward in the form of a monetary incentive or the promise of early completion. Compared with unrewarded participants, rewarded participants demonstrated greater overall accuracy and lower reaction time variability. However, rewarded and unrewarded participants displayed nearly identical decrements in performance over time, suggesting that these aspects of sustained attention are far less malleable by enhanced effort. This study helps to resolve conflicting models of sustained attention as it reveals that some aspects of performance are due to motivational lapses whereas others are due to the depletion of cognitive resources that cannot be easily overcome.

  19. Defining the Focus of Attention: Effects of Attention on Perceived Exertion and Fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith eLohse

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript presents two experiments designed to explore the effects of attention on perceived exertion and time to failure in a fatiguing athletic task. There were two major motivating factors for these experiments. First, there are few studies evaluating attentional focus effects in endurance tasks and, second, there is a lack of integration between studies of attentional focus as external/internal (e.g., Wulf, 2007 compared to associative/dissociative (e.g., Stevenson & Biddle, 1998. In Experiment 1, we used a fatiguing wall-sit posture (essentially a complex, isometric task to compare two different types of external attention with an internal focus on the position of the legs. An external focus (regardless of type increased the time taken to failure and reduced perceived exertion. In Experiment 2, we manipulated subjects’ expectancy of fatigue to test the interaction of attention and expectancy (both top-down factors in this highly fatiguing task. Previous theories of attention during endurance tasks have suggested that as fatigue/pain increase, bottom-up factors begin to dominate subjects’ attention. While this may be true, Experiment 2 showed that even in a highly fatiguing task, attentional strategies and expectancies affected the time to failure and perceived exertion.

  20. Attentional deficit in dyslexia: a general or specific impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarek, Dorota B; Saldaña, David; Quintero-Gallego, Eliana; García, Isabel; Grabowska, Anna; Gómez, Carlos M

    2004-08-06

    Dyslexic and control children were tested in a visuomotor attentional task, which provides independent measures of the alerting, orienting and conflict components of the attentional system. Our results show that dyslexics are impaired with respect to controls in the attentional conflict component (resolution of conflict of incongruent peripheral information), while the alerting and orienting components remain preserved. It excludes an overall attentional impairment and points to more specific attentional processing difficulty i.e. distributed attention strategy. Generally, results of dyslexic boys are within the range of the control group, while reaction times of dyslexic girls are significantly slower than that of all other groups.

  1. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Sebastian; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA). The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA) which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  2. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Koenig

    Full Text Available A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA. The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  3. Preschool teacher attachment and attention skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commodari, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Attention underlies and energizes all cognitive and behavioral activities. Many studies showed that the quality of child attachment (both to parental and non parental figures) influences cognitive functions and attention. This study aimed to investigate the relationships among attachment to preschool teachers and attention in a sample of preschoolers. In particular, the study analyzed whether child attachment security to preschool teachers influences the different aspects of their attention skills. In addition, gender- and age-related differences in attention and teacher attachment were explored. Research was conducted using two standardized instruments: the Attention and Concentration Battery, and the Attachment Q Sort. Participants were 279 children (147 male, 132 female) who attended two preschools in a town in Southern Italy. Descriptive analyses, t-tests analyses, and correlation and regression analyses were carried out. Findings highlighted several interesting points concerning the relationships that occur among attachment to preschool teachers and attention. Children with secure attachments presented higher reaction time and better auditory, visual, and visual spatial selectivity and maintenance.

  4. Evidence for a Cognitive Control Network for Goal-Directed Attention in Simple Sustained Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilti, Caroline C.; Jann, Kay; Heinemann, Doerthe; Federspiel, Andrea; Dierks, Thomas; Seifritz, Erich; Cattapan-Ludewig, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The deterioration of performance over time is characteristic for sustained attention tasks. This so-called "performance decrement" is measured by the increase of reaction time (RT) over time. Some behavioural and neurobiological mechanisms of this phenomenon are not yet fully understood. Behaviourally, we examined the increase of RT over time and…

  5. Efficiency of Portable Antennas for Detecting Passive Integrated Transponder Tags in Stream-Dwelling Salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banish, Nolan P; Burdick, Summer M; Moyer, Katherine R

    2016-01-01

    Portable antennas have become an increasingly common technique for tracking fish marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We used logistic regression to evaluate how species, fish length, and physical habitat characteristics influence portable antenna detection efficiency in stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii) marked with 12-mm PIT tags. We redetected 56% (20/36) of brown trout, 34% (68/202) of bull trout, and 33% (20/61) of redband trout after a recovery period of 21 to 46 hours. Models indicate support for length and species and minor support for percent boulder, large woody debris, and percent cobble as parameters important for describing variation in detection efficiency, although 95% confidence intervals for estimates were large. The odds of detecting brown trout (1.5 ± 2.2 [mean ± SE]) are approximately four times as high as bull trout (0.4 ± 1.6) or redband trout (0.3 ± 1.8) and species-specific differences may be related to length. Our reported detection efficiency for brown trout falls within the range of other studies, but is the first reported for bull trout and redband trout. Portable antennas may be a relatively unbiased way of redetecting varying sizes of all three salmonid species.

  6. Efficiency of portable antennas for detecting passive integrated transponder tags in stream-dwelling salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banish, Nolan P.; Burdick, Summer M.; Moyer, Katherine R.

    2016-01-01

    Portable antennas have become an increasingly common technique for tracking fish marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We used logistic regression to evaluate how species, fish length, and physical habitat characteristics influence portable antenna detection efficiency in stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii) marked with 12-mm PIT tags. We redetected 56% (20/36) of brown trout, 34% (68/202) of bull trout, and 33% (20/61) of redband trout after a recovery period of 21 to 46 hours. Models indicate support for length and species and minor support for percent boulder, large woody debris, and percent cobble as parameters important for describing variation in detection efficiency, although 95% confidence intervals for estimates were large. The odds of detecting brown trout (1.5 ± 2.2 [mean ± SE]) are approximately four times as high as bull trout (0.4 ± 1.6) or redband trout (0.3 ± 1.8) and species-specific differences may be related to length. Our reported detection efficiency for brown trout falls within the range of other studies, but is the first reported for bull trout and redband trout. Portable antennas may be a relatively unbiased way of redetecting varying sizes of all three salmonid species.

  7. Surveying Europe’s Only Cave-Dwelling Chordate Species (Proteus anguinus) Using Environmental DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márton, Orsolya; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Gál, Júlia Tünde; Jelić, Dušan

    2017-01-01

    In surveillance of subterranean fauna, especially in the case of rare or elusive aquatic species, traditional techniques used for epigean species are often not feasible. We developed a non-invasive survey method based on environmental DNA (eDNA) to detect the presence of the red-listed cave-dwelling amphibian, Proteus anguinus, in the caves of the Dinaric Karst. We tested the method in fifteen caves in Croatia, from which the species was previously recorded or expected to occur. We successfully confirmed the presence of P. anguinus from ten caves and detected the species for the first time in five others. Using a hierarchical occupancy model we compared the availability and detection probability of eDNA of two water sampling methods, filtration and precipitation. The statistical analysis showed that both availability and detection probability depended on the method and estimates for both probabilities were higher using filter samples than for precipitation samples. Combining reliable field and laboratory methods with robust statistical modeling will give the best estimates of species occurrence. PMID:28129383

  8. Creep-Environment Interactions in Dwell-Fatigue Crack Growth of Nickel Based Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Kimberly; Dahal, Jinesh; Sun, Yaofeng; Ghonem, Hamouda

    2014-05-01

    A multi-scale, mechanistic model is developed to describe and predict the dwell-fatigue crack growth rate in the P/M disk superalloy, ME3, as a function of creep-environment interactions. In this model, the time-dependent cracking mechanisms involve grain boundary sliding and dynamic embrittlement, which are identified by the grain boundary activation energy, as well as, the slip/grain boundary interactions in both air and vacuum. Modeling of the damage events is achieved by adapting a cohesive zone (CZ) approach which considers the deformation behavior of the grain boundary element at the crack tip. The deformation response of this element is controlled by the surrounding continuum in both far field (internal state variable model) and near field (crystal plasticity model) regions and the intrinsic grain boundary viscosity which defines the mobility of the element by scaling up the motion of dislocations into a mesoscopic scale. This intergranular cracking process is characterized by the rate at which the grain boundary sliding reaches a critical displacement. A damage criterion is introduced by considering the grain boundary mobility limit in the tangential direction leading to strain incompatibility and failure. Results of simulated intergranular crack growth rate using the CZ model are generated for temperatures ranging from 923 K to 1073 K (650 °C to 800 °C), in both air and vacuum. These results are compared with those experimentally obtained and analysis of the model sensitivity to loading conditions, particularly temperature and oxygen partial pressure, are presented.

  9. The Development of Attention Skills in Action Video Game Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, M. W. G.; Green, C. S.; Bavelier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that action video game play improves attentional resources, allowing gamers to better allocate their attention across both space and time. In order to further characterize the plastic changes resulting from playing these video games, we administered the Attentional Network Test (ANT) to action game players and…

  10. Developmental attentional dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Naama; Kerbel, Noa; Shvimer, Lilach

    2010-01-01

    Attentional dyslexia is a reading deficit in which letters migrate between neighboring words, but are correctly identified and keep their correct relative position within the word. Thus, for example, fig tree can be read as fig free or even tie free. This study reports on 10 Hebrew-speaking individuals with developmental attentional dyslexia and explores in detail the characteristics of their between-word errors. Each participant read 2290 words, presented in word pairs: 845 horizontally presented word pairs, 240 vertically presented word pairs, and 60 nonword pairs. The main results are that almost all migrations preserve the relative position of the migrating letter within the word, indicating that the between-word position can be impaired while the within-word position encoding remains intact. This result is also supported by the finding that the participants did not make many letter position errors within words. Further analyses indicated that more errors occur in longer words, that most migrations occur in final letters (which are the leftmost letters in Hebrew), and that letters migrate both horizontally and vertically, and more frequently from the first to the second word in horizontal presentation. More migrations occurred when the result of migration was an existing word. Similarity between words in a pair did not increase error rates, and more migrations occurred when the words shared fewer letters. The between-word errors included the classic errors of migration of a letter between words, but also omission of one instance of a letter that appeared in the same position in the two words, an error that constituted a considerable percentage of the between-word errors, and intrusion of a letter from one word to the corresponding position in the neighboring word without erasing the original letter in the same position.

  11. Low-frequency group exercise improved the motor functions of community-dwelling elderly people in a rural area when combined with home exercise with self-monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Yoshito; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined whether low-frequency group exercise improved the motor functions of community-dwelling elderly people in a rural area when combined with home exercise with self-monitoring. [Subjects] The subjects were community-dwelling elderly people in a rural area of Japan. [Methods] One group (n = 50) performed group exercise combined with home exercise with self-monitoring. Another group (n = 37) performed group exercise only. Low-frequency group exercise (warm-up, exercises for motor functions, and cool-down) was performed in seven 40 to 70-minute sessions over 9 weeks by both groups. Five items of motor functions were assessed before and after the intervention. [Results] Significant interactions were observed between groups and assessment times for all motor functions. Improvements in motor functions were significantly greater in the group that performed group exercise combined with home exercise with self-monitoring than in the group that performed group exercise only. Post-hoc comparisons revealed significant differences in 3 items of motor functions. No significant improvements were observed in motor functions in the group that performed group exercise only. [Conclusions] Group exercise combined with home exercise with self-monitoring improved motor functions in the setting of low-frequency group exercise for community-dwelling elderly people in a rural area. PMID:27065520

  12. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused by the presence ...

  13. Attentional selection by distractor suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, G; Guerra, S

    1998-03-01

    Selective attention was studied in displays containing singletons popping out for their odd form or color. The target was defined as the form-singleton, the distractor as the color-singleton. The task was to discriminate the length of a longer line inside the target. Target-distractor similarity was controlled using a threshold measurement as dependent variable in experiments in which distractor presence vs absence, bottom-up vs top-down selection (through knowledge of target features), and target-distractor distance were manipulated. The results in the bottom-up condition showed that length threshold was elevated when a distractor was present and that this elevation progressively increased as the number of distractors was increased from one to two. This set-size effect was not accounted by the hypothesis that selective attention intervenes only at the stage of decision before response. Selective attention produced a suppressive surround in which discriminability of neighboring objects was strongly reduced, and a larger surround in which discriminability was reduced by an approximately constant amount. Different results were found in the top-down condition in which target discriminability was unaffected by distractor presence and no effect of target-distractor distance was found. On the other hand, response times in both bottom-up and top-down conditions were slower the shorter the target-distractor distance was. On the basis of the experimental results, selective attention is a parallel process of spatial filtering at an intermediate processing level operating after objects have been segmented. This filtering stage explores high level interactions between objects taking control on combinatorial explosion by operating over only a limited spatial extent: it picks out a selected object and inhibits the neighboring objects; then, non-selected objects are suppressed across the overall image. When no feature-based selection is available in the current behavior, this

  14. Orbitofrontal cortex biases attention to emotional events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartikainen, Kaisa M; Ogawa, Keith H; Knight, Robert T

    2012-01-01

    We examined the role of orbitofrontal (OF) cortex in regulating emotion-attention interaction and the balance between involuntary and voluntary attention allocation. We studied patients with OF lesion applying reaction time (RT) and event-related potential (ERP) measures in a lateralized visual discrimination task with novel task-irrelevant affective pictures (unpleasant, pleasant, or neutral) preceding a neutral target. This allowed for comparing the effects of automatic attention allocation to emotional versus neutral stimuli on subsequent voluntary attention allocation to target stimuli. N2-P3a and N2-P3b ERP components served as measures of involuntary and voluntary attention allocation correspondingly. Enhanced N2-P3a amplitudes to emotional distractors and reduced N2-P3b amplitudes to targets preceded by emotional distractors were observed in healthy subjects, suggesting automatic emotional orienting interfered with subsequent voluntary orienting. OF patients showed an opposite pattern with tendency towards reduced N2-P3a responses to emotional distractors, suggesting impaired automatic orienting to emotional stimuli due to orbitofrontal damage. Enhanced N2-P3b responses to targets preceded by any affective distractor were observed in OF patients, suggesting bias towards voluntary target-related attention allocation due to orbitofrontal lesion. Behavioral evidence indicated that left visual field (LVF) attention performance was modulated by emotional stimuli. Specifically, OF patients responded faster to LVF targets subsequent to pleasant emotional distractors. We suggest that damage to the orbitofrontal circuitry leads to dysbalance between voluntary and involuntary attention allocation in the context of affective distractors with predisposition to posterior target-related processing over frontal novelty and affect-related processing. Furthermore, we suggest that orbitofrontal influence on emotion-attention interaction is valence and hemisphere dependent.

  15. Anomalous indoor radon concentration in a dwelling in Qatif City, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jarallah, M I; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2005-01-01

    An indoor radon survey was carried out recently in nine cities of Saudi Arabia using nuclear track detectors (NTD)-based passive radon detectors. The survey included Qatif City in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, where 225 detectors were collected back successfully. It was found that the average indoor radon concentration in the dwellings was 22 +/- 15 Bq m(-3). However, one of the dwellings showed an anomalous radon concentration of 535 +/- 23 Bq m(-3). This finding led to a detailed investigation of this dwelling using active and passive techniques. In the active technique, an AlphaGUARD 2000 PRQ radon gas analyser was used. In the passive technique, CR-39 based passive radon detectors were used in all the rooms of the dwelling. Radon exhalation from the wall and the floor was also measured using the can technique. The active measurement confirms the passive one. Before placing the passive radon detectors in all the rooms of the two-storey building, the inhabitant was advised to ventilate his house regularly. The radon concentration in the different rooms was found to vary from 124 to 302 Bq m(-3). Radon exhalation from the floor and the wall of the room with the anomalous radon concentration was found to vary from 0.5 to 0.8 Bq m(-2) h(-1). These low radon exhalation rates suggest that the anomalous radon concentration is most probably due to underground radon diffusion into the dwelling through cracks and joints in the concrete floor.

  16. Exposure to light enhances pre-adult fitness in two dark-dwelling sympatric species of ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Vijay

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In insects, circadian clocks play a key role in enhancing fitness by regulating life history traits such as developmental time and adult lifespan. These clocks use environmental light/dark (LD cycles to fine-tune a wide range of behavioral and physiological processes. To study the effect of environmental LD conditions on pre-adult fitness components, we used two dark-dwelling sympatric species of ants (the night active Camponotus compressus and the day active Camponotus paria, which normally develop underground and have fairly long pre-adult developmental time. Results Our results suggest that ants develop fastest as pre-adults when maintained under constant light (LL, followed closely by 12:12 hr light/dark (LD, and then constant darkness (DD. While light exposure alters developmental rates of almost all stages of development, the overall pre-adult development in LL is speeded-up (relative to DD by ~37% (34 days in C. compressus and by ~35% (31 days in C. paria. In LD too, development is faster (relative to DD by ~29% (26 days in C. compressus and by ~28% (25 days in C. paria. Pre-adult viability of both species is also higher under LL and LD compared to DD. While pre-adult development time and viability is enhanced in LL and LD, clutch-size undergoes reduction, at least in C. compressus. Conclusion Exposure to light enhances pre-adult fitness in two dark-dwelling species of Camponotus by speeding-up development and by enhancing viability. This suggests that social ants use environmental light/dark cycles to modulate key life history traits such as pre-adult development time and viability.

  17. Assessment of attention in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E M; Schneider, H E

    2012-12-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of "disordered" attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child's history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention--including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures.

  18. Mental training enhances attentional stability: neural and behavioral evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Antoine; Slagter, Heleen A; Rawlings, Nancy B; Francis, Andrew D; Greischar, Lawrence L; Davidson, Richard J

    2009-10-21

    The capacity to stabilize the content of attention over time varies among individuals, and its impairment is a hallmark of several mental illnesses. Impairments in sustained attention in patients with attention disorders have been associated with increased trial-to-trial variability in reaction time and event-related potential deficits during attention tasks. At present, it is unclear whether the ability to sustain attention and its underlying brain circuitry are transformable through training. Here, we show, with dichotic listening task performance and electroencephalography, that training attention, as cultivated by meditation, can improve the ability to sustain attention. Three months of intensive meditation training reduced variability in attentional processing of target tones, as indicated by both enhanced theta-band phase consistency of oscillatory neural responses over anterior brain areas and reduced reaction time variability. Furthermore, those individuals who showed the greatest increase in neural response consistency showed the largest decrease in behavioral response variability. Notably, we also observed reduced variability in neural processing, in particular in low-frequency bands, regardless of whether the deviant tone was attended or unattended. Focused attention meditation may thus affect both distracter and target processing, perhaps by enhancing entrainment of neuronal oscillations to sensory input rhythms, a mechanism important for controlling the content of attention. These novel findings highlight the mechanisms underlying focused attention meditation and support the notion that mental training can significantly affect attention and brain function.

  19. Attention theory and training research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, James G., Jr.; Wickens, Christopher D.; Lintern, Gavan; Harwood, Kelly

    1987-01-01

    This study used elements of attention theory as a methodological basis to decompose a complex training task in order to improve training efficiency. The complex task was a microcomputer flight simulation where subjects were required to control the stability of their own helicopter while acquiring and engaging enemy helicopers in a threat enviroment. Subjects were divided into whole-task, part-task, and part/open loop adaptive task groups in a transfer of training paradigm. The effect of reducing mental workload at the early stages of learning was examined with respect to the degree that subordinate elements of the complex task could be automated through practice of consistent, learnable stimulus-response relationships. Results revealed trends suggesting the benefit of isolating consistently mapped sub-tasks for part-task training and the presence of a time-sharing skill over and above the skill required for the separate subtasks.

  20. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of AD

  1. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD.

  2. Sound classification of dwellings – A diversity of national schemes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    constructions fulfilling different classes. The current variety of descriptors and classes also causes trade barriers. Thus, there is a need to harmonize characteristics of the schemes, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing......Sound classification schemes for dwellings exist in ten countries in Europe, typically prepared and published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes intended to reflect different levels of acoustical comfort. The main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. This paper presents the sound classification schemes in Europe and compares the class criteria for sound insulation between dwellings. The schemes have been implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack...

  3. Radon levels and doses in dwellings in two villages in Kosovo, affected by depleted uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafezi, G; Gregoric, A; Vaupotic, J; Bahtijari, M; Kuqali, M

    2014-01-01

    The radon ((222)Rn) activity concentration in 15 dwellings in the Planej village and 10 dwellings in the Gorozhup village has been measured with the aim to complement the national radon survey and to compare the results of two different measurement techniques. The radon concentration has been measured in winter and spring using alpha scintillation cells and in winter, spring and summer by exposing solid-state nuclear track detectors. Both methods gave similar results. Radon concentrations in both villages were similar, ranging from 82 to 432 Bq m(-3); the value of 400 Bq m(-3) was exceeded only in two dwellings. The resulting annual effective doses ranged from 1.78 to 6.40 mSv, with the average values of 3.28 mSv in the Planej village and 3.87 mSv in the Gorozhup village.

  4. MAOA Influences the Trajectory of Attentional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundwall, Rebecca A.; Rasmussen, Claudia G.

    2016-01-01

    Attention is vital to success in all aspects of life (Meck and Benson, 2002; Erickson et al., 2015), hence it is important to identify biomarkers of later attentional problems early enough to intervene. Our objective was to determine if any of 11 genes (APOE, BDNF, HTR4, CHRNA4, COMT, DRD4, IGF2, MAOA, SLC5A7, SLC6A3, and SNAP25) predicted the trajectory of attentional development within the same group of children between infancy and childhood. We recruited follow up participants from children who participated as infants in visual attention studies and used a similar task at both time points. Using multilevel modeling, we associated changes in the participant’s position in the distribution of scores in infancy to his/her position in childhood with genetic markers on each of 11 genes. While all 11 genes predicted reaction time (RT) residual scores, only Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) had a significant interaction including time point. We conclude that the MAOA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1137070 is useful in predicting which girls are likely to develop slower RTs on an attention task between infancy and childhood. This early identification is likely to be helpful in early intervention. PMID:27610078

  5. A study of seasonal variations of radon levels in different types of dwellings in Sri Ganganagar district, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Duggal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An indoor radon survey has been carried out in 50 dwellings situated in Sri Ganganagar district of Rajasthan using a time-integrated passive technique containing LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors exposed for four seasons of 3 months each covering a period of 1 y. Indoor radon concentration values varied from 144 ± 20 to 259 ± 67 Bq m−3 in winter, 111 ± 23 to 156 ± 64 Bq m−3 in rainy, 97 ± 13 to 156 ± 19 Bq m−3 in summer and 103 ± 17 to 213 ± 76 Bq m−3 in autumn time and the average values were found to be 182 ± 31, 126 ± 15, 119 ± 20 and 146 ± 30 Bq m−3, respectively. The annual average indoor radon concentration varied from 114 ± 18 to 194 ± 45 Bq m−3 with an average of 143 ± 21 Bq m−3, which is less than the lower limit of the action level (200–300 Bq m−3 recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection. The annual exposure to occupants, annual effective dose and lifetime fatality risk in dwellings varied from 0.50 to 0.85 WLM with an average of 0.63 WLM; 1.95 ± 0.31 to 3.32 ± 0.78 mSv y−1 with an average of 2.45 ± 0.36 mSv y−1 and 1.51 × 10−4 to 2.56 × 10−4 with an average of 1.89 × 10−4, respectively. Measured values for winter/summer, winter/rainy and winter/autumn radon ratios were found as 1.54 ± 0.29, 1.48 ± 0.35 and 1.28 ± 0.24. An effort has been made to find possible relationships of indoor radon levels with building construction materials and ventilation condition of dwellings.

  6. Attention in a bayesian framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise Emma; Sahani, Maneesh

    2012-01-01

    The behavioral phenomena of sensory attention are thought to reflect the allocation of a limited processing resource, but there is little consensus on the nature of the resource or why it should be limited. Here we argue that a fundamental bottleneck emerges naturally within Bayesian models...... of perception, and use this observation to frame a new computational account of the need for, and action of, attention - unifying diverse attentional phenomena in a way that goes beyond previous inferential, probabilistic and Bayesian models. Attentional effects are most evident in cluttered environments......, and include both selective phenomena, where attention is invoked by cues that point to particular stimuli, and integrative phenomena, where attention is invoked dynamically by endogenous processing. However, most previous Bayesian accounts of attention have focused on describing relatively simple experimental...

  7. Pre-saccadic shifts of visual attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Harrison

    Full Text Available The locations of visual objects to which we attend are initially mapped in a retinotopic frame of reference. Because each saccade results in a shift of images on the retina, however, the retinotopic mapping of spatial attention must be updated around the time of each eye movement. Mathôt and Theeuwes [1] recently demonstrated that a visual cue draws attention not only to the cue's current retinotopic location, but also to a location shifted in the direction of the saccade, the "future-field". Here we asked whether retinotopic and future-field locations have special status, or whether cue-related attention benefits exist between these locations. We measured responses to targets that appeared either at the retinotopic or future-field location of a brief, non-predictive visual cue, or at various intermediate locations between them. Attentional cues facilitated performance at both the retinotopic and future-field locations for cued relative to uncued targets, as expected. Critically, this cueing effect also occurred at intermediate locations. Our results, and those reported previously [1], imply a systematic bias of attention in the direction of the saccade, independent of any predictive remapping of attention that compensates for retinal displacements of objects across saccades [2].

  8. Attention-Modulating Effects of Cognitive Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attention can be readily measured in experimental animal models. Animal models of attention have been used to better understand the neural systems involved in attention, how attention is impaired, and how therapeutic treatments can ameliorate attentional deficits. This review fo...

  9. Risk factors for reinvasion of human dwellings by sylvatic triatomines in northern Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Walter

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study in Curaça, Bahia, Northeast Brazil was to explore possible factors associated with the infestation of human dwellings by Triatoma brasiliensis or Triatoma pseudomaculata, two sylvatic triatomine species. We use multiple logistic regression analysis to show how structural features of the peridomiciliary area combine with the number of animals and sociological factors to allow infestation of some dwellings. It is suggested that T. brasiliensis is associated with human activities, while T. pseudomaculata is associated with vegetation and animals. Peridomiciliary farm animals are a strong risk factor for triatomine infestation.

  10. System Design for Demand Controlled Ventilation in Multi-Family Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Nielsen, Toke Rammer

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into solutions for the system design of a centralized DCV system in multi-family dwellings. The design focused on simple and inexpensive solutions. A cost benefit estimate showed that the initial cost of implementing DCV in a system with an efficient heat...... exchanger should not exceed 3400 DKK per dwelling in regions with weather conditions similar to the Danish climate. A design expected to fulfil this requirement was investigated in detail with regard to its electricity consumption by evaluation of different control strategies. Systems with variable airflows...

  11. A new cave-dwelling millipede of the genus Scutogona from central Portugal (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida, Chamaesomatidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik; P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia

    2013-01-01

    A new cave-dwelling species of the genus Scutogona Ribuat, 1913, S. minor n. sp., is described from caves of Sicó karst in central Portugal. The classification and delimitation of Scutogona vis-à-vis related genera, in particular Meinerteuma Mauriès, 1982, is discussed.......A new cave-dwelling species of the genus Scutogona Ribuat, 1913, S. minor n. sp., is described from caves of Sicó karst in central Portugal. The classification and delimitation of Scutogona vis-à-vis related genera, in particular Meinerteuma Mauriès, 1982, is discussed....

  12. Influence of isothermal transformation dwell on tensile and fatigue properties of austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vechet, S.; Hanzlikova, K. [Brno Univ. of Technology, Brno (Czech Republic); Kohout, J. [Military Academy in Brno, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    Two ADI heats transformed at temperatures of 400 and 380 C during temporal range from 2 minutes to 9 hours were studied in details, with emphasis on structure composition and mechanical properties (tensile and fatigue properties were determined). In the case of the shortest dwells the level of mechanical properties is influenced by martensite, which occurs in the structure as a result of subsequent cooling. UTS and yield stress increase slightly with the dwell of isothermal transformation while the values of elongation to fracture as well as of fatigue limit are very closely dependent on the amount of the retained austenite in the microstructure. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of consumer derived evidence with an omaha system evidence-based practice guideline for community dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruinelli, Lisiane; Fu, Helen; Monsen, Karen A; Westra, Bonnie L

    2014-01-01

    Consumer involvement in healthcare is critical to support continuity of care for consumers to manage their health while transitioning from one care setting to another. Validation of evidence-based practice (EBP) guideline by consumers is essential to achieving consumer health goals over time that is consistent with their needs and preferences. The purpose of this study was to compare an Omaha System EBP guideline for community dwelling older adults with consumer-derived evidence of their ongoing needs, resources, and strategies after home care discharge. All identified problems were relevant for all patients except for Neglect and Substance use. Ten additional problems were identified from the interviews, five of which affected at least 10% of the participants. Consumer derived evidence both validated and expanded EBP guidelines; thus further emphasizing the importance of consumer involvement in the delivery of home healthcare.

  14. Optimization of systems with the combination of ground-source heat pump and solar collectors in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Elisabeth; Hellström, Göran; Perers, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    The use of ground-source heat pumps for heating and domestic hot water in dwellings is common in Sweden. The combination with solar collectors has been introduced to reduce the electricity demand in the system. In order to analyze different systems with combinations of solar collectors and ground......-source heat pumps, computer simulations have been carried out with the simulation program TRNSYS. Large differences were found between the system alternatives. The optimal design is when solar heat produces domestic hot water during summertime and recharges the borehole during wintertime. The advantage...... is related to the rate of heat extraction from the borehole as well as the overall design of the system. The demand of electricity may increase with solar recharging, because of the increased operating time of the circulation pumps. Another advantage with solar heat in combination with heat pumps is when...

  15. Comparison of two balance training programs on balance in community dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Walia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired balance has been associated with an increased risk for falls and a resulting increase in the mortality rate of elder people. Thus, balance-training interventions have an important place in fall prevention. This study was designed with the purpose of identifying the appropriate balance-training program for community dwelling elderly adults with an active lifestyle. A sample of 70 elderly adults were randomly allocated into two groups: group 1 (n=35 received general balance and mobility exercise; group 2 (n=35 received specific balance strategy training. The intervention consisted of 5 sessions/week for 4 weeks. The outcome measures were Timed up and go test (TUGT and Berg balance scale (BBS. An inter-group (2-way mixed model analysis of co-variance and intra-group (repeated measures analysis was done to find the change in balance scores. After the intervention, the TUGT scores in group 1 were, mean=10.38 s, standard deviation (SD=1.59 s and in group 2 were, mean=9.27 s, SD=1.13 s. Post training, BBS scores for group 1 were, mean=54.69, SD=1.13, and for group 2 were, mean=55.57, SD =0.56. There was a significant group × time effect for TUGT and BBS score. All the subjects showed significant changes in balance scores after balance training interventions. The subjects who participated in the specific balance-strategy training significantly improved their functional mobility, as shown on the TUGT, compared to the general training group.

  16. Robust fault detection for switched positive linear systems with time-varying delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Mei; Xiang, Zhengrong

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the problem of robust fault detection for a class of switched positive linear systems with time-varying delays. The fault detection filter is used as the residual generator, in which the filter parameters are dependent on the system mode. Attention is focused on designing the positive filter such that, for model uncertainties, unknown inputs and the control inputs, the error between the residual and fault is minimized. The problem of robust fault detection is converted into a positive L1 filtering problem. Subsequently, by constructing an appropriate multiple co-positive type Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, as well as using the average dwell time approach, sufficient conditions for the solvability of this problem are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Two illustrative examples are provided to show the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed results.

  17. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... A of Part 1924—Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments With slab...

  18. 24 CFR 203.16 - Certificate and contract regarding use of dwelling for transient or hotel purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use of dwelling for transient or hotel purposes. 203.16 Section 203.16 Housing and Urban Development... use of dwelling for transient or hotel purposes. Every application filed with respect to insurance of... housing or any part thereof covered by the mortgage for transient or hotel purposes, together with...

  19. Systematic Literature Review of Randomized Control Trials Assessing the Effectiveness of Nutrition Interventions in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandayrel, Kristofer; Wong, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition interventions may play an important role in maintaining the health and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults. To the authors' knowledge, no systematic literature review has been conducted on the effectiveness of nutrition interventions in the community-dwelling older adult population. Design: Systematic literature…

  20. Estudo prospectivo, randomizado e controlado sobre o tempo de permanência de cateteres venosos periféricos em crianças, segundo três tipos de curativos Estudio prospectivo, aleatorio y controlado sobre el período de permanencia de catéteres venosos periféricos insertados en niños, según tres tipos de cura Prospective, randomized and controlled trial on the dwell time of peripheral intravenous catheters in children, according to three dressing regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Ferreira Machado

    2005-06-01

    los CVP estudiados: GE 1 (46,12 horas, GE 2 (29,53 horas y GC (38,18 horas, y que la cura con gasa estéril guardó el catéter insertado por más tiempo.This prospective, randomized and controlled study verified the influence of three dressing regimens on the dwell time of peripheral intravenous catheters (PIC in children. The study groups were composed of dressings with sterile gauze (EG 1, with sterile transparent film (EG 2 and with hypoallergenic adhesive tape (CG. Variables were selected to control for variables related to children, professionals and intravenous therapy characteristics. The 150 PIC that composed the sample were inserted in 68 children, predominantly of preschool age, male, with brown skin color, eutrophic and with gastrointestinal system diseases. The majority of the PIC was installed by nursing auxiliaries in veins of the dorsal arch of the hand. The type of dressing exerted a significant influence (p = 0.022 on the average dwell time of the studied PIC: EG 1 (46.12 hours, EG 2 (29.53 hours and CG (38.18 hours, concluding that the dressing with sterile gauze maintained the catheter inserted for a longer time.

  1. Sound classification of dwellings in the Nordic countries – Differences and similarities between the five national schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    In all five Nordic countries, sound classification schemes for dwellings have been published in national standards being implemented and revised gradually since the late 1990s. The national classification criteria for dwellings originate from a common Nordic INSTA-B proposal from the 1990s, thus...... having several similarities. In 2012, status is that number and denotations of classes for dwellings are identical in the Nordic countries, but the structures of the standards and several details are quite different. Also the issues dealt with are different. Examples of differences are sound insulation...... for classification of such buildings. This paper presents and compares the main class criteria for sound insulation of dwellings and summarizes differences and similarities in criteria and in structures of standards. Classification schemes for dwellings also exist in several other countries in Europe...

  2. Perceptual Load Modulates Object-Based Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Chou; Atchley, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Two experimental series are reported using both reaction time (RT) and a data-limited perceptual report to examine the effects of perceptual load on object-based attention. Perceptual load was manipulated across 3 levels by increasing the complexity of perceptual judgments. Data from the RT-based experiments showed object-based effects when the…

  3. Resource sharing in the attentional blink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shapiro, K; Schmitz, F; Martens, S; Hommel, B; Schnitzler, A

    2006-01-01

    Humans have difficulty processing more than one event at a time, as is evidenced by the attentional blink ('blink') phenomenon: the second of two targets in a visual stream of events cannot be reported accurately if it appears between 100 and 500 ms after the first. By using whole-head magnetoenceph

  4. Limited Attention and Discourse Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, M A

    1995-01-01

    This squib examines the role of limited attention in a theory of discourse structure and proposes a model of attentional state that relates current hierarchical theories of discourse structure to empirical evidence about human discourse processing capabilities. First, I present examples that are not predicted by Grosz and Sidner's stack model of attentional state. Then I consider an alternative model of attentional state, the cache model, which accounts for the examples, and which makes particular processing predictions. Finally I suggest a number of ways that future research could distinguish the predictions of the cache model and the stack model.

  5. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henik Avishai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test - interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. Results The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. Conclusions These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  6. Mindfulness training affects attention--or is it attentional effort?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Frokjaer, Vibe

    2012-01-01

    and visual working memory capacity. Furthermore, stress-reducing effects of MBSR were supported because those in the MBSR group showed significantly less perceived and physiological stress while increasing their mindfulness levels significantly. We argue that MBSR may contribute uniquely to attentional......Improvements in attentional performance are at the core of proposed mechanisms for stress reduction in mindfulness meditation practices. However, this claim can be questioned because no previous studies have actively manipulated test effort in control groups and controlled for effects of stress......, the latter receiving a financial reward to improve attentional performance. Pre- and postintervention, 5 validated attention paradigms were employed along with self-report scales on mindfulness and perceived stress and saliva cortisol samples to measure physiological stress. Attentional effects of MBSR, NMSR...

  7. Fundamentals of Agent Perception and Attention Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Christopher; Castellano, Ginevra; Rehm, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Perception and attention mechanisms are of great importance for entities situated within complex dynamic environments. With roles extending greatly beyond passive information services about the external environment, such mechanisms actively prioritise, augment and expedite information to ensure...... that the potentially relevant is made available so appropriate action can take place. Here, we describe the rationale behind endowing artificial entities, or virtual agents, with real-time perception and attention systems. We cover the fundamentals of designing and building such systems. Once equipped, the resulting...

  8. Exploring robustness of energy performance of dwellings top occupant behaviour: renovation and post occupancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bedir, M.; Harputlugil, G.U.; Itard, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the influence of occupant behaviour on the energy performance of dwellings, before and after renovation process. In this context, ‘ventilation control pattern’, ‘maintenance’, and ‘heating energy demand’ are selected as the key parameters of the study. The aim is to reveal

  9. Analysis of Energy Demand for Low-Energy Multi-Dwelling Buildings of Different Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrė Streckienė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To meet the goals established by Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on the energy performance of buildings, the topics of energy efficiency in new and old buildings must be solved. Research and development of new energy solutions and technology are necessary for increasing energy performance of buildings. Three low-energy multi-dwelling buildings have been modelled and analyzed in the presented study. All multi-dwelling houses are made of similar single-family house cells. However, multi-dwelling buildings are of different geometry, flat number and height. DesignBuilder software was used for simulating and determining heating, cooling and electricity demand for buildings. Three different materials (silicate, ceramic and clay concrete blocks as bearing constructions of external walls have been analyzed. To decrease cooling demand for buildings, the possibility of mounting internal or external louvers has been considered. Primary energy savings for multi-dwelling buildings using passive solar measures have been determined.

  10. Rural-Urban Differences in Preventable Hospitalizations among Community-Dwelling Veterans with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Joshua M.; Van Houtven, Courtney H.; Sleath, Betsy L.; Thorpe, Carolyn T.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Alzheimer's patients living in rural communities may face significant barriers to effective outpatient medical care. Purpose: We sought to examine rural-urban differences in risk for ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations (ACSH), an indicator of access to outpatient care, in community-dwelling veterans with dementia. Methods: Medicare…

  11. Sound insulation between dwellings - Descriptors applied in building regulations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2010-01-01

    was carried out of legal sound insulation requirements in 24 countries in Europe. The comparison of requirements for sound insulation between dwellings revealed significant differences in descriptors as well as levels. This paper focuses on descriptors and summarizes the history of descriptors, the problems...

  12. The step length-frequency relationship in physically active community-dwelling older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Agnes; de Bruin, Eling D.; Bruins, Nienke; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the step length-frequency relationship in physically active community-dwelling older women in order to investigate whether the relationship between these two spatio-temporal gait parameters changes with increasing age. Forty older women in four age groups, i.e. 64-69, 70-74, 75-

  13. Fear of falling and changed functional ability following hip fracture among community-dwelling elderly people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesmark, Annette; Herling, Suzanne Forsyth; Egerod, Ingrid;

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the study were to assess self-reported fear of falling (FOF) and functional ability among community-dwelling elderly people 3-6 months post hospital discharge after a hip fracture, to investigate the association between FOF and functional ability, and to explore the lived experience...

  14. Performance of Counter Flow Heat Recovery Ventilation Systems in Dwellings Considering the Influence of Uncertainties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.; Cauberg, J.J.M.; Tenpierik, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Both critical and optimistic claims have been made regarding the performance of heat recovery ventilation systems (HRVS) in dwellings. Such arguments are raised partly because two key aspects are not fully clarified, i.e. the performance criteria and the influence of uncertainties. In the current pa

  15. Road traffic noise and annoyance: A quantification of the effect of quiet side exposure at dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Janssen, S.A.; Vos, H.; Salomons, E.M.; Zhou, H.; Berg, F. van den

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that residents may benefit from a "quiet side" to their dwellings. The influence of the level of road traffic noise exposure at the least exposed side on road traffic noise annoyance was studied in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Road traffic noise exposure was assessed at the

  16. 24 CFR 100.80 - Discriminatory representations on the availability of dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall be unlawful, because of race, color, religion, sex, handicap, familial status, or national origin... rented, because of race, color, religion, sex, handicap, familial status, or national origin. (2... rental of dwellings because of race, color, religion, sex, handicap, familial status, or national...

  17. Micronutrient intakes and potential inadequacies of community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, ter S.; Verlaan, S.; Hemsworth, J.; Mijnarends, D.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Luiking, Y.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and low dietary intakes among community-dwelling older adults are associated with functional decline, frailty and difficulties with independent living. As such, studies that seek to understand the types and magnitude of potential dietary inadequacies might be beneficial fo

  18. Macronutrient intake and inadequacies of community-dwelling older adults, a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, ter S.J.; Verlaan, S.; Mijnarends, D.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Luiking, Y.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anorexia of ageing may predispose older adults to under-nutrition and protein energy malnutrition. Studies, however, report a large variation in nutrient inadequacies among community-dwelling older adults. Summary: This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the energy an

  19. Nutritional interventions in community-dwelling Alzheimer patients with (risk of) undernutrition : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogsma, Erika; van Asselt, Dieneke; van Steijn, Jolanda; Veeger, Nic; van Dusseldorp, Ingeborg; De Deyn, Peter Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weight loss and undernutrition are common in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and associated with negative health outcomes. In the current guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of AD, no recommendations for treatment of (risk of) undernutrition in community-dwelling AD patients are

  20. Comprehensive geriatric assessment : recognition of identified geriatric conditions by community-dwelling older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Marjon; Suijker, Jacqueline J; Bol, Wietske; Hoff, Eva; Ter Riet, Gerben; de Rooij, Sophia E; Moll van Charante, Eric P; Buurman, Bianca M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to study (i) the prevalence of geriatric conditions in community-dwelling older persons at increased risk of functional decline and (ii) the extent to which older persons recognise comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA)-identified conditions as relevant problems. METHODS: trained regis

  1. Minimum Energy Dwelling (MED) workbook: an investigation of techniques and materials for energy conscious design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    This workbook is based upon information gathered during the design phase of the Minimum Energy Dwelling. The objective of the project, sponsored by the Southern California Gas Co., Department of Energy, and Mission Viejo is to substantially reduce energy use by the incorporation of energy conservation and solar techniques in a single-family detached dwelling. The Project will demonstrate to builders, as well as to the general public, a number of technological innovations that can, at reasonable cost, be included in a dwelling design. The problem facing Southern California Gas Co., along with most other gas utilities, is ever-decreasing amounts of gas at increasing prices. The dwelling designed has approximately 1,150 ft/sup 2/, consistent with current home-building trends. Through the optimum use of energy-conserving appliances, insulation, window and wall shading, exterior coloring, and thermal mass, the yearly energy usage has been reduced by over 50%. Of the remaining 50% of the energy required for heating, cooling, and domestic hot water, the majority is supplied by the solar-energy system. Three hundred twenty square feet (270 effective) of evacuated tube collector are incorporated into the building structure. The hot water provided by the collectors is used to run an absorption chiller for cooling, the domestic hot water, and the heating system. The remaining energy requirements are met by an auxiliary natural gas energy system and a cool-air-economizer cycle.

  2. Pesticides in Urban Multiunit Dwellings: Hazard IdentificationUsing Classification and Regression Tree (CART) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many units in public housing or other low-income urban dwellings may have elevated pesticide residues, given recurring infestation, but it would be logistically and economically infeasible to sample a large number of units to identify highly exposed households to design interven...

  3. Interactions between eutrophication and contaminants - partitioning, bioaccumulation and effects on sediment-dwelling organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylland, Ketil; Schaanning, Morten; Skei, Jens; Berge, John Arthur; Eriksen, Dag Oe.; Skoeld, Mattias; Gunnarsson, Jonas

    1997-12-31

    This report describes an experiment on the interactions between eutrophication and contaminants in marine sediments. The experiment was performed in 24 continuously flushed glass aquaria within which three sediment-dwelling species were kept in a marine sediment. A filter-feeder, blue mussel, was kept in downstream aquaria. The experiment combined three environmental factors: oxygen availability, the presence or absence of contaminants, the addition of organic matter. The objectives were: (1) to quantify differences in the partitioning of contaminants between sediment, pore water and biota as a result of the treatment, (2) to quantify effects of treatments and interactions between treatments on sediment-dwelling organisms, (3) to identify differences, if any, in the release of contaminants from the sediment as the result of treatments. All three contaminants bio accumulated to higher levels in sediments with increased levels of organic material. Feeding directly or indirectly appeared to be the major route for bioaccumulation of benzo(a)pyrene and mercury. Cadmium was also controlled by the concentration in pore water. Sediment in enriched aquaria released more contaminants than sediment with low organic content. Organic enrichment strongly affected growth in the three sediment-dwelling organisms. Growth was less affected by decreased oxygen availability. The presence of contaminants had little effect on the three sediment-dwelling species at the concentrations used in the experiment. 103 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. OYSTER GROUNDS, A SUPERIOR HABITAT FOR SMALL, SEDIMENT-DWELLING INVERTEBRATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a programmatic effort to determine estuarine habitat values for ecological risk assessments, quantitative field studies of small, sediment-dwelling invertebrates were conducted in Willapa Bay, WA in July 1998 and Tillamook Bay, OR in July 1999. The six habitats includ...

  5. EFFECTS OF ON-BOTTOM OYSTER MARICULTURE ON SMALL, SEDIMENT-DWELLING INVERTEBRATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a programmatic effort to determine estuarine habitat values for ecological risk assessments, quantitative field studies of small ( 0.5 mm), sediment-dwelling invertebrates were conducted in Willapa Bay, WA in July 1998 and Tillamook Bay, OR in July 1999. The six habit...

  6. Determinants of non-compliance with herpes zoster vaccination in the community-dwelling elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opstelten, Wim; van Essen, Gerrit A; Hak, Eelko

    2009-01-01

    As part of a series of studies on vaccine acceptance, we assessed determinants of compliance of the community-dwelling elderly with herpes zoster (HZ) vaccination in an existing influenza vaccination program. General practitioners (GPs) sent out a questionnaire to 1778 patients aged > or =65 years,

  7. Ventilation behaviour and indoor air problems in different types of newly built dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, J.E.F. van; Phaff, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    In four types of newly built single family dwellings and in apartments of a block of flats in the Netherlands, the behaviour and motivations of the occupants are studied with respect to their response to heating and ventilation, as well as their judgment on indoor air and climate variables such as t

  8. Association between urogenital symptoms and depression in community-dwelling women aged 20 to 70 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, Carl Hulbert; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.; de Leeuw, J. Rob J.; Heintz, A. Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the association between urogenital symptoms and the occurrence of depressive symptoms. METHODS A random sample of 3200 community-dwelling women, aged 20 to 70 years, was invited to answer a questionnaire. A total of 2042 questionnaires (63.8%) were returned. Urogenital sympto

  9. Test-retest reliability of the safe driving behavior measure for community-dwelling elderly drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Han, Sang-Woo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) is a self-report measurement tools that assesses the safe-driving behaviors of the elderly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SDBM among community-dwelling elderly drivers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of sixty-one community-dwelling elderly were enrolled to investigate the reliability of the SDBM. The SDBM was assessed in two sessions that were conducted three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. That test-retest reliability of overall scores and three domain scores of the SDBM were statistically evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (2.1)]. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify bivariate associations among the three domains of the SDBM. [Results] The SDBM demonstrated excellent rest-retest reliability for community-dwelling elderly drivers. The Cronbach alpha coefficients of the three domains of person-vehicle (0.979), person-environment (0.944), and person-vehicle-environment (0.971) of the SDBM indicate high internal consistency. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM is a reliable measure for evaluating the safe- driving of automobiles by community-dwelling elderly, and is adequate for detecting changes in scores in clinical settings.

  10. Parental longevity correlates with offspring's optimism in two cohorts of community-dwelling older subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rius-Ottenheim, N.; Kromhout, D.; Craen, A.J.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Mast, van der R.C.; Zitman, F.G.; Westendorp, R.G.; Slagboom, E.; Giltay, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Dispositional optimism and other positive personality traits have been associated with longevity. Using a familial approach, we investigated the relationship between parental longevity and offspring’s dispositional optimism among community-dwelling older subjects. Parental age of death was assessed

  11. Dwell in Possibility: PLAR and e-Portfolios in the Age of Information and Communication Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judith O.

    2011-01-01

    Emily Dickinson wrote, "I dwell in Possibility--A fairer House than Prose--More Numerous of Windows--Superior--for Doors" (p. 657). Dickinson's simple yet profound reference to the expansive nature of poetry over prose may be taken as a metaphor for the possibilities of information and communication technologies (ICTs) over written modes…

  12. Effects of Short-Term Training of Community-Dwelling Elderly with Modular Interactive Tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Jessen, Jari Due

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to test for the increased mobility, agility, balancing, and general fitness of community-dwelling elderly individuals as a result of short-term training involving playing with modular interactive tiles (Entertainment Robotics, Odense, Denmark) at two comm...

  13. Preventive home visits to older home-dwelling people in Denmark: are invitational procedures of importance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmann, A; Vass, M; Avlund, K

    2010-11-01

    Since 1998 all municipalities in Denmark have been required by law to offer two annual preventive home visits to all home-dwelling citizens aged 75 or over. The influence of invitational procedures on acceptance rates has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to describe and investigate whether different invitational procedures were associated with first preventive home visit acceptance rates. The study was based on secondary analyses of data from the Danish Intervention Study on Preventive Home Visits. Data were collected from 1998 to 2002. Of the 4060 participants in the main study, 3245 reported receiving an offer for an identifiable preventive home visit, of whom 2399 (73.9%) provided complete data for the main analyses in the present study. Invitational procedures were categorised as: (1) a letter with a proposed date and time for the visit, (2) a visitor telephone call, and (3) a letter with encouragement to phone the visitor for appointment (letter without a proposed date). Covariates included sex, age, experience with preventive interventions, functional ability, self rated health, social relations and psychosocial characteristics. Statistical analyses included chi-square tests, and bi- and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Different invitational procedures were associated with first preventive home visit acceptance rates. Significantly more men (75.1%) than women (62.8%) declined the first preventive home visit regardless of the invitational procedure. Compared to 'letter with a proposed date', men had an odds ratio of 1.78 (95% CI: 1.16-2.74) for declining visits when 'telephone call' was used and an odds ratio 2.81 (95% CI: 1.79-4.40) when 'letter without a proposed date' was used as the invitational procedure. In women the odds ratios were 1.23 (95% CI: 0.91-1.68) and 1.87 (95% CI: 1.37-2.55), respectively.

  14. Visual attention: The past 25 years

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on covert attention and how it alters early vision. I explain why attention is considered a selective process, the constructs of covert attention, spatial endogenous and exogenous attention, and feature-based attention. I explain how in the last 25 years research on attention has characterized the effects of covert attention on spatial filters and how attention influences the selection of stimuli of interest. This review includes the effects of spatial attention on discrim...

  15. The impact of airport shopping environments and dwell time on consumer spending

    OpenAIRE

    Bohl, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This article provides new insight into how the ambience and design of shopping environments impact onspending behaviour. Environmental cues in a retail area influence emotional states of by-passers, which in turn influence spending levels. Past research suggested that this effect only applies to shops with moderate arousal level. Also, several studies failed to confirm a relationship between emotions and spending levels. This is surprising, since high arousal environments (e.g., a...

  16. Responses of ground-dwelling spiders to four hedgerow species on sloped agricultural fields in Southwest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuhong Wu; Qingnian Cai; Chaowen Lin; Yibing Chen; Yuying Li; Xu Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Spiders are important predators in aeroecosystems and contribute to the control of agricultural nect nnnulatinns.Hahitat manage-ment such as the creation of new semi-natural habitats around or within fields enhances spider abundance and species diversity.Using pitfall traps,we investigated the effects of four hedgerow plant svecies.which serve as undisturhed and permanent semi-narimal habitats,on ground-dwelling spider activity density(a parameter of nonulation density and relative activitv)and species richness.Samples were ollected over two winter wheat and two summer maize growing seasons druing 2005-2007 in trial field 1(slope gradient of 20%)and field 2(slope gradient of 12%)at the Ziyane Experimental Site in Sichuan Province,China.The hedgerow species evaluated were Amorpha fruticosa(field 1).Vetiveria zizanioides(field 1),EulahODsis binata (field 2),and Afediraon sativa(field 2).CnmnareA to rnntrnl plots,hedgerow plots had significantly higher activity density and species richness of ground-dwelling spiders within strips in both fields 1 and 2 during the wheat growing season.The presence of hedgerow strins did not augment the activity density and species richness of ground-dwelling spiders within the crop fields during the wheat or maize growing seasons.The ground-dwelling spider activity density within hedgerow strips was significantly higher in the Vetiveria than in the AmorDha nlots and in the Medicago than in the Eulaliopsis plots,and the species richness was significantly higher in the Vetiveria than in the Amornha plots during the wheat season. Our results suggest that hedgerows may serve as important overwinterine sites for ground-dwelling spiders durinjthe wheat growing season.In addition,the diversification of agroecosystems by using hedgerow strips may be a viable strategy for maintaining ground-dwelling spider populations in agricultural areas.However,ground-dwelling spiders did not move into adiacent crop fields;therefore,future work should

  17. The effectiveness of a combined exercise intervention on physical fitness factors related to falls in community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jie Zhuang,1,* Liang Huang,1,2,* Yanqiang Wu,3 Yanxin Zhang2 1School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Sport and Exercise Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Shanghai Municipal Center for Students' Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance, Shanghai, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative exercise program on muscle strength, balance, and gait kinematics in elderly community-dwellers. The exercise program included strength and balance training and the 8-form Tai Chi Chuan. The measurements were carried out at baseline and 12 weeks, and consisted of four physical performance tests, joint isokinetic strength tests, and three-dimensional gait analysis. Fifty-six community-dwelling older adults aged 60–80 years old were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. After 12 weeks, the intervention group showed a 17.6% improvement in the timed up and go test, accompanied by a 54.7% increase in the 30-second chair stand test score. Significant increases in the score of star excursion balance tests, and the strength of the extensor and flexor muscles at knee and ankle joints were also observed. In addition, the intervention group walked at a faster speed with a longer step length, shorter support phase, and a greater sagittal plane range of motion at the hip and ankle joints. No statistical improvements were seen in the control group. This study provided an effective, evidence-based falls prevention program that can be implemented in community settings to improve physical fitness and reduce fall risks among community-dwelling older adults. The star excursion balance test could be a sensitive measure of physical performance for fall risk assessment in older people. Keywords: Tai Chi Chuan, resistance training, balance, fall prevention, fall

  18. Grouping patterns in a forest dwelling population of Pyrenean chamois.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero, J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal grouping in a population of Pyrenean chamois Rupicapra p. pyrenaica was studied by direct observation on the edge of their westernmost distribution. The whole area occupied by a population was surveyed by performing monthly fixed transects over one year. The size of 214 groups ranged from 1 to 54. Both size and composition were quite variable and differed between seasons and habitats. Groups were generally very small (45% of only one animal, median: 2; P75=4, which is characteristic of small and low density forest-dwelling populations. Groups appeared to depend strongly on the annual biological cycle, food distribution and vegetation cover. The spatial segregation between males and females was only evident in the summer, when solitary males mostly occupied the forest and females with kids lived on open pasturelands. All the general patterns on size and composition of the groups occurred in this population.

    [fr]
    Par la voie de l'observation directe nous avons étudié le grégarisme journalier chez une population d'isard (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica à la limite occidentale de l'aire de répartition de l'espèce. La surface complète occupée a été suivie par de trajets fixes mensuels durant un an. La taille des différents troupeaux a varié de là 54 individus. De même, la composition était également très variable et changeait d'une saison à l'autre ou d'un habitat à l'autre. De manière générale, les troupeaux étaient très petits (45% de seulement un animal, moyenne: 2 ; P75=5, c'est la caractéristique des petites populations, à basse densité et vivant en forêt. Les groupes étaient fortement conditionnés par le cycle annuel, la distribution des ressources alimentaires et le recouvrement végétal. La ségrégation spatiale entre mâles et femelles avait lieu seulement en été, moment où les mâles solitaires occupaient surtout la forêt tandis que les femelles avec les

  19. Assessment of postural balance in community-dwelling older adults - methodological aspects and effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech

    2014-01-01

    The overall purpose of this thesis was to examine selected methodological aspects and novel approaches for measuring postural balance older adults, and to examine the effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training on selected physiological, psychological and functional outcome variables in community-dwelling older adults. In Study I balance control was investigated using force plate analysis of Centre of Pressure (COP) excursion during static bilateral standing in 32 community-dwelling older adults at three different time-points (09:00, 12:30, and 16:00) throughout the day. An overall significant time-of-day effect was observed for all selected COP variables. The greatest change in all COP variables was observed (on average ~15%) between midday (12:30) and the afternoon (16:00), indicating that a systematic time-of-day influence on static postural balance exists in community-dwelling older adults. Consequently, longitudinal (i.e. pre-to-post training) comparisons of postural balance in in older adults with repeated assessments should be conducted at the same time-of-day. In Study II a novel approach for measuring postural balance (using the Nintendo Wii Stillness and Agility tests) was examined for reproducibility and concurrent validity in 30 community-dwelling older adults. While the Nintendo Wii Stillness test showed a high reproducibility, a systematic learning effect between successive sessions was observed for the Agility test. Moderate-to-excellent concurrent validity was seen for the Stillness test. In contrast, the Agility test revealed a poor concurrent validity. In conclusion, the Wii Stillness test seems to represent a low-cost objective reproducible test of postural balance in community-dwelling older adults and appears feasible in various clinical settings. A habituation (familiarization) period is necessary for the Wii Agility test to avoid a systematic learning effect between successive test sessions. Study III investigated the effect of ten

  20. A neural theory of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    2005-01-01

    A neural theory of visual attention (NTVA) is presented. NTVA is a neural interpretation of C. Bundesen's (1990) theory of visual attention (TVA). In NTVA, visual processing capacity is distributed across stimuli by dynamic remapping of receptive fields of cortical cells such that more processing...... resources (cells) are devoted to behaviorally important objects than to less important ones. By use of the same basic equations used in TVA, NTVA accounts for a wide range of known attentional effects in human performance (reaction times and error rates) and a wide range of effects observed in firing rates...... of single cells in the primate visual system. NTVA provides a mathematical framework to unify the 2 fields of research--formulas bridging cognition and neurophysiology....

  1. 空间•实践•表征:侗族传统民居的象征人类学阐释%Space, practice and representation:Symbolic interpretation for traditional Dong dwelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵巧艳

    2014-01-01

    针对现有关于侗族传统民居的研究缺乏整体提炼的缺憾,借鉴社会空间理论和实践理论等观点,从象征人类学的视角,系统阐释侗族传统民居的象征内涵。研究发现,侗族传统民居很好地吻合了列斐伏尔的空间演进脉络,是实践基础上的一个表征空间。在侗族传统民居空间意义的形成上,仪式实践扮演着关键的角色。此外,亲属实践、符号实践和秩序实践也有着积极的贡献。综合而言,民居表征的意义最终指向侗族传统文化中自然观、空间观、时间观等多维观念意象,并藉由与民居建造和使用上的宗教-巫术仪式的结合,共同构成了侗族的整体幸福观念表达图式。%In considering of insufficient studies aimed at integrative abstraction for traditional Dong dwelling, the thesis systematically integrated the symbolic connotation of the dwelling from the viewpoint of symbolic anthropology with reference to the theoretic point of social space and practice. The result shows that traditional Dong dwelling fitted well with Lefebvre’s path of spatial evolution, and finally turned into a representational space on the basis of practice. In the forming process of spatial meaning of traditional Dong dwelling, ritual practice played key role. Besides, kinship practice, symbol practice and order practice also had positive contribution. Comprehensively speaking, meaning represented by dwelling ultimately directed to concept of nature, space, time and other multi-dimensional concept image in traditional Dong culture. Through the combination with religious-taboo rituals in building and using of dwelling, the representational meaning of traditional Dong dwelling turned out to be an expression schema of integrative happiness for Dong nationality.

  2. Caffeine Modulates Attention Network Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a flanker task designed to test Posner's three visual attention network functions: alerting, orienting, and executive control [Posner, M. I. (2004). "Cognitive neuroscience of attention". New York, NY: Guilford Press]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind…

  3. Computational Attention for Event Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Mancas, Matei; Couvreur, Laurent; Gosselin, Bernard; Macq, Benoît

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with a biologically-motivated three-level computational attention model architecture based on the rarity and the information theory framework. It mainly focuses on low-level and medium-level steps and their application in pre-attentive detection of tumours in CT scans and unusual events in audio recordings.

  4. Ventilation, indoor air quality, and human health and comfort in dwellings and day-care centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruotsalainen, R.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the study was to assess the actual ventilation and indoor air quality in the Finnish building stock (dwellings and day-care centers) with special reference to the existing guideline values. Furthermore, the objective was to evaluate the occurrence of symptoms and perceptions among occupants (adult residents, children, workers) in relation to ventilation system, ventilation rate and dampness. The measurements of ventilation and indoor air quality in the dwellings and day-care centers included ventilation rate, CO{sub 2} concentration, and temperature and humidity. Self- and parent-administered questionnaires were distributed to the occupants inquiring their personal characteristics, occurrence of symptoms of interest, perceived indoor air quality and details of their home and work environments. Airflows and air change rates varied remarkably both in the dwellings and day-care centers. In the majority of the dwellings and day-care centers, the Finnish guideline values of ventilation rates were not achieved. No consistent associations were observed between the magnitude of mechanical ventilation rates and the occurrence of eye, respiratory, skin and general symptoms, that is, symptoms of sick building syndrome (SBS) among the day-care workers. The results indicate that there is much room for improvement in the ventilation and indoor air quality of Finnish dwellings and day-care centers. The control of ventilation, temperature and humidity and the prevention of water damage are important issues on which to concentrate in the future. There is need to improve the quality in all phases of construction: design, installation, adjustment, operation, and maintenance

  5. Association of day length and weather conditions with physical activity levels in older community dwelling people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles D Witham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Weather is a potentially important determinant of physical activity. Little work has been done examining the relationship between weather and physical activity, and potential modifiers of any relationship in older people. We therefore examined the relationship between weather and physical activity in a cohort of older community-dwelling people. METHODS: We analysed prospectively collected cross-sectional activity data from community-dwelling people aged 65 and over in the Physical Activity Cohort Scotland. We correlated seven day triaxial accelerometry data with daily weather data (temperature, day length, sunshine, snow, rain, and a series of potential effect modifiers were tested in mixed models: environmental variables (urban vs rural dwelling, percentage of green space, psychological variables (anxiety, depression, perceived behavioural control, social variables (number of close contacts and health status measured using the SF-36 questionnaire. RESULTS: 547 participants, mean age 78.5 years, were included in this analysis. Higher minimum daily temperature and longer day length were associated with higher activity levels; these associations remained robust to adjustment for other significant associates of activity: age, perceived behavioural control, number of social contacts and physical function. Of the potential effect modifier variables, only urban vs rural dwelling and the SF-36 measure of social functioning enhanced the association between day length and activity; no variable modified the association between minimum temperature and activity. CONCLUSIONS: In older community dwelling people, minimum temperature and day length were associated with objectively measured activity. There was little evidence for moderation of these associations through potentially modifiable health, environmental, social or psychological variables.

  6. Distance to faults as a proxy for radon gas concentration in dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Martel, Richard

    2016-02-01

    This research was done to demonstrate the usefulness of the local structural geology characteristics to predict indoor radon concentrations. The presence of geologic faults near dwellings increases the vulnerability of the dwellings to elevated indoor radon by providing favorable pathways from the source uranium-rich bedrock units to the surface. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analyses of variance by ranks were used to determine the distance where faults have statistically significant influence on indoor radon concentrations. The great-circle distance between the 640 spatially referenced basement radon concentration measurements and the nearest fault was calculated using the Haversine formula and the spherical law of cosines. It was shown that dwellings located less than 150 m from a major fault had a higher radon potential. The 150 m threshold was determined using Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA on: (1) all the basement radon measurements dataset and; (2) the basement radon measurements located on uranium-rich bedrock units only. The results indicated that 22.8% of the dwellings located less than 150 m from a fault exceeded the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m(3) when using all the basement radon measurements dataset. This percentage fell to 15.2% for the dwellings located between 150 m and 700 m from a fault. When using only the basement radon measurements located on uranium-rich bedrock units, these percentages were 30.7% (0-150 m) and 17.5% (150 m-700 m). The assessment and management of risk can be improved where structural geology characteristics base maps are available by using this proxy indicator.

  7. Assessing the heritability of attentional networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fossella John A

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current efforts to study the genetics of higher functions have been lacking appropriate phenotypes to describe cognition. One of the problems is that many cognitive concepts for which there is a single word (e.g. attention have been shown to be related to several anatomical networks. Recently we have developed an Attention Network Test (ANT that provides a separate measure for each of three anatomically defined attention networks. In this small scale study, we ran 26 pairs of MZ and DZ twins in an effort to determine if any of these networks show sufficient evidence of heritability to warrant further exploration of their genetic basis. Results The efficiency of the executive attention network, that mediates stimulus and response conflict, shows sufficient heritability to warrant further study. Alerting and overall reaction time show some evidence for heritability and in our study the orienting network shows no evidence of heritability. Conclusions These results suggest that genetic variation contributes to normal individual differences in higher order executive attention involving dopamine rich frontal areas including the anterior cingulate. At least the executive portion of the ANT may serve as a valid endophenotype for larger twin studies and subsequent molecular genetic analysis in normal subject populations.

  8. Age trends for failures of sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriere, Jonathan S A; Cheyne, J Allan; Solman, Grayden J F; Smilek, Daniel

    2010-09-01

    Recent research has revealed an age-related reduction in errors in a sustained attention task, suggesting that sustained attention abilities improve with age. Such results seem paradoxical in light of the well-documented age-related declines in cognitive performance. In the present study, performance on the sustained attention to response task (SART) was assessed in a supplemented archival sample of 638 individuals between 14 and 77 years old. SART errors and response speed appeared to decline in a linear fashion as a function of age throughout the age span studied. In contrast, other measures of sustained attention (reaction time coefficient of variation), anticipation, and omissions) showed a decrease early in life and then remained unchanged for the rest of the life span. Thus, sustained attention shows improvements with maturation in early adulthood but then does not change with aging in older adults. On the other hand, aging across the entire life span leads to a more strategic (i.e., slower) response style that reduces the overt and critical consequences (i.e., SART errors) of momentary task disengagement.

  9. Lateral asymmetry of voluntary attention orienting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Castro-Barros

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated that automatic attention favors the right side of space and, in the present study, we investigated whether voluntary attention also favors this side. Six reaction time experiments were conducted. In each experiment, 12 new 18-25-year-old male right-handed individuals were tested. In Experiments 1, 2, 3 (a, b and 4 (a, b, tasks with increasing attentional demands were used. In Experiments 1, 2, 3a, and 4a, attention was oriented to one or both sides by means of a central spatially informative visual cue. A left or right side visual target appeared 100, 300, or 500 ms later. Attentional effects were observed in the four experiments. In Experiments 2, 3a and 4a, these effects were greater when the cue indicated the right side than when it indicated the left side (respectively: 16 ± 10 and 44 ± 6 ms, P = 0.015, for stimulus onset asynchrony of 500 ms in Experiment 2; 38 ± 10 and 70 ± 7 ms, P = 0.011, for Experiment 3a, and 23 ± 11 and 61 ± 10 ms, P = 0.009, for Experiment 4a. In Experiments 3b and 4b, the central cue pointed to both sides and was said to be non-relevant for task performance. In these experiments right and left reaction times did not differ. The most conservative interpretation of the present findings is that voluntary attention orienting favors the right side of space, particularly when a difficult task has to be performed.

  10. Guiding Attention by Cooperative Cues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KangWoo Lee

    2008-01-01

    A common assumption in visual attention is based on the rationale of "limited capacity of information pro-ceasing". From this view point there is little consideration of how different information channels or modules are cooperating because cells in processing stages are forced to compete for the limited resource. To examine the mechanism behind the cooperative behavior of information channels, a computational model of selective attention is implemented based on two hypotheses. Unlike the traditional view of visual attention, the cooperative behavior is assumed to be a dynamic integration process between the bottom-up and top-down information. Furthermore, top-down information is assumed to provide a contextual cue during selection process and to guide the attentional allocation among many bottom-up candidates. The result from a series of simulation with still and video images showed some interesting properties that could not be explained by the competitive aspect of selective attention alone.

  11. Faking attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2011-08-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common malady in the general population, with up to 8.1 percent of adults meeting criteria for this syndrome. In the college setting, the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may offer specific academic advantages. Once the diagnosis is assigned, the prescription of stimulant medication may provide additional secondary gains through misuse and/or diversion. For example, these drugs may be used by college consumers to increase alertness, energy, academic performance, and athletic performance. Stimulants may also decrease psychological distress, alleviate restlessness and weight concerns, and be used for recreational purposes. According to the findings of five studies, the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be believably faked, particularly when assessed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom checklists. Thus, the faking of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a realistic concern in both psychiatric and primary care settings.

  12. Social reward shapes attentional biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Paying attention to stimuli that predict a reward outcome is important for an organism to survive and thrive. When visual stimuli are associated with tangible, extrinsic rewards such as money or food, these stimuli acquire high attentional priority and come to automatically capture attention. In humans and other primates, however, many behaviors are not motivated directly by such extrinsic rewards, but rather by the social feedback that results from performing those behaviors. In the present study, I examine whether positive social feedback can similarly influence attentional bias. The results show that stimuli previously associated with a high probability of positive social feedback elicit value-driven attentional capture, much like stimuli associated with extrinsic rewards. Unlike with extrinsic rewards, however, such stimuli also influence task-specific motivation. My findings offer a potential mechanism by which social reward shapes the information that we prioritize when perceiving the world around us.

  13. Attentional priming releases crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Arni; Heimisson, Pétur Rúnar; Róbertsson, Gunnar Freyr; Whitney, David

    2013-10-01

    Views of natural scenes unfold over time, and objects of interest that were present a moment ago tend to remain present. While visual crowding places a fundamental limit on object recognition in cluttered scenes, most studies of crowding have suffered from the limitation that they typically involved static scenes. The role of temporal continuity in crowding has therefore been unaddressed. We investigated intertrial effects upon crowding in visual scenes, showing that crowding is considerably diminished when objects remain constant on consecutive visual search trials. Repetition of both the target and distractors decreases the critical distance for crowding from flankers. More generally, our results show how object continuity through between-trial priming releases objects that would otherwise be unidentifiable due to crowding. Crowding, although it is a significant bottleneck on object recognition, can be mitigated by statistically likely temporal continuity of the objects. Crowding therefore depends not only on what is momentarily present, but also on what was previously attended.

  14. Attention, President Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, Rob

    2008-12-01

    Richard Muller's new book Physics for Future Presidents: The Science Behind the Headlines is both fascinating and frustrating. On the fascinating side is the wide variety of poorly appreciated, presidentially useful facts he includes. For example, did you know that petrol has 15 times the energy of TNT per unit mass, and that just one of the 9/11 aircraft carried the energy equivalent of almost 1 kilotonne of TNT? No wonder that the terrorists' planes did so much damage to a particularly vulnerable part of New York's infrastructure. And did you know that because growing corn requires so much energy and fertiliser, ethanol fuel produced from corn in the US reduces greenhouse-gas emissions by only 13% compared with petrol, whereas ethanol produced from sugar cane in Brazil reduces emissions by 90%?

  15. The roles of cortical oscillations in sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Michael S; Yeung, Nick; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2015-04-01

    We rely on sustained attention to protect task performance against fatigue and distraction. Time-related variations in attention correlate with amplitude changes of specific cortical oscillations. However, the ways in which these oscillations might support sustained attention, how these oscillations are controlled, and the extent to which they influence one another remain unclear. We address this issue by proposing an oscillatory model of sustained attention. Within this framework, sustained attention relies on frontomedial theta oscillations, inter-areal communication via low-frequency phase synchronisation, and selective excitation and inhibition of cognitive processing through gamma and alpha oscillations, respectively. Sustained attention also relies on interactions between these oscillations across attention-related brain networks.

  16. Training of selective attention in work-active stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starovasnik Žagavec, Barbara; Mlinarič Lešnik, Vesna; Goljar, Nika

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to examine the effects of computer-based cognitive rehabilitation of attention in work-active patients after stroke. The study included 11 patients treated as inpatients at the University Rehabilitation Institute, Republic of Slovenia, who were included in intensive selective attention training four times a week for 3 months. Each patient was assessed at the initial and the final rehabilitation stage with the TAP system (Test of Attentional Performance), alertness, and divided attention tasks. The results indicate a moderate to strong increase in performance on the divided attention test and a mild effect on the alertness test. Early cognitive rehabilitation of the attentional system can contribute toward recovery of divided attention in work-active patients after stroke.

  17. The effects of advertisement location and familiarity on selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Tanja Lund; Rodway, Paul

    2010-06-01

    This study comprised two experiments to examine the distracting effects of advertisement familiarity, location, and onset on the performance of a selective attention task. In Exp. 1, familiar advertisements presented in peripheral vision disrupted selective attention when the attention task was more demanding, suggesting that the distracting effect of advertisements is a product of task demands and advertisement familiarity and location. In Exp. 2, the onset of the advertisement shortly before, or after, the attention task captured attention and disrupted attentional performance. The onset of the advertisement before the attention task reduced target response time without an increase in errors and therefore facilitated performance. Despite being instructed to ignore the advertisements, the participants were able to recall a substantial proportion of the familiar advertisements. Implications for the presentation of advertisements during human-computer interaction were discussed.

  18. Rewards teach visual selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelazzi, Leonardo; Perlato, Andrea; Santandrea, Elisa; Della Libera, Chiara

    2013-06-07

    Visual selective attention is the brain function that modulates ongoing processing of retinal input in order for selected representations to gain privileged access to perceptual awareness and guide behavior. Enhanced analysis of currently relevant or otherwise salient information is often accompanied by suppressed processing of the less relevant or salient input. Recent findings indicate that rewards exert a powerful influence on the deployment of visual selective attention. Such influence takes different forms depending on the specific protocol adopted in the given study. In some cases, the prospect of earning a larger reward in relation to a specific stimulus or location biases attention accordingly in order to maximize overall gain. This is mediated by an effect of reward acting as a type of incentive motivation for the strategic control of attention. In contrast, reward delivery can directly alter the processing of specific stimuli by increasing their attentional priority, and this can be measured even when rewards are no longer involved, reflecting a form of reward-mediated attentional learning. As a further development, recent work demonstrates that rewards can affect attentional learning in dissociable ways depending on whether rewards are perceived as feedback on performance or instead are registered as random-like events occurring during task performance. Specifically, it appears that visual selective attention is shaped by two distinct reward-related learning mechanisms: one requiring active monitoring of performance and outcome, and a second one detecting the sheer association between objects in the environment (whether attended or ignored) and the more-or-less rewarding events that accompany them. Overall this emerging literature demonstrates unequivocally that rewards "teach" visual selective attention so that processing resources will be allocated to objects, features and locations which are likely to optimize the organism's interaction with the

  19. Dissociating Attention Effects from Categorical Perception with ERP Functional Microstates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dering, Benjamin; Donaldson, David I.

    2016-01-01

    When faces appear in our visual environment we naturally attend to them, possibly to the detriment of other visual information. Evidence from behavioural studies suggests that faces capture attention because they are more salient than other types of visual stimuli, reflecting a category-dependent modulation of attention. By contrast, neuroimaging data has led to a domain-specific account of face perception that rules out the direct contribution of attention, suggesting a dedicated neural network for face perception. Here we sought to dissociate effects of attention from categorical perception using Event Related Potentials. Participants viewed physically matched face and butterfly images, with each category acting as a target stimulus during different blocks in an oddball paradigm. Using a data-driven approach based on functional microstates, we show that the locus of endogenous attention effects with ERPs occurs in the N1 time range. Earlier categorical effects were also found around the level of the P1, reflecting either an exogenous increase in attention towards face stimuli, or a putative face-selective measure. Both category and attention effects were dissociable from one another hinting at the role that faces may play in early capturing of attention before top-down control of attention is observed. Our data support the conclusion that certain object categories, in this experiment, faces, may capture attention before top-down voluntary control of attention is initiated. PMID:27657921

  20. Consequences of interaction of functional, somatic, mental and social problems in community-dwelling older people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne H van Houwelingen

    Full Text Available This study explores the combination of four common health problems in older people and whether problems on four domains result in an additional effect on indicators of poor health. For this purpose, a total of 2681 participants (32% male, mean age 82 years of the Integrated Systematic Care for Older People (ISCOPE study were screened on the presence of health problems on four domains (functional, somatic, mental, social with the postal ISCOPE questionnaire. Extensive interview data on health indicators were obtained at baseline and at 12-months follow-up, including disability (Groningen Activities Restriction Scale, GARS, cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination, MMSE, depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale-15, GDS, loneliness (loneliness scale of De Jong Gierveld, and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D. General practitioner (GP contact time (min/year was estimated via GP electronic medical records. Of the study population, 9% had no health problems according to the screening, 8% had problems on one domain, 27% on two, 38% on three and 18% on four domains. At baseline, the number of health domains with problems was associated with poorer scores on the GARS, the MMSE, the GDS-15, the loneliness scale, the EQ-5D and with more GP contact time (p <0.001. Problems on all four domains had an additional negative effect on these health indicators (all pinteraction <0.001. At follow-up, an increased number of domains with problems was associated with an increased decline in health indicators (all p<0.001 and with an additional negative effect on GP contact time of the presence of problems on all four domains (pinteraction <0.001. We conclude that combinations of functional, somatic, mental and social problems are associated with poor health indicators in community-dwelling older people. Since problems on four domains have an additional effect on health, individuals with combined functional, somatic, mental and social problems could

  1. Early vision and visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT, based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constructs of FIT, like types of visual search and the role of the attention. The following review describes the main studies of early vision and visual attention.

  2. Spin-dependent tunneling time in periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ping-Fan; Guo, Yong, E-mail: guoy66@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the tunneling time (dwell time) in periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier (DMS/NB) superlattices subjected to an external magnetic field. It is found that spin-dependent resonant bands form in the spectra of dwell time, which can be effectively manipulated by not only the external magnetic field but also the geometric parameters of the system. Moreover, an intuitive semiclassical delay is defined to illustrate the behavior of the dwell time, and the former one is shown to be the result of “smoothing out” the latter one. We also find that the dwell time in diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/semiconductor superlattices behaves surprisingly different from the DMS/NB case, especially for spin-down electrons.

  3. Improvement of thermal performance of envelopes for traditional wooden vernacular dwellings of Tujia Minority in Western Hunan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李哲; 石磊; 余志武

    2016-01-01

    Thermal performance of envelopes and indoor thermal environment were technologically improved for traditional wooden vernacular dwellings of Tujia Minority in Western Hunan, China, on the premise of protecting their conventional styles. Thermal insulation boards and wooden boards were added to the interior side of external walls of vernacular dwellings to form two layers of air cavities, so as to gain excellent thermal performance. The indoor temperature of such dwellings after reconstruction was apparently improved compared with the data before reconstruction both in winter and summer, which verified the feasibility and the effectiveness of the reconstruction technologies proposed.

  4. Targeted Communication and Investor Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Boulland, Romain; Degeorge, François; Ginglinger, Edith

    2012-01-01

    In the spirit of Merton (1987) we find that targeted communication by firms raises investor attention. Continental European firms using English-language commercial press wires to disseminate corporate press releases exhibit less drift and more trading volume after their earnings announcements than firms that do not, consistent with communication on English speaking wires raising investor attention. Continental European firms using English-language commercial press wires also receive more pres...

  5. Faking Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common malady in the general population, with up to 8.1 percent of adults meeting criteria for this syndrome. In the college setting, the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may offer specific academic advantages. Once the diagnosis is assigned, the prescription of stimulant medication may provide additional secondary gains through misuse and/or diversion. For example, these drugs may be used by college consumers to increase aler...

  6. Attentional Networks and Biological Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramouli Chandrasekaran

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to see meaningful actions when presented with pointlight traces of human movement is commonly referred to as the perception of biological motion. While traditionalexplanations have emphasized the spontaneous and automatic nature of this ability, morerecent findings suggest that attention may play a larger role than is typically assumed. Intwo studies we show that the speed and accuracy of responding to point-light stimuli is highly correlated with the ability to control selective attention. In our first experiment we measured thresholds for determining the walking direction of a masked point-light figure, and performance on a range of attention-related tasks in the same set of observers. Mask-density thresholds for the direction discrimination task varied quite considerably from observer to observer and this variation was highly correlated with performance on both Stroop and flanker interference tasks. Other components of attention, such as orienting, alerting and visual search efficiency, showed no such relationship. In a second experiment, we examined the relationship between the ability to determine the orientation of unmasked point-light actions and Stroop interference, again finding a strong correlation. Our results are consistent with previous research suggesting that biological motion processing may requite attention, and specifically implicate networks of attention related to executive control and selection.

  7. Visual attention in posterior stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Charlotte; Petersen, Anders; Iversen, Helle K

    Objective: Impaired visual attention is common following strokes in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, particularly in the right hemisphere. However, attentional effects of more posterior lesions are less clear. The aim of this study was to characterize visual processing speed and appre......Objective: Impaired visual attention is common following strokes in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, particularly in the right hemisphere. However, attentional effects of more posterior lesions are less clear. The aim of this study was to characterize visual processing speed...... and apprehension span following posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke. We also relate these attentional parameters to visual word recognition, as previous studies have suggested that reduced visual speed and span may explain pure alexia. Methods: Nine patients with MR-verified focal lesions in the PCA......-territory (four left PCA; four right PCA; one bilateral, all >1 year post stroke) were compared to 25 controls using single case statistics. Visual attention was characterized by a whole report paradigm allowing for hemifield-specific speed and span measurements. We also characterized visual field defects...

  8. Dissociating temporal attention from spatial attention and motor response preparation: A high-density EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugeras, Frédéric; Naccache, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    Engagement of various forms of attention and response preparation determines behavioral performance during stimulus-response tasks. Many studies explored the respective properties and neural signatures of each of these processes. However, very few experiments were conceived to explore their interaction. In the present work we used an auditory target detection task during which both temporal attention on the one side, and spatial attention and motor response preparation on the other side could be explicitly cued. Both cueing effects speeded response times, and showed strictly additive effects. Target ERP analysis revealed modulations of N1 and P3 responses by these two forms of cueing. Cue-target interval analysis revealed two main effects paralleling behavior. First, a typical contingent negative variation (CNV), induced by the cue and resolved immediately after target onset, was found larger for temporal attention cueing than for spatial and motor response cueing. Second, a posterior and late cue-P3 complex showed the reverse profile. Analyses of lateralized readiness potentials (LRP) revealed both patterns of motor response inhibition and activation. Taken together these results help to clarify and disentangle the respective effects of temporal attention on the one hand, and of the combination of spatial attention and motor response preparation on the other hand on brain activity and behavior.

  9. In competition for the attentional template: can multiple items within visual working memory guide attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Moorselaar, Dirk; Theeuwes, Jan; Olivers, Christian N L

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the deployment of attention can be biased by the content of visual working memory (VWM), but that stored memories do not always interact with attention. This has led to a model which proposes a division within VWM between a single active template that interacts with perception and multiple accessory representations that do not. The present study was designed to study whether multiple memory representations are able to bias attention. Participants performed a visual search task while maintaining a variable number of colors in VWM. Consistent with earlier findings, we observed increased attentional capture by memory related distractors when VWM was filled with a single item. However, memory related capture was no longer present for memory loads beyond a single item. The absence of memory related capture at higher VWM loads was independent of individual VWM capacity, nor was it attributable to weaker encoding, forgetting, or reduced precision of memory representations. When analyses were limited to those trials in which participants had a relatively precise memory, there was still no sign of attentional guidance at higher loads. However, when observers were cued toward a specific memory item after encoding, interference with search returned. These results are consistent with a distinction within VWM between representations that interact with perception and those that do not, and show that only a single VWM representation at a time can interact with visual attention.

  10. Effect of attention control on sustained attention during induced anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillon, Christian; Robinson, Oliver J; Mathur, Ambika; Ernst, Monique

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety has wide-reaching and complex effects on cognitive performance. Although it can intrude on cognition and interfere with performance, it can also facilitate information processing and behavioural responses. In a previous study, we showed that anxiety induced by threat of shock facilitates performance on the Sustained Attention to Response Task, a vigilance test, which probes response inhibition to infrequent nogo stimuli. The present study sought to identify factors that may have contributed to such improved performance, including on- and off-task thinking (assessed with thought probes) and individual differences in attention control, as measured with the Attention Control Scale. Replicating our prior finding, we showed that shock threat significantly reduced errors of commission on the nogo trials. However, we extended this finding in demonstrating that this effect was driven by subjects with low attention control. We therefore confirm that anxiety increases inhibitory control of prepotent responses--a mechanism which is adaptive under threat--and show that this effect is greater in those who rely more upon such prepotent responding, i.e., those with low attentional control.

  11. Components of Attention Modulated by Temporal Expectation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    letter into visual short-term memory (VSTM) is modulated by the observer’s temporal expectations. We extended the investigation from single-stimulus recognition to whole report (Experiment 1) and partial report (Experiment 2). Cue–stimulus foreperiods were distributed geometrically using time steps...... even: The efficiency of selecting targets rather than distractors for encoding into VSTM was higher, as was the spread of the attentional weights of the target letters....

  12. Short- and long-term variability of radon progeny concentration in dwellings in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezáková, M; Navrátilová Rovenská, K; Tomásek, L; Holecek, J

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, repeated measurements of radon progeny concentration in dwellings in the Czech Republic are described. Two distinct data sets are available: one based on present measurements in 170 selected dwellings in the Central Bohemian Pluton with a primary measurement carried out in the 1990s and the other based on 1920 annual measurements in 960 single-family houses in the Czech Republic in 1992 and repeatedly in 1993. The analysis of variance model with random effects is applied to data to evaluate the variability of measurements. The calculated variability attributable to repeated measurements is compared with results from other countries. In epidemiological studies, ignoring the variability of measurements may lead to biased estimates of risk of lung cancer.

  13. Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    "The Advanced Montessori Method, Volume 1" was published in 1918 in English and is considered a seminal work along with "The Montessori Method." In the foreword to this book, Mario Montessori writes: "...the refulgent figure of the child, Dr. Montessori pointed out, who had found his own path to mental health, who…

  14. Wood-burning stoves in low-carbon dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Afshari, Alireza;

    2013-01-01

    The European climate change strategy intends to encourage the erection of low-carbon buildings and the upgrading of existing buildings to low-carbon level. At the same time, it is an EU vision to maximise the use of renewable energy resources. In this strategy, small-scale wood...

  15. The Hidden Geometry of Attention Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Lingfei; Janssen, Marco; Zhang, Jiang; Zhao, Min

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to develop quantitative hypotheses to describe the diffusion of information among users, because, in theory, information resources can have an infinite number of copies. And this theoretical possibility has become a reality in an age of information explosion, when a Twitter meme may spread rapidly to millions of users in a few hours. To address this issue, we propose to study the transportation of users' attention between information resources. We use clicks as a proxy of attention and construct attention networks using the browsing log files from 1,000 Web forums. Our previous research discovered the scaling relationship between clicks and users with an exponent $\\theta$ that characterizes the efficiency of forums in spreading information. In this paper we propose a geometric model to explain this scaling property. We view attention networks as $d$-dimensional flow-balls that satisfy $\\theta=(d+1)/d$ and we find that the time-invariant parameter $d$ can be estimated from the spatial distribut...

  16. The Commingled Division of Visual Attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuechuan Sun

    Full Text Available Many critical activities require visual attention to be distributed simultaneously among distinct tasks where the attended foci are not spatially separated. In our two experiments, participants performed a large number of trials where both a primary task (enumeration of spots and a secondary task (reporting the presence/absence or identity of a distinctive shape required the division of visual attention. The spots and the shape were commingled spatially and the shape appeared unpredictably on a relatively small fraction of the trials. The secondary task stimulus (the shape was reported in inverse proportion to the attentional load imposed by the primary task (enumeration of spots. When the shape did appear, performance on the primary task (enumeration suffered relative to when the shape was absent; both speed and accuracy were compromised. When the secondary task required identification in addition to detection, reaction times increased by about 200 percent. These results are broadly compatible with biased competition models of perceptual processing. An important area of application, where the commingled division of visual attention is required, is the augmented reality head-up display (AR-HUD. This innovation has the potential to make operating vehicles safer but our data suggest that there are significant concerns regarding driver distraction.

  17. Sediment Dwelling Benthos as Indicator Species for Pollution Monitoring of Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, 1993-1994 (NODC Accession 9900121)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A multifaceted study of the sediment dwelling benthos was conducted in Mamala Bay to identify suitable species as indicators of sewage enrichment. There are five...

  18. The temporal relationship of thresholds between muscle activity and ventilation during bicycle ramp exercise in community dwelling elderly males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kentaro; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Satoshi; Higuchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare the appearance time of the ventilatory threshold point and the electromyographic threshold in the activity of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris long head and gastrocnemius lateral head muscles during ramp cycling exercise in elderly males. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven community dwelling elderly males participated in this study. Subjects performed exercise testing with an expiratory gas analyzer and surface electromyography to evaluate the tested muscle activities during ramp exercise. [Results] The electromyographic threshold for rectus femoris was not valid because the slope after electromyographic threshold was not significant as compared to that before electromyographic threshold. The slope of the regression line for vastus lateralis was significantly decreased after electromyographic threshold while biceps femoris and gastrocnemius were increased. The electromyographic threshold appearance times for vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius were significantly earlier than ventilatory threshold point. There were no difference in electromyographic threshold appearance times among three muscles. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the increase in the slope of the regression line after electromyographic threshold for vastus lateralis was decreased, possibly indicating to postpone muscular fatigue resulting from the activation of biceps femoris and gastrocnemius as biarticular antagonists. This recruitment pattern might be an elderly-specific strategy. PMID:27942152

  19. Components of attention modulated by temporal expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    By varying the probabilities that a stimulus would appear at particular times after the presentation of a cue and modeling the data by the theory of visual attention (Bundesen, 1990), Vangkilde, Coull, and Bundesen (2012) provided evidence that the speed of encoding a singly presented stimulus letter into visual short-term memory (VSTM) is modulated by the observer's temporal expectations. We extended the investigation from single-stimulus recognition to whole report (Experiment 1) and partial report (Experiment 2). Cue-stimulus foreperiods were distributed geometrically using time steps of 500 ms. In high expectancy conditions, the probability that the stimulus would appear on the next time step, given that it had not yet appeared, was high, whereas in low expectancy conditions, the probability was low. The speed of encoding the stimuli into VSTM was higher in the high expectancy conditions. In line with the Easterbrook (1959) hypothesis, under high temporal expectancy, the processing was also more focused (selective). First, the storage capacity of VSTM was lower, so that fewer stimuli were encoded into VSTM. Second, the distribution of attentional weights across stimuli was less even: The efficiency of selecting targets rather than distractors for encoding into VSTM was higher, as was the spread of the attentional weights of the target letters.

  20. Disparities in attention to HIV-prevention information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Allison; Crause, Candi; Vaid, Awais; Albarracín, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Compared to European-Americans, African-Americans have greater probability of becoming infected with HIV, as well as worse outcomes when they become infected. Therefore, adequate health communications should ensure that they capture the attention of African-Americans and do not perpetuate disadvantages relative to European-Americans. The objective of this report was to examine if racial disparities in attention to health information parallel racial disparities in health outcomes. Participants were clients of a public health clinic (Study 1 n = 64; Study 2 n = 55). Unobtrusive observation in a public health waiting room, message reading times, and response-time on a modified flanker task were used to examine attention to HIV- and flu-information across racial groups. In Study 1, participants were observed for the duration of their time in a public health clinic waiting room (average duration: 31 min). In Study 2, participants completed tasks in a private room at the public health clinic (average duration: 21 min). Across all attention measures, results suggest an interaction between race and information type on attention to health information. In particular, African-Americans differentially attended to information as a function of information type, with decreased attention to HIV- versus flu-information. In contrast, European-Americans attended equally to both HIV- and flu-information. As such, disparities in attention yielded less access to certain health information for African- than European-Americans in a health setting. The identified disparities in attention are particularly problematic because they disadvantage African-Americans at a time of great effort to correct racial disparities. Modifying the framing of health information in ways that ensure attention by all racial groups may be a strategy to increase attention, and thereby reduce disparities in health outcomes. Future research should find solutions that increase attentional access to health

  1. Attention trees and semantic paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura

    2007-02-01

    In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial

  2. Increased sensitivity of 3D-Well enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for infectious disease detection using 3D-printing fabrication technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpal; Shimojima, Masayuki; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Le Van, An; Sugamata, Masami; Yang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay or ELISA -based diagnostics are considered the gold standard in the demonstration of various immunological reaction including in the measurement of antibody response to infectious diseases and to support pathogen identification with application potential in infectious disease outbreaks and individual patients' treatment and clinical care. The rapid prototyping of ELISA-based diagnostics using available 3D printing technologies provides an opportunity for a further exploration of this platform into immunodetection systems. In this study, a '3D-Well' was designed and fabricated using available 3D printing platforms to have an increased surface area of more than 4 times for protein-surface adsorption compared to those of 96-well plates. The ease and rapidity in designing-product development-feedback cycle offered through 3D printing platforms provided an opportunity for its rapid assessment, in which a chemical etching process was used to make the surface hydrophilic followed by validation through the diagnostic performance of ELISA for infectious disease without modifying current laboratory practices for ELISA. The higher sensitivity of the 3D-Well (3-folds higher) compared to the 96-well ELISA provides a potential for the expansion of this technology towards miniaturization platforms to reduce time, volume of reagents and samples needed for laboratory or field diagnosis of infectious diseases including applications in other disciplines.

  3. Effects of Psychiatric Symptoms on Attention in North Korean Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Jin; Jun, Jin Yong; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Gwak, Ah Reum; Lee, So Hee; Yoo, So Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the performance of North Korean refugees on attention tasks, and the relationship between that performance and psychiatric symptoms. Methods Sustained and divided attention was assessed using the computerized Comprehensive Attention Test in North Korean refugees and in South Koreans. All participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II). Results The North Korean refugees showed slower reaction times (RTs) on the visual sustained attention task compared to the South Koreans after controlling for age and sex. North Korean refugees had a greater number of omission errors (OEs) on the divided attention task and a higher standard deviation (SD) of RT. Total DES-II scores of the North Korean refugees were associated with the number of OEs and the SD of RT on the sustained attention task, and with the number of OEs on the divided attention task. Conclusion North Korean refugees showed poorer performance on computerized attention tasks. In addition, attention deficit among North Korean refugees was associated with their dissociative experiences. Our results suggest that refugees may have attention deficits, which may be related to their psychiatric symptoms, particularly dissociation. PMID:27757125

  4. Sedentary behavior and sleep efficiency in active community-dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, Kenneth M.; Ashe, Maureen C; Chris Lockhart; Chase, Jocelyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated that aerobic exercise interventions have a positive impact on sleep efficiency in older adults. However, little work has been done on the impact of sedentary behavior (sitting, watching television, etc.) on sleep efficiency. Methods: 54 Community-dwelling men and women >65 years of age living in Whistler, British Columbia (mean 71.5 years) were enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. Measures of sleep efficiency as well as averag...

  5. Architecture of pure geometry: Dwellings houses of architects Stevan i Milena Tešić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janakova-Grujić Mare

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Article describes part of work of Serbian's architects Stevan Tešić and Milena Veljković Tešić. The works have been designed and made in Italy from 2000 to 2008 and have been dedicated to dwellings houses. Following up developmental creative line, we can observe basic characteristics and particularity: urban sense, attitude to cultural and historical heritage and subject matter of works which is narrowly.

  6. Monitoring of Indoor Relative Humidity Levels in Residential Dwellings: A Sensor Network Application

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Lizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Indoor Air Quality is an increasing concern in the world today. The mere presence of people in a building or residence can significantly alter indoor air quality. Relative humidity over the range of normal indoor temperatures (66 - 80 degrees Farenheit) has been linked both directly and indirectly to various health and structural problems. The purpose of this project was to discover whether residential dwellings might benefit from an indoor humidification system. The project consisted of the dep...

  7. To the Problem of Designing Water Heating Solar Systems with Flat Collectors for Individual Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The variant of efficient combination of two renewable energy sources as a biogas system and a water heating solar system has been considered for power supply of individual dwellings. Criteria dependence has been suggested for determination of solar system power efficiency. Its legitimacy has been proved by an experiment. Power efficient solar system has been proposed with peculiar features of its designing and due account of energy flow distribution in technology of biogas production.

  8. Manual of acceptable practices for energy conservation in one- and two-family dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, R.

    1981-08-01

    The manual describes some acceptable methods for meeting the energy conservation requirements of the Energy Conservation Code of the District of Columbia for one- and two-family dwellings. This document illustrates examples that meet these energy performance standards. Terms are defined and the five options available for determining compliance are discussed. Standards on air infiltration, HVAC equipment, and service water heating are given. (MCW)

  9. Malnutrition in a Sample of Community-Dwelling People with Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sheard, Jamie M; Susan Ash; Mellick, George D; Peter A Silburn; Graham K Kerr

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Malnutrition results in poor health outcomes, and people with Parkinson's disease may be more at risk of malnutrition. However, the prevalence of malnutrition in Parkinson's disease is not yet well defined. The aim of this study is to provide an estimate of the extent of malnutrition in community-dwelling people with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of people with Parkinson's disease residing within a 2 hour driving radius of Brisbane, Australia. The Su...

  10. 普米族传统民居%The Traditional Dwellings of Pumi Nationality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 唐文

    2012-01-01

    普米族是我国少数民族中人口较少的民族,主要居住在云南.从普米族的生活环境、宗教信仰、风俗文化等出发,研究普米族传统民居的布局,主要为正房、厢房和其他用房,还分析了根据普米族传统文化以及宗教信仰划分的传统民居中的各个空间,包括正房内部空间以及院落空间.普米族传统民居中最为主要的建筑形式为木楞房,井干式结构的壁体以及“闪片”屋顶体现出普米族传统民居质朴、粗犷、原生态等特点.通过对现状的分析总结,提出普米族传统民居的发展方向.%The Pumi nationality is one of the less of Chinese minorities which lives in Yunnan. Beginning with the living environment, religion, customs and culture of the Pumi nofionolity, the paper studies the layout form of the traditional dwellings which consist of principal room, wing room and others. Besides, to analyze the space of traditional dwellings according to culture and religion of Pumi nationality, include of principal room and courtyard. The timber-house which contains dry-type wall and "ShanpiarTroof ,is one of the Pumi traditional dwellings, and reflects the characteristics of which is rustic, straightforward, ecological. According to the status ,it put forward the direction of Pumi traditional dwellings.

  11. Risk of falling, fear of falling and functionality in community-dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Beatriz; Tomás, Mª Teresa; Quirino, Diogo

    2016-01-01

    Ageing among Portuguese population is leading to an increase in the proportion of elderly people. Age-related changes are responsible for high levels of disability, balance problems and high risk of falls, Physiotherapy can identify elderly in risk of falling and provide strategies to prevent falls in this population contributing to maintain functionality. The purpose of this study was to characterise the risk of falling in a sample of community-dwelling older adults and investigate the assoc...

  12. A history of the pedagogy of voluntary attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungdalh, Anders Kruse

    2016-01-01

    The article explores the pedagogical recommendations within late nineteenth century psychological literature on voluntary attention, focusing on what was then understood as pathological conditions of attention. The purpose of the article is double. First, to investigate the reasoning embedded...... in the educational exercises with which to capture and retain the attention of students. What is the link between the educational practices of the late nineteenth century and the psychological interest in the concept of attention within this time period? And second, to explore the epistemological and methodological...... power of the pathological. Is it possible to examine the concept of attention through a focus on its pathological forms? The article demonstrates how the pedagogical recommendations embedded in the late nineteenth century psychological literature on attention aim to develop disinterested citizens...

  13. The impact of domestic load profiles on the grid-interaction of building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems in extremely low-energy dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baetens, R.; De Coninck, R.; Helsen, L.; Saelens, D.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: A BIPV system may produce the same amount of electricity as consumed in the building on a yearly base, however the simultaneity of production and consumption needs to be evaluated. The present paper aims at quantifying the impact of domestic load profiles on the integration of building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) electricity generation in a Belgian climate. In this work, a multi-zone TRNSYS model for a dwelling with compression heat pump for both space heating and domestic hot water (DHW), domestic consumers and on-site photovoltaic generation is set-up. As a consequence of the dynamics of the electricity demand and supply, it is necessary to use small time-steps. The model is used to assess the influence of the user behaviour, the influence of the dimensioning of the heating installation and grid interactions on the auto-consumption of BIPV systems. Furthermore, bottle-necks for possible large-scale implementation of on-site photovoltaic generation are illustrated. The electricity consumption of a dwelling typically peaks when the habitants wake up and arrive back home, whereas the BIPV system shows a profile depending on the local weather and system characteristics. By putting the results of the requested and delivered power within the same model, it is shown that the domestic load profiles due to human behaviour do not coincide with the output of photovoltaic systems. A dwelling with a classic gas-fired heating system is compared by a dwelling equipped with a electricity-driven heat pump for space heating and DHW. Herefore, the cover factor is defined, i.e. the ratio of domestic demand that is covered by the BIPV, for a BIPV installation with a yearly electricity production that equals the yearly domestic demand. If no attempt is made to bring the electricity demand and supply into balance on instant basis, a cover factor of 0.42 is found if a classic heating system is installed, denoting that more than half of the produced electricity will be

  14. Actual energy consumption in dwellings. The effect of energy performance regulations and occupant behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra Santin, O.

    2010-10-19

    Residential buildings have continuously improved in energy efficiency, partly as a consequence of the introduction of energy regulations in many countries. Although better thermal properties and systems efficiency have lowered energy consumption for space heating in recent decades, substantial differences in energy consumption in similar dwellings are still being observed. These differences in consumption are thought to be caused by differences in occupancy patterns, by quality of construction and by rebound effects. This research addresses the effect of energy performance regulations and occupant behavior on energy consumption for space and water heating in dwellings built after the introduction of the energy performance regulations in the Netherlands. The results of this research show that improving the energy efficiency of buildings alone is not enough to decrease that energy consumption. The large differences found in the use of dwellings indicate that, especially in energy efficient houses, occupant behavior provides an opportunity for further reductions in the energy consumption for space heating which could boost the efforts to conserve energy worldwide.

  15. Mechanisms of dwell fatigue crack growth in an advanced nickel disc alloy RR1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu S.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available RR1000 is one of an advanced class of nickel-based superalloys developed for disc applications. Under one hour dwell fatigue loading, complex crack growth behaviour has been observed especially in a coarse grained version of this alloy. At a temperature of 700 ∘C in air an increase of nearly two orders of magnitude in crack growth rates compared to baseline fatigue crack growth rates may be seen. However for certain microstructural conditions, cracks can also demonstrate retardation following initial acceleration. When using a direct current potential difference (d.c.p.d technique for monitoring crack growth, a damage zone of a few hundred microns is often measured ahead of a fast growing crack. Advanced characterisation techniques including SEM, ECCI and X-ray tomography have been adopted in the current study to understand the observed damage zone and retardation phenomenon. It is found that damage zones measured by d.c.p.d reflect brittle and non-uniform advance of the crack resulting from continuous dynamic or quasi-dynamic fracture of an oxide intrusion ahead of the crack tip during the dwell period. In contrast, cracking of the oxide intrusion is less frequent or even prevented during dwell periods associated with a retarded and slow growing crack. Crack tip stress relaxation plays an important role in dictating whether or not dynamic cracking of the oxide intrusion can be avoided.

  16. Prevalensi Sarkopenia pada Lansia di Komunitas (Community Dwelling berdasarkan Dua Nilai Cut-off Parameter Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitriana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, aging muscle mass loss, and function syndromes can lead to decreased quality of life and increased elderly mortality. The availability of various screening methods and operational definitions in different studies has produced different findings of sarcopenia prevalence. The purpose of this study was to discover the prevalence of sarcopenia in Indonesian community-dwelling elderly based on muscle mass measured by bioimpedance analysis, handgrip strength using hand dynamometer, and physical performance based on six minutes walking test with two different cut-off point parameters of sarcopenia, i.e. the cut-off point recommended by Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS and the cut-off point based on the reference used in Taiwan elderly population reference due to the lack of references for Indonesian elderly population. A cross-sectional study was conducted to 229 participants (71 men and 158 women from the community-dwelling elderly population between August and December 2014 in Bandung and Jatinangor. The results of the study showed that the sarcopenia prevalence in this study based on AWGS was 9.1% (7.4% in men and 1.7% in women while the prevalence based on the Taiwan reference revealed a prevalence of 40.6% (20.1% in men and 20.5% in women. This highly different prevalences shows the importance of defining a specific cut-off point for elderly population in community-dwelling Indonesia to get a more accurate sarcopenia prevalence.

  17. Multicomponent exercise for physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soonhee; Hwang, Sujin; Klein, Aimee B.; Kim, Seok Hun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify whether a 4-week multicomponent exercise program could improve the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy community-dwelling elderly women were randomly allocated to either an experimental or a control group. Experimental subjects performed a multicomponent exercise program that consisted of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises for 4 weeks, whereas the control subjects did not perform any specific exercise. The subjects’ level of physical fitness was assessed prior to and after training using the Senior Fitness Test which assesses muscle strength, flexibility, dynamic balance/agility, aerobic endurance, and body composition. [Results] Subjects in the experimental group showed significant improvements in lower and upper body strength, lower and upper body flexibility, dynamic balance/agility following training, but not in aerobic endurance or body composition. Significant group differences were shown in lower and upper body strength, lower body flexibility, and dynamic balance/agility. [Conclusion] The results suggest that a multicomponent training program that consists of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises is a relevant intervention for the improvement of the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women. PMID:25931757

  18. Radon levels and the expected population mortality in dwellings of Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Alzimami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Internal exposure from inhalation of radon and its progeny is one of the most significant sources of natural radiation exposure of the population. Radon levels and radon equilibrium factor were measured in the dwellings of Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia using passive technique. Calibrated CR-39 diffusion type radon detectors were used for radon measurements and the method of can and bare is adapted for the measurement of radon equilibrium factor. Passive measurements enable the accumulation of the result over a long period and cover a wide area. The probability of cancer induction and then the expected mortality was calculated based on different approaches. The results show that the overall weighted mean of annual effective dose for Al-Kharj resident is equal to 1.51 ± 0.8 mSv and The average expected mortality for residents in dwellings of Al-Kharj city is ranged from 0.596 ± 0.25 to 0.369 ± 0.15 death per 10,000 persons of ages from 40 to 70 years respectively. Also, the lifetime excess absolute risk (LEAR of the residents of the Al-Kharj city is equal to (2.06 ± 0.8 × 10−4. The effect of dwelling types, ventilation and construction materials on the expected mortality is discussed.

  19. Multicomponent exercise for physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soonhee; Hwang, Sujin; Klein, Aimee B; Kim, Seok Hun

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify whether a 4-week multicomponent exercise program could improve the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy community-dwelling elderly women were randomly allocated to either an experimental or a control group. Experimental subjects performed a multicomponent exercise program that consisted of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises for 4 weeks, whereas the control subjects did not perform any specific exercise. The subjects' level of physical fitness was assessed prior to and after training using the Senior Fitness Test which assesses muscle strength, flexibility, dynamic balance/agility, aerobic endurance, and body composition. [Results] Subjects in the experimental group showed significant improvements in lower and upper body strength, lower and upper body flexibility, dynamic balance/agility following training, but not in aerobic endurance or body composition. Significant group differences were shown in lower and upper body strength, lower body flexibility, and dynamic balance/agility. [Conclusion] The results suggest that a multicomponent training program that consists of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises is a relevant intervention for the improvement of the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women.

  20. Concepts for evaluation of sound insulation of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    Legal sound insulation requirements have existed more than 50 years in some countries, and single-number quantities for evaluation of sound insulation have existed nearly as long time. However, the concepts have changed considerably over time from simple arithmetic averaging of frequency bands....... The concepts suitable for evaluation should be well-defined under practical situations in buil¬dings, be measurable, reproducible and of course correlate well with subjective evalua¬tion. More noise sources - incl. neighbours’ activities - and an increased demand for high quality and comfort together...... with a trend towards light-weight constructions are contradictory and challenging. This calls for exchange of data and experience, implying a need for harmonized concepts, including use of spectrum adaptation terms. The paper will provide input for future discussions in EAA TC-RBA WG4: "Sound insulation...

  1. Distributed communication and psychosocial performance in simulated space dwelling groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hienz, R. D.; Brady, J. V.; Hursh, S. R.; Ragusa, L. C.; Rouse, C. O.; Gasior, E. D.

    2005-05-01

    The present report describes the development and application of a distributed interactive multi-person simulation in a computer-generated planetary environment as an experimental test bed for modeling the human performance effects of variations in the types of communication modes available, and in the types of stress and incentive conditions underlying the completion of mission goals. The results demonstrated a high degree of interchangeability between communication modes (audio, text) when one mode was not available. Additionally, the addition of time pressure stress to complete tasks resulted in a reduction in performance effectiveness, and these performance reductions were ameliorated via the introduction of positive incentives contingent upon improved performances. The results obtained confirmed that cooperative and productive psychosocial interactions can be maintained between individually isolated and dispersed members of simulated spaceflight crews communicating and problem-solving effectively over extended time intervals without the benefit of one another's physical presence.

  2. Forecasting hot water consumption in dwellings using artificial neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gelazanskas, Linas; Gamage, Kelum

    2015-01-01

    The electricity grid is currently transforming and becoming more and more decentralised. Green energy generation has many incentives throughout the world thus small renewable generation units become popular. Intermittent generation units pose threat to system stability so new balancing techniques like Demand Side Management must be researched. Residential hot water heaters are perfect candidates to be used for shifting electricity consumption in time. This paper investigates the ability on Ar...

  3. Chronic symptoms in a representative sample of community-dwelling older people: a cross-sectional study in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büla, Christophe; Guessous, Idris; Rodondi, Nicolas; Goy, René; Demont, Maurice; Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The burden of multiple diagnoses is well documented in older people, but less is known about chronic symptoms, many of which are even not brought to medical attention. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of chronic symptoms, their relationships with disability in basic activities of daily living (BADL) and quality of life (QoL), and their public health impact. Design A large cross-sectional population-based study. Setting Community in 2 regions of French-speaking Switzerland. Participants Community-dwelling older adults aged 68 years and older in 2011 (N=5300). Outcomes Disability in BADL defined as difficulty or help needed with any of dressing, bathing, eating, getting in/out of bed or an arm chair, and using the toilet. Overall QoL dichotomised as favourable (ie, excellent or very good) or unfavourable (ie, good, fair or poor). Disturbance by any of the following 14 chronic symptoms for at least 6 months: joint pain, back pain, chest pain, dyspnoea, persistent cough, swollen legs, memory gaps, difficulty concentrating, difficulty making decisions, dizziness/vertigo, skin problems, stomach/intestine problems, urinary incontinence and impaired sexual life. Results Only 17.1% of participants did not report being disturbed by any of these chronic symptoms. Weighted prevalence ranged from 3.1% (chest pain) to 47.7% (joint pain). Most chronic symptoms were significantly associated with disability in BADL or unfavourable QoL, with substantial gender differences. The number of chronic symptoms was significantly associated with disability in BADL and unfavourable QoL, with gradients suggesting dose–response relationships. Joint pain and back pain had the highest population attributable fractions. Conclusions Chronic symptoms are highly prevalent in older people, and are associated with disability in BADL and unfavourable QoL, particularly when multiple chronic symptoms co-occur. Owing to their high public health impact, musculoskeletal chronic

  4. Patterns of comorbidity in community-dwelling older people hospitalised for fall-related injury: A cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finch Caroline F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-dwelling older people aged 65+ years sustain falls frequently; these can result in physical injuries necessitating medical attention including emergency department care and hospitalisation. Certain health conditions and impairments have been shown to contribute independently to the risk of falling or experiencing a fall injury, suggesting that individuals with these conditions or impairments should be the focus of falls prevention. Since older people commonly have multiple conditions/impairments, knowledge about which conditions/impairments coexist in at-risk individuals would be valuable in the implementation of a targeted prevention approach. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the prevalence and patterns of comorbidity in this population group. Methods We analysed hospitalisation data from Victoria, Australia's second most populous state, to estimate the prevalence of comorbidity in patients hospitalised at least once between 2005-6 and 2007-8 for treatment of acute fall-related injuries. In patients with two or more comorbid conditions (multicomorbidity we used an agglomerative hierarchical clustering method to cluster comorbidity variables and identify constellations of conditions. Results More than one in four patients had at least one comorbid condition and among patients with comorbidity one in three had multicomorbidity (range 2-7. The prevalence of comorbidity varied by gender, age group, ethnicity and injury type; it was also associated with a significant increase in the average cumulative length of stay per patient. The cluster analysis identified five distinct, biologically plausible clusters of comorbidity: cardiopulmonary/metabolic, neurological, sensory, stroke and cancer. The cardiopulmonary/metabolic cluster was the largest cluster among the clusters identified. Conclusions The consequences of comorbidity clustering in terms of falls and/or injury outcomes of hospitalised patients

  5. Attentional and Perceptual Factors Affecting the Attentional Blink for Faces and Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Ayelet N.; Bentin, Shlomo

    2008-01-01

    When 2 different visual targets presented among different distracters in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) are separated by 400 ms or less, detection and identification of the 2nd targets are reduced relative to longer time intervals. This phenomenon, termed the "attentional blink" (AB), is attributed to the temporary engagement…

  6. Population response to habitat fragmentation in a stream-dwelling brook trout population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, B.H.; Nislow, K.H.; Coombs, J.A.; O'Donnell, M. J.; Dubreuil, T.L.

    2007-01-01

    Fragmentation can strongly influence population persistence and expression of life-history strategies in spatially-structured populations. In this study, we directly estimated size-specific dispersal, growth, and survival of stream-dwelling brook trout in a stream network with connected and naturally-isolated tributaries. We used multiple-generation, individual-based data to develop and parameterize a size-class and location-based population projection model, allowing us to test effects of fragmentation on population dynamics at local (i.e., subpopulation) and system-wide (i.e., metapopulation) scales, and to identify demographic rates which influence the persistence of isolated and fragmented populations. In the naturally-isolated tributary, persistence was associated with higher early juvenile survival (-45% greater), shorter generation time (one-half) and strong selection against large body size compared to the open system, resulting in a stage-distribution skewed towards younger, smaller fish. Simulating barriers to upstream migration into two currently-connected tribuory populations caused rapid (2-6 generations) local extinction. These local extinctions in turn increased the likelihood of system-wide extinction, as tributaries could no longer function as population sources. Extinction could be prevented in the open system if sufficient immigrants from downstream areas were available, but the influx of individuals necessary to counteract fragmentation effects was high (7-46% of the total population annually). In the absence of sufficient immigration, a demographic change (higher early survival characteristic of the isolated tributary) was also sufficient to rescue the population from fragmentation, suggesting that the observed differences in size distributions between the naturally-isolated and open system may reflect an evolutionary response to isolation. Combined with strong genetic divergence between the isolated tributary and open system, these results

  7. Functional mobility and balance in community-dwelling elderly submitted to multisensory versus strength exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Marcon Alfieri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Fábio Marcon Alfieri1, Marcelo Riberto2, Lucila Silveira Gatz3, Carla Paschoal Corsi Ribeiro2, José Augusto Fernandes Lopes2, José Maria Santarém4, Linamara Rizzo Battistella21São Paulo Adventist University Center, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Hospital of Clinics of the University of São Paulo, 3Degree in physical education, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Coordinator of the Center of Study for Physical Activity Sciences (CECAFI in the Department of Geriatrics, University of São Paulo Abstract: It is well documented that aging impairs balance and functional mobility. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of multisensory versus strength exercises on these parameters. We performed a simple blinded randomized controlled trial with 46 community-dwelling elderly allocated to strength ([GST], N = 23, 70.2-years-old ± 4.8 years or multisensory ([GMS], N = 23, 68.8-years-old ± 5.9 years exercises twice a week for 12 weeks. Subjects were evaluated by blinded raters using the timed ‘up and go’ test (TUG, the Guralnik test battery, and a force platform. By the end of the treatment, the GMS group showed a significant improvement in TUG (9.1 ± 1.9 seconds (s to 8.0 ± 1.0 s, P = 0.002; Guralnik test battery (10.6 ± 1.2 to 11.3 ± 0.8 P = 0.009; lateromedial (6.1 ± 11.7 cm to 3.1 ± 1.6 cm, P = 0.02 and anteroposterior displacement (4.7 ± 4.2 cm to 3.4 ± 1.0 cm, P = 0.03, which were not observed in the GST group. These results reproduce previous findings in the literature and mean that the stimulus to sensibility results in better achievements for the control of balance and dynamic activities. Multisensory exercises were shown to be more efficacious than strength exercises to improve functional mobility.Keywords: older adults, balance, functional mobility, exercisesCorrigendum for this paper has been published

  8. Eocene seasonality and seawater alkaline earth reconstruction using shallow-dwelling large benthic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David; Müller, Wolfgang; Oron, Shai; Renema, Willem

    2013-11-01

    Intra-test variability in Mg/Ca and other (trace) elements within large benthic foraminifera (LBF) of the family Nummulitidae have been investigated using laser-ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). These foraminifera have a longevity and size facilitating seasonal proxy retrieval and a depth distribution similar to 'surface-dwelling' planktic foraminifera. Coupled with their abundance in climatically important periods such as the Paleogene, this means that this family of foraminifera are an important but under-utilised source of palaeoclimatic information. We have calibrated the relationship between Mg/Ca and temperature in modern Operculina ammonoides and observe a ˜2% increase in Mg/Ca °C-1. O. ammonoides is the nearest living relative of the abundant Eocene genus Nummulites, enabling us to reconstruct mid-Eocene tropical sea surface temperature seasonality by applying our calibration to fossil Nummulites djokdjokartae from Java. Our results indicate a 5-6 °C annual temperature range, implying greater than modern seasonality in the mid-Eocene (Bartonian). This is consistent with seasonal surface ocean cooling facilitated by enhanced Eocene tropical cyclone-induced upper ocean mixing, as suggested by recent modelling results. Analyses of fossil N. djokdjokartae and Operculina sp. from the same stratigraphic interval demonstrate that environmental controls on proxy distribution coefficients are the same for these two genera, within error. Using previously published test-seawater alkaline earth metal distribution coefficients derived from an LBF of the same family (Raitzsch et al., 2010) and inorganic calcite, with appropriate correction systematics for secular Mg/Casw variation (Evans and Müller, 2012), we use our fossil data to produce a more accurate foraminifera-based Mg/Casw reconstruction and an estimate of seawater Sr/Ca. We demonstrate that mid-Eocene Mg/Casw was ≲2 molmol, which is in contrast to the model most

  9. Neuroticism focuses attention: evidence from SSVEPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinakaran, Janani; De Vos, Maarten; Thorne, Jeremy D; Kranczioch, Cornelia

    2014-06-01

    Neuroticism and negative affect have been associated with an increase in attentional investment and the greater processing of irrelevant stimuli. Previous research proposes the overinvestment of attention and a focused mental state as the mechanism of this effect. We investigated the neural correlates of this idea using a dual-stream rapid serial visual presentation paradigm with centrally presented, overlapping streams of letters that changed at different frequencies. Participants attended one stream at a time. We predicted that the more focused cognitive style associated with higher neuroticism would be reflected in the overinvestment of attention in the irrelevant stream of to-be-ignored letters, in particular, when the ignored stream was the more salient one. This was expected to lead to a smaller difference in power between the attended and unattended frequencies. Results showed that power differences between attended and unattended streams were negatively correlated with neuroticism scores in direct support of our hypothesis. Exploratory correlations also showed that extraversion was positively related to the attention difference. As extraversion has been contrasted to neuroticism and linked to increased cognitive flexibility and control in previous studies, it is possible that this trait may help in disengagement from salient stimuli. Together, these results provide the first neural correlates of the focused cognitive style idea. That the effect of extraversion is seen in the centro-parietal region and the effect of neuroticism is seen in the occipital region, indicate that these personality traits may affect the hierarchy of visual information processing. These findings provide new insight into the influence of personality traits on attention mechanisms and open up questions regarding the relationship between neuroticism, extraversion and information processing.

  10. Executive control of attention in narcolepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Bayard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC is a disabling sleep disorder characterized by early loss of hypocretin neurons that project to areas involved in the attention network. We characterized the executive control of attention in drug-free patients with NC to determine whether the executive deficits observed in patients with NC are specific to the disease itself or whether they reflect performance changes due to the severity of excessive daytime sleepiness. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-two patients with NC compared to 22 patients with narcolepsy without cataplexy (NwC matched for age, gender, intellectual level, objective daytime sleepiness and number of sleep onset REM periods (SOREMPs were studied. Thirty-two matched healthy controls were included. All participants underwent a standardized interview, completed questionnaires, and neuropsychological tests. All patients underwent a polysomnography followed by multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT, with neuropsychological evaluation performed the same day between MSLT sessions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Irrespective of diagnosis, patients reported higher self-reported attentional complaints associated with the intensity of depressive symptoms. Patients with NC performed slower and more variably on simple reaction time tasks than patients with NwC, who did not differ from controls. Patients with NC and NwC generally performed slower, reacted more variably, and made more errors than controls on executive functioning tests. Individual profile analyses showed a clear heterogeneity of the severity of executive deficit. This severity was related to objective sleepiness, higher number of SOREMPs on the MSLT, and lower intelligence quotient. The nature and severity of the executive deficits were unrelated to NC and NwC diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that drug-free patients with NC and NwC complained of attention deficit, with altered executive control of attention being explained by the severity of objective

  11. Pay Attention! Demonstrating the Role of Attention in Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Janet D.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a demonstration to illustrate the importance of knowing what is supposed to be learned before studying begins. Suggests that the exercise may be used to show the basic elements of a scientific experiment. Explains that attention's effect upon memory is shown by students' tendency to remember best what they are told to remember. (DK)

  12. Attention Deficits, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its earlier nosologic classifications have been extensively investigated since the 1960s, with PubMed listings alone exceeding 13,000 entries. Strides have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in individuals with intellectual function in the normal range, as described in companion…

  13. Now, Pay Attention! The Effects of Instruction on Children's Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannass, Kathleen N.; Colombo, John; Wyss, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of instructions to "stay on task" on preschoolers' attention and cognitive performance in the face of either incomprehensible or comprehensible distraction. Three- and 4-year-olds completed problem-solving tasks while a distracting event played continuously in the background under conditions of (a) no instruction, (b)…

  14. Attention, interpretation, identity and narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschan, P J

    1989-01-01

    Disturbances of the analyst's attention and interferences in the interpretation process are correlated with narcissistic resistances (NR). Interpretation is considered, not only as verbal communication about the patient's unconscious contents, but also as the analyst's instrument to re-establish subject-object discrimination, altered by the archaic aspects of transference. Different types of NR lead to different transference configurations, with specific patterns of involvement of the analyst. The author describes the characteristics of the object relationships in patients with NR predominance and some genetic hypotheses are proposed. The analyst's tolerance of primitive mental functioning, his permeability and capacity to sustain evenly suspended attention are correlated; a comparison is drawn with some neurophysiological findings about attention. Finally, the importance of temporality in these functions is discussed, with some thoughts regarding its role in the outcome of the analyses mentioned by Freud in 'Analysis terminable and interminable'.

  15. Components of Attention in Synesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Nordfang, Maria; Pedersen, Michael Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common forms of synesthesia is between colors and graphemes (Colizoli, Murre, & Rouw, 2012). Numerous studies have investigated different aspects of attention and synesthesia, e.g. effects of Stroop-like interference by colors that are incongruent with the synesthetic experience....... Here we attempt to isolate how speci¿ c components of attention are affected by grapheme-color synesthesia. Eight carefully screened healthy participants with synesthesia reported the letters in brie¿ y presented, post-masked arrays of letters and digits. On half the trials, the letters and digits were...... presented in colors congruent with the synesthetic experience. On the other half of the trials, the letters and digits were presented in colors that were incongruent with the synesthetic experience. Components of attention were estimated separately for congruent and incongruent trials by ¿ tting the data...

  16. Supramodal Executive Control of Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFREDO eSPAGNA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The human attentional system can be subdivided into three functional networks of alerting, orienting, and executive control. Although these networks have been extensively studied in the visuospatial modality, whether the same mechanisms are deployed across different sensory modalities remains unclear. In this study we used the attention network test for visuospatial modality, in addition to two auditory variants with spatial and frequency manipulations to examine cross-modal correlations between network functions. Results showed that among the visual and auditory tasks the effects of executive control, but not effects of alerting and orienting were significantly correlated. These findings suggest that while alerting and orienting functions rely more upon modality specific processes, the executive control of attention coordinates complex behavior via supramodal mechanisms.

  17. Feature-based attentional modulation of orientation perception in somatosensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Annika Schweisfurth

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a reaction time study of human tactile orientation detection the effects of spatial attention and feature-based attention were investigated. Subjects had to give speeded responses to target orientations (parallel and orthogonal to the finger axis in a random stream of oblique tactile distractor orientations presented to their index and ring fingers. Before each block of trials, subjects received a tactile cue at one finger. By manipulating the validity of this cue with respect to its location and orientation (feature, we provided an incentive to subjects to attend spatially to the cued location and only there to the cued orientation. Subjects showed quicker responses to parallel compared to orthogonal targets, pointing to an orientation anisotropy in sensory processing. Also, faster reaction times were observed in location-matched trials, i.e. when targets appeared on the cued finger, representing a perceptual benefit of spatial attention. Most importantly, reaction times were shorter to orientations matching the cue, both at the cued and at the uncued location, documenting a global enhancement of tactile sensation by feature-based attention. This is the first report of a perceptual benefit of feature-based attention outside the spatial focus of attention in somatosensory perception. The similarity to effects of feature-based attention in visual perception supports the notion of matching attentional mechanisms across sensory domains.

  18. Durable Airtightness in Single-Family Dwellings: Field Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wanyu R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Durability of building envelope is important to new homes that are increasingly built with improved levels of airtightness. It is also important to weatherized homes such that energy savings from retrofit measures, such as air sealing, are persistent. We presented a comparison of air leakage measurements collected in November 2013 through March 2014, with two sets of prior data collected between 2001-2003 from 17 new homes located near Atlanta, GA, and 17 homes near Boise, ID that were weatherized in 2007-2008. The purpose of the comparison is to determine if there are changes to the airtightness of building envelopes over time. The air leakage increased in all but one of the new homes, with a mean increase of about 25%. The weatherized homes also showed an increase in the mean air leakage (12%). We performed a regression analysis to describe the relationship between prior and current measurements in terms of normalized leakage (NL). The best estimate of the aging factor predicts a 15% increase in NL over ten years. Further analysis using ResDB data (LBNL’s Residential Diagnostic Database) showed the expected changes in air leakage if aging were modeled. These results imply that we should examine the causes of increased leakage and methods to avoid them. This increase in leakage with time should be accounted for in long-term population-wide energy savings estimates, such as those used in ratings or energy savings programs.

  19. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  20. Mindful movement and skilled attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations.