WorldWideScience

Sample records for attentional dwell time

  1. Modelling of Attentional Dwell Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    phenomenon is known as attentional dwell time (e.g. Duncan, Ward, Shapiro, 1994). All Previous studies of the attentional dwell time have looked at data averaged across subjects. In contrast, we have succeeded in running subjects for 3120 trials which has given us reliable data for modelling data from...... released. This confinement of attentional resources leads to the impairment in identifying the second target. With the model, we are able to produce close fits to data from the traditional two target dwell time paradigm. A dwell-time experiment with three targets has also been carried out for individual...... subjects and the model has been extended to fit these data....

  2. The effect of masking in the attentional dwell time paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    A temporary functional blindness to the second of two spatially separated targets has been identified in numerous studies of temporal visual attention. This effect is known as attentional dwell time and is maximal 200 to 500 ms after presentation of the first target (e.g. Duncan, Ward, Shapiro......, 1994). In most studies of attentional dwell time, two masked targets have been used. Moore et al. (1996) have criticised the masking of the first target when measuring the attentional dwell time, finding a shorter attentional dwell time when the first mask was omitted. In the presented work, the effect...... produce an impairment of the second target. Hence, the attentional dwell time may be a combined effect arising from attending to both the first target and its mask....

  3. Practicing the attentional Dwell Away?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus Mogens

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the time course of visual attention have identified a temporary functional blindness to the second of two spatially separated targets: attending to one visual stimulus may lead to impairments in identifying a second stimulus presented about 200-500 ms later than the first. The phenomen...

  4. Filter model based dwell time algorithm for ion beam figuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Xing, Tingwen; Jia, Xin; Wei, Haoming

    2010-10-01

    The process of Ion Beam Figuring (IBF) can be described by a two-dimensional convolution equation which including dwell time. Solving the dwell time is a key problem in IBF. Theoretically, the dwell time can be solved from a two-dimensional deconvolution. However, it is often ill-posed]; the suitable solution of that is hard to get. In this article, a dwell time algorithm is proposed, depending on the characters of IBF. Usually, the Beam Removal Function (BRF) in IBF is Gaussian, which can be regarded as a headstand Gaussian filter. In its stop-band, the filter has various filtering abilities for various frequencies. The dwell time algorithm proposed in this article is just based on this concept. The Curved Surface Smooth Extension (CSSE) method and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm are also used. The simulation results show that this algorithm is high precision, effective, and suitable for actual application.

  5. Predictive modelling of running and dwell times in railway traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Kecman, P.; Goverde, R.M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of running and dwell times is important for all levels of planning and control of railway traffic. The availability of historical track occupation data with a high degree of granularity inspired a data-driven approach for estimating these process times. In this paper we present and compare the accuracy of several approaches to model running and dwell times in railway traffic. Three global predictive model approaches are presented based on advanced statistical learning tech...

  6. Robust stability of positive switched systems with dwell time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinjin; Zhang, Kanjian; Wei, Haikun

    2016-08-01

    This paper studies robust stability of positive switched systems (PSSs) with polytopic uncertainties in both discrete-time and continuous-time contexts. By using multiple linear copositive Lyapunov functions, a sufficient condition for stability of PSSs with dwell time is addressed. Being different from time-invariant multiple linear copositive Lyapunov functions, the Lyapunov functions constructed in this paper are time-varying during the dwell time and time-invariant afterwards. Then, robust stability of PSSs with polytopic uncertainties is solved. All conditions are solvable via linear programming. Finally, illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed results.

  7. Variance of the Quantum Dwell Time for a Nonrelativistic Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Munoz, Seidel, and Muga [Phys. Rev. A 79, 012108 (2009)], following an earlier proposal by Pollak and Miller [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 115 (1984)] in the context of a theory of a collinear chemical reaction, showed that suitable moments of a two-flux correlation function could be manipulated to yield expressions for the mean quantum dwell time and mean square quantum dwell time for a structureless particle scattering from a time-independent potential energy field between two parallel lines in a two-dimensional spacetime. The present work proposes a generalization to a charged, nonrelativistic particle scattering from a transient, spatially confined electromagnetic vector potential in four-dimensional spacetime. The geometry of the spacetime domain is that of the slab between a pair of parallel planes, in particular those defined by constant values of the third (z) spatial coordinate. The mean Nth power, N = 1, 2, 3, . . ., of the quantum dwell time in the slab is given by an expression involving an N-flux-correlation function. All these means are shown to be nonnegative. The N = 1 formula reduces to an S-matrix result published previously [G. E. Hahne, J. Phys. A 36, 7149 (2003)]; an explicit formula for N = 2, and of the variance of the dwell time in terms of the S-matrix, is worked out. A formula representing an incommensurability principle between variances of the output-minus-input flux of a pair of dynamical variables (such as the particle s time flux and others) is derived.

  8. Long dwell time orbits for lander-based Mars missions

    OpenAIRE

    Ortore, Emiliano; Circi, Christian; Somma, Gian Luigi

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the possibility of retrieving orbits around Mars able to provide long dwell times over a given area of the planet, without needing expensive orbital corrective manoeuvres. After a general description of the fundamental principles associated with the obtainment of the repeating ground track orbits which satisfy the aforesaid requirement, the concepts have been applied to Mars to gain trajectories which make it possible to maximise the daily contact time between a probe or...

  9. RNA polymerase motors: dwell time distribution, velocity and dynamical phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymerization of RNA from a template DNA is carried out by a molecular machine called RNA polymerase (RNAP). It also uses the template as a track on which it moves as a motor, utilizing chemical energy input. The time it spends at each successive monomer of DNA is random; we derive the exact distribution of these 'dwell times' in our model. The inverse of the mean dwell time satisfies a Michaelis–Menten-like equation and is also consistent with a general formula derived earlier by Fisher and Kolomeisky for molecular motors with unbranched mechano-chemical cycles. Often many RNAP motors move simultaneously on the same track. Incorporating the steric interactions among the RNAPs in our model, we also plot the three-dimensional phase diagram of our model for RNAP traffic using an extremum current hypothesis

  10. Quantum arrival and dwell times via idealized clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of approaches to the problem of defining arrival- and dwell-time probabilities in quantum theory makes use of idealized models of clocks. An interesting question is the extent to which the probabilities obtained in this way are related to standard semiclassical results. In this paper, we explore this question using a reasonably general clock model, solved using path-integral methods. We find that, in the weak-coupling regime, where the energy of the clock is much less than the energy of the particle it is measuring, the probability for the clock pointer can be expressed in terms of the probability current in the case of arrival times, and the dwell-time operator in the case of dwell times, the expected semiclassical results. In the regime of strong system-clock coupling, we find that the arrival-time probability is proportional to the kinetic-energy density, consistent with an earlier model involving a complex potential. We argue that, properly normalized, this may be the generically expected result in this regime. We show that these conclusions are largely independent of the form of the clock Hamiltonian.

  11. Time course of visual attention with emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Priyanka; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2010-02-01

    When a briefly presented and then masked visual object is identified, it impairs the identification of the second target for several hundred milliseconds. This phenomenon is known as attentional blink or attentional dwell time. The present study is an attempt to investigate the role of salient emotional information in shifts of covert visual attention over time. Two experiments were conducted using the dwell time paradigm, in which two successive targets are presented at different locations with a variable stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). In the first experiment, real emotional faces (happy/sad) were presented as the first target, and letters (L/T) were presented as the second target. The order of stimulus presentation was reversed in the second experiment. In the first experiment, identification of the letters preceded by happy faces showed better performance than did those preceded by sad faces at SOAs less than 200 msec. Similarly, happy faces were identified better than sad faces were at short SOAs in Experiment 2. The results show that the time course of visual attention is dependent on emotional content of the stimuli. The findings indicate that happy faces are associated with distributed attention or broad scope of attention and require fewer attentional resources than do sad faces. PMID:20139452

  12. Effects of Improvement on Selective Attention: Developing Appropriate Somatosensory Video Game Interventions for Institutional-Dwelling Elderly with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Ti; Chiang, I-Tsun; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Chang, Maiga

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop appropriate somatosensory video game interventions on enhancing selective attention of institutional-dwelling elderly with disabilities. Fifty-eight participants aged 65[approximately]92 were recruited and divided into four groups, 4-week and 8-week experimental and two control groups, for evaluating the…

  13. Dwell-Time-Limited Coherence in Open Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackens, B.; Faniel, S.; Gustin, C.; Wallart, X.; Bollaert, S.; Cappy, A.; Bayot, V.

    2005-04-01

    We present measurements of the electron phase coherence time τϕ on a wide range of open ballistic quantum dots (QDs) made from InGaAs heterostructures. The observed saturation of τϕ below temperatures 0.5 Kdwell time becomes the limiting factor for electron interference effects in QDs at low temperature.

  14. A Fuzzy Logic-Based Approach for Estimation of Dwelling Times of Panama Metro Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranzazu Berbey Alvarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Passenger flow modeling and station dwelling time estimation are significant elements for railway mass transit planning, but system operators usually have limited information to model the passenger flow. In this paper, an artificial-intelligence technique known as fuzzy logic is applied for the estimation of the elements of the origin-destination matrix and the dwelling time of stations in a railway transport system. The fuzzy inference engine used in the algorithm is based in the principle of maximum entropy. The approach considers passengers’ preferences to assign a level of congestion in each car of the train in function of the properties of the station platforms. This approach is implemented to estimate the passenger flow and dwelling times of the recently opened Line 1 of the Panama Metro. The dwelling times obtained from the simulation are compared to real measurements to validate the approach.

  15. A Factorial Data Rate and Dwell Time Experiment in the National Transonic Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, R.

    2000-01-01

    This report is an introductory tutorial on the application of formal experiment design methods to wind tunnel testing, for the benefit of aeronautical engineers with little formal experiment design training. It also describes the results of a Study to determine whether increases in the sample rate and dwell time of the National Transonic Facility data system Would result in significant changes in force and moment data. Increases in sample rate from 10 samples per second to 50 samples per second were examined, as were changes in dwell time from one second per data point to two seconds. These changes were examined for a representative aircraft model in a range of tunnel operating conditions defined by angles of attack from 0 deg to 3.8 degrees, total pressure from 15.0 psi to 24.1 psi, and Mach numbers from 0.52 to 0.82. No statistically significant effect was associated with the change in sample rate. The change in dwell time from one second to two seconds affected axial force measurements, and to a lesser degree normal force measurements. This dwell effect comprises a "rectification error" caused by incomplete cancellation of the positive and negative elements of certain low frequency dynamic components that are not rejected by the one-Hz low-pass filters of the data system. These low frequency effects may be due to tunnel circuit phenomena and other sources. The magnitude of the dwell effect depends on dynamic pressure, with angle of attack and Mach number influencing the strength of this dependence. An analysis is presented which suggests that the magnitude of the rectification error depends on the ratio of measurement dwell time to the period of the low-frequency dynamics, as well as the amplitude of the dynamics The essential conclusion of this analysis is that extending the dwell time (or, equivalently, replicating short-dwell data points) reduces the rectification error.

  16. Electron tunnelling phase time and dwell time through an associated delta potential barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白尔隽; 舒启清

    2005-01-01

    The electron tunnelling phase time τp and dwell time τD through an associated delta potential barrier U(x) = ξδ(x)are calculated and both are in the order of 10-17 - 10-16s. The results show that the dependence of the phase time on the delta barrier parameter ξ can be described by the characteristic length lc = h2/meξ and the characteristic energy Ec = meξ2/H2 of the delta barrier, where me is the electron mass, Ic and Ec are assumed to be the effective width and height of the delta barrier with lcEc= ξ, respectively. It is found that τD reaches its maximum and τD = τP as the energy of the tunnelling electron is equal to Ec/2, i.e. as lc = λDB, λDB is de Broglie wave length of the electron.

  17. Influence of overloads on dwell time fatigue crack growth in Inconel 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inconel 718 is one of the most commonly used superalloys for high temperature applications in gasturbines and aeroengines and is for example used for components such as turbine discs. Turbine discs can be subjected to temperatures up to ∼700 °C towards the outer radius of the disc. During service, the discs might start to develop cracks due to fatigue and long dwell times. Additionally, temperature variations during use can lead to large thermal transients during start-up and shutdown which can lead to overload peaks in the normal dwell time cycle. In this study, tests at 550 °C with an overload prior to the start of each dwell time, have been performed. The aim of the investigation was to get a better understanding of the effects of overloads on the microstructure and crack mechanisms. The microstructure was studied using electron channelling contrast imaging (ECCI). The image analysis toolbox in Matlab was used on cross sections of the cracks to quantify: crack length, branch length, and the number of branches in each crack. It was found that the amount of crack branching increases with an increasing overload and that the branch length decreases with an increasing overload. When the higher overloads were applied, the dwell time effect was almost cancelled out. There is a strong tendency for an increased roughness of the crack path with an increasing crack growth rate

  18. Asymptotic Behavior of Switched Stochastic Delayed Cellular Neural Networks via Average Dwell Time Method

    OpenAIRE

    Hanfeng Kuang; Jinbo Liu; Xi Chen; Jie Mao; Linjie He

    2013-01-01

    The asymptotic behavior of a class of switched stochastic cellular neural networks (CNNs) with mixed delays (discrete time-varying delays and distributed time-varying delays) is investigated in this paper. Employing the average dwell time approach (ADT), stochastic analysis technology, and linear matrix inequalities technique (LMI), some novel sufficient conditions on the issue of asymptotic behavior (the mean-square ultimate boundedness, the existence of an attractor, and the mean-square ...

  19. Attention and Reaction Time in Shotokan Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António VencesBrito

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the attention capacity and the reaction time in Portuguese karate Shotokan athletes. Participated 96 Shotokan athletes from the Portuguese Karate Association. We physically characterized the sample (weight, height, body mass index, and body fat mass percentage and evaluated Simple Reaction Time (TRS, Choice Reaction Time (TRE, Decision Time (TD and the Distributed Attention (AD. Data was analyzed according to athletes’ group age (15 to 19 yr, 20 to 35 yr and more than 35 yr, level of graduation (9th to 4th kyu, 3rd to 1st kyu, DAN and by gender (male and female. Male athletes present significant differences from female athletes in height, weight, years of practice and body fat mass. In relation to TRS all groups tend to a value near to 300 ms without significant differences among them, but the TRE and the TD are significantly higher in the Dan athletes and in the +35 yrs athletes than in the other groups. On the other hand the Dan and +35 yrs athletes tend to do less mistakes. Gender does not influence significantly the reaction time in the Shotokan karate athletes, but it seems that women tend to have smaller reaction times than men. Athletes with more years of practice and more graduation need more time to reply to the stimulus than the other athletes, but they tend to do fewer mistakes on their choices than other subjects. As for distributed attention, no significant differences were found in function of the athlete graduation, nor in function of gender. However, for distributed attention, we found statistical significant differences in function of the age, with the oldest athletes presenting lower levels of distributed attention. Our results seem to show that is necessary to do some modifications in the training process of Portuguese Shotokan karate athletes.

  20. Evaluation of number concentration quantification by single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: microsecond vs. millisecond dwell times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Álvaro, Isabel; Peña-Vázquez, Elena; Bolea, Eduardo; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Castillo, Juan R; Laborda, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    The quality of the quantitative information in single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) depends directly on the number concentration of the nanoparticles in the sample analyzed, which is proportional to the flux of nanoparticles through the plasma. Particle number concentrations must be selected in accordance with the data acquisition frequency, to control the precision from counting statistics and the bias, which is produced by the occurrence of multiple-particle events recorded as single-particle events. With quadrupole mass spectrometers, the frequency of data acquisition is directly controlled by the dwell time. The effect of dwell times from milli- to microseconds (10 ms, 5 ms, 100 μs, and 50 μs) on the quality of the quantitative data has been studied. Working with dwell times in the millisecond range, precision figures about 5 % were achieved, whereas using microsecond dwell times, the suitable fluxes of nanoparticles are higher and precision was reduced down to 1 %; this was independent of the dwell time selected. Moreover, due to the lower occurrence of multiple-nanoparticle events, linear ranges are wider when dwell times equal to or shorter than 100 μs are used. A calculation tool is provided to determine the optimal concentration for any instrument or experimental conditions selected. On the other hand, the use of dwell times in the microsecond range reduces significantly the contribution of the background and/or the presence of dissolved species, in comparison with the use of millisecond dwell times. Although the use of dwell times equal to or shorter than 100 μs offers improved performance working in single-particle mode, the use of conventional dwell times (3-10 ms) should not be discarded, once their limitations are known. PMID:27086011

  1. Evaluating the Impact of Dwell Time on Solder Interconnect Durability Under Bending Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sandeep; Osterman, Michael; Pecht, Michael

    2015-11-01

    With the increasing portability and miniaturization of modern-day electronics, the mechanical robustness of these systems has become more of a concern. Existing standards for conducting mechanical durability tests of electronic assemblies include bend, shock/drop, vibration, and torsion. Although these standards provide insights into both cyclic fatigue and overstress damage incurred in solder interconnects (widely regarded as the primary mode of failure in electronic assemblies), they fail to address the impact of time- dependent (creep) behavior due to sustained mechanical loads on solder interconnect durability. It has been seen in previous studies that solder durability under thermal cycling loads is inversely proportional to the dwell time or hold time at either temperature extreme of the imposed temperature cycle. Fatigue life models, which include dwell time, have been developed for solder interconnects subject to temperature cycling. However, the fatigue life models that have been developed in the literature for solder interconnects under mechanical loads fail to address the influence of the duration of loading. In this study, solder interconnect test vehicles were subjected to cyclic mechanical bending with various dwell times in order to understand the impact of the duration of mechanical loads on solder interconnect durability. The solder interconnects examined in this study were formed with 2512 resistor packages using various solder compositions [tin-lead (Sn-Pb) and 96.5Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305)]. To evaluate the impact of dwell time, the boards were tested with 0 s, 60 s, and 300 s of dwell time at both extremes of the loading profile. It was observed that an increase in the dwell time of the loading profile resulted in a decrease in the characteristic life of the solder interconnects. The decrease in fatigue life was attributed to increased creep damage as identified using finite-element simulations. An energy partitioning approach was then used to

  2. Stochastic kinetics of a single headed motor protein: dwell time distribution of KIF1A

    CERN Document Server

    Garai, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    KIF1A, a processive single headed kinesin superfamily motor, hydrolyzes Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to move along a filamentous track called microtubule. The stochastic movement of KIF1A on the track is characterized by an alternating sequence of pause and translocation. The sum of the durations of pause and the following translocation defines the dwell time at the binding site on the microtubule. Using the NOSC model (Nishinari et. al. PRL, {\\bf 95}, 118101 (2005)), which captures the Brownian ratchet mechanism of individual KIF1A along with its biochemical cycle, we systematically derive an analytical expression for the dwell time distribution. In principle, our theoretical prediction can be tested by carrying out single-molecule experiments with adequate spatio-temporal resolution.

  3. Adaptive Output-Feedback Neural Control of Switched Uncertain Nonlinear Systems With Average Dwell Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lijun; Zhao, Jun

    2015-07-01

    This paper investigates the problem of adaptive neural tracking control via output-feedback for a class of switched uncertain nonlinear systems without the measurements of the system states. The unknown control signals are approximated directly by neural networks. A novel adaptive neural control technique for the problem studied is set up by exploiting the average dwell time method and backstepping. A switched filter and different update laws are designed to reduce the conservativeness caused by adoption of a common observer and a common update law for all subsystems. The proposed controllers of subsystems guarantee that all closed-loop signals remain bounded under a class of switching signals with average dwell time, while the output tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. As an application of the proposed design method, adaptive output feedback neural tracking controllers for a mass-spring-damper system are constructed. PMID:25122844

  4. Attention regulates the plasticity of multisensory timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, James; Roach, Neil W; Whitaker, David; Hanson, James V M

    2010-05-01

    Evidence suggests than human time perception is likely to reflect an ensemble of recent temporal experience. For example, prolonged exposure to consistent temporal patterns can adaptively realign the perception of event order, both within and between sensory modalities (e.g. Fujisaki et al., 2004 Nat. Neurosci., 7, 773-778). In addition, the observation that 'a watched pot never boils' serves to illustrate the fact that dynamic shifts in our attentional state can also produce marked distortions in our temporal estimates. In the current study we provide evidence for a hitherto unknown link between adaptation, temporal perception and our attentional state. We show that our ability to use recent sensory history as a perceptual baseline for ongoing temporal judgments is subject to striking top-down modulation via shifts in the observer's selective attention. Specifically, attending to the temporal structure of asynchronous auditory and visual adapting stimuli generates a substantial increase in the temporal recalibration induced by these stimuli. We propose a conceptual framework accounting for our findings whereby attention modulates the perceived salience of temporal patterns. This heightened salience allows the formation of audiovisual perceptual 'objects', defined solely by their temporal structure. Repeated exposure to these objects induces high-level pattern adaptation effects, akin to those found in visual and auditory domains (e.g. Leopold & Bondar (2005) Fitting the Mind to the World: Adaptation and Aftereffects in High-Level Vision. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 189-211; Schweinberger et al. (2008) Curr. Biol., 18, 684-688). PMID:20584179

  5. Influence of Overloads on Dwell Time Fatigue Crack Growth in Inconel 718

    OpenAIRE

    Saarimäki, Jonas; Moverare, Johan; Eriksson, Robert; Johansson, Sten

    2014-01-01

    Inconel 718 is one of the most commonly used superalloys for high temperature applications in gasturbines and aeroengines and is for example used for components such as turbine discs. Turbine discs can be subjected to temperatures up to ~700 °C towards the outer radius of the disc. During service, the discs might start to develop cracks due to fatigue and long dwell times. Additionally, temperature variations during use can lead to large thermal transients during start-up and shutdown which c...

  6. Dwell-time related saturation of phase coherence in ballistic quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackens, B.; Faniel, S.; Gustin, C.; Wallart, X.; Bollaert, S.; Cappy, A.; Bayot, V.

    2006-08-01

    We present our experimental investigations on the low-temperature ( T) saturation of the electron phase coherence time τ φ in open ballistic quantum dots fabricated from InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructures. At high temperature, we observe that τ φ= aT- p, with 2/3time and τd is the dwell time. We discuss possible interpretations for this observation.

  7. 5 CFR 551.425 - Time spent receiving medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time spent receiving medical attention... Relation to Other Activities § 551.425 Time spent receiving medical attention. (a) Time spent waiting for and receiving medical attention for illness or injury shall be considered hours of work if: (1)...

  8. Attention searches nonuniformly in space and in time

    OpenAIRE

    Dugué, Laura; Mclelland, Douglas; Lajous, Mathilde; VanRullen, Rufin

    2015-01-01

    Visual search is one of the primary tools to study attention in experimental psychology, yet the spatiotemporal behavior of attention during search remains controversial: Does attention focus on one item at a time or several, or even all, items? We used an innovative methodology that relies on simple yet elegant mathematical reasoning and only assumes (like most other attentional studies) that attentional strength is reflected in behavioral performance. We provide evidence against a strict pa...

  9. Time Variation of the Radon Equilibrium Factor in a Reinforced Concrete Dwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time variation of the F value (equilibrium factor) was estimated for one year in a typical Japanese apartment of reinforced concrete using the following equipment: a 300 ml flow-through scintillation flask for the hourly variation of radon concentration and a WL meter for the equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon (EEC Rn). These monitors operated for four to eight days at the end of each month, and the information obtained was assumed to be the representative value for each month. The annual mean of F 0.43 ± 0.09 found for the dwelling agrees very well with the UNSCEAR value of 0.4 for indoors. In addition, it appears that the monthly F value in the dwelling varies over the range by a factor of 3. In addition the tendency of the seasonal variation in the other countries located at middle geographical latitudes is also observed in Japan. The variation of the F value in this case is mainly based on the changes in the life styles and activities of the inhabitants, especially the ventilation condition of the room due to opening/shutting of windows and air-conditioner operation. In seasons when windows were shut, the F value increased: when the windows were open or the air-conditioners were on, the F value decreased, especially when the EEC Rn decreased as a result of the filtration effect. If it is necessary to determine the radon effective dose over a shorter period than one year, the time variation of each physical or environmental parameter including F value should be taken into account. (author)

  10. Alerting Attention and Time Perception in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2003-01-01

    Examined effects of a click signaling arrival of a visual stimulus to be timed on temporal discrimination in 3-, 5-, and 8-year-olds. Found that in all groups, the proportion of long responses increased with the stimulus duration, although the steepness of functions increased with age. Stimulus duration was judged longer with than without the…

  11. The role of divided attention and selective attention in time perception deficit of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Poi-ki; 蔡博麒

    2012-01-01

    Time deficit in people with ADHD has been consistently found, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate whether divided attention and selective attention are the causes for the deficit; and whether duration judgment performance was related to everyday temporal behaviour. 20 children with ADHD and 23 control children (mean age = 9 years 5 months) matched on age and IQ with no significant difference in working memory were tested. Experiment 1 used retr...

  12. A high spatial and temporal resolutions quality assurance tool for checking the accuracy of HDR source dwell positions and times

    OpenAIRE

    Shum, Tsz-hang; 岑梓恆

    2013-01-01

    In High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy, treatment dose to patients is highly dependent on the accuracy of positioning and duration of the source. Source misplacement or wrong duration of treatment could potentially result in adverse clinical side effects to patients. In order to maintain successful treatment for patients, an independent Quality Assurance (QA) verification is crucial to measure the High Dose Rate (HDR) source positioning and dwell time periodically to ensure the prescribed dose...

  13. Developmental trajectories of regulating attentional selection over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Sabine; Keil, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in learning environments requires both the maintenance of an attentional focus on a task-set and suppression of distracting stimuli. This may be especially difficult when the competing information is more appealing than the target event. The aptitude to "pay attention" and resist distraction has often been noted as an important prerequisite of successful acquisition of intellectual abilities in children. This focused review draws on research that highlights interindividual differences in the temporal dynamics of attentional engagement and disengagement under competition, and their relation with age and cognitive/academic skills. Although basic strategies of attention control are present in very young children, the more refined ability to manage attentional resources over time in an economic and adaptive fashion appears during early school years, dramatically improves until the early teen years, and continues to develop into late adolescence. Across studies, parameters of attention control over time predict specific aspects of academic performance, rather than general intellectual ability. We conclude that the ability to strategically regulate the dynamic allocation of attention at rapid rates may represent an important element of cognitive and academic development. PMID:22905028

  14. Developmental trajectories of regulating attentional selection over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eHeim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior in learning environments requires both the maintenance of an attentional focus on a task-set and suppression of distracting stimuli. This may be especially difficult when the competing information is more appealing than the target event. The aptitude to pay attention and resist distraction has often been noted as an important prerequisite of successful acquisition of intellectual abilities in children. This focused review draws on research that highlights interindividual differences in the temporal dynamics of attentional engagement and disengagement under competition, and their relation with age and cognitive/academic skills. Although basic strategies of attention control are present in very young children, the more refined ability to manage attentional resources over time in an economic and adaptive fashion appears during early school years, dramatically improves until the early teen years, and continues to develop into late adolescence. Across studies, parameters of attention control over time predict specific aspects of academic performance, rather than general intellectual ability. We conclude that the ability to strategically regulate the dynamic allocation of attention at rapid rates may represent an important element of cognitive and academic development.

  15. Meditation-induced states predict attentional control over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Sellaro, Roberta; Samara, Iliana; Baas, Matthijs; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    Meditation is becoming an increasingly popular topic for scientific research and various effects of extensive meditation practice (ranging from weeks to several years) on cognitive processes have been demonstrated. Here we show that extensive practice may not be necessary to achieve those effects. Healthy adult non-meditators underwent a brief single session of either focused attention meditation (FAM), which is assumed to increase top-down control, or open monitoring meditation (OMM), which is assumed to weaken top-down control, before performing an Attentional Blink (AB) task - which assesses the efficiency of allocating attention over time. The size of the AB was considerably smaller after OMM than after FAM, which suggests that engaging in meditation immediately creates a cognitive-control state that has a specific impact on how people allocate their attention over time. PMID:26320866

  16. Experimental investigation on low cycle fatigue and creep-fatigue interaction of DZ125 in different dwell time at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → This paper has researched creep-fatigue interaction of directionally solidified superalloy DZ125 with different dwell time at high temperature combined with micro-mechanism by experiment. → The results indicated that the life of creep-fatigue decreases as dwell time increases, but the life of this alloy was almost unchanged when dwell time exceeds a critical value at 850 deg. C. - Abstract: The low cycle fatigue (LCF) and creep-fatigue tests have been conducted with directionally solidified nickel-based superalloy DZ125 at 850 and 980 deg. C to study the creep-fatigue interaction behavior of alloy with different dwell time. On the average, the life of creep-fatigue tests are about 70% less than the life of LCF tests under the same strain range at 850 deg. C. The life of creep-fatigue decreases as dwell time increases, but the life of this alloy was almost unchanged when dwell time exceeds a critical value at 850 deg. C. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses of the fracture revealed that the fracture modes were influenced by different way of loading. In case of LCF, the primary fracture mode was transgranular, while in case of creep-fatigue, the primary fracture mode was mixed with transgranular and intergranular. There were also obvious different morphologies of surface crack between LCF and creep-fatigue.

  17. Musical Meter Modulates the Allocation of Attention across Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzroy, Ahren B; Sanders, Lisa D

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic attending theory predicts that attention is allocated hierarchically across time during processing of hierarchical rhythmic structures such as musical meter. ERP research demonstrates that attention to a moment in time modulates early auditory processing as evidenced by the amplitude of the first negative peak (N1) approximately 100 msec after sound onset. ERPs elicited by tones presented at times of high and low metric strength in short melodies were compared to test the hypothesis that hierarchically structured rhythms direct attention in a manner that modulates early perceptual processing. A more negative N1 was observed for metrically strong beats compared with metrically weak beats; this result provides electrophysiological evidence that hierarchical rhythms direct attention to metrically strong times during engaged listening. The N1 effect was observed only on fast tempo trials, suggesting that listeners more consistently invoke selective processing based on hierarchical rhythms when sounds are presented rapidly. The N1 effect was not modulated by musical expertise, indicating that the allocation of attention to metrically strong times is not dependent on extensive training. Additionally, changes in P2 amplitude and a late negativity were associated with metric strength under some conditions, indicating that multiple cognitive processes are associated with metric perception. PMID:26284995

  18. Inspection Time and Intelligence: Practice, Strategies, and Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bors, Douglas A.; Stokes, Tonya L.; Forrin, Bert; Hodder, Shelley L.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the effects of practice, response strategies, and attentiveness on inspection time (IT) and its relation to IQ in 3 experiments involving 102 college students, testing the hypothesis that mental speed is the basis for the observed IT-IQ relation. Discusses the mixed results and evidence that the correlation is malleable. (SLD)

  19. Auditory attention: time of day and type of school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picolini, Mirela Machado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The sustained auditory attention is crucial for the development of some communication skills and learning. Objective: To evaluate the effect of time of day and type of school attended by children in their ability to sustained auditory attention. Method: We performed a prospective study of 50 volunteer children of both sexes, aged 7 years, with normal hearing, no learning or behavioral problems and no complaints of attention. These participants underwent Ability Test of Sustained Auditory Attention (SAAAT. The performance was evaluated by total score and the decrease of vigilance. Statistical analysis was used to analysis of variance (ANOVA with significance level of 5% (p<0.05. Results: The result set by the normative test for the age group evaluated showed a statistically significant difference for the errors of inattention (p=0.041, p=0.027 and total error score (p=0.033, p=0.024, in different periods assessment and school types, respectively. Conclusion: Children evaluated in the afternoon and the children studying in public schools had a poorer performance on auditory attention sustained.

  20. The time course of attentional modulation on emotional conflict processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pingyan; Yang, Guochun; Nan, Weizhi; Liu, Xun

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive conflict resolution is critical to human survival in a rapidly changing environment. However, emotional conflict processing seems to be particularly important for human interactions. This study examined whether the time course of attentional modulation on emotional conflict processing was different from cognitive conflict processing during a flanker task. Results showed that emotional N200 and P300 effects, similar to colour conflict processing, appeared only during the relevant task. However, the emotional N200 effect preceded the colour N200 effect, indicating that emotional conflict can be identified earlier than cognitive conflict. Additionally, a significant emotional N100 effect revealed that emotional valence differences could be perceived during early processing based on rough aspects of input. The present data suggest that emotional conflict processing is modulated by top-down attention, similar to cognitive conflict processing (reflected by N200 and P300 effects). However, emotional conflict processing seems to have more time advantages during two different processing stages. PMID:25809920

  1. Why does attention to web articles fall with time?

    CERN Document Server

    Simkin, M V

    2012-01-01

    We analyze access statistics for a few dozen blog entries for a period of several years. Access rate falls as an inverse power of time passed since publication. The power law holds for periods up to thousand days. The exponents are different for different blogs and are distributed between 1 and 3. Decay of attention to aging web articles has been reported before and two explanations were proposed. One explanation introduced some decaying with time novelty factor. Another used some intricate theory of human dynamics. We argue that the decay of attention to a web article is simply caused by the link to it first dropping down the list of links on the website's front page, disappearing from the front page and subsequent movement further into background.

  2. Repeated and time-correlated morphological convergence in cave-dwelling harvestmen (Opiliones, Laniatores from Montane Western North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahan Derkarabetian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many cave-dwelling animal species display similar morphologies (troglomorphism that have evolved convergent within and among lineages under the similar selective pressures imposed by cave habitats. Here we study such ecomorphological evolution in cave-dwelling Sclerobuninae harvestmen (Opiliones from the western United States, providing general insights into morphological homoplasy, rates of morphological change, and the temporal context of cave evolution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We gathered DNA sequence data from three independent gene regions, and combined these data with Bayesian hypothesis testing, morphometrics analysis, study of penis morphology, and relaxed molecular clock analyses. Using multivariate morphometric analysis, we find that phylogenetically unrelated taxa have convergently evolved troglomorphism; alternative phylogenetic hypotheses involving less morphological convergence are not supported by Bayesian hypothesis testing. In one instance, this morphology is found in specimens from a high-elevation stony debris habitat, suggesting that troglomorphism can evolve in non-cave habitats. We discovered a strong positive relationship between troglomorphy index and relative divergence time, making it possible to predict taxon age from morphology. Most of our time estimates for the origin of highly-troglomorphic cave forms predate the Pleistocene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While several regions in the eastern and central United States are well-known hotspots for cave evolution, few modern phylogenetic studies have addressed the evolution of cave-obligate species in the western United States. Our integrative studies reveal the recurrent evolution of troglomorphism in a perhaps unexpected geographic region, at surprisingly deep time depths, and in sometimes surprising habitats. Because some newly discovered troglomorphic populations represent undescribed species, our findings stress the need for further biological

  3. Dwell-time effect on the synthesis of a nano-structured material in water by using Ni wire explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel nano-structured materials are synthesized by using a wire explosion in water. Based on an analysis of each step of the wire explosion, we propose insufficient energy deposition before a plasma restrike as the cause for the inclusion of coarse particles in the wire-explosion product. We confirmed that more energy, in excess of 30%, could be deposited by increasing the dwell time, which resulted from a compression of vapor by the surrounding water and from suppression of plasma restrikes. Because of an increased energy loss into the surrounding water, the specific energy increased by two-fold compared to a gas atmosphere. The synthesized nano-structured nickel showed a uniform particle size of 20 nm with a few coarse particles that were mainly metallic nickel with a little oxide and hydroxide phases. The possibility for large-volume production through a continuous explosion of 300 shots was confirmed.

  4. Dwell-time effect on the synthesis of a nano-structured material in water by using Ni wire explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Gyu Sub; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Kwang Hyun; Joo, Won Tae [Plasnix Co., Ltd., Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Nickel nano-structured materials are synthesized by using a wire explosion in water. Based on an analysis of each step of the wire explosion, we propose insufficient energy deposition before a plasma restrike as the cause for the inclusion of coarse particles in the wire-explosion product. We confirmed that more energy, in excess of 30%, could be deposited by increasing the dwell time, which resulted from a compression of vapor by the surrounding water and from suppression of plasma restrikes. Because of an increased energy loss into the surrounding water, the specific energy increased by two-fold compared to a gas atmosphere. The synthesized nano-structured nickel showed a uniform particle size of 20 nm with a few coarse particles that were mainly metallic nickel with a little oxide and hydroxide phases. The possibility for large-volume production through a continuous explosion of 300 shots was confirmed.

  5. Stabilization for a Class of Switched Nonlinear Systems With Novel Average Dwell Time Switching by T-S Fuzzy Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xudong; Yin, Yunfei; Niu, Ben; Zheng, Xiaolong

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the problem of switching stabilization for a class of switched nonlinear systems is studied by using average dwell time (ADT) switching, where the subsystems are possibly all unstable. First, a new concept of ADT is given, which is different from the traditional definition of ADT. Based on the new proposed switching signals, a sufficient condition of stabilization for switched nonlinear systems with unstable subsystems is derived. Then, the T-S fuzzy modeling approach is applied to represent the underlying nonlinear system to make the obtained condition easily verified. A novel multiple quadratic Lyapunov function approach is also proposed, by which some conditions are provided in terms of a set of linear matrix inequalities to guarantee the derived T-S fuzzy system to be asymptotically stable. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of our developed results. PMID:26316288

  6. Indoor radon variations over time in the dwellings of Bangalore city, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than half of the body's air intake during a lifetime is inhaled at indoors. The indoor concentrations of radon and its progeny are found to be significantly greater compared to outdoors. Thus, major risk related to exposures to radon stem from indoor air exposure. In the present work, short term variations (diurnal) and long term variations (seasonal) in indoor radon levels have been studied in about 50 houses using LLRDS and SSNTD methods respectively. The results obtained from the diurnal and seasonal measurements of radon concentration are reported, analyzed and discussed. The diurnal measurements were carried out using Low Level Radon Detection System (LLRDS). The seasonal variations in the concentration are studied by using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The description of the methods and procedure of measurement is as explained elsewhere. Indoor radon measurements were carried out in large number of dwellings of Bangalore city. Significant diurnal variations are not found in houses with good ventilation. However, morning concentration is found to be much higher than afternoon and evening levels in most of the houses. The average seasonal concentrations of 222Rn in winter, summer, rainy and autumn were found to be 45.2, 14.25, 17.0 and 20.0 Bq m-3 respectively. Similar trend of seasonal variations were observed in 220Rn concentrations. The average concentrations of 220Rn in winter, summer, rainy and autumn were found to be 28.8, 13.25, 17.8 and 18.2 Bq m-3 respectively. The concentrations of 222Rn and 220Rn were found to be higher in winter compared to other seasons. Since this region remains cold during winter, doors and windows are generally kept closed, which lowers the air exchange with outdoors, allowing an accumulation of radon and thoron. (author)

  7. Processes in Language Acquisition: The Roles of Gender, Attention, and Maternal Encouragement of Attention over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrass, Jan; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Mullins, Jennifer; Lefever, Jennifer Burke

    2002-01-01

    This longitudinal study including 87 infant-mother dyads examined the relation between infant temperamental attention, maternal encouragement of attention, language, and the effects of gender. At ages 0;4, 0;8, and 1;0, global attention was assessed from Rothbart's (1981) IBQ; manipulative exploration was assessed with the Bayley (1969) IBR; and…

  8. Typology of privacy in the space-time organisation of dwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Mlinar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical limitations and inertia of the “communitarian” mentality that stem from traditionalism and socialism have discarded necessary attention to issues on individual freedom and residential privacy even in planning of housing and urbanism. The author tries to fill this gap with the accomplished research on Koper, thus systemising the experiential data into six types of privacy: visual, acoustic, information-communication, visits, emissions and security. Privacy is seen as mastering and not before hand exclusion of influences or oneself from the environment. Problems of enforcing privacy increase with the densening of settlement and especially in the increasingly attractive coastal belt, implying imaginative responsiveness even in architecture and urbanism.

  9. The time course of natural scene perception with reduced attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Iris I A; Ghebreab, Sennay; Lamme, Victor A F; Scholte, H Steven

    2016-02-01

    Attention is thought to impose an informational bottleneck on vision by selecting particular information from visual scenes for enhanced processing. Behavioral evidence suggests, however, that some scene information is extracted even when attention is directed elsewhere. Here, we investigated the neural correlates of this ability by examining how attention affects electrophysiological markers of scene perception. In two electro-encephalography (EEG) experiments, human subjects categorized real-world scenes as manmade or natural (full attention condition) or performed tasks on unrelated stimuli in the center or periphery of the scenes (reduced attention conditions). Scene processing was examined in two ways: traditional trial averaging was used to assess the presence of a categorical manmade/natural distinction in event-related potentials, whereas single-trial analyses assessed whether EEG activity was modulated by scene statistics that are diagnostic of naturalness of individual scenes. The results indicated that evoked activity up to 250 ms was unaffected by reduced attention, showing intact categorical differences between manmade and natural scenes and strong modulations of single-trial activity by scene statistics in all conditions. Thus initial processing of both categorical and individual scene information remained intact with reduced attention. Importantly, however, attention did have profound effects on later evoked activity; full attention on the scene resulted in prolonged manmade/natural differences, increased neural sensitivity to scene statistics, and enhanced scene memory. These results show that initial processing of real-world scene information is intact with diminished attention but that the depth of processing of this information does depend on attention. PMID:26609116

  10. Attentional cartography: mapping the distribution of attention across time and space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J Eric T; Chan, David; Bennett, Patrick J; Pratt, Jay

    2015-10-01

    Decades of research have shown that the orienting of attention follows a reliable pattern of facilitation and then inhibition following a peripheral cue. However, the literature lacks a high-resolution spatiotemporal map of this pattern. Moreover, the use of visual placeholders to highlight potential stimulus locations is inconsistent. This is puzzling, given attention's well-known predilection for objects. In this article, we remedy these outstanding issues with a large-scale investigation charting the spatiotemporal distribution of attention. Participants detected targets presented at 121 possible locations 100, 200, 400, or 800 ms following an uninformative peripheral cue. The cued locations were presented with or without placeholders. With placeholders, the classic pattern of early facilitation and late inhibition was observed for targets appearing within the placeholders, and the spread of inhibition was severely limited to within the placeholders. Without placeholders, we observed inhibition shortly after cue presentation, upsetting the famously reliable effect of facilitation following a cue. Moreover, inhibition spread from the cued location, unlike when placeholders were present. This investigation has produced an eminently detailed spatiotemporal map of attentional orienting and illustrated the consequences of placeholder stimuli, with surprising results. PMID:26069197

  11. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of radon in indoor air have been made in a total of about 7500 randomly selected dwellings in Norway from all parts of the country. The number of selected dwellings in each municipality is about proportional to its population, except for the two largest municipalities, Oslo and Bergen, where somewhat smaller samples were taken due to the higher population density. The measurements were performed by nuclear track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Boards in United Kingdom, and the integration time for the measurements was 6 months. The detectors were spread evenly over all seasons of the year to eliminate influence from seasonal variation in the radon level. One single measurement was performed in each dwelling: in the main bedroom. The results shows that the distribution of radon concentrations in Norwegian bedrooms is log-normal. The aritmetic mean of the measurements, including all categories of dwellings, is calculated to be 51 Bq/m3 and the corresponding geometric mean to be 26 Bq/m3. In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor while the bedrooms are located one floor higher. The results of the study shows that the radon level is somewhat higher at the ground floor than on the first floor, and higher in the basement than on the first floor. Taking this into account, and assuming that measurements in bedrooms on the first floor is a representative average for living room and kitchen, the average radon concentration for Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55-65 Bq/m3. In this estimate, possible influences of the fact that the winters 87/88 and 88/89 were much warmer than normal and may therefor have lowered the results, has been taken into account. 15 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs

  12. Virtual Realities: How Remote Dwelling Populations Become More Remote Over Time despite Technological Improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Carson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available For those who have access to them, technologies of various sorts play a key role in maintaining connections between small and geographically dispersed settlements and to the wider World. For technologies to work in remote areas, there must be a framework of adaptability which ensures that users can adapt their practices to suit the new technology, technologies can be customised for local conditions, and an institutional infrastructure (including a regulatory environment allows these adaptations to occur. In recent times, remote Australia’s “power to persuade” government to consider its needs when designing regulatory environments has diminished as a result of the changing nature of remote economies. This paper uses two case examples—that of air transport technology and that of communications technology—to demonstrate how a poor regulatory environment in effect increases the isolation of remote settlements. In the case of air transport, over regulation has made the cost of adoption and access too high for many remote dwellers. In the case of communications technology, de-regulation has made it difficult for remote dwellers to demand equity of access to infrastructure. We conclude by suggesting that regulatory systems need to be more aware of the unique conditions facing remote populations. Research into the persistently low rates of technology adoption in remote areas needs to be more cognizant of the regulatory adaptability aspect.

  13. Masking T1 Difficulty: Processing Time and the Attentional Blink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Troy A. W.

    2007-01-01

    When observers are presented with 2 targets in rapid succession, identification of the 1st is highly accurate, whereas identification of the 2nd is impaired at brief intertarget intervals (i.e., 200-500 ms). This 2nd-target deficit is known as the attentional blink (AB). According to bottleneck models, the AB arises because attending to the 1st…

  14. Time reproduction during high and low attentional tasks in Alzheimer's Disease. "A watched kettle never boils".

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Omigie, Diana; Moroni, Christine

    2014-07-01

    A wealth of empirical evidence suggests that directing attention to temporal processing increases perceived duration, whereas drawing attention away from it has the opposite effect. Our work investigates this phenomenon by comparing perceived duration during a high attentional and a low attentional task in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients since these participants tend to show attentional deficits. In the high attentional task, AD patients and older adults were asked to perform the interference condition of the Stroop test for 15s while in the low attentional task, they had to fixate on a cross for the same length of time. In both conditions, participants were not aware they would be questioned about timing until the end of the task when they had to reproduce the duration of the previously-viewed stimulus. AD patients under-reproduced the duration of previously-exposed stimulus in the high attentional relative to the low attentional task, and the same pattern was observed in older adults. Due to their attentional deficits, AD patients might be overwhelmed by the demand of the high attentional task, leaving very few, if any, attentional resources for temporal processing. PMID:24794142

  15. Systematic control of the size, density and configuration of Pt nanostructures on sapphire (0 0 0 1) by the variation of deposition amount and dwelling time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Zhang, Quanzhen; Li, Ming-Yu; Kunwar, Sundar; Lee, Jihoon

    2016-04-01

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) with controllable size, density and configuration can significantly enhance the energy conversion efficiency, detection sensitivity and catalytic activity as witnessed in various optoelectronic, optical sensing and electro-catalytic devices due to their shape and size dependent properties. In this work, we systematically investigate the evolution of the size, density and configuration of Pt nanostructures on sapphire (0 0 0 1). In particular, we have demonstrated four different configuration and evolution of Pt nanostructures with the systematic control of deposition amount (DA) based on the Volmer-Weber growth model in conjunction with the surface energy minimization mechanism, diffusion and coalescence. The various size and configuration of Pt nanostructures with respect to DA are (i) nucleation of mini-sized round shaped Pt NPs (1 ≤ DA ≤ 5 nm), (ii) growth of large sized Pt NPs (10 ≤ DA ≤ 15 nm), (iii) isolated irregular nanostructures (20 ≤ DA ≤ 30 nm) and (iv) coalesced Pt nanostructures (DA ≥ 40). On the other hand, with the increased dwelling time (DT), irregular Pt NPs are fabricated with the increased size and improved uniformity between 0 and 450 s of annealing. The growth of Pt NPs is saturated when the dwelling time reaches the critical value between 900 and 1800 s, which can be attributed to the Ostwald ripening.

  16. Attention Biases to Threat Link Behavioral Inhibition to Social Withdrawal over Time in Very Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; REEB-SUTHERLAND, BETHANY C.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; White, Lauren K.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Hane, Amie A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Behaviorally inhibited children display a temperamental profile characterized by social withdrawal and anxious behaviors. Previous research, focused largely on adolescents, suggests that attention biases to threat may sustain high levels of behavioral inhibition (BI) over time, helping link early temperament to social outcomes. However, no prior studies examine the association between attention bias and BI before adolescence. The current study examined the interrelations among BI, attention b...

  17. The role of time on task performance in modifying the effects of gum chewing on attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William

    2011-01-01

    Recent research examined the effects of chewing gum on attention and reported a significant interaction of gum chewing with time. Using a crossover within-subject design, the present study examined the effect of gum chewing on sustained attention in healthy adults over a period of 30 min. The result

  18. Everyday Attention and Lecture Retention: The Effects of Time, Fidgeting, and Mind Wandering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlanKingstone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We have all had our thoughts wander from the immediate task at hand. The emerging embodied cognition literature emphasizes the role that the body plays in human thought, and raises the possibility that changes in attentional focus may be associated with changes in body behaviour. Recent research has found that when individuals view a lecture, mind wandering increases as a function of time. In the present study we asked whether this decline in attention during lecture viewing was associated with fidgeting. Participants were filmed while they watched a 40-minute lecture video, and at regular 5 minute intervals provided ratings of their attentiveness. Following the lecture, participant's memory for the material was assessed. Fidgeting behaviour was coded from video recordings of each session. Results indicated that attention to, and retention of, lecture material declined as a function of time on task. Critically, and as predicted, fidgeting also increased with time on task. We also found that the relation between fidgeting and retention was significant even when the role of attention was factored into the equation, suggesting that fidgeting makes a unique contribution to retention of lecture material over and above that contributed by an individual’s attention. We propose a novel non-attentional stress-based account of fidgeting and how this impacts retention for lecture material over and above changes in levels in mind wandering vis-a-vis changes in attention.

  19. Spatial Attention and Temporal Expectation Under Timed Uncertainty Predictably Modulate Neuronal Responses in Monkey V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jitendra; Sugihara, Hiroki; Katz, Yarden; Schummers, James; Tenenbaum, Joshua; Sur, Mriganka

    2015-09-01

    The brain uses attention and expectation as flexible devices for optimizing behavioral responses associated with expected but unpredictably timed events. The neural bases of attention and expectation are thought to engage higher cognitive loci; however, their influence at the level of primary visual cortex (V1) remains unknown. Here, we asked whether single-neuron responses in monkey V1 were influenced by an attention task of unpredictable duration. Monkeys covertly attended to a spot that remained unchanged for a fixed period and then abruptly disappeared at variable times, prompting a lever release for reward. We show that monkeys responded progressively faster and performed better as the trial duration increased. Neural responses also followed monkey's task engagement-there was an early, but short duration, response facilitation, followed by a late but sustained increase during the time monkeys expected the attention spot to disappear. This late attentional modulation was significantly and negatively correlated with the reaction time and was well explained by a modified hazard function. Such bimodal, time-dependent changes were, however, absent in a task that did not require explicit attentional engagement. Thus, V1 neurons carry reliable signals of attention and temporal expectation that correlate with predictable influences on monkeys' behavioral responses. PMID:24836689

  20. Timing and sequence of brain activity in top-down control of visual-spatial attention.

    OpenAIRE

    Tineke Grent-'t-Jong; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent brain imaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have implicated a frontal-parietal network in the top-down control of attention. However, little is known about the timing and sequence of activations within this network. To investigate these timing questions, we used event-related electrical brain potentials (ERPs) and a specially designed visual-spatial attentional-cueing paradigm, which were applied as part of a multi-methodological approach that included a cl...

  1. Auditory attention to frequency and time: an analogy to visual local–global stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Justus, Timothy; List, Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    Two priming experiments demonstrated exogenous attentional persistence to the fundamental auditory dimensions of frequency (Experiment 1) and time (Experiment 2). In a divided-attention task, participants responded to an independent dimension, the identification of three-tone sequence patterns, for both prime and probe stimuli. The stimuli were specifically designed to parallel the local–global hierarchical letter stimuli of [Navon D. (1977). Forest before trees: The precedence of global feat...

  2. Factores que inciden sobre el tiempo de permanencia de un catéter endovenoso central Factors that affect the dwell time of a central venous catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bello-Villalobos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar los factores que inciden en el tiempo de permanencia de un catéter endovenoso central. Antecedentes: En el paciente con cáncer existen factores propios del estado de inmunocompromiso por el tumor y los efectos colaterales de su tratamiento que aumentan la probabilidad de infección y consecuentemente reducen el tiempo de uso de un catéter. Sujetos: Se integró una cohorte de 306 pacientes con cáncer, con una edad promedio de 59 ± 14,5 años. Intervenciones: Se definió tiempo cero como el día de colocación del catéter. Diariamente se buscaron signos clínicos de infección por catéter, con toma de hemocultivos simultáneos cada 7 días. El desenlace primario fue infección del catéter y el alternativo fin de tratamiento, obstrucción o fallecimiento del paciente. Se comparó el tiempo de permanencia del catéter infectado vs no infectado y su relación con factores de riesgo potenciales. Resultados: Se colocaron 306 catéteres para un total de 4.043 días/catéter. Se infectaron 25 (8,2%. La sobrevida media global fue de 50 días. Se encontró que a mayor tiempo de permanencia, mayor fue la incidencia de infección. En el análisis de sobrevida ajustado, la presencia de infección a distancia (OR = 4,71, IC95% = 1,7-10,1, p = 0,002 fue el factor que mostró una asociación significativa. Conclusiones: El tiempo de vida útil de un catéter es amplia, limitada por la presencia de infección a distancia como factor de riesgo potencial de infección por catéter.Objective: To determine the factors that affect the dwell time of a central venous catheter. Background: The own immunodeficiency in cancer patient and the collateral effects of their treatment increase the probability of infection and reduce the time of use of a catheter. Subjects: Incipient cohort of 306 patients with cancer, with an average age of 59 ± 14.5 years. Interventions: Time zero like the day of the placement of the catheter was defined. Daily

  3. Dynamic attentional modulation of vision across space and time after right hemisphere stroke and in ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Charlotte; Malhotra, Paresh; Deidda, Cristiana; Husain, Masud

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Attention modulates the availability of sensory information to conscious perception. In particular, there is evidence of pathological, spatial constriction of the effective field of vision in patients with right hemisphere damage when a central task exhausts available attentional capacity. In the current study we first examined whether this constriction might be modulated across both space and time in right hemisphere stroke patients without neglect. Then we tested healthy elderly people to determine whether non-pathological ageing also leads to spatiotemporal impairments of vision under conditions of high attention load. Methods Right hemisphere stroke patients completed a task at fixation while attempting to discriminate letters appearing in the periphery. Attentional load of the central task was modulated by increasing task difficulty. Peripheral letters appeared simultaneously with the central task or at different times (stimulus onset asynchronies, SOAs) after it. In a second study healthy elderly volunteers were tested with a modified version of this paradigm. Results Under conditions of high attention load right hemisphere stroke patients have a reduced effective visual field, over a significantly extended ‘attentional blink’, worse for items presented to their left. In the second study, older participants were unable to discriminate otherwise salient items across the visual field (left or right) when their attention capacity was loaded on the central task. This deficit extended temporally, with peripheral discrimination ability not returning to normal for up to 450 msec. Conclusions Dynamically tying up attention resources on a task at fixation can have profound effects in patient populations and in normal ageing. These results demonstrate that items can escape conscious detection across space and time, and can thereby impact significantly on visual perception in these groups. PMID:23245427

  4. Situations of dwelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen; Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Wiell Nordberg, Lene;

    2006-01-01

    values and needs in differnet situations, lifestyles and stages. The study is based on information from users in new housing schemes in and around Copenhagen - 'open building' dwellings that reveal a variety of approaches to these problems? The analysis of the dwellings show that the architecture of the...... 'open dwelling' is dependent on three basic conditions: the static condition, the suitable condition and the situational condition. Each condition has its own powerful way of articulation. Our aim is to translate the observations of the projects in concepts and models that are applicable in new projects....

  5. An Evaluation of Three Time-Out Procedures for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E.; Manos, Michael J.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Onyango, Adia N.; Lopez-Williams, Andy; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Coles, Erika K.; Meichenbaum, David L.; Caserta, Donald A.; Swain, Sara

    2004-01-01

    Behavior modification is an evidence-based treatment for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Time-out from positive reinforcement is one behavior-modification procedure commonly recommended to manage disruptive or noncompliant behavior. This investigation examined the effects of time-out on children's behavior within the…

  6. An integrated theory of prospective time interval estimation : The role of cognition, attention, and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taatgen, Niels A.; van Rijn, Hedderik; Anderson, John

    2007-01-01

    A theory of prospective time perception is introduced and incorporated as a module in an integrated theory of cognition, thereby extending existing theories and allowing predictions about attention and learning. First, a time perception module is established by fitting existing datasets (interval es

  7. Bottom dwelling animals: Benthos

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    . At the bottom/sediment dwelling animal communities are collectively termed as 'BENTHOS'. This extremely valuable component of the marine environment consumes the sediment organic matter from the overlying water column and effectively converts into benthic...

  8. Radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon, a radioactive gas emitted from soils and construction materials, penetrates dwellings and is the principal source of natural background radiation. If they are inhaled continuously, radon and its daughter products may constitute a hazard for man

  9. Time-dependent effects of cortisol on selective attention and emotional interference: a functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marloes J.A.G. Henckens

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute stress is known to induce a state of hypervigilance, allowing optimal detection of threats. Although one may benefit from sensitive sensory processing, it comes at the cost of unselective attention and increased distraction by irrelevant information. Corticosteroids have been shown to profoundly influence brain function in a time-dependent manner, causing rapid non-genomic and slow genomic effects. Here, we investigated how these time-dependent effects influence the neural mechanisms underlying selective attention and the inhibition of emotional distracters in humans. Implementing a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 65 young healthy men received 10 mg hydrocortisone either 60 min (rapid effects or 270 min (slow effects, or placebo prior to an emotional distraction task, consisting of color-naming of either neutral or aversive words. Overall, participants responded slower to aversive compared to neutral words, indicating emotional interference with selective attention. Importantly, the rapid effects of corticosteroids increased emotional interference, which was associated with reduced amygdala inhibition to aversive words. Moreover, they induced enhanced amygdala connectivity with frontoparietal brain regions, which may reflect increased influence of the amygdala on an executive network. The slow effects of corticosteroids acted on the neural correlates of sustained attention. They decreased overall activity in the cuneus, possibly indicating reduced bottom-up attentional processing, and disrupted amygdala connectivity to the insula, potentially reducing emotional interference. Altogether, these data suggest a time-specific corticosteroid modulation of attentive processing. Whereas high circulating corticosteroid levels acutely increase emotional interference, possibly facilitating the detection of threats, a history of elevation might promote sustained attention and thereby contribute to stress-recovery of cognitive

  10. Introducing a Third Timed Up & Go Test Trial Improves Performances of Hospitalized and Community-Dwelling Older Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Mette L; Jønsson, Line R; Kristensen, Morten T

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Originally, the Timed Up & Go (TUG) test was described as including a practice trial before a timed trial, but recent studies in individuals with hip fracture have reported that performance improved with a third trial and that high intertester reliability was achieved when...

  11. Attention Biases to Threat Link Behavioral Inhibition to Social Withdrawal over Time in Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; White, Lauren K.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Hane, Amie A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Behaviorally inhibited children display a temperamental profile characterized by social withdrawal and anxious behaviors. Previous research, focused largely on adolescents, suggests that attention biases to threat may sustain high levels of behavioral inhibition (BI) over time, helping link early temperament to social outcomes. However, no prior…

  12. A Real-Time Video-based Eye Tracking Approach for Driver Attention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Zang; Hongbo Liu

    2012-01-01

    nowing the driver's point of gaze has significant potential to enhance driving safety, eye movements can be used as an indicator of the attention state of a driver; but the primary obstacle of integrating eye gaze into today's large scale real world driving attention study is the availability of a reliable, low-cost eye-tracking system. In this paper, we make an attempt to investigate such a real-time system to collect driver's eye gaze in real world driving environment. A novel eye-tracking ...

  13. Sustained and transient attentional processes modulate neural predictors of memory encoding in consecutive time periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, Tullia; Koenig, Thomas; Eckstein, Doris; Perrig, Walter J

    2013-07-01

    Memory formation is commonly thought to rely on brain activity following an event. Yet, recent research has shown that even brain activity previous to an event can predict later recollection (subsequent memory effect, SME). In order to investigate the attentional sources of the SME, event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by task cues preceding target words were recorded in a switched task paradigm that was followed by a surprise recognition test. Stay trials, that is, those with the same task as the previous trial, were contrasted with switch trials, which included a task switch compared to the previous trial. The underlying assumption was that sustained attention would be dominant in stay trials and that transient attentional reconfiguration processes would be dominant in switch trials. To determine the SME, local and global statistics of scalp electric fields were used to identify differences between subsequently remembered and forgotten items. Results showed that the SME in stay trials occurred in a time window from 2 to 1 sec before target onset, whereas the SME in switch trials occurred subsequently, in a time window from 1 to 0 sec before target onset. Both SMEs showed a frontal negativity resembling the topography of previously reported effects, which suggests that sustained and transient attentional processes contribute to the prestimulus SME in consecutive time periods. PMID:24381815

  14. Time Course of Attention in Socially Anxious Individuals: Investigating the Effects of Adult Attachment Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrow, Yulisha; Chen, Nigel T M; Peters, Lorna

    2016-07-01

    Theoretical models of social anxiety propose that attention biases maintain symptoms of social anxiety. Research findings regarding the time course of attention and social anxiety disorder have been mixed. Adult attachment style may influence attention bias and social anxiety, thus contributing to the mixed findings. This study investigated the time course of attention toward both negative and positive stimuli for individuals diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and assessed whether attachment style moderates this relationship. One hundred and thirty participants (age: M=29.03) were assessed using a semistructured clinical interview. Those meeting eligibility criteria for the clinical sample met DSM-IV criteria for SAD (n=90, age: M=32.18), while those in the control sample did not meet criteria for any mental disorder (n=23, age: M=26.04, 11 females). All participants completed self-report measures examining depression, social anxiety, adult attachment style, and completed an eye-tracking task used to measure the time course of attention. Eye-tracking data were analysed using growth curve analysis. The results indicate that participants in the control group overall displayed greater vigilance towards emotional stimuli, were faster at initially fixating on the emotional stimulus, and had a greater percentage of fixations towards the emotional stimulus as the stimulus presentation time progressed compared to those in the clinical group. Thus, the clinical participants were more likely to avoid fixating on emotional stimuli in general (both negative and positive) compared to those in the control group. These results support the Clark and Wells (1995) proposal that socially anxious individuals avoid attending to emotional information. Attachment style did not moderate this association, however anxious attachment was related to greater vigilance toward emotional compared to neutral stimuli. PMID:27423171

  15. Sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established......Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and runs 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data...

  16. EEG phase reset due to auditory attention: an inverse time-scale approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a novel tool to evaluate the electroencephalograph (EEG) phase reset due to auditory attention by utilizing an inverse analysis of the instantaneous phase for the first time. EEGs were acquired through auditory attention experiments with a maximum entropy stimulation paradigm. We examined single sweeps of auditory late response (ALR) with the complex continuous wavelet transform. The phase in the frequency band that is associated with auditory attention (6–10 Hz, termed as theta–alpha border) was reset to the mean phase of the averaged EEGs. The inverse transform was applied to reconstruct the phase-modified signal. We found significant enhancement of the N100 wave in the reconstructed signal. Analysis of the phase noise shows the effects of phase jittering on the generation of the N100 wave implying that a preferred phase is necessary to generate the event-related potential (ERP). Power spectrum analysis shows a remarkable increase of evoked power but little change of total power after stabilizing the phase of EEGs. Furthermore, by resetting the phase only at the theta border of no attention data to the mean phase of attention data yields a result that resembles attention data. These results show strong connections between EEGs and ERP, in particular, we suggest that the presentation of an auditory stimulus triggers the phase reset process at the theta–alpha border which leads to the emergence of the N100 wave. It is concluded that our study reinforces other studies on the importance of the EEG in ERP genesis

  17. Real-time decoding of the direction of covert visuospatial attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Patrik; Ramsey, Nick F.; Raemaekers, Mathijs; Viergever, Max A.; Pluim, Josien P. W.

    2012-08-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) make it possible to translate a person’s intentions into actions without depending on the muscular system. Brain activity is measured and classified into commands, thereby creating a direct link between the mind and the environment, enabling, e.g., cursor control or navigation of a wheelchair or robot. Most BCI research is conducted with scalp EEG but recent developments move toward intracranial electrodes for paralyzed people. The vast majority of BCI studies focus on the motor system as the appropriate target for recording and decoding movement intentions. However, properties of the visual system may make the visual system an attractive and intuitive alternative. We report on a study investigating feasibility of decoding covert visuospatial attention in real time, exploiting the full potential of a 7 T MRI scanner to obtain the necessary signal quality, capitalizing on earlier fMRI studies indicating that covert visuospatial attention changes activity in the visual areas that respond to stimuli presented in the attended area of the visual field. Healthy volunteers were instructed to shift their attention from the center of the screen to one of four static targets in the periphery, without moving their eyes from the center. During the first part of the fMRI-run, the relevant brain regions were located using incremental statistical analysis. During the second part, the activity in these regions was extracted and classified, and the subject was given visual feedback of the result. Performance was assessed as the number of trials where the real-time classifier correctly identified the direction of attention. On average, 80% of trials were correctly classified (chance level experiment to five attention target regions (four peripheral and one central), the number of directions can be higher provided the brain activity patterns can be distinguished. In summary, the visual system promises to be an effective target for BCI control.

  18. Timing deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): evidence from neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M; Rubia, Katya

    2013-01-01

    Relatively recently, neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies have indicated that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have deficits in a range of timing functions and their underlying neural networks. Despite this evidence, timing deficits in ADHD are still somewhat neglected in the literature and mostly omitted from reviews on ADHD. There is therefore a lack of integrative reviews on the up-to-date evidence on neurocognitive and neurofunctional deficits of timing in ADHD and their significance with respect to other behavioural and cognitive deficits. The present review provides a synthetic overview of the evidence for neurocognitive and neurofunctional deficits in ADHD in timing functions, and integrates this evidence with the cognitive neuroscience literature of the neural substrates of timing. The review demonstrates that ADHD patients are consistently impaired in three major timing domains, in motor timing, perceptual timing and temporal foresight, comprising several timeframes spanning milliseconds, seconds, minutes and longer intervals up to years. The most consistent impairments in ADHD are found in sensorimotor synchronisation, duration discrimination, reproduction and delay discounting. These neurocognitive findings of timing deficits in ADHD are furthermore supported by functional neuroimaging studies that show dysfunctions in the key inferior fronto-striato-cerebellar and fronto-parietal networks that mediate the timing functions. Although there is evidence that these timing functions are inter-correlated with other executive functions that are well established to be impaired in the disorder, in particular working memory, attention, and to a lesser degree inhibitory control, the key timing deficits appear to survive when these functions are controlled for, suggesting independent cognitive deficits in the temporal domain. There is furthermore strong evidence for an association between timing deficits and behavioural

  19. Physical exertion in simple reaction time and continuous attention of sport participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsorbatzoudis, H; Barkoukis, V; Danis, A; Grouios, G

    1998-04-01

    To investigate the effect of physical exertion on simple reaction time and continuous attention of sport participants, an experiment was conducted with 46 male university students and 12 male cyclists. The subjects were assigned to three experimental and two control groups. The subjects of the experimental groups were asked to perform, following a 5-min, period of warming up, a high intensity exercise protocol for 5 min., on a mechanically braked cycle ergometer (Group A) or a moderate intensity exercise protocol for 30 min, on the same cycle ergometer (Groups B and C). Shortly before and immediately after the physical exercise subjects of all groups were asked to perform a test of simple reaction time and continuous attention. The subjects of the control groups were asked to perform at rest both tests of the simple reaction time and the continuous attention twice, with a 10-min. and a 35-min. interval between the first and second attempts, respectively. The results did not support the notion that exercise of moderate or high intensity influences significantly the cognitive performance of aerobically trained or untrained subjects. The results are discussed in the light of the current research findings concerning exertion and human psychomotor performance. PMID:9638756

  20. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity. Unfortuna...

  1. Attention modulates specificity effects in spoken word recognition: Challenges to the time-course hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Rachel M; Blumstein, Sheila E; Luthra, Sahil

    2015-07-01

    Findings in the domain of spoken word recognition have indicated that lexical representations contain both abstract and episodic information. It has been proposed that processing time determines when each source of information is recruited, with increased processing time being required to access lower-frequency episodic instantiations. The time-course hypothesis of specificity effects has thus identified a strong role for retrieval mechanisms mediating the use of abstract versus episodic information. Here we conducted three recognition memory experiments to examine whether the findings previously attributed to retrieval mechanisms might instead reflect attention during encoding. The results from Experiment 1 showed that talker-specificity effects emerged when subjects attended to the individual speakers, but not when they attended to lexical characteristics, during encoding, even though processing times at retrieval were equivalent. The results from Experiment 2 showed that talker-specificity effects emerged when listeners attended to talker gender but not when they attended to syntactic characteristics, even though the processing times at retrieval were significantly longer in the latter condition. The results from Experiment 3 showed no talker-specificity effects when all listeners attended to lexical characteristics, even when processing at retrieval was slowed by the addition of background noise. Collectively, these results suggest that when processing time during retrieval is decoupled from encoding factors, it fails to predict the emergence of talker-specificity effects. Rather, attention during encoding appears to be the putative variable. PMID:25824889

  2. Disturbance of time orientation, attention, and verbal memory in amnesic patients with confabulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingaki, Honoka; Park, Paeksoon; Ueda, Keita; Murai, Toshiya; Tsukiura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Confabulation is often observed in amnesic patients after brain damage. However, evidence regarding the relationship between confabulation and other neuropsychological functions is scarce. In addition, previous studies have proposed two possibilities of the relationship between confabulation and false memory, in which patients with confabulation are likely to retrieve false memories, or confabulations are relatively independent of false memories. The present study investigated how confabulation is related to various cognitive functions, including orientation, attention, frontal lobe function, memory, and mental status, and to false memories, as assessed by the Deese-Roediger-Mcdermott (DRM) paradigm. Patients with organic amnesia participated, and confabulations were evaluated using the Confabulation Battery. Amnestic patients were classified into two groups: confabulating (CP) and nonconfabulating patients (NCP). The CP group was significantly impaired in time orientation, attention, and verbal memory, compared to the NCP group and age-matched healthy controls (HC). Results of the DRM paradigm revealed no significant difference in false memory retrieval induced by critical lures across CP, NCP, and HC groups. Confabulating responses in organic amnesia could be in part induced by disturbance of time consciousness and attention control in severe impairment of verbal memories, and confabulation and false memory could be modulated by different cognitive systems. PMID:26588602

  3. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality......National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity...

  4. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on sound...... insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms of...... descriptors, number of classes, and class intervals occurred between national schemes. However, a proposal “acoustic classification scheme for dwellings” has been developed recently in the European COST Action TU0901 with 32 member countries. This proposal has been accepted as an ISO work item. This paper...

  5. Real-time decoding of brain responses to visuospatial attention using 7T fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Andersson

    Full Text Available Brain-Computer interface technologies mean to create new communication channels between our mind and our environment, independent of the motor system, by detecting and classifying self regulation of local brain activity. BCIs can provide patients with severe paralysis a means to communicate and to live more independent lives. There has been a growing interest in using invasive recordings for BCI to improve the signal quality. This also potentially gives access to new control strategies previously inaccessible by non-invasive methods. However, before surgery, the best implantation site needs to be determined. The blood-oxygen-level dependent signal changes measured with fMRI have been shown to agree well spatially with those found with invasive electrodes, and are the best option for pre-surgical localization. We show, using real-time fMRI at 7T, that eye movement-independent visuospatial attention can be used as a reliable control strategy for BCIs. At this field strength even subtle signal changes can be detected in single trials thanks to the high contrast-to-noise ratio. A group of healthy subjects were instructed to move their attention between three (two peripheral and one central spatial target regions while keeping their gaze fixated at the center. The activated regions were first located and thereafter the subjects were given real-time feedback based on the activity in these regions. All subjects managed to regulate local brain areas without training, which suggests that visuospatial attention is a promising new target for intracranial BCI. ECoG data recorded from one epilepsy patient showed that local changes in gamma-power can be used to separate the three classes.

  6. Indoor radon measurements in Turkey dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, indoor radon radioactivity concentration levels have been measured in dwellings of Turkey within the frame of the National Radon Monitoring Programme. The 222Rn concentrations were measured with time-integrating passive nuclear etched track detectors in 7293 dwellings in 153 residential units of 81 provinces, and the radon map of Turkey was prepared. Indoor radon concentrations were distributed in the range of 1-1400 Bq m-3. The arithmetic mean of the radon gas concentration was found to be 81 Bq m-3; the geometric mean was 57 Bq m-3 with a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. (authors)

  7. Lung cancer and radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positive correlations between radon and lung cancer have been found only for mine workers but not for the general population in dwellings. In this study we are looking for a connection between the mean radon values in 41 different regions of Switzerland and the corresponding lung cancer mortalities. For yound woman in general and young men and young women from rural areas a correlation was found. Such calculations, however, do not prove a causal connection, since they use only present day radon levels and can account neither for their temporal variations nor for the mobility and life habits of the population or for the real amount of time spent inside the dwellings. (orig.)

  8. Radon measurements in mines and dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon measurements using a time integrating passive radon dosemeter (MAKROFOL track etch detector) have been performed in Brazilian and German mines and dwellings. The present state of the measurement technique is summarized. The results are presented together with exposure calculations and dose estimations for occupational exposure in open pit and underground mines and for the general public in houses. (orig./HP)

  9. Navigation of a telepresence robot via covert visuospatial attention and real-time fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Patrik; Pluim, Josien P W; Viergever, Max A; Ramsey, Nick F

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) allow people with severe neurological impairment and without ability to control their muscles to regain some control over their environment. The BCI user performs a mental task to regulate brain activity, which is measured and translated into commands controlling some external device. We here show that healthy participants are capable of navigating a robot by covertly shifting their visuospatial attention. Covert Visuospatial Attention (COVISA) constitutes a very intuitive brain function for spatial navigation and does not depend on presented stimuli or on eye movements. Our robot is equipped with motors and a camera that sends visual feedback to the user who can navigate it from a remote location. We used an ultrahigh field MRI scanner (7 Tesla) to obtain fMRI signals that were decoded in real time using a support vector machine. Four healthy subjects with virtually no training succeeded in navigating the robot to at least three of four target locations. Our results thus show that with COVISA BCI, realtime robot navigation can be achieved. Since the magnitude of the fMRI signal has been shown to correlate well with the magnitude of spectral power changes in the gamma frequency band in signals measured by intracranial electrodes, the COVISA concept may in future translate to intracranial application in severely paralyzed people. PMID:22965825

  10. Time course of attentional bias for gambling information in problem gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Brevers, Damien; Cleeremans, Axel; Bechara, Antoine; Laloyaux, Cédric; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    There is a wealth of evidence showing enhanced attention toward drug-related information (i.e. attentional bias) in substance abusers. However, little is known about attentional bias in deregulated behaviors without substance use such as abnormal gambling. This study examined whether problem gamblers (PrG, as assessed through self-reported gambling-related craving and gambling dependence severity) exhibit attentional bias for gambling-related cues. Forty PrG and 35 control participants perfor...

  11. Separation of genetic influences on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and reaction time performance from those on IQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, A. C.; Asherson, P.; van der Meere, J. J.; Kuntsi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows a strong phenotypic and genetic association with reaction time (RI) variability, considered to reflect lapses in attention. Yet we know little about whether this aetiological pathway is shared with other affected cognitive processes i

  12. "Gaze Leading": Initiating Simulated Joint Attention Influences Eye Movements and Choice Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Andrew P.; Murphy, Emily; Naughtin, Claire K.; Kritikos, Ada; Schilbach, Leonhard; Becker, Stefanie I.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in adults has made great use of the gaze cuing paradigm to understand the behavior of the follower in joint attention episodes. We implemented a gaze leading task to investigate the initiator--the other person in these triadic interactions. In a series of gaze-contingent eye-tracking studies, we show that fixation dwell time upon…

  13. Feature Migration in Time: Reflection of Selective Attention on Speech Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozari, Nazbanou; Dell, Gary S.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an initial study of the effect of focused attention on phonological speech errors. In 3 experiments, participants recited 4-word tongue twisters and focused attention on 1 (or none) of the words. The attended word was singled out differently in each experiment; participants were under instructions to avoid errors on the…

  14. Novel radar dwell scheduling algorithm based on pulse interleaving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Ting; He Zishu; Tang Ting

    2009-01-01

    The problem of scheduling radar dwells in multifunction phased array radar systems is addressed. A novel dwell scheduling algorithm is proposed. The whole scheduling process is based on an online pulse interleaving technique. It takes the system timing and energy constraints into acoount. In order to adapt the dynamic task load, the algorithm considers both the priorities and deadlines of tasks. The simulation results demonstrate that compared with the conventional adaptive dwell scheduling algorithm, the proposed one can improve the task drop rate and system resource utiliW effectively.

  15. Characterizing Student Attention in Technology-Infused Classrooms Using Real-time Active Window Data

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi-Aragh, Mahnas Jean

    2013-01-01

    As computers become more prevalent (and required) in engineering classrooms, it becomes increasingly important to address the dichotomy in our current understanding of their impact on student attention and learning. While some researchers report increased student learning, others report computers as a distraction to learning. To address this conflict, the research community must gain a fundamental understanding of how students use their computers in-class and how student attention is connecte...

  16. Navigation of a Telepresence Robot via Covert Visuospatial Attention and Real-Time fMRI

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Patrik; Pluim, Josien P. W.; Viergever, Max A.; Nick F. Ramsey

    2012-01-01

    Brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) allow people with severe neurological impairment and without ability to control their muscles to regain some control over their environment. The BCI user performs a mental task to regulate brain activity, which is measured and translated into commands controlling some external device. We here show that healthy participants are capable of navigating a robot by covertly shifting their visuospatial attention. Covert Visuospatial Attention (COVISA) constitutes a v...

  17. Varying the Wear Time of the Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Boellner, Samuel W.; Lopez, Frank A.; Turnbow, John M.; Wigal, Sharon B.; Childress, Ann C.; Abikoff, Howard B.; Manos, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    A study investigated the impact of variable wear times of the methylphenidate transdermal system in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It was concluded that duration of medication effect was directly related to the wear time of the methylphenidate transdermal system patch.

  18. 12 CFR 541.10 - Dwelling unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dwelling unit. 541.10 Section 541.10 Banks and... FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.10 Dwelling unit. The term dwelling unit means the unified combination of rooms designed for residential use by one family, other than a single-family dwelling....

  19. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Motor Timing in Adolescents and Their Parents : Familial Characteristics of Reaction Time Variability Vary With Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thissen, Andrieke J. A. M.; Luman, Marjolein; Hartman, Catharina; Hoekstra, Pieter; van Lieshout, Marloes; Franke, Barbara; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There is consistent evidence that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is strongly related to impaired motor timing as reflected in decreased accuracy and increased reaction time variability (RTV). It is not known whether motor timing impairments are present in adolescents and

  20. Visual Attention: from Bio-Inspired Modeling to Real-Time Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Ouerhani, Nabil; Hügli, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    Visual Attention: From Bio-Inspired Modeling to Visual attention is the ability of a vision system, be it biological or artificial, to rapidly select the most salient and thus the most relevant data about the environment in which the system is operating. The main goal of this visual mechanism is to drastically reduce the amount of visual information that must be processed by high level and thus complex tasks, such as object recognition, which leads to a considerable speed up of the entire vis...

  1. Temporal Architecture: Poetic Dwelling in Japanese buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lazarin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Heidegger’s thinking about poetic dwelling and Derrida’s impressions of Freudian estrangement are employed to provide a constitutional analysis of the experience of Japanese architecture, in particular, the Japanese vestibule (genkan. This analysis is supplemented by writings by Japanese architects and poets. The principal elements of Japanese architecture are: (1 ma, and (2 en. Ma is usually translated as ‘interval’ because, like the English word, it applies to both space and time.  However, in Japanese thinking, it is not so much an either/or, but rather a both/and. In other words, Japanese architecture emphasises the temporal aspect of dwelling in a way that Western architectural thinking usually does not. En means ‘joint, edge, the in-between’ as an ambiguous, often asymmetrical spanning of interior and exterior, rather than a demarcation of these regions. Both elements are aimed at producing an experience of temporality and transiency.

  2. Perception of Temporal Order Is Impaired during the Time Course of the Attentional Blink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, Thomas M.; Lagroix, Hayley E. P.; Yanko, Matthew R.; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Identification accuracy for the second of two target (T2) is impaired when presented shortly after the first (T1). Does this attentional blink (AB) also impair the perception of the order of presentation? In four experiments, three letter targets (T1, T2, T3) were inserted in a stream of digit distractors displayed in rapid serial visual…

  3. When the Chips Are down: Taking Time to Pay Attention to Real Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Model, David

    2011-01-01

    Global warming, deforestation, destruction of the oceans, hunger, poverty, human rights abuses and war crimes will, at best, be redressed by empty words and token gestures unless the public imbibes massive doses of caffeine. Unfortunately the public's attention seems to be focused elsewhere. Blackberries, cell phones, social networks on the…

  4. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Children with and without Intellectual Disability: An Examination across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, C. L.; Baker, B. L.; Blacher, J.; Crnic, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities are at heightened risk for mental disorders, and disruptive behaviour disorders appear to be the most prevalent. The current study is a longitudinal examination of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children with and without intellectual disability (ID) across…

  5. Policy advocacy in hard times: the impact of economic performance on gendering executive attention

    OpenAIRE

    Annesley, Claire; Engeli, Isabelle; Gains, Francesca; Resodihardjo, Sandra L

    2014-01-01

    Securing executive attention for new policy demands is notoriously difficult as governmental agendas are crowded by established or ‘core’ policy issues. This article investigates whether it is harder for new and costly policy issues to reach the government agenda when the economy is performing badly. We examine whether, and the extent to which, costly gender equality issues regarding women’s access to the labour market, equal treatment at work and care activities, are more likely to achieve e...

  6. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Is it Time to Reappraise the Role of Sugar Consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Richard J.; Mark S. Gold; Johnson, David R.; Ishimoto, Takuji; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Zahniser, Nancy R.; AVENA, NICOLE M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects nearly 10% of children in the United States, and the prevalence of this disorder has increased steadily over the past decades. The cause of ADHD is unknown, although recent studies suggest that it may be associated with a disruption in dopamine signaling whereby dopamine D2 receptors are reduced in reward-related brain regions. This same pattern of reduced dopamine-mediated signaling is observed in various reward-deficiency syndromes ass...

  7. Time-resolved neuroimaging of visual short term memory consolidation by post-perceptual attention shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Marcus; Thiemann, Ulf; Freitag, Christine M; Bender, Stephan

    2016-01-15

    Post-perceptual cues can enhance visual short term memory encoding even after the offset of the visual stimulus. However, both the mechanisms by which the sensory stimulus characteristics are buffered as well as the mechanisms by which post-perceptual selective attention enhances short term memory encoding remain unclear. We analyzed late post-perceptual event-related potentials (ERPs) in visual change detection tasks (100ms stimulus duration) by high-resolution ERP analysis to elucidate these mechanisms. The effects of early and late auditory post-cues (300ms or 850ms after visual stimulus onset) as well as the effects of a visual interference stimulus were examined in 27 healthy right-handed adults. Focusing attention with post-perceptual cues at both latencies significantly improved memory performance, i.e. sensory stimulus characteristics were available for up to 850ms after stimulus presentation. Passive watching of the visual stimuli without auditory cue presentation evoked a slow negative wave (N700) over occipito-temporal visual areas. N700 was strongly reduced by a visual interference stimulus which impeded memory maintenance. In contrast, contralateral delay activity (CDA) still developed in this condition after the application of auditory post-cues and was thereby dissociated from N700. CDA and N700 seem to represent two different processes involved in short term memory encoding. While N700 could reflect visual post processing by automatic attention attraction, CDA may reflect the top-down process of searching selectively for the required information through post-perceptual attention. PMID:26571051

  8. Radon in dwellings in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over ten years STUK (The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has performed systematic indoor radon mapping in Finland with health authorities in municipalities. The most efficient means of reducing indoor radon exposure is to locate and mitigate dwellings with radon concentration exceeding the action level of 400 Bq/m3 and to build new houses so that radon concentrations do not exceed 200 Bq/m3. Therefore STUK has made radon measurement plans and radon risk maps to identify radon-prone areas. During 1986 - 1996 the municipalities have ordered 33 000 dosemeters for radon measurements. Private persons have ordered 24 000 dosemeters and STUK has used for its own investigations 34 000 dosemeters. Today the basic radon database of STUK consists information of about 52 000 Finnish dwellings. This report is a summary of the radon measurements made by STUK in low-rise dwellings. The radon situation by provinces is presented in tables

  9. Statistical analysis of radon data from dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This examination paper includes a statistical analysis of radon measurements from dwellings. By using variance analysis it has been investigated in what way the measured radon level depends on factors like smoking, time of measurement, different detecting points in the house, and the dependence of geographical localization. Apart from the classification in risk levels, the time of measurement was very important. The statistical analysis have been made with the aid of the computer program package SAS. Proposals are given for the planning of future measurements. (author)

  10. Low-frequency fluctuation in continuous real-time feedback of finger force: a new paradigm for sustained attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang-Ye Dong; Dong-Qiang Liu; Jue Wang; Zhao Qing; Zhen-Xiang Zang; Chao-Gan Yan; Yu-Feng Zang

    2012-01-01

    Objective Behavioral studies have suggested a low-frequency (0.05 Hz) fluctuation of sustained attention on the basis of the intra-individual variability of reaction-time.Conventional task designs for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies are not appropriate for frequency analysis.The present study aimed to propose a new paradigm,real-time finger force feedback (RT-FFF),to study the brain mechanisms of sustained attention and neurofeedback.Methods We compared the low-frequency fluctuations in both behavioral and fMRI data from 38 healthy adults (19 males; mean age,22.3 years).Two fMRI sessions,in RT-FFF and sham finger force feedback (S-FFF) states,were acquired (TR 2 s,Siemens Trio 3-Tesla scanner,8 min each,counter-balanced).Behavioral data of finger force were obtained simultaneously at a sampling rate of 250 Hz.Results Frequency analysis of the behavioral data showed lower amplitude in the lowfrequency band (0.004-0.104 Hz) but higher amplitude in the high-frequency band (27.02-125 Hz) in the RT-FFF than the S-FFF states.The mean finger force was not significantly different between the two states.fMRI data analysis showed higher fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) in the S-FFF than in the RT-FFF state in the visual cortex,but higher fALFF in RT-FFF than S-FFF in the middle frontal gyrus,the superior frontal gyrus,and the default mode network.Conclusion The behavioral results suggest that the proposed paradigm may provide a new approach to studies of sustained attention.The fMRI results suggest that a distributed network including visual,motor,attentional,and default mode networks may be involved in sustained attention and/or real-time feedback.This paradigm may be helpful for future studies on deficits of attention,such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and mild traumatic brain injury.

  11. Measuring attention in rodents: comparison of a modified signal detection task and the 5-choice serial reaction time task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karly Maree Turner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric research has utilised cognitive testing in rodents to improve our understanding of cognitive deficits and for preclinical drug development. However, more sophisticated cognitive tasks have not been as widely exploited due to low throughput and the extensive training time required. We developed a modified signal detection task (SDT based on the growing body of literature aimed at improving cognitive testing in rodents. This study directly compares performance on the modified SDT with the traditional test for measuring attention, the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on either the 5CSRTT or the SDT. Briefly, the 5CSRTT required rodents to pay attention to a spatial array of 5 apertures and respond with a nose poke when an aperture was illuminated. The SDT required the rat to attend to a light panel and respond either left or right to indicate the presence of a signal. In addition, modifications were made to the reward delivery, timing, control of body positioning and the self-initiation of trials. It was found that less training time was required for the SDT, with both sessions to criteria and daily session duration significantly reduced. Rats performed with a high level of accuracy (>87% on both tasks, however omissions were far more frequent on the 5CSRTT. The signal duration was reduced on both tasks as a manipulation of task difficulty relevant to attention and a similar pattern of decreasing accuracy was observed on both tasks. These results demonstrate some of the advantages of the SDT over the traditional 5CSRTT as being higher throughput with reduced training time, fewer omission responses and their body position at stimulus onset was controlled. In addition, rats performing the SDT had comparable high levels of accuracy. These results highlight the differences and similarities between the 5CSRTT and a modified SDT as tools for assessing attention in preclinical animal

  12. Deficits in Interval Timing Measured by the Dual-Task Paradigm among Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shoou-Lian; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Hsu, Wen-Yau; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Background: The underlying mechanism of time perception deficit in long time intervals in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is still unclear. This study used the time reproduction dual task to explore the role of the attentional resource in time perception deficits among children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods: Participants…

  13. Investigating Glutamatergic Mechanism in Attention and Impulse Control Using Rats in a Modified 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task

    OpenAIRE

    Abigail Benn; Emma S J Robinson

    2014-01-01

    The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) has been widely used to study attention and impulse control in rodents. In order to mimic cognitive impairments in psychiatry, one approach has been to use acute administration of NMDA antagonists. This disruption in glutamatergic transmission leads to impairments in accuracy, omissions, and premature responses although findings have been inconsistent. In this study, we further investigated glutamatergic mechanisms using a novel version of the 5...

  14. The ex-Gaussian distribution of reaction times in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shoou-Lian Hwang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Tzang, Shyh-Weir; Hsu, Wen-Yau

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the three parameters (mu, sigma, tau) of ex-Gaussian distribution of RT derived from the Conners' continuous performance test (CCPT) and examined the moderating effects of the energetic factors (the inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) and Blocks) among these three parameters, especially tau, an index describing the positive skew of RT distribution. We assessed 195 adolescents with DSM-IV ADHD, and 90 typically developing (TD) adolescents, aged 10-16. Participants and their parents received psychiatric interviews to confirm the diagnosis of ADHD and other psychiatric disorders. Participants also received intelligence (WISC-III) and CCPT assessments. We found that participants with ADHD had a smaller mu, and larger tau. As the ISI/Block increased, the magnitude of group difference in tau increased. Among the three ex-Gaussian parameters, tau was positively associated with omission errors, and mu was negatively associated with commission errors. The moderating effects of ISIs and Blocks on tau parameters suggested that the ex-Gaussian parameters could offer more information about the attention state in vigilance task, especially in ADHD. PMID:24021389

  15. Age-related changes in attentional selection: quality of task set or degradation of task set across time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jonathan D; Balota, David A

    2013-09-01

    The present study explores the nature of attentional selection in younger and older adults. Following R. De Jong, E. Berendsen, and R. Cools (1999, Acta Psychologica, Vol. 101, pp. 379-394), we manipulated the response to stimulus interval (RSI) in two attentional selection paradigms to examine if there are age-related differences in the quality of task set and/or the maintenance of task set across time. In Experiment 1, we found that the interference effect in a spatial interference task was (a) overall larger in older adults compared with younger adults, and (b) smaller at the short RSI (200 ms) compared with the long RSI (2000 ms), and (c) not associated with an interaction between age and RSI. The second experiment explored the same variables in a Stroop color interference paradigm. Again, older adults produced a disproportionately larger interference effect than younger adults, the interference effect was smaller at the short RSI compared with the long RSI, and there was no evidence of an interaction between age and RSI. In both experiments, the larger interference effect could not be attributed to age-related general slowing and there was evidence from Vincentile analyses of increasing interference and age effects at the slower response latencies. These results indicate that attentional selection deficits in these two experiments were due to a breakdown in the quality of the task set as opposed to age-related differences in the maintenance of the task set across time. PMID:23834491

  16. Visual Attention During Brand Choice: The Impact of Time Pressure and Task Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Pieters, R.; L. WARLOP

    1998-01-01

    Measures derived from eye-movement data reveal that during brand choice consumers adapt to time pressure by accelerating the visual scanning sequence, by filtering information and by changing their scanning strategy. In addition, consumers with high task motivation filter brand information less and pictorial information more. Consumers under time pressure filter textual ingredient information more, and pictorial information less. The results of a conditional logit analysis reveal that the cho...

  17. Indoor environmental quality in French dwellings and building characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Sarka; Ramalho, Olivier; Derbez, Mickaël; Ribéron, Jacques; Kirchner, Severine; Mandin, Corinne

    2016-03-01

    A national survey on indoor environmental quality covering 567 residences in mainland France was performed during 2003-2005. The measured parameters were temperature, relative humidity, CO2, and the indoor air pollutants: fourteen individual volatile organic compounds (VOC), four aldehydes and particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5. The measured indoor concentrations were analyzed for correlations with the building characteristics: type of dwelling, period of construction, dwelling location, type of ventilation system, building material, attached garage and retrofitting. The median night time air exchange rate (AER) for all dwellings was 0.44 h-1. The night time AER was higher in apartments (median = 0.49 h-1) than in single-family houses (median = 0.41 h-1). Concentration of formaldehyde was approximately 30% higher in dwellings built after 1990 compared with older ones; it was higher in dwellings with mechanical ventilation and in concrete buildings. The VOC concentrations depended on the building characteristics to various extents. The sampling season influenced the majority of the indoor climate parameters and the concentrations of the air pollutants to a higher degree than the building characteristics. Multivariate linear regression models revealed that the indoor-outdoor difference in specific humidity, a proxy for number of occupants and their indoor activities, remained a significant predictor for most gaseous and particulate air pollutants. The other strong predictors were outdoor concentration, smoking, attached garage and AER (in descending order).

  18. Governing uncertainty: Resilience, dwelling, and flexible resource management in Oceania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lauer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the flexible, customary land and sea tenure practices on a small island in Melanesia. I use the dwelling concept to analyse how governance practices on the island function during three different kinds of social-ecological change: 1 rapid demographic expansion; 2 a destructive tsunami; and 3 several recent development projects. In contrast to conventional resilience approaches, the dwelling concept draws attention to the immediate experience and practical application of environmental management. Results show that flexible resource governance is not based on a set of pre-determined rules, but instead, it is a socially-situated, experiential activity involving tension, conflict, and contestation as people negotiate access to land and sea resources. I argue that a dwelling perspective enhances resilience-focused research by providing a broader, non-dichotomising nature-culture analytical lens and by expanding the scope of inquiry to include power dynamics and contestation between social groups, processes that dominate the everyday experience of flexible ecosystem management governance but tend to be overlooked in most resilience research. With its emphasis on the complexity, contingency, and asymmetry of interacting social, economic, political, and ecological processes the dwelling approach complements 'new ecology', the epistemological shift that help inspire resilience research.

  19. Attention Switching during Scene Perception: How Goals Influence the Time Course of Eye Movements across Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedel, Michel; Pieters, Rik; Liechty, John

    2008-01-01

    Eye movements across advertisements express a temporal pattern of bursts of respectively relatively short and long saccades, and this pattern is systematically influenced by activated scene perception goals. This was revealed by a continuous-time hidden Markov model applied to eye movements of 220 participants exposed to 17 ads under a…

  20. Vibration-based machine condition monitoring with attention to the use of time-frequency methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehorn, Adam G. J.; Orban, Peter E.; Jiang, Jin

    2004-03-01

    To enable lightly staffed or fully autonomous machining operations, it is essential that both the condition of the cutter and the health of the machine tool system be known. In this paper, the health of the spindle positioning drive (Z axis) on a Proteo D/94 precision machining center is investigated using time, frequency and time-frequency techniques. Investigated is a cogging phenomenon produced as a result of the DC servomotor brushes sticking due to poor design. This incipient fault reduces the accuracy and controllability of the machine tool, and always leads to total drive failure. Thus, it is important to determine the fault signature of the drive so that corrective action may be taken before failure can occur, permanently damaging both the motor and the workpiece. The vibratory signatures of both a healthy and a faulty spindle during translation are analyzed. It is shown that a spindle under fault conditions behaves differently from a healthy one, and that time and time-frequency domain methods provide useful information on the status of the system. This paper lays the groundwork for the development of a future machine condition monitoring system, which can be easily retrofitted to any machine tool system.

  1. Radon measurements in hispaniola dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a national radon survey and a number of regional surveys of radon in spanish dwelling are reviewed. The best estimate of the geometric mean of indoor radon concentrations is 41.1. Bq/m-3 and single-family dwellings have been shown to be more at risk than apartments. Results need to be interpreted with some caution due to differences in survey methodologies and measurement procedures. The risks from radon exposure are put in perspective by comparison with other voluntary risks. Finally, although a number of 'high risk' areas have already been identified, it is concluded that implementation of a national programme to reduce radon exposure may await a better definition of the problem extent. (authors). 20 refs., 1 tab

  2. Attention to Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael Eric

    a psychic prerequisite for the social interaction between pupils and teachers. New kinds of “split attention” arise and new kinds of social mediation (regulation and “use”) of psychic attention become necessary if teaching in the new digital medium milieu shall be beneficial. In this paper we...... against Facebook, online games etc. neither unconcern and ignorance of the new media and their consequences for attention) - we argue - can generate adequate social norms regulating psychic awareness in the new digital learning environment....

  3. Salivary a-Amylase Reflects Change in Attentional Demands during Postural Control: Comparison with Probe Reaction Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Ohashi, Yukari

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The influence of attention on postural control and the relationship between attention and falling has been reported in previous studies. Although a dual-task procedure is commonly used to measure attentional demand, such procedures are affected by allocation policy, which is a mental strategy to divide attention between simultaneous…

  4. Do Threatening Stimuli Draw or Hold Visual Attention in Subclinical Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Elaine; Russo, Riccardo; Bowles, Robert; Dutton, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Biases in information processing undoubtedly play an important role in the maintenance of emotion and emotional disorders. In an attentional cueing paradigm, threat words and angry faces had no advantage over positive or neutral words (or faces) in attracting attention to their own location, even for people who were highly state-anxious. In contrast, the presence of threatening cues (words and faces) had a strong impact on the disengagement of attention. When a threat cue was presented and a target subsequently presented in another location, high state-anxious individuals took longer to detect the target relative to when either a positive or a neutral cue was presented. It is concluded that threat-related stimuli affect attentional dwell time and the disengage component of attention, leaving the question of whether threat stimuli affect the shift component of attention open to debate. PMID:11757875

  5. Walking behaviour of healthy elderly: attention should be paid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt André

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have reported an association between executive function (EF and measures of gait, particularly among older adults. This study examined the relationship between specific components of executive functions and the relative dual task costs of gait (DTC in community-dwelling non-demented older adults, aged 65 years and older. Methods Temporal (stride time, stride velocity and spatial (stride length gait characteristics were measured using a GAITRite®-System among 62 healthy community dwelling older adults while walking with and without backward counting (BC at preferred and fast walking speeds. Specific executive functions divided attention, memory and inhibition were assessed using the Test for Attentional Performance (TAP. Other measures included Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, amount of daily medications taken, educational level and sociodemographic characteristics. Adjusted and unadjusted multivariable linear regression models were developed to assess the relations between variables. Results High relative DTC for stride time, stride velocity and stride length were associated with divided attention at fast walking speed. High relative DTC for stride time was associated with divided attention at preferred walking speed. The association between high DTC of stride length and memory was less robust and only observable at preferred walking speed. None of the gait measures was associated with inhibition. Conclusions Spatial and temporal dual task cost characteristics of gait are especially associated with divided attention in older adults. The results showed that the associated DTC differ by executive function and the nature of the task (preferred versus fast walking. Further research is warranted to determine whether improvement in divided attention translates to better performance on selected complex walking tasks.

  6. IMPACT OF A SERIOUS GAME FOR HEALTH ON CHRONIC DISEASE SELF-MANAGEMENT: PRELIMINARY EFFICACY AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING ADULTS WITH HYPERTENSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Ronald L; Clochesy, John M; Pinto, Melissa D; Burant, Christopher; Pignatiello, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Most Americans will acquire a chronic disease during their lifetime. One of the most prevalent chronic diseases that affect Americans is hypertension (HTN). Despite the known comorbidities and increased mortality rate associated with uncontrolled HTN, most community dwelling adults with HTN do not have sufficient blood pressure control Therefore, the aim of this article is to report the preliminary efficacy of a serious game for health to enhance blood pressure control among community dwelling adults with HTN. A nonprobability sample of 116 community dwelling adults with HTN participated in this nonblinded, randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomly assigned to: (1) an intervention arm that consisted of four exposures to a serious game for health known as eSMART-HD; or (2) an attentional control arm that compromised of four exposures to screen-based HTN education. The primary outcome measure for this trial was blood pressure reduction over a four month observational period. In this study, baseline characteristics and blood pressure measurements were similar between participants in each study arm. There was no significant between-group difference in blood pressure reduction over time. However, there were significant within-group reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressures across time among favoring participants exposed to eSMART-HD. This study establishes the preliminary efficacy of eSMART-HD that can be easily administered to community dwelling adults and facilitate clinically significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Future studies should assess the influential components of this promising serious game for health (eSMART-HD) combined with medication management in larger and more diverse samples of community dwelling adults with HTN. PMID:26442364

  7. Focused Attention Analysis of Meditating and Non-meditating Brains in Time and Frequency Domains Using EEG Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Selvaraj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The activity and the ability of brain to maintain the state of calmness in individuals practicing meditation has been a subject of research from long time. The aim of the study here is to prove that the meditation aids in retaining the state of calmness of brain. A MATLAB based multifaceted framework is developed for analyzing the dataset of brain EEG of people practicing meditation. The proposed method performs the processing of 32 electrode EEG data and denoises the signal in time series. The plotting of data followed by PSD analysis and FFT transform of the signal to analyze the data in frequency domain for examining each frequency band. The comparison is done using the L2 norm. The ICWT is later found to analyze the data and calculate for Modulus and angle of the EEG signal. The statistical analysis in time and frequency domain is use to study the effect of meditation on focused attention and retaining of same in meditating and non-meditating brains.

  8. Architectural workshop Temporary, mobile dwelling units

    OpenAIRE

    Vasa J. Perović; Anja Vidic

    2012-01-01

    Temporary dwelling units are in use for shorter periods, weekends and holidays. Because of their different types of use, such units should function differently from standard models which attempt to mimic a standard dwelling or house. The students’ task was to develop units that could exploit all the potential of the natural surroundings and support different user scenarios.

  9. Environmental radon dosimetry in Indian dwellings and workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of radon and its progeny in the dwellings and environment of workplaces are important because the radiation dose to human population due to inhalation of radon and its progeny contribute more than 50% of the total dose from natural sources and is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. Recent experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that inhalation of radon progeny, which are the most important source of irradiation of the human respiratory track in workplace and domestic environment could be a cause of lung cancer. The quantification of individual radon exposure over a long time period is one of the main issues. In the present study, we will report the results of radon monitoring carried out in the environment of workplaces of an oil refinery, LPG bottling plant, thermal power plant and gas power plant, besides the typical and modern Indian dwellings using alpha sensitive L.R.-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors in order to quantify the dose to the workers and the inhabitants. For comparison, the radon and its progeny levels were also measured in dwellings far away from the plants. Radon and its progeny levels were found higher in the environment of workplaces and dwellings in the vicinity of the plants. The details of the results obtained will be reported in the full paper. (authors)

  10. Lung doses from radon in dwellings and influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon concentration in Norwegian dwellings and the lung doses received by the Norwegian population are reported. The biological effects of these doses are discussed. The mean value of radon-daughters in Norwegian dwellings was found to be about 7x10-3 WL (working levels). This corresponds to an annual exposure of about 0.3 WLM (working level months). From studies of the lung cancer statistics of Norway, this exposure may account for about 10% of the annual lung cancer cases in Norway. The variations in the radon concentration inside dwellings are discussed, and the influence of exhalation, ventilation and meteorological parameters upon the respiratory dosage is studied. From the risk estimates performed, the consequences of an increased indoor radon concentration due to reduced ventilation or introduction of building materials with high radium concentrations are discussed. From comparison of the population doses from different sources of radiation, it is evident that a possible future increase in the radon concentration in dwellings is one of the most serious radiation protection problems of our time. (author)

  11. What time periods of the day are concerning for parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Usami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: The questionnaire-children with difficulties (QCD is a parent-assessed questionnaire designed to evaluate a child's difficulties in functioning during specific time periods of the day. In this study, the QCD was applied to determine the time periods of the day that are concerning for the parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The results were compared with those for a community sample. METHODS: Elementary and junior high school students with ADHD (243 boys, 55 girls and a community sample of children (518 boys, 618 girls were enrolled in this study. Their behaviors were assessed by the QCD, the ADHD-rating scale (ADHD-RS, and the Oppositional Defiant Behavior Inventory (ODBI. The effects of gender (boy/girl and diagnosis (ADHD/community sample on the total QCD score were analyzed across each school grade (elementary/junior high school. Correlation coefficients between QCD and ADHD-RS/ODBI scores were analyzed. RESULTS: The QCD score for the ADHD group was significantly lower than that for the community sample (P 0.41, P 0.40, P < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Parents reported that children with ADHD faced greater difficulties in completing basic daily activities compared with the community controls, particularly in the evening. Furthermore, these difficulties were related to the severity of ADHD symptoms. The parents' perceptions depended on the gender, ADHD and oppositional symptoms, and the time period of the day. This study determined that children with ADHD face greater difficulties in daily functioning compared with community sample children, that these difficulties are time-dependent, and that these difficulties were particularly experienced in the evening.

  12. Language Development in Infants and Toddlers with Fragile X Syndrome: Change over Time and the Role of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Sara T.; McCary, Lindsay M.; Ingram, Alexandra M.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Roberts, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is associated with significant language and communication delays, as well as problems with attention. This study investigated early language abilities in infants and toddlers with FXS (n = 13) and considered visual attention as a predictor of those skills. We found that language abilities increased over the study period of…

  13. Predicting physical stability in pressurized metered dose inhalers via dwell and instantaneous force colloidal probe microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Sa, Dexter; Chan, Hak-Kim; Chrzanowski, Wojciech

    2014-09-01

    Colloidal probe microscopy (CPM) is a quantitative predictive tool, which can offer insight into particle behavior in suspension pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). Although CPM instantaneous force measurements, which involve immediate retraction of the probe upon sample contact, can provide information on inter-particle attractive forces, they lack the ability to appropriately imitate all critical particle pMDI interactions (e.g., particle re-dispersion after prolonged pMDI storage). In this paper, two novel dwell force techniques - indentation and deflection dwell - were employed to mimic long-term particle interactions present in pMDIs, using particles of various internal structures and a model liquid propellant (2H,3H perfluoropentane) as a model system. Dwell measurements involve particle contact for an extended period of time. In deflection dwell mode the probe is held at a specific position, while in indentation dwell mode the probe is forced into the sample with a constant force for the entirety of the contact time. To evaluate the applicability of CPM to predict actual pMDI physical stability, inter-particle force measurements were compared with qualitative and quantitative bulk pMDI measurement techniques (visual quality and light scattering). Measured instantaneous attractive (snap-in) and adhesive (max-pull) forces decreased as a function of increasing surface area, while adhesive forces measured by indentation dwell decreased as a function of dwell contact time for particles containing voids. Instantaneous force measurements provided information on the likelihood of floccule formation, which was predictive of partitioning rates, while indentation dwell force measurements were predictive of formulation re-dispersibility after prolonged storage. Dwell force measurements provide additional information on particle behavior within a pMDI not obtainable via instantaneous measurements. PMID:25058596

  14. Analytic solutions of tunneling time through smooth barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhi; Huang, Hai

    2016-03-01

    In the discussion of temporary behaviors of quantum tunneling, people usually like to focus their attention on rectangular barrier with steep edges, or to deal with smooth barrier with semi-classical or even numerical calculations. Very few discussions on analytic solutions of tunneling through smooth barrier appear in the literature. In this paper, we provide two such examples, a semi-infinite long barrier V ( x ) = /A 2 [ 1 + tanh ( x / a ) ] and a finite barrier V(x) = A sech2(x/a). To each barrier, we calculate the associated phase time and dwell time after obtaining the analytic solution. The results show that, different from rectangular barrier, phase time or dwell time does increase with the length parameter a controlling the effective extension of the barrier. More interestingly, for the finite barrier, phase time or dwell time exhibits a peak in k-space. A detailed analysis shows that this interesting behavior can be attributed to the strange tunneling probability Ts(k), i.e., Ts(k) displays a unit step function-like profile Θ(k - k0), especially when a is large, say, a ≫ 1/κ, 1/k. And k 0 ≡ √{ m A } / ħ is exactly where the peak appears in phase or dwell time k-spectrum. Thus only those particles with k in a very narrow interval around k0 are capable to dwell in the central region of the barrier sufficiently long.

  15. Prevention of legionella in dwellings and buildings; Legionellapreventie in woningen en gebouwen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Mil, R.; Van der Kooij, D.; Kolner, W.P.P.; Wessels, R.; Offinga, M.; Scheffer, W.; Van Wolferen, H.; Doldersum, R.; Van der Lugt, W.; Bertrand, F.; Nijlant, E.

    2011-04-15

    In 10 articles and 1 interview attention is paid to several aspects of Legionella in water heaters, mains, and sanitary installations in dwellings and other buildings. [Dutch] In 10 artikelen en 1 interview wordt aandacht besteed aan verschillende aspecten met betrekking tot legionella in sanitaire installaties, waterverwarmingsinstallaties, en waterleidingen in woningen en andere gebouwen.

  16. Visual Attentional Engagement Deficits in Children with Specific Language Impairment and Their Role in Real-Time Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispaldro, Marco; Leonard, Laurence B.; Corradi, Nicola; Ruffino, Milena; Bronte, Tiziana; Facoetti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In order to become a proficient user of language, infants must detect temporal cues embedded within the noisy acoustic spectra of ongoing speech by efficient attentional engagement. According to the neuro-constructivist approach, a multi-sensory dysfunction of attentional engagement – hampering the temporal sampling of stimuli – might be responsible for language deficits typically shown in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). In the present study, the efficiency of visual attentional engagement was investigated in 22 children with SLI and 22 typically developing (TD) children by measuring attentional masking (AM). AM refers to impaired identification of the first of two sequentially presented masked objects (O1 and O2) in which the O1-O2 interval was manipulated. Lexical and grammatical comprehension abilities were also tested in both groups. Children with SLI showed a sluggish engagement of temporal attention, and individual differences in AM accounted for a significant percentage of unique variance in grammatical performance. Our results suggest that an attentional engagement deficit – probably linked to a dysfunction of the right fronto-parietal attentional network – might be a contributing factor in these children’s language impairments. PMID:23154040

  17. Association of screen time with self-perceived attention problems and hyperactivity levels in French students: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Elie; Kurth, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether high levels of screen time exposure are associated with self-perceived levels of attention problems and hyperactivity in higher education students. Design Cross-sectional study among participants of the i-Share cohort. Setting French-speaking students of universities and higher education institutions. Participants 4816 graduate students who were at least 18 years old. Exposure Screen time was assessed by self-report of the average time spent on five different screen activities on smartphone, television, computer and tablet and categorised into quartiles. Main outcome measure We used the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) concerning students’ behaviour over the past 6 months to measure self-perceived levels of attention problems and hyperactivity. Responses were summarised into a global score as well as scores for attention problems and hyperactivity. Results The 4816 participants of this study had a mean age of 20.8 years and 75.5% were female. Multivariable ordinary regression models showed significant associations of screen time exposure with quintiles of the total score of self-perceived attention problems and hyperactivity levels as well as the individual domains. Compared to the lowest screen time exposure category, the ORs (95% CI) were 1.58 (1.37 to 1.82) for each increasing level of quintiles of the global score, 1.57 (1.36 to 1.81) for increasing quintiles of attention levels and 1.25 (1.09 to 1.44) for increasing quartiles of hyperactivity. Conclusions Results of this large cross-sectional study among French university and higher education students show dose-dependent associations between screen time and self-perceived levels of attention problems and hyperactivity. Further studies are warranted to evaluate whether interventions could positively influence these associations. PMID:26920440

  18. Age Changes in Cardiac Deceleration within a Fixed Foreperiod Reaction-Time Task: An Index of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan

    1971-01-01

    Thirty 6-, 8-, and 10-year-old boys were subjects in this study whose findings suggest that the obtained differences in anticipatory heart-rate deceleration reflect developmental changes in the ability to maintain attention. (WY)

  19. The Association of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms with Cognitive Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Beaudreau, Sherry A.; O’Hara, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association of anxiety, depressive symptoms, and their co-occurrence on cognitive processes in 102 community-dwelling older adults. Participants completed anxiety and depression questionnaires, and measures of episodic and semantic memory, word fluency, processing speed/shifting attention, and inhibition. Participants with only increased anxiety had poorer processing speed/shifting attention, and inhibition, but depressive symptoms alone were not associated with any cognitive ...

  20. Visual Attentional Engagement Deficits in Children with Specific Language Impairment and Their Role in Real-Time Language Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Dispaldro, Marco; Leonard, Laurence B.; Corradi, Nicola; Ruffino, Milena; Bronte, Tiziana; Facoetti, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In order to become a proficient user of language, infants must detect temporal cues embedded within the noisy acoustic spectra of ongoing speech by efficient attentional engagement. According to the neuro-constructivist approach, a multi-sensory dysfunction of attentional engagement – hampering the temporal sampling of stimuli – might be responsible for language deficits typically shown in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). In the present study, the efficiency of visual attenti...

  1. Attentional capture by social stimuli in young infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxie eGluckman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the possibility that a range of social stimuli capture the attention of 6-month-old infants when in competition with other non-face objects. Infants viewed a series of six-item arrays in which one target item was a face, body part, or animal as their eye movements were recorded. Stimulus arrays were also processed for relative salience of each item in terms of color, luminance, and amount of contour. Targets were rarely the most visually salient items in the arrays, yet infants’ first looks toward all three target types were above chance, and dwell times for targets exceeded other stimulus types. Girls looked longer at faces than did boys, but there were no sex differences for other stimuli. These results are interpreted in a context of learning to discriminate between different classes of animate stimuli, perhaps in line with affordances for social interaction, and origins of sex differences in social attention.

  2. Time Course of Visual Attention in Infant Categorization of Cats versus Dogs: Evidence for a Head Bias as Revealed through Eye Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul C.; Doran, Matthew M.; Reiss, Jason E.; Hoffman, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous looking time studies have shown that infants use the heads of cat and dog images to form category representations for these animal classes. The present research used an eye-tracking procedure to determine the time course of attention to the head and whether it reflects a preexisting bias or online learning. Six- to 7-month-olds were…

  3. Measurement Techniques for Radon in Mines, Dwellings and the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Definitions and units appropriate for radon and radon daughters are given. The principle methods of detection are ionization chamber, scintillation technique, nuclear track detector, thermoluminescent discs and alpha spectrometry. The activity concentration is determined by grab sampling and subsequent measurement, frequent or continuous grab sampling and measurement and continuous sampling and long time integrated measurement. Sampling and measurement strategies for mines, dwellings and the environment are discussed. (author)

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SLEEP AND PHYSICAL FUNCTION IN COMMUNITY-DWELLING ADULTS: A PILOT STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, Rebecca A.; Budhathoki, Chakra B; Kalra, Gurpreet K.; Richards, Kathy C.

    2014-01-01

    Over 50% of community-dwelling adults have sleep complaints. Because aging is associated with decline in physical function, coexistent sleep difficulties may exacerbate functional decline. This pilot study explored the relationships between sleep, age, chronic disease burden, and physical function among 50 community-dwelling older adults. Findings revealed significant relationships between total sleep time and preclinical disability (r=−0.33, P≤=0.05) and mobility difficulty (r=−0.36, P≤=0.05...

  5. Dwelling thermal renovation: which stakes, which solutions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication proposes three sets of contributions. The first one addresses context and stakes. The contributions propose: a literature review on household behaviour and investments in energy efficiency, a focus on the key role of dwellings in energy transition through a comparative study of the four pathways of the National Debate for Energy Transition, and a discussion about consensus and uncertainties regarding the determining factors of heating temperature in dwellings. The second set addresses public policies and their assessment: improvement of the technical-economical assessment of the benefit of dwelling energetic renovations, discussion of the organisation and results of a survey on dwelling, equipment, and energy needs and uses, an analysis of several measures aimed at reaching objectives of energy efficiency of dwellings, a discussion of renovation works quality, a discussion of the impact of the sustainable development tax credit on thermal renovation, the optimisation of energy renovation in co-properties by third party financing, some foreign examples of policies in favour of dwelling thermal renovation. The third set of contributions addresses the needed technical, organisational and market evolutions: how the building sector can face the challenges of energy transition, the possibilities to propose innovative solutions adapted to existing housing buildings, and a comparative analysis of material and building equipment costs and market structures in Europe. Other texts are proposed in appendix: the origin of the Phebus survey, a description of incentive arrangements, and a map of climate zones in France

  6. Stimulant Treatment Reduces Lapses in Attention among Children with ADHD: The Effects of Methylphenidate on Intra-Individual Response Time Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sarah V.; Hawk, Larry W., Jr.; Richards, Jerry B.; Shiels, Keri; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Waxmonsky, James G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that intra-individual variability in reaction time (RT) distributions of children with ADHD is characterized by a particularly large rightward skew that may reflect lapses in attention. The purpose of the study was to provide the first randomized, placebo-controlled test of the effects of the stimulant methylphenidate…

  7. Electrophysiological evidence of the time course of attentional bias in nonpatients reporting symptoms of depression with and without co-occurring anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Sass

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is characterized by attentional biases to threat, but findings are inconsistent for depression. To address this inconsistency, the present study systematically assessed the role of co-occurring anxiety in attentional bias in depression. In addition, the role of emotional valence, arousal, and gender was explored. Ninety-two nonpatients completed the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ; Meyer et al., 1990; Molina & Borkovec, 1994 and portions of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ; Watson, Clark, et al., 1995; Watson, Weber, et al., 1995. Individuals reporting high levels of depression and low levels of anxiety (depression only, high levels of depression and anxiety (combined, or low levels of both (control completed an emotion-word Stroop task during event-related brain potential (ERP recording. Pleasant and unpleasant words were matched on emotional arousal level. An attentional bias was not evident in the depression-only group. Women in the combined group had larger N200 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, and the combined group as a whole had larger right-lateralized P300 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, consistent with an early and later attentional bias that is specific to unpleasant valence in the combined group. Men in the control group had larger N200 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, consistent with an early attentional bias that is specific to pleasant valence. The present study indicates that the nature and time course of attention prompted by emotional valence and not arousal differentiates depression with and without anxiety, with some evidence of gender moderating early effects. Overall, results suggest that co-occurring anxiety is more important than previously acknowledged in demonstrating evidence of attentional biases in depression.

  8. Study on construction of temporary dwellings and problems caused by living long time on Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake; Hanshin / Awaji daishinsai ni okeru okyu kasetsu jutaku no secchi to chokikan shiyo suru baai no kadai ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Nakamura, Y. [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan)] Shimizu, Y. [Kumagai Gumi Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Two years after the above-titled earthquake, an examination was performed on inhabitants in the temporary dwelling houses in Kobe, center of the calamity, and problems caused by a long stay there were clarified together with a grasp of the evolving problems by comparing the result of survey carried out immediately after the disaster. The number of such temporary dwelling houses amounted to 29,128 within Kobe City and 3,168 outside of the city. According to the room arrangement, they were either one f 4 types : 2-rooms with a kitchen, 1 room with a kitchen, dormitory and those specifically for aged persons. There were 59,449 applications at the first offer of 2,702 houses. The priority of their assignments and so on are explained. As for the housing structure, numerous complaints concerned with the room temperature, noise and so forth. As for the living environment, lack of nearby commodity shop, omission of transportation access, ill drainage of the housing sites were pointed out and the matters of demand to the local authorities included the installation of mail post and street lights. As for the health management, insomnia, stiff shoulder, lumbago and other bad physical conditions were revealed. The financial difficulty and the high house rent were obstacles to migrate to other places. The prolonged temporary lives worsened the apprehension of dwellers for the earthquake, typhoon, fire and alike. Some features for the calamity are described in comparison with the result of survey on those who were compelled to live under similar conditions by the eruption of Mr. Fugen. 6 refs., 13 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Assessment of Garden Dwelling Potential Applying the Method of Semantic Differential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Aničić

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Historic development of individual dwelling areas in various types of detached houses shows considerable variations in structure and in habitation potentials. High dwelling potentials was primarily seen in the close connection and functional and formal entwinement of interior and exterior areas, which gave them a distinctive habitation quality, especially in garden spaces. In recent times, the dwelling function of gardens has almost completely disappeared, which is essentially reflected in the relationship of a house towards its physical environment, which is characterized by distinctive structural and social alienation. In consequence, use of gardens for dwelling is losing its significance to other, anthropogenically less important functions, such as gardening, parking, etc. This type of habitation structure, which uses up the largest respective land areas, thus loses its main advantage over systems of collective habitation. Poor knowledge and research into the phenomenon of links between interior and exterior dwelling areas (the house and the garden, combined with the lack of socio-psychological understanding of dwelling qualities, have resulted in the absence of criteria and parameters for a more purposeful planning of single-family houses and their environments. The survey has established environmental and psychological perspectives and individual preferences concerning gardens and their constituent elements. The results obtained have confirmed the hypothesis that, among various types of individual habitation structures, the key factor of garden dwelling capacity are the physical characteristics of house and garden. Close structural connection between the interior and the exterior is particularly important, with the conceptual design of the garden providing maximum intimacy. Dwelling quality of a detached house therefore depends long-term on integrated and mutually harmonized structural concepts of the house and the garden.

  10. Radon concentrations in buildings, other than dwellings: Phase 1, an inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the entire study on the title subject is to determine the radon concentration inside buildings, excluding dwellings, in which groups of people reside for a longer period of time. The results may provide a better basis of the policy concerning radon in the indoor environment, especially with respect to the limitation of the health effects as a result of exposure to radon. The first phase of the study reported here is a limited inventory, in which by means of classification and combination of buildings, a proposal for a tentative measuring programme to a limited number of buildings is formulated. In phase 2 a tentative measuring programme will be carried out. First attention is paid to the factors that influence the annual dose of radon for a person: radon concentration, the length of stay, the activities of the person, the aerosol concentration and the size of the aerosol particulates. The radon concentration in buildings is mainly influenced by the soil, the materials and the ventilation. Next relevant quantities and measuring methods are outlined. In the final chapter attention is paid to the representativeness of the measurements and the buildings and the complexity of the operational aspects. A proposal is made for an orienting measurement program, how much it costs and how it can be planned. 3 figs., 13 tabs., 21 refs

  11. Aging, exercise, and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, H L; Kramer, A F; Capaldi, D

    1992-12-01

    The authors investigated the relationship among aging, attentional processes, and exercise in 2 experiments. First they examined age differences on 2 attentional tasks, a time-sharing task and an attentional flexibility task. Young adults alternated attention between 2 sequenced tasks more rapidly and time-shared the processing of 2 tasks more efficiently than older adults. They then investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on the same 2 attentional tasks in older adults. Following the 10-week exercise program, older exercisers showed substantially more improvement in alternation speed and time-sharing efficiency than older controls. Interestingly, this exercise effect was specific to dual-task processing. Both groups of subjects showed equivalent effects on single-task performance. These results indicate that aerobic exercise can exert a beneficial influence on the efficiency of at least 2 different attentional processes in older adults. PMID:1466833

  12. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  13. Dynamics of Media Attention

    CERN Document Server

    Traag, V A; Hicks, J; van Klinken, G

    2014-01-01

    Studies of human attention dynamics analyses how attention is focused on specific topics, issues or people. In online social media, there are clear signs of exogenous shocks, bursty dynamics, and an exponential or powerlaw lifetime distribution. We here analyse the attention dynamics of traditional media, focussing on co-occurrence of people in newspaper articles. The results are quite different from online social networks and attention. Different regimes seem to be operating at two different time scales. At short time scales we see evidence of bursty dynamics and fast decaying edge lifetimes and attention. This behaviour disappears for longer time scales, and in that regime we find Poissonian dynamics and slower decaying lifetimes. We propose that a cascading Poisson process may take place, with issues arising at a constant rate over a long time scale, and faster dynamics at a shorter time scale.

  14. The Time Is Now: Attention Increases to Transgender Health in the United States but Scientific Knowledge Gaps Remain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Sarah; Reisner, Sari L; Nunn, Amy; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Operario, Don

    2015-12-01

    Attention to transgender health has dramatically increased in the U.S. Scientific knowledge gaps in empirical research, however, remain and act as barriers to achieving transgender-related health equity. We conducted a search using PubMed and PsycINFO to identify gaps in empirical, peer-reviewed publications related to adult transgender health in the U.S. between 1981 and 2013. We synthesized these findings and commented on opportunities for improving health research. Reducing health disparities and advancing transgender-related health equity requires greater investment in research that addresses current gaps to more comprehensively respond to the diverse health needs of transgender people. PMID:26788768

  15. Dwell scheduling algorithm for multifunction phased array radars based on the scheduling gain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Ting; He Zishu; Tang Ting

    2008-01-01

    A real-time dwell scheduling model, which takes the time and energy constraints into account is founded from the viewpoint of scheduling gain. Scheduling design is turned into a nonlinear programming procedure. The real-time dwell scheduling algorithm based on the scheduling gain is presented with the help of two heuristic rules. The simulation results demonstrate that compared with the conventional adaptive scheduling method, the algorithm proposed not only increases the scheduling gain and the time utility but also decreases the task drop rate.

  16. Trends and reduction scenarios for Rn 222 concentrations in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the title study the effects of possible measures on the average radon concentration in Dutch dwellings is evaluated. Attention is paid to the trends in building methods, the use of building materials and using the trends as a reference development (scenario 0). A total of seven scenarios has been evaluated. The model that was used was kept rather simple, because most of the parameter values are average values. The measures studied were selected on the basis of cost-effectiveness. All measures are based on reducing the infiltration of radon from the crawl space under the house to the living quarters and reducing the exhalation rates of building materials. The evaluation shows a rather good match with earlier measurements and projections as far as the average radon concentration is concerned. The trend, i.e. the development without taking measures directed at reducing the radon concentration, predicts a slow increase of about 15% until approximately the year 2025. The scenario that is directed at using concrete with low Ra-226 concentrations in new houses projects an end to this trend. Other scenarios reveal that taking measures solely in the existing housing stock would give a substantial decrease in radon concentrations in the near future. The spread sheet model that was developed to evaluate the consequences of the different scenarios projects a possible reduction of the average radon concentration in dwellings with 25% by the year 2025, compared to 1991, if measures, directed at Rn-reduction are applied. If in addition to that concrete with low Ra-226 concentrations is used in new buildings, a reduction of the average radon concentration is projected of about 30%. This would result in an average radon concentration in dwellings of about 23 Bq.m-3 in the future. These reduction percentages have to be handled with some care however, because the effect of the obviously occurring uncertainties in several parameters used, are not yet quite clear. Trends in and the

  17. The impact of salient advertisements on reading and attention on web pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simola, Jaana; Kuisma, Jarmo; Oörni, Anssi; Uusitalo, Liisa; Hyönä, Jukka

    2011-06-01

    Human vision is sensitive to salient features such as motion. Therefore, animation and onset of advertisements on Websites may attract visual attention and disrupt reading. We conducted three eye tracking experiments with authentic Web pages to assess whether (a) ads are efficiently ignored, (b) ads attract overt visual attention and disrupt reading, or (c) ads are covertly attended with distraction showing up indirectly in the reading performance. The Web pages contained an ad above a central text and another ad to the right of the text. In Experiments 1, 2, and 3A the task was to read for comprehension. Experiment 1 examined whether the degree of animation affects attention toward the ads. The results showed that ads were overtly attended during reading and that the dwell times on ads were the longest when the ad above was static and the other ad was animated. In Experiments 2 and 3, the ads appeared abruptly after a random time interval. The results showed that attention (i.e., the time when the eyes first entered an ad) was related to the ad onset time. This happened especially for the ad to the right, indicating that ads appearing close to the text region capture overt attention. In Experiment 3B the participants browsed the Web pages according to their own interest. The study demonstrated that salient ads attract overt visual attention and disrupt reading, but during free browsing, ads were viewed more frequently and for longer time than during reading. PMID:21604909

  18. Revealed Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Masatlioglu, Yusufcan; NAKAJIMA, Daisuke; Ozbay, Erkut Y

    2012-01-01

    The standard revealed preference argument relies on an implicit assumption that a decision maker considers all feasible alternatives. The marketing and psychology literatures, however, provide wellestablished evidence that consumers do not consider all brands in a given market before making a purchase (Limited Attention). In this paper, we illustrate how one can deduce both the decision maker's preference and the alternatives to which she pays attention and inattention from the observed behav...

  19. Revealed Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Yusufcan Masatlioglu; Daisuke Nakajima; Ozbay, Erkut Y

    2012-01-01

    The standard revealed preference argument relies on an implicit assumption that a decision maker considers all feasible alternatives. The marketing and psychology literatures, however, provide well-established evidence that consumers do not consider all brands in a given market before making a purchase (Limited Attention). In this paper, we illustrate how one can deduce both the decision maker's preference and the alternatives to which she pays attention and inattention from the observed beha...

  20. A television in the bedroom is associated with higher weekday screen time among youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Charmaine B. Lo; Waring, Molly E.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A TV in the bedroom has been associated with screen time in youth. Youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) have higher rates of screen time, but associations with bedroom TVs are unknown in this population. We examined the association of having a bedroom TV with screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. Methods: Data were from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Youth 6–17 years whose parent/guardian reported a physician's diagnosis of ADD/ADHD (n ...

  1. Shared Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shteynberg, Garriy

    2015-09-01

    Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior. Here, I advance a psychological theory of shared attention, defining its properties as a mental state and outlining its cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. I review empirical findings that are uniquely predicted by shared-attention theory and discuss the possibility of integrating shared-attention, social-facilitation, and social-loafing perspectives. Finally, I reflect on what shared-attention theory implies for living in the digital world. PMID:26385997

  2. Lived experiences of self-care among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomstad ST

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Solveig T Tomstad,1,2 Ulrika Söderhamn,2 Geir Arild Espnes,3 Olle Söderhamn21Department of Social Work and Health Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 2Centre for Caring Research – Southern Norway, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway; 3Research Centre for Health Promotion and Resources HiST-NTNU, Department of Social Work and Health Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, NorwayIntroduction: In a society where most older people live in their own homes, it may be expected of older individuals to exercise their potential to take care of themselves in daily life. Nutrition is a central aspect of self-care, and groups of older, home-dwelling people are at risk of undernutrition.Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that influence health and self-care among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition.Methods: Qualitative interviews were performed with eleven home-dwelling individuals who had been identified as being at risk of undernutrition. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with a descriptive phenomenological method.Findings: Self-care as a lived experience among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition is about being aware of food choices and making decisions about taking healthy steps or not. In the presence of health problems, the appetite often decreases. Being able to take care of oneself in daily life is important, as is receiving help when needing it. Working at being physically and socially active and engaged may stimulate the appetite. Having company at meals is important and missed when living alone. Being present and taking each day by day, as well as considering oneself in the light of past time and previous experiences and looking ahead, is central, even when having fears for the future and the end of life

  3. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and the pesticide chlorpyrifos modulate attention, motivation and impulsivity in female mice in the 5-choice serial reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris-Sampedro, Fiona; Reverte, Ingrid; Basaure, Pia; Cabré, Maria; Domingo, José L; Colomina, Maria Teresa

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphate pesticides - and chlorpyrifos (CPF) in particular - contribute to a wide range of neurobehavioural disorders. Most experimental research focuses on learning and memory processes, while other behaviours remain understudied. The isoforms of the human apolipoprotein E (apoE) confer different cognitive skills on their carriers, but data on this topic are still limited. The current study was performed to assess whether the APOE genotypic variability differently modulates the effects of CPF on attentional performance, inhibitory control and motivation. Human apoE targeted replacement adult female mice (apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4) were trained to stably perform the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). Animals were then subjected to daily dietary CPF (3.75 mg/kg body weight) for 4 weeks. After CPF exposure, we established a 4-week CPF-free period to assess recovery. All individuals acquired the task, apoE2 mice showed enhanced learning, while apoE4 mice displayed increased premature and perseverative responding. This genotype-dependent lack of inhibitory control was reversed by CPF. Overall, the pesticide induced protracted impairments in sustained attention and motivation, and it reduced anticipatory responding. ApoE3 mice exhibited delayed attentional disruptions throughout the wash-out period. Taken together, these findings provide notable evidence on the emergence of CPF-related attentional and motivational deficits. PMID:27106138

  4. Methods of radon remediation in Finnish dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of remedial measures taken in dwellings with high indoor radon concentrations and the results obtained. The data regarding the remedial measures taken in 400 dwellings was obtained from a questionnaire study. The mean annual average indoor radon concentration before the remedies was 1.500 Bq/m3, the concentration exceeding in nearly every house the action level of 400 Bq/m3. After the measures were taken the mean indoor radon concentration was 500 Bq/m3. The resulting indoor radon concentration was less than 400 Bq/m3 in 60 percent of the dwellings. The best results were achieved using sub-slab-suction and radon well. These methods effectively decrease both the flow of radon bearing air from soil into dwellings and the radon concentration of leakage air. Typical reduction rates in radon concentration were 70-95 percent. The action level was achieved in more than 70 percent of the houses. Sealing the entry routes and improvement of the ventilation resulted typically in reduction rates of 10-50 percent. The goal of the report is to give useful information for the house owners, the do-it-yourself-mitigators, the mitigation firms and the local authorities. The report includes practical guidance, price information and examples of remedial measures. (13 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.)

  5. Novelty and Collective Attention

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Fang

    2007-01-01

    The subject of collective attention is central to an information age where millions of people are inundated with daily messages. It is thus of interest to understand how attention to novel items propagates and eventually fades among large populations. We have analyzed the dynamics of collective attention among one million users of an interactive website -- \\texttt{digg.com} -- devoted to thousands of novel news stories. The observations can be described by a dynamical model characterized by a single novelty factor. Our measurements indicate that novelty within groups decays with a stretched-exponential law, suggesting the existence of a natural time scale over which attention fades.

  6. 12 CFR 541.25 - Single-family dwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.25 Single-family dwelling. The term single-family dwelling means a structure designed for residential use by one family, or a unit so designed, whose owner owns... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Single-family dwelling. 541.25 Section...

  7. 222Rn Measurements in Dwellings of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon gas (222Rn) is responsible of about fifty per cent of the world population dose due to natural sources, being the most important pathway the inhalation of radon progeny, specially indoors. Radon concentration has been measured in dwellings at different locations in Argentina. The places selected to be evaluated are representative of the different geologic zones of the country. Near 3000 dwellings have been analyzed since 1983 up today. The measuring methods used in this case were track etched detectors, electrets and detectors based on activated charcoal adsorption. Two different methods with track etched detectors were used: a simple one, which determines only the average radon concentration, and a second one that measures both radon concentration and the equilibrium factor (F) between radon and its daughters. The last one is a method that uses two Makrofol passive track detectors in the same device. The average radon concentration value obtained from all the dwellings evaluated was 44.2 Bq.m-3. The annual effective dose calculated from this average concentration, using a dosimetric factor of 25 μSv.a-1.(Bq.m-3)-1, which assumes an equilibrium factor of 0.4, was 1.11 mSv. The average value obtained from the 222 dwellings evaluated by the second method was 49.3 Bq.m-3 and 0,37 the equilibrium factor, resulting the annual effective dose estimated 1,44 mSv. The measured equilibrium factor of 0,37 allows us to verify the assumed equilibrium factor of 0,4. Finally, radon levels in dwellings of Argentina are within the acceptable values for population, not being necessary to implement remedial actions, except in isolate cases that are still under study. (authors)

  8. The practice of dwelling and the nature of decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Nina; Fyhn, Håkon

    2016-01-01

    There exists a political desire to make buildings more energy efficient and resilient to extreme weather. For existing private housing this is done through refurbishment and retrofitting. In response, various projects and policies aiming to influence decisions made by homeowners in relation to...... “practice of dwelling”. We see maintenance, refurbishment and reparations as part of an ongoing practice of dwelling. In this light, decision making is just one of many aspects that contribute to shaping the actions of homeowners when they invest time and money in their properties....

  9. Rejection Positivity Predicts Trial-to-Trial Reaction Times in an Auditory Selective Attention Task: A Computational Analysis of Inhibitory Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufen eChen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of computer simulations using variants of a formal model of attention (Melara & Algom, 2003 probed the role of rejection positivity (RP, a slow-wave electroencephalographic (EEG component, in the inhibitory control of distraction. Behavioral and EEG data were recorded as participants performed auditory selective attention tasks. Simulations that modulated processes of distractor inhibition accounted well for reaction-time (RT performance, whereas those that modulated target excitation did not. A model that incorporated RP from actual EEG recordings in estimating distractor inhibition was superior in predicting changes in RT as a function of distractor salience across conditions. A model that additionally incorporated momentary fluctuations in EEG as the source of trial-to-trial variation in performance precisely predicted individual RTs within each condition. The results lend support to the linking proposition that RP controls the speed of responding to targets through the inhibitory control of distractors.

  10. Music and Sound Elements in Time Estimation and Production of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Rogerio Jorgensen Carrer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ADHD involves cognitive and behavioral aspects with impairments in many environments of children and their families’ lives. Music, with its playful, spontaneous, affective, motivational, temporal and rhythmic dimensions can be of great help for studying the aspects of time processing in ADHD. In this article we studied time processing with simple sounds and music in children with ADHD with the hypothesis that children with ADHD have a different performance when compared with children with normal development in tasks of time estimation and production. The main objective was to develop sound and musical tasks to evaluate and correlate the performance of children with ADHD, with and without methylphenidate, compared to a control group with typical development. The study involved 36 participants age 6 to 14 years, recruited at NANI-Unifesp/SP, sub-divided into three groups with 12 children in each. Data was collected through a musical keyboard using Logic Audio Software 9.0 on the computer that recorded the participant's performance in the tasks. Tasks were divided into sections: spontaneous time production, time estimation with simple sounds and time estimation with music. Results: 1. Performance of ADHD groups in temporal estimation of simple sounds in short time intervals (30 ms were statistically lower than control group (p<0,05; 2. In the task comparing musical excerpts of the same duration (7s, ADHD groups considered the tracks longer when the musical notes had longer durations, while in the control group, the duration was related to the density of musical notes in the track. The positive average performance observed in the three groups in most tasks perhaps indicates the possibility that music can, in some way, positively modulate the symptoms of inattention in ADHD.

  11. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built us

  12. Impact of Dwell Angle on the Electromagnetic Torque Ripplesof the Switched Reluctance Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bhuvaneswari

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Switched reluctance motors (SRM are emerging as promising competitors to the vector-controlled induction motor (VCIM drives and permanent magnet (PM motor drives in the variable-speed drive market owing to their robust nature coupled with low cost, simplicity, and capabilityto operate in harsh environments. They are also suitable for nuclear and aerospace applicationsdue to their low inertia and capability to be fed from a dc supply through a simple power converter.The principle of torque production in SRM makes rotor position information mandatory foreffective control of the drive. The torque produced by any particular phase of the SRM isdependent upon the exciting current and the period during which the current is carried by thatphase winding. The conduction period of any particular phase is termed as dwell angle whenit is specified in terms of rotor angular position. In the present work, the SRM operation has beenanalysed in sensor mode and in sensor-less mode, paying special attention to the relationshipbetween dwell angle and output torque ripple. The performance has been studied for differentvalues of dwell angle and the resultant torque profile has been analysed. From the analysis, amethodology has been devised to deduce an appropriate value of dwell angle for minimising thetorque pulsations, given the values of speed and load torque, thus improving the performanceof the SRM drive.

  13. Focused Attention Analysis of Meditating and Non-meditating Brains in Time and Frequency Domains Using EEG Data

    OpenAIRE

    Selvaraj, K.; Sivaprakasam, P.

    2014-01-01

    The activity and the ability of brain to maintain the state of calmness in individuals practicing meditation has been a subject of research from long time. The aim of the study here is to prove that the meditation aids in retaining the state of calmness of brain. A MATLAB based multifaceted framework is developed for analyzing the dataset of brain EEG of people practicing meditation. The proposed method performs the processing of 32 electrode EEG data and denoises the signal in time series. T...

  14. Dwelling on Courtyards. Exploring the energy efficiency and comfort potential of courtyards for dwellings in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taleghani

    2014-11-01

    -S, except for the courtyard. To explore their microclimates the simulations were done for the hottest day in the Netherlands (19th June 2000 according to the temperature data set provided in NEN5060. The results showed that the singular forms provide a long duration of solar radiation exposure for the outdoor environment. This causes the worst comfort situation among the models at the centre of the canyon for a hot summer day. In contrast, the courtyard provides a more protected microclimate which has less solar radiation in summer. Considering the physiological equivalent temperature (PET, the courtyard has the highest number of comfortable hours on a summer day. Regarding the different orientations of the models and their effect on outdoor thermal comfort, it is difficult to specify the differences between the singular E-W and N-S forms because they receive equal amounts of insolation and are equally exposed to wind. Nevertheless, the linear E-W and N-S forms are different in their thermal behaviour. The centre point at the linear E-W form receives sun for about 12 h. In contrast, this point at the linear N-S form receives 4 h of direct sunlight in that day. Therefore, in comparison with the E-W orientation this N-S orientation provides a cooler microclimate.To sum up the above findings, it should be said that this study showed that courtyard buildings as a passive design solution (originally from hot and arid climates can improve energy efficiency and thermal comfort for Dutch dwellings. This building archetype can reduce energy demands for cooling, as a result being a good alternative form for the expected warmer future of the Netherlands. Designing small scale courtyards (single- family house needs attention in winter. Courtyards provide more indoor and outdoor comfort in comparison with linear and singular forms. With this knowledge, it could be said that design strategies taken from one climate may be applicable in other climates but with serious attentions and

  15. A Hydrogen-Induced Decohesion Model for Treating Cold Dwell Fatigue in Titanium-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwai S.; Moody, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    Cold dwell fatigue in near-alpha Ti alloys is a time-dependent fracture process at ambient temperature that involves fatigue in the presence of creep to produce cracking on low-energy fracture ( e.g., cleavage) facets in hard alpha grains. In this article, cold dwell fatigue is treated as a hydrogen-induced decohesion process by using a nonlinear cohesive stress-strain relation to describe the decrease in the cohesive strength with increasing local hydrogen contents. It is postulated that during cold dwell fatigue, time-dependent deformation occurs by slip that results in dislocation pileups in soft alpha grains. The stress and dilatational fields of the dislocation pileups assist the transport of internal hydrogen atoms from soft grains to neighboring hard grains. The accumulation of internal hydrogen atoms at the trap sites leads to decohesion along crystallographic planes, which can be slip or hydride habit planes. The decohesion model is applied to treat cold dwell fatigue in Ti-6Al-4V with a basal-transverse texture by modeling the effects of hydrogen-induced decohesion on the stress-fatigue life ( S- N f) response, the time-dependent crack growth response (d a/d t), and the fracture toughness ( K c) as functions of grain orientation. A probabilistic time-dependent fatigue crack growth analysis is then performed to assess the influence of microtexture on the dwell fatigue life of a Ti-6Al-4V ring disk subjected to a long-duration hold at the peak stress of the loading cycle. The results of the probabilistic life computations indicate that dwell fatigue resistance in Ti-6Al-4V may be improved and the risk of disk fracture may be reduced significantly by controlling the microtexture or reducing the size and volume fraction of hard alpha grains in the microstructure.

  16. Measuring attention in rodents: comparison of a modified signal detection task and the 5-choice serial reaction time task

    OpenAIRE

    Karly Maree Turner; Thomas Burne

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric research has utilised cognitive testing in rodents to improve our understanding of cognitive deficits and for preclinical drug development. However, more sophisticated cognitive tasks have not been as widely exploited due to low throughput and the extensive training time required. We developed a modified signal detection task (SDT) based on the growing body of literature aimed at improving cognitive testing in rodents. This study directly compares performance on the modified ...

  17. An influence of delayed reinforcement on the effectiveness of psychostimulants to enhance indices of attention under a five-choice serial reaction time procedure in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Jonathan M; Katz, Jonathan L

    2013-10-01

    The five-choice serial reaction time (5-CSRT) procedure has been considered a translational tool for assessments of the psychopharmacology of attention in preclinical research. Because greater sensitivity to delayed reinforcement may promote the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, effects of reinforcer delay and psychostimulants on performances under a 5-CSRT procedure were determined. Male rats were trained to respond under a 5-CSRT procedure with different delay-of-reinforcement conditions (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 s), and effects of d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and morphine (as a negative control) were assessed at 0- and 16-s delays. Under nondrug conditions, as the delay increased both response latency and the number of trials in which a response did not occur (omissions) increased, and the percent correct on trials when responses were emitted decreased. Only modest increases in the percent correct were found with psychostimulants during the 0-s delay condition; however, more substantial enhancements were found with a 16-s delay. Consistent effects of both psychostimulants at either delay on omissions and response latency were not observed. Morphine increased omissions and response latency at both delays and decreased the percent correct (16-s delay). Generally, responses during the intertrial interval were not systematically affected under any condition. The current results demonstrate that measures of attention in a 5-CSRT procedure are sensitive to changes in the delay to reinforcer delivery. More important, psychostimulants significantly enhanced a measure of attention only when reinforcers were delayed, which may be reflective of the psychopharmacological mechanisms involved with clinical treatment of ADHD symptoms. PMID:24099356

  18. Attention Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Börner, Dirk; KALZ Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment and the open source computer vision library OpenCV for Processing. Available under the GNU LGPL licence version 3 or higher.

  19. Own-Race Faces Capture Attention Faster than Other-Race Faces: Evidence from Response Time and the N2pc

    OpenAIRE

    Guomei Zhou; Zhijie Cheng; Zhenzhu Yue; Colin Tredoux; Jibo He; Ling Wang

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that people are better at recognizing human faces from their own-race than from other-races, an effect often termed the Own-Race Advantage. The current study investigates whether there is an Own-Race Advantage in attention and its neural correlates. Participants were asked to search for a human face among animal faces. Experiment 1 showed a classic Own-Race Advantage in response time both for Chinese and Black South African participants. Using event-related potentials (ERPs...

  20. Comparison of empirical and modelled energy performance across age-bands of three-bedroom dwellings in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Summerfield, A. J.; Oreszczyn, T.; Palmer, J; Hamilton, I. G.; Lowe, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Differences between measured and predicted energy demand of dwellings across construction age-bands are of interest since these categories mark changes in construction methods and building codes over time. This study compared empirical measures of gas consumption for three-bedroom dwellings in the UK with predictions from the Cambridge Housing Model (CHM), a bottom-up building physics model used for national energy statistics and government policy development. It used gas consumption data col...

  1. Design of bearing structures of dwelling - house

    OpenAIRE

    Sodja, Urška

    2007-01-01

    Graduation thesis represents design of bearing structures of dwelling-house including materials and materials´ properties of bearing structures. Self weight, imposed load, snow, and wind are determinated regarding EC1. Static calculation of building is divided to design of timber, reinforced concrete elements and control of resistance of walls. Summary contains earthquake rules for simple masonry buildings. Enclosure contains plans for positions of slaps and reinforces.

  2. Effects of Short-Term Training of Community-Dwelling Elderly with Modular Interactive Tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Jessen, Jari Due

    2014-01-01

    community activity centers for the elderly. Three different tests from the Senior Fitness Test were used in order to test a variety of health parameters of the community-dwelling elderly, including those parameters related to fall prevention. Materials and Methods: Eighteen community-dwelling elderly......Objective: The objective of this study is to test for the increased mobility, agility, balancing, and general fitness of community-dwelling elderly individuals as a result of short-term training involving playing with modular interactive tiles (Entertainment Robotics, Odense, Denmark) at two...... centers for the elderly. Data were collected using pre-tests and post-tests of the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), the 8-foot Timed Up & Go Test (TUG), and the Chair-Stand Test (CS). Data were analyzed for statistically significant differences and increases of means. Results: The 6MWT, TUG, and CS measurements...

  3. Uncertainty analysis of energy consumption in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Trine Dyrstad

    1997-12-31

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study of an energy estimation model that can be used to examine the uncertainty of predicted energy consumption in a dwelling. The variation and uncertainty of input parameters due to the outdoor climate, the building construction and the inhabitants are studied as a basis for further energy evaluations. The occurring variations of energy consumption in nominal similar dwellings are also investigated due to verification of the simulated energy consumption. The main topics are (1) a study of expected variations and uncertainties in both input parameters used in energy consumption calculations and the energy consumption in the dwelling, (2) the development and evaluation of a simplified energy calculation model that considers uncertainties due to the input parameters, (3) an evaluation of the influence of the uncertain parameters on the total variation so that the most important parameters can be identified, and (4) the recommendation of a simplified procedure for treating uncertainties or possible deviations from average conditions. 90 refs., 182 figs., 73 tabs.

  4. Dissecting Neural Responses to Temporal Prediction, Attention, and Memory: Effects of Reward Learning and Interoception on Time Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Studentsova, Yana; Volkow, Nora D

    2015-10-01

    Temporal prediction (TP) is needed to anticipate future events and is essential for survival. Our sense of time is modulated by emotional and interoceptive (corporal) states that are hypothesized to rely on a dopamine (DA)-modulated "internal clock" in the basal ganglia. However, the neurobiological substrates for TP in the human brain have not been identified. We tested the hypothesis that TP involves DA striato-cortical pathways, and that accurate responses are reinforcing in themselves and activate the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed the involvement of the NAc and anterior insula in the temporal precision of the responses, and of the ventral tegmental area in error processing. Moreover, NAc showed higher activation for successful than for unsuccessful trials, indicating that accurate TP per se is rewarding. Inasmuch as activation of the NAc is associated with drug-induced addictive behaviors, its activation by accurate TP could help explain why video games that rely on TP can trigger compulsive behaviors. PMID:25389123

  5. The Study of the Differences of Attention Bias, Executive Functioning, and Reaction Time of Amphetamine Consumers in Comparison of Non Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezamaldin Ghasemi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Addiction to opium can be resulted to different effects. Current research designed in order to comprise if neuro-psychological functions among Amphetamine consumers and normal people. Method: Research design was causal-comparative design which performed in consumers and normal people. Research population was all opium consumers of Bahar city. Addict group included of 33 Amphetamine consumers who were referred to Baharestan addiction withdrawal center by snowball sampling. The comparison group included 39 normal people that matched with addict group with consideration of age, sex, education. All samples were studied by technical management of center and by using of perceptual diagnostic tests. Wisconsin cards, reaction time tests (simple, diagnostic, and selective and attention bias (Stroop was used. Results: the results of the research indicated that Amphetamine consumers were significantly different with normal people in consideration of error number, but there wasn’t significant difference on error in Wisconsin test. In reaction time Amphetamine consumers had least reaction time and highest number of errors, in three states. In simple trial there weren’t significant difference, but two groups were significant different in selective and diagnostic trial on time and number of errors. Also, there wasn’t significant difference on attention bias with consideration of error, but there was significant difference with consideration of time. Conclusion: on the basis of results it can be claimed Amphetamine consumption can be affected on neuro-cognitive functions. Identifying and understanding of these factors can be useful in better understanding of problem, and can be led to different therapeutic treatment.

  6. Surveying dwellings with high indoor radon levels: a BRE guide to remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings. It is aimed specifically at builders, surveyors and building specialists surveying for and prescribing remedial measures for dwellings. It supplements guidance available in The householders' guide to radon obtainable from local environmental health officers or from the Department of the Environment. The report has been prepared on the basis of experience gained in remedial work on more than 100 dwellings following advice given by BRE, and of discussions with others in the field, notably the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and Cornwall County Council. Work is continuing, particularly dealing with suspended timber floors, basements and ventilation systems. Results will be incorporated into revisions of this report as they become available. (Author)

  7. Radiological impact of airborne radon and its progeny in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of indoor radon and its progeny levels was carried out in some typical dwellings made up of baked mud bricks, fly ash bricks, concrete blocks and mud houses using LR-115, Type II plastic track detectors in various districts of Haryana. The Potential Alpha Energy Concentration (PAEC) varied from 4.36 to 14.53 mWL; Equilibrium Equivalent Concentration (EEC) of radon varied from 40.33 to 134.40 Bq m-3; annual exposure varied from 0.18 to 0.60 WLM; annual effective dose varied from 0.69 to 2.31 mSv and life-time fatality risk varied from 0.54 x 10-4 to 1.8 x 10-4 in the environment of dwellings in various districts of Haryana. The effect of various parameters on radon concentration such as seasonal variation and type of building materials was also studied. The radon concentration in industrially polluted cities like Faridabad, Panipat, Rewari, Yamun Nagar was found to be more. The measured radon and its progeny levels were the highest in winter season. In the measurements, we found that radon concentration was the maximum in fly ash houses. (author)

  8. Survey of occupant behaviour, energy use and indoor air quality in Greenlandic dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotol, Martin

    In cold arctic regions people usually spend over 70% of their time indoors. The effect of poor indoor air quality on occupants’ health and comfort is therefore considerable. Dwellings in Greenland consume very large amounts of energy (in average over 370 kWh/year per m2) and in addition, they...

  9. Attention and Recall of Point-of-sale Tobacco Marketing: A Mobile Eye-Tracking Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maansi Bansal-Travers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: As tobacco advertising restrictions have increased, the retail ‘power wall’ behind the counter is increasingly invaluable for marketing tobacco products. Objective: The primary objectives of this pilot study were 3-fold: (1 evaluate the attention paid/fixations on the area behind the cash register where tobacco advertising is concentrated and tobacco products are displayed in a real-world setting, (2 evaluate the duration (dwell-time of these fixations, and (3 evaluate the recall of advertising displayed on the tobacco power wall. Methods: Data from 13 Smokers (S and 12 Susceptible or non-daily Smokers (SS aged 180–30 from a mobile eye-tracking study. Mobile-eye tracking technology records the orientation (fixation and duration (dwell-time of visual attention. Participants were randomized to one of three purchase tasks at a convenience store: Candy bar Only (CO; N = 10, Candy bar + Specified cigarette Brand (CSB; N = 6, and Candy bar + cigarette Brand of their Choice (CBC; N = 9. A post-session survey evaluated recall of tobacco marketing. Key outcomes were fixations and dwell-time on the cigarette displays at the point-of-sale. Results: Participants spent a median time of 44 seconds during the standardized time evaluated and nearly three-quarters (72% fixated on the power wall during their purchase, regardless of smoking status (S: 77%, SS: 67% or purchase task (CO: 44%, CSB: 71%, CBC: 100%. In the post session survey, nearly all participants (96% indicated they noticed a cigarette brand and 64% were able to describe a specific part of the tobacco wall or recall a promotional offer. Conclusions: Consumers are exposed to point-of-sale tobacco marketing, regardless of smoking status. FDA should consider regulations that limit exposure to point-of-sale tobacco marketing among consumers.

  10. Attention samples stimuli rhythmically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Ayelet Nina; Fries, Pascal

    2012-06-01

    Overt exploration or sampling behaviors, such as whisking, sniffing, and saccadic eye movements, are often characterized by a rhythm. In addition, the electrophysiologically recorded theta or alpha phase predicts global detection performance. These two observations raise the intriguing possibility that covert selective attention samples from multiple stimuli rhythmically. To investigate this possibility, we measured change detection performance on two simultaneously presented stimuli, after resetting attention to one of them. After a reset flash at one stimulus location, detection performance fluctuated rhythmically. When the flash was presented in the right visual field, a 4 Hz rhythm was directly visible in the time courses of behavioral performance at both stimulus locations, and the two rhythms were in antiphase. A left visual field flash exerted only partial reset on performance and induced rhythmic fluctuation at higher frequencies (6-10 Hz). These findings show that selective attention samples multiple stimuli rhythmically, and they position spatial attention within the family of exploration behaviors. PMID:22633805

  11. Acoustic quality and sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1998-01-01

    During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the difficulties in comparing the d...... to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings...

  12. Acoustic quality and sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1999-01-01

    During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the dif-ficulties in comparing the ...... to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings....

  13. Modelling window opening behaviour in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Toftum, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present and analyse data from two studies of window opening behaviour in residential buildings in Denmark. Based on measurements of indoor environment, weather and window opening behaviour in 15 dwellings, we propose a model that will predict window opening behaviour. The data...... showed that other factors than thermal effects impact the behaviour of the occupants. Some of these factors were included in the model. We present data from repeated questionnaire surveys that show that occupants tend to adjust heating setpoints, adjust clothing and operate windows when feeling thermally...

  14. Assessing energy efficiency in maltese dwellings

    OpenAIRE

    Yousif, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Este estudio evalúa las soluciones disponibles que, mediante la mejora de la eficiencia energética, permitirían aumentar el rendimiento energético de dichos apartamentos, basándose en la posición del apartamento dentro del bloque (primer piso, piso intermedio o último piso con terraza). Esto ha sido realizado mediante simulación, usando el programa de cálculo de rendimiento energético nacional Energy Performance Rating for Dwellings Malta (EPRDM) y el reputado programa DesignBuilder-EnergyPlu...

  15. When sustained attention impairs perception

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Sam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2006-01-01

    Virtually all behavioral and neurophysiological studies have shown that sustained (endogenous, conceptually driven) attention enhances perception. But can this enhancement be held indefinitely? We assessed the time course of attention’s effects on contrast sensitivity, reasoning that if attention does indeed boost stimulus strength, the strengthened representation could result in stronger adaptation over time. We found that attention initially enhances contrast sensitivity, but that over time...

  16. Adaptive thermal comfort opportunities for dwellings: Providing thermal comfort only when and where needed in dwellings in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje Alders

    2016-08-01

    .A different approach to the comfort boundaries used in modern standards was introduced, creating insight in the spread in activity patterns and the comfort demand in the context of individual preferences and vulnerabilities. Information of sociology and thermal comfort studies were brought together creating occupancy and thermal comfort profiles for the Dutch situation. By recognizing the differences in occupancy patterns it becomes possible to design adaptive systems to be able to deliver the comfort demanded only when and where necessary in different occupancy scenarios. This is an opportunity to achieve a significantly better energy performance.Furthermore, a method for dynamic analysis of weather conditions related to the thermal comfort was proposed in order to map the opportunities and threats of weather change. This makes the system able to seize upon every reasonably to be expected situation to create an optimal dynamic filter for the outdoor to indoor thermal environment at any time and place. This preliminary study was performed by presuming a simple shelter that can create shielding from wind and solar radiation without any form of thermal storage or insulation.In this study it is emphasised that there is no need for active cooling in the residential sector of the Netherlands if the dwelling is well designed; blocking solar radiation when needed and to allow built up excess heat to be discarded.An inventory is provided of the possibilities for adaptivity for a thermal comfort system which are used in common practice and which improvements and new techniques can be implemented to increase these possibilities for adaptivity of the Adaptive Thermal Comfort System. 2. The effect of applying the detailed information and adaptive opportunities framed in step 1 on the energy saving and comfort delivery of the Thermal Comfort Systems was researched.Firstly, the most appropriate calculation methods for the research were determined comparing various levels of detail and

  17. Locating and limiting radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 3,300 Swedish dwellings have an indoor radon daughter concentration above 400 Bq.m-3 (or 0.108 WL). It is considered to be unsafe to live in any of these dwellings and the radon daughter concentration has to be reduced. Before deciding what measures to take, it is important to determine the radon sources. Possible sources are exhalation from building materials and/or radon transport from the ground into the building through cracks and joints in the slab. Different methods of locating the sources have been developed. To locate cracks and joints in slabs the ventilation rate and the air pressure difference relative to the ground are changed while monitoring radon/radon daughter concentration. The effect of five different measures to reduce the indoor radon daughter concentration have also been evaluated: increased ventilation rate by mechanical ventilation, ventilation of the small spaces between the floor and the slab, sealing the surface of radon exhaling walls, sealing joints and cracks in the slab, and ventilation of the drainage under the slab. (author)

  18. Long term monitoring of window opening behaviour in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2009-01-01

    the findings in the literature. The measured variables just prior to an opening/closing event were compared to variables where no events occurred. Indoor air quality and solar radiation where found to be the main drivers in the occupants’ determination of when to open a window. The indoor air quality......ABSTRACT: During the first eight months of 2008, measurements of occupant behaviour and eight environmental variables was carried out in 15 dwellings. Logistical regression was applied to infer the probability of open window as a function of the outdoor temperature. The results were compared with...... and outdoor temperature affected when the window was closed and finally the time of day had an impact on the window opening behaviour of the occupants....

  19. Spatial attention: differential shifts in pseudoneglect direction with time-on-task and initial bias support the idea of observer subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benwell, Christopher S Y; Thut, Gregor; Learmonth, Gemma; Harvey, Monika

    2013-11-01

    Asymmetry in human spatial attention has long been documented. In the general population the majority of individuals tend to misbisect horizontal lines to the left of veridical centre. Nonetheless in virtually all previously reported studies on healthy participants, there have been subsets of people displaying rightward biases. In this study, we report differential time-on task effects depending on participants' initial pseudoneglect bias: participants with an initial left bias in a landmark task (in which they had to judge whether a transection mark appeared closer to the right or left end of a line) showed a significant rightward shift over the course of the experimental session, whereas participants with an initial right bias shifted leftwards. We argue that these differences in initial biases as well as the differential shifts with time-on task reflect genuine observer subtypes displaying diverging behavioural patterns. These observer subtypes could be driven by differences in brain organisation and/or lateralisation such as varying anatomical pathway asymmetries (Thiebaut de Schotten et al., 2011). PMID:24076376

  20. Thermal environment of the courtyard style cave dwelling in winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F. [Department of Building Engineering and Surveying, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Liu, Y. [Department of Architecture, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China)

    2002-07-01

    The presence of the courtyard transfers an extreme winter environment outside cave dwellings into a better outdoor community space. This study examines the interaction amongst the cave rooms, the courtyard and the ambient, via two approaches applied in a typical such type of dwelling: site measurement and computer modelling. The site measurement was undertaken to investigate the dynamic feature of such dwelling by monitoring hourly changes of air temperatures over the building complex with some of the key weather data. The computer modelling, based on two specifically developed theoretical models and validated by the data of the site measurement, was to analyse the mean effects of a number of key design parameters on thermal environment in such type of dwellings. Conclusions drawn from this study are to help modern architects design for a better thermal environment in these typical North China dwellings, traditional yet popular. (author)

  1. Psychopathic traits are associated with reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces among adult male non-offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Mark Gillespie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathic traits are linked with impairments in emotional facial expression recognition. These impairments may, in part, reflect reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces. Although reduced attention to the eyes has been noted among children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits, similar findings are yet to be found in relation to psychopathic traits among adult male participants. Here we investigated the relationship of primary (selfish, uncaring and secondary (impulsive, antisocial psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes among adult male non-offenders during an emotion recognition task. We measured the number of fixations, and overall dwell time, on the eyes and the mouth of male and female faces showing the six basic emotions at varying levels of intensity. We found no relationship of primary or secondary psychopathic traits with recognition accuracy. However, primary psychopathic traits were associated with a reduced number of fixations, and lower overall dwell time, on the eyes relative to the mouth across expressions, intensity, and sex. Furthermore, the relationship of primary psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes of angry and fearful faces was influenced by the sex and intensity of the expression. We also showed that a greater number of fixations on the eyes, relative to the mouth, was associated with increased accuracy for angry and fearful expression recognition. These results are the first to show effects of psychopathic traits on attention to the eyes of emotional faces in an adult male sample, and may support amygdala based accounts of psychopathy. These findings may also have methodological implications for clinical studies of emotion recognition.

  2. Procedure for the characterization of radon potential in existing dwellings and to assess the annual average indoor radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk assessment due to radon exposure indoors is based on annual average indoor radon activity concentration. To assess the radon exposure in a building, measurement is generally performed during at least two months during heating period in order to be representative of the annual average value. This is because radon presence indoors could be very variable during time. This measurement protocol is fairly reliable but may be a limiting in the radon risk management, particularly during a real estate transaction due to the duration of the measurement and the limitation of the measurement period. A previous field study defined a rapid methodology to characterize radon entry in dwellings. The objective of this study was at first, to test this methodology in various dwellings to assess its relevance with a daily test. At second, a ventilation model was used to assess numerically the air renewal of a building, the indoor air quality all along the year and the annual average indoor radon activity concentration, based on local meteorological conditions, some building characteristics and in-situ characterization of indoor pollutant emission laws. Experimental results obtained on thirteen individual dwellings showed that it is generally possible to obtain a representative characterization of radon entry into homes. It was also possible to refine the methodology defined in the previous study. In addition, numerical assessments of annual average indoor radon activity concentration showed generally a good agreement with measured values. These results are encouraging to allow a procedure with a short measurement time to be used to characterize long-term radon potential in dwellings. - Highlights: • Test of a daily procedure to characterize radon potential in dwellings. • Numerical assessment of the annual radon concentration. • Procedure applied on thirteen dwellings, characterization generally satisfactory. • Procedure useful to manage radon risk in dwellings, for real

  3. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms are marginal. We hypothesize that basic deficits in sustaining attention explain more complex attentional dysfunction in persons with ADHD and relate to ADHD symptoms. Attentional function was analyzed by computing ex-Gaussian parameters for 3 time Blocks in a 20 min test of sustained alertness. Changes in performance across these blocks were analyzed by comparing adult persons with ADHD (n = 24) with healthy matched controls (n = 24) and correlated with neuropsychological measures of selective and divided attention as well as self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. We found a significantly steeper increase in the number of slow responses (ex-Gaussian parameter τ) in persons with ADHD with time on task in basic sustained alertness. They also performed significantly worse in tasks of sustained selective and divided attention. However, after controlling for an increase in τ during the alertness task, significant differences between groups disappeared for divided and partly selective attention. Increases in τ in the sustained alertness task correlated significantly with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. Our results provide evidence that very basic deficits in sustaining attention in adults with ADHD are related to infrequent slow responses (=attentional lapses), with changes over time being relevant for more complex attentional function and experienced ADHD symptoms in everyday life. PMID:27193369

  4. Variation of radon exposure in Damascus dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, activity concentrations of 222Rn in air and 222Rn and 226Ra in drinking water were measured in Damascus city covering its old and modern parts. It was found that the average air radon activity concentration in the old part was higher than in the modern part, and in drinking water, radon was found to be 60±3 Bq/l, and less than 0.13 Bq/l for radium, which were lower than the recommended levels set by WHO. - Highlights: ► This work presents screening of natural radioactivity in dwellings in Damascus city. ► Radon, 226Rn and total alpha/beta in air and drinking water were measured. ► Most of the obtained results were within the recommended levels set by WHO. ► In general radon in the old part was higher than the modern part of the city.

  5. [Home and dwelling arrangements in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapp, Ulrike; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    The increase of life expectancy provides the unique opportunity to participate actively in social life many years after retirement and upbringing of children. In Germany, over 80 % of the population 60 years and older are living independently in the community, and approximately 95 % stay in their own homes. On the other hand, the probability to suffer from diseases, frailty and impaired activities of daily life activities also rises with higher age. However, only on rare occasions older people in need of nursing care do like to give up their home voluntarily. Next to innovative forms of dwelling, home replacement, technical aids and us of information and communication technology (ICT), efforts to strengthen the older persons' independence of maintaining mobility in their home environment (life space) is emphasised in this article. The particular focus is on the use of preventative strategies and to support geriatric network facilities. PMID:26445251

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SLEEP AND PHYSICAL FUNCTION IN COMMUNITY-DWELLING ADULTS: A PILOT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Rebecca A.; Budhathoki, Chakra B.; Kalra, Gurpreet K.; Richards, Kathy C.

    2014-01-01

    Over 50% of community-dwelling adults have sleep complaints. Because aging is associated with decline in physical function, coexistent sleep difficulties may exacerbate functional decline. This pilot study explored the relationships between sleep, age, chronic disease burden, and physical function among 50 community-dwelling older adults. Findings revealed significant relationships between total sleep time and preclinical disability (r=−0.33, P≤=0.05) and mobility difficulty (r=−0.36, P≤=0.05). A regression analysis showed that total sleep time was significantly associated with mobility difficulty and preclinical disability, even after controlling for chronic disease burden. These findings suggest that total sleep time may be a catalyst for functional decline. PMID:25167070

  7. Timing and force control in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: subtype differences and the effect of comorbid developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Thelma M; Piek, Jan P; Barrett, Nicholas C

    2002-12-01

    This study examined the motor and performance outcomes of boys with subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (DSM-IV, [American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed., Washington, DC, 1994]). It also examined the differences between boys with a single diagnosis of ADHD versus those who have the dual categorisation of ADHD and developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The participants were 157 boys, aged 7.70-12.98 years recruited from a community sample. Parent report was used to classify 143 boys into either a comparison group or one of the three DSM-IV ADHD subtypes. Participants were given a battery of tests that included the Movement Assessment Battery for Children [Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Psychological Corporation/Harcourt Brace-Jovanovich, New York, 1992], the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children--Third Edition [Manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Psychological Corporation, New York, 1992] and a finger tapping task targeting motor processing, preparation, and execution. Boys with subtypes that included inattentive symptomatology had significant difficulties with timing, force output and showed greater variability in motor outcomes. Boys with the comorbid condition (i.e., ADHD and DCD) had particular difficulty with force control. These outcomes identify a need for increased recognition of the clinical and research implications of the relationship between ADHD and motor dysfunction. This potentially impacts on assessment, intervention, theoretical modelling and the general interpretation of cognitive abilities research with children with ADHD. PMID:12620726

  8. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hirano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64% showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5% showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23% showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9% showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  9. Dysfunctional attention in autistic savants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, B J; Gordon, C T; Mannheim, G B; Rumsey, J M

    1993-11-01

    A dysfunctional attention hypothesis of the basis of savant skills was tested with a series of computerized tasks that assessed the ability to divide, shift, direct, and sustain attention. Ten healthy men with pervasive developmental disorders and unusual calendar-calculating skill, and 10 age- and sex-matched controls were tested. There were four general findings. First, the savants and controls did not differ on a measure of visual sustained attention. Second, the savants failed to detect rare auditory targets significantly more than did the controls. Third, the savants were unable to efficiently divide their attention when required to detect both visual and auditory targets simultaneously. Finally, deficient orienting or a deficit in shifting selective attention from one stimulus location to another was evidenced in overall slower reaction times for the savants across tasks requiring shifts and redirecting of attention. This deficit was attributed to an inability to disengage attention as a result of deficient orienting and overselectivity. PMID:8120129

  10. Attention, Joint Attention, and Social Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Mundy, Peter; Newell, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Before social cognition there is joint processing of information about the attention of self and others. This joint attention requires the integrated activation of a distributed cortical network involving the anterior and posterior attention systems. In infancy, practice with the integrated activation of this distributed attention network is a major contributor to the development of social cognition. Thus, the functional neuroanatomies of social cognition and the anterior–posterior attention ...

  11. Falls and falls efficacy: the role of sustained attention in older adults

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Halloran, Aisling M

    2011-12-19

    Abstract Background Previous evidence indicates that older people allocate more of their attentional resources toward their gait and that the attention-related changes that occur during aging increase the risk of falls. The aim of this study was to investigate whether performance and variability in sustained attention is associated with falls and falls efficacy in older adults. Methods 458 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 60 years underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Mean and variability of reaction time (RT), commission errors and omission errors were recorded during a fixed version of the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART). RT variability was decomposed using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) procedure, to help characterise variability associated with the arousal and vigilance aspects of sustained attention. The number of self-reported falls in the previous twelve months, and falls efficacy (Modified Falls Efficacy Scale) were also recorded. Results Significant increases in the mean and variability of reaction time on the SART were significantly associated with both falls (p < 0.01) and reduced falls efficacy (p < 0.05) in older adults. An increase in omission errors was also associated with falls (p < 0.01) and reduced falls efficacy (p < 0.05). Upon controlling for age and gender affects, logistic regression modelling revealed that increasing variability associated with the vigilance (top-down) aspect of sustained attention was a retrospective predictor of falling (p < 0.01, OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03 - 1.26) in the previous year and was weakly correlated with reduced falls efficacy in non-fallers (p = 0.07). Conclusions Greater variability in sustained attention is strongly correlated with retrospective falls and to a lesser degree with reduced falls efficacy. This cognitive measure may provide a novel and valuable biomarker for falls in older adults, potentially allowing for early detection and the implementation of preventative intervention

  12. Wind turbine sound pressure level calculations at dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Stephen E; Feder, Katya; Voicescu, Sonia A; Soukhovtsev, Victor; Denning, Allison; Tsang, Jason; Broner, Norm; Leroux, Tony; Richarz, Werner; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides calculations of outdoor sound pressure levels (SPLs) at dwellings for 10 wind turbine models, to support Health Canada's Community Noise and Health Study. Manufacturer supplied and measured wind turbine sound power levels were used to calculate outdoor SPL at 1238 dwellings using ISO [(1996). ISO 9613-2-Acoustics] and a Swedish noise propagation method. Both methods yielded statistically equivalent results. The A- and C-weighted results were highly correlated over the 1238 dwellings (Pearson's linear correlation coefficient r > 0.8). Calculated wind turbine SPLs were compared to ambient SPLs from other sources, estimated using guidance documents from the United States and Alberta, Canada. PMID:27036282

  13. Occupant behaviour and control of indoor environment in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2007-01-01

    heating had the largest effect on the proportion of dwellings with the heating on. The outdoor solar radiation and the perceived illumination had the largest effect on the proportion of dwellings with lights on. The most frequent reason listed for opening the windows in summer and winter was to obtain...... invitations to a sample of the Danish housing stock. The addresses were obtained from a Danish register along with information on physical properties of each dwelling. Meteorological data was obtained from the Danish Meteorological Institute. The outdoor temperature, solar radiation and type of supplementary...

  14. Visual attention in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Sareen, Preeti

    2012-01-01

    There is such vast amount of visual information in our surroundings at any time that filtering out the important information for further processing is a basic requirement for any visual system. This is accomplished by deploying attention to focus on one source of sensory inputs to the exclusion of others (Luck and Mangun 2009). Attention has been studied extensively in humans and non human primates (NHPs). In Drosophila, visual attention was first demonstrated in 1980 (Wolf and Heisenberg 198...

  15. Dementia-oriented case management for home-dwelling people with dementia and their family caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Groenewoud, Hanny; de Lange, Jacomine

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To describe the activities and time spent by casemanagers for home-dwelling people with dementia and their family caregivers in a western region of the Netherlands. Theory People with dementia and their family caregivers go through several transitions in disease, care and social roles. Integrated care for this group is important. In the Dutch Guideline for Integrated Dementia Care (2008), the casemanager is put forward as the vital link in the health-care supply chain for demented peo...

  16. Determination of pollutants in dwellings by neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic pollutants were measured in dwellings in Mexico city by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and x-ray fluorescence techniques. Monitoring was performed in the west side of the city and in the winter season. In general the average concentration of contaminants collected, when compared with average concentrations reported in a previous paper, have increased with time and in the particular case of lead and mercury some samples are above the indicative WHO maximum levels. (author)

  17. Measurements of radon gas in dwellings of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of radon gas in dwellings of several cities of Argentina was measured. For this purpose, different kind of detectors were used such as passive solid state nuclear track detectors, electrets and detectors which use activated charcoal. Since 1983, a total of 1630 dwellings were analysed. The cases monitored were dwellings where the main construction materials are reinforced concrete and brick. The average values found in each city are below 50 Bq/m3. The values above 200-Bqm3 are very few, and none of them is above 300 Bq/m3. The average value of radon gas in air dwellings in our country is 33 Bq/m3, with a geometric mean of 23 Bq/m3, corresponding to an annual effective dose of 0.83 mSv. (author)

  18. Effect of Dwell-times on Crack Propagation in Superalloys

    OpenAIRE

    Saarimäki, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Gas turbines are widely used in industry for power generation and as a power source at "hard to reach" locations where other possibilities for electrical supply are insufficient. There is a strong need for greener energy, considering the effect that pollution has had on global warming, and we need to come up with ways of producing cleaner electricity. A way to achieve this is by increasing the combustion temperature in gas turbines. This increases the demand on the high temperature performanc...

  19. Dwellings with cellars and basements. A BRE guide to radon remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings. It is intended to help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels in houses with cellars or basements. The guide is based on a large body of remedial work carried out to advice given by BRE, and on discussions with others working in the field. The measures it describes are applicable, in principle, to all dwellings and other buildings of a similar scale and construction which have cellars or basements. Contact details of other organisations referred to are listed at the back of this guide. Basements and cellars are relatively uncommon in the United Kingdom, but where they do occur they are likely to be major contributors to the radon problem within a building. Experience shows that most houses with high indoor radon levels can be remedied through the use of straightforward building works. These can be carried out by a builder or householder competent in DIY. The cost should not be excessive. Before reading this guide, for background information on radon, consult Radon: a householder's guide and Radon: a guide to reducing levels M your home, obtainable from local Environmental Health Officers or from the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. The Government recommends that, if the average radon concentration in a dwelling exceeds 200 Bq/m3 (the 'action' level), measures should be taken to reduce it. This guide assumes that radon measurements have been made in the building and that the annual average indoor radon level was shown to exceed the action level

  20. Radiation in dwellings and cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radiation, especially radon exposure, has been in focus in the public domain during the past several years. The growing concern among parents of children with cancer possibly having high radiation levels in their homes led us to study the levels of gamma- and alpha-radiation levels in the homes of a group of children in the county of Ostergoetland. The indoor concentration of alpha-emitting radon daughters was measured by a high-voltage method. The gamma activity was measured with a standard detector scintillation meter. The yearly average for radon-daughter concentration in both cases (57 Bq/m3) and controls (61 Bq/m3) corresponds fairly well with the national average of 53 Bq/m3. The yearly average for gamma radiation (cases 0.37 mGy, controls 0.36 mGy) is much lower than the permissible upper level in dwellings (2.5 mGy/year). The values seem to be of the same order as the subtracted cosmic radiation, which is 0.24-0.26 mGy. No appreciable difference could thus be found between cases and controls either from gamma radiation or radon-daughter exposure. We cannot from our study rule out the possibility of an effect of low-level radiation in susceptible individuals, but it seems clear that children who get cancer do not live in more radioactive homes than other children

  1. Environmental radon monitoring in Khartoum dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is released into the surrounding environment. Existence of this gas indoors ( house and dwelling ) mainly depends on its source in the building materials, the soil beneath the buildings and the ventilation of the rooms. In this study the technique of ground activated charcoal and gamma spectrometry system are used for Radon measurement. This technique has been calibrated and optimized. The main reason for radon determination in house comes from the fact that Radon and its daughters are directly responsible of lung cancer and some kidney diseases. The measurements, in this study, have been performed for Khartoum indoors. 644 rooms have been measured. These rooms were sorted out into groups according to their building material as well as the ventilation of each room. The measurements covered the whole year ( the three main seasons ) to see the variation of Radon level, since its emanation is affected by the temperature. Also monthly outdoor measurements have been performed in different locations in Khartoum. On the basis of the results obtained, the radiation dose received by the public due to the inhalation of this gas has been calculated. The average annual effective dose was found to be 1.2 m Sv. (author). 33 refs., 17 tabs., 24 figs

  2. Variation of radon exposure in Damascus dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shweikani, R., E-mail: prscientific1@aec.org.sy [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), Department of Protection and Safety, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2012-04-15

    In the present work, activity concentrations of {sup 222}Rn in air and {sup 222}Rn and {sup 226}Ra in drinking water were measured in Damascus city covering its old and modern parts. It was found that the average air radon activity concentration in the old part was higher than in the modern part, and in drinking water, radon was found to be 60{+-}3 Bq/l, and less than 0.13 Bq/l for radium, which were lower than the recommended levels set by WHO. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This work presents screening of natural radioactivity in dwellings in Damascus city. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radon, {sup 226}Rn and total alpha/beta in air and drinking water were measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most of the obtained results were within the recommended levels set by WHO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In general radon in the old part was higher than the modern part of the city.

  3. Energy and sensitivity analysis of Spanish dwelling stock

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Roca Ramon, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to know how household and dwelling related independent variables affect dependent variables: energy consumption and expenditure on energy. It is also an aim to know how energy prices and income levels affect energy consumption. Therefore, sensitivity analyses of both variables have been performed. Finally, energy price sensitivity is used to predict energy consumption for the Spanish dwelling stock in 2030. Data are extracted from the household budget survey for ...

  4. Calibration of a CR-39 plastic track detector for the measurement of radon and its daughters in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid state nuclear track detectors have been widely used for the measurement of time-integrated radon levels in dwellings under different conditions. The track detector used for this purpose must be calibrated for concentrations of radon and its daughters likely to be found in dwellings. In the present investigations, a CR-39 plastic detector was calibrated bare and in a cup-with-membrane mode, along with a monodispersal aerosol 0.2μm in size in an exposure chamber, to find the relationship between track density and the radon concentration, as well as potential alpha energy concentration (WL) of radon. The calibration factors of 0.18 tracks cm-2 d-1 per (Bq m-3) for radon and 1628 tracks cm-2 d -1 per (WL) were obtained. Some preliminary measurements for the concentration of radon and its daughters in different types of rooms in Indian dwellings were also made. (author)

  5. 29 CFR 785.43 - Medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical attention. 785.43 Section 785.43 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.43 Medical attention. Time spent by an employee in waiting for and receiving medical attention on the premises or at the...

  6. UK standards for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Radiological Protection Board has issued formal advice on the standards to be adopted in the UK for control of exposures to radon daughters in existing dwellings and for changes in building procedures for future dwellings. The standards are based on those recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection but adapted to circumstances in the United Kingdom. The matters taken into account by the Board when formulating its advice include the conversion from measured concentrations of radon to effective dose equivalent and the implied levels of risk, the comparison of these levels with risks from other causes, the numbers of dwellings in which various annual doses are likely to be exceeded, the geographical distribution of these dwellings, the likely costs and effectiveness of various remedial measures and the degree of domestic disruption. The action level for existing dwellings selected by the Board was the same, 20 mSv per annum, as that recommended by the ICRP, but the upper bound for new dwellings of 5 mSv per annum was lower than that suggested by the ICRP

  7. Modeling ventilation and radon in new dutch dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon concentrations were estimated for various ventilation conditions, the differences being mainly related to the airtightness of the dwelling and the ventilation behavior of its occupants. The estimations were aimed at describing the variation in air change rates and radon concentrations to be expected in the representative newly built Dutch dwellings and identifying the most important parameters determining air change rate and indoor radon concentration. The model estimations were compared with measurements. Most of the air was predicted to enter the model dwelling through leaks in the building shell, independent of the ventilation conditions of the dwelling. Opening the air inlets was shown to be an efficient way to increase infiltration and thus to decrease radon concentration. The effect of increasing the mechanical ventilation rate was considerably less than opening the air inlets. The mechanical ventilation sets the lower limit to the air change rate of the dwelling, and is effective in reducing the radon concentration when natural infiltration is low. Opening inside doors proved to be effective in preventing peak concentrations in poorly ventilated rooms. As the airtightness of newly built dwellings is still being improved, higher radon concentrations are to be expected in the near future and the effect of occupant behavior on indoor radon concentrations is likely to increase. According to the model estimations soil-borne radon played a moderate role, which is in line with measurements. (au)

  8. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m3, in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m3. In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m3. The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m3. Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m3, and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m3. The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated to be 60 Bq/m3. Using the detriment

  9. Determination of radon level and radon effective dose rate using SSNTD in dwellings in the Bathinda district of Punjab, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of indoor radon has attracted a great deal of attention worldwide as radon is the largest contributor to the total natural radiation dose. The dwellings belonging to the Bathinda district of Punjab (India)), are investigated for the yearly average of indoor radon concentrations using solid-state nuclear track detectors. The annual average indoor radon values in the study area vary from 122.30 to 147.10 Bq m-3, which is well within the recommended action level given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The calculated lifetime fatality risk values vary from 1.61 to 1.94. The seasonal variations and the contribution of building materials and ventilation conditions to the indoor radon in dwellings are also discussed. (authors)

  10. Attention and Olfactory Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to ...

  11. Effects of presession attention on the frequency of attention-maintained behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, M F

    1999-01-01

    The effect of prior attention was systematically manipulated to study its influence on rates of yelling and head hitting, both maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of attention. Higher levels of head hitting occurred in analogue attention conditions when the person was deprived of attention (no social interactions for 1 hr) prior to the analysis in comparison to when the person received high levels of attention (attention delivered on a fixed-time 30-s schedule for 1 hr) prior to ...

  12. A study of indoor radon levels in Indian dwellings, influencing factors and lung cancer risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive integrating solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) were used to study the Radon-222 (Rn) concentrations in Indian dwellings. The study was made in 300 dwellings in the cities of Lucknow and Kanpur in northern India. The influence of some factors e.g. age of the house, number of floors and ventilation conditions, etc. on indoor Rn concentrations were studied. The equilibrium factor in 65 dwellings were also investigated. Average Rn concentrations in living rooms were found to be 34±8 Bq.m-3 and 40±10 Bq.m-3 respectively, with equilibrium factors of 0.35 and 0.38. Assuming an occupancy factor of 0.8, the annual average effective dose equivalents in living rooms of the two places are estimated as 0.8 and 1.0 mSv respectively. The average life-time risks of lung cancer for radon exposure of the Lucknow and Kanpur populations at home would be about 0.26% and 0.34% respectively and the mean relative loss of life expectancies were 0.06% and 0.074% respectively

  13. Effects of Short-Term Training of Community-Dwelling Elderly with Modular Interactive Tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Jessen, Jari Due

    2014-10-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to test for the increased mobility, agility, balancing, and general fitness of community-dwelling elderly individuals as a result of short-term training involving playing with modular interactive tiles (Entertainment Robotics, Odense, Denmark) at two community activity centers for the elderly. Three different tests from the Senior Fitness Test were used in order to test a variety of health parameters of the community-dwelling elderly, including those parameters related to fall prevention. Materials and Methods: Eighteen community-dwelling elderly individuals (63-95 years of age; mean, 83.2 years of age) were assessed in one intervention group without the use of a control group. The intervention group performed nine group sessions (1-1.5 hours each) of playful training with the modular interactive tiles over a 12-week period in two community activity centers for the elderly. Data were collected using pre-tests and post-tests of the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), the 8-foot Timed Up & Go Test (TUG), and the Chair-Stand Test (CS). Data were analyzed for statistically significant differences and increases of means. Results: The 6MWT, TUG, and CS measurements showed statistically significant differences and increases of means between the pre-tests and post-tests with the 6MWT (Pexergames with the modular interactive tiles. PMID:25276497

  14. Visual Spatial Attention in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yao Chen

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD was characterized by deficitin the attention mechanism. Until now, the visual-spatial attention deficit inchildren with ADHD remains controversial. We report a study of the visualspatial attention to assess covert shifts of attention and sustained attentiontheoretically linked to two neuroanatomically defined attentional system inthe posterior and anterior parts of the human brain.Methods: Using the Neuroscan system, the reaction time (RT was measured accordingto three different within-subject conditions including cueing (valid, invalidand neutral; delay (800 msec and 100 msec; side [right visual field (RVFand left visual field (LVF] as well as one between-subject condition(healthy, ADHD.Results: The AHDH group showed slower RTs overall (RT=760 msec than the comparisongroup (RT=650 msec ( p = 0.001. RTs in the delayed condition of800 msec (RT=680 msec were faster than in the delayed condition of 100msec (RT=730 msec in all children ( p RTLVF: 830 msec inthe 100 msec delay for the invalid cueing condition ( p = 0.045 that was notfound in the comparison group.Conclusion: General dysfunction including posterior-based covert shift of attention andanterior-based sustained attention was found in ADHD group. Furthermore,asymmetric left parietal dysfunction in the disengaged operation was notedin those with ADHD.

  15. Capture of exogenous attention modulates the attentional blink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    When two targets (T1 & T2) are presented in rapid succession, observers often fail to report T2 if they attend to T1. Bottleneck theories propose that this attentional blink (AB) is due to T1 occupying a slow processing stage when T2 is presented. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty increases...... T1 processing time, this should cause a greater AB. Attention capture hypotheses suggest that T1 captures attention, which cannot be reallocated to T2 in time. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty, decreases saliency, this should cause a smaller AB. Studies examining how T1 difficulty affects...... negatively with T1 contrast energy. Our results indicate that T1 capture modulates the AB. We suggest that this effect has confounded previous studies on the effect of T1 difficulty. In an electrophysiological version of the study we will further examine the implied relation between attention capture and the...

  16. Diagnostics of 222Rn concentrations in dwellings: characterisation of sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon concentrations in the compartments of a dwelling are a result of radon source strengths, which may be pressure driven or diffusive and of air flows transporting radon from one compartment to another. On this basis a diagnostic method was developed for finding the contributions of different air flows and sources to the radon concentration in a dwelling. Source strengths may be computed from observed concentrations and air flows. Diffusive source strengths may be measured using an exhalation meter. Measurements in a test dwelling show that the pressure driven radon source strength in the crawl space is far more important than the diffusive source strength. However, this source strength shows large variations over a period of one month. Implications for the diagnostic method and measuring strategies are discussed. (Author)

  17. Variation in radon levels with types of dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radon (222Rn) levels in 1772 dwellings of different construction types, spread over about 130 locations in India, were measured with dosimeter systems using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTDs). Measurements showed that 222Rn levels varied from 6.3 Bq.m-3 to 156.0 Bq. m-3 with a geometric mean of 26.9 Bq. m-3 (GSD 2.08.) Any possible relation between indoor 222Rn levels and dwelling types has been examined by comparing the relevant means statistically. The most significant difference is found between mosaic and wooden floor dwellings having plastered white wash walls. It is observed that the combination of whitewash walls and mosaic floors leads to high levels of indoor radon

  18. Measurements of radon in dwellings with CR-39 track detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, Benny

    1986-01-01

    A passive integrating dosemeter has been designed for measuring natural radiation in dwellings. The dosemeter contains one or two CR-39 track detectors to measure radon and three thermoluminescence dosemeters to measure external radiation. The dosemeter was investigated in a pilot study in 1983....../84, and it is now used in a nationwide survey of natural radiation in Danish dwellings. The characteristics of the dosemeter with respect to radon measurements are presented, and the radon monitoring results obtained in the pilot study are summarized...

  19. Altered visual-spatial attention to task-irrelevant information is associated with falls risk in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nagamatsu, Lindsay S.; Munkacsy, Michelle; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Handy, Todd C

    2013-01-01

    Executive cognitive functions play a critical role in falls risk – a pressing health care issue in seniors. In particular, intact attentional processing is integral for safe mobility and navigation. However, the specific contribution of impaired visual-spatial attention in falls remains unclear. In this study, we examined the association between visual-spatial attention to task-irrelevant stimuli and falls risk in community-dwelling older adults. Participants completed a visual target discrim...

  20. Combining segmentation and attention: a new foveal attention model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca eMarfil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial vision systems cannot process all the information that they receive from the world in real time because it is highly expensive and inefficient in terms of computational cost. Inspired by biological perception systems, articial attention models pursuit to select only the relevant part of the scene. Besides, it is well established that the units of attention on human vision are not merely spatial but closely related to perceptual objects (proto-objects. This implies a strong bidirectional relationship between segmentation and attention processes. Therefore, while the segmentation process is the responsible to extract the proto-objects from the scene, attention can guide segmentation, arising the concept of foveal attention. When the focus of attention is deployed from one visual unit to another, the rest of the scene is perceived but at a lower resolution that the focused object. The result is a multi-resolution visual perception in which the fovea, a dimple on the central retina, provides the highest resolution vision. In this paper, a bottom-up foveal attention model is presented. In this model the input image is a foveal image represented using a Cartesian Foveal Geometry (CFG, which encodes the field of view of the sensor as a fovea (placed in the focus of attention surrounded by a set of concentric rings with decreasing resolution. Then multirresolution perceptual segmentation is performed by building a foveal polygon using the Bounded Irregular Pyramid (BIP. Bottom-up attention is enclosed in the same structure, allowing to set the fovea over the most salient image proto-object. Saliency is computed as a linear combination of multiple low level features such us colour and intensity contrast, symmetry, orientation and roundness. Obtained results from natural images show that the performance of the combination of hierarchical foveal segmentation and saliency estimation is good in terms of accuracy and speed.

  1. Attention Mosaics: Studies of Organizational Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho de Mesquita Ferreira, Luciana

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOrganizational studies emphasizing the role of attention in organizational behavior depart from the idea that organizations, like individuals, have limited capacity to attend to environmental stimuli. The bounded capacity of the organizations to respond to stimuli is conditioned by the limited cognitions of individuals and by the limited capability of organizations to distribute, coordinate and integrate those cognitions. The cross-level nature of organizational attention, its dua...

  2. Understanding Attention Deficit Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Orlando; And Others

    This booklet provides basic information regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), in their separate modalities, with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Explanations are offered concerning short attention span, impulsive behavior, hyperactivity, and beginning new activities before completing the previous one. Theories…

  3. Attention decay in science

    CERN Document Server

    Parolo, Pietro Della Briotta; Ghosh, Rumi; Huberman, Bernardo A; Kaski, Kimmo; Fortunato, Santo

    2015-01-01

    The exponential growth in the number of scientific papers makes it increasingly difficult for researchers to keep track of all the publications relevant to their work. Consequently, the attention that can be devoted to individual papers, measured by their citation counts, is bound to decay rapidly. In this work we make a thorough study of the life-cycle of papers in different disciplines. Typically, the citation rate of a paper increases up to a few years after its publication, reaches a peak and then decreases rapidly. This decay can be described by an exponential or a power law behavior, as in ultradiffusive processes, with exponential fitting better than power law for the majority of cases. The decay is also becoming faster over the years, signaling that nowadays papers are forgotten more quickly. However, when time is counted in terms of the number of published papers, the rate of decay of citations is fairly independent of the period considered. This indicates that the attention of scholars depends on th...

  4. Plant intelligence and attention

    OpenAIRE

    Marder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article applies the phenomenological model of attention to plant monitoring of environmental stimuli and signal perception. Three complementary definitions of attention as selectivity, modulation and perdurance are explained with reference to plant signaling and behaviors, including foraging, ramet placement and abiotic stress communication. Elements of animal and human attentive attitudes are compared with plant attention at the levels of cognitive focus, context and margin. It is argue...

  5. Attention Competition with Advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2012-01-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when a...

  6. Dynamics of Media Attention

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Traag; Reinanda, R.; Hicks, J.; Klinken, van, J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of human attention dynamics analyses how attention is focused on specific topics, issues or people. In online social media, there are clear signs of exogenous shocks, bursty dynamics, and an exponential or powerlaw lifetime distribution. We here analyse the attention dynamics of traditional media, focussing on co-occurrence of people in newspaper articles. The results are quite different from online social networks and attention. Different regimes seem to be operating at two different...

  7. The spectrum of worry in the community-dwelling elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Golden, Jeannette

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we examine the prevalence and distribution of worry, its content, and its associations with quality of life and depression, based on a large sample of community-dwelling elderly. We will attempt to distinguish between pathological and non-pathological worry based on these associations.

  8. Factors controlling volatile organic compounds in dwellings in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, M; Galbally, I E; Molloy, S B; Selleck, P W; Keywood, M D; Lawson, S J; Powell, J C; Gillett, R W; Dunne, E

    2016-04-01

    This study characterized indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and investigated the effects of the dwelling characteristics, building materials, occupant activities, and environmental conditions on indoor VOC concentrations in 40 dwellings located in Melbourne, Australia, in 2008 and 2009. A total of 97 VOCs were identified. Nine VOCs, n-butane, 2-methylbutane, toluene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, d-limonene, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetic acid, accounted for 68% of the sum of all VOCs. The median indoor concentrations of all VOCs were greater than those measured outdoors. The occupant density was positively associated with indoor VOC concentrations via occupant activities, including respiration and combustion. Terpenes were associated with the use of household cleaning and laundry products. A petroleum-like indoor VOC signature of alkanes and aromatics was associated with the proximity of major roads. The indoor VOC concentrations were negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with ventilation. Levels of VOCs in these Australian dwellings were lower than those from previous studies in North America and Europe, probably due to a combination of an ongoing temporal decrease in indoor VOC concentrations and the leakier nature of Australian dwellings. PMID:25788118

  9. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings and workplaces of Curitiba urban area, Parana state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Schelin, Hugo R., E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Considering that radon and its progeny exposure is proved to be the main cause of lung cancer among nonsmokers and occupation-time at some commercial establishments and workplaces is equal or even bigger then at domiciles and dwelling, present study has been spread to the constructed closed environment and workplaces of commerce and productive sector. The measurements were performed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of UTFPR in 2009 - 2011 when 120 detectors were installed at domiciles and workplaces of Curitiba, Parana St., Brazil. Experimental setup was based at CR-39 detectors that were installed in diffusion chambers protected with filters. In collaboration with CDTN/CNEN it was performed the calibration of CR-39 detectors at the NIRS in Japan. The exposure time was set to be of 100 days. Alpha particle track development was performed using 6.25M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution and ethanol (2%) during 14 hours at 70 deg C. The counting was conducted using an optical microscope. Measured {sup 222}Rn activity levels in dwellings varied between 4.37 Bq/m{sup 3} and 320.82 Bq/m{sup 3} resulting at an average of 46.94 Bq/m{sup 3}. Indoor measurements at workplaces presented the variation of radon activity concentration between 3.08 Bq/m{sup 3} and 67.50 Bq/m{sup 3} resulting at the average of 34.51 Bq/m{sup 3}. Considering the recommendations of the World Health Organization, UNSCEAR and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) concerning the radon-in-air concentration inside the dwellings that can reach 200 Bq/m{sup 3} taking into account the occupation-time of 7000 hours/year, obtained results are within normal limits and no mitigation measures have to be performed. (author)

  10. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Doğangün, Burak; Yavuz, Mesut

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is characterized by excessive overactiviy inattention and impulsiveness It is reported that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder affects 5 12 of children worldwide It has significant negative effects on psychological and social development and academic functioning of the children if it remains nbsp; untreated The etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is unknown Genetic neurodevelopmental neurophysiological and psychosocial factors ar...

  11. Higher Cortical Functions: Attention and Vigilance

    OpenAIRE

    Gillig, Paulette Marie; Sanders, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to sustain attention over time (vigilance) is a cognitive function that often is impaired in patients with psychiatric disorders. Attention has been found to be disordered in a number of psychiatric conditions, including attention deficit disorder, schizophrenia, antisocial personality disorder, and the impulse control disorders. Less widely known is the finding that attention also is affected in patients suffering from anxiety disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, mood disord...

  12. An affordable proxy of representative national survey on radon concentration in dwellings: Design, organisation and preliminary evaluation of representativeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representative national surveys in dwellings are important to unbiasedly evaluate the exposure of the general population to radon. In Italy, a representative national survey was conducted from 1989 to 1996, which involved about 5600 dwellings in 232 towns. Later on, some Regions carried out more detailed surveys, but a new national survey in dwellings is necessary in order to obtain a more thorough estimate of radon concentration distribution over the Italian territory. The need to make this survey in an affordable way led to implement a new approach based on the collaboration between the Istituto Superiore di Sanità and a national company with workplaces and employees' homes throughout the country. The intent is to carry out a proxy of a population representative survey by measuring radon concentration in the homes of a random sample of the company employees. The realisation of this survey was affordable, thanks to the availability of corporate e-mail for each employee, intranet service, and company internal mail service. A dedicated web procedure and e-questionnaires allowed to automatically manage the contact with employees and to collect their data, which were both cost- and time-saving. Using this e-mail contact approach, 53% of contacted employees consented to participate in the survey. Radon concentration passive measuring devices were distributed to about 7000 dwellings, using about 14000 CR-39 detectors (two measured rooms per dwelling). In order to reduce costs, the devices were exposed for 12 months instead of two consecutive 6-month periods (as with the former national survey). A first checking of the actual representativeness of the sample was done by comparing characteristics of dwellings and occupants in the sample with corresponding data from the latest National Census. This was accomplished thanks to the fact that the questions in the survey questionnaire were tailored to the categories adopted for the Census questionnaire. A preliminary

  13. Compliance with building energy regulations for new-build dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite increasingly stringent building energy regulations worldwide, non-compliance exists in practice. This paper examines the profile of compliance with building energy regulations for new-build dwellings. In total 404 new-build dwellings completed in the UK from 2006 to 2009 were investigated. Only a third of these dwellings were evidenced as being compliant with Building Regulations Part L (England and Wales). Such low compliance casts a serious concern over the achievability of the UK Government's target for all new-build homes to be ‘zero carbon’ from 2016. Clearly evidenced was a lack of knowledge of Part L and its compliance requirements among the supply and building control sides of new-build dwellings. The results also indicate that the compliance profile was influenced by factors including Standard Assessment Procedure (UK Government's methodology for energy efficiency) calculation submissions, learning and experience of builders and building controls with Part L, use of Part L1A checklist, the introduction of energy performance certificate (EPC), build method, dwelling type, and project size. Better compliance was associated with flats over houses and timber frame over masonry. The use of EPC and Part L1A checklist should be encouraged. Key to addressing the lack of compliance with building energy regulations is training. -- Highlights: ► There exists a lack of compliance, worldwide, with building energy regulations. ► The implementation of England and Wales building energy regulations is problematic. ► Training, learning and experience of builders and building control are critical. ► Energy performance certificate and Part L 2006 checklist helped achieve compliance. ► Flats achieved better compliance over houses; and timber frame over masonry.

  14. Anxiety and Attentional Bias in Preschool-Aged Children: An Eyetracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Helen F; Hudson, Jennifer L; Williams, Tracey; Morris, Talia; Lazarus, Rebecca S; Byrow, Yulisha

    2015-08-01

    Extensive research has examined attentional bias for threat in anxious adults and school-aged children but it is unclear when this anxiety-related bias is first established. This study uses eyetracking technology to assess attentional bias in a sample of 83 children aged 3 or 4 years. Of these, 37 (19 female) met criteria for an anxiety disorder and 46 (30 female) did not. Gaze was recorded during a free-viewing task with angry-neutral face pairs presented for 1250 ms. There was no indication of between-group differences in threat bias, with both anxious and non-anxious groups showing vigilance for angry faces as well as longer dwell times to angry over neutral faces. Importantly, however, the anxious participants spent significantly less time looking at the faces overall, when compared to the non-anxious group. The results suggest that both anxious and non-anxious preschool-aged children preferentially attend to threat but that anxious children may be more avoidant of faces than non-anxious children. PMID:25434325

  15. Radon in Dwellings in the Republic of Kalmykia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerblom, Gustav (Aakerblom och Aakerblom HP, Skaerholmen (Sweden)); German, Olga; Soederman, Ann-Louise (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Stamat, Ivan; Venkov, Vladimir (Research Inst. of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    2009-02-15

    The National Radon Survey in the Republic of Kalmykia, Russian Federation during 2006-2007 was carried out in a cooperation project between the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) and the Russian Institute of Radiation Hygiene (RIRH). In August 2006 SSI, RIRH, federal and local authorities carried out a field study in Kalmykia when radon daughter measurements (equilibrium equivalent radon concentrations in the air) and gamma radiation measurements were made in 103 buildings. Gamma spectrometry measurements were made at several sites. During the visit the cooperating parties devoted some time to the education of local authorities on radon related issues. During three months in the winter season 2006-2007, long term radon trace measurements were made in 525 randomly chosen dwellings in the Republic of Kalmykia. The radon gas activity varied between 3 and 973 Bq/m3, with a mean value of 122 Bq/m3. In 19 of a total of 835 measurement points, the radon activity exceeded the maximum permitted value in Russia of 200 Bq/m3 of EERC. The year-round radon trace measurement were made in 20 houses in Elista, the capital of the Republic of Kalmykia, for comparison with the three-month measurements. The year-round measurements showed some higher values for the radon activity, and a correction factor of 0.85 was applied. Using data on the number of people living in detached houses and apartments, and applying the radon activities measured, the number of new lung cancer cases caused by radon was calculated to be 20 to 40 of the 100 new cases reported annually. The methods of construction of the dwellings in Kalmykia is greatly influenced by the history and culture. Most of them were built after World War II and there are only a few that are newly built because of the poor economic situation and the low population growth rate in the Republic. Most people live in detached houses, one-storied with 3-5 rooms, built directly on the ground or on coquina blocks or on a cast

  16. Late Neolithic vegetation history at the pile-dwelling site of Palù di Livenza (northeastern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Roberta

    2004-12-01

    The Late Neolithic pile-dwelling of Palù di Livenza yielded archaeological remains typical of the Square Mouth Pottery and Lagozza Cultures. A palynological investigation reveals important changes in the vegetation due to anthropogenic pressure. Between ca. 6590 and 5960 cal. yr BP, dense oak wood forests with deciduous Quercus, Fagus and Corylus extended around the mire, with no signs of human impact. The establishment of the pile-dwelling, dated to ca. 5960 cal. yr BP, led to a strong reduction of forests, reclamation of wetlands, and expansion of herbaceous communities, with cultivated species, infestant weeds, nitrophilous and ruderal herbs, pastures and meadows. According to AMS dates and previous archaeological chronologies, the pile-dwelling persisted for about 700 years (from ca. 5960 to 5260 cal. yr BP). The history of the pile-dwelling after ca. 5260 cal. yr BP cannot be reconstructed because of recent contamination of the top part of the section. Rarefaction analysis was applied to estimate changes of palynological richness through time: the highest E(Tn) (between 56 and 69 taxa) are contemporaneous with the local development of the pile-dwelling. The comparison of pollen data with archaeobotanical evidence indicates that Fragaria vesca, Malus sylvestris, Papaver somniferum and Physalis alkekengi were gathered at some distance from the site and that Linum usitatissimum is strongly under-represented in pollen samples. Crop cultivation can be estimated for a radius of several hundred metres around the mire. Palù di Livenza is significant in the context of Neolithic archaeobotany of northern Italy and neighbouring countries. Copyright

  17. Attention competition with advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  18. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another. PMID:26966228

  19. Principles of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas

    The nature of attention is one of the oldest and most central problems in psychology. A huge amount of research has been produced on this subject in the last half century, especially on attention in the visual modality, but a general explanation has remained elusive. Many still view attention...... mechanisms are described in a set of simple equations, which allow TVA to mathematically model a large number of classical results in the attention literature. The theory explains psychological and neuroscientific findings by the same equations; TVA is a complete theory of visual attention, linking mind and...... brain. Aimed at advanced students and professional researchers, Principles of Visual Attention contains a detailed review of the most important research done on attention in vision, spanning cognitive psychology, brain imaging, patient studies, and recordings from single cells in the visual cortex. The...

  20. Association of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with physical activity, media time, and food intake in children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas W A van Egmond-Fröhlich

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to assess the association between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms and potentially obesogenic behaviors. METHODS: Data of 11,676 German children and adolescents (6-17 years were analyzed. Television/video exposure, physical activity, food frequency and portion size were assessed using questionnaires. A dietary quality index, energy density and volumes of consumed food, and total energy intake were calculated. The parent-rated hyperactivity/inattention subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-HI was used as a continuous measure of ADHD symptoms. Associations were analyzed with general linear models adjusting for sex, age, socioeconomic status, migrant status, parental BMI, and parental smoking. RESULTS: SDQ-HI scores correlated positively with physical activity, average energy density of food, volume of beverages, total energy intake, and television exposure and negatively with the nutritional quality score (HuSKY even after adjustment for parental variables (BMI, smoking, socioeconomic status, migrant status, age, sex, as well as the other SDQ subscales. The adjusted association of the SDQ-HI scores with the nutritional quality score was stronger in girls and the associations with food volume, food energy, and total energy intake was significant only in girls. CONCLUSIONS: Poor nutritional quality, high energy intake and television exposure appear to be independently associated with ADHD symptoms. The relationship between food energy intake and ADHD symptoms was especially pronounced in girls and this may help to explain the reported association of ADHD symptoms with overweight in adolescent girls.

  1. Attention Mosaics: Studies of Organizational Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Carvalho de Mesquita Ferreira (Luciana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOrganizational studies emphasizing the role of attention in organizational behavior depart from the idea that organizations, like individuals, have limited capacity to attend to environmental stimuli. The bounded capacity of the organizations to respond to stimuli is conditioned by the l

  2. The Effect of a Self-Cueing Treatment on Top-Level Goal Setting Strategies and Attention to Task in Timed-Writing Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, JaneE

    A case study examined one college student's poor performances during timed-writing sessions to develop a method to allow students to maintain the quality and ease in writing they achieve in other writing situations. The student, assigned to write a movie review, volunteered to participate in two 90 minute talk-aloud protocol sessions to examine…

  3. Determinants of crime in the sphere of dwelling-communal sector in Russian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Sizykh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the most important factors of crimes in the sphere of dwelling and communal services in Russian cities with a population of over 1 million people. Methods correlation analysis using Pearson coefficient. Results the initial hypothesis is based on the following assumptions about the determination of crime in the dwellingcommunal sector this crime is proportional to the total criminality of the region economy the number of all corruption crimes revealed by divisions of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs in all spheres of economic activities in the studied cities production indicators number of investments and amount of financing in the dwellingcommunal sector volume of construction works etc. as well as the degree of monopolization in the dwellingcommunal sector in the region i.e. proportional to the number of municipal utilities. To check the hypotheses we used data on crime and socioeconomic characteristics of the dwellingcommunal sector in 15 largest Russian cities in 2012ndash2013 as well as the data about crime in the sphere of dwelling and communal services and about the corruption crimes in Russian cities in 2012ndash2014. As a result the calculations partially confirmed the hypotheses the dependence of the level of crime in the dwellingcommunal sector of Russian cities on the level of corruption crimes in these cities is high r 063 as well as the dependence on the number of organizations operating in the dwellingcommunal sector r 047. At the same time the correlation was weak between the volume of activity in the dwellingcommunal sector in Russian cities and the level of crime in them absolute value of Pearson coefficient is lower than 04. Scientific novelty for the first time the article investigated the determinants of crime in the sphere of dwelling and communal services in Russian cities on the basis of correlation analysis using Pearson coefficient. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions

  4. Overriding auditory attentional capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Polly; Lavie, Nilli

    2007-02-01

    Attentional capture by color singletons during shape search can be eliminated when the target is not a feature singleton (Bacon & Egeth, 1994). This suggests that a "singleton detection" search strategy must be adopted for attentional capture to occur. Here we find similar effects on auditory attentional capture. Irrelevant high-intensity singletons interfered with an auditory search task when the target itself was also a feature singleton. However, singleton interference was eliminated when the target was not a singleton (i.e., when nontargets were made heterogeneous, or when more than one target sound was presented). These results suggest that auditory attentional capture depends on the observer's attentional set, as does visual attentional capture. The suggestion that hearing might act as an early warning system that would always be tuned to unexpected unique stimuli must therefore be modified to accommodate these strategy-dependent capture effects. PMID:17557587

  5. Overriding auditory attentional capture

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Polly; Lavie, Nilli

    2007-01-01

    Attentional capture by color singletons during shape search can be eliminated when the target is not a feature singleton (Bacon & Egeth, 1994). This suggests that a "singleton detection" search strategy must be adopted for attentional capture to occur. Here we find similar effects on auditory attentional capture. Irrelevant high-intensity singletons interfered with an auditory search task when the target itself was also a feature singleton. However, singleton interference was eliminated when ...

  6. Attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews studies on eye movements in decision making, and compares their observations to theoretical predictions concerning the role of attention in decision making. Four decision theories are examined: rational models, bounded rationality, evidence accumulation, and parallel constraint...... that these assumptions are implausible, and that more accurate assumptions could have been made based on prior attention and eye movement research. Future decision making research would benefit from greater integration with attention research....

  7. Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klocke, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Faakye, O. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2014-10-01

    While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of Consortium for Advanced Residential Building's (CARB’s) multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  8. Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klocke, S.; Faakye, O.; Puttagunta, S.

    2014-10-01

    ​While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of CARB's multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  9. Split incentives and energy efficiency in Canadian multi-family dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the energy-related behaviour of owners and occupants of multi-family dwellings in Canada, some of whom do not pay directly for electricity or heat, but instead have these costs included in their rent or condo fees. Using data from the 2003 Survey of Household Energy Use, we look at the extent to which split incentives that result from bill-paying arrangements affect a variety of activities including the setting of temperatures at various times of the day and the use of eco-friendly options in basic household tasks. Findings suggest that these split incentives do indeed impact some aspects of occupant behaviour, with households who do not pay directly for their heat opting for increased thermal comfort and being less sensitive to whether or not somebody is at home and the severity of the climate when deciding on temperature settings. Regardless of who pays for utilities, Canadian households who live in multi-family dwellings are generally unresponsive to fuel prices. Our empirical results suggest the possibility of environmental benefits from policies aimed at improving energy-efficiency in this sector, especially if targeted at reducing the impacts of the behaviour of those who do not pay directly for energy use. - Highlights: → Many occupants of multi-family dwellings do not pay directly for electricity or heat. → The resulting 'split incentives' impact the efficiency of energy use. → Canadian survey data from 2003 suggest that these impacts are often significant. → Households who do not directly pay for heat opt for increased thermal comfort. → Policy designers should consider especially targeting these households.

  10. Implicit Temporal Expectation Attenuates Auditory Attentional Blink

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Dawei; Alain, Claude

    2012-01-01

    Attentional blink (AB) describes a phenomenon whereby correct identification of a first target impairs the processing of a second target (i.e., probe) nearby in time. Evidence suggests that explicit attention orienting in the time domain can attenuate the AB. Here, we used scalp-recorded, event-related potentials to examine whether auditory AB is also sensitive to implicit temporal attention orienting. Expectations were set up implicitly by varying the probability (i.e., 80% or 20%) that the ...

  11. Does mindfulness meditation improve attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Farahmand, Pantea; Chaplin, Margaret; Sarro, Lauren

    2015-12-22

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mindfulness training, derived from Eastern meditation practices, may improve self-regulation of attention. It may also be a useful strategy to augment standard ADHD treatments and may be used as a potential tool to reduce impairments in patients with residual symptoms of ADHD. Clinically, this would manifest by an increased ability to suppress task-unrelated thoughts and distractions resulting in improved attention, completion of tasks and potential improvement in occupational and social function. PMID:26740931

  12. Individual Differences in Newborn Visual Attention Associate with Temperament and Behavioral Difficulties in Later Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Kostas A; Farroni, Teresa; Johnson, Mark H; Smith, Tim J; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Recently it was shown that individual differences in attention style in infants are associated with childhood effortful control, surgency, and hyperactivity-inattention. Here we investigated whether effortful control, surgency and behavioral problems in childhood can be predicted even earlier, from individual differences in newborns' average duration of gaze to stimuli. Eighty newborns participated in visual preference and habituation studies. Parents completed questionnaires at follow up (mean age = 7.5 years, SD = 1.0 year). Newborns' average dwell time was negatively associated with childhood surgency (β = -.25, R(2) = .04, p = .02) and total behavioral difficulties (β = -.28, R(2) = .05, p = .04) but not with effortful control (β = .03, R(2) = .001, p = .76). Individual differences in newborn visual attention significantly associated with individual variation in childhood surgency and behavioral problems, showing that some of the factors responsible for this variation are present at birth. PMID:26110979

  13. Radon in dwellings the national radon survey Cork and Kerry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the third phase of the National Radon Survey carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. The counties included in this phase are Cork and Kerry. The average radon concentrations for the houses measured in these counties were 76 Bq/m3 and 70 Bq/m3. The measurement data were grouped on the basis of the 10 km grid squares of the Irish National Grid System and used to predict the percentage of dwellings in each grid square which exceeds the Reference Level of 200 Bq/m3. Grid squares where this percentage is predicted to be 10% or higher are designated High Radon Areas. The health effects of exposure to high radon levels are discussed and recommendations are made regarding both new and existing dwellings. (author)

  14. Radon in dwellings the national radon survey Galway and Mayo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the final phase of the National Radon Survey carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. The counties included in this phase are Galway and Mayo. The average radon concentrations for the houses measured in these counties were 112 Bq/m3 and 100 Bq/m3, respectively. The measurement data were grouped on the basis of the 10 km grid squares of the Irish National Grid System and used to predict the percentage of dwellings in each grid square which exceeds the Reference Level of 200 Bq/m3. Grid squares where this percentage is predicted to be 10% or higher are designated High Radon Areas. The health effects of exposure to high radon levels are discussed and recommendations are made regarding both new and existing dwellings. (author)

  15. Window opening behaviour modelled from measurements in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Fabi, Valentina; Toftum, Jorn;

    2013-01-01

    A method of defining occupants' window opening behaviour patterns in simulation programs, based on measurements is proposed.Occupants' window opening behaviour has a strong effect on indoor environment and the energy consumed to sustain it. Only few models of window opening behaviour exist and...... these are solely based on the thermal indoor/outdoor environment. Consequently, users of simulation software are often left with little or no guidance for the modelling of occupants' window opening behaviour, resulting in potentially large discrepancies between real and simulated energy consumption and...... indoor environment.Measurements of occupant's window opening behaviour were conducted in 15 dwellings in Denmark during eight months. Indoor and outdoor environmental conditions were monitored in an effort to relate the behaviour of the occupants to the environmental conditions. The dwellings were...

  16. Sound classification of dwellings - Comparison of schemes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    , there are significant discrepancies. Descriptors, number of quality classes, class intervals, class levels and status of the classification schemes in relation to legal requirements vary. In some countries the building code and the classification standard are incoherent. In other countries, they are...... strongly ”integrated”, implying that the building code refers to a specific class in a classification standard rather than describing requirements. Although the schemes prove useful on a national basis, the diversity in Europe is an obstacle for exchange of experience and for further development of design......National sound classification schemes for dwellings exist in nine countries in Europe, and proposals are under preparation in more countries. The schemes specify class criteria concerning several acoustic aspects, the main criteria being about airborne and impact sound insulation between dwellings...

  17. A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, A.; Andersen, C.E.; Majborn, B.; Ulbak, K.; Gravesen, P.

    A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels has been employed to investigate possibly radon-prone areas in Denmark and to find houses suitable for radon mitigation studies. The profile is defined as dwellings which are single-family houses with slab-on-grade foundation or partly...... basement/slab-on-grade foundation built on either fractured granitic basement rocks, or fractured limestone. Clayey till areas were also included in the profile in order to confirm earlier findings. Three areas representing these surface geologies were selected for indoor radon measurements with CR-39...... track detectors, and a total of 200 houses matching the profile underwent radon measurements during the winter 1994-95. The distribution of the measured radon concentrations were found in most cases to comply with log-normal distributions. Measurements in the living rooms of houses in each of the three...

  18. A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, A.; Andersen, C.E.; Majborn, B.;

    1996-01-01

    A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels has been employed to investigate possibly radon-prone areas in Denmark and to find houses suitable for radon mitigation studies. The profile is defined as dwellings which are single-family houses with slab-on-grade foundation or partly...... basement/slab-on-grade foundation built on either fractured granitic basement rocks, or fractured limestone. Clayey till areas were also included in the profile in order to confirm earlier findings. Three areas representing these surface geologies were selected for indoor radon measurements with CR-39...... track detectors, and a total of 200 houses matching the profile underwent radon measurements during the winter 1994-95. The distribution of the measured radon concentrations were found in most cases to comply with log-normal distributions. Measurements in the living rooms of houses in each of the three...

  19. Some aspects of protection against radon in dwellings and workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to radon progeny and some aspects of protection against radon in dwellings and workplaces are briefly described. The conversion factor from radon progeny exposure to effective dose is 1.4 mSv(mJhm-3)-1(5 mSvWLM-1) for workers and 1.1 mSv(mJhm-3)-1(4 mSvWLM-1) for members of the public, respectively. Action level related to radon concentration for remedial measures in dwellings is about 200-600 Bqm-3, with an annual occupancy of 7000 hours and an equilibrium factor of 0.4. The occupational annual limit on exposure to radon progeny is 14 mJhm-3(4 WLM) per year, averaged over 5 years and 35 mJhm-3(10 WLM) in a single year

  20. Measurement of radon concentration in dwellings in the region of highest lung cancer incidence in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of radon exhalation from soil and its concentration in indoor is found to be helpful in many investigations such as health risk assessment and others as radiation damage to bronchial cells which eventually can be the second leading cause of lung cancer next to smoking. The fact that Aizawl District, Mizoram, India has the highest lung cancer incidence rates among males and females in Age Adjusted Rate (AAR) in India as declared by Population Based Cancer Registry Report 2008 indicates the need for quantification of radon and its anomalies attached to it. Measurement of radon concentration had been carried out inside the dwellings in Aizawl district, Mizoram. A time integrated method of measurement was employed by using a solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) type (LR-115 films) kept in a twin cup dosimeter for measurement of concentration of radon and thoron. The dosimeters were suspended over bed rooms or living rooms in selected dwellings. They were deployed for a period of about 120 days at a time in 63 houses which were selected according to their place of location viz. fault region, places where fossil remains were found and geologically unidentified region. After the desired period of exposure, the detectors were retrieved and chemically etched which were then counted by using a spark counter. The recorded nuclear tract densities are then converted into air concentrations of Radon and Thoron

  1. Thermal modelling of greenhouses coupled with a dwelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuvillier, E.; Lagiere, P.

    The simplified model proposed allows to compute the evolution of thermal ambiance in a system incorporating a greenhouse with an hourly timestep. This model is based on an electrical scheme and resorts to easily determined thermal parameters. It was developed by means of measurements made in a test-cell on the one hand in a greenhouse actually linked to a dwelling-house on the other hand. Its use is justified by the results obtained as compared with in situ measurements.

  2. Exercise and Sleep in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Varrasse, Miranda; Li, Junxin; Gooneratne, Nalaka

    2015-01-01

    Insomnia and other sleep complaints are highly prevalent in community-dwelling older adults yet often go under detected. Age-related physiological changes may affect sleep, but sleep disturbances and complaints should not be considered normal in this population. Various physiological, psychological, and social consequences have been associated with insomnia and sleep complaints. Treatment options are available so it is imperative to diagnose and treat these individuals to promote healthy agin...

  3. Adaptation Strategies and Resilience to Climate Change of Historic Dwellings

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Rubio-Bellido; Jesus A. Pulido-Arcas; Jose M. Cabeza-Lainez

    2015-01-01

    Historic city centres have a large amount of dwellings in Europe, which were built to provide a comfortable shelter with the absence of mechanical means. The knowledge of climate responsive design strategies can play a significant role in reducing the energy demand of extant buildings, paving the way for its sustainable development in the face of the rising threat to its occupants of climate change. The residential architecture, developed, in most cases, in dense urban centres, was built usin...

  4. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rashedi, Vahid; Rezaei, Mohammad; Gharib, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mild cognitive impairment can be considered as an intermediate clinical state between normal cognitive aging and mild dementia. Elderly people with this impairment represent an at-risk group for the development of dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and its relationship with socio-demographic variables. Methods In this analytical-descriptive study, 212 ...

  5. Weekly working hours for Norwegian hospital doctors since 1994 with special attention to postgraduate training, work–home balance and the European Working Time Directive: a panel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors from 1994 to 2012 with special emphasis on the quality of postgraduate training and work–home balance, and in relation to the requirements of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Design Panel study based on postal questionnaires. Setting Norway. Participants Unbalanced cohort of 1300–1600 doctors in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Outcome measures Self-reported total weekly working hours and whether 45 weekly working hours are too short, sufficient, or too long to meet the quality requirements of obligatory postgraduate training for junior doctors. Results From 1994 to 2012, the number of weekly working hours was stable for senior (46–47 h) and junior (45–46 h) hospital doctors. In 2012, significantly more senior (27–35%) than junior (11–20%) doctors reported suboptimal work–home balance, defined as working more than 48 h a week. The majority perceived the present situation with an average of 45 h per week for juniors as sufficient for obligatory postgraduate specialist training, but doctors of higher age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08), senior doctors (1.07, 1.04 to 1.11) and doctors working in surgical specialties (OR 1 vs laboratory medicine 0.03, 0.01 to 0.25, internal medicine 0.31, 0.17 to 0.58, psychiatry 0.12, 0.04 to 0.36, paediatrics 0.36, 0.12 to 1.07, anaesthesiology 0.08, 0.02 to 0.39, gynaecology 0.07, 0.01 to 0.56 and others 0.39, 0.04 to 3.56) were more likely to want the work-week to be longer. Conclusions The weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors were always below the EWTD requirements. A significant growth of hospital doctor density over the past two decades, national regulations and cultural values might be important factors. Specialty differences in perception of sufficient training time may call for more flexibility in working time regulations. PMID:25311038

  6. Basement depressurization using dwelling mechanical exhaust ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical ventilation exhaust system is commonly used in France to generate air renewal into building and especially into dwelling. It consists of a permanent mechanical air extraction from technical rooms (kitchen, bathrooms and toilets) using a unique fan connected to exhaust ducts. Natural air inlets in living room and bed rooms ensure an air flow from living spaces towards technical rooms. To fight against radon into building, the most recognised efficient technique is the Soil Depressurization System (S.D.S.) consisting in depressurizing the house basement. The aim of this study is to test the ability of the dwelling mechanical ventilation system to depressurize the basement in conjunction with air renewal of a house. For that purpose, a S.D.S. has been installed in an experimental house at CSTB during its construction. At first, tests undertaken with a variable velocity fan connected to the S.D.S. have characterised the permeability of the basement. It is shown that basement can be depressurized adequately with a relatively low air flow rate. At a second stage, S.D.S. has been connected to the exhaust ventilation fan used for the mechanical ventilation of the house. Results obtained show the ability of such ventilation system to generate sufficient depressurization in the basement and to ensure simultaneously adequate air change rate in the dwelling. (author)

  7. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity, and...

  8. Special Attention Network

    CERN Document Server

    Indekeu, J O

    2003-01-01

    In this Note a social network model for opinion formation is proposed in which a person connected to $q$ partners pays an {\\em attention} $1/q$ to each partner. The mutual attention between two connected persons $i$ and $j$ is taken equal to the geometric mean $1/\\sqrt{q_iq_j}$. Opinion is represented as usual by an Ising spin $s=\\pm 1$ and mutual attention is given through a two-spin coupling $J_{ij} = J Q/\\sqrt{q_iq_j}$, $Q$ being the average connectivity in the network. Connectivity diminishes attention and only persons with low connectivity can pay special attention to each other leading to a durable common (or opposing) opinion. The model is solved in "mean-field" approximation and a critical "temperature" $T_c$ proportional to $JQ$ is found, which is independent of the number of persons $N$, for large $N$.

  9. National and Regional Surveys of Radon Concentration in Dwellings. Review of Methodology and Measurement Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable, comparable and 'fit for purpose' results are essential requirements for any decision based on analytical measurements. For the analyst, the availability of tested and validated sampling and analytical procedures is an extremely important tool for carrying out such measurements. For maximum utility, such procedures should be comprehensive, clearly formulated and readily available to both the analyst and the customer for reference. In the specific case of radon surveys, it is very important to design a survey in such a way as to obtain results that can reasonably be considered representative of a population. Since 2004, the Environment Programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at the development of a set of procedures for the measurement of radionuclides in terrestrial environmental samples. The development of radon measurement procedures for national and regional surveys started with the collection and review of more than 160 relevant scientific papers. On the basis of this review, this publication summarizes the methodology and the measurement techniques suitable for a population representative national or regional survey on radon concentration in the indoor air of dwellings. The main elements of the survey design are described and discussed, such as the sampling scheme, the protocols, the questionnaire and the data analysis, with particular attention to the potential biases that can affect the representativeness of the results. Moreover, the main measurement techniques suitable for national surveys on indoor radon are reviewed, with particular attention to the elements that can affect the precision and accuracy of the results

  10. Factors Influencing Dwell Fatigue Cracking in Notches of Powder Metallurgy Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, T. P.; Telesman, J.; Ghosn, L.; Garg, A.; Gayda, J.

    2011-01-01

    The influences of heat treatment and cyclic dwells on the notch fatigue resistance of powder metallurgy disk superalloys were investigated for low solvus high refractory (LSHR) and ME3 disk alloys. Disks were processed to produce material conditions with varied microstructures and associated mechanical properties. Notched specimens were first subjected to baseline dwell fatigue cycles having a dwell at maximum load, as well as tensile, stress relaxation, creep rupture, and dwell fatigue crack growth tests at 704 C. Several material heat treatments displayed a bimodal distribution of fatigue life with the lives varying by two orders-of-magnitude, while others had more consistent fatigue lives. This response was compared to other mechanical properties, in search of correlations. The wide scatter in baseline dwell fatigue life was observed only for material conditions resistant to stress relaxation. For selected materials and conditions, additional tests were then performed with the dwells shifted in part or in total to minimum tensile load. The tests performed with dwells at minimum load exhibited lower fatigue lives than max dwell tests, and also exhibited early crack initiation and a substantial increase in the number of initiation sites. These results could be explained in part by modeling evolution of peak stresses in the notch with continued dwell fatigue cycling. Fatigue-environment interactions were determined to limit life for the fatigue cycles with dwells.

  11. Radon, thoron and their progeny levels in some dwellings of Union Territory Chandigarh, India using SSNTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air quality is an important issue for protection against adverse health effects caused by the inhalation of pollutants because most individuals spend 90% of their time indoors and that indoor air quality is deteriorated by a large variety of sources. Out of these sources radon is a major pollutant and is an important global problem of radiation hygiene. Radon and its progeny are the major contributors in the radiation dose received by general population of the world. Next to cigarette smoking, the inhalation of radon gas and the products of its radioactive disintegration are considered the most significant cause of lung cancer. Due to the potentially serious public health implications of exposure to high levels of radon, the environmental monitoring of radon, thoron and their progeny in some dwellings of Chandigarh, union territory of India has been carried out. The radon-thoron twin dosimeter cups were used for the study. The aim of the study is the possible health risk assessment in the dwellings under consideration. (author)

  12. Characteristics of indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling while using air appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of radon and its progeny were investigated in different air conditions by turning four types of indoor air appliances on and off in a two-story concrete Japanese dwelling. The four appliances were air conditioner, air cleaner, gas heater and cooker hood. The measurements were done using two devices: (1) a Si-based semiconductor detector for continuous measurement of indoor radon concentration and (2) a ZnS(Ag) scintillation counting system for equilibrium-equivalent radon concentration. Throughout the entire experiment, the cooker hood was the most effective in decreasing indoor radon concentration over a long period of time and the less effective was the air conditioner, while the air cleaner and gas heater did not affect the concentration of radon. However, the results measured in each air condition will differ according to the lifestyles and activities of the inhabitants. In this study, indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling will be characterised by the different air conditions. (authors)

  13. Attentional Bias for Threat: Evidence for Delayed Disengagement from Emotional Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Elaine; Russo, Riccardo; Dutton, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports three new experiments suggesting that the valence of a face cue can influence attentional effects in a cueing paradigm. Moreover, heightened trait anxiety resulted in increased attentional dwell-time on emotional facial stimuli, relative to neutral faces. Experiment 1 presented a cueing task, in which the cue was either an “angry”, “happy”, or “neutral” facial expression. Targets could appear either in the same location as the face (valid trials) or in a different location to the face (invalid trials). Participants did not show significant variations across the different cue types (angry, happy, neutral) in responding to a target on valid trials. However, the valence of the face did affect response times on invalid trials. Specifically, participants took longer to respond to a target when the face cue was “angry” or “happy” relative to neutral. In Experiment 2, the cue-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was increased and an overall inhibition of return (IOR) effect was found (i.e., slower responses on valid trials). However, the “angry” face cue eliminated the IOR effect for both high and low trait anxious groups. In Experiment 3, threat-related and jumbled facial stimuli reduced the magnitude of IOR for high, but not for low, trait-anxious participants.These results suggest that: (i) attentional bias in anxiety may reflect a difficulty in disengaging from threat-related and emotional stimuli, and (ii) threat-related and ambiguous cues can influence the magnitude of the IOR effect. PMID:18273395

  14. Learning to Pay Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Slagter, Heleen A.; LUTZ, ANTOINE; Greischar, Lawrence L; Francis, Andrew D; Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Davis, James M.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The information processing capacity of the human mind is limited, as is evidenced by the so-called “attentional-blink” deficit: When two targets (T1 and T2) embedded in a rapid stream of events are presented in close temporal proximity, the second target is often not seen. This deficit is believed to result from competition between the two targets for limited attentional resources. Here we show, using performance in an attentional-blink task and scalp-recorded brain potentials, that meditatio...

  15. Attention enhances feature integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Liza; Schyns, Philippe G

    2003-08-01

    Perceptual processing delays between attribute dimensions (e.g. color, form and motion) [Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 264 (1997) 1407] have been attributed to temporal processing asynchronies resulting from functional segregation of visual information [Science 240 (1988) 740]. In addition, several lines of evidence converge to suggest that attention plays an important role in the integration of functionally processed information. However, exactly how attention modulates the temporal integration of information remains unclear. Here, we examined how attention modulates the integration of color and form into a unitary perception. Results suggest that attending to the location of an object enhances the integration of its defining attributes by speeding up the perceptual processing of each attribute dimension. Moreover, the perceptual asynchrony between attributes remains constant across attended and unattended conditions because attention seems to offer each processing dimension an equal processing advantage. PMID:12826102

  16. Survey of Occupant behavour and control of the indoor environment in Danish Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2007-01-01

    : Outdoor temperature, wind speed and solar radiation, the outdoor temperature had the largest effect on the proportion of dwellings with windows open and heating on. The solar radiation had a small effect on the proportion of dwellings with lights on, while none of the parameters seemed to affect the...... proportion of dwellings with solar shading in use. The most significant reason listed for opening the windows in summer and winter was to obtain more air movement. Danish dwellings and European offices were affected in the same way by the outdoor temperature, when it comes to the proportion of dwellings....../offices with windows open or heating on. The outdoor temperature did not seem to affect the proportion of dwellings with solar shading in use....

  17. Iconic memory requires attention

    OpenAIRE

    Persuh, Marjan; Genzer, Boris; Melara, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change detection paradigm (Experiment 1) or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2). In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization) even when co...

  18. Modelling imperfect attention

    OpenAIRE

    Manzini, Paola; Mariotti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel method to model an agent who is imperfectly attentive in the sense that she may consider only some of the alternatives available. Our methodology departs from the standard 'revealed preference' one: we make plausible assumptions on the values to the imperfectly attentive agent of different choice situations. We derive in this way a simple reduced-form model that is compatible with several cognitive processes underlying choice: the agent stochastically forms a consideration ...

  19. Switch Attention to Listen

    OpenAIRE

    Dhamani, Imran; Leung, Johahn; Carlile, Simon; Sharma, Mridula

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the ability to switch attention and selectively attend to relevant information in children (10–15 years) with persistent listening difficulties in noisy environments. A wide battery of clinical tests indicated that children with complaints of listening difficulties had otherwise normal hearing sensitivity and auditory processing skills. Here we show that these children are markedly slower to switch their attention compared to their age-matched peers. T...

  20. Cognition, emotion, and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Deficits of attention, emotion, and cognition occur in individuals with alcohol abuse and addiction. This review elucidates the concepts of attention, emotion, and cognition and references research on the underlying neural networks and their compromise in alcohol use disorder. Neuroimaging research on adolescents with family history of alcoholism contributes to the understanding of pre-existing brain structural conditions and characterization of cognition and attention processes in high-risk individuals. Attention and cognition interact with other brain functions, including perceptual selection, salience, emotion, reward, and memory, through interconnected neural networks. Recent research reports compromised microstructural and functional network connectivity in alcoholism, which can have an effect on the dynamic tuning between brain systems, e.g., the frontally based executive control system, the limbic emotion system, and the midbrain-striatal reward system, thereby impeding cognitive flexibility and behavioral adaptation to changing environments. Finally, we introduce concepts of functional compensation, the capacity to generate attentional resources for performance enhancement, and brain structure recovery with abstinence. An understanding of the neural mechanisms of attention, emotion, and cognition will likely provide the basis for better treatment strategies for developing skills that enhance alcoholism therapy adherence and quality of life, and reduce the propensity for relapse. PMID:25307584

  1. Attention allocation before antisaccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapetek, Anna; Jonikaitis, Donatas; Deubel, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the distribution of attention before antisaccades. We used a dual task paradigm, in which participants made prosaccades or antisaccades and discriminated the orientation of a visual probe shown at the saccade goal, the visual cue location (antisaccade condition), or a neutral location. Moreover, participants indicated whether they had made a correct antisaccade or an erroneous prosaccade. We observed that, while spatial attention in the prosaccade task was allocated only to the saccade goal, attention in the antisaccade task was allocated both to the cued location and to the antisaccade goal. This suggests parallel attentional selection of the cued and antisaccade locations. We further observed that in error trials--in which participants made an incorrect prosaccade instead of an antisaccade--spatial attention was biased towards the prosaccade goal. These erroneous prosaccades were mostly unnoticed and were often followed by corrective antisaccades with very short latencies (programming of the reflexive prosaccade to the cue and the antisaccade to the intended location. Taken together, our results suggest that attention allocation and saccade goal selection in the antisaccade task are mediated by a common competitive process. PMID:26790843

  2. Interocular conflict attracts attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffen, Chris L E; Hessels, Roy S; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    During binocular rivalry, perception alternates.between dissimilar images presented dichoptically. Since.its discovery, researchers have debated whether the phenomenon is subject to attentional control. While it is now clear that attentional control over binocular rivalry is possible, the opposite is less evident: Is interocular conflict (i.e., the situation leading to binocular rivalry) able to attract attention?In order to answer this question, we used a change blindness paradigm in which observers looked for salient changes in two alternating frames depicting natural scenes. Each frame contained two images: one for the left and one for the right eye. Changes occurring in a single image (monocular) were detected faster than those occurring in both images (binocular). In addition,monocular change detection was also faster than detection in fused versions of the changed and unchanged regions. These results show that interocular conflict is capable of attracting attention, since it guides visual attention toward salient changes that otherwise would remain unnoticed for longer. The results of a second experiment indicated that interocular conflict attracts attention during the first phase of presentation, a phase during which the stimulus is abnormally fused [added]. PMID:22167536

  3. Assessing Sustainable Retrofit of the old Dwellings Stock in Brussels Capital Region

    OpenAIRE

    TRACHTE, Sophie; EVRARD, Arnaud; Galan, Arancha; ATHANASSIADIS, Aristide; PLEA2014 - SUSTAINABLE HABITAT FOR DEVELOPING SOCIETIES

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the research project “B³RetroTool”, a typology of existing dwellings, built before 1945, has been made, based on a literature review of main steps of the urban and building development of Brussels area. This old part of the Brussels dwellings stock has been chosen because it represents 60% of the dwelling stock but moreover, it gives to Brussels its identity, its architectural and its historical legacy. This contribution presents the methodology to identify typology, to st...

  4. Focusing on fear: Attentional disengagement from emotional faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George A.; Bleakley, Cheryl; Hayward, James; Russo, Riccardo; Dutton, Kevin; Eltiti, Stacy; Fox, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Evidence suggests that anxiety is associated with a shift of visual attention toward threatening stimuli in the environment, such as facial expressions (Mogg & Bradley, 1999). More recent evidence, however, indicates that anxiety may be better characterized by a failure to rapidly disengage the visual attention system away from threat-related facial expressions (Fox, Russo, Bowles, & Dutton, 2001). The present study further investigates this delayed disengagement hypothesis. Results show that high trait-anxious individuals, in contrast to low trait-anxious individuals, take longer to classify peripheral target letters when fearful facial expressions were presented at fixation relative to sad, happy, or neutral expressions. These findings demonstrate a specific tendency to dwell on fear-relevant stimuli, as opposed to negative information in general. These findings are considered from an evolutionary perspective and the possible role of delayed disengagement from threat in the maintenance of anxiety states is also discussed. PMID:17460752

  5. Residual attentional capacity amongst young and elderly during dual and triple task walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Uffe; Hoeck, Hans C.; Simonsen, Ole;

    2008-01-01

    detected by a simple examination of the individuals gait performance. This study investigated the use of challenging dual task combinations to detect age related changes in gait performance. Eleven community-dwelling elderly (mean age 76 years) and 13 young subjects (mean age 26 years) participated in the...... were found. A combination of sufficiently challenging motor tasks and concurrent cognitive tasks can reveal signs of limited residual attentional capacity during walking amongst the elderly....

  6. Study of indoor radon levels in dwellings of Punjab and Haryana using solid state nuclear track detectors: a comparative review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on radon concentrations in dwellings from more than 175 different locations of Punjab and Haryana carried out by various researchers. The incorporated data were obtained using the passive solid state nuclear track detector technique. The estimated mean average annual indoor value for Punjab and Haryana are 108.2 Bq.m-3 and 182.1 Bq.m-3 respectively. Sunam in Punjab had the lowest observed indoor radon concentration of 54 Bq.m-3 and Chamba-Kalan in Punjab had the highest concentration of 235 Bq.m-3. Kurukshetra in Haryana had the lowest observed indoor radon concentration of 40.33 Bq.m-3 and Nigana Kalan in Haryana had the highest concentration of 915 Bq.m-3. The estimated indoor radon levels are compared with the indoor radon levels as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). It was observed that there are several locations in Punjab and Haryana where dwellings have higher annual average radon concentration. The radon values in these dwellings exceed the action level as per the ICRP recommendations. There is a need to cross check the radon levels at some locations using different time integrated/instantaneous techniques. (author)

  7. Calibration of diffusion barrier charcoal detectors and application to radon sampling in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero C, M.E.; Colmenero S, L.; Villalba, L.; Saenz P, J.; Cano J, A.; Moreno B, A.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E.F. [Cento de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Cruz G, S. De la [Facultad de Enfermeria y Nutriologia, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Av. Politecnico Nacional 2714, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Lopez M, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Some calibration conditions of diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) detectors for measuring radon concentration in air were studied. A series of functional expressions and graphs were developed to describe relationship between radon concentration in air and the activity adsorbed in DBCC, when placed in small chambers. A semi-empirical expression for the DBCC calibration was obtained, based on the detector integration time and the adsorption coefficient of radon on activated charcoal. Both, the integration time for 10 % of DBCC of the same batch, and the adsorption coefficient of radon for the activated charcoal used in these detectors, were experimentally determined. Using these values as the calibration parameters, a semi-empirical calibration function was used for the interpretation of the radon activities in the detectors used for sampling more than 200 dwellings in the major cities of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. (Author)

  8. Nonlinear microscopy of chitin and chitinous structures: a case study of two cave-dwelling insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabasović, Mihailo D.; Pantelić, Dejan V.; Jelenković, Branislav M.; Ćurčić, Srećko B.; Rabasović, Maja S.; Vrbica, Maja D.; Lazović, Vladimir M.; Ćurčić, Božidar P. M.; Krmpot, Aleksandar J.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a study of the nonlinear optical properties of chemically purified chitin and insect cuticle using two-photon excited autofluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. Excitation spectrum, fluorescence time, polarization sensitivity, and bleaching speed were measured. We have found that the maximum autofluorescence signal requires an excitation wavelength below 850 nm. At longer wavelengths, we were able to penetrate more than 150-μm deep into the sample through the chitinous structures. The excitation power was kept below 10 mW (at the sample) in order to diminish bleaching. The SHG from the purified chitin was confirmed by spectral- and time-resolved measurements. Two cave-dwelling, depigmented, insect species were analyzed and three-dimensional images of the cuticular structures were obtained.

  9. Calibration of diffusion barrier charcoal detectors and application to radon sampling in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some calibration conditions of diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) detectors for measuring radon concentration in air were studied. A series of functional expressions and graphs were developed to describe relationship between radon concentration in air and the activity adsorbed in DBCC, when placed in small chambers. A semi-empirical expression for the DBCC calibration was obtained, based on the detector integration time and the adsorption coefficient of radon on activated charcoal. Both, the integration time for 10 % of DBCC of the same batch, and the adsorption coefficient of radon for the activated charcoal used in these detectors, were experimentally determined. Using these values as the calibration parameters, a semi-empirical calibration function was used for the interpretation of the radon activities in the detectors used for sampling more than 200 dwellings in the major cities of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. (Author)

  10. Associations between grab sample and integrated radon measurements in dwellings in Maine and Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon concentrations were measured in several locations in each of approximately 100 dwellings in central Maine and in Houston, TX. Integrated samples were taken during the heating (or cooling) seasons with commercially available passive alpha track devices, while grab samples were taken at the time of integrated sampler deployment. Both indoor and outdoor measurements in both areas were distributed log normally, and that the geometric mean of indoor measurements in Maine was three times higher than that of corresponding measurements in the Houston area. The mean of the indoor grab sample measurements was not significantly different from the mean of the indoor integrated measurements, and the degree of correlation between the grab samples and a given indoor integrated sample was nearly as good as between integrated samples taken at different living area locations. (author)

  11. "Pandemic Public Health Paradox": Time Series Analysis of the 2009/10 Influenza A / H1N1 Epidemiology, Media Attention, Risk Perception and Public Reactions in 5 European Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Reintjes

    Full Text Available In 2009, influenza A H1N1 caused the first pandemic of the 21st century. Although a vaccine against this influenza subtype was offered before or at the onset of the second epidemic wave that caused most of the fatal cases in Europe, vaccination rates for that season were lower than expected. We propose that the contradiction between high risk of infection and low use of available prevention measures represents a pandemic public health paradox. This research aims for a better understanding of this paradox by exploring the time-dependent interplay among changing influenza epidemiology, media attention, pandemic control measures, risk perception and public health behavior among five European countries (Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Spain and the UK. Findings suggest that asynchronicity between media curves and epidemiological curves may potentially explain the pandemic public health paradox; media attention for influenza A H1N1 in Europe declined long before the epidemic reached its peak, and public risk perceptions and behaviors may have followed media logic, rather than epidemiological logic.

  12. "Pandemic Public Health Paradox": Time Series Analysis of the 2009/10 Influenza A / H1N1 Epidemiology, Media Attention, Risk Perception and Public Reactions in 5 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintjes, Ralf; Das, Enny; Klemm, Celine; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Keßler, Verena; Ahmad, Amena

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, influenza A H1N1 caused the first pandemic of the 21st century. Although a vaccine against this influenza subtype was offered before or at the onset of the second epidemic wave that caused most of the fatal cases in Europe, vaccination rates for that season were lower than expected. We propose that the contradiction between high risk of infection and low use of available prevention measures represents a pandemic public health paradox. This research aims for a better understanding of this paradox by exploring the time-dependent interplay among changing influenza epidemiology, media attention, pandemic control measures, risk perception and public health behavior among five European countries (Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Spain and the UK). Findings suggest that asynchronicity between media curves and epidemiological curves may potentially explain the pandemic public health paradox; media attention for influenza A H1N1 in Europe declined long before the epidemic reached its peak, and public risk perceptions and behaviors may have followed media logic, rather than epidemiological logic. PMID:26982071

  13. A Real Attention-Getter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    While most parents would agree that playing videos games is the antithesis of time well spent for their children, recent advances involving NASA biofeedback technology are proving otherwise. The same techniques used to measure brain activity in NASA pilots during flight simulation exercises are now a part of a revolutionary video game system that is helping to improve overall mental awareness for Americans of all ages, including those who suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

  14. The relationship between sound insulation and acoustic quality in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1998-01-01

    During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the difficulties in comparing the d...... to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings....

  15. Estimation of radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gautam Kumar Dey; Projit Kumar Das

    2012-02-01

    It has been established that radon and its airborne decay products can present serious radiation hazards. A long term exposure to high concentration of radon causes lung cancer. Besides, it is also known that out of the total radiation dose received from natural and man-made sources, 60% of the dose is due to radon and its progeny. Taking this into account, an attempt has been made to estimate radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati using aluminium dosimeter cups with CR-39 plastic detectors. Results of preliminary investigation presented in this paper show that the mean concentration is 21.31 Bq m−3.

  16. Multiexcited state study in InAs DWELL structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoluminescence (PL) spectra, their power and temperature dependences have been investigated for ground and excited states in InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in symmetric In0.15Ga0.85As/GaAs quantum well (QW) (dot-in-a-well, DWELL) structures. QD density was 1.3 x 1010 cm-2. The temperature and power dependences of QD PL spectra as well as two stages of PL thermal quenching in the temperature range of 80-300 K and the reason for the variety of activation energies are discussed.

  17. Multiexcited state study in InAs DWELL structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casas-Espinola, J.L. [ESFM - National Polytechnic Institute, U.P.A.L.M., Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Torchynska, T.V., E-mail: ttorch85@yahoo.com.m [ESFM - National Polytechnic Institute, U.P.A.L.M., Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Polupan, G.P.; Velazquez-Lozada, E. [ESIME - National Polytechnic Institute, U.P.A.L.M., Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)

    2009-11-25

    The photoluminescence (PL) spectra, their power and temperature dependences have been investigated for ground and excited states in InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in symmetric In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}As/GaAs quantum well (QW) (dot-in-a-well, DWELL) structures. QD density was 1.3 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2}. The temperature and power dependences of QD PL spectra as well as two stages of PL thermal quenching in the temperature range of 80-300 K and the reason for the variety of activation energies are discussed.

  18. Assessing the risks from exposure to radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors used to assess the radiation dose and health risks from human exposure to radon in dwellings are critically reviewed in this summary. Sources of indoor radon and determinants of air concentrations and exposure levels are given as well as the uncertainties that exist in their formulation. Methods of assessing health effects from inhalation of radon and its progeny are discussed with emphasis on dosimetry of radon daughters and formulation of risk per dose values. Finally, methods of assessing risks for general population exposures to indoor radon concentrations are treated

  19. Control strategies for demand controlled ventilation in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Drivsholm, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Ventilation of Danish and many other European dwellings has in the past mainly been achieved by natural ventilation or mechanical exhaust systems. Requirements for energy efficiency is changing this picture and mechanical ventilation with balanced exhaust and supply, efficient heat recovery and...... high. Too low ventilation rate results in poor air quality for the occupants and moisture risk. Too high ventilation rate results in unnecessary energy consumption. This paper presents results from a study where demand controlled ventilation was installed in an existing single family house. In the...

  20. Mental Fatigue Affects Visual Selective Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Léon G.; Maurits, Natasha M.; Lorist, Monicque M.

    2012-01-01

    Mental fatigue is a form of fatigue, induced by continuous task performance. Mentally fatigued people often report having a hard time keeping their attention focussed and being easily distracted. In this study, we examined the relation between mental fatigue, as induced by time on task, and attention-related changes in event-related potentials (ERPs). EEG, reaction times and response accuracies were obtained from 17 healthy volunteers during two hours of task performance on an adapted Eriksen...

  1. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Towards a Unified Developmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control…

  2. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D. Barber

    2015-01-01

    While CON–DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON–DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other hand, greater DMN–occipital anti-correlation supported better attentional control in TD children.

  3. The Effects of Socio-Economic Status on Infant Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearfield, Melissa W.; Jedd, Kelly E.

    2013-01-01

    The development of visual attention is a key component of cognitive functioning in infancy and childhood. By the time children in poverty reach school, deficits in attention are readily apparent; however, when these attention delays manifest is unknown. The current study tested attention longitudinally at 6, 9 and 12?months in infants from…

  4. Attention in Urban Foraging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm McCullough

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This position paper argues how there has to be much more to smart city learning than just wayshowing, and something better as augmented reality than covering the world with instructions. Attention has become something for many people to know better in an age of information superabundance. Embodied cognition explains how the work-ings of attention are not solely a foreground task, as if attention is something to pay. As digital media appear in ever more formats and contexts, their hybrids with physical form increasing influence how habitual engagement with persistent situations creates learning. Ambient information can just add to the distraction by multitasking, or it can support more favorable processes of shifting among different kinds of information with a particular intent. As one word for this latter process, foraging deserves more consideration in smart city learning

  5. Environmental constraints and call evolution in torrent-dwelling frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutte, Sandra; Dubois, Alain; Howard, Samuel D; Marquez, Rafael; Rowley, Jodi J L; Dehling, J Maximilian; Grandcolas, Philippe; Rongchuan, Xiong; Legendre, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Although acoustic signals are important for communication in many taxa, signal propagation is affected by environmental properties. Strong environmental constraints should drive call evolution, favoring signals with greater transmission distance and content integrity in a given calling habitat. Yet, few empirical studies have verified this prediction, possibly due to a shortcoming in habitat characterization, which is often too broad. Here we assess the potential impact of environmental constraints on the evolution of advertisement call in four groups of torrent-dwelling frogs in the family Ranidae. We reconstruct the evolution of calling site preferences, both broadly categorized and at a finer scale, onto a phylogenetic tree for 148 species with five markers (∼3600 bp). We test models of evolution for six call traits for 79 species with regard to the reconstructed history of calling site preferences and estimate their ancestral states. We find that in spite of existing morphological constraints, vocalizations of torrent-dwelling species are most probably constrained by the acoustic specificities of torrent habitats and particularly their high level of ambient noise. We also show that a fine-scale characterization of calling sites allows a better perception of the impact of environmental constraints on call evolution. PMID:26960074

  6. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashedi, Vahid; Rezaei, Mohammad; Gharib, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mild cognitive impairment can be considered as an intermediate clinical state between normal cognitive aging and mild dementia. Elderly people with this impairment represent an at-risk group for the development of dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and its relationship with socio-demographic variables. Methods In this analytical-descriptive study, 212 subjects admitted to Hamadan’s day care centers were selected through simple random sampling method. To gather the data, MMSE was used as well as a questionnaire containing demographic variables. Data analysis was completed through SPSS-16. Results The sample consisted of 17.9% male, 59.4% of whom were married. According to the results, 96 cases (45.3%) suffered from mild (MMSE≥22), 110 cases (51.9%) from moderate (11≤MMSE≤21) and 6 cases (2.8%) from severe cognitive disorder (MMSE≤10). As findings revealed, factors such as age (Pv = 0.005, r = -0.491) and schooling (Pv < 0.001) are of significant relationship with MMSE score. Discussion Prevalence of cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults was of normal range. Hence, familial relations and social support can decrease mental status disorder. PMID:25436081

  7. Lung cancer and radon daughter exposure in mines and dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four case-referent studies have been undertaken, two regarding miners with occupational exposure to radon and radon daughters and two regarding rural populations with indoor radon daughter exposure. Furthermore, a correlation study was perfomed with regard to background gamma radiation, assumed to correlate with radon emanation, and the countyspecific, directly age-standardized lung cancer mortality. The results as well as other facts indicate that radiation might be important for the initiation of lung cancer, and that smoking is likely to mainly act as a promoter. In mines, exposure to radon and its daughters is associated with a substantial risk for lung cancer, but there seems to be a complex relationship between radon and radon daughter exposure and smoking since smoking also causes bronchitis, hindering the exposure of the epithelium to the very short ranging alpha radiation, resulting in a more or less additive relation between radon daughter exposure and smoking. In dwellings a multiplicative interaction between the two factors is rather clearly pronounced, however. The studies in the rural polulations as well as the correlation study strengthen the hypothesis that exposure to radon and radon daughters in dwellings is pertinent to the question of the etiology of lung cancer. Calculations of etiological fractions suggest that about 30% of the lung cancer mortality in the population might be due to avoidable indoor exposure to radon and radon daughters

  8. The scaling of attention networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Jun; Wu, Lingfei

    2016-04-01

    We use clicks as a proxy of collective attention and construct networks to study the temporal dynamics of attention. In particular we collect the browsing records of millions of users on 1000 Web forums in two months. In the constructed networks, nodes are threads and edges represent the switch of users between threads in an hour. The investigated network properties include the number of threads N, the number of users UV, and the number of clicks, PV. We find scaling functions PV ∼ UV θ1, PV ∼N θ3, and UV ∼N θ2, in which the scaling exponents are always greater than 1. This means that (1) the studied networks maintain a self-similar flow structure in time, i.e., large networks are simply the scale-up versions of small networks; and (2) large networks are more "productive", in the sense that an average user would generate more clicks in the larger systems. We propose a revised version of Zipf's law to quantify the time-invariant flow structure of attention networks and relate it to the observed scaling properties. We also demonstrate the applied consequences of our research: forum-classification based on scaling properties.

  9. Some influence parameters of the radon and thoron daughters concentrations in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man spents at least 60% of his life indoor and this tact imposes a careful investigation of his habitual environment. Indoor exposure rises up to 50% of the total radiation exposure of the public to natural sources. It is also well known that inhalation of radon is the principal mechanism of human exposure to ionising radiation and that the exposure to high levels of radon short-lived decay products (radon daughters) is undesirable since it has been shown to cause lung cancer. In Romania, during the 80's, several industrial wastes with high natural radioactivity have been used as building materials. At the same time, the energetic problems of those years obliged the population to a very drastically dwelling isolation in order to preserve the heat. These factors, in addition with other influencing parameters have been investigated. (author)

  10. Exposure to ultrafine particles in relation to indoor events and dwelling characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spilak, Michal; Frederiksen, Marie; Kolarik, Barbara;

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) in homes is associated with health risks such as cardiovascular disease and/or respiratory problems. These risks are heightened by the long time that people spend indoors. Therefore reducing the particle concentration in homes leads to improved health among its...... occupants. The use of particle filtration units may be an effective way of reducing UFP indoors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between UFP concentrations and dwelling characteristics, estimate UFP removal rates indoors and to assess the effectiveness of installed particle filtration....... Furthermore, the winter season was associated significantly with high UFP levels indoors. Results of our study also indicated that owning a pet, wood-type floors and floor levels close to the ground are associated with increased UFP levels....

  11. Attention, Predation, Counterintuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    of Dracula to account for the novel’s impact and resilience. Dracula connected squarely with late-Victorian anxieties, but the novel also appeals to trans-historical adaptive dispositions. I analyze Stoker’s use of narrative strategies to grab and sustain attention, and Count Dracula as a...

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF BAT ECTOPARASITE LEPTOCIMEX INORDINATUS FROM BAT-DWELLING CAVE, KANCHANABURI PROVINCE, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potiwat, Rutcharin; Sungvornyothin, Sungsit; Samung, Yudthana; Payakkapol, Anon; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn

    2016-01-01

    Bat bugs are blood-feeding insects of bats or warm blooded animals and humans. Since 2011, Leptocimex spp (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) has been reported in Thailand. However, microscopic examination of Leptocimex spp is complicated, especially when the entire body of the specimen is not available. To confirm the phenotypic identification of L. inordinatus from a limestone bat cave in Thailand, partial fragments of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene and 16S mitochondrial ribosomal DNA were PCR amplified and sequenced, which revealed 97% sequence identity with Cimicidae family members, being most similar to Cacodminae gen. sp. and C. vicinus, both bat bugs. Phylogenetic tree construction showed that L. inordinatus has a separate genetic lineage from that of with human bed bugs (Cimex hemipterus or C. lectularius), swallow bugs and other tick species. The presence of L. inordinatus in a bat-dwelling cave frequented by humans presents a potential public health problem requiring attention in particular regarding the possibility of zoonotic transmission of pathogens. PMID:27086421

  13. Spatiotemporal and variability gait data in community-dwelling elderly women from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata N. Kirkwood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Gait is an extremely complex motor task; therefore, gait data should encompass as many gait parameters as possible. Objective To provide reference values for gait measurements obtained from a Brazilian group of community-dwelling elderly females between the ages of 65 and 89 years and to apply the PCA-biplot to yield insight into different walking strategies that might occur during the aging process. Method 305 elderly community-dwelling females living in Brazil were stratified into four age groups: 65-69 years (N=103; 70-74 years (N=95; 75-79 years (N=77; and ≥80 years (N=30. Age, height, and BMI were assessed to describe the characteristics of the groups. Gait spatiotemporal and variability data were obtained using the GAITRite® system. Principal component analysis, followed by MANOVA and the PCA-biplot approach were used to analyze the data. Results 95% CI showed that only three components – rhythm, variability, and support - together explained 74.2% of the total variance in gait that were different among the groups. The older groups (75-79 and ≥80 years walked with lower than average velocity, cadence, and step length and were above average for the variables stance, step, swing, and double support time and the ≥80 year old group presented the highest gait variability compared to the other groups. Conclusion Aging is associated with decreased gait velocity and cadence and increased stance, step time, and variability, but not associated with changes in base of support. In addition, the PCA-biplot indicates a decline towards decreased rhythm and increased variability with aging.

  14. Dwell Notch Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of a Powder Metallurgy Nickel Disk Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Yamada, Y.; Ghosn, L. J.; Jayaraman, N.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the processes which govern dwell notch low cycle fatigue (NLCF) behavior of a powder metallurgy (P/M) ME3 disk superalloy. The emphasis was placed on the environmentally driven mechanisms which may embrittle the highly stressed notch surface regions and reduce NLCF life. In conjunction with the environmentally driven notch surface degradation processes, the visco-plastic driven mechanisms which can significantly change the notch root stresses were also considered. Dwell notch low cycle fatigue testing was performed in air and vacuum on a ME3 P/M disk alloy specimens heat treated using either a fast or a slow cooling rate from the solutioning treatment. It was shown that dwells at the minimum stress typically produced a greater life debit than the dwells applied at the maximum stress, especially for the slow cooled heat treatment. Two different environmentally driven failure mechanisms were identified as the root cause of early crack initiation in the min dwell tests. Both of these failure mechanisms produced mostly a transgranular crack initiation failure mode and yet still resulted in low NLCF fatigue lives. The lack of stress relaxation during the min dwell tests produced higher notch root stresses which caused early crack initiation and premature failure when combined with the environmentally driven surface degradation mechanisms. The importance of environmental degradation mechanisms was further highlighted by vacuum dwell NLCF tests which resulted in considerably longer NLCF lives, especially for the min dwell tests.

  15. 24 CFR 200.926 - Minimum property standards for one and two family dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... §§ 200.926a-200.926e, apply to single family detached homes, duplexes, three-unit homes, and to living... and two family dwellings. 200.926 Section 200.926 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... Minimum Property Standards § 200.926 Minimum property standards for one and two family dwellings....

  16. Attention in schizophrenia and in epileptic psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.C.J Kairalla

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive behavior of human beings is usually supported by rapid monitoring of outstanding events in the environment. Some investigators have suggested that a primary attention deficit might trigger symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition, researchers have long discussed the relationship between schizophrenia and the schizophrenia-like psychosis of epilepsy (SLPE. On the basis of these considerations, the objective of the present study was to investigate attention performance of patients with both disorders. Patient age was 18 to 60 years, and all patients had received formal schooling for at least four years. Patients were excluded if they had any systemic disease with neurologic or psychiatric comorbidity, or a history of brain surgery. The computer-assisted TAVIS-2R test was applied to all patients and to a control group to evaluate and discriminate between selective, alternating and sustained attention. The TAVIS-2R test is divided into three parts: one for selective attention (5 min, the second for alternating attention (5 min, and the third for the evaluation of vigilance or sustained attention (10 min. The same computer software was used for statistical analysis of reaction time, omission errors, and commission errors. The sample consisted of 36 patients with schizophrenia, 28 with interictal SLPE, and 47 healthy controls. The results of the selective attention tests for both patient groups were significantly lower than that for controls. The patients with schizophrenia and SLPE performed differently in the alternating and sustained attention tests: patients with SLPE had alternating attention deficits, whereas patients with schizophrenia showed deficits in sustained attention. These quantitative results confirmed the qualitative clinical observations for both patient groups, that is, that patients with schizophrenia had difficulties in focusing attention, whereas those with epilepsy showed perseveration in attention focus.

  17. Selective Attention and Drug Related Attention Bias in Methadone Maintenance Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Nejati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems of the drug abusers is drug related attention bias, which causes craving, and as a result drive the drug abusers to take narcotics. Methadone is used as a maintenance treatment for drug abusers. The purpose of this study is evaluation of the effect of Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT on selective attention and drug related attention bias. This study investigated drug cue-related attention bias and selective attention in 16 methadone-maintained patients before and 45 days after methadone therapy period. Stroop color-word test and addiction Stroop test were used as measurement methods. Results show less reaction time and higher accuracy in Color-Word Stroop Test after MMT and less delay for addict related word in addiction Stroop test. It is concluded that methadone can improve selective attention capability and reduce drug related attention bias.

  18. A chaotic model of sustaining attention problem in attention deficit disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, G.; Jafari, S.; Sprott, J. C.; Towhidkhah, F.; Hashemi Golpayegani, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of keeping an attention level is one of the common symptoms of attention deficit disorder. Dopamine deficiency is introduced as one of the causes of this disorder. Based on some physiological facts about the attention control mechanism and chaos intermittency, a behavioral model is presented in this paper. This model represents the problem of undesired alternation of attention level, and can also suggest different valuable predictions about a possible cause of attention deficit disorder. The proposed model reveals that there is a possible interaction between different neurotransmitters which help the individual to adaptively inhibit the attention switching over time. The result of this study can be used to examine and develop a new practical and more appropriate treatment for the problem of sustaining attention.

  19. OPTIMAL DESIGNS AND CAPABILITY LIMITS OF SINGLE ROLLER-TO-CAM INDEXING MECHANISMS FOR THREE DWELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. K. S. TRIPATHI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the continuous contact single roller-to-cam indexing mechanism for optimal designs and capability limits, based on generic transmission and curvature constraint for three dwell periods. First of all, the paper determines the solutions of the problems associated with multiple dwells and then develops optimal designs for three maximum extent dwell periods with equal indexing angles with curvature and transmission constraints. Next, stipulating that the three dwell periods should be equal; iteration is done. This gives optimal designs for three equal maximized dwells with equal indexing periods with curvature and transmission constraints. Final information in the form of capability limits will be very helpful to those who search for various alternative indexing mechanisms for several applications of automatic and packaging industries.

  20. Popularity, Novelty and Attention

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Fang

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the role that popularity and novelty play in attracting the attention of users to dynamic websites. We do so by determining the performance of three different strategies that can be utilized to maximize attention. The first one prioritizes novelty while the second emphasizes popularity. A third strategy looks myopically into the future and prioritizes stories that are expected to generate the most clicks within the next few minutes. We show that the first two strategies should be selected on the basis of the rate of novelty decay, while the third strategy performs sub-optimally in most cases. We also demonstrate that the relative performance of the first two strategies as a function of the rate of novelty decay changes abruptly around a critical value, resembling a phase transition in the physical world. 1

  1. Attention in emotion regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gelow, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The concept of emotion and how to regulate it is a central aspect of modern psychology. Within the process model of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998), one issue is how attentional deployment affects emotion regulation and how this can be measured. In task 1, pictures of positive or negative valence were showed in two conditions, either attend or decrease emotional reaction, while participants’ eye movements were followed with an eye tracker. Ratings of arousal and valence were significantly af...

  2. Gaming the Attention Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Daniel; Lawhead, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The future of human computation (HC) benefits from examining tasks that agents already perform and designing environments to give those tasks computational significance. We call this natural human computation (NHC). We consider the possible future of NHC through the lens of Swarm!, an application under development for Google Glass. Swarm! motivates users to compute the solutions to a class of economic optimization problems by engaging the attention dynamics of crowds. We argue that anticipati...

  3. Does attention exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Keith

    2007-01-01

    In the introduction to the Phenomenology of Perception, Merleau-Ponty (2002: 34) states that ‘Attention, [...] as a general and formal activity, does not exist’. This paper examines the meaning and truth of this difficult and surprising statement, along with its implications for the account of perception given by theorists such as Dretske (1988) and Peacocke (1983). In order to elucidate Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenological account of human perception, I will present two alternative models1 of ho...

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic t...

  5. Attention-Seeking Displays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Számadó

    Full Text Available Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest.

  6. Attention-Seeking Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Számadó, Szabolcs

    2015-01-01

    Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest. PMID:26287489

  7. Hierarchical nonlinear dynamics of human attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I; Tristan, Irma; Varona, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Attention is the process of focusing mental resources on a specific cognitive/behavioral task. Such brain dynamics involves different partially overlapping brain functional networks whose interconnections change in time according to the performance stage, and can be stimulus-driven or induced by an intrinsically generated goal. The corresponding activity can be described by different families of spatiotemporal discrete patterns or sequential dynamic modes. Since mental resources are finite, attention modalities compete with each other at all levels of the hierarchy, from perception to decision making and behavior. Cognitive activity is a dynamical process and attention possesses some universal dynamical characteristics. Thus, it is time to apply nonlinear dynamical theory for the description and prediction of hierarchical attentional tasks. Such theory has to include the analyses of attentional control stability, the time cost of attention switching, the finite capacity of informational resources in the brain, and the normal and pathological bifurcations of attention sequential dynamics. In this paper we have integrated today's knowledge, models and results in these directions. PMID:25869439

  8. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Toward a Unified Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children’s performances in an attention switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control during the preschool years. The second literature encompasses a large and robust set of phenomena for the same developmental period that indicate a ...

  9. Defining the Focus of Attention: Effects of Attention on Perceived Exertion and Fatigue.

    OpenAIRE

    Keith eLohse; SHERWOOD, DAVID E.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript presents two experiments designed to explore the effects of attention on perceived exertion and time to failure in a fatiguing athletic task. There were two major motivating factors for these experiments. First, there are few studies evaluating attentional focus effects in endurance tasks and, second, there is a lack of integration between studies of attentional focus as external/internal (e.g., Wulf, 2007a) compared to associative/dissociative (e.g., Stevinson and Biddle, 199...

  10. Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Kai eChang; Caterina ePesce; Yi-Te eChiang; Cheng-Yuh eKuo; Dong-Yang eFong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict) control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT), with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate inte...

  11. The dynamic pattern of human attention

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min

    2013-01-01

    A mass of traces of human activities show diverse dynamic patterns. In this paper, we comprehensively investigate the dynamic pattern of human attention defined by the quantity of interests on subdisciplines in an online academic communication forum. Both the expansion and exploration of human attention have a power-law scaling relation with browsing actions, of which the exponent is close to that in one-dimension random walk. Furthermore, the memory effect of human attention is characterized by the power-law distributions of both the return interval time and return interval steps, which is reinforced by studying the attention shift that monotonically increase with the interval order between pairs of continuously segmental sequences of expansion. At last, the observing dynamic pattern of human attention in the browsing process is analytically described by a dynamic model whose generic mechanism is analogy to that of human spatial mobility. Thus, our work not only enlarges the research scope of human dynamics,...

  12. International proposal for an acoustic classification scheme for dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic classification schemes specify different quality levels for acoustic conditions. Regulations and classification schemes for dwellings typically include criteria for airborne and impact sound insulation, façade sound insulation and service equipment noise. However, although important for...... European countries have introduced classification schemes. The schemes typically include four classes. Comparative studies have shown significant discrepancies between countries due to national development of schemes. The diversity is an obstacle for exchange of construction experience for different...... classes, implying also trade barriers. Thus, a harmonized classification scheme would be useful, and the European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", running 2009-2013 with members from 32 countries, including three overseas...

  13. Wood-burning stoves in low-carbon dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Afshari, Alireza;

    2013-01-01

    overlooked source for heating. A wood-burning stove is considered low-carbon technology since its fuel is based on local residual biomass. A field study investigating how modern wood-burning stoves operated in modern single-family houses showed that intermittent heat supply occasionally conflicted with the...... primary heating system and that chimney exhaust occasionally conflicted with the ventilation system causing overheating and particles in the indoor environment. Nonetheless, most of the wood-burning stoves contributed considerably to the total heating. On this background, it was concluded that better...... combustion technology and automatics, controlling the interplay between stove and house, can make wood-burning stoves suitable for low-carbon dwellings and meet the remaining heat demand during the coldest period. It was further concluded that new guidelines need to be elaborated about how to install and...

  14. Technology Solutions Case Study: Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-11-01

    The most common method of measuring air leakage is to perform single (or solo) blower door pressurization and/or depressurization test. In detached housing, the single blower door test measures leakage to the outside. In attached housing, however, this “solo” test method measures both air leakage to the outside and air leakage between adjacent units through common surfaces. In an attempt to create a simplified tool for predicting leakage to the outside, Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) performed a preliminary statistical analysis on blower door test results from 112 attached dwelling units in four apartment complexes. Although the subject data set is limited in size and variety, the preliminary analyses suggest significant predictors are present and support the development of a predictive model. Further data collection is underway to create a more robust prediction tool for use across different construction types, climate zones, and unit configurations.

  15. A survey of indoor radon concentrations in dwellings in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first systematic radon survey in Slovenia was performed in winter period 1993-94. From a total of 1000 randomly selected homes, radon in 892 homes was measured using CR-39 track-etch detector. A median radon concentration of 54 Bq/m3 was found as an annual average of radon in Slovenian dwellings. Some areas in the country - mainly in the Dinaric region - could be classified as radon prone areas. Indoor radon in the urban environment was found to be considerably lower than in rural regions. An action level of 400 Bq/m3 in existing houses was derived from the data obtained and 200 Bq/m3 for future buildings is proposed. (author)

  16. Assessment of seasonal indoor radon concentration in dwellings of Western Haryana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radon 222Rn in indoor air is a significant cause of lung cancer and the houses are an important exposure location due to the large proportion of time spent at home. The indoor radon measurements have been carried out in some of the dwellings belonging to different villages of Fatehbad and Hisar districts of Western Haryana. LR-115 Type II plastic track detectors in bare mode were used for the measurement of indoor radon concentration for over a period of one year. The calculated annual average indoor radon concentration values vary from 126.3 Bq m−3 to 172.1 Bq m−3 with an average value of 145.21 Bq m−3, which is less than the recommended action level (200–300 Bq m−3). The values of annual effective dose vary from 2.16 mSv to 2.94 mSv which is less than the lower limit of the recommended action level (3–10 mSv). The measured values of lifetime fatality risk vary from 1.67 to 2.27 with an average value of 1.92. The winter to summer ratio calculated for the studied dwellings ranges from 0.86 to 2.15 with an average of 1.46. The results indicate that the indoor radon concentration is higher in winter season than in the summer season. An attempt has also been made to find a correlation between the ventilation conditions and the measured values of indoor radon concentration. In most of the cases the radon values are less in well ventilated houses than partially/poorly ventilated houses. The measured indoor radon concentration values for the studied area are on the higher side than the world average of 40 Bq m−3.

  17. Role of environmental hazards in fall of community dwelling elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence linking home hazards to falls has not been well established. Falls and fall injury are a major public health concern for the elderly. Fall of elderly is very much affected by environmental hazards. Falls are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in persons older than 60. There is a greater-than-linear increase in the rate of falls with environmental hazards. This cross section survey will not only lay the foundation for further study on this topic but also provide the basis for the development of preventive program of falls for the elders of Pakistan. Objective: To explore the role of environmental hazards of fall in the community dwelling elders is the area which is lacking in research. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted from October to December 2010 in Lahore and its peripheries and also the patients in hospital settings come after fractures or fall injuries. The total number of people included was 100. Community dwelling Elders above 60 years having recent history of at least one fall were included regardless of gender. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 11.5. Results: There were 71 people out of 100 who fell inside the home, 10 fell outside the home and 18 were not applicable to this question. There were 19% people, who fell repeatedly at one place, 31 people replied about hazard environment where fallen that contribute to fall. According to 24 people they had Safety checks of their home yard and/ or neighborhood which will assist to avoid future fall. Conclusion: Most elderly persons live in a risky home setting. It is vital that environmental hazard be recognized and removed for wellbeing of elderly. (author)

  18. Assessing the molecular genetics of attention networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfaff Donald W

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current efforts to study the genetic underpinnings of higher brain functions have been lacking appropriate phenotypes to describe cognition. One of the problems is that many cognitive concepts for which there is a single word (e.g. attention have been shown to be related to several anatomical networks. Recently, we have developed an Attention Network Test (ANT that provides a separate measure for each of three anatomically defined attention networks. Results In this study we have measured the efficiency of neural networks related to aspects of attention using the ANT in a population of 200 adult subjects. We then examined genetic polymorphisms in four candidate genes (DRD4, DAT, COMT and MAOA that have been shown to contribute to the risk of developing various psychiatric disorders where attention is disrupted. We find modest associations of several polymorphisms with the efficiency of executive attention but not with overall performance measures such as reaction time. Conclusions These results suggest that genetic variation may underlie inter-subject variation in the efficiency of executive attention. This study also shows that genetic influences on executive attention may be specific to certain anatomical networks rather than affecting performance in a global or non-specific manner. Lastly, this study further validates the ANT as an endophenotypic assay suitable for assessing how genes influence certain anatomical networks that may be disrupted in various psychiatric disorders.

  19. Sustained Attention in Children With Two Etiologies of Early Hydrocephalus

    OpenAIRE

    Swartwout, Maegan D.; Cirino, Paul T.; Hampson, Amy W.; Fletcher, Jack M.; BRANDT, MICHAEL E.; Dennis, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have shown that children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) and hydrocephalus have attention problems on parent ratings and difficulties in stimulus orienting associated with a posterior brain attention system. Less is known about response control and inhibition associated with an anterior brain attention system. Using the Gordon Vigilance Task (Gordon, 1983), we studied error rate, reaction time, and performance over time for sustained attention, a key anterior attentio...

  20. The Normalization Model of Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, John H.; Heeger, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Attention has been found to have a wide variety of effects on the responses of neurons in visual cortex. We describe a model of attention that exhibits each of these different forms of attentional modulation, depending on the stimulus conditions and the spread (or selectivity) of the attention field in the model. The model helps reconcile proposals that have been taken to represent alternative theories of attention. We argue that the variety and complexity of the results reported in the liter...

  1. The optimum timing and maximum impact of full rehabilitation of New Zealand housing stock

    OpenAIRE

    Johnstone, I M

    1998-01-01

    The author develops a simulation model to estimatethe optimum timing and maximum impact of full rehabilitation of New Zealand housing stock. The model is based on the theories of classical population dynamics. Data used in the model include empirical estimates of the mortality of New Zealand housing stock, assumed schedules of depreciation of dwelling services, and assumed schedules of annual maintenance costs. The dwelling service years provided by dwellings serve as a proxy for benefits of ...

  2. Teeth and physical fitness in a community-dwelling 40 to 79-year-old Japanese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Akinari; Takahashi, Ippei; Sawada, Kaori; Naoki, Akimoto; Oyama, Toshirou; Tamura, Yoshihiro; Osanai, Toshiyuki; Satake, Anna; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Kobayashi, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Decline in the number of teeth and physical fitness begins from 40 years of age; however, several epidemiological studies have identified relationships between oral conditions and physical performance parameters in community-dwelling elderly population. The aim of this study was to validate the relationship between the muscle mass and its function and oral conditions (number of teeth and dental occlusion) after 40 years of age in a community-dwelling population in Japan. Materials and methods The subjects comprised of 552 volunteers (198 males and 354 females, 40–79 years) who participated in the Iwaki Health Promotion Project in 2013. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed with the measures of the muscle mass and its function as objective variables and the measures of the number of teeth, age, body mass index, medical history, serum albumin concentration, smoking status, habitual alcohol intake, marital status, education levels, and exercising habits as explanatory variables. The relationships between the Eichner index and the muscle mass and its function were analyzed using analysis of covariance, with adjustment for confounding factors. Results After adjusting for confounding factors, the number of teeth was shown to be an independent risk factor for the timed 10 m walk test (in females) and the skeletal muscle mass of the whole body (in males). The results also revealed that the timed 10 m walk test was significantly correlated with the Eichner index (Classes A and C in females were correlated). Conclusion This cross-sectional study on a Japanese community-dwelling population revealed relationships between oral conditions and the muscle mass and its function. However, the interpretation of our results was hampered by a lack of data, including those on socioeconomic status and longitudinal observations. Future research exploring teeth loss and the muscle mass and its function is warranted. PMID:27418813

  3. Neurofibromatozis and Attention Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ERYILMAZ et al.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type VI, a disease characterized by the presence of café-au-lait spots withoutthe presence of neurofibromas typically present in neurofibromatosis, as well as cognitivefunction and speech problems, often shows neurological involvement. We describe a case of a14-year-old child who has speech problems and isolated cafè-au-lait macules. We performedan IQ test on him and he scored 70 points. His problems started when he was approximately 5years old (school age. He was diagnosed with attention deficit disorder syndrome withouthyperactivity after neuropsychiatric investigation. We reported this case to improve recognitionof NF VI in children who have cognitive function problems.

  4. A neural theory of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    2005-01-01

    A neural theory of visual attention (NTVA) is presented. NTVA is a neural interpretation of C. Bundesen's (1990) theory of visual attention (TVA). In NTVA, visual processing capacity is distributed across stimuli by dynamic remapping of receptive fields of cortical cells such that more processing...... resources (cells) are devoted to behaviorally important objects than to less important ones. By use of the same basic equations used in TVA, NTVA accounts for a wide range of known attentional effects in human performance (reaction times and error rates) and a wide range of effects observed in firing rates...

  5. Implicit temporal expectation attenuates auditory attentional blink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Shen

    Full Text Available Attentional blink (AB describes a phenomenon whereby correct identification of a first target impairs the processing of a second target (i.e., probe nearby in time. Evidence suggests that explicit attention orienting in the time domain can attenuate the AB. Here, we used scalp-recorded, event-related potentials to examine whether auditory AB is also sensitive to implicit temporal attention orienting. Expectations were set up implicitly by varying the probability (i.e., 80% or 20% that the probe would occur at the +2 or +8 position following target presentation. Participants showed a significant AB, which was reduced with the increased probe probability at the +2 position. The probe probability effect was paralleled by an increase in P3b amplitude elicited by the probe. The results suggest that implicit temporal attention orienting can facilitate short-term consolidation of the probe and attenuate auditory AB.

  6. Cognitive programs: software for attention's executive

    OpenAIRE

    Tsotsos, John K; Kruijne, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    What are the computational tasks that an executive controller for visual attention must solve? This question is posed in the context of the Selective Tuning model of attention. The range of required computations go beyond top-down bias signals or region-of-interest determinations, and must deal with overt and covert fixations, process timing and synchronization, information routing, memory, matching control to task, spatial localization, priming, and coordination of bottom-up with top-down in...

  7. A study of urbanization and regional characteristics of dwellings with a view to protection calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to collect the data necessary to the development of calculation methods in order to assess the protection against irradiation presented by dwellings in case of accident. The main points investigated were: the stock of dwellings in France together with a general review of European dwellings, and its utilization; individual houses both industrial and conventional; modern and old apartment houses; the elements of the various construction types (walls, floor, roof, apertures..): ventilation standards; masonry materials. Various parameters were collected in order to assess the doses likely to be delivered to the inhabitants

  8. Exposure to radon in dwellings below the ground level in the area of Zagreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon measurements were carried out in 44 dwellings at 22 locations in the area of Zagreb with the aim of establishing possible differences in radon levels between dwellings located below ground level, and those on higher floors. The measurements were performed using a Honeywell professional radon monitor both during the spring/summer and the autumn/winter seasons. Significant differences were found: for dwellings below ground level, the average annual radon activity concentration was 57±20 Bqm-3; for those on higher floors the value was 35±15 Bqm-3. (A.K.)

  9. Experimental characterization of the dwell periods in an 8-bars lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobel, Pierluigi B.; Pisoni, Attilio C.

    1994-09-01

    An 8-bars linkage, formed by two four-bars and one slider-crank mechanisms connected in series, designed to obtain a rectilinear motion of the output link with two dwell periods, has been tested to validate the desired output motion. The input crank is powered, using a belt transmission, by an asynchronous motor fed by a voltage source inverter. The displacement in the dwells, measured with a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, has been recorded for different values of the input crank speed. By comparison to theoretical results it is shown that, for high input crank speed, link elasticity and joint clearances strongly influence the displacement amplitude in the dwells.

  10. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaywitz, B A; Fletcher, J M; Shaywitz, S E

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter we have reviewed the diagnosis and management of attention deficit disorder, focusing particularly on the role of stimulant therapy in ADHD. Hisorical review suggests that ADHD has roots that extend back almost a century. The definition of ADHD is based on inclusion and exclusion criteria that are established by history and reflect behavioral concerns. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a chronic disorder affecting the child's home, school, and community life. The primary symptoms of the disorder manifest a developmental pattern: activity diminishes while attentional deficits persist. Major sources of concern are the secondary and often more resistant problems of learning difficulties, behavioral problems, lack of peer acceptance, and low self-esteem. An often frustrating and perplexing characteristic of the disorder is its marked variability-over time, across situations, and within the same child and similar situations. Educational management represents an important priority and often forms the cornerstone of all other therapies, nonpharmacologic or pharmacologic. Cognitive-behavioral therapies represent the most widely used alternative to pharmacotherapy. Although the effects of CBT alone are disappointing, recent studies suggest that such therapies may provide a useful adjunct to pharmacotherapy and may be helpful when children are tapered off medication. Psychotherapy, or a combination of psychotherapy and medication (termed multimodality therapy), may also be useful. Pharmacotherapy for ADHD originated almost 60 years ago, and at this time the ameliorative effects of medications in ADHD are well established. The general skepticism of experienced clinicians, coupled with a climate where parents are reluctant to medicare children, serves to limit their use except where indicated. Although the effects of stimulants on attention and activity seem well established, effects on cognition, conduct, and social behavior are more controversial

  11. Simultaneous measurements of indoor radon, radon-thoron progeny and high-resolution gamma spectrometry in Greek dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simultaneous indoor radon, radon-thoron progeny and high-resolution in situ gamma spectrometry measurements, with portable high-purity Ge detector were performed in 26 dwellings of Thessaloniki, the second largest town of Greece, during March 2003-January 2005. The radon gas was measured with an AlphaGUARD ionisation chamber (in each of the 26 dwellings) every 10 min, for a time period between 7 and 10 d. Most of the values of radon gas concentration are between 20 and 30 Bq m-3, with an arithmetic mean of 34 Bq m-3. The maximum measured value of radon gas concentration is 516 Bq m-3. The comparison between the radon gas measurements, performed with AlphaGUARD and short-term electret ionisation chamber, shows very good agreement, taking into account the relative short time period of the measurement and the relative low radon gas concentration. Radon and thoron progeny were measured with a SILENA (model 4s) instrument. From the radon and radon progeny measurements, the equilibrium factor F could be deduced. Most of the measurements of the equilibrium factor are within the range 0.4-0.5. The mean value of the equilibrium factor F is 0.49 ± 0.10, i.e. close to the typical value of 0.4 adopted by UNSCEAR. The mean equilibrium equivalent thoron concentration measured in the 26 dwellings is EEC thoron = 1.38 ± 0.79 Bq m-3. The mean equilibrium equivalent thoron to radon ratio concentration, measured in the 26 dwellings, is 0.1 0.06. The mean total absorbed dose rate in air, owing to gamma radiation, is 58 ± 12 nGy h-1. The contribution of the different radionuclides to the total indoor gamma dose rate in air is 38% due to 40 K, 36% due to thorium series and 26% due to uranium series. The annual effective dose, due to the different source terms (radon, thoron and external gamma radiation), is 1.05, 0.39 and 0.28 mSv, respectively. (authors)

  12. Attention and Distraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to examine the interrelationship between attention and distraction in the reception of video installation art, a genre which is commonly associated with "immersion" and an intensified feeling of presence in the discourses on new media art and installation art. This tends to veil......) that is at odds with the ideal of a reception in concentration that governs the institutions of fine art as well as aesthetic theory. It intends to demonstrate how the experience of video installation art can only be understood by recognising that the close connections between, on the one hand, video...... art and, on the other hand, the cultural formations of television, film and computers have fundamentally re-configured "aesthetic experience."...

  13. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam

    2016-03-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1·4-3·0%. It is more common in boys than girls. Comorbidity with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders is substantial. ADHD is highly heritable and multifactorial; multiple genes and non-inherited factors contribute to the disorder. Prenatal and perinatal factors have been implicated as risks, but definite causes remain unknown. Most guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment, beginning with non-drug interventions and then moving to pharmacological treatment in those most severely affected. Randomised controlled trials show short-term benefits of stimulant medication and atomoxetine. Meta-analyses of blinded trials of non-drug treatments have not yet proven the efficacy of such interventions. Longitudinal studies of ADHD show heightened risk of multiple mental health and social difficulties as well as premature mortality in adult life. PMID:26386541

  14. Indoor radon measurements in the dwellings of Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh, India, using LR-115 nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhiman, M. [Punjab Technical University (India); Mehra, R. [Department of Physics, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology (India); Tyagi, A.K. [Department of Applied Sciences, Shaheed Bhagat Singh College of Engineering and Technology (India)

    2014-07-01

    Study of indoor radon was carried out in the domestic environment of 15 villages of Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh, India. Time integrated track etch technique has been used for the measurement of indoor radon levels. Bare cellulose nitrate LR-115 type II films have been used as detectors in the survey of indoor radon for four seasons of three months each covering a period of one year from March 2012 to March 2013. The houses were chosen randomly in such a way that the dwellings constructed with different types of building materials such as soil, bricks, cement, marble, concrete, wood in different localities of the village are covered. It has been found that indoor radon concentration depends upon the type of house, ventilation condition etc. The calibration constant of 1 track cm{sup -2} day{sup -1} which is equal to 50 Bqm{sup -3} has been used to express radon concentration in Bqm{sup -3}. The conversion factors have been used to calculate the exposure (an exposure of an individual to radon progeny of 1 WLM is equivalent to 3.54 mJ h m{sup -3}), the annual effective dose (1 WLM=3.88 mSv) and the lifetime fatality risk (3 x 10{sup -4} WLM). Indoor radon concentrations were found to vary from 132.25 Bqm{sup -3} to 449.75 Bqm{sup -3} with an average value of 261.40 Bqm{sup -3}. Annual effective dose in these dwellings were found to vary form 2.78 mSv to 7.68 mSv with an average value of 4.5 mSv. The average radon concentration in dwellings in most of the villages falls in the action level (200-600 Bqm{sup -3}) recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  15. Indoor radon measurements in the dwellings of Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh, India, using LR-115 nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of indoor radon was carried out in the domestic environment of 15 villages of Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh, India. Time integrated track etch technique has been used for the measurement of indoor radon levels. Bare cellulose nitrate LR-115 type II films have been used as detectors in the survey of indoor radon for four seasons of three months each covering a period of one year from March 2012 to March 2013. The houses were chosen randomly in such a way that the dwellings constructed with different types of building materials such as soil, bricks, cement, marble, concrete, wood in different localities of the village are covered. It has been found that indoor radon concentration depends upon the type of house, ventilation condition etc. The calibration constant of 1 track cm-2 day-1 which is equal to 50 Bqm-3 has been used to express radon concentration in Bqm-3. The conversion factors have been used to calculate the exposure (an exposure of an individual to radon progeny of 1 WLM is equivalent to 3.54 mJ h m-3), the annual effective dose (1 WLM=3.88 mSv) and the lifetime fatality risk (3 x 10-4 WLM). Indoor radon concentrations were found to vary from 132.25 Bqm-3 to 449.75 Bqm-3 with an average value of 261.40 Bqm-3. Annual effective dose in these dwellings were found to vary form 2.78 mSv to 7.68 mSv with an average value of 4.5 mSv. The average radon concentration in dwellings in most of the villages falls in the action level (200-600 Bqm-3) recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  16. Building America Case Study: Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings, Upstate New York (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of CARB's multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  17. Socially guided attention influences infants' communicative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer L; Gros-Louis, Julie

    2013-12-01

    For effective prelinguistic communication, infants must be able to direct their attention, vocalizations, and nonverbal gestures in social interactions. The purpose of our study was to examine how different styles of caregiver responses influenced infant attentional and communicative behavior in social interactions, based on prior studies that have shown influences of responsiveness on attention, language and cognitive outcomes. Infants were exposed to redirective and sensitive behavior systematically using an ABA design to examine real-time changes in infants' behavior as a function of caregiver responses. During the two baseline "A" periods, caregivers were instructed to play as they would at home. During the social response "B" period, caregivers were instructed to respond sensitively to infants' behavior on one visit and redirectively on the other visit. Results demonstrated that when caregivers behaved redirectively, infants shifted their attention more frequently and decreased the duration of their visual attention. Caregiver responses also resulted in changes in vocal and gesture production. Infants decreased their production of caregiver-directed vocalizations, gestures, and gesture-vocal combinations during in the redirective condition. Results suggest that caregiver sensitive responding to infants' attentional focus may be one influence on infants' attentional and prelinguistic communicative behavior. PMID:23906941

  18. Attentional flexibility and memory capacity in conductors and pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöllner, Clemens; Halpern, Andrea R

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with high working memory (WM) capacity also tend to have better selective and divided attention. Although both capacities are essential for skilled performance in many areas, evidence for potential training and expertise effects is scarce. We investigated the attentional flexibility of musical conductors by comparing them to equivalently trained pianists. Conductors must focus their attention both on individual instruments and on larger sections of different instruments. We studied students and professionals in both domains to assess the contributions of age and training to these skills. Participants completed WM span tests for auditory and visual (notated) pitches and timing durations, as well as long-term memory tests. In three dichotic attention tasks, they were asked to detect small pitch and timing deviations from two melodic streams presented in baseline (separate streams), selective-attention (concentrating on only one stream), and divided-attention (concentrating on targets in both streams simultaneously) conditions. Conductors were better than pianists in detecting timing deviations in divided attention, and experts detected more targets than students. We found no group differences for WM capacity or for pitch deviations in the attention tasks, even after controlling for the older age of the experts. Musicians' WM spans across multimodal conditions were positively related to selective and divided attention. High-WM participants also had shorter reaction times in selective attention. Taken together, conductors showed higher attentional flexibility in successfully switching between different foci of attention. PMID:26404532

  19. The Development of Attention Skills in Action Video Game Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, M. W. G.; Green, C. S.; Bavelier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that action video game play improves attentional resources, allowing gamers to better allocate their attention across both space and time. In order to further characterize the plastic changes resulting from playing these video games, we administered the Attentional Network Test (ANT) to action game players and…

  20. 49 CFR 24.204 - Availability of comparable replacement dwelling before displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requires immediate vacation of the real property, such as when continued occupancy of the displacement dwelling constitutes a substantial danger to the health or safety of the occupants or the public. (c)...

  1. Ventilation- and infiltration measurements in a dwelling in view of the problems with radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results of continuous ventilation measurements, with N2O as tracer gas, of infiltration streams in seven spaces in a dwelling. The results are compared with ventilation model calculations; good agreement was obtained. (Auth.)

  2. Improving dwellings by enchancing action on labelling for the EPBD directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobut, K., Email: krzysztof.klobut@vtt.fi

    2012-06-15

    Improving energy efficiency is regarded by the European Commission as a key element in energy policy. The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) stipulates that residential buildings must have an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) when they are sold, rented out or constructed. The EPC includes a label rating of the energy efficiency of the dwelling and recommendations of costeffective energy-saving measures. The project reported here aims to investigate why EPCs seem to hardly motivate dwelling owners to take measures to improve the energy performance of their dwelling and the reason why a large part of dwelling owners apparently do not use the recommendations from the EPC. Electronic questionnaires and in-depth interviews techniques were used. The results of these interviews and questionnaires will be used to provide policy recommendations for further actions in the fi eld of energy savings in the residential sector. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of doses and protection afforded by dwellings against atmospheric releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Grand, J.; Roux, Y. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire); Patau, J.P. (Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Faculte de Pharmacie)

    1985-01-01

    A computer program library allowing complete simulation of photon transport for a radioactive cloud surrounding a simplified dwelling and a human phantom are described. Results on radiation spectra, doses and protection factors are presented.

  4. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    OpenAIRE

    Henik Avishai; Askenazi Sarit

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were...

  5. Attention, Media and Fuel Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Thoenes, Stefan; Gores, Timo

    2012-01-01

    This study examines attention effects in the market for hybrid vehicles. We show that local media coverage, gasoline price changes and unprecedented record gasoline prices have a significant causal impact on the consumers’ attention. As attention is not directly observable, we analyze online search behavior as a proxy for the revealed consumer attention. Our study is based on weekly panel data of local newspaper coverage, gasoline prices and Google search trends for 19 metropolitan areas in the...

  6. Attentional Modulation of Binocular Rivalry

    OpenAIRE

    Chris ePaffen; David eAlais

    2011-01-01

    Ever since Wheatstone initiated the scientific study of binocular rivalry, it has been debated whether the phenomenon is under attentional control. In recent years, the issue of attentional modulation of binocular rivalry has seen a revival. Here we review the classical studies as well as recent advances in the study of attentional modulation of binocular rivalry. We show that (1) voluntary control over binocular rivalry is possible, yet limited, (2) both endogenous and exogenous attention in...

  7. THE EFFECT OF CHINESE YUANJI-DANCE ON DYNAMIC BALANCE AND THE ASSOCIATED ATTENTIONAL DEMANDS IN ELDERLY ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Lan Wu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Walking performance changes with age. This has implications for the problem of falls in older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Yuanji-Dance practice on walking balance and the associated attention demand in healthy elderly. Fifteen community-dwelling elderly (comparison group, no regular exercise habit and fifteen Yuanji- Dance elderly (exercise group, dancing experience: 5.40 ± 1.95 years, aged 60-70 years, were included in this study. The subjects in exercise group participated in a 90-minute Yuanji-Dance practice at least three times per week and the comparison group continued their normal daily physical activity. Walking balance measures (including walking velocity, step length, step width, and percentage of time spent in double limb support, COM velocity and COM-COP inclination angles and attentional demand tests (button reaction time and accuracy were conducted under different conditions. Our results showed that stride lengths, walking velocities, peak A/P velocities (AP V of the COM, medial COM-COP inclination (M angle angles, reaction time, and accuracy decrease significantly as the dual-task (walking plus hand button pressing tasks applied for either the comparison or exercise groups. These results demonstrated that walking performance is attenuated in our elderly participants as the cognitive tasks applied. Analysis also identified a significantly faster RT for our exercise group both in standing and walking conditions. This may indicate that physical exercise (Yuanji-Dance may have facilitating effects on general cognitive and perceptual- motor functions. This implies that Chinese Yuanji-Dance practice for elderly adults may improve their personal safety when walking especially under the condition of multiple task demand

  8. Lateralization of visual hemifield attention across development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, N; Linz, T D; Hynd, G W; Connor, R T; Shapiro, M S

    1987-01-01

    Heilman and Valenstein (Clinical Neuropsychology, 1979, Oxford University Press, New York) have hypothesized a right hemispheric mechanism which mediates attention bilaterally. Shapiro and Hynd ("The development of functional lateralization in visual hemifield attention." Developmental Neuropsychology, Vol. 1, pp 67-80, 1985) examined the developmental validity of this model and their findings did not provide evidence for a lateralized mechanism for visual hemifield attention in 9, 13, and 18 year olds. However, length of foreperiod and gender effects were noted. This study attempted to compare these groups with a group of normal adults (ages 25-35) using the same reaction time paradigm. The study demonstrated support for the length of foreperiod effect found by Shapiro and Hynd. Hand effects were also found. However, these results do not lend support to either the model proposed by Heilman and Valenstein (1979) or Shapiro and Hynd's (1985) notion of developmental differences across age groups with respect to right hemisphere dominance for mediating attention. PMID:14591140

  9. Neural evidence that suspense narrows attentional focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdek, M A; Gerrig, R J; Wenzel, W G; Shin, J; Pirog Revill, K; Schumacher, E H

    2015-09-10

    The scope of visual attention changes dynamically over time. Although previous research has reported conditions that suppress peripheral visual processing, no prior work has investigated how attention changes in response to the variable emotional content of audiovisual narratives. We used fMRI to test for the suppression of spatially peripheral stimuli and enhancement of narrative-relevant central stimuli at moments when suspense increased in narrative film excerpts. Participants viewed films presented at fixation, while flashing checkerboards appeared in the periphery. Analyses revealed that increasing narrative suspense caused reduced activity in peripheral visual processing regions in the anterior calcarine sulcus and in default mode network nodes. Concurrently, activity increased in central visual processing regions and in frontal and parietal regions recruited for attention and dynamic visual processing. These results provide evidence, using naturalistic stimuli, of dynamic spatial tuning of attention in early visual processing areas due to narrative context. PMID:26143014

  10. Ontogenetic shifts in terrestrial reliance of stream-dwelling brown trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez-Hernández

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on terrestrial reliance of brown trout (Salmo trutta and compared it to the potential prey available (macrozoobenthos and drifting invertebrates in three temperate rivers (Galicia, NW Spain, with special emphasis on variations in terrestrial energy intake through the ontogeny of brown trout. Additionally, we paid particular attention to individual variation of terrestrial resource use within and between age classes. Prey items were grouped in four categories: i aquatic invertebrates; ii imagoes of aquatic invertebrates; iii terrestrial invertebrates; and iv fish prey. Next, energy composition was measured according to dry weight-energy equations for each individual in line with above-mentioned prey categories. Our findings illustrate that terrestrial invertebrates appeared to be scarce in the environment, whereas aquatic food resources were rather abundant and accessible. The use of terrestrial invertebrates tended to increase with age, but with a high degree of inter-individual variation in resource use. In fact, the individual reliance of brown trout on terrestrial invertebrates may vary considerably (between 0% and 76.9%. Besides, the frequency of terrestrial foragers, i.e., individuals with terrestrial invertebrates in their stomachs, increased with age, except in one population which had the maximum value in the age-2 class. The acquisition of terrestrial invertebrates thus appears to be a process strongly dependent upon the actual food availability in the environment, but with a high degree of individual variance in resource use within the same age class. Finally, we discuss that terrestrial invertebrates may largely contribute to cover the energy intake of the species, highlighting the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and thereby the importance of riparian canopy cover as a key factor for food supply of stream-dwelling salmonids species.

  11. Radon levels in dwelling shielded spaces (DSS) in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to radon gas is known as the major contributor to the general public exposure to ionizing radiation. The typical radon concentration in Israeli houses with a direct ground contact is about 50 Bq/m3, attributed mainly to soil gas penetration into the house. All newly constructed buildings (since 1991) must include Dwelling Shielded Spaces (DSS) which are rooms made of massive solid concrete, equipped with air-tight steel door and window. The DSS serve as shelters against both explosive and chemical warfare. In normal practice, the DSS serves as a conventional room in the household. Standard size DSS contain a mass of around 35 tons of concrete with typical 226Ra activity concentration of 30 Bq/kg. This mass of concrete is expected to increase the radon concentration in the DSS room due to exhalation from the building material. Published exhalation rate values from concrete in the US and Europe vary from 0.1 to 8 mBq/m2sec. (0.5 - 30 Bq/m2h). This work presents short and long-term radon measurements performed in high-rise building DSS's. Measurements of the free exhalation rate and wall exhalation rate as well as ventilation rate in DSS are also presented and the relation between these quantities is analyzed

  12. Radon as a risk factor in mines and dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In mines, exposure to radon and radon daughters is the most important factor for the initiation of lung cancer. Tobacco smoke probably acts as a lung cancer promotor, but the relationship between minework, smoking and lung cancer is complicated. It is suggested that smokers may have a relative protection from a mucous sheet covering their basal cells. There is a connection between radon exposure in dwellings and lung cancer. Radon in buildings comes from the building material or the ground. The risk for developing lung cancer seems to be enhanced considerably by smoking. Tobacco contains some radioactivity itself (Lead 210 and Polonium 210), but tobacco smoke also adsorb electrically charged radon daughters and keeps them floating in the breathing air. Measurements show a doubling of radon daughter concentration in a room of normal size if 3-4 cigaretts is burnt out in it. A raised risk for lung cancer has been observed in connection with passive smoking. The relative risk for lungcancer is 2-3 for passive smokers and 5-6 for active smoking women. Children to smoking mothers who starts smoking themselves develops lung cancer more easily than other groups. There seems to be a connection between early exposure to radon daughters, passive smoking and lung cancer. (BoK)

  13. Indoor tetrachloroethylene levels and determinants in Paris dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Célina; Kousignian, Isabelle; Ramond, Anna; Momas, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    There is growing public health concern about indoor air quality. Tetrachloroethylene (PERC), a chlorinated volatile organic compound widely used as a solvent in dry cleaning facilities, can be a residential indoor air pollutant. As part of an environmental investigation included in the PARIS (Pollution and asthma Risk: an Infant Study) birth cohort, this study firstly aimed to document domestic PERC levels, and then to identify the factors influencing these levels using standardized questionnaires about housing characteristics and living conditions. Air samples were collected in the child's bedroom over one week using passive devices when infants were 1, 6, 9, and 12 months. PERC was identified and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. PERC annual domestic level was calculated by averaging seasonal levels. PERC was omnipresent indoors, annual levels ranged from 0.6 to 124.2 μg/m3. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models showed that proximity to dry cleaning facilities, do-it-yourself activities (e.g.: photographic development, silverware), presence of air vents, and building construction date (<1945) were responsible for higher domestic levels of PERC. This study, conducted in an urban context, provides helpful information on PERC contamination in dwellings, and identifies parameters influencing this contamination. PMID:23127492

  14. Acceptance of low-flow mechanical ventilation in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the findings of a survey carried out on the acceptance of 'low-flow mechanical ventilation' (a fan-assisted balanced ventilation with heat recovery) for houses and apartments in Switzerland. The results were obtained on the one hand by reviewing and analysing articles appearing on the subject in the professional and daily press and by telephone interviews with 100 randomly chosen architects and 100 investors in the German and French-speaking parts of Switzerland on the other. These survey participants were asked to express their views on low-flow mechanical ventilation and experience already gained in this area. Further Interviews with tenants, 150 of whom lived in buildings fitted with low-flow mechanical ventilation and 300 in dwellings without this form of ventilation, provided information on the attitude of those directly affected, their satisfaction with the systems or their wishes. The report analyses the results of the surveys and proposes a plan of action to improve information and training for architects, owners and tenants

  15. Adaptation Strategies and Resilience to Climate Change of Historic Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rubio-Bellido

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Historic city centres have a large amount of dwellings in Europe, which were built to provide a comfortable shelter with the absence of mechanical means. The knowledge of climate responsive design strategies can play a significant role in reducing the energy demand of extant buildings, paving the way for its sustainable development in the face of the rising threat to its occupants of climate change. The residential architecture, developed, in most cases, in dense urban centres, was built using both available materials and traditional and academic construction technologies. This paper thoroughly investigates the extant urban conglomerate in Cádiz and analyses, in a qualitative and quantitative manner, which bioclimatic design strategies were applied and the city’s adaptation for future climate scenarios. The results indicate that historic housing in Cádiz is creatively adapted to the local natural conditions by means of a combination of climate responsive strategies, and there is significant scope for improvement in the ongoing response to global warming.

  16. External exposure assessment in dwelling built with phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study it was evaluated the viability of the use of phosphogypsum plates as a building material in the dwelling construction. Thus, the effective dose due to external gamma exposure was assessed through the 226Ra, 232Th, 210Pb e 40K activity concentration in phosphogypsum plates. Samples of this material were analyzed by high resolution gamma spectrometry for their natural radionuclide activity concentration. The radium equivalent activity and extern ai and inter nai hazard indices were also calculated. The plates were made with phosphogypsum from fertilizer industries located in Cajati, Cubatao and Uberaba. The samples were identified according to phosphogypsum origin, Cajati (CA), Cubatao (CT) and Uberaba (UB). The activity concentrations results varied from 15.9 to 392 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 26.1 to 253 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, and 27.4 to 852 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb. The results of 40K were lower than 81 Bq kg-1. The annual effective dose was obtained through the dosimetric model with reference standard room concept, the results were 0.02 mSv y-1 for a house built with phosphogypsum from origin CA, 0.2 mSvy-1 for CT phosphogypsum and 0.14 mSvy-1 for UB phosphogypsum, everything the effective doses were below 1 mSvy-1, an annual effective dose limit for public exposure by International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  17. Study on 220Rn equilibrium factor in China traditional dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial distribution and seasonal variation of 220Rn concentration (CTn) and its progeny concentration (Cp,Tn) in China traditional dwellings constructed with soil were studied. The results show that the spatial distribution of CTn appears a significant concentration gradient, and decreases exponentially from the distance of source (bare walls or ground), while there is a good linearity and repeatability. The seasonal variation of CTn displays maximum value in autumn and minimum value in winter. The seasonal variation of Cp,Tn comparing with CTn and Cp,Rn is similar, and its spatial variation can be ignored. Therefore, fixing the distance distance of 220Rn form source, there is a definite relationship between CTn and Cp,Tn. 220Rn equilibrium factors FTn respectively are 0.003±0.001 and 0.017±0.014 at the distances of 2.5 cm and 20 cm from wall. The Cp,Tn results of actual measurement in traditional houses are in good agreement with the calculated values by using FTn. The measurement to 220Rn gas is more easily achieved comparing with 220Rn progenies. The introduction of FTn provides a simple and reliable method for assessment of 220Rn exposure. (authors)

  18. Motor Learning in the Community-dwelling Elderly during Nordic Backward Walking

    OpenAIRE

    Shigemori, Kenta; Nagino, Kouji; Nakamata, Emi; Nagai, Eiichi; Izuta, Megumi; Nishii, Masaki; Hiroshima, Reiko; Kai, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aims of this study were: 1) to confirm the motion learning process of Nordic backward walking (NBW) in older adult community-dwelling volunteers and, 2) to check the change in psychological condition resulting from NBW. This study examined whether the learning process and psychological condition become more efficient after repeated sessions of NBW. [Methods] The subjects were 19 community-dwelling elderly individuals between the ages of 64 and 78 years. [Results] Significant dif...

  19. Multicomponent exercise for physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Soonhee; Hwang, Sujin; Klein, Aimee B.; Kim, Seok Hun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify whether a 4-week multicomponent exercise program could improve the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy community-dwelling elderly women were randomly allocated to either an experimental or a control group. Experimental subjects performed a multicomponent exercise program that consisted of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises for 4 weeks, whereas the control subj...

  20. Dwelling Happens A Study of Urban Living in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Gafney, Brian Patrick

    2008-01-01

    It is the responsibility of the discipline of architecture to enhance and compliment the human act of dwelling. One must engage the sun, moon and the changing seasons, provide spatial efficiency to lifestyle, purpose, and need, and harmoniously embed the contextually harmonious mechanics required to aid in modern dwelling. There are three underlying axes in this thesis in an effort to provide a perspective to reflect upon the entire body of work from the precedent studies, the process...

  1. Radon and thoron in cave dwellings (Yan'an, China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, J.; Feige, S.; Xie Quingling; Schreiber, U.; Wieditz, K.; Wittmann, C.; Luo Xiarong

    2000-04-01

    {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn concentrations were measured in cave dwellings and brick houses in the region of Yan'an (China) during summer 1997. The underground dwellings are built into Quaternary loess, and all investigated houses are founded on it. The median values of indoor {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn concentrations are 42 (n = 18) and 77Bq m{sup {minus}3} (n = 15) for brick houses and 92 (n = 23) and 215 (n = 17) Bq m{sup {minus}3} for cave dwellings. To classify the dwellings in respect to their cave-character, the fraction of walls having a direct contact to the loess is calculated for each dwelling. While the {sup 222}Rn concentrations are increasing with higher fractions, the {sup 220}Rn concentrations are not correlated with this fraction. On the other hand, due to the short half-life of {sup 220}Rn the distance from the measuring point to the walls is negatively correlated with the {sup 220}Rn concentration, while there is no correlation with the {sup 222}Rn concentration. Therefore, concentric isolines of {sup 220}Rn concentrations showing a strong gradient were detected in cave dwellings. An influence of the ventilation rate is distinct for {sup 222}Rn but weak for {sup 220}Rn. The effective dose rates for {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn and their progenies are calculated for brick houses (2.7 mSv y{sup {minus}1}), cave dwellings (7.1 mSv y{sup {minus}1}), and for traditional cave dwellings with a bed foundation built with loess (16.7 mSv y{sup {minus}1}). These calculations are based on summer measurements only. It is expected that the true effective dose rates will be significantly higher.

  2. Association of day length and weather conditions with physical activity levels in older community dwelling people

    OpenAIRE

    Witham, Miles D; Donnan, Peter T.; Thenmalar Vadiveloo; Sniehotta, Falko F.; Crombie, Iain K; Zhiqiang Feng; McMurdo, Marion E. T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weather is a potentially important determinant of physical activity. Little work has been done examining the relationship between weather and physical activity, and potential modifiers of any relationship in older people. We therefore examined the relationship between weather and physical activity in a cohort of older community-dwelling people. METHODS: We analysed prospectively collected cross-sectional activity data from community-dwelling people aged 65 and over in the Physical...

  3. Life-space mobility and dimensions of depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Polku, Hannele; Mikkola, Tuija; Portegijs, Erja; Rantakokko, Merja; Kokko, Katja; Kauppinen, Markku; Rantanen, Taina; Viljanen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the association between life-space mobility and different dimensions of depressive symptoms among older community-dwelling people. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of baseline data of the ‘Life-Space Mobility in Old Age’ cohort study were carried out. The participants were community-dwelling women and men aged 75–90 years (N = 848). Data were gathered via structured interviews in participants’ home. Life-space mobility (the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) ...

  4. Symptom burden in community-dwelling older people with multimorbidity: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Eckerblad, Jeanette; Theander, Kersti; Ekdahl, Anne; Unosson, Mitra; Wiréhn, Ann-Britt; Milberg, Anna; Krevers, Barbro; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2015-01-01

    Background: Globally, the population is ageing and lives with several chronic diseases for decades. A high symptom burden is associated with a high use of healthcare, admissions to nursing homes, and reduced quality of life. The aims of this study were to describe the multidimensional symptom profile and symptom burden in community-dwelling older people with multimorbidity, and to describe factors related to symptom burden. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 378 community-dwelling peo...

  5. The development of attention skills in action video game players

    OpenAIRE

    Dye, M.W.G.; Green, C.S.; Bavelier, D

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that action video game play improves attentional resources, allowing gamers to better allocate their attention across both space and time. In order to further characterize the plastic changes resulting from playing these video games, we administered the Attentional Network Test (ANT) to action game players and non-playing controls aged between 7 and 22 years. By employing a mixture of cues and flankers, the ANT provides measures of how well attention is allocated to...

  6. Q uanzhou Traditional Dwelling Mansion-style House and YangAmiao House%泉州传统民居官式大厝与杨阿苗故居

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关瑞明; 朱怿

    2011-01-01

    官式大厝是泉州传统民居中最主要的一种类型.杨阿苗故居是官式大厝中备受学界关注的一个精品.通过介绍官式大厝典型平面布局和杨阿苗故居案例,主要解决两个问题:一是借助中国传统建筑空间的阴阳属性,廓清对官式大厝各个空间名称的曲解;二是根据杨阿苗故居平面布局的特殊性,判断出现在各种文献中两种不同平面布局之孰是孰非.%Mansion-style House is one of the most major types of Quanzhou traditional dwelling. Yang Amiao House is a masterpiece of official-mansion which the academic circle pays close attention to. This study provides information of the typical plan of mansion-style house and the case of Yang Amiao House. At the same time, it mainly deals with two questions: first, with traditional Chinese building space's property of Yin and Yang, sweep away the misreading of various space names in mansion-style house; second, by analyzing the specialty of Yang Amiao House' s plan, judge the correctness of the two different plans found in literature.

  7. Active inference, attention and motor preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HarrietBrown

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Perception is the foundation of cognition and is fundamental to our beliefs and consequent action planning. The Editorial (this issue asks: “what mechanisms, if any, mediate between perceptual and cognitive processes?” It has recently been argued that attention might furnish such a mechanism. In this paper, we pursue the idea that action planning (motor preparation is an attentional phenomenon directed towards kinaesthetic signals. This rests on a view of motor control as active inference, where predictions of proprioceptive signals are fulfilled by peripheral motor reflexes. If valid, active inference suggests that attention should not be limited to the optimal biasing of perceptual signals in the exteroceptive (e.g. visual domain but should also bias proprioceptive signals during movement. Here, we test this idea using a classical attention (Posner paradigm cast in a motor setting. Specially, we looked for decreases in reaction times when movements were preceded by valid relative to invalid cues. Furthermore, we addressed the hierarchical level at which putative attentional effects were expressed by independently cueing the nature of the movement and the hand used to execute it. We found a significant interaction between the validity of movement and effector cues on reaction times. This suggests that attentional bias might be mediated at a low level in the motor hierarchy, in an intrinsic frame of reference. This finding is consistent with attentional enabling of top-down predictions of proprioceptive input and may rely upon the same synaptic mechanisms that mediate directed spatial attention in the visual system.

  8. Assessment of indoor radon-thoron levels in dwellings of north Indian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to ICRP publication radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer for individuals who have never smoked. Radon and its progeny are radioactive and is the major contributor to environmental radioactivity. Being a gas radon has the advantage to spread like gases and its progeny has the advantage to attach to aerosols or dust particles and can be inhaled by the human beings leading to the exposure of lung tissues to the radiation. The accumulation of radon indoor is a big source of exposure of human beings to natural radiation. Radon can enter the home through cracks in the foundation floor and walls and other openings. It is also liberated by the building materials. Thus there is need of continuous monitoring for the radon levels in dwellings. Keeping this in mind the environmental monitoring of radon, thoron and their progeny in some dwellings of northern Haryana and southern Himachal Pradesh has been carried out using twin cup dosimeters. Out of different types of dwellings under study the levels are found to be higher in some dwellings in Shivalik foot hills of India as compare to other dwellings. The annual dose received due to radon-thoron and their progeny by the inhabitants in the dwellings under study have also been calculated. (author)

  9. The mental wormhole: internal attention shifts without regard for distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoue, Ryan T; Berryhill, Marian E

    2012-08-01

    Attention operates perceptually on items in the environment, and internally on objects in visuospatial working memory. In the present study, we investigated whether spatial and temporal constraints affecting endogenous perceptual attention extend to internal attention. A retro-cue paradigm in which a cue is presented beyond the range of iconic memory and after stimulus encoding was used to manipulate shifts of internal attention. Participants' memories were tested for colored circles (Experiments 1, 2, 3a, 4) or for novel shapes (Experiment 3b) and their locations within an array. In these experiments, the time to shift internal attention (Experiments 1 and 3) and the eccentricity of encoded objects (Experiments 2-4) were manipulated. Our data showed that, unlike endogenous perceptual attention, internal shifts of attention are not modulated by stimulus eccentricity. Across several timing parameters and stimuli, we found that shifts of internal attention require a minimum quantal amount of time regardless of the object eccentricity at encoding. Our findings are consistent with the view that internal attention operates on objects whose spatial information is represented in relative terms. Although endogenous perceptual attention abides by the laws of space and time, internal attention can shift across spatial representations without regard for physical distance. PMID:22549808

  10. Improving the automated detection of refugee/IDP dwellings using the multispectral bands of the WorldView-2 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Thomas; Gueguen, Lionel; Soille, Pierre

    2012-06-01

    The enumeration of the population remains a critical task in the management of refugee/IDP camps. Analysis of very high spatial resolution satellite data proofed to be an efficient and secure approach for the estimation of dwellings and the monitoring of the camp over time. In this paper we propose a new methodology for the automated extraction of features based on differential morphological decomposition segmentation for feature extraction and interactive training sample selection from the max-tree and min-tree structures. This feature extraction methodology is tested on a WorldView-2 scene of an IDP camp in Darfur Sudan. Special emphasis is given to the additional available bands of the WorldView-2 sensor. The results obtained show that the interactive image information tool is performing very well by tuning the feature extraction to the local conditions. The analysis of different spectral subsets shows that it is possible to obtain good results already with an RGB combination, but by increasing the number of spectral bands the detection of dwellings becomes more accurate. Best results were obtained using all eight bands of WorldView-2 satellite.

  11. Seasonal Variation in Population Abundance and Chytrid Infection in Stream-Dwelling Frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Joice; Longo, Ana V.; Gaiarsa, Marília P.; Alencar, Laura R. V.; Lambertini, Carolina; Leite, Domingos S.; Carvalho-e-Silva, Sergio P.; Zamudio, Kelly R.; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Martins, Marcio

    2015-01-01

    Enigmatic amphibian declines were first reported in southern and southeastern Brazil in the late 1980s and included several species of stream-dwelling anurans (families Hylodidae and Cycloramphidae). At that time, we were unaware of the amphibian-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd); therefore, pollution, habitat loss, fragmentation and unusual climatic events were hypothesized as primary causes of these declines. We now know that multiple lineages of Bd have infected amphibians of the Brazilian Atlantic forest for over a century, yet declines have not been associated specifically with Bd outbreaks. Because stream-dwelling anurans occupy an environmental hotspot ideal for disease transmission, we investigated temporal variation in population and infection dynamics of three stream-adapted species (Hylodes asper, H. phyllodes, and Cycloramphus boraceiensis) on the northern coast of São Paulo state, Brazil. We surveyed standardized transects along streams for four years, and show that fluctuations in the number of frogs correlate with specific climatic variables that also increase the likelihood of Bd infections. In addition, we found that Bd infection probability in C. boraceiensis, a nocturnal species, was significantly higher than in Hylodes spp., which are diurnal, suggesting that the nocturnal activity may either facilitate Bd zoospore transmission or increase susceptibility of hosts. Our findings indicate that, despite long-term persistence of Bd in Brazil, some hosts persist with seasonally variable infections, and thus future persistence in the face of climate change will depend on the relative effect of those changes on frog recruitment and pathogen proliferation. PMID:26161777

  12. Seasonal Variation in Population Abundance and Chytrid Infection in Stream-Dwelling Frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Ruggeri

    Full Text Available Enigmatic amphibian declines were first reported in southern and southeastern Brazil in the late 1980s and included several species of stream-dwelling anurans (families Hylodidae and Cycloramphidae. At that time, we were unaware of the amphibian-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd; therefore, pollution, habitat loss, fragmentation and unusual climatic events were hypothesized as primary causes of these declines. We now know that multiple lineages of Bd have infected amphibians of the Brazilian Atlantic forest for over a century, yet declines have not been associated specifically with Bd outbreaks. Because stream-dwelling anurans occupy an environmental hotspot ideal for disease transmission, we investigated temporal variation in population and infection dynamics of three stream-adapted species (Hylodes asper, H. phyllodes, and Cycloramphus boraceiensis on the northern coast of São Paulo state, Brazil. We surveyed standardized transects along streams for four years, and show that fluctuations in the number of frogs correlate with specific climatic variables that also increase the likelihood of Bd infections. In addition, we found that Bd infection probability in C. boraceiensis, a nocturnal species, was significantly higher than in Hylodes spp., which are diurnal, suggesting that the nocturnal activity may either facilitate Bd zoospore transmission or increase susceptibility of hosts. Our findings indicate that, despite long-term persistence of Bd in Brazil, some hosts persist with seasonally variable infections, and thus future persistence in the face of climate change will depend on the relative effect of those changes on frog recruitment and pathogen proliferation.

  13. The effectiveness of a combined exercise intervention on physical fitness factors related to falls in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jie; Huang, Liang; Wu, Yanqiang; Zhang, Yanxin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative exercise program on muscle strength, balance, and gait kinematics in elderly community-dwellers. The exercise program included strength and balance training and the 8-form Tai Chi Chuan. The measurements were carried out at baseline and 12 weeks, and consisted of four physical performance tests, joint isokinetic strength tests, and three-dimensional gait analysis. Fifty-six community-dwelling older adults aged 60-80 years old were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. After 12 weeks, the intervention group showed a 17.6% improvement in the timed up and go test, accompanied by a 54.7% increase in the 30-second chair stand test score. Significant increases in the score of star excursion balance tests, and the strength of the extensor and flexor muscles at knee and ankle joints were also observed. In addition, the intervention group walked at a faster speed with a longer step length, shorter support phase, and a greater sagittal plane range of motion at the hip and ankle joints. No statistical improvements were seen in the control group. This study provided an effective, evidence-based falls prevention program that can be implemented in community settings to improve physical fitness and reduce fall risks among community-dwelling older adults. The star excursion balance test could be a sensitive measure of physical performance for fall risk assessment in older people. PMID:24453483

  14. Strategies for energy saving in warm climate dwellings; Estrategias de ahorro de energia para viviendas en clima calido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilatowsky, I [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Ramos Niembro, Gaudencio [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia -CONAE (Mexico); Morillon, David [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Oskam, A. [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-04-15

    The domestic sector consumes almost one quarter of the national electrical energy. In order to reduce in an important manner the power consumption in dwellings there is an integral alternative based on three elements: the bio-climatic design, the saving and efficient use of the energy in equipment and apparatuses, and the use of centralized air conditioning systems. Besides saving the electrical and thermal power consumption, with this scheme, comfort conditions are pretended to be reached in dwellings and, contributing at the same time, to the diminution of polluting emissions. [Spanish] El sector domestico consume casi una cuarta parte de la energia electrica nacional. Con objeto de reducir de manera importante el consumo de energia en las viviendas, se presenta una alternativa integral, basada en tres elementos: el diseno bioclimatico, el ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia en equipos y aparatos, y la utilizacion de sistemas de climatizacion centralizados. Ademas del ahorro en el consumo de energia electrica y termica, con este esquema se pretende alcanzar condiciones de confort en las viviendas y, al mismo tiempo, contribuir a la disminucion de emisiones contaminantes.

  15. Attention-Modulating Effects of Cognitive Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attention can be readily measured in experimental animal models. Animal models of attention have been used to better understand the neural systems involved in attention, how attention is impaired, and how therapeutic treatments can ameliorate attentional deficits. This review fo...

  16. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiyuki Hirano; Minoru Onozuka

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We ...

  17. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Anita D.; Jacobson, Lisa A.; Joanna L. Wexler; Mary Beth Nebel; Caffo, Brian S.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain–behavior associations...

  18. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Juan A. Amador-Campos; J. Antonio Aznar-Casanova; Izabela Bezerra; Nelson Torro-Alves; Manuel M. Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]).Method:Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, part...

  19. Radon concentrations in different types of dwellings in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The average radon concentration in Israeli dwellings was assessed by combining the results of a 2006 radon survey in single family houses with the results of a 2011 radon survey in apartments of multi-storey buildings. Both surveys were based on long-term measurements using CR-39 detectors. The survey in multi-storey buildings was intended to assess the influence of recent practices in the local building industry on the radon concentrations. These practices include the use of building materials with higher concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the last 20 y than before, as well as the improvement in sealing techniques over that period. Another practice in place since the early 1990's is the building of a shielded area in every apartment that is known as an RSS (residential secure space). The RSS is a room built from massive concrete walls, floor and ceiling that can be hermetically sealed and is intended to protect its residents from a missile attack. The influence of the above-mentioned features on radon concentrations was estimated by dividing the participating apartments into two groups: apartments in buildings >20 y, built using building materials with low concentrations of the natural radionuclides, regular sealing and without an RSS and apartments in buildings newer than 10 y, built using building materials with higher concentrations of the natural radionuclides, improved sealing and including an RSS. It was found that the average radon concentration in apartments in new buildings was significantly higher than in old buildings and the average radon concentration in single-family houses was significantly higher than in apartments in multi-storey buildings. Doses due to indoor radon were estimated on the basis of the updated information included in the 2009 International Commission on Radiological Protection statement on radon. (authors)

  20. Measurements of external radiation in United States dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a survey of terrestrial gamma radiation levels are reported for the United States. This database represents a total of 1074 measurements in and around 247 different dwellings in several different areas of the country. The absorbed dose rate in air outdoors was found to range between 14 and 118 nGy.h-1 and averaged 46.6. nGy.h-1 , while for indoors it ranged between 12 and 160 nGy.h-1 and averaged 37.6 nGy.h-1. Apart from regional differences in the terrestrial gamma levels, variations of up to a factor of 2 can be seen in the same geographical area. Variations within a house are typically large, with basement living areas averaging 50% higher than second-floor areas. Houses of full brick construction had average indoor levels 50% higher than those for wood frame houses. The material used for interior wall construction was not found to strongly influence the indoor dose rates except for rooms containing brick, cinder block or stone. For wood frame houses, including those of brick veneer exteriors, a linear regression analysis indicates that the average indoor dose rate can be reasonably well predicted based on a constant, which relates to the building contribution, and a shielding factor for the outdoor dose rate. Using the data collected in this survey and the population weighted mean outdoor absorbed dose rate in air reported for the US, the corresponding mean indoor value is estimated to be 37 nGy.h-1. This value is in the low end of the range reported for other countries and is about half the estimated worldwide average of 70 nGy.h-1. (author)

  1. Disability transitions after 30 months in three community-dwelling diagnostic groups in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús de Pedro-Cuesta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about changes in disability over time among community-dwelling patients. Accordingly, this study sought to assess medium-term disability transitions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 300 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, chronic heart failure and stroke patients living at home in Madrid were selected from general practitioner lists. In 2009, disability was assessed after a mean of 30 months using the World Health Organisation (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0. Follow-up was completed using death registries. Losses to follow-up were due to: death, 56; institutionalisation, 9; non-location, 18; and non-participation, 17. Changes in WHODAS 2.0 scores and life status were described and analysed using Cox and multinomial regression. Disability at end of follow-up was imputed for 56 deceased and 44 surviving patients. RESULTS: Mean disability scores for 200 surviving patients at end of follow-up were similar to baseline scores for the whole group, higher than their own baseline scores, and rose by 16.3% when imputed values were added. The strongest Cox predictors of death were: age over 84 years, adjusted hazard ratios with 95%CI 8.18 (3.06-21.85; severe/complete vs. no/mild disability, 5.18 (0.68-39.48; and stroke compared to COPD, 1.40 (0.67-2.91. Non-participants and institutionalised patients had higher proportions with severe/complete baseline disability. A one-point change in baseline WHODAS 2.0 score predicted independent increases in risk of 12% (8%-15% for severe/complete disability or death. CONCLUSIONS: A considerably high proportion of community-dwelling patients diagnosed with COPD, CHF and stroke undergo medium-term changes in disability or vital status. The main features of the emerging pattern for this group appear to be as follows: approximately two-thirds of patients continue living at home with moderately reduced functional status; 1/3 die or worsen to severe/complete disability; and 1

  2. Association between physiological falls risk and physical performance tests among community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Devinder KA Singh,1 Sharmila GK Pillai,1 Sin Thien Tan,1 Chu Chiau Tai,1 Suzana Shahar2 1Physiotherapy Programme, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, 2Nutrition and Dietetics Programme, School of Healthcare Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Physical performance and balance declines with aging and may lead to increased risk of falls. Physical performance tests may be useful for initial fall-risk screening test among community-dwelling older adults. Physiological profile assessment (PPA, a composite falls risk assessment tool is reported to have 75% accuracy to screen for physiological falls risk. PPA correlates with Timed Up and Go (TUG test. However, the association between many other commonly used physical performance tests and PPA is not known. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between physiological falls risk measured using PPA and a battery of physical performance tests.Methods: One hundred and forty older adults from a senior citizens club in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (94 females, 46 males, aged 60 years and above (65.77±4.61, participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were screened for falls risk using PPA. A battery of physical performance tests that include ten-step test (TST, short physical performance battery (SPPB, functional reach test (FRT, static balance test (SBT, TUG, dominant hand-grip strength (DHGS, and gait speed test (GST were also performed. Spearman’s rank correlation and binomial logistic regression were performed to examine the significantly associated independent variables (physical performance tests with falls risk (dependent variable.Results: Approximately 13% older adults were at high risk of falls categorized using PPA. Significant differences (P<0.05 were demonstrated for age, TST, SPPB, FRT, SBT, TUG between high and low falls risk group. A significant (P<0.01 weak correlation

  3. Modelling auditory attention: Insights from the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, K. L.; Andersen, Tobias; Kyllingsbæk, Søren;

    , and that there is a ‘race’ for selection and representation in visual short term memory (VSTM). In the basic TVA task, participants view a brief display of letters and are asked to report either all of the letters (whole report) or a subset of the letters (e.g., the red letters; partial report...... to be measured for auditory attention; providing insights into impaired auditory attention in old adults and neuropsychological patients, and allowing direct comparisons with visual attention. In the visual task, the stimuli are simultaneous, stationary (unchanging over time), and separated in space...

  4. The Challenges of Joint Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Frederic; Hafner, Verena

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of joint attention and the different skills underlying its development. We argue that joint attention is much more than gaze following or simultaneous looking because it implies a shared intentional relation to the world. The current state-of-the-art in robotic and computational models of the different prerequisites of joint attention is discussed in relation with a developmental timeline drawn from results in child studies.

  5. Advertising, Attention, and Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Focke, Florens; Ruenzi, Stefan; Ungeheuer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the impact of product market advertising on investor attention and financial market outcomes. Using daily advertising data allows us to identify short-term effects of advertising. We measure daily investor attention based the company's number of Wikipedia page views. We show that TV and newspaper advertising positively impacts short-term investor attention. It also positively impacts turnover and liquidity, but the effects are not economically significant. Most importantly, ass...

  6. ENTREPRENEURIAL ALERTNESS AND PAYING ATTENTION

    OpenAIRE

    DAVE VALLIERE

    2013-01-01

    This article uses theoretical approaches from cognitive psychology to examine the basis for entrepreneurial alertness and to connect it to existing theories of attention in strategic management and decision-making. It thereby provides a theoretical basis for understanding how entrepreneurial alertness leads the individual to pay attention to new opportunities. A model is developed to show how attention and entrepreneurial alertness work together to support the recognition or creation of oppor...

  7. Classification of dwellings into profiles regarding indoor air quality, and identification of indoor air pollution determinant factors

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Govaert, Gérard; Mandin, Corinne; Kirchner, Séverine; Cicollela, André

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to identify the most relevant variables, among outdoor measures, building characteristics and socioeconomic situation, for predicting indoor air chemical pollution in dwellings. To achieve this, we propose a two-step plan: first, group the dwellings into classes according to the indoor measured concentrations, then use regression tools to express a dwelling's class as a function of the aforementioned variables. In the first step, we use modelbased clustering algorithms in a mu...

  8. Probing problems and priorities in oral health (care) among community dwelling elderly in the Netherlands: a mixed method study

    OpenAIRE

    Everaars, B.; Jerković-Ćosić, K.; Putten, van, B.; Heijden, van der, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Complex dentitions and decline in adequate oral hygiene in elderly may lead to poor oral health. This may have impact on their general health, wellbeing and quality of life. With increased longevity, the problems and needs in oral health of community dwelling elderly lead to changes in oral health care needs. We identified and prioritized problems and needs in oral health of community dwelling elderly. Methods: The problems and needs in oral health of community dwelling elderly we...

  9. Species Diversity, Seasonal Dynamics, and Vertical Distribution of Litter—Dwelling Thrips in an Urban Forest Remnant of South China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun; Tong, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Litter—dwelling thrips are an important component of soil macroinvertebrates in tropical and subtropical regions. However, little is known about assemblage composition, seasonal abundance and vertical distribution of litter—dwelling thrips. A survey of forest litter—dwelling thrips and other soil macroinvertebrates was conducted in an urban forest remnant at Guangzhou, China during 2004–2005 and 2008–2009. A total of 835 Tullgren samples were collected during the study. Thysanoptera constitut...

  10. Depressive symptoms are independently associated with recurrent falls in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Sébastien; Payette, Marie-Christine; Langlois, Francis; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Bherer, Louis

    2014-04-23

    ABSTRACT Background: Falls and depression are two major public health problems that affect millions of older people each year. Several factors associated with falls are also related to depressive symptoms such as medical conditions, sleep quality, use of medications, cognitive functioning, and physical capacities. To date, studies that investigated the association between falls and depressive symptoms did not control for all these shared factors. The current study addresses this issue by examining the relationship between falls and depression symptoms after controlling for several confounders. Methods: Eighty-two community-dwelling older adults were enrolled in this study. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30) was used to evaluate the presence of depressive symptoms, and the following question was used to assess falls: "Did you fall in the last 12 months, and if so, how many times?" Results: Univariate analyses indicated that the number of falls was significantly correlated with gender (women), fractures, asthma, physical inactivity, presence of depressive symptoms, complaints about quality of sleep, use of antidepressant drugs, and low functional capacities. Multivariate analyses revealed that depressive symptoms were significantly and independently linked to recurrent falls after controlling for confounders. Conclusions: Results of the present study highlight the importance of assessing depressive symptoms during a fall risk assessment. PMID:24758735

  11. Measurements of radon and its progeny using twin cup dosimeters in rural dwellings of North India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, measurements of indoor radon and its progeny concentrations have been carried out using twin cup dosimeters fitted with LR-115 detectors in the dwellings off our villages of rural area of Kanshiram Nagar district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The preliminary results ('bare mode' exposure of LR-115 detectors fixed on cards) of this study have been separately published. The values of radon and its progeny levels vary from 17.41 to 92.86 Bq.m-3 with a geometric mean of 34.83 Bq.m-3, and 1.88 to 10.04 mWL with a geometric mean of 5.13 mWL, respectively. The annual exposure and life time fatality risk have also been calculated and found to vary from 0.07 to 0.36 WLM with a geometric mean of 0.18 WLM, and 0.21 x 10-4 to 1.08 x 10-4 with a geometric mean of 0.55 x 10-4, respectively. The annual effective dose found to vary from 0.27 to 1.40 mSv.y-1 with a geometric mean of 0.72 mSv.y-1 and a standard deviation of 0.34. In this study, the values of radon and its progeny levels are much lower than the previously reported values elsewhere of the same region. (author)

  12. Efficiency of portable antennas for detecting passive integrated transponder tags in stream-dwelling salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banish, Nolan P.; Burdick, Summer M.; Moyer, Katherine R.

    2016-01-01

    Portable antennas have become an increasingly common technique for tracking fish marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We used logistic regression to evaluate how species, fish length, and physical habitat characteristics influence portable antenna detection efficiency in stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii) marked with 12-mm PIT tags. We redetected 56% (20/36) of brown trout, 34% (68/202) of bull trout, and 33% (20/61) of redband trout after a recovery period of 21 to 46 hours. Models indicate support for length and species and minor support for percent boulder, large woody debris, and percent cobble as parameters important for describing variation in detection efficiency, although 95% confidence intervals for estimates were large. The odds of detecting brown trout (1.5 ± 2.2 [mean ± SE]) are approximately four times as high as bull trout (0.4 ± 1.6) or redband trout (0.3 ± 1.8) and species-specific differences may be related to length. Our reported detection efficiency for brown trout falls within the range of other studies, but is the first reported for bull trout and redband trout. Portable antennas may be a relatively unbiased way of redetecting varying sizes of all three salmonid species.

  13. Characterizing the effects of bisphenol A on sediment-dwelling benthic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Charles; Mihaich, Ellen; Ortego, Lisa; Caspers, Norbert; Klečka, Gary; Woelz, Jan; Hentges, Steven

    2016-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical intermediate used primarily in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. It primarily enters surface water and sediment via effluent discharges during its manufacture and use. The physical properties of BPA suggest that sediment is a potential sink and may result in exposure to benthic organisms. Currently there are no studies measuring the chronic toxicity of BPA to benthic organisms via direct sediment exposure. The present study examined the chronic toxicity of BPA to 3 commonly used test organisms that are generally representative of invertebrates occupying the base of the benthic food web and for which standardized testing protocols are available: the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus (mean numbers and biomass), the midge Chironomus riparius (emergence and development rate), and the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus (survival, growth, and reproduction). No-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) for the 3 species ranged from 12 mg/kg to 54 mg/kg dry weight. All NOEC values were higher than all measured concentrations of BPA in freshwater and marine sediments reported in reliable, fully reported studies from North America and Europe from the 1990s to the present. For the first time, there are studies with BPA measuring the chronic toxicity to 3 taxa of sediment dwelling invertebrates, which are suitable to support region-specific risk assessments. PMID:26297924

  14. Creep-Environment Interactions in Dwell-Fatigue Crack Growth of Nickel Based Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Kimberly; Dahal, Jinesh; Sun, Yaofeng; Ghonem, Hamouda

    2014-05-01

    A multi-scale, mechanistic model is developed to describe and predict the dwell-fatigue crack growth rate in the P/M disk superalloy, ME3, as a function of creep-environment interactions. In this model, the time-dependent cracking mechanisms involve grain boundary sliding and dynamic embrittlement, which are identified by the grain boundary activation energy, as well as, the slip/grain boundary interactions in both air and vacuum. Modeling of the damage events is achieved by adapting a cohesive zone (CZ) approach which considers the deformation behavior of the grain boundary element at the crack tip. The deformation response of this element is controlled by the surrounding continuum in both far field (internal state variable model) and near field (crystal plasticity model) regions and the intrinsic grain boundary viscosity which defines the mobility of the element by scaling up the motion of dislocations into a mesoscopic scale. This intergranular cracking process is characterized by the rate at which the grain boundary sliding reaches a critical displacement. A damage criterion is introduced by considering the grain boundary mobility limit in the tangential direction leading to strain incompatibility and failure. Results of simulated intergranular crack growth rate using the CZ model are generated for temperatures ranging from 923 K to 1073 K (650 °C to 800 °C), in both air and vacuum. These results are compared with those experimentally obtained and analysis of the model sensitivity to loading conditions, particularly temperature and oxygen partial pressure, are presented.

  15. Exercise and sleep in community-dwelling older adults: evidence for a reciprocal relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Buman, Matthew P; Giacobbi, Peter R; Roberts, Beverly L; Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T; Marsiske, Michael; McCrae, Christina S

    2014-02-01

    Exercise behaviour and sleep are both important health indicators that demonstrate significant decreases with age, and remain modifiable well into later life. The current investigation examined both the chronic and acute relationships between exercise behaviour and self-reported sleep in older adults through a secondary analysis of a clinical trial of a lifestyle intervention. Seventy-nine community-dwelling, initially sedentary, older adults (mean age = 63.58 years, SD = 8.66 years) completed daily home-based assessments of exercise behaviour and sleep using daily diary methodology. Assessments were collected weekly and continued for 18 consecutive weeks. Multilevel models revealed a small positive chronic (between-person mean-level) association between exercise and wake time after sleep onset, and a small positive acute (within-person, day-to-day) association between exercise and general sleep quality rating. The within-person exercise and general sleep quality rating relationship was found to be reciprocal (i.e. sleep quality also predicted subsequent exercise behaviour). As such, it appears exercise and sleep are dynamically related in older adults. Efforts to intervene on either sleep or exercise in late-life would be wise to take the other into account. Light exposure, temperature regulation and mood may be potential mechanisms of action through which exercise can impact sleep in older adults. PMID:23980920

  16. An approach to the subslab depressurization remedial action in a high {sup 222}Rn concentration dwelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llerena, J.J., E-mail: juanjose.llerena@usc.e [Laboratorio de Analisis de Radiaciones (LAR), Departamento de Fisica de Particulas. Grupo Experimental de Nucleos y Particulas (GENP), Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Cortina, D.; Duran, I.; Sorribas, R. [Laboratorio de Analisis de Radiaciones (LAR), Departamento de Fisica de Particulas. Grupo Experimental de Nucleos y Particulas (GENP), Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    Galicia (NW Spain) is a radon-prone area in the Iberian Peninsula. Measurements were carried out at a rural dwelling, with an annual average of radon concentration over 4000 Bq m{sup -3} and a maximum of 9000 Bq m{sup -3}, found during a radon screening campaign held in the Autonomous Community of Galicia. We performed a detailed study to identify the main contamination source and the behaviour of the radon concentration, in which a linear dependence with temperature was verified, once corrected for relative humidity. We used different passive methods (charcoal canisters and two types of etched track detectors) as well as a radon concentration monitor that provided continuous measurement. Subsequent to this characterization, and in order to reduce the high radon concentration, a remedial action was developed using different passive and forced ventilation methods. A modified subslab depressurization technique was found to be the most effective remedy, providing a radon concentration reduction of around 96%. This method also has the advantages of being inexpensive and reliable over time.

  17. An approach to the subslab depressurization remedial action in a high 222Rn concentration dwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galicia (NW Spain) is a radon-prone area in the Iberian Peninsula. Measurements were carried out at a rural dwelling, with an annual average of radon concentration over 4000 Bq m-3 and a maximum of 9000 Bq m-3, found during a radon screening campaign held in the Autonomous Community of Galicia. We performed a detailed study to identify the main contamination source and the behaviour of the radon concentration, in which a linear dependence with temperature was verified, once corrected for relative humidity. We used different passive methods (charcoal canisters and two types of etched track detectors) as well as a radon concentration monitor that provided continuous measurement. Subsequent to this characterization, and in order to reduce the high radon concentration, a remedial action was developed using different passive and forced ventilation methods. A modified subslab depressurization technique was found to be the most effective remedy, providing a radon concentration reduction of around 96%. This method also has the advantages of being inexpensive and reliable over time.

  18. Efficiency of Portable Antennas for Detecting Passive Integrated Transponder Tags in Stream-Dwelling Salmonids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolan P Banish

    Full Text Available Portable antennas have become an increasingly common technique for tracking fish marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT tags. We used logistic regression to evaluate how species, fish length, and physical habitat characteristics influence portable antenna detection efficiency in stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta, bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus, and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii marked with 12-mm PIT tags. We redetected 56% (20/36 of brown trout, 34% (68/202 of bull trout, and 33% (20/61 of redband trout after a recovery period of 21 to 46 hours. Models indicate support for length and species and minor support for percent boulder, large woody debris, and percent cobble as parameters important for describing variation in detection efficiency, although 95% confidence intervals for estimates were large. The odds of detecting brown trout (1.5 ± 2.2 [mean ± SE] are approximately four times as high as bull trout (0.4 ± 1.6 or redband trout (0.3 ± 1.8 and species-specific differences may be related to length. Our reported detection efficiency for brown trout falls within the range of other studies, but is the first reported for bull trout and redband trout. Portable antennas may be a relatively unbiased way of redetecting varying sizes of all three salmonid species.

  19. Efficiency of Portable Antennas for Detecting Passive Integrated Transponder Tags in Stream-Dwelling Salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banish, Nolan P; Burdick, Summer M; Moyer, Katherine R

    2016-01-01

    Portable antennas have become an increasingly common technique for tracking fish marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We used logistic regression to evaluate how species, fish length, and physical habitat characteristics influence portable antenna detection efficiency in stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii) marked with 12-mm PIT tags. We redetected 56% (20/36) of brown trout, 34% (68/202) of bull trout, and 33% (20/61) of redband trout after a recovery period of 21 to 46 hours. Models indicate support for length and species and minor support for percent boulder, large woody debris, and percent cobble as parameters important for describing variation in detection efficiency, although 95% confidence intervals for estimates were large. The odds of detecting brown trout (1.5 ± 2.2 [mean ± SE]) are approximately four times as high as bull trout (0.4 ± 1.6) or redband trout (0.3 ± 1.8) and species-specific differences may be related to length. Our reported detection efficiency for brown trout falls within the range of other studies, but is the first reported for bull trout and redband trout. Portable antennas may be a relatively unbiased way of redetecting varying sizes of all three salmonid species. PMID:26901317

  20. Components of Attention Modulated by Temporal Expectation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    By varying the probabilities that a stimulus would appear at particular times after the presentation of a cue and modeling the data by the theory of visual attention (Bundesen, 1990), Vangkilde, Coull, and Bundesen (2012) provided evidence that the speed of encoding a singly presented stimulus letter into visual short-term memory (VSTM) is…

  1. Attentional Costs in Multiple-Object Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombu, Michael; Seiffert, Adriane E.

    2008-01-01

    Attentional demands of multiple-object tracking were demonstrated using a dual-task paradigm. Participants were asked to make speeded responses based on the pitch of a tone, while at the same time tracking four of eight identical dots. Tracking difficulty was manipulated either concurrent with or after the tone task. If increasing tracking…

  2. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henik Avishai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test - interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. Results The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. Conclusions These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  3. Attention, Media, Value and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Aigrain, Philippe

    1997-01-01

    Building on the debate about the "attention economy" initiated by Michael Goldhaber and Rishab Aiyer Ghosh, I introduce the notion of valuing process, i.e. the process by which potential value can be translated in an economy. I show that the valuing processes applicable to attention depend on the nature of the media through which attention can be given and looked for. From there, I claim that the integration between attention and action, and the creation of a related literacy are the keys to ...

  4. Exposure to light enhances pre-adult fitness in two dark-dwelling sympatric species of ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Vijay

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In insects, circadian clocks play a key role in enhancing fitness by regulating life history traits such as developmental time and adult lifespan. These clocks use environmental light/dark (LD cycles to fine-tune a wide range of behavioral and physiological processes. To study the effect of environmental LD conditions on pre-adult fitness components, we used two dark-dwelling sympatric species of ants (the night active Camponotus compressus and the day active Camponotus paria, which normally develop underground and have fairly long pre-adult developmental time. Results Our results suggest that ants develop fastest as pre-adults when maintained under constant light (LL, followed closely by 12:12 hr light/dark (LD, and then constant darkness (DD. While light exposure alters developmental rates of almost all stages of development, the overall pre-adult development in LL is speeded-up (relative to DD by ~37% (34 days in C. compressus and by ~35% (31 days in C. paria. In LD too, development is faster (relative to DD by ~29% (26 days in C. compressus and by ~28% (25 days in C. paria. Pre-adult viability of both species is also higher under LL and LD compared to DD. While pre-adult development time and viability is enhanced in LL and LD, clutch-size undergoes reduction, at least in C. compressus. Conclusion Exposure to light enhances pre-adult fitness in two dark-dwelling species of Camponotus by speeding-up development and by enhancing viability. This suggests that social ants use environmental light/dark cycles to modulate key life history traits such as pre-adult development time and viability.

  5. Radon quantification in dwellings of different construction located in Pichincha Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The desintegration of uranium-238 yields radon-222 present in most dwellings and buildings. Radon-222 gets into them, accumulatively, through floors and walls, domestic fuel-gas and drinking water pipes. Upon inhalation radon is cancer's causes, death-rate being about 5000 deaths per year in USA. This fact evidences the necessity to quantifying radon in dwellings in Ecuador. This research involves data from dwellings built up with different types of raw materials found spread in Pichincha province. The SSNTD method using a cellulose nitrate sensible film LR-115 was used for the research. The incidence of temperature, altitude, ventilation on the concentration gas Rn222 were also subject of a qualitative study. Eventually, the results shows that the adobe dwellings and/or poorly ventilated dwellings produce maximum concentration of Rn222. Some cases show that ground floors have higher rate of Rn222 than the first or second floors, meaning that the gas is also coming up from the ground. in any case the level of Rn222 concentration is less than accepted limit 200 Bq/m3 by UNCEAR only places, such as Mindo and Calderon, surpass the limit

  6. Sound classification of dwellings – A diversity of national schemes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Sound classification schemes for dwellings exist in ten countries in Europe, typically prepared and published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes intended to reflect different levels of acoustical comfort. The main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation betwee...... Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings.......Sound classification schemes for dwellings exist in ten countries in Europe, typically prepared and published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes intended to reflect different levels of acoustical comfort. The main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. This paper presents the sound classification schemes in Europe and compares the class criteria for sound insulation between dwellings. The schemes have been implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of...

  7. Ownership of dwelling affects the sex ratio at birth in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Wallner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Socio-economic conditions can affect the secondary sex ratio in humans. Mothers under good environmental conditions are predicted to increase the birth rates of sons according to the Trivers-Willard hypothesis (TWH. This study analyzed the effects of ownership and non-ownership of dwellings on the sex ratio at birth (SRB on a Ugandan sample. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our investigation included 438,640 mothers aged between 12 and 54 years. The overall average SRB was 0.5008. Mothers who live in owned dwellings gave increased births to sons (0.5019 compared to those who live in non-owned dwellings (0.458. Multivariate statistics revealed the strongest effects of dwelling ownership when controlling for demographic and social variables such as marital status, type of marriage, mothers' age, mothers' education, parity and others. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results are discussed in the framework of recent plausible models dealing with the adjustment of the sex ratio. We conclude that the aspect of dwelling status could represent an important socio-economic parameter in relation to SRB variations in humans if further studies are able to analyze it between different countries in a comparative way.

  8. Rising diabetes prevalence among urban-dwelling black South Africans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasheeta Peer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of and the association of psychosocial risk factors with diabetes in 25-74-year-old black Africans in Cape Town in 2008/09 and to compare the prevalence with a 1990 study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A randomly selected cross-sectional sample had oral glucose tolerance tests. The prevalence of diabetes (1998 WHO criteria, other cardiovascular risk factors and psychosocial measures, including sense of coherence (SOC, locus of control and adverse life events, were determined. The comparison of diabetes prevalence between this and a 1990 study used the 1985 WHO diabetes criteria. RESULTS: There were 1099 participants, 392 men and 707 women (response rate 86%. The age-standardised (SEGI prevalence of diabetes was 13.1% (95% confidence interval (CI 11.0-15.1, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT 11.2% (9.2-13.1 and impaired fasting glycaemia 1.2% (0.6-1.9. Diabetes prevalence peaked in 65-74-year-olds (38.6%. Among diabetic participants, 57.9% were known and 38.6% treated. Using 1985 WHO criteria, age-standardised diabetes prevalence was higher by 53% in 2008/09 (12.2% (10.2-14.2 compared to 1990 (8.0% (5.8-10.3 and IGT by 67% (2008/09: 11.7% (9.8-13.7; 1990: 7.0% (4.9-9.1. In women, older age (OR: 1.05, 95%CI: 1.03-1.08, p<0.001, diabetes family history (OR: 3.13, 95%CI: 1.92-5.12, p<0.001, higher BMI (OR: 1.44, 95%CI: 1.20-1.82, p = 0.001, better quality housing (OR: 2.08, 95%CI: 1.01-3.04, p = 0.047 and a lower SOC score (≤ 40 was positively associated with diabetes (OR: 2.57, 95%CI: 1.37-4.80, p = 0.003. Diabetes was not associated with the other psychosocial measures in women or with any psychosocial measure in men. Only older age (OR: 1.05, 95%CI: 1.02-1.08, p = 0.002 and higher BMI (OR: 1.10, 95%CI: 1.04-1.18, p = 0.003 were significantly associated with diabetes in men. CONCLUSIONS: The current high prevalence of diabetes in urban-dwelling South Africans, and the likelihood of further rises given the high

  9. Visual attention: The past 25 years

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on covert attention and how it alters early vision. I explain why attention is considered a selective process, the constructs of covert attention, spatial endogenous and exogenous attention, and feature-based attention. I explain how in the last 25 years research on attention has characterized the effects of covert attention on spatial filters and how attention influences the selection of stimuli of interest. This review includes the effects of spatial attention on discrim...

  10. Quantifying collective attention from tweet stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Hirata, Yoshito; Toyoda, Masashi; Kitsuregawa, Masaru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Online social media are increasingly facilitating our social interactions, thereby making available a massive "digital fossil" of human behavior. Discovering and quantifying distinct patterns using these data is important for studying social behavior, although the rapid time-variant nature and large volumes of these data make this task difficult and challenging. In this study, we focused on the emergence of "collective attention" on Twitter, a popular social networking service. We propose a simple method for detecting and measuring the collective attention evoked by various types of events. This method exploits the fact that tweeting activity exhibits a burst-like increase and an irregular oscillation when a particular real-world event occurs; otherwise, it follows regular circadian rhythms. The difference between regular and irregular states in the tweet stream was measured using the Jensen-Shannon divergence, which corresponds to the intensity of collective attention. We then associated irregular incidents with their corresponding events that attracted the attention and elicited responses from large numbers of people, based on the popularity and the enhancement of key terms in posted messages or "tweets." Next, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method using a large dataset that contained approximately 490 million Japanese tweets by over 400,000 users, in which we identified 60 cases of collective attentions, including one related to the Tohoku-oki earthquake. "Retweet" networks were also investigated to understand collective attention in terms of social interactions. This simple method provides a retrospective summary of collective attention, thereby contributing to the fundamental understanding of social behavior in the digital era. PMID:23637913

  11. Effects of Awareness on the Control of Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Taylor W; Kean, Hope H; Graziano, Michael S A

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies show that it is possible to attend to a stimulus without awareness of it. Whether attention and awareness are independent or have a specific relationship, however, remains debated. Here, we tested three aspects of visual attention with and without awareness of the visual stimulus. Metacontrast masking rendered participants either subjectively aware or not aware of the stimulus. Attention drawn to the stimulus was measured by using the stimulus as a cue in a spatial attention task. We found that attention was drawn to the stimulus regardless of whether or not people were aware of it. However, attention changed significantly in the absence of awareness in at least three ways. First, attention to a task-relevant stimulus was less stable over time. Second, inhibition of return, the automatic suppression of attention to a task-irrelevant stimulus, was reduced. Third, attention was more driven by the luminance contrast of the stimulus. These findings add to the growing information on the behavior of attention with and without awareness. The findings are also consistent with our recently proposed account of the relationship between attention and awareness. In the attention schema theory, awareness is the internal model of attention. Just as the brain contains a body schema that models the body and helps control the body, so it contains an attention schema that helps control attention. In that theory, in the absence of awareness, the control of attention should suffer in basic ways predictable from dynamical systems theory. The present results confirm some of those predictions. PMID:26836517

  12. Behavioural and ecological consequences of limited attention.

    OpenAIRE

    Dukas, Reuven

    2002-01-01

    Ecological research in the past few decades has shown that most animals acquire and respond adaptively to information that affects survival and reproduction. At the same time, neurobiological studies have established that the rate of information processing by the brain is much lower than the rate at which information is encountered in the environment, and that attentional mechanisms enable the brain to focus only on the most essential information at any given time. Recent integration of the e...

  13. Caffeine Modulates Attention Network Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a flanker task designed to test Posner's three visual attention network functions: alerting, orienting, and executive control [Posner, M. I. (2004). "Cognitive neuroscience of attention". New York, NY: Guilford Press]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind…

  14. What Attracts Decision Makers' Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Eric; Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Managers' attention is a scarce resource in complex innovation settings. Prior research on the factors to which managers pay attention is mostly based on surveys. The present study aims to address the need for knowledge about the behavior of decision makers based on observations from...

  15. Components of attention modulated by temporal expectation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    By varying the probabilities that a stimulus would appear at particular times after the presentation of a cue and modeling the data by the theory of visual attention (Bundesen, 1990), Vangkilde, Coull, and Bundesen (2012) provided evidence that the speed of encoding a singly presented stimulus...... conditions. In line with the Easterbrook (1959) hypothesis, under high temporal expectancy, the processing was also more focused (selective). First, the storage capacity of VSTM was lower, so that fewer stimuli were encoded into VSTM. Second, the distribution of attentional weights across stimuli was less...... even: The efficiency of selecting targets rather than distractors for encoding into VSTM was higher, as was the spread of the attentional weights of the target letters....

  16. Emotional distractors can enhance attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Tamara J.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious effects of emotional distractors on attention are well demonstrated. However, it is unclear if emotional distractors inevitably disrupt task-relevant attention. Using multilevel modeling (MLM), the present study examined the impact of valence and arousal dimensions of distracting emotional stimuli and individual differences in anxiety on task-relevant processing. Consistent with prior literature, high-arousal negative distractors were associated with poor task-relevant attention compared to positive and neutral distractors. However, low-arousal negative distractors were associated with better task-relevant performance than were positive and neutral distractors. Furthermore, these effects were accentuated by individual differences in worry. These findings challenge assumptions that distraction and worry must be minimized for augmented attentional performance. Overall, these results emphasize the importance of taking into account emotional dimensions of arousal and valence as well as individual differences in anxiety when examining attention in the presence of emotional distractors. PMID:24058065

  17. Attention in a bayesian framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise Emma; Sahani, Maneesh

    2012-01-01

    include both selective phenomena, where attention is invoked by cues that point to particular stimuli, and integrative phenomena, where attention is invoked dynamically by endogenous processing. However, most previous Bayesian accounts of attention have focused on describing relatively simple experimental...... settings, where cues shape expectations about a small number of upcoming stimuli and thus convey "prior" information about clearly defined objects. While operationally consistent with the experiments it seeks to describe, this view of attention as prior seems to miss many essential elements of both its......The behavioral phenomena of sensory attention are thought to reflect the allocation of a limited processing resource, but there is little consensus on the nature of the resource or why it should be limited. Here we argue that a fundamental bottleneck emerges naturally within Bayesian models of...

  18. Guiding Attention by Cooperative Cues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KangWoo Lee

    2008-01-01

    A common assumption in visual attention is based on the rationale of "limited capacity of information pro-ceasing". From this view point there is little consideration of how different information channels or modules are cooperating because cells in processing stages are forced to compete for the limited resource. To examine the mechanism behind the cooperative behavior of information channels, a computational model of selective attention is implemented based on two hypotheses. Unlike the traditional view of visual attention, the cooperative behavior is assumed to be a dynamic integration process between the bottom-up and top-down information. Furthermore, top-down information is assumed to provide a contextual cue during selection process and to guide the attentional allocation among many bottom-up candidates. The result from a series of simulation with still and video images showed some interesting properties that could not be explained by the competitive aspect of selective attention alone.

  19. Social reward shapes attentional biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Paying attention to stimuli that predict a reward outcome is important for an organism to survive and thrive. When visual stimuli are associated with tangible, extrinsic rewards such as money or food, these stimuli acquire high attentional priority and come to automatically capture attention. In humans and other primates, however, many behaviors are not motivated directly by such extrinsic rewards, but rather by the social feedback that results from performing those behaviors. In the present study, I examine whether positive social feedback can similarly influence attentional bias. The results show that stimuli previously associated with a high probability of positive social feedback elicit value-driven attentional capture, much like stimuli associated with extrinsic rewards. Unlike with extrinsic rewards, however, such stimuli also influence task-specific motivation. My findings offer a potential mechanism by which social reward shapes the information that we prioritize when perceiving the world around us. PMID:25941868

  20. Assessing the heritability of attentional networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fossella John A

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current efforts to study the genetics of higher functions have been lacking appropriate phenotypes to describe cognition. One of the problems is that many cognitive concepts for which there is a single word (e.g. attention have been shown to be related to several anatomical networks. Recently we have developed an Attention Network Test (ANT that provides a separate measure for each of three anatomically defined attention networks. In this small scale study, we ran 26 pairs of MZ and DZ twins in an effort to determine if any of these networks show sufficient evidence of heritability to warrant further exploration of their genetic basis. Results The efficiency of the executive attention network, that mediates stimulus and response conflict, shows sufficient heritability to warrant further study. Alerting and overall reaction time show some evidence for heritability and in our study the orienting network shows no evidence of heritability. Conclusions These results suggest that genetic variation contributes to normal individual differences in higher order executive attention involving dopamine rich frontal areas including the anterior cingulate. At least the executive portion of the ANT may serve as a valid endophenotype for larger twin studies and subsequent molecular genetic analysis in normal subject populations.

  1. Establishing the Attention-Distractibility Trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Sophie; Lavie, Nilli

    2016-02-01

    Failures to focus attention will affect any task engagement (e.g., at work, in the classroom, when driving). At the clinical end, distractibility is a diagnostic criterion of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we examined whether the inability to maintain attentional focus varies in the overall population in the form of an attention-distractibility trait. To test this idea, we administered an ADHD diagnostic tool to a sample of healthy participants and assessed the relationship between ADHD symptoms and task distraction. ADHD symptom summary scores were significantly positively associated with distractor interference in letter-search and name-classification tasks (as measured by reaction time), as long as the distractors were irrelevant (cartoon images) rather than relevant (i.e., compatible or incompatible with target names). Higher perceptual load during a task eliminated distraction irrespective of ADHD score. These findings suggest the existence of an attention-distractibility trait that confers vulnerability to irrelevant distraction, which can be remedied by increasing the level of perceptual load during the task. PMID:26667659

  2. Predicting fat-free mass index and sarcopenia: a pilot study in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Emily I; Smale, K Brent; Vallis, Lori Ann

    2013-12-01

    Age-related muscle loss, termed sarcopenia, has been linked to an increased risk of falls, disability, and mortality. The purpose of this study was to develop a predictive measurement tool to estimate normalized fat-free mass index (FFMI), a means of identifying sarcopenia, in community-dwelling older adults. Functionally relevant measurements including mobility tests, food records, circumference measures, balance, and gait variables were included to ensure this model was comprehensive and accessible to clinicians. Eighty-five community-dwelling older adults (42 male) aged 75.2 ± 5.7 years participated. Each completed two questionnaires regarding general health and physical activity levels. Anthropometric, strength, balance, gait, nutrition, and body composition tests were then conducted. A fat-free mass value, determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis, was normalized by height (FFMI). FFMI along with grip strength and gait speed was used to classify sarcopenia. FFMI was significantly correlated with all circumference measures (waist, arm, calf, and thigh) and body mass index (BMI), but no nutritional parameters. In males, maximum grip strength and a novel quiet balance measure, time outside of a 95% confidence ellipse (TOE), were both positively correlated to FFMI. In females, age and double-support time correlated to FFMI. The prediction equation that accounted for the most variability of FFMI included the independent variables: sex, step time, BMI, and TOE (adjusted R(2) = 0.9272). The proposed linear regression model can successfully predict FFMI values to a high level of accuracy in men and women. With this information, sarcopenia can be predicted by clinicians, and early interventions can be planned and implemented. PMID:23322451

  3. Radon levels and doses in dwellings in two villages in Kosovo, affected by depleted uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafezi, G; Gregoric, A; Vaupotic, J; Bahtijari, M; Kuqali, M

    2014-01-01

    The radon ((222)Rn) activity concentration in 15 dwellings in the Planej village and 10 dwellings in the Gorozhup village has been measured with the aim to complement the national radon survey and to compare the results of two different measurement techniques. The radon concentration has been measured in winter and spring using alpha scintillation cells and in winter, spring and summer by exposing solid-state nuclear track detectors. Both methods gave similar results. Radon concentrations in both villages were similar, ranging from 82 to 432 Bq m(-3); the value of 400 Bq m(-3) was exceeded only in two dwellings. The resulting annual effective doses ranged from 1.78 to 6.40 mSv, with the average values of 3.28 mSv in the Planej village and 3.87 mSv in the Gorozhup village. PMID:24051175

  4. Radon levels and doses in dwellings in two villages in Kosovo, affected by depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon (222Rn) activity concentration in 15 dwellings in the Planej village and 10 dwellings in the Gorozhup village has been measured with the aim to complement the national radon survey and to compare the results of two different measurement techniques. The radon concentration has been measured in winter and spring using alpha scintillation cells and in winter, spring and summer by exposing solid-state nuclear track detectors. Both methods gave similar results. Radon concentrations in both villages were similar, ranging from 82 to 432 Bq m-3; the value of 400 Bq m-3 was exceeded only in two dwellings. The resulting annual effective doses ranged from 1.78 to 6.40 mSv, with the average values of 3.28 mSv in the Planej village and 3.87 mSv in the Gorozhup village. (authors)

  5. Survey of occupant behaviour and control of indoor environment in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Andersen, Klaus Kaae;

    2009-01-01

    separately by means of multiple logistic regression in order to quantify factors influencing occupants’ behaviour. The window opening behaviour was strongly related to the outdoor temperature. The perception of the environment and factors concerning the dwelling also impacted the window opening behaviour....... The proportion of dwellings with the heating turned on was strongly related to the outdoor temperature and the presence of a wood burning stove. The solar radiation, dwelling ownership conditions and the perception of the indoor environment also affected the use of heating. The results of the...... statistical analyses form a basis for a definition of standard behaviour patterns which can be used to make calculation of energy consumption of buildings more accurate....

  6. Physical and mental health-related correlates of physical function in community dwelling older adults: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burbank Patricia A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical function is the ability to perform both basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and the ability of older adults to reside in the community depends to a large extent on their level of physical function. Multiple physical and health-related variables may differentially affect physical function, but they have not been well characterized. The purpose of this investigation was to identify and examine physical and mental health-related correlates of physical function in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. Methods Nine hundred and four community dwelling older men (n = 263 and women (n = 641 with a mean (95% Confidence Interval age of 76.6 (76.1, 77.1 years underwent tests of physical function (Timed Up and Go; TUG, Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated from measured height and weight, and data were collected on self-reported health quality of life (SF-36, falls during the past 6 months, number of medications per day, depression (Geriatric Depression Scale; GDS, social support, and sociodemographic variables. Results Subjects completed the TUG in 8.7 (8.2, 9.2 seconds and expended 6,976 (6,669, 7,284 Kcal.wk-1 in physical activity. The older persons had a mean BMI of 27. 6 (27.2, 28.0, 62% took 3 or more medications per day, and14.4% had fallen one or more times over the last 6 months. Mean scores on the Mental Component Summary (MCS was 50.6 (50.2, 51,0 and the Physical Component Summary (PCS was 41.3 (40.8, 41.8. Multiple sequential regression analysis showed that, after adjustment for TUG floor surface correlates of physical function included age, sex, education, physical activity (weekly energy expenditure, general health, bodily pain, number of medications taken per day, depression and Body Mass Index. Further, there is a dose response relationship such that greater degree of physical function impairment is associated with poorer scores on physical health-related variables. Conclusions Physical

  7. The effects of advertisement location and familiarity on selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Tanja Lund; Rodway, Paul

    2010-06-01

    This study comprised two experiments to examine the distracting effects of advertisement familiarity, location, and onset on the performance of a selective attention task. In Exp. 1, familiar advertisements presented in peripheral vision disrupted selective attention when the attention task was more demanding, suggesting that the distracting effect of advertisements is a product of task demands and advertisement familiarity and location. In Exp. 2, the onset of the advertisement shortly before, or after, the attention task captured attention and disrupted attentional performance. The onset of the advertisement before the attention task reduced target response time without an increase in errors and therefore facilitated performance. Despite being instructed to ignore the advertisements, the participants were able to recall a substantial proportion of the familiar advertisements. Implications for the presentation of advertisements during human-computer interaction were discussed. PMID:20681345

  8. The effect of chinese yuanji-dance on dynamic balance and the associated attentional demands in elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Lan; Wei, Ta-Sen; Chen, Shen-Kai; Chang, Jyh-Jong; Guo, Lan-Yuen; Lin, Hwai-Ting

    2010-01-01

    Walking performance changes with age. This has implications for the problem of falls in older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Yuanji-Dance practice on walking balance and the associated attention demand in healthy elderly. Fifteen community-dwelling elderly (comparison group, no regular exercise habit) and fifteen Yuanji- Dance elderly (exercise group, dancing experience: 5.40 ± 1.95 years), aged 60-70 years, were included in this study. The subjects in exercise group participated in a 90-minute Yuanji-Dance practice at least three times per week and the comparison group continued their normal daily physical activity. Walking balance measures (including walking velocity, step length, step width, and percentage of time spent in double limb support, COM velocity and COM-COP inclination angles) and attentional demand tests (button reaction time and accuracy) were conducted under different conditions. Our results showed that stride lengths, walking velocities, peak A/P velocities (AP V) of the COM, medial COM-COP inclination (M angle) angles, reaction time, and accuracy decrease significantly as the dual-task (walking plus hand button pressing tasks) applied for either the comparison or exercise groups. These results demonstrated that walking performance is attenuated in our elderly participants as the cognitive tasks applied. Analysis also identified a significantly faster RT for our exercise group both in standing and walking conditions. This may indicate that physical exercise (Yuanji-Dance) may have facilitating effects on general cognitive and perceptual- motor functions. This implies that Chinese Yuanji-Dance practice for elderly adults may improve their personal safety when walking especially under the condition of multiple task demand. Key pointsThe purpose of this study was to investigate the training effects of a Chinese traditional exercise, Yuanji-Dance, on walking balance and the associated attention demand in the healthy

  9. Mindfulness training affects attention--or is it attentional effort?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Frokjaer, Vibe;

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in attentional performance are at the core of proposed mechanisms for stress reduction in mindfulness meditation practices. However, this claim can be questioned because no previous studies have actively manipulated test effort in control groups and controlled for effects of stress...... reduction per se. In a blinded design, 48 young, healthy meditation novices were randomly assigned to a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), nonmindfulness stress reduction (NMSR), or inactive control group. At posttest, inactive controls were randomly split into nonincentive and incentive controls......, the latter receiving a financial reward to improve attentional performance. Pre- and postintervention, 5 validated attention paradigms were employed along with self-report scales on mindfulness and perceived stress and saliva cortisol samples to measure physiological stress. Attentional effects of...

  10. Primary energy consumption of the dwelling with solar hot water system and biomass boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Methodology for determing delivered and primary energy is developed. • Conventional and solar hot water system are analyzed. • Influence of system components, heat losses and energy consumption is explored. • Savings when using solar system in delivered energy is 30% and in primary 75%. • Dwelling with higher QH,nd has 60% shorter payback period. - Abstract: This paper presents a new methodology, based on the energy performance of buildings Directive related European norms. It is developed to overcome ambiguities and incompleteness of these standards in determining the delivered and primary energy. The available procedures from the present “Algorithm for determining the energy demands and efficiency of technical systems in buildings”, normally used for energy performance certification of buildings, also allow detailed analyzes of the influence of particular system components on the overall system energy efficiency. The calculation example is given for a Croatian reference dwelling, equipped with a solar hot water system, backed up with a biomass boiler for space heating and domestic hot water purposes as a part of the dwelling energy performance certification. Calculations were performed for two cases corresponding to different levels of the dwelling thermal insulation with an appropriate heating system capacity, in order to investigate the influence of the building heat losses on the system design and energy consumption. The results are compared against those obtained for the conventional system with a gas boiler in terms of the primary energy consumption as well as of investment and operating costs. These results indicate great reduction in both delivered and primary energy consumption when a solar system with biomass boiler is used instead of the conventional one. Higher savings are obtained in the case of the dwelling with higher energy need for space heating. Such dwellings also have a shorter payback period than the ones with

  11. Attentional Profiles and White Matter Correlates in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, aged 7-15 years, had their attentional abilities assessed through the Conners' continuous performance test. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected for all of the participants using a 3.0-T MRI system. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained for 20 fiber tracts, and brain-behavior correlations were calculated for 42 of the children. The ADHD-I children differed significantly from the typically developing (TD) children with respect to attentional measures, such as the ability to maintain response-time consistency throughout the task (Hit RT SE and Variability), vigilance (Hit RT ISI and Hit RT ISI SE), processing speed (Hit RT), selective attention (Omissions), sustained attention (Hit RT Block Change), error profile (Response Style), and inhibitory control (Perseverations). Evidence of significant differences between the ADHD-I and the TD participants was not found with respect to the mean FA values in the fiber tracts analyzed. Moderate and strong correlations between performance on the attention indicators and the tract-average FA values were found for the ADHD-I group. Our results contribute to a better characterization of the attentional profile of ADHD-I individuals and suggest that in children and adolescents with ADHD-I, attentional performance is mainly associated with the white matter structure of the long associative fibers that connect anterior-posterior brain areas. PMID:26441684

  12. Extended attention span training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  13. Optimization of systems with the combination of ground-source heat pump and solar collectors in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Elisabeth; Hellström, Göran; Perers, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    The use of ground-source heat pumps for heating and domestic hot water in dwellings is common in Sweden. The combination with solar collectors has been introduced to reduce the electricity demand in the system. In order to analyze different systems with combinations of solar collectors and ground......-source heat pumps, computer simulations have been carried out with the simulation program TRNSYS. Large differences were found between the system alternatives. The optimal design is when solar heat produces domestic hot water during summertime and recharges the borehole during wintertime. The advantage is...... related to the rate of heat extraction from the borehole as well as the overall design of the system. The demand of electricity may increase with solar recharging, because of the increased operating time of the circulation pumps. Another advantage with solar heat in combination with heat pumps is when the...

  14. A correlation study between indoor radon-thoron concentration and soil exhalation rates from Indian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurements of indoor radon and thoron concentration in some north Indian dwellings were carried out using pin hole based radon thoron dosimeters. The inhalation doses were calculated by ICRP recommendations. The radon and thoron exhalation rates from the soil collected from the same dwellings area were also carried out with closed chamber technique using active measurement by scintillation radon monitor and scintillation thoron monitor. The indoor radon and thoron concentration varied from 12 to 90 Bq/m3 and 20 to 140 Bq/m3 respectively. A good positive correlation was found between indoor radon thoron concentration and their exhalation rates. (author)

  15. Radon remediation of dwellings with suspended timber floors -case studies from the Building Research Establishment (UK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwellings with suspended floors and high radon levels are proving difficult to remediate. This paper reports on the experience of the Building Research Establishment in dealing with such dwellings. Brief details of the remediation of 14 houses are given, and comparisons are made between the effectiveness of the different techniques adopted. Natural ventilation, mechanical supply ventilation and mechanical extract ventilation are three techniques that have been used successfully as radon remedial measures. Preliminary results suggest that supply ventilation is more effective than extract ventilation. (author)

  16. Radon, thoron and their progeny levels in some dwellings of northern Haryana, India using SSNTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon pollution is an important global problem of radiation hygiene. Radon and its progeny are the major contributors in the radiation dose received by general population of the world. Keeping this in my mind the environmental monitoring of radon, thoron and their progeny in some dwellings of northern part of Haryana state of India, has been carried out. The radon-thoron twin dosimeter cups were used for the study. The aim of the study is the possible health risk assessment in the dwellings under construction. (author)

  17. A new cave-dwelling millipede of the genus Scutogona from central Portugal (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida, Chamaesomatidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik; P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia

    2013-01-01

    A new cave-dwelling species of the genus Scutogona Ribuat, 1913, S. minor n. sp., is described from caves of Sicó karst in central Portugal. The classification and delimitation of Scutogona vis-à-vis related genera, in particular Meinerteuma Mauriès, 1982, is discussed.......A new cave-dwelling species of the genus Scutogona Ribuat, 1913, S. minor n. sp., is described from caves of Sicó karst in central Portugal. The classification and delimitation of Scutogona vis-à-vis related genera, in particular Meinerteuma Mauriès, 1982, is discussed....

  18. Early vision and visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT, based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constructs of FIT, like types of visual search and the role of the attention. The following review describes the main studies of early vision and visual attention.

  19. Components of attentional set-switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushworth, M F S; Passingham, R E; Nobre, A C

    2005-01-01

    A series of distinct event-related potentials (ERPs) have been recorded from the scalp of human subjects as they switch from one task to another. It is possible that task switching may depend on different mechanisms depending on whether the switch requires a change in attentional set, in other words the redirecting of attention to different aspects of a sensory stimulus, or whether it requires a change in intentional set, in others words a change in the way that responses are selected. To address this issue, the current study recorded ERPs while subjects switched between attentional sets and the results were compared with those of a previous investigation in which subjects switched between intentional sets. Subjects selected stimuli according to two conflicting attentional sets, each emphasizing one visual stimulus dimension (colour, shape). Pairs of stimuli, only one of which was to be attended, were presented for between eight and seventeen trials then either a switch or a stay cue was shown. The switch cue instructed subjects to switch from the current attentional set to the other set, while the stay cue instructed subjects to maintain the current set. Comparing ERPs time-locked to the switch and stay cues revealed neural correlates of the initiation of a task switch. Comparing the ERPs time locked to the first stimuli after either stay or switch cues identified neural correlates of the implementation of a task switch. A similar modulation over parietal electrodes was seen when subjects were switching between either attentional or intentional sets. While an intentional set switch began with a medial frontal modulation, attentional set switching began with a lateral frontal modulation. Implementing a new attentional set was associated with modulation of relatively early visual potentials, while implementing a new intentional set was associated with modulation of later response-related potentials. The results confirm that task switching consists of a number of

  20. Objective but not subjective sleep predicts memory in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavuoto, Marina G; Ong, Ben; Pike, Kerryn E; Nicholas, Christian L; Bei, Bei; Kinsella, Glynda J

    2016-08-01

    Research on the relationship between habitual sleep patterns and memory performance in older adults is limited. No previous study has used objective and subjective memory measures in a large, older-aged sample to examine the association between sleep and various domains of memory. The aim of this study was to examine the association between objective and subjective measures of sleep with memory performance in older adults, controlling for the effects of potential confounds. One-hundred and seventy-three community-dwelling older adults aged 65-89 years in Victoria, Australia completed the study. Objective sleep quality and length were ascertained using the Actiwatch 2 Mini-Mitter, while subjective sleep was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Memory was indexed by tests of retrospective memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised), working memory (n-back, 2-back accuracy) and prospective memory (a habitual button pressing task). Compared with normative data, overall performance on retrospective memory function was within the average range. Hierarchical regression was used to determine whether objective or subjective measures of sleep predicted memory performances after controlling for demographics, health and mood. After controlling for confounds, actigraphic sleep indices (greater wake after sleep onset, longer sleep-onset latency and longer total sleep time) predicted poorer retrospective (∆R(2)  = 0.05, P = 0.016) and working memory (∆R(2)  = 0.05, P = 0.047). In contrast, subjective sleep indices did not significantly predict memory performances. In community-based older adults, objectively-measured, habitual sleep indices predict poorer memory performances. It will be important to follow the sample longitudinally to determine trajectories of change over time. PMID:26868539

  1. Life history dependent morphometric variation in stream-dwelling Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, B.H.

    2003-01-01

    The time course of morphometric variation among life histories for stream-dwelling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr (age-0+ to age-2+) was analyzed. Possible life histories were combinations of parr maturity status in the autumn (mature or immature) and age at outmigration (smolt at age-2+ or later age). Actual life histories expressed with enough fish for analysis in the 1997 cohort were immature/age-2+ smolt, mature/age-2 +smolt, and mature/age-2+ non-smolt. Tagged fish were assigned to one of the three life histories and digital pictures from the field were analyzed using landmark-based geometric morphometrics. Results indicated that successful grouping of fish according to life history varied with fish age, but that fish could be grouped before the actual expression of the life histories. By March (age-1+), fish were successfully grouped using a descriptive discriminant function and successful assignment ranged from 84 to 97% for the remainder of stream residence. A jackknife of the discriminant function revealed an average life history prediction success of 67% from age-1+ summer to smolting. Low sample numbers for one of the life histories may have limited prediction success. A MANOVA on the shape descriptors (relative warps) also indicated significant differences in shape among life histories from age-1+ summer through to smolting. Across all samples, shape varied significantly with size. Within samples, shape did not vary significantly with size for samples from December (age-0+) to May (age-1+). During the age-1+ summer however, shape varied significantly with size, but the relationship between shape and size was not different among life histories. In the autumn (age-1+) and winter (age-2+), life history differences explained a significant portion of the change in shape with size. Life history dependent morphometric variation may be useful to indicate the timing of early expressions of life history variation and as a tool to explore temporal and

  2. Acoustic Analysis of Inhaler Sounds From Community-Dwelling Asthmatic Patients for Automatic Assessment of Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'arcy, Shona; Costello, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    Inhalers are devices which deliver medication to the airways in the treatment of chronic respiratory diseases. When used correctly inhalers relieve and improve patients' symptoms. However, adherence to inhaler medication has been demonstrated to be poor, leading to reduced clinical outcomes, wasted medication, and higher healthcare costs. There is a clinical need for a system that can accurately monitor inhaler adherence as currently no method exists to evaluate how patients use their inhalers between clinic visits. This paper presents a method of automatically evaluating inhaler adherence through acoustic analysis of inhaler sounds. An acoustic monitoring device was employed to record the sounds patients produce while using a Diskus dry powder inhaler, in addition to the time and date patients use the inhaler. An algorithm was designed and developed to automatically detect inhaler events from the audio signals and provide feedback regarding patient adherence. The algorithm was evaluated on 407 audio files obtained from 12 community dwelling asthmatic patients. Results of the automatic classification were compared against two expert human raters. For patient data for whom the human raters Cohen's kappa agreement score was \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}${>}{0.81}$\\end{document}, results indicated that the algorithm's accuracy was 83% in determining the correct inhaler technique score compared with the raters. This paper has several clinical implications as it demonstrates the feasibility of using acoustics to objectively monitor patient inhaler adherence and provide real-time personalized medical care for a chronic respiratory illness.

  3. Attention and the Evolution of Intentional Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Brinck, Ingar

    2001-01-01

    Intentional communication is perceptually based and about attentional objects. Three attention mechanisms are distinguished: scanning, attention attraction, and attention-focusing. Attention-focusing directs the subject towards attentional objects. Attention-focusing is goal-governed (controlled by stimulus) or goal-intended (under the control of the subject). Attentional objects are perceptually categorised functional entities that emerge in the interaction between subjects and environment. ...

  4. Estudo prospectivo, randomizado e controlado sobre o tempo de permanência de cateteres venosos periféricos em crianças, segundo três tipos de curativos Estudio prospectivo, aleatorio y controlado sobre el período de permanencia de catéteres venosos periféricos insertados en niños, según tres tipos de cura Prospective, randomized and controlled trial on the dwell time of peripheral intravenous catheters in children, according to three dressing regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Ferreira Machado

    2005-06-01

    los CVP estudiados: GE 1 (46,12 horas, GE 2 (29,53 horas y GC (38,18 horas, y que la cura con gasa estéril guardó el catéter insertado por más tiempo.This prospective, randomized and controlled study verified the influence of three dressing regimens on the dwell time of peripheral intravenous catheters (PIC in children. The study groups were composed of dressings with sterile gauze (EG 1, with sterile transparent film (EG 2 and with hypoallergenic adhesive tape (CG. Variables were selected to control for variables related to children, professionals and intravenous therapy characteristics. The 150 PIC that composed the sample were inserted in 68 children, predominantly of preschool age, male, with brown skin color, eutrophic and with gastrointestinal system diseases. The majority of the PIC was installed by nursing auxiliaries in veins of the dorsal arch of the hand. The type of dressing exerted a significant influence (p = 0.022 on the average dwell time of the studied PIC: EG 1 (46.12 hours, EG 2 (29.53 hours and CG (38.18 hours, concluding that the dressing with sterile gauze maintained the catheter inserted for a longer time.

  5. 24 CFR 1000.160 - Are non-dwelling structures developed, acquired or assisted under the IHBG program subject to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are non-dwelling structures developed, acquired or assisted under the IHBG program subject to limitations on cost or design standards...-dwelling structures developed, acquired or assisted under the IHBG program subject to limitations on...

  6. Systematic Literature Review of Randomized Control Trials Assessing the Effectiveness of Nutrition Interventions in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandayrel, Kristofer; Wong, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition interventions may play an important role in maintaining the health and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults. To the authors' knowledge, no systematic literature review has been conducted on the effectiveness of nutrition interventions in the community-dwelling older adult population. Design: Systematic literature…

  7. 24 CFR 203.16 - Certificate and contract regarding use of dwelling for transient or hotel purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use of dwelling for transient or hotel purposes. 203.16 Section 203.16 Housing and Urban Development... use of dwelling for transient or hotel purposes. Every application filed with respect to insurance of... housing or any part thereof covered by the mortgage for transient or hotel purposes, together with...

  8. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... A of Part 1924—Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments With slab...

  9. The influence of sediment, food and organic ligands on the uptake of copper by sediment-dwelling bivalves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Absil, M.C.P.; Berntssen, M.; Gerringa, L.J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The sediment-dwelling bivalve Macoma balthica was exposed to dissolved copper ina flow-through system in long-term experiments. Unlike another sediment-dwelling bivalve, the suspension feeder Cerastoderma edule (cockle), M. balthica accumulated copper from the sediment, while the cockles did not. Wh

  10. Deficits in human visual spatial attention following thalamic lesions.

    OpenAIRE

    Rafal, R D; Posner, M I

    1987-01-01

    There has been speculation concerning the role that thalamic nuclei play in directing attention to locations in visual space [Crick, F. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 4586-4590]. We measured covert shifts of visual attention in three patients with unilateral thalamic hemorrhages shortly after the lesion and after a 6-month recovery period. The experiment measured reaction time to targets that occurred at locations to which attention had been cued (valid trials) or at a currently unatte...

  11. Visual attention in posterior stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Charlotte; Petersen, Anders; Iversen, Helle K;

    Objective: Impaired visual attention is common following strokes in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, particularly in the right hemisphere. However, attentional effects of more posterior lesions are less clear. The aim of this study was to characterize visual processing speed and...... apprehension span following posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke. We also relate these attentional parameters to visual word recognition, as previous studies have suggested that reduced visual speed and span may explain pure alexia. Methods: Nine patients with MR-verified focal lesions in the PCA......-territory (four left PCA; four right PCA; one bilateral, all >1 year post stroke) were compared to 25 controls using single case statistics. Visual attention was characterized by a whole report paradigm allowing for hemifield-specific speed and span measurements. We also characterized visual field defects and...

  12. Emotional distractors can enhance attention

    OpenAIRE

    Sussman, Tamara J.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2013-01-01

    The deleterious effects of emotional distractors on attention are well demonstrated. However, it is unclear if emotional distractors inevitably disrupt task-relevant attention. Using multilevel modeling (MLM), the present study examined the impact of valence and arousal dimensions of distracting emotional stimuli and individual differences in anxiety on task-relevant processing. Consistent with prior literature, high-arousal negative distractors were associated with poor task-relevant attenti...

  13. Attention modulates visual size adaptation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreutzer, Sylvia; Fink, G R; R. Weidner

    2015-01-01

    The current study determined in healthy subjects (n = 16) whether size adaptation occurs at early, i.e., preattentive, levels of processing or whether higher cognitive processes such as attention can modulate the illusion. To investigate this issue, bottom-up stimulation was kept constant across conditions by using a single adaptation display containing both small and large adapter stimuli. Subjects' attention was directed to either the large or small adapter stimulus by means of a luminance ...

  14. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, ac...

  15. Joint attention, shared goals, and social bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Wouter; Launay, Jacques; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-05-01

    There has recently been interest in the ways in which coordinated movements encourage coactors to feel socially closer to one another, but this has generally overlooked the importance of necessary precursors to this joint action. Here we target two low-level behaviours involved in social coordination that may mediate a relationship between joint actions and social bonding, namely joint attention and shared goals. Participants engaged in a simple reaction time task while sitting next to a partner performing the same task. In a joint attention condition, both participants attended to stimuli presented on the same half of a computer screen, while in a control condition, they attended to opposite sides of the computer screen. Shared goals were manipulated by giving participants the instruction to keep below a threshold score for both individual response times and accuracy (individual goal), or their joint mean response time and accuracy (i.e., averaging their mean response time and accuracy with that of their partner: shared goal). Attending to the same side of the screen led to higher ratings on a composite social bonding index directed towards a partner, while shared goals did not cause any effects on partner ratings. Joint attention was sufficient to encourage social closeness with an interaction partner, which suggests that any activities which encourage attending to the same point in space could have some influence on how connected coactors feel about one another. PMID:26256821

  16. Sound classification of dwellings in the Nordic countries – Differences and similarities between the five national schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    In all five Nordic countries, sound classification schemes for dwellings have been published in national standards being implemented and revised gradually since the late 1990s. The national classification criteria for dwellings originate from a common Nordic INSTA-B proposal from the 1990s, thus...... having several similarities. In 2012, status is that number and denotations of classes for dwellings are identical in the Nordic countries, but the structures of the standards and several details are quite different. Also the issues dealt with are different. Examples of differences are sound insulation...... for classification of such buildings. This paper presents and compares the main class criteria for sound insulation of dwellings and summarizes differences and similarities in criteria and in structures of standards. Classification schemes for dwellings also exist in several other countries in Europe...

  17. Effect of attention control on sustained attention during induced anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillon, Christian; Robinson, Oliver J; Mathur, Ambika; Ernst, Monique

    2016-06-01

    Anxiety has wide-reaching and complex effects on cognitive performance. Although it can intrude on cognition and interfere with performance, it can also facilitate information processing and behavioural responses. In a previous study, we showed that anxiety induced by threat of shock facilitates performance on the Sustained Attention to Response Task, a vigilance test, which probes response inhibition to infrequent nogo stimuli. The present study sought to identify factors that may have contributed to such improved performance, including on- and off-task thinking (assessed with thought probes) and individual differences in attention control, as measured with the Attention Control Scale. Replicating our prior finding, we showed that shock threat significantly reduced errors of commission on the nogo trials. However, we extended this finding in demonstrating that this effect was driven by subjects with low attention control. We therefore confirm that anxiety increases inhibitory control of prepotent responses-a mechanism which is adaptive under threat-and show that this effect is greater in those who rely more upon such prepotent responding, i.e., those with low attentional control. PMID:25899613

  18. Robotic Attention Processing And Its Application To Visual Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Matthew; Inoue, Hirochika

    1988-03-01

    This paper describes a method of real-time visual attention processing for robots performing visual guidance. This robot attention processing is based on a novel vision processor, the multi-window vision system that was developed at the University of Tokyo. The multi-window vision system is unique in that it only processes visual information inside local area windows. These local area windows are quite flexible in their ability to move anywhere on the visual screen, change their size and shape, and alter their pixel sampling rate. By using these windows for specific attention tasks, it is possible to perform high speed attention processing. The primary attention skills of detecting motion, tracking an object, and interpreting an image are all performed at high speed on the multi-window vision system. A basic robotic attention scheme using the attention skills was developed. The attention skills involved detection and tracking of salient visual features. The tracking and motion information thus obtained was utilized in producing the response to the visual stimulus. The response of the attention scheme was quick enough to be applicable to the real-time vision processing tasks of playing a video 'pong' game, and later using an automobile driving simulator. By detecting the motion of a 'ball' on a video screen and then tracking the movement, the attention scheme was able to control a 'paddle' in order to keep the ball in play. The response was faster than that of a human's, allowing the attention scheme to play the video game at higher speeds. Further, in the application to the driving simulator, the attention scheme was able to control both direction and velocity of a simulated vehicle following a lead car. These two applications show the potential of local visual processing in its use for robotic attention processing.

  19. Spatial attention increases performance but not subjective confidence in a discrimination task

    OpenAIRE

    Wilimzig, Claudia; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Fahle, Manfred; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Koch, Christof

    2008-01-01

    Selective attention to a target yields faster and more accurate responses. Faster response times, in turn, are usually associated with increased subjective confidence. Could the decrease in reaction time in the presence of attention therefore simply reflect a shift toward more confident responses? We here addressed the extent to which attention modulates accuracy, processing speed, and confidence independently. To probe the effect of spatial attention on performance, we used two attentional m...

  20. Dissociating temporal attention from spatial attention and motor response preparation: A high-density EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugeras, Frédéric; Naccache, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    Engagement of various forms of attention and response preparation determines behavioral performance during stimulus-response tasks. Many studies explored the respective properties and neural signatures of each of these processes. However, very few experiments were conceived to explore their interaction. In the present work we used an auditory target detection task during which both temporal attention on the one side, and spatial attention and motor response preparation on the other side could be explicitly cued. Both cueing effects speeded response times, and showed strictly additive effects. Target ERP analysis revealed modulations of N1 and P3 responses by these two forms of cueing. Cue-target interval analysis revealed two main effects paralleling behavior. First, a typical contingent negative variation (CNV), induced by the cue and resolved immediately after target onset, was found larger for temporal attention cueing than for spatial and motor response cueing. Second, a posterior and late cue-P3 complex showed the reverse profile. Analyses of lateralized readiness potentials (LRP) revealed both patterns of motor response inhibition and activation. Taken together these results help to clarify and disentangle the respective effects of temporal attention on the one hand, and of the combination of spatial attention and motor response preparation on the other hand on brain activity and behavior. PMID:26433120