WorldWideScience

Sample records for attention

  1. Attention to Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael Eric

    a psychic prerequisite for the social interaction between pupils and teachers. New kinds of “split attention” arise and new kinds of social mediation (regulation and “use”) of psychic attention become necessary if teaching in the new digital medium milieu shall be beneficial. In this paper we...... against Facebook, online games etc. neither unconcern and ignorance of the new media and their consequences for attention) - we argue - can generate adequate social norms regulating psychic awareness in the new digital learning environment....

  2. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  3. Revealed Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Masatlioglu, Yusufcan; NAKAJIMA, Daisuke; Ozbay, Erkut Y

    2012-01-01

    The standard revealed preference argument relies on an implicit assumption that a decision maker considers all feasible alternatives. The marketing and psychology literatures, however, provide wellestablished evidence that consumers do not consider all brands in a given market before making a purchase (Limited Attention). In this paper, we illustrate how one can deduce both the decision maker's preference and the alternatives to which she pays attention and inattention from the observed behav...

  4. Revealed Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Yusufcan Masatlioglu; Daisuke Nakajima; Ozbay, Erkut Y

    2012-01-01

    The standard revealed preference argument relies on an implicit assumption that a decision maker considers all feasible alternatives. The marketing and psychology literatures, however, provide well-established evidence that consumers do not consider all brands in a given market before making a purchase (Limited Attention). In this paper, we illustrate how one can deduce both the decision maker's preference and the alternatives to which she pays attention and inattention from the observed beha...

  5. Shared Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shteynberg, Garriy

    2015-09-01

    Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior. Here, I advance a psychological theory of shared attention, defining its properties as a mental state and outlining its cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. I review empirical findings that are uniquely predicted by shared-attention theory and discuss the possibility of integrating shared-attention, social-facilitation, and social-loafing perspectives. Finally, I reflect on what shared-attention theory implies for living in the digital world. PMID:26385997

  6. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built us

  7. Attention Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Börner, Dirk; KALZ Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment and the open source computer vision library OpenCV for Processing. Available under the GNU LGPL licence version 3 or higher.

  8. Attention, Joint Attention, and Social Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Mundy, Peter; Newell, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Before social cognition there is joint processing of information about the attention of self and others. This joint attention requires the integrated activation of a distributed cortical network involving the anterior and posterior attention systems. In infancy, practice with the integrated activation of this distributed attention network is a major contributor to the development of social cognition. Thus, the functional neuroanatomies of social cognition and the anterior–posterior attention ...

  9. Attention and Olfactory Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to ...

  10. Attention Mosaics: Studies of Organizational Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho de Mesquita Ferreira, Luciana

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOrganizational studies emphasizing the role of attention in organizational behavior depart from the idea that organizations, like individuals, have limited capacity to attend to environmental stimuli. The bounded capacity of the organizations to respond to stimuli is conditioned by the limited cognitions of individuals and by the limited capability of organizations to distribute, coordinate and integrate those cognitions. The cross-level nature of organizational attention, its dua...

  11. Understanding Attention Deficit Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Orlando; And Others

    This booklet provides basic information regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), in their separate modalities, with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Explanations are offered concerning short attention span, impulsive behavior, hyperactivity, and beginning new activities before completing the previous one. Theories…

  12. Plant intelligence and attention

    OpenAIRE

    Marder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article applies the phenomenological model of attention to plant monitoring of environmental stimuli and signal perception. Three complementary definitions of attention as selectivity, modulation and perdurance are explained with reference to plant signaling and behaviors, including foraging, ramet placement and abiotic stress communication. Elements of animal and human attentive attitudes are compared with plant attention at the levels of cognitive focus, context and margin. It is argue...

  13. Attention Competition with Advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2012-01-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when a...

  14. Dynamics of Media Attention

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Traag; Reinanda, R.; Hicks, J.; Klinken, van, J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of human attention dynamics analyses how attention is focused on specific topics, issues or people. In online social media, there are clear signs of exogenous shocks, bursty dynamics, and an exponential or powerlaw lifetime distribution. We here analyse the attention dynamics of traditional media, focussing on co-occurrence of people in newspaper articles. The results are quite different from online social networks and attention. Different regimes seem to be operating at two different...

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Doğangün, Burak; Yavuz, Mesut

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is characterized by excessive overactiviy inattention and impulsiveness It is reported that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder affects 5 12 of children worldwide It has significant negative effects on psychological and social development and academic functioning of the children if it remains nbsp; untreated The etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is unknown Genetic neurodevelopmental neurophysiological and psychosocial factors ar...

  16. Attention competition with advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  17. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another. PMID:26966228

  18. Principles of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas

    The nature of attention is one of the oldest and most central problems in psychology. A huge amount of research has been produced on this subject in the last half century, especially on attention in the visual modality, but a general explanation has remained elusive. Many still view attention...... mechanisms are described in a set of simple equations, which allow TVA to mathematically model a large number of classical results in the attention literature. The theory explains psychological and neuroscientific findings by the same equations; TVA is a complete theory of visual attention, linking mind and...... brain. Aimed at advanced students and professional researchers, Principles of Visual Attention contains a detailed review of the most important research done on attention in vision, spanning cognitive psychology, brain imaging, patient studies, and recordings from single cells in the visual cortex. The...

  19. Attention Mosaics: Studies of Organizational Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Carvalho de Mesquita Ferreira (Luciana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOrganizational studies emphasizing the role of attention in organizational behavior depart from the idea that organizations, like individuals, have limited capacity to attend to environmental stimuli. The bounded capacity of the organizations to respond to stimuli is conditioned by the l

  20. Overriding auditory attentional capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Polly; Lavie, Nilli

    2007-02-01

    Attentional capture by color singletons during shape search can be eliminated when the target is not a feature singleton (Bacon & Egeth, 1994). This suggests that a "singleton detection" search strategy must be adopted for attentional capture to occur. Here we find similar effects on auditory attentional capture. Irrelevant high-intensity singletons interfered with an auditory search task when the target itself was also a feature singleton. However, singleton interference was eliminated when the target was not a singleton (i.e., when nontargets were made heterogeneous, or when more than one target sound was presented). These results suggest that auditory attentional capture depends on the observer's attentional set, as does visual attentional capture. The suggestion that hearing might act as an early warning system that would always be tuned to unexpected unique stimuli must therefore be modified to accommodate these strategy-dependent capture effects. PMID:17557587

  1. Aging, exercise, and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, H L; Kramer, A F; Capaldi, D

    1992-12-01

    The authors investigated the relationship among aging, attentional processes, and exercise in 2 experiments. First they examined age differences on 2 attentional tasks, a time-sharing task and an attentional flexibility task. Young adults alternated attention between 2 sequenced tasks more rapidly and time-shared the processing of 2 tasks more efficiently than older adults. They then investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on the same 2 attentional tasks in older adults. Following the 10-week exercise program, older exercisers showed substantially more improvement in alternation speed and time-sharing efficiency than older controls. Interestingly, this exercise effect was specific to dual-task processing. Both groups of subjects showed equivalent effects on single-task performance. These results indicate that aerobic exercise can exert a beneficial influence on the efficiency of at least 2 different attentional processes in older adults. PMID:1466833

  2. Overriding auditory attentional capture

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Polly; Lavie, Nilli

    2007-01-01

    Attentional capture by color singletons during shape search can be eliminated when the target is not a feature singleton (Bacon & Egeth, 1994). This suggests that a "singleton detection" search strategy must be adopted for attentional capture to occur. Here we find similar effects on auditory attentional capture. Irrelevant high-intensity singletons interfered with an auditory search task when the target itself was also a feature singleton. However, singleton interference was eliminated when ...

  3. Attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews studies on eye movements in decision making, and compares their observations to theoretical predictions concerning the role of attention in decision making. Four decision theories are examined: rational models, bounded rationality, evidence accumulation, and parallel constraint...... that these assumptions are implausible, and that more accurate assumptions could have been made based on prior attention and eye movement research. Future decision making research would benefit from greater integration with attention research....

  4. Novelty and Collective Attention

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Fang

    2007-01-01

    The subject of collective attention is central to an information age where millions of people are inundated with daily messages. It is thus of interest to understand how attention to novel items propagates and eventually fades among large populations. We have analyzed the dynamics of collective attention among one million users of an interactive website -- \\texttt{digg.com} -- devoted to thousands of novel news stories. The observations can be described by a dynamical model characterized by a single novelty factor. Our measurements indicate that novelty within groups decays with a stretched-exponential law, suggesting the existence of a natural time scale over which attention fades.

  5. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity, and...

  6. Dynamics of Media Attention

    CERN Document Server

    Traag, V A; Hicks, J; van Klinken, G

    2014-01-01

    Studies of human attention dynamics analyses how attention is focused on specific topics, issues or people. In online social media, there are clear signs of exogenous shocks, bursty dynamics, and an exponential or powerlaw lifetime distribution. We here analyse the attention dynamics of traditional media, focussing on co-occurrence of people in newspaper articles. The results are quite different from online social networks and attention. Different regimes seem to be operating at two different time scales. At short time scales we see evidence of bursty dynamics and fast decaying edge lifetimes and attention. This behaviour disappears for longer time scales, and in that regime we find Poissonian dynamics and slower decaying lifetimes. We propose that a cascading Poisson process may take place, with issues arising at a constant rate over a long time scale, and faster dynamics at a shorter time scale.

  7. Special Attention Network

    CERN Document Server

    Indekeu, J O

    2003-01-01

    In this Note a social network model for opinion formation is proposed in which a person connected to $q$ partners pays an {\\em attention} $1/q$ to each partner. The mutual attention between two connected persons $i$ and $j$ is taken equal to the geometric mean $1/\\sqrt{q_iq_j}$. Opinion is represented as usual by an Ising spin $s=\\pm 1$ and mutual attention is given through a two-spin coupling $J_{ij} = J Q/\\sqrt{q_iq_j}$, $Q$ being the average connectivity in the network. Connectivity diminishes attention and only persons with low connectivity can pay special attention to each other leading to a durable common (or opposing) opinion. The model is solved in "mean-field" approximation and a critical "temperature" $T_c$ proportional to $JQ$ is found, which is independent of the number of persons $N$, for large $N$.

  8. Learning to Pay Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Slagter, Heleen A.; LUTZ, ANTOINE; Greischar, Lawrence L; Francis, Andrew D; Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Davis, James M.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The information processing capacity of the human mind is limited, as is evidenced by the so-called “attentional-blink” deficit: When two targets (T1 and T2) embedded in a rapid stream of events are presented in close temporal proximity, the second target is often not seen. This deficit is believed to result from competition between the two targets for limited attentional resources. Here we show, using performance in an attentional-blink task and scalp-recorded brain potentials, that meditatio...

  9. Attention samples stimuli rhythmically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Ayelet Nina; Fries, Pascal

    2012-06-01

    Overt exploration or sampling behaviors, such as whisking, sniffing, and saccadic eye movements, are often characterized by a rhythm. In addition, the electrophysiologically recorded theta or alpha phase predicts global detection performance. These two observations raise the intriguing possibility that covert selective attention samples from multiple stimuli rhythmically. To investigate this possibility, we measured change detection performance on two simultaneously presented stimuli, after resetting attention to one of them. After a reset flash at one stimulus location, detection performance fluctuated rhythmically. When the flash was presented in the right visual field, a 4 Hz rhythm was directly visible in the time courses of behavioral performance at both stimulus locations, and the two rhythms were in antiphase. A left visual field flash exerted only partial reset on performance and induced rhythmic fluctuation at higher frequencies (6-10 Hz). These findings show that selective attention samples multiple stimuli rhythmically, and they position spatial attention within the family of exploration behaviors. PMID:22633805

  10. Attention enhances feature integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Liza; Schyns, Philippe G

    2003-08-01

    Perceptual processing delays between attribute dimensions (e.g. color, form and motion) [Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 264 (1997) 1407] have been attributed to temporal processing asynchronies resulting from functional segregation of visual information [Science 240 (1988) 740]. In addition, several lines of evidence converge to suggest that attention plays an important role in the integration of functionally processed information. However, exactly how attention modulates the temporal integration of information remains unclear. Here, we examined how attention modulates the integration of color and form into a unitary perception. Results suggest that attending to the location of an object enhances the integration of its defining attributes by speeding up the perceptual processing of each attribute dimension. Moreover, the perceptual asynchrony between attributes remains constant across attended and unattended conditions because attention seems to offer each processing dimension an equal processing advantage. PMID:12826102

  11. Iconic memory requires attention

    OpenAIRE

    Persuh, Marjan; Genzer, Boris; Melara, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change detection paradigm (Experiment 1) or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2). In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization) even when co...

  12. Modelling imperfect attention

    OpenAIRE

    Manzini, Paola; Mariotti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel method to model an agent who is imperfectly attentive in the sense that she may consider only some of the alternatives available. Our methodology departs from the standard 'revealed preference' one: we make plausible assumptions on the values to the imperfectly attentive agent of different choice situations. We derive in this way a simple reduced-form model that is compatible with several cognitive processes underlying choice: the agent stochastically forms a consideration ...

  13. Switch Attention to Listen

    OpenAIRE

    Dhamani, Imran; Leung, Johahn; Carlile, Simon; Sharma, Mridula

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the ability to switch attention and selectively attend to relevant information in children (10–15 years) with persistent listening difficulties in noisy environments. A wide battery of clinical tests indicated that children with complaints of listening difficulties had otherwise normal hearing sensitivity and auditory processing skills. Here we show that these children are markedly slower to switch their attention compared to their age-matched peers. T...

  14. Cognition, emotion, and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Deficits of attention, emotion, and cognition occur in individuals with alcohol abuse and addiction. This review elucidates the concepts of attention, emotion, and cognition and references research on the underlying neural networks and their compromise in alcohol use disorder. Neuroimaging research on adolescents with family history of alcoholism contributes to the understanding of pre-existing brain structural conditions and characterization of cognition and attention processes in high-risk individuals. Attention and cognition interact with other brain functions, including perceptual selection, salience, emotion, reward, and memory, through interconnected neural networks. Recent research reports compromised microstructural and functional network connectivity in alcoholism, which can have an effect on the dynamic tuning between brain systems, e.g., the frontally based executive control system, the limbic emotion system, and the midbrain-striatal reward system, thereby impeding cognitive flexibility and behavioral adaptation to changing environments. Finally, we introduce concepts of functional compensation, the capacity to generate attentional resources for performance enhancement, and brain structure recovery with abstinence. An understanding of the neural mechanisms of attention, emotion, and cognition will likely provide the basis for better treatment strategies for developing skills that enhance alcoholism therapy adherence and quality of life, and reduce the propensity for relapse. PMID:25307584

  15. Attention allocation before antisaccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapetek, Anna; Jonikaitis, Donatas; Deubel, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the distribution of attention before antisaccades. We used a dual task paradigm, in which participants made prosaccades or antisaccades and discriminated the orientation of a visual probe shown at the saccade goal, the visual cue location (antisaccade condition), or a neutral location. Moreover, participants indicated whether they had made a correct antisaccade or an erroneous prosaccade. We observed that, while spatial attention in the prosaccade task was allocated only to the saccade goal, attention in the antisaccade task was allocated both to the cued location and to the antisaccade goal. This suggests parallel attentional selection of the cued and antisaccade locations. We further observed that in error trials--in which participants made an incorrect prosaccade instead of an antisaccade--spatial attention was biased towards the prosaccade goal. These erroneous prosaccades were mostly unnoticed and were often followed by corrective antisaccades with very short latencies (programming of the reflexive prosaccade to the cue and the antisaccade to the intended location. Taken together, our results suggest that attention allocation and saccade goal selection in the antisaccade task are mediated by a common competitive process. PMID:26790843

  16. Interocular conflict attracts attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffen, Chris L E; Hessels, Roy S; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    During binocular rivalry, perception alternates.between dissimilar images presented dichoptically. Since.its discovery, researchers have debated whether the phenomenon is subject to attentional control. While it is now clear that attentional control over binocular rivalry is possible, the opposite is less evident: Is interocular conflict (i.e., the situation leading to binocular rivalry) able to attract attention?In order to answer this question, we used a change blindness paradigm in which observers looked for salient changes in two alternating frames depicting natural scenes. Each frame contained two images: one for the left and one for the right eye. Changes occurring in a single image (monocular) were detected faster than those occurring in both images (binocular). In addition,monocular change detection was also faster than detection in fused versions of the changed and unchanged regions. These results show that interocular conflict is capable of attracting attention, since it guides visual attention toward salient changes that otherwise would remain unnoticed for longer. The results of a second experiment indicated that interocular conflict attracts attention during the first phase of presentation, a phase during which the stimulus is abnormally fused [added]. PMID:22167536

  17. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Towards a Unified Developmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control…

  18. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D. Barber

    2015-01-01

    While CON–DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON–DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other hand, greater DMN–occipital anti-correlation supported better attentional control in TD children.

  19. Attention in Urban Foraging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm McCullough

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This position paper argues how there has to be much more to smart city learning than just wayshowing, and something better as augmented reality than covering the world with instructions. Attention has become something for many people to know better in an age of information superabundance. Embodied cognition explains how the work-ings of attention are not solely a foreground task, as if attention is something to pay. As digital media appear in ever more formats and contexts, their hybrids with physical form increasing influence how habitual engagement with persistent situations creates learning. Ambient information can just add to the distraction by multitasking, or it can support more favorable processes of shifting among different kinds of information with a particular intent. As one word for this latter process, foraging deserves more consideration in smart city learning

  20. Attention, Predation, Counterintuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    of Dracula to account for the novel’s impact and resilience. Dracula connected squarely with late-Victorian anxieties, but the novel also appeals to trans-historical adaptive dispositions. I analyze Stoker’s use of narrative strategies to grab and sustain attention, and Count Dracula as a...

  1. Popularity, Novelty and Attention

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Fang

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the role that popularity and novelty play in attracting the attention of users to dynamic websites. We do so by determining the performance of three different strategies that can be utilized to maximize attention. The first one prioritizes novelty while the second emphasizes popularity. A third strategy looks myopically into the future and prioritizes stories that are expected to generate the most clicks within the next few minutes. We show that the first two strategies should be selected on the basis of the rate of novelty decay, while the third strategy performs sub-optimally in most cases. We also demonstrate that the relative performance of the first two strategies as a function of the rate of novelty decay changes abruptly around a critical value, resembling a phase transition in the physical world. 1

  2. Attention in emotion regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gelow, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The concept of emotion and how to regulate it is a central aspect of modern psychology. Within the process model of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998), one issue is how attentional deployment affects emotion regulation and how this can be measured. In task 1, pictures of positive or negative valence were showed in two conditions, either attend or decrease emotional reaction, while participants’ eye movements were followed with an eye tracker. Ratings of arousal and valence were significantly af...

  3. Gaming the Attention Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Daniel; Lawhead, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The future of human computation (HC) benefits from examining tasks that agents already perform and designing environments to give those tasks computational significance. We call this natural human computation (NHC). We consider the possible future of NHC through the lens of Swarm!, an application under development for Google Glass. Swarm! motivates users to compute the solutions to a class of economic optimization problems by engaging the attention dynamics of crowds. We argue that anticipati...

  4. Does attention exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Keith

    2007-01-01

    In the introduction to the Phenomenology of Perception, Merleau-Ponty (2002: 34) states that ‘Attention, [...] as a general and formal activity, does not exist’. This paper examines the meaning and truth of this difficult and surprising statement, along with its implications for the account of perception given by theorists such as Dretske (1988) and Peacocke (1983). In order to elucidate Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenological account of human perception, I will present two alternative models1 of ho...

  5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic t...

  6. Attention-Seeking Displays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Számadó

    Full Text Available Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest.

  7. Attention-Seeking Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Számadó, Szabolcs

    2015-01-01

    Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest. PMID:26287489

  8. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Toward a Unified Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children’s performances in an attention switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control during the preschool years. The second literature encompasses a large and robust set of phenomena for the same developmental period that indicate a ...

  9. The Normalization Model of Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, John H.; Heeger, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Attention has been found to have a wide variety of effects on the responses of neurons in visual cortex. We describe a model of attention that exhibits each of these different forms of attentional modulation, depending on the stimulus conditions and the spread (or selectivity) of the attention field in the model. The model helps reconcile proposals that have been taken to represent alternative theories of attention. We argue that the variety and complexity of the results reported in the liter...

  10. Neurofibromatozis and Attention Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ERYILMAZ et al.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type VI, a disease characterized by the presence of café-au-lait spots withoutthe presence of neurofibromas typically present in neurofibromatosis, as well as cognitivefunction and speech problems, often shows neurological involvement. We describe a case of a14-year-old child who has speech problems and isolated cafè-au-lait macules. We performedan IQ test on him and he scored 70 points. His problems started when he was approximately 5years old (school age. He was diagnosed with attention deficit disorder syndrome withouthyperactivity after neuropsychiatric investigation. We reported this case to improve recognitionof NF VI in children who have cognitive function problems.

  11. Attention decay in science

    CERN Document Server

    Parolo, Pietro Della Briotta; Ghosh, Rumi; Huberman, Bernardo A; Kaski, Kimmo; Fortunato, Santo

    2015-01-01

    The exponential growth in the number of scientific papers makes it increasingly difficult for researchers to keep track of all the publications relevant to their work. Consequently, the attention that can be devoted to individual papers, measured by their citation counts, is bound to decay rapidly. In this work we make a thorough study of the life-cycle of papers in different disciplines. Typically, the citation rate of a paper increases up to a few years after its publication, reaches a peak and then decreases rapidly. This decay can be described by an exponential or a power law behavior, as in ultradiffusive processes, with exponential fitting better than power law for the majority of cases. The decay is also becoming faster over the years, signaling that nowadays papers are forgotten more quickly. However, when time is counted in terms of the number of published papers, the rate of decay of citations is fairly independent of the period considered. This indicates that the attention of scholars depends on th...

  12. Attention and Distraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to examine the interrelationship between attention and distraction in the reception of video installation art, a genre which is commonly associated with "immersion" and an intensified feeling of presence in the discourses on new media art and installation art. This tends to veil......) that is at odds with the ideal of a reception in concentration that governs the institutions of fine art as well as aesthetic theory. It intends to demonstrate how the experience of video installation art can only be understood by recognising that the close connections between, on the one hand, video...... art and, on the other hand, the cultural formations of television, film and computers have fundamentally re-configured "aesthetic experience."...

  13. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam

    2016-03-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1·4-3·0%. It is more common in boys than girls. Comorbidity with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders is substantial. ADHD is highly heritable and multifactorial; multiple genes and non-inherited factors contribute to the disorder. Prenatal and perinatal factors have been implicated as risks, but definite causes remain unknown. Most guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment, beginning with non-drug interventions and then moving to pharmacological treatment in those most severely affected. Randomised controlled trials show short-term benefits of stimulant medication and atomoxetine. Meta-analyses of blinded trials of non-drug treatments have not yet proven the efficacy of such interventions. Longitudinal studies of ADHD show heightened risk of multiple mental health and social difficulties as well as premature mortality in adult life. PMID:26386541

  14. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    OpenAIRE

    Henik Avishai; Askenazi Sarit

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were...

  15. Attention, Media and Fuel Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Thoenes, Stefan; Gores, Timo

    2012-01-01

    This study examines attention effects in the market for hybrid vehicles. We show that local media coverage, gasoline price changes and unprecedented record gasoline prices have a significant causal impact on the consumers’ attention. As attention is not directly observable, we analyze online search behavior as a proxy for the revealed consumer attention. Our study is based on weekly panel data of local newspaper coverage, gasoline prices and Google search trends for 19 metropolitan areas in the...

  16. Attentional Modulation of Binocular Rivalry

    OpenAIRE

    Chris ePaffen; David eAlais

    2011-01-01

    Ever since Wheatstone initiated the scientific study of binocular rivalry, it has been debated whether the phenomenon is under attentional control. In recent years, the issue of attentional modulation of binocular rivalry has seen a revival. Here we review the classical studies as well as recent advances in the study of attentional modulation of binocular rivalry. We show that (1) voluntary control over binocular rivalry is possible, yet limited, (2) both endogenous and exogenous attention in...

  17. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hirano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64% showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5% showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23% showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9% showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  18. Dysfunctional attention in autistic savants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, B J; Gordon, C T; Mannheim, G B; Rumsey, J M

    1993-11-01

    A dysfunctional attention hypothesis of the basis of savant skills was tested with a series of computerized tasks that assessed the ability to divide, shift, direct, and sustain attention. Ten healthy men with pervasive developmental disorders and unusual calendar-calculating skill, and 10 age- and sex-matched controls were tested. There were four general findings. First, the savants and controls did not differ on a measure of visual sustained attention. Second, the savants failed to detect rare auditory targets significantly more than did the controls. Third, the savants were unable to efficiently divide their attention when required to detect both visual and auditory targets simultaneously. Finally, deficient orienting or a deficit in shifting selective attention from one stimulus location to another was evidenced in overall slower reaction times for the savants across tasks requiring shifts and redirecting of attention. This deficit was attributed to an inability to disengage attention as a result of deficient orienting and overselectivity. PMID:8120129

  19. Attention-Modulating Effects of Cognitive Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attention can be readily measured in experimental animal models. Animal models of attention have been used to better understand the neural systems involved in attention, how attention is impaired, and how therapeutic treatments can ameliorate attentional deficits. This review fo...

  20. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiyuki Hirano; Minoru Onozuka

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We ...

  1. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Anita D.; Jacobson, Lisa A.; Joanna L. Wexler; Mary Beth Nebel; Caffo, Brian S.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain–behavior associations...

  2. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Juan A. Amador-Campos; J. Antonio Aznar-Casanova; Izabela Bezerra; Nelson Torro-Alves; Manuel M. Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]).Method:Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, part...

  3. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms are marginal. We hypothesize that basic deficits in sustaining attention explain more complex attentional dysfunction in persons with ADHD and relate to ADHD symptoms. Attentional function was analyzed by computing ex-Gaussian parameters for 3 time Blocks in a 20 min test of sustained alertness. Changes in performance across these blocks were analyzed by comparing adult persons with ADHD (n = 24) with healthy matched controls (n = 24) and correlated with neuropsychological measures of selective and divided attention as well as self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. We found a significantly steeper increase in the number of slow responses (ex-Gaussian parameter τ) in persons with ADHD with time on task in basic sustained alertness. They also performed significantly worse in tasks of sustained selective and divided attention. However, after controlling for an increase in τ during the alertness task, significant differences between groups disappeared for divided and partly selective attention. Increases in τ in the sustained alertness task correlated significantly with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. Our results provide evidence that very basic deficits in sustaining attention in adults with ADHD are related to infrequent slow responses (=attentional lapses), with changes over time being relevant for more complex attentional function and experienced ADHD symptoms in everyday life. PMID:27193369

  4. Visual attention in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Sareen, Preeti

    2012-01-01

    There is such vast amount of visual information in our surroundings at any time that filtering out the important information for further processing is a basic requirement for any visual system. This is accomplished by deploying attention to focus on one source of sensory inputs to the exclusion of others (Luck and Mangun 2009). Attention has been studied extensively in humans and non human primates (NHPs). In Drosophila, visual attention was first demonstrated in 1980 (Wolf and Heisenberg 198...

  5. When sustained attention impairs perception

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Sam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2006-01-01

    Virtually all behavioral and neurophysiological studies have shown that sustained (endogenous, conceptually driven) attention enhances perception. But can this enhancement be held indefinitely? We assessed the time course of attention’s effects on contrast sensitivity, reasoning that if attention does indeed boost stimulus strength, the strengthened representation could result in stronger adaptation over time. We found that attention initially enhances contrast sensitivity, but that over time...

  6. The Challenges of Joint Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Frederic; Hafner, Verena

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of joint attention and the different skills underlying its development. We argue that joint attention is much more than gaze following or simultaneous looking because it implies a shared intentional relation to the world. The current state-of-the-art in robotic and computational models of the different prerequisites of joint attention is discussed in relation with a developmental timeline drawn from results in child studies.

  7. Advertising, Attention, and Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Focke, Florens; Ruenzi, Stefan; Ungeheuer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the impact of product market advertising on investor attention and financial market outcomes. Using daily advertising data allows us to identify short-term effects of advertising. We measure daily investor attention based the company's number of Wikipedia page views. We show that TV and newspaper advertising positively impacts short-term investor attention. It also positively impacts turnover and liquidity, but the effects are not economically significant. Most importantly, ass...

  8. ENTREPRENEURIAL ALERTNESS AND PAYING ATTENTION

    OpenAIRE

    DAVE VALLIERE

    2013-01-01

    This article uses theoretical approaches from cognitive psychology to examine the basis for entrepreneurial alertness and to connect it to existing theories of attention in strategic management and decision-making. It thereby provides a theoretical basis for understanding how entrepreneurial alertness leads the individual to pay attention to new opportunities. A model is developed to show how attention and entrepreneurial alertness work together to support the recognition or creation of oppor...

  9. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henik Avishai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test - interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. Results The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. Conclusions These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  10. Attention, Media, Value and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Aigrain, Philippe

    1997-01-01

    Building on the debate about the "attention economy" initiated by Michael Goldhaber and Rishab Aiyer Ghosh, I introduce the notion of valuing process, i.e. the process by which potential value can be translated in an economy. I show that the valuing processes applicable to attention depend on the nature of the media through which attention can be given and looked for. From there, I claim that the integration between attention and action, and the creation of a related literacy are the keys to ...

  11. Visual Spatial Attention in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yao Chen

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD was characterized by deficitin the attention mechanism. Until now, the visual-spatial attention deficit inchildren with ADHD remains controversial. We report a study of the visualspatial attention to assess covert shifts of attention and sustained attentiontheoretically linked to two neuroanatomically defined attentional system inthe posterior and anterior parts of the human brain.Methods: Using the Neuroscan system, the reaction time (RT was measured accordingto three different within-subject conditions including cueing (valid, invalidand neutral; delay (800 msec and 100 msec; side [right visual field (RVFand left visual field (LVF] as well as one between-subject condition(healthy, ADHD.Results: The AHDH group showed slower RTs overall (RT=760 msec than the comparisongroup (RT=650 msec ( p = 0.001. RTs in the delayed condition of800 msec (RT=680 msec were faster than in the delayed condition of 100msec (RT=730 msec in all children ( p RTLVF: 830 msec inthe 100 msec delay for the invalid cueing condition ( p = 0.045 that was notfound in the comparison group.Conclusion: General dysfunction including posterior-based covert shift of attention andanterior-based sustained attention was found in ADHD group. Furthermore,asymmetric left parietal dysfunction in the disengaged operation was notedin those with ADHD.

  12. Visual attention: The past 25 years

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on covert attention and how it alters early vision. I explain why attention is considered a selective process, the constructs of covert attention, spatial endogenous and exogenous attention, and feature-based attention. I explain how in the last 25 years research on attention has characterized the effects of covert attention on spatial filters and how attention influences the selection of stimuli of interest. This review includes the effects of spatial attention on discrim...

  13. Caffeine Modulates Attention Network Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a flanker task designed to test Posner's three visual attention network functions: alerting, orienting, and executive control [Posner, M. I. (2004). "Cognitive neuroscience of attention". New York, NY: Guilford Press]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind…

  14. What Attracts Decision Makers' Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Eric; Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Managers' attention is a scarce resource in complex innovation settings. Prior research on the factors to which managers pay attention is mostly based on surveys. The present study aims to address the need for knowledge about the behavior of decision makers based on observations from...

  15. Emotional distractors can enhance attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Tamara J.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious effects of emotional distractors on attention are well demonstrated. However, it is unclear if emotional distractors inevitably disrupt task-relevant attention. Using multilevel modeling (MLM), the present study examined the impact of valence and arousal dimensions of distracting emotional stimuli and individual differences in anxiety on task-relevant processing. Consistent with prior literature, high-arousal negative distractors were associated with poor task-relevant attention compared to positive and neutral distractors. However, low-arousal negative distractors were associated with better task-relevant performance than were positive and neutral distractors. Furthermore, these effects were accentuated by individual differences in worry. These findings challenge assumptions that distraction and worry must be minimized for augmented attentional performance. Overall, these results emphasize the importance of taking into account emotional dimensions of arousal and valence as well as individual differences in anxiety when examining attention in the presence of emotional distractors. PMID:24058065

  16. Attention in a bayesian framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise Emma; Sahani, Maneesh

    2012-01-01

    include both selective phenomena, where attention is invoked by cues that point to particular stimuli, and integrative phenomena, where attention is invoked dynamically by endogenous processing. However, most previous Bayesian accounts of attention have focused on describing relatively simple experimental...... settings, where cues shape expectations about a small number of upcoming stimuli and thus convey "prior" information about clearly defined objects. While operationally consistent with the experiments it seeks to describe, this view of attention as prior seems to miss many essential elements of both its......The behavioral phenomena of sensory attention are thought to reflect the allocation of a limited processing resource, but there is little consensus on the nature of the resource or why it should be limited. Here we argue that a fundamental bottleneck emerges naturally within Bayesian models of...

  17. Guiding Attention by Cooperative Cues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KangWoo Lee

    2008-01-01

    A common assumption in visual attention is based on the rationale of "limited capacity of information pro-ceasing". From this view point there is little consideration of how different information channels or modules are cooperating because cells in processing stages are forced to compete for the limited resource. To examine the mechanism behind the cooperative behavior of information channels, a computational model of selective attention is implemented based on two hypotheses. Unlike the traditional view of visual attention, the cooperative behavior is assumed to be a dynamic integration process between the bottom-up and top-down information. Furthermore, top-down information is assumed to provide a contextual cue during selection process and to guide the attentional allocation among many bottom-up candidates. The result from a series of simulation with still and video images showed some interesting properties that could not be explained by the competitive aspect of selective attention alone.

  18. Social reward shapes attentional biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Paying attention to stimuli that predict a reward outcome is important for an organism to survive and thrive. When visual stimuli are associated with tangible, extrinsic rewards such as money or food, these stimuli acquire high attentional priority and come to automatically capture attention. In humans and other primates, however, many behaviors are not motivated directly by such extrinsic rewards, but rather by the social feedback that results from performing those behaviors. In the present study, I examine whether positive social feedback can similarly influence attentional bias. The results show that stimuli previously associated with a high probability of positive social feedback elicit value-driven attentional capture, much like stimuli associated with extrinsic rewards. Unlike with extrinsic rewards, however, such stimuli also influence task-specific motivation. My findings offer a potential mechanism by which social reward shapes the information that we prioritize when perceiving the world around us. PMID:25941868

  19. Combining segmentation and attention: a new foveal attention model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca eMarfil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial vision systems cannot process all the information that they receive from the world in real time because it is highly expensive and inefficient in terms of computational cost. Inspired by biological perception systems, articial attention models pursuit to select only the relevant part of the scene. Besides, it is well established that the units of attention on human vision are not merely spatial but closely related to perceptual objects (proto-objects. This implies a strong bidirectional relationship between segmentation and attention processes. Therefore, while the segmentation process is the responsible to extract the proto-objects from the scene, attention can guide segmentation, arising the concept of foveal attention. When the focus of attention is deployed from one visual unit to another, the rest of the scene is perceived but at a lower resolution that the focused object. The result is a multi-resolution visual perception in which the fovea, a dimple on the central retina, provides the highest resolution vision. In this paper, a bottom-up foveal attention model is presented. In this model the input image is a foveal image represented using a Cartesian Foveal Geometry (CFG, which encodes the field of view of the sensor as a fovea (placed in the focus of attention surrounded by a set of concentric rings with decreasing resolution. Then multirresolution perceptual segmentation is performed by building a foveal polygon using the Bounded Irregular Pyramid (BIP. Bottom-up attention is enclosed in the same structure, allowing to set the fovea over the most salient image proto-object. Saliency is computed as a linear combination of multiple low level features such us colour and intensity contrast, symmetry, orientation and roundness. Obtained results from natural images show that the performance of the combination of hierarchical foveal segmentation and saliency estimation is good in terms of accuracy and speed.

  20. Mindfulness training affects attention--or is it attentional effort?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Frokjaer, Vibe;

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in attentional performance are at the core of proposed mechanisms for stress reduction in mindfulness meditation practices. However, this claim can be questioned because no previous studies have actively manipulated test effort in control groups and controlled for effects of stress...... reduction per se. In a blinded design, 48 young, healthy meditation novices were randomly assigned to a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), nonmindfulness stress reduction (NMSR), or inactive control group. At posttest, inactive controls were randomly split into nonincentive and incentive controls......, the latter receiving a financial reward to improve attentional performance. Pre- and postintervention, 5 validated attention paradigms were employed along with self-report scales on mindfulness and perceived stress and saliva cortisol samples to measure physiological stress. Attentional effects of...

  1. Capture of exogenous attention modulates the attentional blink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    When two targets (T1 & T2) are presented in rapid succession, observers often fail to report T2 if they attend to T1. Bottleneck theories propose that this attentional blink (AB) is due to T1 occupying a slow processing stage when T2 is presented. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty increases...... T1 processing time, this should cause a greater AB. Attention capture hypotheses suggest that T1 captures attention, which cannot be reallocated to T2 in time. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty, decreases saliency, this should cause a smaller AB. Studies examining how T1 difficulty affects...... negatively with T1 contrast energy. Our results indicate that T1 capture modulates the AB. We suggest that this effect has confounded previous studies on the effect of T1 difficulty. In an electrophysiological version of the study we will further examine the implied relation between attention capture and the...

  2. Extended attention span training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  3. Modelling of Attentional Dwell Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    phenomenon is known as attentional dwell time (e.g. Duncan, Ward, Shapiro, 1994). All Previous studies of the attentional dwell time have looked at data averaged across subjects. In contrast, we have succeeded in running subjects for 3120 trials which has given us reliable data for modelling data from...... released. This confinement of attentional resources leads to the impairment in identifying the second target. With the model, we are able to produce close fits to data from the traditional two target dwell time paradigm. A dwell-time experiment with three targets has also been carried out for individual...... subjects and the model has been extended to fit these data....

  4. Early vision and visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT, based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constructs of FIT, like types of visual search and the role of the attention. The following review describes the main studies of early vision and visual attention.

  5. Attention and the Evolution of Intentional Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Brinck, Ingar

    2001-01-01

    Intentional communication is perceptually based and about attentional objects. Three attention mechanisms are distinguished: scanning, attention attraction, and attention-focusing. Attention-focusing directs the subject towards attentional objects. Attention-focusing is goal-governed (controlled by stimulus) or goal-intended (under the control of the subject). Attentional objects are perceptually categorised functional entities that emerge in the interaction between subjects and environment. ...

  6. Visual attention in posterior stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Charlotte; Petersen, Anders; Iversen, Helle K;

    Objective: Impaired visual attention is common following strokes in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, particularly in the right hemisphere. However, attentional effects of more posterior lesions are less clear. The aim of this study was to characterize visual processing speed and...... apprehension span following posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke. We also relate these attentional parameters to visual word recognition, as previous studies have suggested that reduced visual speed and span may explain pure alexia. Methods: Nine patients with MR-verified focal lesions in the PCA......-territory (four left PCA; four right PCA; one bilateral, all >1 year post stroke) were compared to 25 controls using single case statistics. Visual attention was characterized by a whole report paradigm allowing for hemifield-specific speed and span measurements. We also characterized visual field defects and...

  7. Emotional distractors can enhance attention

    OpenAIRE

    Sussman, Tamara J.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2013-01-01

    The deleterious effects of emotional distractors on attention are well demonstrated. However, it is unclear if emotional distractors inevitably disrupt task-relevant attention. Using multilevel modeling (MLM), the present study examined the impact of valence and arousal dimensions of distracting emotional stimuli and individual differences in anxiety on task-relevant processing. Consistent with prior literature, high-arousal negative distractors were associated with poor task-relevant attenti...

  8. Attention modulates visual size adaptation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreutzer, Sylvia; Fink, G R; R. Weidner

    2015-01-01

    The current study determined in healthy subjects (n = 16) whether size adaptation occurs at early, i.e., preattentive, levels of processing or whether higher cognitive processes such as attention can modulate the illusion. To investigate this issue, bottom-up stimulation was kept constant across conditions by using a single adaptation display containing both small and large adapter stimuli. Subjects' attention was directed to either the large or small adapter stimulus by means of a luminance ...

  9. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, ac...

  10. Effect of attention control on sustained attention during induced anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillon, Christian; Robinson, Oliver J; Mathur, Ambika; Ernst, Monique

    2016-06-01

    Anxiety has wide-reaching and complex effects on cognitive performance. Although it can intrude on cognition and interfere with performance, it can also facilitate information processing and behavioural responses. In a previous study, we showed that anxiety induced by threat of shock facilitates performance on the Sustained Attention to Response Task, a vigilance test, which probes response inhibition to infrequent nogo stimuli. The present study sought to identify factors that may have contributed to such improved performance, including on- and off-task thinking (assessed with thought probes) and individual differences in attention control, as measured with the Attention Control Scale. Replicating our prior finding, we showed that shock threat significantly reduced errors of commission on the nogo trials. However, we extended this finding in demonstrating that this effect was driven by subjects with low attention control. We therefore confirm that anxiety increases inhibitory control of prepotent responses-a mechanism which is adaptive under threat-and show that this effect is greater in those who rely more upon such prepotent responding, i.e., those with low attentional control. PMID:25899613

  11. Does mindfulness meditation improve attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Farahmand, Pantea; Chaplin, Margaret; Sarro, Lauren

    2015-12-22

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mindfulness training, derived from Eastern meditation practices, may improve self-regulation of attention. It may also be a useful strategy to augment standard ADHD treatments and may be used as a potential tool to reduce impairments in patients with residual symptoms of ADHD. Clinically, this would manifest by an increased ability to suppress task-unrelated thoughts and distractions resulting in improved attention, completion of tasks and potential improvement in occupational and social function. PMID:26740931

  12. Attention trees and semantic paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura

    2007-02-01

    In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial

  13. Attention-Modulating Effects of Cognitive Enhancers

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Edward D.; Bushnell, Philip J.; Rezvani, Amir H.

    2011-01-01

    Attention can be readily measured in experimental animal models. Animal models of attention have been used to better understand the neural systems involved in attention, how attention is impaired, and how therapeutic treatments can ameliorate attentional deficits. This review focuses on the ways in which animal models are used to better understand the neuronal mechanism of attention and how to develop new therapeutic treatments for attentional impairment. Several behavioral test methods have ...

  14. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Amador-Campos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task in which two letters (T1 and T2 were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB].Method:Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, participants simply had to identify a target letter (T1, whereas in the dual task, they had to identify a target letter (T1 and a probe letter (T2.Results:The ADHD and control groups were equivalent in their single-task performance. However, in the dual-task condition, there were significant between-group differences in the rate of detection of the probe letter (T2 at lag + 1 and lag + 4. The ADHD group exhibited a larger overall AB compared with controls.Conclusion:Our findings provide support for a link between ADHD and attentional blink.

  15. Now, Pay Attention! The Effects of Instruction on Children's Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannass, Kathleen N.; Colombo, John; Wyss, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of instructions to "stay on task" on preschoolers' attention and cognitive performance in the face of either incomprehensible or comprehensible distraction. Three- and 4-year-olds completed problem-solving tasks while a distracting event played continuously in the background under conditions of (a) no instruction, (b)…

  16. Supramodal Executive Control of Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFREDO eSPAGNA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The human attentional system can be subdivided into three functional networks of alerting, orienting, and executive control. Although these networks have been extensively studied in the visuospatial modality, whether the same mechanisms are deployed across different sensory modalities remains unclear. In this study we used the attention network test for visuospatial modality, in addition to two auditory variants with spatial and frequency manipulations to examine cross-modal correlations between network functions. Results showed that among the visual and auditory tasks the effects of executive control, but not effects of alerting and orienting were significantly correlated. These findings suggest that while alerting and orienting functions rely more upon modality specific processes, the executive control of attention coordinates complex behavior via supramodal mechanisms.

  17. Mindful movement and skilled attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations. PMID

  18. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  19. Attention: A Machine Learning Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai

    2012-01-01

    We review a statistical machine learning model of top-down task driven attention based on the notion of ‘gist’. In this framework we consider the task to be represented as a classification problem with two sets of features — a gist of coarse grained global features and a larger set of low...... problem, we can evaluate the strategy simply by estimating error rates on a test data set. We illustrate the attention mechanism on a simple simulated visual domain in which the choice is over nine patches in which a binary pattern has to be classified. The performance of the classifier equipped with the...

  20. Joint Attention and Anthropological Difference

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2014), s. 59-70. ISSN 1718-0198 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP401/10/1164 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : joint attention * anthropological difference * phenomenology * great apes * shared intentionality Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  1. Deployment of Attention on Handshakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mowei; Yin, Jun; Ding, Xiaowei; Shui, Rende; Zhou, Jifan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the social structures between objects, organizing, and selecting them accordingly, is fundamental to social cognition. We report an example that demonstrates the object association learned from social interactions could impact visual attention. Particularly, when two hands approach each other to perform a handshake, they tend to be attended to as a unit because of the cooperative relationship exhibited in the action: even a cue presented on a non-target hand may facilitate a response to the targets that appear on the non-cued hand (Experiment 1), indicating that attentional shift between two hands was facilitated; furthermore, the response to a target on one hand is significantly impaired by a distractor on the other hand (Experiment 2), implying that it is difficult to selectively confine attention to a single hand. These effects were dependent on the existence of the hands when cue and target appeared (Experiment 3); neither perceptual familiarity, or physical fit can explain all the attention effects (Experiment 4). These results have bearings on the perceptual root of social cognition. PMID:27242595

  2. Practicing the attentional Dwell Away?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus Mogens

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the time course of visual attention have identified a temporary functional blindness to the second of two spatially separated targets: attending to one visual stimulus may lead to impairments in identifying a second stimulus presented about 200-500 ms later than the first. The phenomen...

  3. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-10

    This podcast discusses Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, the most common behavioral disorder in children. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment.  Created: 4/10/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  4. Modality-specificity of Selective Attention Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Hannah J; Amitay, Sygal

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish the modality specificity and generality of selective attention networks. Method: Forty-eight young adults completed a battery of four auditory and visual selective attention tests based upon the Attention Network framework: the visual and auditory Attention Network Tests (vANT, aANT), the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA), and the Test of Attention in Listening (TAiL). These provided independent measures for auditory and visual alerting, orienting, and conflict resol...

  5. Attentional Disengagement in Adults with Williams syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lense, Miriam D.; Key, Alexandra P.; Dykens, Elisabeth M

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a distinctive behavioral and cognitive profile, including widespread problems with attention. However, the specific nature of their attentional difficulties, such as inappropriate attentional allocation and/or poor attentional disengagement abilities, has yet to be elucidated. Furthermore, it is unknown if there is an underlying difficulty with the temporal dynamics of attention in WS or if their attentional difficulties...

  6. Components of Attention in Synesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Nordfang, Maria; Pedersen, Michael Nygaard;

    2013-01-01

    synesthesia (Mattingley, 2009). Results from the present experiment show that synesthesia affects both speed of processing (C) and the number of objects that can be retained in visual short-term memory (K). Participants were faster at encoding characters that were colored congruently with their synesthesia......One of the most common forms of synesthesia is between colors and graphemes (Colizoli, Murre, & Rouw, 2012). Numerous studies have investigated different aspects of attention and synesthesia, e.g. effects of Stroop-like interference by colors that are incongruent with the synesthetic experience....... Here we attempt to isolate how specific components of attention are affected by grapheme-color synesthesia. Eight carefully screened healthy participants with synesthesia reported the letters in briefly presented, post-masked arrays of letters and digits. On half the trials, the letters and digits were...

  7. Deployment of Attention on Handshakes

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Mowei; Yin, Jun; Ding, Xiaowei; Shui, Rende; Zhou, Jifan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the social structures between objects, organizing, and selecting them accordingly, is fundamental to social cognition. We report an example that demonstrates the object association learned from social interactions could impact visual attention. Particularly, when two hands approach each other to perform a handshake, they tend to be attended to as a unit because of the cooperative relationship exhibited in the action: even a cue presented on a non-target hand may facilitate a res...

  8. Attentional Networks and Biological Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Chandramouli Chandrasekaran; Lucy Turner; Heinrich H Bülthoff; Thornton, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to see meaningful actions when presented with pointlight traces of human movement is commonly referred to as the perception of biological motion. While traditionalexplanations have emphasized the spontaneous and automatic nature of this ability, morerecent findings suggest that attention may play a larger role than is typically assumed. Intwo studies we show that the speed and accuracy of responding to point-light stimuli is highly correlated with the ability to control selective ...

  9. Attention and Optimal Sensory Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo, Santiago; Pearlmutter, Barak A.

    2004-01-01

    Neuronal activity can be modulated by attention even while the sensory stimulus is held fixed. This modulation implies changes in the tuning curve (or receptive field) of the neurons involved in sensory processing. We propose an information-theoretic hypothesis for the purpose of this modulation, and show using computer simulation that the similar modulation emerges in a system that is optimally encoding a sensory stimulus when the system is informed about the changing relevance of different ...

  10. A Real Attention-Getter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    While most parents would agree that playing videos games is the antithesis of time well spent for their children, recent advances involving NASA biofeedback technology are proving otherwise. The same techniques used to measure brain activity in NASA pilots during flight simulation exercises are now a part of a revolutionary video game system that is helping to improve overall mental awareness for Americans of all ages, including those who suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

  11. The scaling of attention networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Jun; Wu, Lingfei

    2016-04-01

    We use clicks as a proxy of collective attention and construct networks to study the temporal dynamics of attention. In particular we collect the browsing records of millions of users on 1000 Web forums in two months. In the constructed networks, nodes are threads and edges represent the switch of users between threads in an hour. The investigated network properties include the number of threads N, the number of users UV, and the number of clicks, PV. We find scaling functions PV ∼ UV θ1, PV ∼N θ3, and UV ∼N θ2, in which the scaling exponents are always greater than 1. This means that (1) the studied networks maintain a self-similar flow structure in time, i.e., large networks are simply the scale-up versions of small networks; and (2) large networks are more "productive", in the sense that an average user would generate more clicks in the larger systems. We propose a revised version of Zipf's law to quantify the time-invariant flow structure of attention networks and relate it to the observed scaling properties. We also demonstrate the applied consequences of our research: forum-classification based on scaling properties.

  12. Voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, Jared; Barbot, Antoine; Carrasco, Marisa

    2010-01-01

    Voluntary covert attention selects relevant sensory information for prioritized processing. The behavioral and neural consequences of such selection have been extensively documented, but its phenomenology has received little empirical investigation. Involuntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency (Gobell & Carrasco, 2005), but involuntary attention can differ from voluntary attention in its effects on performance in tasks mediated by spatial resolution (Yeshurun, Montagna, & Carra...

  13. 29 CFR 785.43 - Medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical attention. 785.43 Section 785.43 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.43 Medical attention. Time spent by an employee in waiting for and receiving medical attention on the premises or at the...

  14. Attentional Disengagement in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lense, Miriam D.; Key, Alexandra P.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a distinctive behavioral and cognitive profile, including widespread problems with attention. However, the specific nature of their attentional difficulties, such as inappropriate attentional allocation and/or poor attentional disengagement abilities, has yet to be…

  15. Raising attention to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallanti, Stefano; Salerno, Luana

    2015-03-22

    Schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two psychiatric disorders with a negative impact on quality of life of individuals affected. Although they are classified into distinct disorders categories, attentional dysfunction is considered as a core feature in both conditions, either at the clinical then pathophysiological level. Beyond the obvious clinical overlap between these disorders, the Research Domain Criteria approach might offer an interesting perspective for disentangling common circuits underpinning both disorders. Hence, we review evidences regarding the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, at the clinical level, and at the level of underlying brain mechanisms. The evidence regarding the influence of environmental risk factors in the emergence of both disorders, and their developmental trajectories is also reviewed. Among these, we will try to elucidate the complex relationship between stimulants use and psychotic symptoms, discussing the potential role of ADHD medication in inducing psychosis or in exacerbating it. We aim that, taken together, these findings may promote further investigation with important implications both for clinicians and research. In fact, considering the amounting evidence on the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, the delineation of their boundaries might help in the decision for diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, it may help to promote interventions focused on the prevention of both schizophrenia and ADHD, by the reduction of recognized environmental risk factors. PMID:25815254

  16. The pharmacology of visuospatial attention and inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Logemann, H.N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Attention and inhibition are of vital importance in everyday functioning. Problems of attention and inhibition are central to disorders such as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Both bias and disengagement key components of visuospatial attention. Bias refers to neuronal signals that modulate the sensitivity of the sensory cortex. Disengagement refers to the decoupling of attention, in case of a (relevant) stimulus occurring at an unattended location. Inhibitory functioning is ...

  17. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaywitz, B A; Fletcher, J M; Shaywitz, S E

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter we have reviewed the diagnosis and management of attention deficit disorder, focusing particularly on the role of stimulant therapy in ADHD. Hisorical review suggests that ADHD has roots that extend back almost a century. The definition of ADHD is based on inclusion and exclusion criteria that are established by history and reflect behavioral concerns. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a chronic disorder affecting the child's home, school, and community life. The primary symptoms of the disorder manifest a developmental pattern: activity diminishes while attentional deficits persist. Major sources of concern are the secondary and often more resistant problems of learning difficulties, behavioral problems, lack of peer acceptance, and low self-esteem. An often frustrating and perplexing characteristic of the disorder is its marked variability-over time, across situations, and within the same child and similar situations. Educational management represents an important priority and often forms the cornerstone of all other therapies, nonpharmacologic or pharmacologic. Cognitive-behavioral therapies represent the most widely used alternative to pharmacotherapy. Although the effects of CBT alone are disappointing, recent studies suggest that such therapies may provide a useful adjunct to pharmacotherapy and may be helpful when children are tapered off medication. Psychotherapy, or a combination of psychotherapy and medication (termed multimodality therapy), may also be useful. Pharmacotherapy for ADHD originated almost 60 years ago, and at this time the ameliorative effects of medications in ADHD are well established. The general skepticism of experienced clinicians, coupled with a climate where parents are reluctant to medicare children, serves to limit their use except where indicated. Although the effects of stimulants on attention and activity seem well established, effects on cognition, conduct, and social behavior are more controversial

  18. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolraich, Mark L

    2006-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a challenging condition to diagnose and treat. For diagnosis, the clinician needs to establish the presence of ADHD on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria requiring information from parents and teachers and considering both alternative diagnoses and co-occurring conditions. In the treatment of ADHD as a chronic illness, the clinician needs to educate the family about the condition and partner with them about treatment decisions. The 2 treatments with demonstrated efficacy for ADHD are medications (stimulant medications and a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibiter) and behavior-modification programs. PMID:17178358

  19. Attention and the testing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W; Picklesimer, Milton

    2016-06-01

    Memory retrieval often enhances still later memory as evidenced by the testing effect. Divided attention (DA) is known to produce different effects on encoding and retrieval, substantially disrupting the former and often producing little effect on the latter. The present experiments examine whether the mnemonic consequences of retrieval are similarly resilient in the face of distraction or if they have a similar sensitivity to DA as study-based encoding. In 2 experiments, participants initially studied a set of word pairs (Phase 1) then engaged in restudy of some pairs and retrieval practice of others (Phase 2), followed by either an immediate or (24-hr) delayed final cued-recall test (Phase 3). Phase 2 restudy and retrieval practice occurred under full attention (FA) or DA. Phase 2 performance replicated earlier research in finding little effect of DA on retrieval success, and greater disruption to the secondary task in the retrieval than restudy condition. More importantly, the testing effect on the final test (the difference between the retrieval and restudy conditions) was greater in the DA than FA condition. Final recall was substantially reduced by DA in the restudy condition but not in the retrieval condition. This pattern was found for related and unrelated word pairs, with feedback during retrieval practice and without, for immediate as well as delayed final tests, and for high as well as low performance on the secondary task. The encoding effects of retrieval appear to be more resilient in the face of distraction than the encoding effects of restudy. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26618913

  20. A Reevaluation of the Attentional Inertia Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractAnderson's (1983) theory about children's attention behavior during television viewing hypothesizes that attention behavior is affected by positive feedback (the inertia hypothesis) and the degree to which a child understands the television program. During an experiment, neither componen

  1. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... physician offices, hospital outpatient and emergency departments) with attention deficit disorder as primary diagnosis: 9.0 million ( ...

  2. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Focusing on ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Most children get restless, rowdy, or distracted at ... might be signs of a developmental disorder called attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. ADHD is a common brain condition ...

  3. Infant Visual Attention and Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the role visual attention plays in the recognition of objects in infancy. Research and theory on the development of infant attention and recognition memory are reviewed in three major sections. The first section reviews some of the major findings and theory emerging from a rich tradition of behavioral research utilizing preferential looking tasks to examine visual attention and recognition memory in infancy. The second section examines research utilizing neural measures of attention and object recognition in infancy as well as research on brain-behavior relations in the early development of attention and recognition memory. The third section addresses potential areas of the brain involved in infant object recognition and visual attention. An integrated synthesis of some of the existing models of the development of visual attention is presented which may account for the observed changes in behavioral and neural measures of visual attention and object recognition that occur across infancy. PMID:25596333

  4. Attention Discrimination: Theory and Field Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtech Bartos; Michal Bauer; Julie Chytilova; Filip Matejka

    2013-01-01

    We link two important ideas: attention is scarce and a lack of information about an individual drives discrimination in selection decisions. We model how knowledge of ethnicity influences allocation of attention to available information about an applicant. When only a small share of applicants is accepted, negative stereotypes are predicted to lower attention, while the effect is opposite when most applicants are accepted. We test for such “attention discrimination” in two field experiments. ...

  5. The Role of Attention in Goal Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Meacham, Kristina A.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the role of attention in goal setting theory, using techniques adapted from selective attention research. Specifically, it explored activation and suppression of goal related information in the presence of two conflicting assigned goals. Pre vs. post goal completion and goal commitment were examined as moderators of these attentional effects. In addition, exploratory analyses looked at the impact of individual differences on attention (goal preference & action-state orient...

  6. Mindfulness and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Smalley, Susan L; Loo, Sandra K.; Hale, T. Sigi; Shrestha, Anshu; Mcgough, James,; Flook, Lisa; Reise, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by attentional difficulties. Mindfulness is a receptive attention to present experience. Both ADHD and mindfulness are associated with attention and personality. This study tests whether individuals with ADHD have lower mindfulness scores than controls and, if true, whether personality contributes to these differences. 105 adults (half with ADHD) were assessed for mindfulness, using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulne...

  7. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Limor eLukov; Naama eFriedmann; Lilach eShalev; Lilach eKhentov-Kraus; Nir eShalev; Rakefet eLorber; Revital eGuggenheim

    2015-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on o...

  8. Investor attention and FX market volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, John; Kita, Arben; Wang, Qingwei

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between investors’ active attention, measured by a Google search volume index (SVI), and the dynamics of currency prices. Investor attention is correlated with the trading activities of large FX market participants. Investor attention comoves with contemporaneous FX market volatility and predicts subsequent FX market volatility, after controlling for macroeconomic fundamentals. In addition, investor attention is related to the currency risk premium. Our results sugge...

  9. Spatial attention can modulate unconscious orientation processing

    OpenAIRE

    Bahrami, Bahador; Carmel, David; Walsh, Vincent; Rees, Geraint; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that visual spatial attention can only affect consciously perceived events. We measured the effects of sustained spatial attention oil orientation-selective adaptation to gratings, rendered invisible by prolonged interocular suppression. Spatial attention augmented the orientation-selective adaptation to invisible adaptor orientation. The effect of attention was clearest for test stimuli at peri-threshold, intermediate contrast levels, suggesting that previous n...

  10. Higher Cortical Functions: Attention and Vigilance

    OpenAIRE

    Gillig, Paulette Marie; Sanders, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to sustain attention over time (vigilance) is a cognitive function that often is impaired in patients with psychiatric disorders. Attention has been found to be disordered in a number of psychiatric conditions, including attention deficit disorder, schizophrenia, antisocial personality disorder, and the impulse control disorders. Less widely known is the finding that attention also is affected in patients suffering from anxiety disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, mood disord...

  11. Effects of presession attention on the frequency of attention-maintained behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, M F

    1999-01-01

    The effect of prior attention was systematically manipulated to study its influence on rates of yelling and head hitting, both maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of attention. Higher levels of head hitting occurred in analogue attention conditions when the person was deprived of attention (no social interactions for 1 hr) prior to the analysis in comparison to when the person received high levels of attention (attention delivered on a fixed-time 30-s schedule for 1 hr) prior to ...

  12. Everyday Attention Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…

  13. Attention to Faces in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Jones, Nicola; Brown, Philippa H.; Robinson, Lucy J.; Langton, Stephen R. H.; Bruce, Vicki; Riby, Leigh M.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with distinct social behaviours. One component of the WS social phenotype is atypically prolonged face fixation. This behaviour co-exists with attention difficulties. Attention is multi-faceted and may impact on gaze behaviour in several ways. Four experiments assessed (i) attention capture by faces, (ii)…

  14. Exogenous spatial attention decreases audiovisual integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Stoep, N.; Van der Stigchel, S.; Nijboer, T. C W

    2015-01-01

    Multisensory integration (MSI) and spatial attention are both mechanisms through which the processing of sensory information can be facilitated. Studies on the interaction between spatial attention and MSI have mainly focused on the interaction between endogenous spatial attention and MSI. Most of t

  15. Methylphenidate alters selective attention by amplifying salience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurne, N.; Fallon, S.J.; Schouwenburg, M. van; Schaaf, M.; Buitelaar, J.; Jensen, O.; Cools, R.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Methylphenidate, the most common treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is increasingly used by healthy individuals as a "smart drug" to enhance cognitive abilities like attention. A key feature of (selective) attention is the ability to ignore irrelevant but salien

  16. Attention to Affect in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jane

    2011-01-01

    As language teachers, we have to pay attention to many things in our work so why add "attention to affect"? Perhaps the simplest, most direct answer is that whatever we focus most on in our particular context, be it general English, morphosyntax, phonetics, literature, English for academic writing or any other special area, attention to affect…

  17. Early vision and focal attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Bela

    1991-07-01

    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  18. Prefrontal control of attention to threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Polly V; Simons, Jon S; Lawrence, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    Attentional control refers to the regulatory processes that ensure that our actions are in accordance with our goals. Dual-system accounts view temperament as consisting of both individual variation in emotionality (e.g., trait anxiety) and variation in regulatory attentional mechanisms that act to modulate emotionality. Increasing evidence links trait variation in attentional control to clinical mood and anxiety disorder symptoms, independent of trait emotionality. Attentional biases to threat have been robustly linked to mood and anxiety disorders. However, the role of variation in attentional control in influencing such biases, and the neural underpinnings of trait variation in attentional control, are unknown. Here, we show that individual differences in trait attentional control, even when accounting for trait and state anxiety, are related to the magnitude of an attentional blink (AB) following threat-related targets. Moreover, we demonstrate that activity in dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), is observed specifically in relation to control of attention over threatening stimuli, in line with neural theories of attentional control, such as guided activation theory. These results have key implications for neurocognitive theories of attentional bias and emotional resilience. PMID:23386824

  19. Prefrontal control of attention to threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly V Peers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Attentional control refers to the regulatory processes that ensure that our actions are in accordance with our goals. Dual-system accounts view temperament as consisting of both individual variation in emotionality (e.g. trait anxiety and variation in regulatory attentional mechanisms that act to modulate emotionality. Increasing evidence links trait variation in attentional control to clinical mood and anxiety disorder symptoms, independent of trait emotionality. Attentional biases to threat have been robustly linked to mood and anxiety disorders. However, the role of variation in attentional control in influencing such biases, and the neural underpinnings of trait variation in attentional control, are unknown. Here, we show, that individual differences in trait attentional control, even when accounting for trait and state anxiety, are related to the magnitude of an attentional blink following threat-related targets. Moreover, we demonstrate that activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, is observed specifically in relation to control of attention over threatening stimuli, in line with neural theories of attentional control, such as guided activation theory. These results have key implications for neurocognitive theories of attentional bias and emotional resilience.

  20. Attentional modulation of motion-induced blindness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG HaiYan; SONG QianLan; LI YunFeng; XU Shan; ZHU Ying

    2007-01-01

    When a global moving pattern is superimposed on high-contrast stationary or slowly moving stimuli,the stimuli can be perceived as disappearing and reappearing alternately for periods of several seconds. This visual illusory phenomenon was named "motion-induced blindness" (MIB) in recent literature. So far there is no consensus on the mechanism of MIB, especially on the role of attention in this phenomenon. To examine the effect of spatial attention on MIB, the present study manipulated the participants' spatial attention by asking them to respond to two targets simultaneously presented in bilateral visual fields (the divided-attention condition) or only respond to one of them (the focused-attention condition). A central arrow was presented as an endogenous cue to index the target visual field in the focused-attention condition, while a point was presented instead in the divided-attention condition. The results show that the percentage of accumulated invisibility period was larger for the targets in the focused-attention condition than for those in the divided-attention condition.This effect of attentionis significant in upper visual field (UVF) and left lower visual field (left LVF); that is, this effect shows a hemispheric asymmetry in LVF but not in UVF. Furthermore, the percentage of accumulated invisibility period was larger for targets in left LVF than for those in right LVF in the focused-attention condition, but no hemispheric asymmetry was found in the divided-attention condition.In addition, the increased percentage of accumulated invisibility period in the focused-attention condition originated merely in the enhancement of the mean phase duration of disappearance in LVF, while the disappearance occurred more frequently and lasted longer for each occurrence, which led to an increase in the total invisibility period, in the focused- than divided-attention condition in UVF. These results suggest that the modulation of spatial attention on MIB has different

  1. Encoding attentional states during visuomotor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hee Yeon; Bédard, Patrick; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    We recently showed that visuomotor adaptation acquired under attentional distraction is better recalled under a similar level of distraction compared to no distraction. This paradoxical effect suggests that attentional state (e.g., divided or undivided) is encoded as an internal context during visuomotor learning and should be reinstated for successful recall (Song & Bédard, 2015). To investigate if there is a critical temporal window for encoding attentional state in visuomotor memory, we manipulated whether participants performed the secondary attention-demanding task concurrently in the early or late phase of visuomotor learning. Recall performance was enhanced when the attentional states between recall and the early phase of visuomotor learning were consistent. However, it reverted to untrained levels when tested under the attentional state of the late-phase learning. This suggests that attentional state is primarily encoded during the early phase of learning before motor errors decrease and reach an asymptote. Furthermore, we demonstrate that when divided and undivided attentional states were mixed during visuomotor adaptation, only divided attention was encoded as an internal cue for memory retrieval. Therefore, a single attentional state appears to be primarily integrated with visuomotor memory while motor error reduction is in progress during learning. PMID:26114683

  2. Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mood, Quality of Life, and Attention in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Freire Bueno; Elisa H. Kozasa; Maria Aparecida da Silva; Tânia Maria Alves; Mario Rodrigues Louzã; Sabine Pompéia

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display affective problems and impaired attention. Mood in ADHD can be improved by mindful awareness practices (MAP), but results are mixed regarding the enhancement of attentional performance. Here we evaluated MAP-induced changes in quality of life (QoL), mood, and attention in adult ADHD patients and controls using more measures of attention than prior studies. Methods. Twenty-one ADHD patients and 8 healthy controls un...

  3. Saccade preparation is required for exogenous attention but not endogenous attention or IOR

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, D. T.; Schenk, T.; Rorden, C.

    2012-01-01

    Covert attention is tightly coupled with the control of eye-movements but there is controversy about how tight this coupling is. The Premotor theory of attention proposes that activation of the eye-movement system is necessary to produce shifts of attention. In this study we experimentally prevented healthy participants from planning or executing eye-movements and observed the effect on exogenous attention, Inhibition of Return (IOR) and endogenous attention. The participants experienced a de...

  4. Race Guides Attention in Visual Search

    OpenAIRE

    Marte Otten

    2016-01-01

    It is known that faces are rapidly and even unconsciously categorized into social groups (black vs. white, male vs. female). Here, I test whether preferences for specific social groups guide attention, using a visual search paradigm. In Experiment 1 participants searched displays of neutral faces for an angry or frightened target face. Black target faces were detected more efficiently than white targets, indicating that black faces attracted more attention. Experiment 2 showed that attention ...

  5. The allocation of attention: theory and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Gabaix, Xavier; Laibson, David Isaac; Moloche, Guillermo; Stephen, Weinberg

    2003-01-01

    A host of recent studies show that attention allocation has important economic consequences. This paper reports the first empirical test of a cost-benefit model of the endogenous allocation of attention. The model assumes that economic agents have finite mental processing speeds and cannot analyze all of the elements in complex problems. The model makes tractable predictions about attention allocation, despite the high level of complexity in our environment. The model successfully predicts th...

  6. Attention in schizophrenia and in epileptic psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.C.J Kairalla

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive behavior of human beings is usually supported by rapid monitoring of outstanding events in the environment. Some investigators have suggested that a primary attention deficit might trigger symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition, researchers have long discussed the relationship between schizophrenia and the schizophrenia-like psychosis of epilepsy (SLPE. On the basis of these considerations, the objective of the present study was to investigate attention performance of patients with both disorders. Patient age was 18 to 60 years, and all patients had received formal schooling for at least four years. Patients were excluded if they had any systemic disease with neurologic or psychiatric comorbidity, or a history of brain surgery. The computer-assisted TAVIS-2R test was applied to all patients and to a control group to evaluate and discriminate between selective, alternating and sustained attention. The TAVIS-2R test is divided into three parts: one for selective attention (5 min, the second for alternating attention (5 min, and the third for the evaluation of vigilance or sustained attention (10 min. The same computer software was used for statistical analysis of reaction time, omission errors, and commission errors. The sample consisted of 36 patients with schizophrenia, 28 with interictal SLPE, and 47 healthy controls. The results of the selective attention tests for both patient groups were significantly lower than that for controls. The patients with schizophrenia and SLPE performed differently in the alternating and sustained attention tests: patients with SLPE had alternating attention deficits, whereas patients with schizophrenia showed deficits in sustained attention. These quantitative results confirmed the qualitative clinical observations for both patient groups, that is, that patients with schizophrenia had difficulties in focusing attention, whereas those with epilepsy showed perseveration in attention focus.

  7. Implicit Temporal Expectation Attenuates Auditory Attentional Blink

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Dawei; Alain, Claude

    2012-01-01

    Attentional blink (AB) describes a phenomenon whereby correct identification of a first target impairs the processing of a second target (i.e., probe) nearby in time. Evidence suggests that explicit attention orienting in the time domain can attenuate the AB. Here, we used scalp-recorded, event-related potentials to examine whether auditory AB is also sensitive to implicit temporal attention orienting. Expectations were set up implicitly by varying the probability (i.e., 80% or 20%) that the ...

  8. Cross-modal links in spatial attention.

    OpenAIRE

    Driver, J; Spence, C.

    1998-01-01

    A great deal is now known about the effects of spatial attention within individual sensory modalities, especially for vision and audition. However, there has been little previous study of possible cross-modal links in attention. Here, we review recent findings from our own experiments on this topic, which reveal extensive spatial links between the modalities. An irrelevant but salient event presented within touch, audition, or vision, can attract covert spatial attention in the other modaliti...

  9. Attentional ability among survivors of leukaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, J; Horrocks, J; Britton, P.; Kernahan, J

    1999-01-01

    Attentional ability in 19 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 19 sibling controls was assessed using a neuropsychological model of attention. Analysis revealed that children who had received treatment for leukaemia exhibited significantly poorer performance on measures of the "focus encode" and "focus execute" elements of attention and on measures of the ability to respond to external cues and feedback. No significant differences in performance were found for m...

  10. Reward and Attentional Control in Visual Search

    OpenAIRE

    Yantis, Steven; Anderson, Brian A.; Wampler, Emma K.; Laurent, Patryk A.

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that the control of attention in visual search depends both on voluntary, top-down deployment according to context-specific goals, and on involuntary, stimulus-driven capture based on the physical conspicuity of perceptual objects. Recent evidence suggests that pairing target stimuli with reward can modulate the voluntary deployment of attention, but there is little evidence that reward modulates the involuntary deployment of attention to task-irrelevant distractors. We...

  11. Subtypes of children with attention disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, E.F.J.M.; Das-Smaal, E.A.; Jong, de, Franciska

    1996-01-01

    Subtypes of children with attentional problems were investigated using cluster analysis. Subjects were 9-year-old-elementary school children (N = 443). The test battery administered to these children comprised a comprehensive set of common attention tests, covering different aspects of attentional functioning, and a test of reading comprehension. Cluster analysis of these data yielded eight stable and reproducible clus¬ters. The test profiles of two subgroups were indicative of distinct atten...

  12. Genetic Basis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Nihal Yurteri; A. Evren Tufan; Gizem Melissa Akgun; Ayten Erdogan

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood. Due to studies reporting that the effects of ADHD diagnosis on functioning may last throughout life, this disorder, which has great importance for child and adolescent psychiatry, started to attract greater attention recently in terms of adult psychiatry. A review, evaluating the results of studies conducted on the genetic basis of ADHD, which started to attract increasing attent...

  13. Encoding attentional states during visuomotor adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Im, Hee Yeon; Bédard, Patrick; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    We recently showed that visuomotor adaptation acquired under attentional distraction is better recalled under a similar level of distraction compared to no distraction. This paradoxical effect suggests that attentional state (e.g., divided or undivided) is encoded as an internal context during visuomotor learning and should be reinstated for successful recall (Song & Bédard, 2015). To investigate if there is a critical temporal window for encoding attentional state in visuomotor memory, we ma...

  14. Investor Attention: Overconfidence and Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Peng; Wei Xiong

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by psychological evidence that attention is a scarce cognitive resource, we model investors' attention allocation in learning and study the effects of this on asset-price dynamics. We show that limited investor attention leads to ``category-learning" behavior, i.e., investors tend to process more market and sector-wide information than firm-specific information. This endogenous structure of information, when combined with investor overconfidence, generates important features observe...

  15. Remediation of attention deficits in head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Nag S; Rao S

    1999-01-01

    Head injury is associated with psychological sequelae which impair the patient′s psychosocial functioning. Information processing, attention and memory deficits are seen in head injuries of all severity. We attempted to improve deficits of focused, sustained and divided attention. The principle of overlapping sources of attention resource pools was utilised in devising the remediation programme. Tasks used simple inexpensive materials. Four head injured young adult males with post conc...

  16. Color and luminance contrasts attract independent attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrone, Maria Concetta; Denti, Valentina; Spinelli, Donatella

    2002-07-01

    Paying attention can improve vision in many ways, including some very basic functions such as contrast discrimination, a task that probably reflects very early levels of visual processing. Electrophysiological, psychophysical, and imaging studies on humans as well as single recordings in monkey show that attention can modulate the neuronal response at an early stage of visual processing, probably by acting on the response gain. Here, we measure incremental contrast thresholds for luminance and color stimuli to derive the contrast response of early neural mechanisms and their modulation by attention. We show that, for both cases, attention improves contrast discrimination, probably by multiplicatively increasing the gain of the neuronal response to contrast. However, the effects of attention are highly specific to the visual modality: concurrent attention to a competing luminance, but not chromatic pattern, greatly impedes luminance contrast discrimination; and attending to a competing chromatic, but not luminance, task impedes color contrast discrimination. Thus, the effects of attention are highly modality specific, implying separate attentional resources for different fundamental visual attributes at early stages of visual processing. PMID:12121622

  17. The lasting memory enhancements of retrospective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Sarah; Strunk, Jonathan; Phillips, Shekinah; Verhaeghen, Paul; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-07-01

    Behavioral research has shown that spatial cues that orient attention toward task relevant items being maintained in visual short-term memory (VSTM) enhance item memory accuracy. However, it is unknown if these retrospective attentional cues ("retro-cues") enhance memory beyond typical short-term memory delays. It is also unknown whether retro-cues affect the spatial information associated with VSTM representations. Emerging evidence suggests that processes that affect short-term memory maintenance may also affect long-term memory (LTM) but little work has investigated the role of attention in LTM. In the current event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigated the duration of retrospective attention effects and the impact of retrospective attention manipulations on VSTM representations. Results revealed that retro-cueing improved both VSTM and LTM memory accuracy and that posterior maximal ERPs observed during VSTM maintenance predicted subsequent LTM performance. N2pc ERPs associated with attentional selection were attenuated by retro-cueing suggesting that retrospective attention may disrupt maintenance of spatial configural information in VSTM. Collectively, these findings suggest that retrospective attention can alter the structure of memory representations, which impacts memory performance beyond short-term memory delays. PMID:27038756

  18. Attention and Communication in Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabio, Rosa Angela; Antonietti, Alessandro; Castelli, Ilaria; Marchetti, Antonella

    2009-01-01

    The study of selective attention and its influence on communication in patients with Rett Syndrome (RS), in which communication abilities are impaired is particularly relevant. The aim of this study was to analyse attention and communication abilities in RS. A sample of 20 children (10 girls with RS and 10 control girls, matched on mental age)…

  19. Do social utility judgments influence attentional processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Danielle M; Heerey, Erin A

    2013-10-01

    Research shows that social judgments influence decision-making in social environments. For example, judgments about an interaction partners' trustworthiness affect a variety of social behaviors and decisions. One mechanism by which social judgments may influence social decisions is by biasing the automatic allocation of attention toward certain social partners, thereby shaping the information people acquire. Using an attentional blink paradigm, we investigate how trustworthiness judgments alter the allocation of attention to social stimuli in a set of two experiments. The first experiment investigates trustworthiness judgments based solely on a social partner's facial appearance. The second experiment examines the effect of trustworthiness judgments based on experienced behavior. In the first, strong appearance-based judgments (positive and negative) enhanced stimulus recognizability but did not alter the size of the attentional blink, suggesting that appearance-based social judgments enhance face memory but do not affect pre-attentive processing. However, in the second experiment, in which judgments were based on behavioral experience rather than appearance, positive judgments enhanced pre-attentive processing of trustworthy faces. This suggests that a stimulus's potential benefits, rather than its disadvantages, shape the automatic distribution of attentional resources. These results have implications for understanding how appearance- and behavior-based social cues shape attention distribution in social environments. PMID:23887150

  20. Interactions between working memory and selective attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) was used to examine the interactions between working memory and selective attention. We combined two unrelated tasks, one requiring working memory and the other selective attention, which were performed by some undergraduates. The ERP results revealed that both congruent and incongruent stimuli in the selective attention task evoked an N400 component, reaching the peak point at around 500 ms. The N400 evoked by incongruent stimuli was more negative than that of congruent, which indicated the difference of semantic N400. Furthermore, working memory load had a significant influence on the N400 evoked by selective attention task in parietal region. And working memory load showed difference in the ERPs of working memory retrieval in central and parietal regions. The ERPs of probe under high working memory load were more positive from 350 to 550 ms post-stimulus; however, stimulus type of selective attention had no influence on working memory retrieval. The present study shows that working memory does not play a major role in the selective attention, especially in ignoring distracter, but it influences the performance of the selective attention as the background. The congruency of target and distracter in the selective attention task does not influence the working memory retrieval.

  1. Assessing the molecular genetics of attention networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfaff Donald W

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current efforts to study the genetic underpinnings of higher brain functions have been lacking appropriate phenotypes to describe cognition. One of the problems is that many cognitive concepts for which there is a single word (e.g. attention have been shown to be related to several anatomical networks. Recently, we have developed an Attention Network Test (ANT that provides a separate measure for each of three anatomically defined attention networks. Results In this study we have measured the efficiency of neural networks related to aspects of attention using the ANT in a population of 200 adult subjects. We then examined genetic polymorphisms in four candidate genes (DRD4, DAT, COMT and MAOA that have been shown to contribute to the risk of developing various psychiatric disorders where attention is disrupted. We find modest associations of several polymorphisms with the efficiency of executive attention but not with overall performance measures such as reaction time. Conclusions These results suggest that genetic variation may underlie inter-subject variation in the efficiency of executive attention. This study also shows that genetic influences on executive attention may be specific to certain anatomical networks rather than affecting performance in a global or non-specific manner. Lastly, this study further validates the ANT as an endophenotypic assay suitable for assessing how genes influence certain anatomical networks that may be disrupted in various psychiatric disorders.

  2. 34 CFR 300.606 - Public attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public attention. 300.606 Section 300.606 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND..., and Enforcement § 300.606 Public attention. Whenever a State receives notice that the Secretary...

  3. 28 CFR 301.104 - Medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical attention. 301.104 Section 301.104 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION General § 301.104 Medical attention. Whenever an inmate worker is injured while in the...

  4. Exogenous spatial attention decreases audiovisual integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Stoep, N; Van der Stigchel, S; Nijboer, T C W

    2015-02-01

    Multisensory integration (MSI) and spatial attention are both mechanisms through which the processing of sensory information can be facilitated. Studies on the interaction between spatial attention and MSI have mainly focused on the interaction between endogenous spatial attention and MSI. Most of these studies have shown that endogenously attending a multisensory target enhances MSI. It is currently unclear, however, whether and how exogenous spatial attention and MSI interact. In the current study, we investigated the interaction between these two important bottom-up processes in two experiments. In Experiment 1 the target location was task-relevant, and in Experiment 2 the target location was task-irrelevant. Valid or invalid exogenous auditory cues were presented before the onset of unimodal auditory, unimodal visual, and audiovisual targets. We observed reliable cueing effects and multisensory response enhancement in both experiments. To examine whether audiovisual integration was influenced by exogenous spatial attention, the amount of race model violation was compared between exogenously attended and unattended targets. In both Experiment 1 and Experiment 2, a decrease in MSI was observed when audiovisual targets were exogenously attended, compared to when they were not. The interaction between exogenous attention and MSI was less pronounced in Experiment 2. Therefore, our results indicate that exogenous attention diminishes MSI when spatial orienting is relevant. The results are discussed in terms of models of multisensory integration and attention. PMID:25341648

  5. Attentional Engagement Deficits in Dyslexic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, Milena; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Gori, Simone; Finzi, Alessandra; Giovagnoli, Sara; Menghini, Deny; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Molteni, Massimo; Bolzani, Roberto; Vicari, Stefano; Facoetti, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Reading acquisition requires, in addition to appropriate phonological abilities, accurate and rapid selection of sublexical orthographic units by attentional letter string parsing. Spatio-temporal distribution of attentional engagement onto 3-pseudoletter strings was studied in 28 dyslexic and 55 normally reading children by measuring attentional…

  6. Attention bias modification: the Emperor's new suit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmelkamp Paul MG

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A series of primarily laboratory-based studies found attention bias modification in socially anxious participants to lead to reduced anxiety. It is argued that the failure to replicate the positive results of attention bias modification in the study of Carlbring et al. may be due to reasons other than the application through the Internet. A number of controlled studies failed to replicate the positive effects of attention bias modification in clinically rather than subclinically socially anxious subjects. Given the lack of robust evidence for attention bias modification in clinically socially anxious individuals, the author is inclined to consider attention bias modification as 'the Emperor's new suit'. Results achieved with regular Internet-based treatments for social anxiety disorder based on cognitive therapy and exposure methods are much better than those achieved with attention bias modification procedures delivered 'face to face' in clinically distressed participants. Given the lack of robust evidence for attention bias modification in clinical samples, there is no need yet to investigate the implementation of attention bias modification through the Internet. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244X/12/66

  7. The Attentional Boost Effect and Context Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Smith, S. Adam; Spataro, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli co-occurring with targets in a detection task are better remembered than stimuli co-occurring with distractors--the attentional boost effect (ABE). The ABE is of interest because it is an exception to the usual finding that divided attention during encoding impairs memory. The effect has been demonstrated in tests of item memory but it is…

  8. Attention and psychomotor functioning in bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Katherine E; Gunawardane, Nisali; Goldberg, Joseph F; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Garno, Jessica L; Malhotra, Anil K

    2009-04-30

    The objective of this study was to assess psychomotor functioning and attention in individuals with bipolar disorder during the depressed phase of illness. Measures of attention and psychomotor functioning were administered to a sample of 24 bipolar I and II patients and a matched sample of healthy controls. Relative to the healthy controls, the bipolar sample demonstrated evidence of psychomotor slowing and revealed deficits on measures of effortful attention, yet demonstrated comparable performance on measures of automatic attention. In the bipolar sample, we detected significant correlations among measures of psychomotor functioning and some aspects of attention and a strong relationship between the severity of depression and psychomotor functioning, but no direct relationship between attention deficits and depressive symptomatology. These results suggest an attentional impairment during the depressed phase of bipolar disorder that may be specific to effortful processing, while automatic processes remain relatively intact. Associations among indices of attention deficits and psychomotor slowing may be indicative of similarities in the underlying neurobiology of these frequently co-occurring symptom domains in depressed individuals with bipolar disorder. PMID:19272656

  9. A New Approach to Attention Deficit Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    A recent study conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control estimated that approximately 7.8 percent of U.S. children ages 4-17 are currently diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). For decades, most educators, physicians, psychologists, and parents have thought of ADD/ADHD as…

  10. Race Guides Attention in Visual Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Marte

    2016-01-01

    It is known that faces are rapidly and even unconsciously categorized into social groups (black vs. white, male vs. female). Here, I test whether preferences for specific social groups guide attention, using a visual search paradigm. In Experiment 1 participants searched displays of neutral faces for an angry or frightened target face. Black target faces were detected more efficiently than white targets, indicating that black faces attracted more attention. Experiment 2 showed that attention differences between black and white faces were correlated with individual differences in automatic race preference. In Experiment 3, using happy target faces, the attentional preference for black over white faces was eliminated. Taken together, these results suggest that automatic preferences for social groups guide attention to individuals from negatively valenced groups, when people are searching for a negative emotion such as anger or fear. PMID:26900957

  11. Race Guides Attention in Visual Search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Otten

    Full Text Available It is known that faces are rapidly and even unconsciously categorized into social groups (black vs. white, male vs. female. Here, I test whether preferences for specific social groups guide attention, using a visual search paradigm. In Experiment 1 participants searched displays of neutral faces for an angry or frightened target face. Black target faces were detected more efficiently than white targets, indicating that black faces attracted more attention. Experiment 2 showed that attention differences between black and white faces were correlated with individual differences in automatic race preference. In Experiment 3, using happy target faces, the attentional preference for black over white faces was eliminated. Taken together, these results suggest that automatic preferences for social groups guide attention to individuals from negatively valenced groups, when people are searching for a negative emotion such as anger or fear.

  12. Race Guides Attention in Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Marte

    2016-01-01

    It is known that faces are rapidly and even unconsciously categorized into social groups (black vs. white, male vs. female). Here, I test whether preferences for specific social groups guide attention, using a visual search paradigm. In Experiment 1 participants searched displays of neutral faces for an angry or frightened target face. Black target faces were detected more efficiently than white targets, indicating that black faces attracted more attention. Experiment 2 showed that attention differences between black and white faces were correlated with individual differences in automatic race preference. In Experiment 3, using happy target faces, the attentional preference for black over white faces was eliminated. Taken together, these results suggest that automatic preferences for social groups guide attention to individuals from negatively valenced groups, when people are searching for a negative emotion such as anger or fear. PMID:26900957

  13. The dynamic pattern of human attention

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min

    2013-01-01

    A mass of traces of human activities show diverse dynamic patterns. In this paper, we comprehensively investigate the dynamic pattern of human attention defined by the quantity of interests on subdisciplines in an online academic communication forum. Both the expansion and exploration of human attention have a power-law scaling relation with browsing actions, of which the exponent is close to that in one-dimension random walk. Furthermore, the memory effect of human attention is characterized by the power-law distributions of both the return interval time and return interval steps, which is reinforced by studying the attention shift that monotonically increase with the interval order between pairs of continuously segmental sequences of expansion. At last, the observing dynamic pattern of human attention in the browsing process is analytically described by a dynamic model whose generic mechanism is analogy to that of human spatial mobility. Thus, our work not only enlarges the research scope of human dynamics,...

  14. Unimodal and crossmodal gradients of spatial attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föcker, J.; Hötting, K.; Gondan, Matthias;

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that spatial attention is gradually distributed around the center of the attentional focus. The present study compared uni- and crossmodal gradients of spatial attention to investigate whether the orienting of auditory and visual...... spatial attention is based on modality specific or supramodal representations of space. Auditory and visual stimuli were presented from five speaker locations positioned in the right hemifield. Participants had to attend to the innermost or outmost right position in order to detect either visual or...... auditory deviant stimuli. Detection rates and event-related potentials (ERPs) indicated that spatial attention is distributed as a gradient. Unimodal spatial ERP gradients correlated with the spatial resolution of the modality. Crossmodal spatial gradients were always broader than the corresponding...

  15. Attention Supports Verbal Short-Term Memory via Competition between Dorsal and Ventral Attention Networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Majerus, Steve; Attout, Lucie; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Degueldre, Christian; Fias, W.; Maquet, Pierre; Martinez Perez, Trecy; Stawarczyk, David; Salmon, Eric; Van der Linden, Martial; Phillips, Christophe; Balteau, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between the neural correlates of short-term memory (STM) and attention have been actively studied in the visual STM domain but much less in the verbal STM domain. Here we show that the same attention mechanisms that have been shown to shape the neural networks of visual STM also shape those of verbal STM. Based on previous research in visual STM, we contrasted the involvement of a dorsal attention network centered on the intraparietal sulcus supporting task-related attention and ...

  16. Processes in Language Acquisition: The Roles of Gender, Attention, and Maternal Encouragement of Attention over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrass, Jan; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Mullins, Jennifer; Lefever, Jennifer Burke

    2002-01-01

    This longitudinal study including 87 infant-mother dyads examined the relation between infant temperamental attention, maternal encouragement of attention, language, and the effects of gender. At ages 0;4, 0;8, and 1;0, global attention was assessed from Rothbart's (1981) IBQ; manipulative exploration was assessed with the Bayley (1969) IBR; and…

  17. How Long Can Students Pay Attention in Class? A Study of Student Attention Decline Using Clickers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, Diane M.; Flens, Elizabeth A.; Neiles, Kelly Y.

    2010-01-01

    Students enrolled in three levels of general chemistry self-reported their attention decline during both lecture and other teaching approaches via personal response devices (clickers). Students report attention declines of 1 min or less more often than longer attention lapses. The data suggest that student engagement alternates between attention…

  18. Sustained Attention at Age 5 Predicts Attention-Related Problems at Age 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne; Razza, Rachel A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether two aspects of sustained attention (focused attention and lack of impulsivity) measured at child age 5 predicted attention problems reported by mothers and teachers at age 9. Because lack of impulsivity reflects the executive control network, and ADHD is commonly characterized as a deficit in executive function, it was…

  19. Joint Attention in Autism: Teaching Smiling Coordinated with Gaze to Respond to Joint Attention Bids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstovska-Guerrero, Ivana; Jones, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism demonstrate early deficits in joint attention and expressions of affect. Interventions to teach joint attention have addressed gaze behavior, gestures, and vocalizations, but have not specifically taught an expression of positive affect such as smiling that tends to occur during joint attention interactions. Intervention was…

  20. Saccade Preparation Is Required for Exogenous Attention but Not Endogenous Attention or IOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel T.; Schenk, Thomas; Rorden, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Covert attention is tightly coupled with the control of eye movements, but there is controversy about how tight this coupling is. The premotor theory of attention proposes that activation of the eye movement system is necessary to produce shifts of attention. In this study, we experimentally prevented healthy participants from planning or…

  1. Extended Attention Span Training System: Video Game Neurotherapy for Attention Deficit Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system for modifying attention deficits, which takes the concept of biofeedback one step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brain waves indicate that attention is waning. Notes contributions of this technology to neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on…

  2. Socially guided attention influences infants' communicative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer L; Gros-Louis, Julie

    2013-12-01

    For effective prelinguistic communication, infants must be able to direct their attention, vocalizations, and nonverbal gestures in social interactions. The purpose of our study was to examine how different styles of caregiver responses influenced infant attentional and communicative behavior in social interactions, based on prior studies that have shown influences of responsiveness on attention, language and cognitive outcomes. Infants were exposed to redirective and sensitive behavior systematically using an ABA design to examine real-time changes in infants' behavior as a function of caregiver responses. During the two baseline "A" periods, caregivers were instructed to play as they would at home. During the social response "B" period, caregivers were instructed to respond sensitively to infants' behavior on one visit and redirectively on the other visit. Results demonstrated that when caregivers behaved redirectively, infants shifted their attention more frequently and decreased the duration of their visual attention. Caregiver responses also resulted in changes in vocal and gesture production. Infants decreased their production of caregiver-directed vocalizations, gestures, and gesture-vocal combinations during in the redirective condition. Results suggest that caregiver sensitive responding to infants' attentional focus may be one influence on infants' attentional and prelinguistic communicative behavior. PMID:23906941

  3. Can Rhesus Monkey Learn Executive Attention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Bramlett-Parker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of data indicates that, compared to humans, rhesus monkeys perform poorly on tasks that assess executive attention, or voluntary control over selection for processing, particularly under circumstances in which attention is attracted elsewhere by competing stimulus control. In the human-cognition literature, there are hotly active debates about whether various competencies such as executive attention, working memory capacity, and fluid intelligence can be improved through training. In the current study, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta completed an attention-training intervention including several inhibitory-control tasks (a Simon task, numerical Stroop task, global/local interference task, and a continuous performance task to determine whether generalized improvements would be observed on a version of the Attention Network Test (ANT of controlled attention, which was administered before and after the training intervention. Although the animals demonstrated inhibition of prepotent responses and improved in executive attention with practice, this improvement did not generalize to the ANT at levels consistently better than were observed for control animals. Although these findings fail to encourage the possibility that species differences in cognitive competencies can be ameliorated through training, they do advance our understanding of the competition between stimulus-control and cognitive-control in performance by nonhuman and human primates.

  4. Can Rhesus Monkey Learn Executive Attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramlett-Parker, Jessica; Washburn, David A

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of data indicates that, compared to humans, rhesus monkeys perform poorly on tasks that assess executive attention, or voluntary control over selection for processing, particularly under circumstances in which attention is attracted elsewhere by competing stimulus control. In the human-cognition literature, there are hotly active debates about whether various competencies such as executive attention, working memory capacity, and fluid intelligence can be improved through training. In the current study, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed an attention-training intervention including several inhibitory-control tasks (a Simon task, numerical Stroop task, global/local interference task, and a continuous performance task) to determine whether generalized improvements would be observed on a version of the Attention Network Test (ANT) of controlled attention, which was administered before and after the training intervention. Although the animals demonstrated inhibition of prepotent responses and improved in executive attention with practice, this improvement did not generalize to the ANT at levels consistently better than were observed for control animals. Although these findings fail to encourage the possibility that species differences in cognitive competencies can be ameliorated through training, they do advance our understanding of the competition between stimulus-control and cognitive-control in performance by nonhuman and human primates. PMID:27304969

  5. Attentional Disengagement from Emotional Stimuli in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Llerena, Katiah; Gold, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that abnormal attention-emotion interactions are related to symptom presentation in individuals with schizophrenia. However, the individual components of attention responsible for this dysfunction are unclear. In the current study we examined the possibility that schizophrenia patients with higher levels of negative symptoms (HI-NEG: n = 14) have greater difficulty disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli than patients with low negative symptoms (LOW-NEG: n = 18) or controls (CN: n = 27). Participants completed an exogenous emotional cueing task that required them to focus on an initial emotional or neutral cue and subsequently shift attention to a separate location outside of foveal vision to detect a target stimulus (letter). Results indicated that HI-NEG patients had greater difficulty disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli than CN or LOW-NEG patients; however, behavioral performance did not differ among the groups for pleasant stimuli. Higher self-reported trait negative affect was also associated with greater difficulty disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli. Abnormalities in disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli may thus play a critical role in the formation and maintenance of both negative symptoms and trait negative affect in individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:21703824

  6. Hierarchical nonlinear dynamics of human attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I; Tristan, Irma; Varona, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Attention is the process of focusing mental resources on a specific cognitive/behavioral task. Such brain dynamics involves different partially overlapping brain functional networks whose interconnections change in time according to the performance stage, and can be stimulus-driven or induced by an intrinsically generated goal. The corresponding activity can be described by different families of spatiotemporal discrete patterns or sequential dynamic modes. Since mental resources are finite, attention modalities compete with each other at all levels of the hierarchy, from perception to decision making and behavior. Cognitive activity is a dynamical process and attention possesses some universal dynamical characteristics. Thus, it is time to apply nonlinear dynamical theory for the description and prediction of hierarchical attentional tasks. Such theory has to include the analyses of attentional control stability, the time cost of attention switching, the finite capacity of informational resources in the brain, and the normal and pathological bifurcations of attention sequential dynamics. In this paper we have integrated today's knowledge, models and results in these directions. PMID:25869439

  7. Neurophysical substrates of arousal and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanov, Jordan; Pop-Jordanova, Nada

    2009-02-01

    The study of arousal and attention could be of prominent importance for elucidating both fundamental and practical aspects of the mind-brain puzzle. Defined as "general activation of mind" (Kahnemann in Attention and effort. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1973), or "general operation of consciousness" (Thacher and John in Functional neuroscience: foundations of cognitive processing. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 1977), arousal can be considered as a starting point of fundamental research on consciousness. Similar role could be assigned to attention, which can be defined by substituting the attributes "general" with "focused". Concerning the practical applications, the empirically established correlation between neuronal oscillations and arousal/attention levels is widely used in research and clinics, including neurofeedback, brain-computer communication, etc. However, the neurophysical mechanism underlying this correlation is still not clear enough. In this paper, after reviewing some present classical and quantum approaches, a transition probability concept of arousal based on field-dipole quantum interactions and information entropy is elaborated. The obtained analytical expressions and numerical values correspond to classical empirical results for arousal and attention, including the characteristic frequency dependence and intervals. Simultaneously, the fundamental (substrate) role of EEG spectrum has been enlightened, whereby the attention appears to be a bridge between arousal and the content of consciousness. Finally, some clinical implications, including the brain-rate parameter as an indicator of arousal and attention levels, are provided. PMID:18975019

  8. Visual Attentional Deficits in Reading Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Rajaram, OD, PhD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslexia, also referred to as specific reading disability, is a condition where an individual demonstrates a level of reading that is significantly below what may be expected for his age or intelligence. Although the phonological deficit theory of dyslexia is widely accepted, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that at least a subset of dyslexic subjects demonstrate distinct visual attentional deficits. However, it is unclear if the magnitude of visual attention at attended and unattended locations is equivalent in poor and normal readers. The aim of the present study was to examine differences in the magnitude of attentional facilitation (benefits and inhibition (costs in response to an abrupt onset spatial cue in children with reading disabilities in comparison to controls. Methods: A group of impaired readers (n=15, ages nine to 12 years, reading at a level at least 1.5 years below grade level and with average mathematics scores, were included in this study. The control group included an age-matched sample of normal readers (n=20. An adaptation of the covert orienting paradigm was used to investigate differences in magnitude of visual spatial attention between groups.Results: Poor readers demonstrated smaller costs (t=2.07, p<0.02 at unattended locations in comparison to their normal counterparts. Additionally, poor readers were significantly slower (F(1,32 = 14.17, p<0.001 in moving spatial attention in response to an abrupt onset peripheral cue when compared to controls.Conclusion: The poor readers in the current study were slower in shifting spatial attention in comparison to their normal counterparts. They also demonstrated smaller costs at unattended locations,providing indirect evidence for a diffuse attentional field in this group. Consistent with many studies in the literature, we have presented evidence for spatial attentional deficits in impaired readers, the implications of which are discussed within the context

  9. The role of divided attention and selective attention in time perception deficit of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Poi-ki; 蔡博麒

    2012-01-01

    Time deficit in people with ADHD has been consistently found, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate whether divided attention and selective attention are the causes for the deficit; and whether duration judgment performance was related to everyday temporal behaviour. 20 children with ADHD and 23 control children (mean age = 9 years 5 months) matched on age and IQ with no significant difference in working memory were tested. Experiment 1 used retr...

  10. Attention Modifies Gender Differences in Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Lovén, Johanna

    2007-01-01

    Gender differences favoring women have been found in face recognition, and in addition to this, it has been shown that women remember more female than male faces. This own-gender effect may be a result of women directing more attention towards female faces, resulting in a better memory. The aim of this study was to assess the role of attention for gender differences in face recognition and women’s own-gender bias by dividing attention at encoding of faces. Thirty-two participants completed tw...

  11. Single-Trial Inference on Visual Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrholm, Mads; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we take a step towards single-trial behavioral modeling within a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). In selective attention tasks, such as the Partial Report paradigm, the subject is asked to ignore distractors and only report stimuli that belong to the target class. Nothing about a...... Report trial. This result retrodicts a latent attentional state of the subject using the observed response from that particular trial and thus differs from other predictions made with TVA which are based on expected values of observed variables. We show an example of the result in single-trial analysis...

  12. Single-Trial Inference on Visual Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrholm, Mads; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup;

    In this paper we take a step towards single-trial behavioral modeling within a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). In selective attention tasks, such as the Partial Report paradigm, the subject is asked to ignore distractors and only report stimuli that belong to the target class. Nothing about a...... Report trial. This result retrodicts a latent attentional state of the subject using the observed response from that particular trial and thus differs from other predictions made with TVA which are based on expected values of observed variables. We show an example of the result in single-trial analysis...

  13. A neural theory of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    2005-01-01

    A neural theory of visual attention (NTVA) is presented. NTVA is a neural interpretation of C. Bundesen's (1990) theory of visual attention (TVA). In NTVA, visual processing capacity is distributed across stimuli by dynamic remapping of receptive fields of cortical cells such that more processing...... resources (cells) are devoted to behaviorally important objects than to less important ones. By use of the same basic equations used in TVA, NTVA accounts for a wide range of known attentional effects in human performance (reaction times and error rates) and a wide range of effects observed in firing rates...

  14. Lateralization of visual hemifield attention across development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, N; Linz, T D; Hynd, G W; Connor, R T; Shapiro, M S

    1987-01-01

    Heilman and Valenstein (Clinical Neuropsychology, 1979, Oxford University Press, New York) have hypothesized a right hemispheric mechanism which mediates attention bilaterally. Shapiro and Hynd ("The development of functional lateralization in visual hemifield attention." Developmental Neuropsychology, Vol. 1, pp 67-80, 1985) examined the developmental validity of this model and their findings did not provide evidence for a lateralized mechanism for visual hemifield attention in 9, 13, and 18 year olds. However, length of foreperiod and gender effects were noted. This study attempted to compare these groups with a group of normal adults (ages 25-35) using the same reaction time paradigm. The study demonstrated support for the length of foreperiod effect found by Shapiro and Hynd. Hand effects were also found. However, these results do not lend support to either the model proposed by Heilman and Valenstein (1979) or Shapiro and Hynd's (1985) notion of developmental differences across age groups with respect to right hemisphere dominance for mediating attention. PMID:14591140

  15. Attractive faces temporally modulate visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyo eNakamura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial attractiveness is an important biological and social signal on social interaction. Recent research has demonstrated that an attractive face captures greater spatial attention than an unattractive face does. Little is known, however, about the temporal characteristics of visual attention for facial attractiveness. In this study, we investigated the temporal modulation of visual attention induced by facial attractiveness by using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP. Fourteen male faces and two female faces were successively presented for 160 ms respectively, and participants were asked to identify two female faces embedded among a series of multiple male distractor faces. Identification of a second female target (T2 was impaired when a first target (T1 was attractive compared to neutral or unattractive faces, at 320 ms SOA; identification was improved when T1 was attractive compared to unattractive faces at 640 ms SOA. These findings suggest that the spontaneous appraisal of facial attractiveness modulates temporal attention.

  16. Attention deficit in children: a multiprofessional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Thirumazhisi Sachithanandam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is the most common behavior disorder in children characterized by attention deficit, overactivity and impulsivity, which may persist into adolescence and adulthood. It is often complicated with multiple comorbid disorders which when undiagnosed or untreated significantly affects the children on aspects like academic skills, peer relationship, social life and difficulty in leading productive lives. This report presents a case of 12 year old male child with attention deficit and poor academic performance, diagnosed and treated for ADHD with a complex array of coexisting disorders untreated. An attempt is made to highlight the differential diagnosis for attention deficit in children, comorbid disorders, and the necessity for a multiprofessional approach in complete evaluation and comprehensive management of the same. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(2.000: 502-505

  17. Growth hormone and selective attention : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, Elise H.; van Dam, P. Sytze; Kenemans, J. Leon

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The relation between growth hormone (GH) secretion and general cognitive function has been established. General cognitive functioning depends on core functions including selective attention, which have not been addressed specifically in relation to GH. The present review addresses curr

  18. Implicit temporal expectation attenuates auditory attentional blink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Shen

    Full Text Available Attentional blink (AB describes a phenomenon whereby correct identification of a first target impairs the processing of a second target (i.e., probe nearby in time. Evidence suggests that explicit attention orienting in the time domain can attenuate the AB. Here, we used scalp-recorded, event-related potentials to examine whether auditory AB is also sensitive to implicit temporal attention orienting. Expectations were set up implicitly by varying the probability (i.e., 80% or 20% that the probe would occur at the +2 or +8 position following target presentation. Participants showed a significant AB, which was reduced with the increased probe probability at the +2 position. The probe probability effect was paralleled by an increase in P3b amplitude elicited by the probe. The results suggest that implicit temporal attention orienting can facilitate short-term consolidation of the probe and attenuate auditory AB.

  19. Neural evidence that suspense narrows attentional focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdek, M A; Gerrig, R J; Wenzel, W G; Shin, J; Pirog Revill, K; Schumacher, E H

    2015-09-10

    The scope of visual attention changes dynamically over time. Although previous research has reported conditions that suppress peripheral visual processing, no prior work has investigated how attention changes in response to the variable emotional content of audiovisual narratives. We used fMRI to test for the suppression of spatially peripheral stimuli and enhancement of narrative-relevant central stimuli at moments when suspense increased in narrative film excerpts. Participants viewed films presented at fixation, while flashing checkerboards appeared in the periphery. Analyses revealed that increasing narrative suspense caused reduced activity in peripheral visual processing regions in the anterior calcarine sulcus and in default mode network nodes. Concurrently, activity increased in central visual processing regions and in frontal and parietal regions recruited for attention and dynamic visual processing. These results provide evidence, using naturalistic stimuli, of dynamic spatial tuning of attention in early visual processing areas due to narrative context. PMID:26143014

  20. Visual attention capacity after right hemisphere lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill

    2007-01-01

    whole report experiment for estimation of these two parameters in 22 patients with right side stroke. Psychophysical performance was analyzed using Bundesen's [Bundesen, C. (1990). A theory of visual attention. Psychological Review, 97, 523-547] Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) and compared......Recently there has been a growing interest in visual short-term memory (VSTM) including the neural basis of the function. Processing speed, another main aspect of visual attention capacity, has received less investigation. For both cognitive functions human lesion studies are sparse. We used a...... both VSTM capacity and ipsilesional processing speed. The study also showed that lesions in a large region of the right hemisphere, including the putamen, insula, and inferior frontal cortex, do not lead to general deficits in the capacity of visual attention. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Apr-8...

  1. Selective Attention and Drug Related Attention Bias in Methadone Maintenance Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Nejati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems of the drug abusers is drug related attention bias, which causes craving, and as a result drive the drug abusers to take narcotics. Methadone is used as a maintenance treatment for drug abusers. The purpose of this study is evaluation of the effect of Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT on selective attention and drug related attention bias. This study investigated drug cue-related attention bias and selective attention in 16 methadone-maintained patients before and 45 days after methadone therapy period. Stroop color-word test and addiction Stroop test were used as measurement methods. Results show less reaction time and higher accuracy in Color-Word Stroop Test after MMT and less delay for addict related word in addiction Stroop test. It is concluded that methadone can improve selective attention capability and reduce drug related attention bias.

  2. A chaotic model of sustaining attention problem in attention deficit disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, G.; Jafari, S.; Sprott, J. C.; Towhidkhah, F.; Hashemi Golpayegani, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of keeping an attention level is one of the common symptoms of attention deficit disorder. Dopamine deficiency is introduced as one of the causes of this disorder. Based on some physiological facts about the attention control mechanism and chaos intermittency, a behavioral model is presented in this paper. This model represents the problem of undesired alternation of attention level, and can also suggest different valuable predictions about a possible cause of attention deficit disorder. The proposed model reveals that there is a possible interaction between different neurotransmitters which help the individual to adaptively inhibit the attention switching over time. The result of this study can be used to examine and develop a new practical and more appropriate treatment for the problem of sustaining attention.

  3. Functional MRI and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Stroop effect, a measure for selective attention, on behavioral and brain activation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD children (9 boys, ages 9.8-14.5 years, off or on methylphenidate and 9 controls was studied using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI at the Institute of Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing, China, and other centers in China and at Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

  4. Neural mechanisms of attention to motion

    OpenAIRE

    Furlan, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Attention is thought to alter appearance by intensifying the sensory impression of the attended stimulus. Current debates are about how this increases might operate and what are the underlying neural mechanisms. Three mechanisms have been proposed to account the effect of attention: contrast gain, response gain and baseline shift. However, psychophysical and neuroimaging studies produced results that are not always consistent. We used the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explor...

  5. Attention deficit in children: a multiprofessional approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeetha Thirumazhisi Sachithanandam

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavior disorder in children characterized by attention deficit, overactivity and impulsivity, which may persist into adolescence and adulthood. It is often complicated with multiple comorbid disorders which when undiagnosed or untreated significantly affects the children on aspects like academic skills, peer relationship, social life and difficulty in leading productive lives. This report presents a case of 12 year old male ...

  6. Interaural attention modulates outer hair cell function

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Sridhar; Keil, Andreas; Stratis, Kyle; Osborne, A. Fletcher; Cerwonka, Colin; Wong, Jennifer; Rieger, Brenda L.; Polcz, Valerie; Smith, David W

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that auditory attention tasks may modulate the sensitivity of the cochlea by way of the corticofugal and the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent pathways. Here, we studied the extent to which a separate efferent tract, the “uncrossed” MOC, which functionally connects the two ears, mediates inter-aural selective attention. We compared distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in one ear to binaurally-presented primaries, using an intermodal target detection t...

  7. Attention, self-regulation and consciousness.

    OpenAIRE

    Posner, M.I.; Rothbart, M K

    1998-01-01

    Consciousness has many aspects. These include awareness of the world, feelings of control over one's behaviour and mental state (volition), and the notion of continuing self. Focal (executive) attention is used to control details of our awareness and is thus closely related to volition. Experiments suggest an integrated network of neural areas involved in executive attention. This network is associated with our voluntary ability to select among competing items, to correct error and to regulat...

  8. Toddlers’ Duration of Attention towards Putative Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    Although individual differences in reactions to novelty in the toddler years have been consistently linked to risk for developing anxious behavior, toddlers’ attention towards a novel, putatively threatening stimulus while in the presence of other enjoyable activities has rarely been examined as a precursor to such risk. The current study examined how attention towards an angry-looking gorilla mask in a room with alternative opportunities for play in 24-month-old toddlers predicted social inh...

  9. Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, Antoine; Slagter, Heleen A.; Dunne, John D.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores initial findings and the implications of neuroscientific research on meditation. Meditation is conceptualized here as a family of complex emotional and attentional regulatory training regimes developed for various ends, including the cultivation of well-being and emotional balance. The review focuses on the mental processes and the underlying neural circuitry that are critically involved in two styles of meditation. One style, Focused Attention (FA) meditation, entails t...

  10. Trajectories of CBCL Attention Problems in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Robbers, Sylvana; Van Oort, Floor; Polderman, T. J. C.; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret; Verhulst, Frank; Lubke, Gitta; Huizink, Anja

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The first aim of this study was to identify developmental trajectories of Attention Problems in twins followed from age 6 to 12 years. Second, we investigated whether singletons follow similar trajectories. Maternal longitudinal ratings on the Attention Problems (AP) subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist were obtained for a sample of 12,486 twins from the Netherlands Twin Register and for a general population sample of 1,346 singletons. Trajectories were analyzed by gro...

  11. Active inference, attention and motor preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HarrietBrown

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Perception is the foundation of cognition and is fundamental to our beliefs and consequent action planning. The Editorial (this issue asks: “what mechanisms, if any, mediate between perceptual and cognitive processes?” It has recently been argued that attention might furnish such a mechanism. In this paper, we pursue the idea that action planning (motor preparation is an attentional phenomenon directed towards kinaesthetic signals. This rests on a view of motor control as active inference, where predictions of proprioceptive signals are fulfilled by peripheral motor reflexes. If valid, active inference suggests that attention should not be limited to the optimal biasing of perceptual signals in the exteroceptive (e.g. visual domain but should also bias proprioceptive signals during movement. Here, we test this idea using a classical attention (Posner paradigm cast in a motor setting. Specially, we looked for decreases in reaction times when movements were preceded by valid relative to invalid cues. Furthermore, we addressed the hierarchical level at which putative attentional effects were expressed by independently cueing the nature of the movement and the hand used to execute it. We found a significant interaction between the validity of movement and effector cues on reaction times. This suggests that attentional bias might be mediated at a low level in the motor hierarchy, in an intrinsic frame of reference. This finding is consistent with attentional enabling of top-down predictions of proprioceptive input and may rely upon the same synaptic mechanisms that mediate directed spatial attention in the visual system.

  12. Attention and the Cause of Modern Boredom

    OpenAIRE

    Ringmar, Erik

    2016-01-01

    There is a relationship between modernity and boredom. People in modern society are more bored than people in previous societies. But why? Other authors have identified a number of candidates (alienation, atomization, disenchantment, rationalization, and so on). However, in this article I present a far more straightforward explanation: modern boredom is caused by the new ways in which people in modern society were made to pay attention. If you cannot pay attention, you get bored, and the dist...

  13. Spatial attention in written word perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica eMontani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of attention in visual word recognition and reading aloud is a long debated issue. Studies of both developmental and acquired reading disorders provide growing evidence that spatial attention is critically involved in word reading, in particular for the phonological decoding of unfamiliar letter strings. However, studies on healthy participants have produced contrasting results. The aim of this study was to investigate how the allocation of spatial attention may influence the perception of letter strings in skilled readers. High frequency words, low frequency words and pseudowords were briefly and parafoveally presented either in the left or the right visual field. Attentional allocation was modulated by the presentation of a spatial cue before the target string. Accuracy in reporting the target string was modulated by the spatial cue but this effect varied with the type of string. For unfamiliar strings, processing was facilitated when attention was focused on the string location and hindered when it was diverted from the target. This finding is consistent the assumptions of the CDP+ model of reading aloud, as well as with familiarity sensitivity models that argue for a flexible use of attention according with the specific requirements of the string. Moreover, we found that processing of high-frequency words was facilitated by an extra-large focus of attention. The latter result is consistent with the hypothesis that a broad distribution of attention is the default mode during reading of familiar words because it might optimally engage the broad receptive fields of the highest detectors in the hierarchical system for visual word recognition.

  14. Multisensory attention training for treatment of tinnitus

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegel D. P.; Linford T.; Thompson B; Petoe M. A.; Kobayashi K; Stinear C. M.; Searchfield G. D.

    2015-01-01

    Tinnitus is the conscious perception of sound with no physical sound source. Some models of tinnitus pathophysiology suggest that networks associated with attention, memory, distress and multisensory experience are involved in tinnitus perception. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a multisensory attention training paradigm which used audio, visual, and somatosensory stimulation would reduce tinnitus. Eighteen participants with predominantly unilateral chronic tinnitus were randomi...

  15. Temporal and spatial attention in dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Liddle, Elizabeth B.

    2006-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the deficits underlying reading impairment may arise from supra-modal deficits in temporal and spatial attention, disrupting, on the one hand, the ability to segment the temporally ordered phonemes of language and thus the acquisition of decoding skills, and, on the other, the ability to integrate spatially and temporally ordered orthographic information acquired from the fluent visual scanning of written text. Temporal and spatial attentional deficits in dyslexia wer...

  16. Behavioural and neural correlates of auditory attention

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Katherine Leonie

    2005-01-01

    The auditory attention skills of alterting, orienting, and executive control were assessed using behavioural and neuroimaging techniques. Initially, an auditory analgue of the visual attention network test (ANT) (FAN, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz, & Posner, 2002) was created and tested alongside the visual ANT in a group of 40 healthy subjects. The results from this study showed similarities between auditory and visual spatial orienting. An fMRI study was conducted to investigate whether the simil...

  17. Attention as a decision in information space

    OpenAIRE

    Gottlieb, Jacqueline; Balan, Puiu

    2010-01-01

    Decision formation and attention are two fundamental processes through which we select, respectively, appropriate actions or sources of information. While both functions have been studied in the oculomotor system, we lack a unified view explaining both forms of selection. We review evidence showing that parietal neurons encoding saccade motor decisions also carry signals of attention (perceptual selection) that are independent of the metrics, modality and even reward of an action. We propose ...

  18. Mental Fatigue Affects Visual Selective Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Léon G.; Maurits, Natasha M.; Lorist, Monicque M.

    2012-01-01

    Mental fatigue is a form of fatigue, induced by continuous task performance. Mentally fatigued people often report having a hard time keeping their attention focussed and being easily distracted. In this study, we examined the relation between mental fatigue, as induced by time on task, and attention-related changes in event-related potentials (ERPs). EEG, reaction times and response accuracies were obtained from 17 healthy volunteers during two hours of task performance on an adapted Eriksen...

  19. Gamma flicker triggers attentional selection without awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, F.(DSM/IRFU (Institut de Recherches sur les Lois Fondamentales de l’Univers), CEA Saclay (Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives), Gif-sur-Yvette, France); Cheadle, SW; Parton, A; Mueller, HJ; Usher, M

    2009-01-01

    Gamma band modulations in neural activity have been proposed to mediate attentional processes. To support a causal link between gamma activity and attentional selection, we attempt to evoke gamma oscillations by a 50-Hz subliminal flicker. We find that a subliminal 50-Hz flicker at a target location, before target presentation, speeds up and enhances target detection and discrimination. This effect is specific to the middle of the gamma range because it is not evident at

  20. Cognitive programs: software for attention's executive

    OpenAIRE

    Tsotsos, John K; Kruijne, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    What are the computational tasks that an executive controller for visual attention must solve? This question is posed in the context of the Selective Tuning model of attention. The range of required computations go beyond top-down bias signals or region-of-interest determinations, and must deal with overt and covert fixations, process timing and synchronization, information routing, memory, matching control to task, spatial localization, priming, and coordination of bottom-up with top-down in...

  1. Expectation and Attention in Hierarchical Auditory Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreika, Valdas; Gueorguiev, David; Blenkmann, Alejandro; Kochen, Silvia; Ibáñez, Agustín; Owen, Adrian M.; Bekinschtein, Tristan A.

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical predictive coding suggests that attention in humans emerges from increased precision in probabilistic inference, whereas expectation biases attention in favor of contextually anticipated stimuli. We test these notions within auditory perception by independently manipulating top-down expectation and attentional precision alongside bottom-up stimulus predictability. Our findings support an integrative interpretation of commonly observed electrophysiological signatures of neurodynamics, namely mismatch negativity (MMN), P300, and contingent negative variation (CNV), as manifestations along successive levels of predictive complexity. Early first-level processing indexed by the MMN was sensitive to stimulus predictability: here, attentional precision enhanced early responses, but explicit top-down expectation diminished it. This pattern was in contrast to later, second-level processing indexed by the P300: although sensitive to the degree of predictability, responses at this level were contingent on attentional engagement and in fact sharpened by top-down expectation. At the highest level, the drift of the CNV was a fine-grained marker of top-down expectation itself. Source reconstruction of high-density EEG, supported by intracranial recordings, implicated temporal and frontal regions differentially active at early and late levels. The cortical generators of the CNV suggested that it might be involved in facilitating the consolidation of context-salient stimuli into conscious perception. These results provide convergent empirical support to promising recent accounts of attention and expectation in predictive coding. PMID:23825422

  2. [Alpha ERD and human visual selective attention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermachenko, N S; Ermachenko, A A; Latanov, A V

    2011-01-01

    We compared the alpha band EEG depression (event-related desynchnization, ERD) level in two tasks, involving activation of different attentional processes: visual search for a deviant relevant stimulus among many similar ones and visual oddball. Control data for the visual search task consisted of simple viewing of several stimuli being of the same shape as the relevant stimulus in the search trials. Gaze position was verified by eye tracking method. We interpreted alpha band ERD as a correlate of activation of attentional processes. Fixating the target in visual search task caused a significantly larger ERD than fixating the same stimuli in control trials over all leads. We suppose this to be related with task and visual environment complexities. The frontal ERD domination may indicate attentional control over voluntary movements execution (top-down attention). The caudal ERD may be related with updating of visual information as a result of search process (bottom-up attention). Both relevant and irrelevant stimuli in the oddball task also induced alpha band ERD, but it was larger in response to relevant one and reached maximum level over occipital leads. Domination of caudal ERD in oddball task is supposed to indicate bottom-up attention processes. PMID:22332425

  3. A Neurodynamical Model for Selective Visual Attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Jing-Yi; WANG Ru-Bin; ZHANG Yuan; DU Ying

    2011-01-01

    A neurodynamical model for selective visual attention considering orientation preference is proposed. Since orientation preference is one of the most important properties of neurons in the primary visual cortex, it should be fully considered besides external stimuli intensity. By tuning the parameter of orientation preference, the regimes of synchronous dynamics associated with the development of the attention focus are studied. The attention focus is represented by those peripheral neurons that generate spikes synchronously with the central neuron while the activity of other peripheral neurons is suppressed. Such dynamics correspond to the partial synchronization mode. Simulation results show that the model can sequentially select objects with different orientation preferences and has a reliable shift of attention from one object to another, which are consistent with the experimental results that neurons with different orientation preferences are laid out in pinwheel patterns.%A neurodynamical model for selective visual attention considering orientation preference is proposed.Since orientation preference is one of the most important properties of neurons in the primary visual cortex,it should be fully considered besides external stimuli intensity.By tuning the parameter of orientation preference,the regimes of synchronous dynamics associated with the development of the attention focus are studied.The attention focus is represented by those peripheral neurons that generate spikes synchronously with the central neuron while the activity of other peripheral neurons is suppressed.Such dynamics correspond to the partial synchronization mode.Simulation results show that the model can sequentially select objects with different orientation preferences and has a reliable shift of attention from one object to another,which are consistent with the experimental results that neurons with different orientation preferences are laid out in pinwheel patterns.Selective visual

  4. Quantifying collective attention from tweet stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Hirata, Yoshito; Toyoda, Masashi; Kitsuregawa, Masaru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Online social media are increasingly facilitating our social interactions, thereby making available a massive "digital fossil" of human behavior. Discovering and quantifying distinct patterns using these data is important for studying social behavior, although the rapid time-variant nature and large volumes of these data make this task difficult and challenging. In this study, we focused on the emergence of "collective attention" on Twitter, a popular social networking service. We propose a simple method for detecting and measuring the collective attention evoked by various types of events. This method exploits the fact that tweeting activity exhibits a burst-like increase and an irregular oscillation when a particular real-world event occurs; otherwise, it follows regular circadian rhythms. The difference between regular and irregular states in the tweet stream was measured using the Jensen-Shannon divergence, which corresponds to the intensity of collective attention. We then associated irregular incidents with their corresponding events that attracted the attention and elicited responses from large numbers of people, based on the popularity and the enhancement of key terms in posted messages or "tweets." Next, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method using a large dataset that contained approximately 490 million Japanese tweets by over 400,000 users, in which we identified 60 cases of collective attentions, including one related to the Tohoku-oki earthquake. "Retweet" networks were also investigated to understand collective attention in terms of social interactions. This simple method provides a retrospective summary of collective attention, thereby contributing to the fundamental understanding of social behavior in the digital era. PMID:23637913

  5. A Geometric Representation of Collective Attention Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peiteng; Huang, Xiaohan; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jiang; Deng, Su; Wu, Yahui

    2015-01-01

    With the fast development of Internet and WWW, "information overload" has become an overwhelming problem, and collective attention of users will play a more important role nowadays. As a result, knowing how collective attention distributes and flows among different websites is the first step to understand the underlying dynamics of attention on WWW. In this paper, we propose a method to embed a large number of web sites into a high dimensional Euclidean space according to the novel concept of flow distance, which both considers connection topology between sites and collective click behaviors of users. With this geometric representation, we visualize the attention flow in the data set of Indiana university clickstream over one day. It turns out that all the websites can be embedded into a 20 dimensional ball, in which, close sites are always visited by users sequentially. The distributions of websites, attention flows, and dissipations can be divided into three spherical crowns (core, interim, and periphery). 20% popular sites (Google.com, Myspace.com, Facebook.com, etc.) attracting 75% attention flows with only 55% dissipations (log off users) locate in the central layer with the radius 4.1. While 60% sites attracting only about 22% traffics with almost 38% dissipations locate in the middle area with radius between 4.1 and 6.3. Other 20% sites are far from the central area. All the cumulative distributions of variables can be well fitted by "S"-shaped curves. And the patterns are stable across different periods. Thus, the overall distribution and the dynamics of collective attention on websites can be well exhibited by this geometric representation. PMID:26325390

  6. A Geometric Representation of Collective Attention Flows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiteng Shi

    Full Text Available With the fast development of Internet and WWW, "information overload" has become an overwhelming problem, and collective attention of users will play a more important role nowadays. As a result, knowing how collective attention distributes and flows among different websites is the first step to understand the underlying dynamics of attention on WWW. In this paper, we propose a method to embed a large number of web sites into a high dimensional Euclidean space according to the novel concept of flow distance, which both considers connection topology between sites and collective click behaviors of users. With this geometric representation, we visualize the attention flow in the data set of Indiana university clickstream over one day. It turns out that all the websites can be embedded into a 20 dimensional ball, in which, close sites are always visited by users sequentially. The distributions of websites, attention flows, and dissipations can be divided into three spherical crowns (core, interim, and periphery. 20% popular sites (Google.com, Myspace.com, Facebook.com, etc. attracting 75% attention flows with only 55% dissipations (log off users locate in the central layer with the radius 4.1. While 60% sites attracting only about 22% traffics with almost 38% dissipations locate in the middle area with radius between 4.1 and 6.3. Other 20% sites are far from the central area. All the cumulative distributions of variables can be well fitted by "S"-shaped curves. And the patterns are stable across different periods. Thus, the overall distribution and the dynamics of collective attention on websites can be well exhibited by this geometric representation.

  7. Interaural attention modulates outer hair cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sridhar; Keil, Andreas; Stratis, Kyle; Osborne, Aaron F; Cerwonka, Colin; Wong, Jennifer; Rieger, Brenda L; Polcz, Valerie; Smith, David W

    2014-12-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that auditory attention tasks may modulate the sensitivity of the cochlea by way of the corticofugal and the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent pathways. Here, we studied the extent to which a separate efferent tract, the 'uncrossed' MOC, which functionally connects the two ears, mediates inter-aural selective attention. We compared distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in one ear with binaurally presented primaries, using an intermodal target detection task in which participants were instructed to report the occurrence of brief target events (visual changes, tones). Three tasks were compared under identical physical stimulation: (i) report brief tones in the ear in which DPOAE responses were recorded; (ii) report brief tones presented to the contralateral, non-recorded ear; and (iii) report brief phase shifts of a visual grating at fixation. Effects of attention were observed as parallel shifts in overall DPOAE contour level, with DPOAEs relatively higher in overall level when subjects ignored the auditory stimuli and attended to the visual stimulus, compared with both of the auditory-attending conditions. Importantly, DPOAE levels were statistically lowest when attention was directed to the ipsilateral ear in which the DPOAE recordings were made. These data corroborate notions that top-down mechanisms, via the corticofugal and medial efferent pathways, mediate cochlear responses during intermodal attention. New findings show attending to one ear can significantly alter the physiological response of the contralateral, unattended ear, probably through the uncrossed-medial olivocochlear efferent fibers connecting the two ears. PMID:25302959

  8. Attentional Modulation of Eye Torsion Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Scott B.; Mahadevan, Madhumitha S.; Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Eye movements generally have both reflexive and voluntary aspects, but torsional eye movements are usually thought of as a reflexive response to image rotation around the line of sight (torsional OKN) or to head roll (torsional VOR). In this study we asked whether torsional responses could be modulated by attention in a case where two stimuli rotated independently, and whether attention would influence the latency of responses. The display consisted of rear-projected radial "pinwheel" gratings, with an inner annulus segment extending from the center to 22 degrees eccentricity, and an outer annulus segment extending from 22 degrees out to 45 degrees eccentricity. The two segments rotated around the center in independent random walks, stepping randomly 4 degrees clockwise or counterclockwise at 60 Hz. Subjects were asked to attend to one or the other while keeping fixation steady at the center of the display. To encourage attention on one or the other segment of the display, subjects were asked to move a joystick in synchrony with the back and forth rotations of one part of the image while ignoring the other. Eye torsion was recorded with the scleral search coil technique, sampled at 500 Hz. All four subjects showed roughly 50% stronger torsion responses to the attended compared to unattended segments. Latency varied from 100 to 150 msec across subjects and was unchanged by attention. These findings suggest that attention can influence eye movement responses that are not typically under voluntary control.

  9. Assessing the heritability of attentional networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fossella John A

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current efforts to study the genetics of higher functions have been lacking appropriate phenotypes to describe cognition. One of the problems is that many cognitive concepts for which there is a single word (e.g. attention have been shown to be related to several anatomical networks. Recently we have developed an Attention Network Test (ANT that provides a separate measure for each of three anatomically defined attention networks. In this small scale study, we ran 26 pairs of MZ and DZ twins in an effort to determine if any of these networks show sufficient evidence of heritability to warrant further exploration of their genetic basis. Results The efficiency of the executive attention network, that mediates stimulus and response conflict, shows sufficient heritability to warrant further study. Alerting and overall reaction time show some evidence for heritability and in our study the orienting network shows no evidence of heritability. Conclusions These results suggest that genetic variation contributes to normal individual differences in higher order executive attention involving dopamine rich frontal areas including the anterior cingulate. At least the executive portion of the ANT may serve as a valid endophenotype for larger twin studies and subsequent molecular genetic analysis in normal subject populations.

  10. Establishing the Attention-Distractibility Trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Sophie; Lavie, Nilli

    2016-02-01

    Failures to focus attention will affect any task engagement (e.g., at work, in the classroom, when driving). At the clinical end, distractibility is a diagnostic criterion of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we examined whether the inability to maintain attentional focus varies in the overall population in the form of an attention-distractibility trait. To test this idea, we administered an ADHD diagnostic tool to a sample of healthy participants and assessed the relationship between ADHD symptoms and task distraction. ADHD symptom summary scores were significantly positively associated with distractor interference in letter-search and name-classification tasks (as measured by reaction time), as long as the distractors were irrelevant (cartoon images) rather than relevant (i.e., compatible or incompatible with target names). Higher perceptual load during a task eliminated distraction irrespective of ADHD score. These findings suggest the existence of an attention-distractibility trait that confers vulnerability to irrelevant distraction, which can be remedied by increasing the level of perceptual load during the task. PMID:26667659

  11. When can attention influence binocular rivalry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, Kevin C; Melnick, Michael D; Tadin, Duje

    2015-08-01

    Attentional influence over perception is particularly pronounced when sensory stimulation is ambiguous, where attention can reduce stimulus uncertainty and promote a stable interpretation of the world. However, binocular rivalry, an extensively studied visual ambiguity, has proved to be comparatively resistant to attentional modulation. We hypothesize that this apparent inconsistency reflects fluctuations in the degree of unresolved competition during binocular rivalry. Namely, attentional influence over rivalry dynamics should be limited to phases of relatively unresolved stimulus competition, such as ends of individual dominance periods. We found that transient, feature-based cues congruent with the dominant stimulus prolonged dominance durations, while cues matching the suppressed stimulus hastened its return to dominance. Notably, the effect of cues depended on when the cues are presented. Cues presented late, but not early, during a given episode of perceptual dominance influenced rivalry dynamics. This temporal pattern mirrors known changes in the relative competitive dynamics of rival stimuli, revealing that selective effects occur only during temporal windows containing weak resolution of visual competition. In conclusion, these findings reveal that unresolved competition, which gates attention across a variety of domains, is also crucial in determining the susceptibility of binocular rivalry to selective influences. PMID:25898898

  12. Attention and Implicit Memory: Priming-Induced Benefits and Costs Have Distinct Attentional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, Margaret M.; Cruz, Matt E.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Attention at encoding plays a critical and ubiquitous role in explicit memory performance, but its role in implicit memory performance (i.e., priming) is more variable: Some, but not all, priming effects are reduced by division of attention at encoding. A wealth of empirical and theoretical work has aimed to define the critical features of priming effects that do or do not require attention at encoding. This work, however, has focused exclusively on priming effects that are beneficial in natu...

  13. Defining the Focus of Attention: Effects of Attention on Perceived Exertion and Fatigue.

    OpenAIRE

    Keith eLohse; SHERWOOD, DAVID E.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript presents two experiments designed to explore the effects of attention on perceived exertion and time to failure in a fatiguing athletic task. There were two major motivating factors for these experiments. First, there are few studies evaluating attentional focus effects in endurance tasks and, second, there is a lack of integration between studies of attentional focus as external/internal (e.g., Wulf, 2007a) compared to associative/dissociative (e.g., Stevinson and Biddle, 199...

  14. Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Kai eChang; Caterina ePesce; Yi-Te eChiang; Cheng-Yuh eKuo; Dong-Yang eFong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict) control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT), with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate inte...

  15. Scope of Attention, Control of Attention, and Intelligence in Children and Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, Nelson; Fristoe, Nathanael M.; Elliott, Emily M.; Brunner, Ryan P.; Saults, J. Scott

    2006-01-01

    Recent experimentation has shown that cognitive aptitude measures are predicted by tests of the scope of an individual’s attention or capacity in simple working-memory tasks, and also by the ability to control attention. However, these experiments do not indicate how separate or related the scope and control of attention are. An experiment with 52 children 10 to 11 years old and 52 college students included measures of the scope and control of attention as well as verbal and nonverbal aptitud...

  16. Adapting the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) to model auditory attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Katherine L.; Andersen, Tobias; Kyllingsbæk, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical and computational models have provided useful insights into normal and impaired visual attention, but less progress has been made in modelling auditory attention. We are developing a Theory of Auditory Attention (TAA), based on an influential visual model, the Theory of Visual...... model the auditory data, producing good estimates of the rate at which information is encoded (C), the minimum exposure duration required for processing to begin (t0), and the relative attentional weight to targets versus distractors (α). Future work will address the issue of target-distractor confusion...

  17. Moving to Capture Children’s Attention: Developing a Methodology for Measuring Visuomotor Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Rachel O.; Mushtaq, Faisal; Williams, Justin H. G.; Aucott, Lorna S.; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Attention underpins many activities integral to a child’s development. However, methodological limitations currently make large-scale assessment of children’s attentional skill impractical, costly and lacking in ecological validity. Consequently we developed a measure of ‘Visual Motor Attention’ (VMA)—a construct defined as the ability to sustain and adapt visuomotor behaviour in response to task-relevant visual information. In a series of experiments, we evaluated the capability of our method to measure attentional processes and their contributions in guiding visuomotor behaviour. Experiment 1 established the method’s core features (ability to track stimuli moving on a tablet-computer screen with a hand-held stylus) and demonstrated its sensitivity to principled manipulations in adults’ attentional load. Experiment 2 standardised a format suitable for use with children and showed construct validity by capturing developmental changes in executive attention processes. Experiment 3 tested the hypothesis that children with and without coordination difficulties would show qualitatively different response patterns, finding an interaction between the cognitive and motor factors underpinning responses. Experiment 4 identified associations between VMA performance and existing standardised attention assessments and thereby confirmed convergent validity. These results establish a novel approach to measuring childhood attention that can produce meaningful functional assessments that capture how attention operates in an ecologically valid context (i.e. attention's specific contribution to visuomanual action). PMID:27434198

  18. Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mood, Quality of Life, and Attention in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Freire Bueno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD display affective problems and impaired attention. Mood in ADHD can be improved by mindful awareness practices (MAP, but results are mixed regarding the enhancement of attentional performance. Here we evaluated MAP-induced changes in quality of life (QoL, mood, and attention in adult ADHD patients and controls using more measures of attention than prior studies. Methods. Twenty-one ADHD patients and 8 healthy controls underwent 8 weekly MAP sessions; 22 similar patients and 9 controls did not undergo the intervention. Mood and QoL were assessed using validated questionnaires, and attention was evaluated using the Attentional Network Test (ANT and the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT II, before and after intervention. Results. MAP enhanced sustained attention (ANT and detectability (CPT II and improved mood and QoL of patients and controls. Conclusion. MAP is a complementary intervention that improves affect and attention of adults with ADHD and controls.

  19. Visual attention capacity after right hemisphere lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill

    2007-01-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in visual short-term memory (VSTM) including the neural basis of the function. Processing speed, another main aspect of visual attention capacity, has received less investigation. For both cognitive functions human lesion studies are sparse. We used a...... whole report experiment for estimation of these two parameters in 22 patients with right side stroke. Psychophysical performance was analyzed using Bundesen's [Bundesen, C. (1990). A theory of visual attention. Psychological Review, 97, 523-547] Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) and compared...... damage in the right middle frontal gyrus or leukoaraiosis. The storage capacity of VSTM was also normal for most patients, but deficits were found after severe leukoaraiosis or large strokes extending deep into white matter. Thus, the study demonstrated the importance of white-matter connectivity for...

  20. Reduced attentional scope in cocaine polydrug users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza S Colzato

    Full Text Available Cocaine is Europe's second preferred recreational drug after cannabis but very little is known about possible cognitive impairments in the upcoming type of recreational cocaine user (monthly consumption. We asked whether recreational use of cocaine impacts early attentional selection processes. Cocaine-free polydrug controls (n = 18 and cocaine polydrug users (n = 18 were matched on sex, age, alcohol consumption, and IQ (using the Raven's progressive matrices, and were tested by using the Global-Local task to measure the scope of attention. Cocaine polydrug users attended significantly more to local aspects of attended events, which fits with the idea that a reduced scope of attention may be associated with the perpetuation of the use of the drug.

  1. Components of attention modulated by temporal expectation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    By varying the probabilities that a stimulus would appear at particular times after the presentation of a cue and modeling the data by the theory of visual attention (Bundesen, 1990), Vangkilde, Coull, and Bundesen (2012) provided evidence that the speed of encoding a singly presented stimulus...... conditions. In line with the Easterbrook (1959) hypothesis, under high temporal expectancy, the processing was also more focused (selective). First, the storage capacity of VSTM was lower, so that fewer stimuli were encoded into VSTM. Second, the distribution of attentional weights across stimuli was less...... even: The efficiency of selecting targets rather than distractors for encoding into VSTM was higher, as was the spread of the attentional weights of the target letters....

  2. Attentional Processing of Letter Strings by Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Virginie; Siéroff, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Reading a letter string requires attentional orienting toward the beginning of the string (left-dominant orientation), followed by orienting along the string. These attentional-orienting processes differ according to the lexicality of the letter string: Sequential processes apply when reading nonwords or pseudowords, while words can be processed more globally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of these attentional processes involved in reading. We conducted two experiments in 6- (first grade), 7- (second grade), and 9-year-old (fourth grade) children, using a procedure that required the detection of a letter (Experiment 1) or a nonletter (Experiment 2) target in a string of five characters. The target character could occur in the second (left) or fourth (right) position in the string. Results showed an advantage for left nonletter targets as early as age 6 and of left letter targets as early as age 7. In 6-year-olds, only good readers detected a left letter target faster than a right letter target; others detected a right letter target faster. Thus, dominant orienting toward the beginning of the letter string is not fully developed in children before the second year of reading. A possibility is that beginning readers have difficulties inhibiting an attention-orienting bias toward the right visual field in linguistic tasks. The results also showed that the lexicality effect on these attentional processes develops gradually until the fourth year of reading. We believe that the procedure used in this study will be very valuable for evaluating attentional difficulties during reading acquisition. PMID:25386702

  3. Components of attentional set-switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushworth, M F S; Passingham, R E; Nobre, A C

    2005-01-01

    A series of distinct event-related potentials (ERPs) have been recorded from the scalp of human subjects as they switch from one task to another. It is possible that task switching may depend on different mechanisms depending on whether the switch requires a change in attentional set, in other words the redirecting of attention to different aspects of a sensory stimulus, or whether it requires a change in intentional set, in others words a change in the way that responses are selected. To address this issue, the current study recorded ERPs while subjects switched between attentional sets and the results were compared with those of a previous investigation in which subjects switched between intentional sets. Subjects selected stimuli according to two conflicting attentional sets, each emphasizing one visual stimulus dimension (colour, shape). Pairs of stimuli, only one of which was to be attended, were presented for between eight and seventeen trials then either a switch or a stay cue was shown. The switch cue instructed subjects to switch from the current attentional set to the other set, while the stay cue instructed subjects to maintain the current set. Comparing ERPs time-locked to the switch and stay cues revealed neural correlates of the initiation of a task switch. Comparing the ERPs time locked to the first stimuli after either stay or switch cues identified neural correlates of the implementation of a task switch. A similar modulation over parietal electrodes was seen when subjects were switching between either attentional or intentional sets. While an intentional set switch began with a medial frontal modulation, attentional set switching began with a lateral frontal modulation. Implementing a new attentional set was associated with modulation of relatively early visual potentials, while implementing a new intentional set was associated with modulation of later response-related potentials. The results confirm that task switching consists of a number of

  4. Object based attention and visual area LO.

    OpenAIRE

    de-Wit, L.; Kentridge, R. W.; Milner, A D

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the neural basis of so-called “object-based attention” by examining patient D.F., who has visual form agnosia caused by bilateral damage to the lateral occipital (LO) area of the ventral visual stream. We tested D.F.’s object-based attention in two ways. In the first experiment, we used a spatial cueing procedure to compare the costs associated with shifting attention within versus between two separate outline figures. D.F. did not show the normal advantage of within-object ov...

  5. Medical Comorbidities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Irem Yalug; Ali Evren Tufan

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common developmental disorders of childhood with a reported world-wide prevalence of 8 to 12 %. In studies conducted in our country the prevalence rates in community were reported to vary between 8.6 to 8.1 % while clinical prevalence rates were reported to vary between 8.6 to 29.44 %. Fifty to eighty percent of cases were reported to continue into adolescence while thirty to fifty percent may continue into adulthood. Attention defic...

  6. Attention Dysfunction Subtypes of Developmental Dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowska, Monika; Milner, Rafał; Ganc, Małgorzata; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Skarżyński, Henryk

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicate that many different aspects of attention are impaired in children diagnosed with developmental dyslexia (DD). The objective of the present study was to identify cognitive profiles of DD on the basis of attentional test performance. Material/Methods 78 children with DD (30 girls, 48 boys, mean age of 12 years ±8 months) and 32 age- and sex-matched non-dyslexic children (14 girls, 18 boys) were examined using a battery of standardized tests of reading, phono...

  7. DISORDERED ATTENTION AS NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL COGNITIVE DISFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslav KOPACHEV

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors are using the neuropsychological method. On the base of their theoretical and practical experiences they come to certain considered that brain is reacting as a functional unity, same in the pathological like in the normal conditions. In this context, attention disorder is followed parallel by motorcar disorder and disorders in emotions, remembering, thinking, intelligence, perceptions, cognition’s, socialization, that means functioning of whole personality.For securing a good selective attention, authors suggest that is important to have a mature and integrity cerebral and neurotransmitter system which is respec­tive for the age of the child.

  8. Deep Attention Recurrent Q-Network

    OpenAIRE

    Sorokin, Ivan; Seleznev, Alexey; Pavlov, Mikhail; Fedorov, Aleksandr; Ignateva, Anastasiia

    2015-01-01

    A deep learning approach to reinforcement learning led to a general learner able to train on visual input to play a variety of arcade games at the human and superhuman levels. Its creators at the Google DeepMind's team called the approach: Deep Q-Network (DQN). We present an extension of DQN by "soft" and "hard" attention mechanisms. Tests of the proposed Deep Attention Recurrent Q-Network (DARQN) algorithm on multiple Atari 2600 games show level of performance superior to that of DQN. Moreov...

  9. Control of Auditory Attention in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorino, Kristen R.; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) appear to demonstrate deficits in attention and its control. Selective attention involves the cognitive control of attention directed toward a relevant stimulus and simultaneous inhibition of attention toward irrelevant stimuli. The current study examined attention control during a…

  10. The Flexibility of Emotional Attention: Accessible Social Identities Guide Rapid Attentional Orienting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Tobias; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2012-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that emotional--especially threatening--stimuli rapidly capture attention. These findings are often explained in terms of a hard-wired and relatively inflexible fear module. We propose an alternative, more flexible mechanism, arguing that motivational relevance is the crucial factor driving rapid attentional orienting.…

  11. Audiovisual semantic interference and attention : Evidence from the attentional blink paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Burg, Erik; Brederoo, Sanne G.; Nieuwenstein, Mark R.; Theeuwes, Jan; Olivers, Christian N. L.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we investigate the role of attention in audiovisual semantic interference, by using an attentional blink paradigm. Participants were asked to make an unspeeded response to the identity of a visual target letter. This target letter was preceded at various SOAs by a synchronized a

  12. Distributed Attentional Deficits in Chronic Methamphetamine Abusers: Evidence from the Attentional Network Task (ANT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Ruth; Gabay, Shai; Fassbender, Catherine; Henik, Avishai

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The goal of the present study was to examine distributed attentional functions in long-term but currently abstinent methamphetamine (MA) abusers using a task that measures attentional alertness, orienting, and conflict resolution. Methods: Thirty currently abstinent MA abusers (1 month-5 years) and 22 healthy non-substance using adults…

  13. Developmental Changes in Attention and Comprehension among Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Ursula L.; Lorch, Elizabeth P.; Milich, Richard; Charnigo, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Changes in visual attention and story comprehension for children (N = 132) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparison peers were examined. Between the ages of 7 and 9 (Phase 1) and approximately 21 months later (Phase 2), children viewed 2 televised stories: 1 in the presence of toys and 1 in their absence. Both groups of…

  14. Differentiating Attention Deficits in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder or Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Libbe; Crawford, Susan; Gibbard, Ben; Ramage, Barbara; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The attention and inhibition problems found in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are also common in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Attempts to distinguish ADHD from FASDs in terms of these deficits are rare and were pursued in this study. Method: A total of 116 children (47 with ADHD, 31…

  15. An Interactive Attention Board: Improving the Attention of Individuals with Autism and Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Cimen, Fatih Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a tool named "Interactive Attention Board" (IAB) and an associated software named "Interactive Attention Boards Software" (IABS) for individuals with Mental Retardation and Autism. The proposed system is based on several theories such as perception and learning theories, and it is intended to improve hand-eye coordination and…

  16. The Source for ADD/ADHD: Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Gail J.; Russell, Joy L.

    This book is intended for professionals who are responsible for designing and implementing educational programs for children with attention deficit disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). Chapters address: (1) myths and realities about ADD/ADHD; (2) definitions, disorders associated with ADD/ADHD, and federal educational…

  17. Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Attentional Functions in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Kerstin; Gunther, Thomas; Hanisch, Charlotte; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of methylphenidate on different attentional functions and behavior in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: A total of 60 ADHD children aged between 8 and 12 years completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover trial with two doses of…

  18. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention Seeking? Ways of Distinguishing Two Common Childhood Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Nigel Mellor recently retired from his work with the educational psychology service in North Tyneside. In this article, he proposes that attention-seeking behaviour may lead to major difficulties at home and school and indicates the ways in which recent research is beginning to clarify the area. Attention deficit disorders also cause great…

  19. Stroke caused auditory attention deficits in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Maria Ibraim da Freiria Elias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the auditory selective attention in children with stroke. METHODS: Dichotic tests of binaural separation (non-verbal and consonant-vowel and binaural integration - digits and Staggered Spondaic Words Test (SSW - were applied in 13 children (7 boys, from 7 to 16 years, with unilateral stroke confirmed by neurological examination and neuroimaging. RESULTS: The attention performance showed significant differences in comparison to the control group in both kinds of tests. In the non-verbal test, identifications the ear opposite the lesion in the free recall stage was diminished and, in the following stages, a difficulty in directing attention was detected. In the consonant- vowel test, a modification in perceptual asymmetry and difficulty in focusing in the attended stages was found. In the digits and SSW tests, ipsilateral, contralateral and bilateral deficits were detected, depending on the characteristics of the lesions and demand of the task. CONCLUSION: Stroke caused auditory attention deficits when dealing with simultaneous sources of auditory information.

  20. Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

    1988-01-01

    Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

  1. Medical Comorbidities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem Yalug

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common developmental disorders of childhood with a reported world-wide prevalence of 8 to 12 %. In studies conducted in our country the prevalence rates in community were reported to vary between 8.6 to 8.1 % while clinical prevalence rates were reported to vary between 8.6 to 29.44 %. Fifty to eighty percent of cases were reported to continue into adolescence while thirty to fifty percent may continue into adulthood. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is known to accompany subtle physical anomalies, allergic and neurologic disorders, obesity and eating disorders, traumatic injuries, risky sexual behavior, sleep disorders, substance and alcohol use, axis I and II disorders, occupational, legal and academic problems and increased treatment expenditures. Though the effects of this disorder continue throughout life, create burdens to the society along with its treatment as well as disabling the affected patients through their lives, and receive increasing attention in recent years, reviews focusing on problems associated with it are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to summarize the results of previous studies conducted about medical comorbidities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  2. Biological Motion Cues Trigger Reflexive Attentional Orienting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinfu; Weng, Xuchu; He, Sheng; Jiang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The human visual system is extremely sensitive to biological signals around us. In the current study, we demonstrate that biological motion walking direction can induce robust reflexive attentional orienting. Following a brief presentation of a central point-light walker walking towards either the left or right direction, observers' performance…

  3. Attention Deficit Disorder. NICHCY Briefing Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Mary

    This briefing paper uses a question-and-answer format to provide basic information about children with attention deficit disorder (ADD). Questions address the following concerns: nature and incidence of ADD; causes of ADD; signs of ADD (impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, social skill deficits); the diagnostic ADD assessment; how to get…

  4. Components of Attention Modulated by Temporal Expectation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    By varying the probabilities that a stimulus would appear at particular times after the presentation of a cue and modeling the data by the theory of visual attention (Bundesen, 1990), Vangkilde, Coull, and Bundesen (2012) provided evidence that the speed of encoding a singly presented stimulus letter into visual short-term memory (VSTM) is…

  5. The Hidden Geometry of Attention Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Lingfei; Janssen, Marco; Zhang, Jiang; Zhao, Min

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to develop quantitative hypotheses to describe the diffusion of information among users, because, in theory, information resources can have an infinite number of copies. And this theoretical possibility has become a reality in an age of information explosion, when a Twitter meme may spread rapidly to millions of users in a few hours. To address this issue, we propose to study the transportation of users' attention between information resources. We use clicks as a proxy of attention and construct attention networks using the browsing log files from 1,000 Web forums. Our previous research discovered the scaling relationship between clicks and users with an exponent $\\theta$ that characterizes the efficiency of forums in spreading information. In this paper we propose a geometric model to explain this scaling property. We view attention networks as $d$-dimensional flow-balls that satisfy $\\theta=(d+1)/d$ and we find that the time-invariant parameter $d$ can be estimated from the spatial distribut...

  6. Visuospatial Attention Disturbance in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moura, Maria Clara Drummond Soares; do Valle, Luiz Eduardo Ribeiro; Resende, Maria Bernadete Dutra; Pinto, Katia Osternack

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The cognitive deficits present in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are not yet well characterized. Attention, considered to be the brain mechanism responsible for the selection of sensory stimuli, could be disturbed in DMD, contributing, at least partially, to the observed global cognitive deficit. The aim of this study was to…

  7. Attention regulates the plasticity of multisensory timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, James; Roach, Neil W; Whitaker, David; Hanson, James V M

    2010-05-01

    Evidence suggests than human time perception is likely to reflect an ensemble of recent temporal experience. For example, prolonged exposure to consistent temporal patterns can adaptively realign the perception of event order, both within and between sensory modalities (e.g. Fujisaki et al., 2004 Nat. Neurosci., 7, 773-778). In addition, the observation that 'a watched pot never boils' serves to illustrate the fact that dynamic shifts in our attentional state can also produce marked distortions in our temporal estimates. In the current study we provide evidence for a hitherto unknown link between adaptation, temporal perception and our attentional state. We show that our ability to use recent sensory history as a perceptual baseline for ongoing temporal judgments is subject to striking top-down modulation via shifts in the observer's selective attention. Specifically, attending to the temporal structure of asynchronous auditory and visual adapting stimuli generates a substantial increase in the temporal recalibration induced by these stimuli. We propose a conceptual framework accounting for our findings whereby attention modulates the perceived salience of temporal patterns. This heightened salience allows the formation of audiovisual perceptual 'objects', defined solely by their temporal structure. Repeated exposure to these objects induces high-level pattern adaptation effects, akin to those found in visual and auditory domains (e.g. Leopold & Bondar (2005) Fitting the Mind to the World: Adaptation and Aftereffects in High-Level Vision. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 189-211; Schweinberger et al. (2008) Curr. Biol., 18, 684-688). PMID:20584179

  8. Modality-specific attention in foraging bumblebees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nityananda, Vivek; Chittka, Lars

    2015-10-01

    Attentional demands can prevent humans and other animals from performing multiple tasks simultaneously. Some studies, however, show that tasks presented in different sensory modalities (e.g. visual and auditory) can be processed simultaneously. This suggests that, at least in these cases, attention might be modality-specific and divided differently between tasks when present in the same modality compared with different modalities. We investigated this possibility in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) using a biologically relevant experimental set-up where they had to simultaneously choose more rewarding flowers and avoid simulated predatory attacks by robotic 'spiders'. We found that when the tasks had to be performed using visual cues alone, bees failed to perform both tasks simultaneously. However, when highly rewarding flowers were indicated by olfactory cues and predators were indicated by visual cues, bees managed to perform both tasks successfully. Our results thus provide evidence for modality-specific attention in foraging bees and establish a novel framework for future studies of crossmodal attention in ecologically realistic settings. PMID:26587245

  9. The Commingled Division of Visual Attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuechuan Sun

    Full Text Available Many critical activities require visual attention to be distributed simultaneously among distinct tasks where the attended foci are not spatially separated. In our two experiments, participants performed a large number of trials where both a primary task (enumeration of spots and a secondary task (reporting the presence/absence or identity of a distinctive shape required the division of visual attention. The spots and the shape were commingled spatially and the shape appeared unpredictably on a relatively small fraction of the trials. The secondary task stimulus (the shape was reported in inverse proportion to the attentional load imposed by the primary task (enumeration of spots. When the shape did appear, performance on the primary task (enumeration suffered relative to when the shape was absent; both speed and accuracy were compromised. When the secondary task required identification in addition to detection, reaction times increased by about 200 percent. These results are broadly compatible with biased competition models of perceptual processing. An important area of application, where the commingled division of visual attention is required, is the augmented reality head-up display (AR-HUD. This innovation has the potential to make operating vehicles safer but our data suggest that there are significant concerns regarding driver distraction.

  10. Adults with Dyslexia Demonstrate Attentional Orienting Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Judy; Davies, Anne Aimola

    2008-01-01

    Alerting, orienting and executive control of attention are investigated in five adult cases of dyslexia. In comparison with a control group, alerting and executive control were found to be generally intact for each case. Two spatial cueing tasks were employed. For the task requiring target detection, orienting difficulties were evident only in…

  11. Fundamentals of Agent Perception and Attention Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Christopher; Castellano, Ginevra; Rehm, Matthias;

    2011-01-01

    Perception and attention mechanisms are of great importance for entities situated within complex dynamic environments. With roles extending greatly beyond passive information services about the external environment, such mechanisms actively prioritise, augment and expedite information to ensure t......, the resulting agents can achieve a more substantial connection with their environment for the purposes of reacting, planning, decision making and, ultimately, behaving....

  12. Attention "blinks" differently for plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Momsen, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Plants, to many, are simply not as interesting as animals. Students typically prefer to study animals rather than plants and recall plants more poorly, and plants are underrepresented in the classroom. The observed paucity of interest for plants has been described as plant blindness, a term that is meant to encapsulate both the tendency to neglect plants in the environment and the lack of appreciation for plants' functional roles. While the term plant blindness suggests a perceptual or attentional component to plant neglect, few studies have examined whether there are real differences in how plants and animals are perceived. Here, we use an established paradigm in visual cognition, the "attentional blink," to compare the extent to which images of plants and animals capture attentional resources. We find that participants are better able to detect animals than plants in rapid image sequences and that visual attention has a different refractory period when a plant has been detected. These results suggest there are fundamental differences in how the visual system processes plants that may contribute to plant blindness. We discuss how perceptual and physiological constraints on visual processing may suggest useful strategies for characterizing and overcoming zoocentrism. PMID:25185227

  13. Screen captures to support switching attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellevij, Mark; Meij, van der Hans

    2002-01-01

    The study set out to validate the supportive role of screen captures for switching attention. Forty-two participants learned how to work with Microsoft Excel with a paper manual. There were three types of manuals: a textual manual, a visual manual with full-screen captures, and a visual manual with

  14. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Kathi; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of t

  15. Attentional control within 3-D space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, J.; Atchley, P.; Kramer, A.F.

    1998-01-01

    Four experiments investigated whether directing attention to a particular plane in depth enables observers to filter out information from another depth plane. Observers viewed stereoscopic displays and searched for a red line segment among green line segments. The results showed that directing atten

  16. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsin-Hung; Carrasco, Marisa; Heeger, David J

    2015-10-01

    In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression), the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature) and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression. PMID:26517321

  17. What determines consumer attention to nutrition labels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    To identify the key determinants of consumer attention to nutrition labels, visual search tasks (present – absent; one – two targets) were used as an effective experimental tool. The main manipulation concerned: set size (number of labels on front of pack); label characteristics (display size, posit

  18. Influence of attentional capture on oculomotor control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, J.; Kramer, A.F.; Hahn, S.

    1999-01-01

    Previous research has shown that when searching for a color singleton. top-down control cannot prevent attentional capture by an abrupt visual onset. The present research addressed whether a task-irrelevant abrupt onset would affect eye movement behavior when searching for a color singleton. Results

  19. Noradrenergic Genotype Predicts Lapses in Sustained Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ciara M.; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Gill, Michael; Robertson, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    Sustained attention is modulated by the neurotransmitter noradrenaline. The balance of dopamine and noradrenaline in the cortex is controlled by the DBH gene. The principal variant in this gene is a C/T change at position-1021, and the T allele at this locus is hypothesised to result in a slower rate of dopamine to noradrenaline conversion than…

  20. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  1. An Evolutionary Analysis of Learned Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullinger, Richard A.; Kruschke, John K.; Todd, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Humans and many other species selectively attend to stimuli or stimulus dimensions--but why should an animal constrain information input in this way? To investigate the adaptive functions of attention, we used a genetic algorithm to evolve simple connectionist networks that had to make categorization decisions in a variety of environmental…

  2. Attentional Costs in Multiple-Object Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombu, Michael; Seiffert, Adriane E.

    2008-01-01

    Attentional demands of multiple-object tracking were demonstrated using a dual-task paradigm. Participants were asked to make speeded responses based on the pitch of a tone, while at the same time tracking four of eight identical dots. Tracking difficulty was manipulated either concurrent with or after the tone task. If increasing tracking…

  3. Usability of a theory of visual attention (TVA) for parameter-based measurement of attention II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bublak, Peter; Finke, Kathrin; Krummenacher, Joseph;

    2005-01-01

    Based on a 'Theory of Visual Attention' (TVA), whole and partial report of brief letter arrays is presented as a diagnostic tool to estimate four clinically significant attentional components: perceptual processing speed, visual working memory storage capacity, efficiency of top-down control, and...... spatial distribution of attention. The procedure used was short enough to be applicable within a standard clinical setting. Two brain-damaged patients, selected based on lesion location and neuropsychological test profile, were compared to a control group of 22 healthy subjects. One patient with a right...... inferior parietal lesion showed a pattern of non-spatially and spatially lateralized attention deficits that is typically found in neglect patients. Results from the second patient supported the decisive role of superior frontal brain structures for top-down control of visual attention. This double...

  4. Usability of a theory of visual attention (TVA) for parameter-based measurement of attention I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finke, Kathrin; Bublak, Peter; Krummenacher, Joseph;

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the usability of whole and partial report of briefly displayed letter arrays as a diagnostic tool for the assessment of attentional functions. The tool is based on Bundesen’s (1990, 1998, 2002; Bundesen et al., 2005) theory of visual attention (TVA), which assumes...... four separable attentional components: processing speed, working memory storage capacity, spatial distribution of attention, and top-down control. A number of studies (Duncan et al., 1999; Habekost & Bundesen, 2003; Peers et al., 2005) have already demonstrated the clinical relevance of these...... parameters. The present study was designed to examine whether (a) a shortened procedure bears sufficient accuracy and reliability, (b) whether the procedures reveal attentional constructs with clinical relevance, and (c) whether the mathematically independent parameters are also empirically independent. In a...

  5. Attention and Reaction Time in Shotokan Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António VencesBrito

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the attention capacity and the reaction time in Portuguese karate Shotokan athletes. Participated 96 Shotokan athletes from the Portuguese Karate Association. We physically characterized the sample (weight, height, body mass index, and body fat mass percentage and evaluated Simple Reaction Time (TRS, Choice Reaction Time (TRE, Decision Time (TD and the Distributed Attention (AD. Data was analyzed according to athletes’ group age (15 to 19 yr, 20 to 35 yr and more than 35 yr, level of graduation (9th to 4th kyu, 3rd to 1st kyu, DAN and by gender (male and female. Male athletes present significant differences from female athletes in height, weight, years of practice and body fat mass. In relation to TRS all groups tend to a value near to 300 ms without significant differences among them, but the TRE and the TD are significantly higher in the Dan athletes and in the +35 yrs athletes than in the other groups. On the other hand the Dan and +35 yrs athletes tend to do less mistakes. Gender does not influence significantly the reaction time in the Shotokan karate athletes, but it seems that women tend to have smaller reaction times than men. Athletes with more years of practice and more graduation need more time to reply to the stimulus than the other athletes, but they tend to do fewer mistakes on their choices than other subjects. As for distributed attention, no significant differences were found in function of the athlete graduation, nor in function of gender. However, for distributed attention, we found statistical significant differences in function of the age, with the oldest athletes presenting lower levels of distributed attention. Our results seem to show that is necessary to do some modifications in the training process of Portuguese Shotokan karate athletes.

  6. Executive control of attention in narcolepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Bayard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC is a disabling sleep disorder characterized by early loss of hypocretin neurons that project to areas involved in the attention network. We characterized the executive control of attention in drug-free patients with NC to determine whether the executive deficits observed in patients with NC are specific to the disease itself or whether they reflect performance changes due to the severity of excessive daytime sleepiness. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-two patients with NC compared to 22 patients with narcolepsy without cataplexy (NwC matched for age, gender, intellectual level, objective daytime sleepiness and number of sleep onset REM periods (SOREMPs were studied. Thirty-two matched healthy controls were included. All participants underwent a standardized interview, completed questionnaires, and neuropsychological tests. All patients underwent a polysomnography followed by multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT, with neuropsychological evaluation performed the same day between MSLT sessions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Irrespective of diagnosis, patients reported higher self-reported attentional complaints associated with the intensity of depressive symptoms. Patients with NC performed slower and more variably on simple reaction time tasks than patients with NwC, who did not differ from controls. Patients with NC and NwC generally performed slower, reacted more variably, and made more errors than controls on executive functioning tests. Individual profile analyses showed a clear heterogeneity of the severity of executive deficit. This severity was related to objective sleepiness, higher number of SOREMPs on the MSLT, and lower intelligence quotient. The nature and severity of the executive deficits were unrelated to NC and NwC diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that drug-free patients with NC and NwC complained of attention deficit, with altered executive control of attention being explained by the severity of objective

  7. Does walking in nature restore directed attention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Mental fatigue is commonly understood and experienced as mental exhaustion, irritability and foggy thinking. Research indicates mental fatigue is indicative of depleted directed attention resources. Thus, restoration of directed attention is thought to alleviate mental fatigue. This research sought to determine if walking in nature compared to walking on a treadmill provided enhanced performance on tasks of directed attention. Method: Twenty-two participants completed a 30-min walk on a treadmill and a walk in the local Botanic Garden on separate days. Two directed attention tasks (Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP and Necker Cube reversal task were conducted both before and after each walk as well as a Perceived Arousal Scale and a Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Results: Total hits and sensitivity to a target on a RVIP task improved significantly in both locations F(1, 20 = 11.892, p = .003, F(1, 20 = 12.364, p = .002 respectively. However, there was no significant difference between the nature walk and the treadmill walk. Significant order effects were found for sensitivity to targets pre/post walks, F(1, 19 = 10.309, p = .005 and F(1, 19 = 8.578, p = .009 respectively. Necker cube baseline scores indicated a significant reduction in reversals after 30 minutes of walking in both locations. Arousal was higher overall in the nature walk compared to the treadmill walk, F(1, 20 = 11.626, p = .003. Conclusions: No evidence was obtained to suggest that walking in nature leads to improved directed attention compared to walking on a treadmill. Results indicate that improvements were due to significant learning affects. The significantly higher overall score on the arousal scale in the natural environment suggests that participants were more alert in this environment.

  8. Monitoring attentional processes for intelligent channelling of educational tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Heyer Wollenberg, Patrick; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Herrera Vega, Javier; Sucar, Luis Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Aims: - Detection of attention: Map a lexicon of body postures to binarizedattentionallevels (Experiment I). - Attribution of attention: Identify postural features leading to appreciation of attention by third parties (e.g. educators) (Experiment II).

  9. Effects of Stimulant Drugs on Attention and Cognitive Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    1981-01-01

    Research on the effects of stimulant drugs on attention and cognitive deficits in children with hyperactivity is reviewed. Topics covered include: attention and impulsivity, paired associate learning, school achievement, and drug induced attention and cognitive deficits. (CL)

  10. Greater efficiency in attentional processing related to mindfulness meditation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurk, P.A.M. van den; Giommi, F.; Gielen, S.C.A.M.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Barendregt, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, attentional processing in relation to mindfulness meditation was investigated. Since recent studies have suggested that mindfulness meditation may induce improvements in attentional processing, we have tested 20 expert mindfulness meditators in the attention network test. Their perfor

  11. Feature-based attention enhances performance by increasing response gain

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Katrin; Heeger, David J.; Carrasco, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    Covert spatial attention can increase contrast sensitivity either by changes in contrast gain or by changes in response gain, depending on the size of the attention field and the size of the stimulus (Herrmann, Montaser-Kouhsari, Carrasco, & Heeger, 2010), as predicted by the normalization model of attention (Reynolds & Heeger, 2009). For feature-based attention, unlike spatial attention, the model predicts only changes in response gain, regardless of whether the featural extent of the attent...

  12. A relational structure of voluntary visual-attention abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Skogsberg, KatieAnn; Grabowecky, Marcia; Wilt, Joshua; Revelle, William; Iordanescu, Lucica; Suzuki, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have examined attention mechanisms involved in specific behavioral tasks (e.g., search, tracking, distractor inhibition). However, relatively little is known about the relationships among those attention mechanisms. Is there a fundamental attention faculty that makes a person superior or inferior at most types of attention tasks, or do relatively independent processes mediate different attention skills? We focused on individual differences in voluntary visual-attention abilities ...

  13. Attentive Turkers: MTurk participants perform better on online attention checks than do subject pool participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, David J; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    Participant attentiveness is a concern for many researchers using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Although studies comparing the attentiveness of participants on MTurk versus traditional subject pool samples have provided mixed support for this concern, attention check questions and other methods of ensuring participant attention have become prolific in MTurk studies. Because MTurk is a population that learns, we hypothesized that MTurkers would be more attentive to instructions than are traditional subject pool samples. In three online studies, participants from MTurk and collegiate populations participated in a task that included a measure of attentiveness to instructions (an instructional manipulation check: IMC). In all studies, MTurkers were more attentive to the instructions than were college students, even on novel IMCs (Studies 2 and 3), and MTurkers showed larger effects in response to a minute text manipulation. These results have implications for the sustainable use of MTurk samples for social science research and for the conclusions drawn from research with MTurk and college subject pool samples. PMID:25761395

  14. Eye Movements during Auditory Attention Predict Individual Differences in Dorsal Attention Network Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rodrigo M.; Fu, Richard Z.; Seemungal, Barry M.; Wise, Richard J. S.; Leech, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms supporting auditory attention are not fully understood. A dorsal frontoparietal network of brain regions is thought to mediate the spatial orienting of attention across all sensory modalities. Key parts of this network, the frontal eye fields (FEF) and the superior parietal lobes (SPL), contain retinotopic maps and elicit saccades when stimulated. This suggests that their recruitment during auditory attention might reflect crossmodal oculomotor processes; however this has not been confirmed experimentally. Here we investigate whether task-evoked eye movements during an auditory task can predict the magnitude of activity within the dorsal frontoparietal network. A spatial and non-spatial listening task was used with on-line eye-tracking and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). No visual stimuli or cues were used. The auditory task elicited systematic eye movements, with saccade rate and gaze position predicting attentional engagement and the cued sound location, respectively. Activity associated with these separate aspects of evoked eye-movements dissociated between the SPL and FEF. However these observed eye movements could not account for all the activation in the frontoparietal network. Our results suggest that the recruitment of the SPL and FEF during attentive listening reflects, at least partly, overt crossmodal oculomotor processes during non-visual attention. Further work is needed to establish whether the network’s remaining contribution to auditory attention is through covert crossmodal processes, or is directly involved in the manipulation of auditory information. PMID:27242465

  15. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties. PMID:25763856

  16. Attentional Profiles and White Matter Correlates in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, aged 7-15 years, had their attentional abilities assessed through the Conners' continuous performance test. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected for all of the participants using a 3.0-T MRI system. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained for 20 fiber tracts, and brain-behavior correlations were calculated for 42 of the children. The ADHD-I children differed significantly from the typically developing (TD) children with respect to attentional measures, such as the ability to maintain response-time consistency throughout the task (Hit RT SE and Variability), vigilance (Hit RT ISI and Hit RT ISI SE), processing speed (Hit RT), selective attention (Omissions), sustained attention (Hit RT Block Change), error profile (Response Style), and inhibitory control (Perseverations). Evidence of significant differences between the ADHD-I and the TD participants was not found with respect to the mean FA values in the fiber tracts analyzed. Moderate and strong correlations between performance on the attention indicators and the tract-average FA values were found for the ADHD-I group. Our results contribute to a better characterization of the attentional profile of ADHD-I individuals and suggest that in children and adolescents with ADHD-I, attentional performance is mainly associated with the white matter structure of the long associative fibers that connect anterior-posterior brain areas. PMID:26441684

  17. Revisiting attentional processing of non-emotional cues in social anxiety: A specific impairment for the orienting network of attention

    OpenAIRE

    Heeren, Alexandre; Maurage, Pierre; Philippot, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    People with social anxiety disorder (SAD) exhibit an attentional bias for threat (AB). Nevertheless, the focus on AB for emotional stimuli has led to neglect the exploration of basic attention deficits for non- emotional material among SAD patients. This study aimed to investigate the integrity of the attentional system in SAD. The Attention Network Test was used to precisely explore attentional deficits, and centrally the differential deficit across the three attentional networks, namely ale...

  18. Modelling auditory attention: Insights from the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, K. L.; Andersen, Tobias; Kyllingsbæk, Søren;

    , and that there is a ‘race’ for selection and representation in visual short term memory (VSTM). In the basic TVA task, participants view a brief display of letters and are asked to report either all of the letters (whole report) or a subset of the letters (e.g., the red letters; partial report...... to be measured for auditory attention; providing insights into impaired auditory attention in old adults and neuropsychological patients, and allowing direct comparisons with visual attention. In the visual task, the stimuli are simultaneous, stationary (unchanging over time), and separated in space...

  19. A dissociation between attention and selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, R. W.; Folk, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    It is widely assumed that the allocatian of spatial attention results in the "selection" of attended objects or regions of space. That is, once a stimulus is attended, all its feature dimensions are processed irrespective of their relevance to behavioral goals. This assumption is based in part on experiments showing significant interference for attended stimuli when the response to an irrelevant dimension conflicts with the response to the relevant dimension (e.g., the Stroop effect). Here we show that such interference is not due to attending per se. In two spatial cuing experiments, we found that it was possible to restrict processing of attended stimuli to task-relevant dimensions. This new evidence supports two novel conclusions: (a) Selection involves more than the focusing of attention per se: and (b) task expectations play a key role in detertnining the depth of processing of the elementary feature dimensions of attended stimuli.

  20. Attentional Focusing Instructions and Force Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Marchant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research progress assessing the role of attentional focusing instructions on skill acquisition and performance has lead researchers to apply this approach to force production tasks. Initial converging evidence indicates that force production tasks are sensitive to verbal instruction; externally focused instructions (onto movement outcomes, or onto the object force is being exerted against are shown to be more beneficial than internally focused instructions (focusing attention onto the movements being executed. These benefits are observed for maximal and accurate force production, as well as the maintenance of force production in prolonged tasks. A range of mechanisms are identified supporting the proposal that an external focus promotes movement efficiency in line with energy and effort conservation. Future research is required to assess how this developing body of work interacts with the broader understanding of psychological and physiological factors implicated in the effective production, maintenance and limitation of maximal or sub-maximal forces.

  1. Can Robotic Interaction Improve Joint Attention Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Zachary E; Zheng, Zhi; Swanson, Amy R; Bekele, Esubalew; Zhang, Lian; Crittendon, Julie A; Weitlauf, Amy F; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2015-11-01

    Although it has often been argued that clinical applications of advanced technology may hold promise for addressing impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), relatively few investigations have indexed the impact of intervention and feedback approaches. This pilot study investigated the application of a novel robotic interaction system capable of administering and adjusting joint attention prompts to a small group (n = 6) of children with ASD. Across a series of four sessions, children improved in their ability to orient to prompts administered by the robotic system and continued to display strong attention toward the humanoid robot over time. The results highlight both potential benefits of robotic systems for directed intervention approaches as well as potent limitations of existing humanoid robotic platforms. PMID:24014194

  2. Tracing the Attention of Moving Citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingfei; Wang, Cheng-Jun

    2016-01-01

    With the widespread use of mobile computing devices in contemporary society, our trajectories in the physical space and virtual world are increasingly closely connected. Using the anonymous smartphone data of 1 × 10(5) users in a major city of China, we study the interplay between online and offline human behaviors by constructing the mobility network (offline) and the attention network (online). Using the network renormalization technique, we find that they belong to two different classes: the mobility network is small-world, whereas the attention network is fractal. We then divide the city into different areas based on the features of the mobility network discovered under renormalization. Interestingly, this spatial division manifests the location-based online behaviors, for example shopping, dating, and taxi-requesting. Finally, we offer a geometric network model to help us understand the relationship between small-world and fractal networks. PMID:27608929

  3. Attention Dynamics in Collaborative Knowledge Creation

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Lingfei

    2015-01-01

    To uncover the mechanisms underlying the collaborative production of knowledge, we investigate a very large online Question and Answer system that includes the question asking and answering activities of millions of users over five years. We created knowledge networks in which nodes are questions and edges are the successive answering activities of users. We find that these networks have two common properties: 1) the mitigation of degree inequality among nodes; and 2) the assortative mixing of nodes. This means that, while the system tends to reduce attention investment on old questions in order to supply sufficient attention to new questions, it is not easy for novel knowledge be integrated into the existing body of knowledge. We propose a mixing model to combine preferential attachment and reversed preferential attachment processes to model the evolution of knowledge networks and successfully reproduce the ob- served patterns. Our mixing model is not only theoretically interesting but also provide insights ...

  4. Attention modeling for video quality assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    . The local quality of a video sequence is calculated by pooling local quality values over all frames with a temporal pooling scheme derived from the known relationship between perceived video quality and the frequency of temporal quality variations. The overall quality of a distorted video is a......This paper proposes to evaluate video quality by balancing two quality components: global quality and local quality. The global quality is a result from subjects allocating their ttention equally to all regions in a frame and all frames n a video. It is evaluated by image quality metrics (IQM) ith...... averaged spatiotemporal pooling. The local quality is derived from visual attention modeling and quality variations over frames. Saliency, motion, and contrast information are taken into account in modeling visual attention, which is then integrated into IQMs to calculate the local quality of a video frame...

  5. Attentional effects in the visual pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Larsen, Axel; Kyllingsbæk, Søren;

    2002-01-01

    nucleus. Frontal activations were found in a region that seems implicated in visual short-term memory (posterior parts of the superior sulcus and the middle gyrus). The reverse, color-shape comparison showed bilateral increases in rCBF in the anterior cingulate gyri, superior frontal gyri, and superior...... and middle temporal gyri. The attentional effects found by the shape-color comparison in the thalamus and the primary visual cortex may have been generated by feedback signals preserving visual representations of selected stimuli in short-term memory.......Attentional effects in the visual pathways were investigated by contrasting the distribution of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured by H(2)(15)O positron emission tomography (PET) during performance of a shape-matching task with the distribution of rCBF during a less demanding color...

  6. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Pharmacotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Elia, Josephine

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy, one of the effective modalities of treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), was discovered serendipitously and, until recently, consisted primarily of short-acting methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine compounds. The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) approval of Concerta in 2000 followed by approval of additional long-acting methylphenidate (Ritalin LA; Metadate CD) and amphetamine formulations (Adderall XR) expanded the repertoire. By providing su...

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Epileptic Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Gun-Ha; Kim, Ji Yeon; Byeon, Jung Hye; Eun, Baik-Lin; Rhie, Young Jun; Seo, Won Hee; Eun, So-Hee

    2012-01-01

    It is well-known that the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is higher in epileptic children than in the general pediatric population. The aim of this study was to compare the accompaniment of ADHD in epileptic children with well-controlled seizures and no significant intellectual disability with that in healthy controls. We included epileptic children between the ages of 6 and 12 yr visiting our clinic for six consecutive months and controls without significant med...

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in prison inmates

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsberg, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an inherited developmental disorder with early onset, chronically persisting in the vast majority of cases. ADHD is associated with pervasive cognitive, emotional and functional impairments, as well as an increased rate of coexisting disorders. ADHD in the presence of early disruptive behaviours increase the risk for later delinquency. ADHD is estimated to be present in about 25-45% of adult prison inmates, thus 10-times increased...

  9. Spatial attention modulates tactile change detection

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hulle, Lore; Van Damme, Stefaan; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Gallace, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    People often fail to detect changes between successively presented tactile patterns, a phenomenon known as tactile change blindness. In this study, we investigated whether changes introduced to tactile patterns are detected better when a participant's attention is focused on the location where the change occurs. Across two experiments, participants (N = 55) were instructed to detect changes between two consecutively presented tactile patterns. In half of the trials, the stimulated body sites ...

  10. Genetic Basis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Yurteri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood. Due to studies reporting that the effects of ADHD diagnosis on functioning may last throughout life, this disorder, which has great importance for child and adolescent psychiatry, started to attract greater attention recently in terms of adult psychiatry. A review, evaluating the results of studies conducted on the genetic basis of ADHD, which started to attract increasing attention both in our country and the world, was thought to help clinicians working in this field. PubMed and Turkish Psychiatry Index online search engines were screened using “attention deficit hyperactivity disorder”, “ADHD”, “genetics” as key words. The data obtained were combined with information gleaned from several textbooks. Based on previous studies, it could easily be concluded that ADHD is one of the most common heritable psychiatric disorder with distinguished genetic features. Despite its importance for diagnosis and treatment, the etiology of ADHD is still not clear and the disorder seems to be a complex problem arising from the effects of both genetic and environmental factors. Although previous studies revealed that ADHD displayed familial and hereditary transmission, stable patterns of Mendelian inheritance could not be discriminated by evaluation of pedigrees. Therefore, many studies have been conducted on the molecular genetic basis of ADHD recently. The previous studies did not report consistent results in identification of the genes responsible for ADHD which has been partially linked to heterogeneity of the disorder. Grouping relevant patients according to comorbidities and persistence in adolescence rather than DSM-IV subtypes could be an important alternative method for overcoming this limitation in the research studies.

  11. EEG predictors of covert vigilant attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Adrien; Dähne, Sven; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Objective. The present study addressed the question whether neurophysiological signals exhibit characteristic modulations preceding a miss in a covert vigilant attention task which mimics a natural environment in which critical stimuli may appear in the periphery of the visual field. Approach. Subjective, behavioural and encephalographic (EEG) data of 12 participants performing a modified Mackworth Clock task were obtained and analysed offline. The stimulus consisted of a pointer performing regular ticks in a clockwise sequence across 42 dots arranged in a circle. Participants were requested to covertly attend to the pointer and press a response button as quickly as possible in the event of a jump, a rare and random event. Main results. Significant increases in response latencies and decreases in the detection rates were found as a function of time-on-task, a characteristic effect of sustained attention tasks known as the vigilance decrement. Subjective sleepiness showed a significant increase over the duration of the experiment. Increased activity in the α-frequency range (8-14 Hz) was observed emerging and gradually accumulating 10 s before a missed target. Additionally, a significant gradual attenuation of the P3 event-related component was found to antecede misses by 5 s. Significance. The results corroborate recent findings that behavioural errors are presaged by specific neurophysiological activity and demonstrate that lapses of attention can be predicted in a covert setting up to 10 s in advance reinforcing the prospective use of brain-computer interface (BCI) technology for the detection of waning vigilance in real-world scenarios. Combining these findings with real-time single-trial analysis from BCI may pave the way for cognitive states monitoring systems able to determine the current, and predict the near-future development of the brain's attentional processes.

  12. Attracting pedestrians’ attention using interaction technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mellquist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The technology and marketing channels to display and broadcast advertisements are ever changing; this has led to the change of many forms of advertisements. Public advertisements have not changed as drastically as many others and can therefore be seen as out-dated. In this paper a prototype of an interactive advertisement with a dynamic user flow is presented where focus has been on attracting attention. Different interaction technologies have been discussed and compared. A Kinect sensor has ...

  13. What causes attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam; Jefferies, Rachel; Stergiakouli, Evangelia

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects around 1–3% of children. There is a high level of comorbidity with developmental and learning problems as well as with a variety of psychiatric disorders. ADHD is highly heritable, although there is no single causal risk factor and non-inherited factors also contribute to its aetiology. The genetic and environmental risk factors that have been implicated appear to be associated with a range of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric outc...

  14. Attentional mechanisms of borderline personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.; Vizueta, Nathalie; Levy, Kenneth N.; Evans, David E.; Thomas, Kathleen M.; Clarkin, John F.

    2002-01-01

    We consider whether disruption of a specific neural circuit related to self-regulation is an underlying biological deficit in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Because patients with BPD exhibit a poor ability to regulate negative affect, we hypothesized that brain mechanisms thought to be involved in such self-regulation would function abnormally even in situations that seem remote from the symptoms exhibited by these patients. To test this idea, we compared the efficiency of attentional...

  15. How facial attractiveness affects sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Oksama, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated whether and how facial attractiveness affects sustained attention. We adopted a multiple-identity tracking paradigm, using attractive and unattractive faces as stimuli. Participants were required to track moving target faces amid distractor faces and report the final location of each target. In Experiment 1, the attractive and unattractive faces differed in both the low-level properties (i.e., luminance, contrast, and color saturation) and high-level properties (i.e., physical beauty and age). The results showed that the attractiveness of both the target and distractor faces affected the tracking performance: The attractive target faces were tracked better than the unattractive target faces; when the targets and distractors were both unattractive male faces, the tracking performance was poorer than when they were of different attractiveness. In Experiment 2, the low-level properties of the facial images were equalized. The results showed that the attractive target faces were still tracked better than unattractive targets while the effects related to distractor attractiveness ceased to exist. Taken together, the results indicate that during attentional tracking the high-level properties related to the attractiveness of the target faces can be automatically processed, and then they can facilitate the sustained attention on the attractive targets, either with or without the supplement of low-level properties. On the other hand, only low-level properties of the distractor faces can be processed. When the distractors share similar low-level properties with the targets, they can be grouped together, so that it would be more difficult to sustain attention on the individual targets. PMID:27347672

  16. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Anna K; Anselm B M Fuermaier; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of the empirical research in the field of ADHD with regard to stigma was performed. The findings of investigations in this field were clustered in different categories, including stigma in children wit...

  17. Attentional Disregulation: A Benefit for Implicit Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Gillian; Valderrama, Steven; Hasher, Lynn; Lenartowicz, Agatha

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effect of age and time of testing on the ability to control attention, and addressed the possibility that older adults’ susceptibility to distraction may sometimes facilitate performance on a later cognitive task. Using a modification of Rees et al. (1999), participants made same/different judgements on line-drawings superimposed with task-irrelevant letter strings. Memory for the distractors was subsequently tested using an implicit memory task. Both older and younger adu...

  18. Visual Attention in Mixed-Gender Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Jean Amon

    2015-01-01

    A basic principle of objectification theory is that a mere glance from a stranger represents the potential to be sexualized, triggering women to take on the perspective of others and become vigilant to their appearance. However, research has yet to document gendered gaze patterns in social groups. The present study examined visual attention in groups of varying gender composition to understand how gender and minority status influence gaze behavior. One hundred undergraduates enrolled in psych...

  19. Visual attention in mixed-gender groups

    OpenAIRE

    Amon, Mary Jean

    2015-01-01

    A basic principle of objectification theory is that a mere glance from a stranger represents the potential to be sexualized, triggering women to take on the perspective of others and become vigilant to their appearance. However, research has yet to document gendered gaze patterns in social groups. The present study examined visual attention in groups of varying gender composition to understand how gender and minority status influence gaze behavior. One hundred undergraduates enrolled in psych...

  20. Psychological Agency - Guidance of Visual Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Buehler, Denis

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation contributes to the study of agency by furthering our understanding of individuals' guidance of their acts. When individuals guide a shift of visual attention, their central executive system assigns priority to locations on the priority map. The central executive system is a psychological system for intermodal, often amodal, non-modular processing. The priority map is a representational state with geometrically structured content, representing the field of vision. This represen...

  1. Tracking User Attention in Collaborative Tagging Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-Neto, Elizeu; Ripeanu, Matei; Iamnitchi, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative tagging has recently attracted the attention of both industry and academia due to the popularity of content-sharing systems such as CiteULike, del.icio.us, and Flickr. These systems give users the opportunity to add data items and to attach their own metadata (or tags) to stored data. The result is an effective content management tool for individual users. Recent studies, however, suggest that, as tagging communities grow, the added content and the metadata become harder to mana...

  2. Visual Attention in 3D Video Games.

    OpenAIRE

    Seif El-Nasr, Magy; Yan, Su

    2006-01-01

    Understanding players’ visual attention patterns within an interactive 3D game environment is an important research area that can improve game level design and graphics. Several graphics techniques use a perception based rendering method to enhance graphics quality while achieving the fast rendering speed required for fast-paced 3D video games. Game designers can also enhance game play by adjusting the level design, texture and color choices, and objects’ locations, if such decisions are info...

  3. Behavioural and ecological consequences of limited attention.

    OpenAIRE

    Dukas, Reuven

    2002-01-01

    Ecological research in the past few decades has shown that most animals acquire and respond adaptively to information that affects survival and reproduction. At the same time, neurobiological studies have established that the rate of information processing by the brain is much lower than the rate at which information is encountered in the environment, and that attentional mechanisms enable the brain to focus only on the most essential information at any given time. Recent integration of the e...

  4. Pricing when customers have limited attention

    OpenAIRE

    Boyacı, Tamer; Akçay, Yalçın

    2016-01-01

    We study the optimal pricing problem of a firm facing customers with limited attention and capability to process information about the value (quality) of the offered products. We model customer choice based on the theory of rational inattention in the economics literature, which enables us to capture not only the impact of true qualities and prices, but also the intricate effects of customer's prior beliefs and cost of information acquisition and processing. We formulate the firm's price opti...

  5. Tracing the Attention of Moving Citizens

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Cheng-Jun

    2016-01-01

    With the widespread use of mobile computing devices in contemporary society, our trajectories in the physical space and virtual world are increasingly closely connected. Using the anonymous smartphone data of $1 \\times 10^5$ users in 30 days, we constructed the mobility network and the attention network to study the correlations between online and offline human behaviours. In the mobility network, nodes are physical locations and edges represent the movements between locations, and in the attention network, nodes are websites and edges represent the switch of users between websites. We apply the box-covering method to renormalise the networks. The investigated network properties include the size of box $l_B$ and the number of boxes $N(l_B)$. We find two universal classes of behaviours: the mobility network is featured by a small-world property, $N(l_B) \\simeq e^{-l_B}$, whereas the attention network is characterised by a self-similar property $N(l_B) \\simeq l_B^{-\\gamma}$. In particular, with the increasing o...

  6. Group Rhythmic Synchrony and Attention in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander K Khalil

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Synchrony, or the coordinated processing of time, is an often-overlooked yet critical context for human interaction. This study tests the relationship between the ability to synchronize rhythmically in a group setting with the ability to attend in 102 elementary schoolchildren. Impairments in temporal processing have frequently been shown to exist in clinical populations with learning disorders, particularly those with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that the ability to synchronize rhythmically in a group setting—an instance of the type of temporal processing necessary for successful interaction and learning—would be correlated with the ability to attend across the continuum of the population. A music class is an ideal setting for the study of interpersonal timing. In order to measure synchrony in this context, we constructed instruments that allowed the recording and measurement of individual rhythmic performance. The SWAN teacher questionnaire was used as a measurement of attentional behavior. We find that the ability to synchronize with others in a group music class can predict a child’s attentional behavior.

  7. Attention-Grabbing Train Car Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi Ogura,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Younger people have changed the way they access information in recent years, increasing the number of opportunities to take advantage of transit advertising. Train car advertising in particular boasts a high contact rate and extended length of contact. This study seeks to understand the correlations between passenger information and riding conditions when it comes to train car advertising (hanging posters, above-window posters, and sticker ads in order to discover the ideal way to advertise inside passenger trains. Specifically, the study first tries to find the correlations among three factors: (1 whether or not passengers pay attention to train car advertisements, (2 basic passenger information (age and gender, and (3 riding conditions (riding time, average number of trips, etc.. Once data on riding conditions is collected, it is then grouped using a cluster analysis and Quantification Theory Type III in order to establish the relationship of the data to passenger attention towards train advertisements once again. Then, in order to conduct an in-depth analysis, a Categorical Automatic Interaction Detector (CAID analysis is done on each group, using passengers pay attention to train advertisements as the objective variable and basic passenger information as the explanatory variable. The results of the CAID analysis are then used to study the format of existing and future train car advertisements.

  8. Attentional bias toward safety predicts safety behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Wang, Guangxi; Yuan, Xiao; Ding, Weidong; Shen, Zhongxiang

    2014-10-01

    Safety studies have primarily focused on how explicit processes and measures affect safety behavior and subsequent accidents and injuries. Recently, safety researchers have paid greater attention to the role of implicit processes. Our research focuses on the role of attentional bias toward safety (ABS) in workplace safety. ABS is a basic, early-stage cognitive process involving the automatic and selective allocation of attentional resources toward safety cues, which reflect the implicit motivational state of employees regarding safety goal. In this study, we used two reaction time-based paradigms to measure the ABS of employees in three studies: two modified Stroop tasks (Studies 1 and 2) and a visual dot-probe task (Study 3). Results revealed that employees with better safety behavior showed significant ABS (Study 2), and greater ABS than employees with poorer safety behavior (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, ABS was positively associated with the perceived safety climate and safety motivation of employees, both of which mediate the effect of ABS on safety behavior (Study 3). These results contributed to a deeper understanding of how early-stage automatic perceptual processing affects safety behavior. The practical implications of these results were also discussed. PMID:24922613

  9. Joint attention, shared goals, and social bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Wouter; Launay, Jacques; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-05-01

    There has recently been interest in the ways in which coordinated movements encourage coactors to feel socially closer to one another, but this has generally overlooked the importance of necessary precursors to this joint action. Here we target two low-level behaviours involved in social coordination that may mediate a relationship between joint actions and social bonding, namely joint attention and shared goals. Participants engaged in a simple reaction time task while sitting next to a partner performing the same task. In a joint attention condition, both participants attended to stimuli presented on the same half of a computer screen, while in a control condition, they attended to opposite sides of the computer screen. Shared goals were manipulated by giving participants the instruction to keep below a threshold score for both individual response times and accuracy (individual goal), or their joint mean response time and accuracy (i.e., averaging their mean response time and accuracy with that of their partner: shared goal). Attending to the same side of the screen led to higher ratings on a composite social bonding index directed towards a partner, while shared goals did not cause any effects on partner ratings. Joint attention was sufficient to encourage social closeness with an interaction partner, which suggests that any activities which encourage attending to the same point in space could have some influence on how connected coactors feel about one another. PMID:26256821

  10. Sleep after practice reduces the attentional blink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, Nicola; Goodbourn, Patrick T; McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Martini, Paolo; Holcombe, Alex O; Mednick, Sara C

    2015-08-01

    The attentional blink (AB) is an impairment in detecting the second of two targets that appear in close temporal succession. We investigated the effect of practice and a nap on the magnitude of the AB deficit. We found evidence that sleep boosts practice-dependent reduction of the AB. Participants reported two target letters embedded in a rapid serial visual presentation display. After two morning sessions, half the participants took a polysomnographically recorded nap, while the others remained awake. Comparing two afternoon sessions to the two morning sessions, we observed a decreased AB only within the group who napped. The improvement was due to increased efficacy of the attentional selection of T2 (the probability of reporting a T2-relevant item). There was no change in selection's latency or temporal precision. The magnitude of improvement was positively associated with the duration of N2 sleep and the number of N2 sleep spindles. Our results suggest that sleep, particularly N2 sleep and sleep spindles, improves attentional selection in time. PMID:25911156

  11. The effect of attention to distractor on inhibitory processes in selective attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Haiyan; SONG Qianlan; LI Yunfeng; ZHU Ying

    2005-01-01

    Selective attention has been viewed as a dualprocess mechanism, that is, exciting targets and inhibiting distractors. Most early studies concentrated mainly on the target-excitation, whereas recent investigations began to pay more attention to the inhibitory selective attention mechanism. A measure named negative priming (NP) was extensively employed to probe into the inhibitory processes. The Houghton and Tipper Model put forward a notion: the inhibition that feeds back to the distractor is reactive. That means, the level of inhibition is determined by the activation state of the distractor. Distractors that are more salient and intrude into the control of action receive greater inhibitory feedbacks than less salient distractors. Because increasing attention to an object would enhance the early processing of this object, we thus hypothesized that augmenting the level of attention to a distractor might lead to a higher level of inhibition, revealed as a corresponding augmentation in the magnitude of NP effect. To test this assumption, an object- based identification task was then applied, and participants were asked to make the animate/inanimate categorization. Attention level was manipulated by varying the relative spatial locations of target and distractor (overlapped or separated). A reliable greater NP effect was found in the overlapped than separated condition, indicating that distractors under the high-level attention condition (overlapped) got greater initial excitation, and then evoked greater subsequent inhibitory feedbacks, therefore resulting in a larger NP effect. These results provide direct evidence for the reactive inhibition suggested by the Houghton and Tipper model. Meanwhile a coincident greater positive priming (PP) effect was obtained under the overlapped than separated condition, which could be attributed to the higher level of target activation in the overlapped condition. The covariation of NP and PP effects further confirmed that the way of

  12. Focusing on Attention: The Effects of Working Memory Capacity and Load on Selective Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Lubna Ahmed; de Fockert, Jan W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM) is imperative for effective selective attention. Distractibility is greater under conditions of high (vs. low) concurrent working memory load (WML), and in individuals with low (vs. high) working memory capacity (WMC). In the current experiments, we recorded the flanker task performance of individuals with high and low WMC during low and high WML, to investigate the combined effect of WML and WMC on selective attention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experi...

  13. Attentional Profiles and White Matter Correlates in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, ...

  14. Gaze Cueing of Attention: Visual Attention, Social Cognition, and Individual Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Frischen, Alexandra; Bayliss, Andrew P.; Tipper, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    During social interactions, people’s eyes convey a wealth of information about their direction of attention and their emotional and mental states. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of past and current research into the perception of gaze behavior and its effect on the observer. This encompasses the perception of gaze direction and its influence on perception of the other person, as well as gaze-following behavior such as joint attention, in infant, adult, and clinical popul...

  15. Dissociating temporal attention from spatial attention and motor response preparation: A high-density EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugeras, Frédéric; Naccache, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    Engagement of various forms of attention and response preparation determines behavioral performance during stimulus-response tasks. Many studies explored the respective properties and neural signatures of each of these processes. However, very few experiments were conceived to explore their interaction. In the present work we used an auditory target detection task during which both temporal attention on the one side, and spatial attention and motor response preparation on the other side could be explicitly cued. Both cueing effects speeded response times, and showed strictly additive effects. Target ERP analysis revealed modulations of N1 and P3 responses by these two forms of cueing. Cue-target interval analysis revealed two main effects paralleling behavior. First, a typical contingent negative variation (CNV), induced by the cue and resolved immediately after target onset, was found larger for temporal attention cueing than for spatial and motor response cueing. Second, a posterior and late cue-P3 complex showed the reverse profile. Analyses of lateralized readiness potentials (LRP) revealed both patterns of motor response inhibition and activation. Taken together these results help to clarify and disentangle the respective effects of temporal attention on the one hand, and of the combination of spatial attention and motor response preparation on the other hand on brain activity and behavior. PMID:26433120

  16. Initial Orientation of Attention towards Emotional Faces in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Ahmadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Early recognition of negative emotions is considered to be of vital importance. It seems that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have some difficulties recognizing facial emotional expressions, especially negative ones. This study investigated the preference of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for negative (angry, sad facial expressions compared to normal children.Method: Participants were 35 drug naive boys with ADHD, aged between 6-11 years ,and 31 matched healthy children. Visual orientation data were recorded while participants viewed face pairs (negative-neutral pairs shown for 3000ms. The number of first fixations made to each expression was considered as an index of initial orientation. Results: Group comparisons revealed no difference between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder group and their matched healthy counterparts in initial orientation of attention. A tendency towards negative emotions was found within the normal group, while no difference was observed between initial allocation of attention toward negative and neutral expressions in children with ADHD .Conclusion: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder do not have significant preference for negative facial expressions. In contrast, normal children have a significant preference for negative facial emotions rather than neutral faces.

  17. The Effects of Socio-Economic Status on Infant Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearfield, Melissa W.; Jedd, Kelly E.

    2013-01-01

    The development of visual attention is a key component of cognitive functioning in infancy and childhood. By the time children in poverty reach school, deficits in attention are readily apparent; however, when these attention delays manifest is unknown. The current study tested attention longitudinally at 6, 9 and 12?months in infants from…

  18. Variability of Attention Processes in ADHD: Observations from the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.; Alderson, R. Matt; Timko, Thomas M., Jr.; DuPaul, George J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Classroom- and laboratory-based efforts to study the attentional problems of children with ADHD are incongruent in elucidating attentional deficits; however, none have explored within- or between-minute variability in the classroom attentional processing in children with ADHD. Method: High and low attention groups of ADHD children…

  19. The effects of sequential attention shifts within visual working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qi; Saiki, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown conflicting data as to whether it is possible to sequentially shift spatial attention among visual working memory (VWM) representations. The present study investigated this issue by asynchronously presenting attentional cues during the retention interval of a change detection task. In particular, we focused on two types of sequential attention shifts: (1) orienting attention to one location, and then withdrawing attention from it, and (2) switching the focus of att...

  20. The effects of sequential attention shifts within visual working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Qi eLi; Jun eSaiki

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown conflicting data as to whether it is possible to sequentially shift spatial attention among visual working memory (VWM) representations. The present study investigated this issue by asynchronously presenting attentional cues during the retention interval of a change detection task. In particular, we focused on two types of sequential attention shifts: 1) orienting attention to one location, and then withdrawing attention from it, and 2) switching the focus of atten...

  1. Effect of Backward Walking on Attention: Possible Application on ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The human requires attentive effort as assessed in dual-task experiments. Consistently, an attentive task can modify the walking pattern and a attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accompanied by gait modifications. Here we investigated the relationships between backward walking and attentive performances in ADHD children (n=13) and healthy age-, height and weight matched controls (n=17). We evaluated the attentive/impulsive profile by means of a Go/No-Go task and the backwar...

  2. Users’ attention behaviors and features in internet forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Zhong Sha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Attention resource is scarce. Organizing community activities in online forums faces the challenge of attracting users’ limited attention. Understanding how users of online forums allocate, maintain, and change their attentional focus and what features of online forms influence their attention behaviors is critical for effective information design. This paper seeks understanding of users’ attention behaviors and features when they participate in discussions in online forums. Design/methodology/approach: A conceptual model was established to explore the indicator system of attention’s measurement. The related attention data were collected from Alexa Access Statistics Tool and Katie community. Then this paper computed the correlation coefficient and regression relationship between the indicators of visual attention and cognitive attention. Thereafter this paper analyzed and discussed users’ attention behaviors and features in Internet forum. Findings: Relevant bivariate correlation analysis and regression analysis discovers that Internet forum's attention is mainly as visual attention in users’ early involvement. Attention resources can be transformed. In a deep participation, users’ cognitive attention is more significant. Meanwhile cognitive attention behaviors’ further development will lead to the phenomenon that cognitive attention input is prone to increase faster in the early duration. That means in-depth discussion and interaction are more likely to appear in the early stages of participation. Research limitations/implications: There are some limitations about this study. The indicators are not comprehensive enough because factors affecting the distribution of attention resources in Internet forums are complex. We didn’t distinguish different types of Internet forums when we collected the relevant data. Future research will focus more on how to obtain comprehensive attention data. Originality/value: T his paper

  3. Development of attentional processes in ADHD and normal children

    OpenAIRE

    R. Gupta; Kar, B. R.

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder. Typical development of attentional processes is rapid during early childhood. ADHD results in impairment in response inhibition, error monitoring, attentional disengagement, executive attention, and delay aversion and may effect the ongoing development of these processes during childhood. We examined the development of attentional processes in children with ADHD and normal children. Two hundred forty children (120 in...

  4. Inflexible Minds: Impaired Attention Switching in Recent-Onset Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Henderikus G O M Smid; Martens, Sander; de Witte, Marc R.; Bruggeman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Impairment of sustained attention is assumed to be a core cognitive abnormality in schizophrenia. However, this seems inconsistent with a recent hypothesis that in schizophrenia the implementation of selection (i.e., sustained attention) is intact but the control of selection (i.e., switching the focus of attention) is impaired. Mounting evidence supports this hypothesis, indicating that switching of attention is a bigger problem in schizophrenia than maintaining the focus of attention. To sh...

  5. Cortical mechanisms for shifting and holding visuospatial attention

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, Todd A.; Serences, John T.; Giesbrecht, Barry; Yantis, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Access to visual awareness is often determined by covert, voluntary deployments of visual attention. Voluntary orienting without eye movements requires decoupling attention from the locus of fixation, a shift to the desired location and maintenance of attention at that location. We used event-related fMRI to dissociate these components while observers shifted attention among three streams of letters and digits, one located at fixation and two in the periphery. Compared to holding attention at...

  6. Covert orienting visual attention in full remitted single manic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Barekatain; Mohammad Haghighi; Leila Jahangard; Farzad Ranjkesh; Mohammad Reza Maracy

    2008-01-01

    • BACKGROUND: Attentional disturbances in Bipolar I Disorder (BID) have been increasingly reported but the majority of studies have not identified a model emphasizing component operations involved in attentional processes. In this study we sought to assess elementary attentional operations using the Posner paradigm for covert orienting of visuospatial attention, with and without cues, to dissect levels of attentional impairment.
    • Attention searches nonuniformly in space and in time

      OpenAIRE

      Dugué, Laura; Mclelland, Douglas; Lajous, Mathilde; VanRullen, Rufin

      2015-01-01

      Visual search is one of the primary tools to study attention in experimental psychology, yet the spatiotemporal behavior of attention during search remains controversial: Does attention focus on one item at a time or several, or even all, items? We used an innovative methodology that relies on simple yet elegant mathematical reasoning and only assumes (like most other attentional studies) that attentional strength is reflected in behavioral performance. We provide evidence against a strict pa...

    • Mechanisms of attention: Psychophysics, cognitive psychology, and cognitive neuroscience

      OpenAIRE

      Lu, Zhong-Lin

      2008-01-01

      Sensory physiologists and psychologists have recognized the importance of attention on human performance for more than 100 years. Since the 1970s, controlled and extensive experiments have examined effects of selective attention to a location in space or to an object. In addition to behavioral studies, cognitive neuroscientists have investigated the neural bases of attention. In this paper, I briefly review some classical attention paradigms, recent advances on the theory of attention, and so...

    • The attentional boost effect and context memory.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mulligan, Neil W; Smith, S Adam; Spataro, Pietro

      2016-04-01

      Stimuli co-occurring with targets in a detection task are better remembered than stimuli co-occurring with distractors-the attentional boost effect (ABE). The ABE is of interest because it is an exception to the usual finding that divided attention during encoding impairs memory. The effect has been demonstrated in tests of item memory but it is unclear if context memory is likewise affected. Some accounts suggest enhanced perceptual encoding or associative binding, predicting an ABE on context memory, whereas other evidence suggests a more abstract, amodal basis of the effect. In Experiment 1, context memory was assessed in terms of an intramodal perceptual detail, the font and color of the study word. Experiment 2 examined context memory cross-modally, assessing memory for the modality (visual or auditory) of the study word. Experiments 3 and 4 assessed context memory with list discrimination, in which 2 study lists are presented and participants must later remember which list (if either) a test word came from. In all experiments, item (recognition) memory was also assessed and consistently displayed a robust ABE. In contrast, the attentional-boost manipulation did not enhance context memory, whether defined in terms of visual details, study modality, or list membership. There was some evidence that the mode of responding on the detection task (motoric response as opposed to covert counting of targets) may impact context memory but there was no evidence of an effect of target detection, per se. In sum, the ABE did not occur in context memory with verbal materials. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26348201

    • Media and attention, cognition, and school achievement.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Schmidt, Marie Evans; Vandewater, Elizabeth A

      2008-01-01

      Marie Evans Schmidt and Elizabeth Vandewater review research on links between various types of electronic media and the cognitive skills of school-aged children and adolescents. One central finding of studies to date, they say, is that the content delivered by electronic media is far more influential than the media themselves. Most studies, they point out, find a small negative link between the total hours a child spends viewing TV and that child's academic achievement. But when researchers take into account characteristics of the child, such as IQ or socioeconomic status, this link typically disappears. Content appears to be crucial. Viewing educational TV is linked positively with academic achievement; viewing entertainment TV is linked negatively with achievement. When it comes to particular cognitive skills, say the authors, researchers have found that electronic media, particularly video games, can enhance visual spatial skills, such as visual tracking, mental rotation, and target localization. Gaming may also improve problem-solving skills. Researchers have yet to understand fully the issue of transfer of learning from electronic media. Studies suggest that, under some circumstances, young people are able to transfer what they learn from electronic media to other applications, but analysts are uncertain how such transfer occurs. In response to growing public concern about possible links between electronic media use and attention problems in children and adolescents, say the authors, researchers have found evidence for small positive links between heavy electronic media use and mild attention problems among young people but have found only inconsistent evidence so far for a link between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and media use. The authors point out that although video games, interactive websites, and multimedia software programs appear to offer a variety of possible benefits for learning, there is as yet little empirical evidence to suggest that

    • Treatment Approaches to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Antai-Otong, Deborah; Zimmerman, Michele L

      2016-06-01

      Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in children, adolescents, and adults, with a prevalence estimated from 5% to 7% across cultures and approximately 2% to 5% in adults. This lifelong disorder challenges nurses to understand the basis of ADHD, analyze symptoms, differentiate coexisting disorders, gather health information from varied sources, and implement person-centered multimodal treatment. Nurses are poised to plan, and work with patients, families, and teachers in the community and school systems to optimize academic and occupational performance and improve quality of life. Pharmacotherapy, psychoeducation, and behavioral therapies are strong components of multimodal treatment planning. PMID:27229276

    • Attention to health cues on product packages

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Orquin, Jacob Lund; Scholderer, Joachim

      2011-01-01

      The objectives of the study were (a) to examine which information and design elements on dairy product packages operate as cues in consumer evaluations of product healthfulness, and (b) to measure the degree to which consumers voluntarily attend to these elements during product choice. Visual...... attention was measured by means of eye-tracking. Task (free viewing, product healthfulness evaluation, and purchase likelihood evaluation) and product (five different yoghurt products) were varied in a mixed within-between subjects design. The free viewing condition served as a baseline against which...

    • Regulating the blink: Cognitive reappraisal modulates attention

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      RuthAdam

      2014-02-01

      Full Text Available Our brain is unable to fully process all the sensory signals we encounter. Attention is the process that helps selecting input from all available information for detailed processing and it is largely influenced by the affective value of the stimuli. This study examined if attentional bias towards emotional stimuli can be modulated by cognitively changing their emotional value. Participants were presented with negative and neutral images from four different scene-categories depicting humans (‘Reading’, ‘Working’, ‘Crying’ and ’Violence’. Using cognitive reappraisal subjects decreased and increased the negativity of one negative (e.g., ‘Crying’ and one neutral (e.g., ‘Reading’ category respectively, whereas they only had to watch the other two categories (e.g., ‘Working’ and ’Violence’ without changing their feelings. Subsequently, subjects performed the attentional blink paradigm. Two targets were embedded in a stream of distractors, with the previously seen human pictures serving as the first target (T1 and rotated landmark/landscape images as the second (T2. Subjects then reported T1 visibility and the orientation of T2. We investigated if the detection accuracy of T2 is influenced by the change of the emotional value of T1 due to the reappraisal manipulation. Indeed, T2 detection rate was higher when T2 was preceded by a negative image that was only viewed compared to negative images that were reappraised to be neutral. Thus, more resources were captured by images that have been reappraised before, i.e. their negativity has been reduced. This modulatory effect of reappraisal on attention was not found for neutral images. Possibly upon re-exposure to negative stimuli subjects had to recall the previously performed affective change. In this case resources may be allocated to maintain the reappraised value and therefore hinder the detection of a temporally close target. Complimentary self-reported ratings support

    • Screen captures to support switching attention

      OpenAIRE

      Gellevij, Mark; Meij, van der, T.

      2002-01-01

      The study set out to validate the supportive role of screen captures for switching attention. Forty-two participants learned how to work with Microsoft Excel with a paper manual. There were three types of manuals: a textual manual, a visual manual with full-screen captures, and a visual manual with a mixture of partial- and full-screen captures. The findings show that participants in all conditions looked up from the manual to the screen on about 97% of the cases in which such a switch was ca...

    • Emotional modulation of attention: fear increases but disgust reduces the attentional blink.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Nicolas Vermeulen

      Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well known that facial expressions represent important social cues. In humans expressing facial emotion, fear may be configured to maximize sensory exposure (e.g., increases visual input whereas disgust can reduce sensory exposure (e.g., decreases visual input. To investigate whether such effects also extend to the attentional system, we used the "attentional blink" (AB paradigm. Many studies have documented that the second target (T2 of a pair is typically missed when presented within a time window of about 200-500 ms from the first to-be-detected target (T1; i.e., the AB effect. It has recently been proposed that the AB effect depends on the efficiency of a gating system which facilitates the entrance of relevant input into working memory, while inhibiting irrelevant input. Following the inhibitory response on post T1 distractors, prolonged inhibition of the subsequent T2 is observed. In the present study, we hypothesized that processing facial expressions of emotion would influence this attentional gating. Fearful faces would increase but disgust faces would decrease inhibition of the second target. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We showed that processing fearful versus disgust faces has different effects on these attentional processes. We found that processing fear faces impaired the detection of T2 to a greater extent than did the processing disgust faces. This finding implies emotion-specific modulation of attention. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on the recent literature on attention, our finding suggests that processing fear-related stimuli exerts greater inhibitory responses on distractors relative to processing disgust-related stimuli. This finding is of particular interest for researchers examining the influence of emotional processing on attention and memory in both clinical and normal populations. For example, future research could extend upon the current study to examine whether inhibitory processes invoked by

    • Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chang, Yu-Kai; Pesce, Caterina; Chiang, Yi-Te; Kuo, Cheng-Yuh; Fong, Dong-Yang

      2015-01-01

      The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict) control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT), with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate intensity spinning wheel exercise or without antecedent exercise. The ANT combined warning signals prior to targets, spatial cueing of potential target locations and target stimuli surrounded by congruent or incongruent flankers, which were provided to assess three attentional networks. Event-related brain potentials and task performance were measured during the ANT. Exercise resulted in a larger P3 amplitude in the alerting and executive control subtasks across frontal, central and parietal midline sites that was paralleled by an enhanced reaction speed only on trials with incongruent flankers of the executive control network. The P3 latency and response accuracy were not affected by exercise. These findings suggest that after spinning, more resources are allocated to task-relevant stimuli in tasks that rely on the alerting and executive control networks. However, the improvement in performance was observed in only the executively challenging conflict condition, suggesting that whether the brain resources that are rendered available immediately after acute exercise translate into better attention performance depends on the cognitive task complexity. PMID:25914634

    • Gaze-independent brain-computer interfaces based on covert attention and feature attention

      Science.gov (United States)

      Treder, M. S.; Schmidt, N. M.; Blankertz, B.

      2011-10-01

      There is evidence that conventional visual brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on event-related potentials cannot be operated efficiently when eye movements are not allowed. To overcome this limitation, the aim of this study was to develop a visual speller that does not require eye movements. Three different variants of a two-stage visual speller based on covert spatial attention and non-spatial feature attention (i.e. attention to colour and form) were tested in an online experiment with 13 healthy participants. All participants achieved highly accurate BCI control. They could select one out of thirty symbols (chance level 3.3%) with mean accuracies of 88%-97% for the different spellers. The best results were obtained for a speller that was operated using non-spatial feature attention only. These results show that, using feature attention, it is possible to realize high-accuracy, fast-paced visual spellers that have a large vocabulary and are independent of eye gaze.

    • Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Yu-Kai eChang

      2015-04-01

      Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT, with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate-intensity spinning wheel exercise or without antecedent exercise. The ANT combined warning signals prior to targets, spatial cueing of potential target locations and target stimuli surrounded by congruent or incongruent flankers, which were provided to assess three attentional networks. Event-related brain potentials and task performance were measured during the ANT. Exercise resulted in a larger P3 amplitude in the alerting and executive control subtasks across frontal, central and parietal midline sites that was paralleled by an enhanced reaction speed only on trials with incongruent flankers of the executive control network. The P3 latency and response accuracy were not affected by exercise. These findings suggest that after spinning, more resources are allocated to task-relevant stimuli in tasks that rely on the alerting and executive control networks. However, the improvement in performance was observed in only the executively challenging conflict condition, suggesting that whether the brain resources that are rendered available immediately after acute exercise translate into better attention performance depends on the cognitive task complexity.

    • The attentive homunculus: ERP evidence for somatotopic allocation of attention in tactile search.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Forster, Bettina; Tziraki, Maria; Jones, Alexander

      2016-04-01

      Our brain constantly receives tactile information from the body's surface. We often only become aware of this information when directing our attention towards the body. Here, we report a study investigating the behavioural and neural response when selecting a target amongst distractor vibrations presented simultaneously to several locations either across the hands or body. Comparable visual search studies have revealed the N2pc as the neural correlate of visual selective attention. Analogously, we describe an enhanced negativity contralateral to the tactile target side. This effect is strongest over somatosensory areas and lasts approximately 200ms from the onset of the somatosensory N140 ERP component. Based on these characteristics we named this electrophysiological signature of attentional tactile target selection during tactile search the N140-central-contralateral (N140cc). Furthermore, we present supporting evince that the N140cc reflects attentional enhancement of target rather than suppression of distractor locations; the component was not reliably altered by distractor but rather by target location changes. Taken together, our findings present a novel electrophysiological marker of tactile search and show how attentional selection of touch operates by mainly enhancing task relevant locations within the somatosensory homunculus. PMID:26898371

    • A brain-computer interface based attention training program for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Choon Guan Lim

      Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms can be difficult to treat. We previously reported that a 20-session brain-computer interface (BCI attention training programme improved ADHD symptoms. Here, we investigated a new more intensive BCI-based attention training game system on 20 unmedicated ADHD children (16 males, 4 females with significant inattentive symptoms (combined and inattentive ADHD subtypes. This new system monitored attention through a head band with dry EEG sensors, which was used to drive a feed forward game. The system was calibrated for each user by measuring the EEG parameters during a Stroop task. Treatment consisted of an 8-week training comprising 24 sessions followed by 3 once-monthly booster training sessions. Following intervention, both parent-rated inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms on the ADHD Rating Scale showed significant improvement. At week 8, the mean improvement was -4.6 (5.9 and -4.7 (5.6 respectively for inattentive symptoms and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms (both p<0.01. Cohen's d effect size for inattentive symptoms was large at 0.78 at week 8 and 0.84 at week 24 (post-boosters. Further analysis showed that the change in the EEG based BCI ADHD severity measure correlated with the change ADHD Rating Scale scores. The BCI-based attention training game system is a potential new treatment for ADHD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01344044.

  1. A Visual Attention Model Based Image Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishabh Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To develop an efficient image fusion algorithm based on visual attention model for images with distinct objects. Image fusion is a process of combining complementary information from multiple images of the same scene into an image, so that the resultant image contains a more accurate description of the scene than any of the individual source images. The two basic fusion techniques are pixel level and region level fusion. Pixel level fusion deals with the operations on each and every pixel separately. The various pixel level techniques are averaging, stationary wavelet transforms, discrete wavelet transforms, Principal Component Analysis (PCA. But because of less sensitivity to noise and mis-registration, the region level image fusion is an emerging approach in the field of multifocus image fusion. The most appreciated approaches in region-based methods are multifocus image fusion using the concept of focal connectivity and spatial frequency. These two methods works well on still images as well as on video frames as inputs. A new region based technique is been proposed for the multifocus images having distinct objects. The method is based on the visual attention models and results obtained are appreciating for the distinct objects input images. The Proposed method results are highlighted using tenengrade and extended spatial frequency as performance parameters by taking several pairs of multi-focus input images like microscopic images, forensic images and video frames.

  2. Visual attention in mixed-gender groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Mary Jean

    2014-01-01

    A basic principle of objectification theory is that a mere glance from a stranger represents the potential to be sexualized, triggering women to take on the perspective of others and become vigilant to their appearance. However, research has yet to document gendered gaze patterns in social groups. The present study examined visual attention in groups of varying gender composition to understand how gender and minority status influence gaze behavior. One hundred undergraduates enrolled in psychology courses were photographed, and an additional 76 participants viewed groupings of these photographs while their point of gaze was recorded using a remote eye-tracking device. Participants were not told that their gaze was being recorded. Women were viewed more frequently and for longer periods of time than men in mixed-gender groups. Women were also more likely to be looked at first and last by observers. Men spent more time attending to pictures of women when fewer women were in the group. The opposite effect was found for pictures of men, such that male pictures were viewed less when fewer pictures of men were in the group. Female observers spent more time looking at men compared to male observers, and male observers spent more time looking at women than female observers, though both female and male observers looked at women more than men overall. Consistent with objectification theory, women's appearance garners more attention and interest in mixed-gender social groups. PMID:25628589

  3. Visual Attention in Mixed-Gender Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jean Amon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A basic principle of objectification theory is that a mere glance from a stranger represents the potential to be sexualized, triggering women to take on the perspective of others and become vigilant to their appearance. However, research has yet to document gendered gaze patterns in social groups. The present study examined visual attention in groups of varying gender composition to understand how gender and minority status influence gaze behavior. One hundred undergraduates enrolled in psychology courses were photographed, and an additional 76 participants viewed groupings of these photographs while their point of gaze was recorded using a remote eye-tracking device. Participants were not told that their gaze was being recorded. Women were viewed more frequently and for longer periods of time than men in mixed-gender groups. Women were also more likely to be looked at first and last by observers. Men spent more time attending to pictures of women when fewer women were in the group. The opposite effect was found for pictures of men, such that male pictures were viewed less when fewer pictures of men were in the group. Female observers spent more time looking at men compared to male observers, and male observers spent more time looking at women than female observers, though both female and male observers looked at women more than men overall. Consistent with objectification theory, women’s appearance garners more attention and interest in mixed-gender social groups.

  4. The effects of presession exposure to attention on the results of assessments of attention as a reinforcer.

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, W K; Peck, S; Wacker, D P; Harding, J.; McComas, J; Richman, D.; Brown, K

    2000-01-01

    The effects of presession exposure to attention on responding during subsequent assessments of attention as a reinforcer were evaluated across three behavioral assessments. In Experiment 1, a contingent attention assessment condition was preceded by either a noncontingent attention condition (free play) or a contingent escape condition. In Experiment 2, a diverted attention with extinction condition was preceded by either an alone or a free-play condition. In Experiment 3, a two-choice prefer...

  5. Attention Training to Reduce Attention Bias and Social Stressor Reactivity: An Attempt to Replicate and Extend Previous Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Julian, Kristin; Beard, Courtney; Schmidt, Norman B.; Powers, Mark B.; Smits, Jasper A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive theories suggest that social anxiety is maintained, in part, by an attentional bias toward threat. Recent research shows that a single session of attention modification training (AMP) reduces attention bias and vulnerability to a social stressor (Amir, Weber, Beard, Bomyea, & Taylor, 2008). In addition, exercise may augment the effects of attention training by its direct effects on attentional control and inhibition, thereby allowing participants receiving the AMP to more effectivel...

  6. The Role of Top-Down Focused Spatial Attention in Preattentive Salience Coding and Salience-based Attentional Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertleff, Sabine; Fink, Gereon R; Weidner, Ralph

    2016-08-01

    Selective visual attention requires an efficient coordination between top-down and bottom-up attention control mechanisms. This study investigated the behavioral and neural effects of top-down focused spatial attention on the coding of highly salient distractors and their tendency to capture attention. Combining spatial cueing with an irrelevant distractor paradigm revealed bottom-up based attentional capture only when attention was distributed across the whole search display, including the distractor location. Top-down focusing spatial attention on the target location abolished attentional capture of a salient distractor outside the current attentional focus. Functional data indicated that the missing capture effect was not based on diminished bottom-up salience signals at unattended distractor locations. Irrespectively of whether salient distractors occurred at attended or unattended locations, their presence enhanced BOLD signals at their respective spatial representation in early visual areas as well as in inferior frontal, superior parietal, and medial parietal cortex. Importantly, activity in these regions reflected the presence of a salient distractor rather than attentional capture per se. Moreover, successfully inhibiting attentional capture of a salient distractor at an unattended location further increased neural responses in medial parietal regions known to be involved in controlling spatial attentional shifts. Consequently, data provide evidence that top-down focused spatial attention prevents automatic attentional capture by supporting attentional control processes counteracting a spatial bias toward a salient distractor. PMID:27054402

  7. Pay Attention!: Sluggish Multisensory Attentional Shifting as a Core Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Margaret B

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a background on the neurocognitive aspects of the reading process and review neuroscientific studies of individuals with developmental dyslexia, which provide evidence for amodal processing deficits. Hari, Renvall, and Tanskanen (2001) propose amodal sluggish attentional shifting (SAS) as a causal factor for temporal processing deficits in dyslexia. Undergirding this theory is the notion that when dyslexics are faced with rapid sequences of stimuli, their automatic attentional systems fail to disengage efficiently, which leads to difficulty when moving from one item to the next (Lallier et al., ). This results in atypical perception of rapid stimulus sequences. Until recently, the SAS theory, particularly the examination of amodal attentional deficits, was studied solely through the use of behavioural measures (Facoetti et al., ; Facoetti, Lorusso, Cattaneo, Galli, & Molteni, ). This paper examines evidence within the literature that provides a basis for further exploration of amodal SAS as an underlying deficit in developmental dyslexia. PMID:26338085

  8. Method of encouraging attention by correlating video game difficulty with attention level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T. (Inventor); Bogart, Edward H. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method of encouraging attention in persons such as those suffering from Attention Deficit Disorder is provided by correlating the level of difficulty of a video game with the level of attention in a subject. A conventional video game comprises a video display which depicts objects for interaction with a player and a difficulty adjuster which increases the difficulty level, e.g., action speed and/or evasiveness of the depicted object, in a predetermined manner. The electrical activity of the brain is measured at selected sites to determine levels of awareness, e.g., activity in the beta, theta, and alpha states. A value is generated based on this measured electrical signal which is indicative of the level of awareness. The difficulty level of the game is increased as the awareness level value decreases and is decreased as this awareness level value increases.

  9. Management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Verma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD/ADD is a neurobehavioral disorder of childhood onset characterized by severe, developmentally inappropriate motor hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsiveness that result in impairment in more than one setting. It affects the home, school, and community life of 39% of school-going children worldwide. There is increasing recognition that ADHD symptoms and clinically defined disorder can persist into adult life and are associated with later drug and alcohol misuse and social and work difficulties. Added to that is the extreme variability of the disorder over time, within the same individual, between individuals, and across different circumstances. Treatment with stimulants and nonstimulants has proven effective in different subgroups, with the effectiveness of specific agents most likely related to the primary neurotransmitter involved. However, stimulants with a short duration of action have been problematic for some patients. Parent training and cognitive behavioral therapies represent the most widely adjunct psychosocial interventions to pharmacotherapy.

  10. Attentional Mechanisms for Interactive Image Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Tarroux

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A lot of work has been devoted to content-based image retrieval from large image databases. The traditional approaches are based on the analysis of the whole image content both in terms of low-level and semantic characteristics. We investigate in this paper an approach based on attentional mechanisms and active vision. We describe a visual architecture that combines bottom-up and top-down approaches for identifying regions of interest according to a given goal. We show that a coarse description of the searched target combined with a bottom-up saliency map provides an efficient way to find specified targets on images. The proposed system is a first step towards the development of software agents able to search for image content in image databases.

  11. Learning to Model Task-Oriented Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaochun; Zhao, Xinbo; Wang, Jian; Yang, Yongjia

    2016-01-01

    For many applications in graphics, design, and human computer interaction, it is essential to understand where humans look in a scene with a particular task. Models of saliency can be used to predict fixation locations, but a large body of previous saliency models focused on free-viewing task. They are based on bottom-up computation that does not consider task-oriented image semantics and often does not match actual eye movements. To address this problem, we collected eye tracking data of 11 subjects when they performed some particular search task in 1307 images and annotation data of 2,511 segmented objects with fine contours and 8 semantic attributes. Using this database as training and testing examples, we learn a model of saliency based on bottom-up image features and target position feature. Experimental results demonstrate the importance of the target information in the prediction of task-oriented visual attention. PMID:27247561

  12. Finding Interesting Images in Albums using Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Vaiapury

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Commercial systems such as Flickr display interesting photos from their collection as an interaction mechanism for sampling the collection. It purely relies on social activity analysis for determining the notion of interestingness. We propose an alternative technique based on content analysis for finding interesting photos in a collection. We use a combination of visual attention models and an interactive feedback mechanism to compute interestingness. A differentiating feature of our approach is the ability to customize the set of interesting photos depending upon the individual interest. Also, we incorporate non-identical duplicate detection as a mechanism to strengthen the surprise factor among the potentially interesting set of candidate photos. We have implemented the system and conducted a user study whose results are promising. This proposed work presents a variant on query by example integrating user relevance feedback to choose “interesting” photos.

  13. Corrigendum: Exogenous Attention Enables Perceptual Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Szpiro, S. F. A., & Carrasco, M. (2015). Exogenous attention enables perceptual learning.Psychological Science, 26, 1854-1862. (Original DOI:10.1177/0956797615598976)In the second paragraph of the Testing Sessions section of this article, thetvalue for the between-group difference in spatial-frequency differences was incorrectly reported as 9.49,p> .1, rather than 0.95,p> .1. The sentence should read as follows:There was no significant difference between groups for the orientation differences,t(12) = 1.51,p> .1, or for the spatial-frequency differences,t(12) = 0.95,p> .1.Thus, the conclusion regarding the lack of significance remains the same. PMID:26935483

  14. Inattentiveness in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ariane Sroubek; Mary Kelly; Xiaobo Li

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a long-term impact on functioning,productivity and quality of life of patients.This impact is largely due to the symptoms of inattentiveness.However,despite its impairing role in the lives of ADHD patients,inattentiveness has been studied relatively less frequently than have symptoms of impulsivity/hyperactivity and problems with executive function.This review therefore seeks to integrate the neuropsychological theories and current findings in the research fields of neuropsychology,neurophysiology,and neuroimaging,in an attempt to gain a more complete understanding of the role that inattentiveness plays in ADHD,as well as to suggest directions for future studies.The need for a more comprehensive understanding of inattentiveness and ADHD,which integrates findings from each of the three disciplines mentioned above,is emphasized.

  15. Detection of feigned attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Groen, Yvonne; Thome, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, there is an increasing awareness that individuals may purposely feign or exaggerate symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to gain external incentives, including access to stimulant drugs or special academic accommodations. There are vast consequences of undetected feigned ADHD such as substantial costs covered by society for unnecessary assessments and treatments, unjustified occupation of limited medical resources and undermining society's trust in the existence of the disorder or the effectiveness of treatment. In times of economic crisis and cost savings in the medical sector, the detection of feigned ADHD is of importance. This review briefly describes the research on this topic with an emphasis on the approaches available for detection of feigned ADHD (i.e., self-report questionnaires, personality inventories, cognitive tests used in routine neuropsychological assessment and tests specifically designed for detecting feigned cognitive dysfunction). Promising approaches and measures are available for identifying feigned ADHD but there is an immediate need for further research. PMID:25096370

  16. Learning to Model Task-Oriented Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaochun; Zhao, Xinbo; Wang, Jian; Yang, Yongjia

    2016-01-01

    For many applications in graphics, design, and human computer interaction, it is essential to understand where humans look in a scene with a particular task. Models of saliency can be used to predict fixation locations, but a large body of previous saliency models focused on free-viewing task. They are based on bottom-up computation that does not consider task-oriented image semantics and often does not match actual eye movements. To address this problem, we collected eye tracking data of 11 subjects when they performed some particular search task in 1307 images and annotation data of 2,511 segmented objects with fine contours and 8 semantic attributes. Using this database as training and testing examples, we learn a model of saliency based on bottom-up image features and target position feature. Experimental results demonstrate the importance of the target information in the prediction of task-oriented visual attention. PMID:27247561

  17. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed revision of the diagnostic criteria in DSM-5 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will not fundamentally change the concept of ADHD. This is mainly due to the fact that, DSM-5 will retain the exact DSM-IV wording of all 18 symptoms, but will add new examples that make...... changes will most likely increase the prevalence of ADHD, especially in adults and adolescents, but maybe also in children. The added examples will also result in necessary revisions and new validations of rating scales and diagnostic interviews. This review will examine each of the proposed DSM-5 changes...... and the impact they may have, and in addition, the paper will make an overview of the main characteristics of some of the international and national guidelines for assessment and treatment of ADHD and how these impact the clinical practice....

  18. Tracking User Attention in Collaborative Tagging Communities

    CERN Document Server

    Santos-Neto, Elizeu; Ripeanu, Matei

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative tagging has recently attracted the attention of both industry and academia due to the popularity of content-sharing systems such as CiteULike, del.icio.us, and Flickr. These systems give users the opportunity to add data items and to attach their own metadata (or tags) to stored data. The result is an effective content management tool for individual users. Recent studies, however, suggest that, as tagging communities grow, the added content and the metadata become harder to manage due to an ease in content diversity. Thus, mechanisms that cope with increase of diversity are fundamental to improve the scalability and usability of collaborative tagging systems. This paper analyzes whether usage patterns can be harnessed to improve navigability in a growing knowledge space. To this end, it presents a characterization of two collaborative tagging communities that target scientific literature: CiteULike and Bibsonomy. We explore three main directions: First, we analyze the tagging activity distributi...

  19. Learning to Model Task-Oriented Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For many applications in graphics, design, and human computer interaction, it is essential to understand where humans look in a scene with a particular task. Models of saliency can be used to predict fixation locations, but a large body of previous saliency models focused on free-viewing task. They are based on bottom-up computation that does not consider task-oriented image semantics and often does not match actual eye movements. To address this problem, we collected eye tracking data of 11 subjects when they performed some particular search task in 1307 images and annotation data of 2,511 segmented objects with fine contours and 8 semantic attributes. Using this database as training and testing examples, we learn a model of saliency based on bottom-up image features and target position feature. Experimental results demonstrate the importance of the target information in the prediction of task-oriented visual attention.

  20. Feature-based attention enhances performance by increasing response gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Katrin; Heeger, David J; Carrasco, Marisa

    2012-12-01

    Covert spatial attention can increase contrast sensitivity either by changes in contrast gain or by changes in response gain, depending on the size of the attention field and the size of the stimulus (Herrmann et al., 2010), as predicted by the normalization model of attention (Reynolds & Heeger, 2009). For feature-based attention, unlike spatial attention, the model predicts only changes in response gain, regardless of whether the featural extent of the attention field is small or large. To test this prediction, we measured the contrast dependence of feature-based attention. Observers performed an orientation-discrimination task on a spatial array of grating patches. The spatial locations of the gratings were varied randomly so that observers could not attend to specific locations. Feature-based attention was manipulated with a 75% valid and 25% invalid pre-cue, and the featural extent of the attention field was manipulated by introducing uncertainty about the upcoming grating orientation. Performance accuracy was better for valid than for invalid pre-cues, consistent with a change in response gain, when the featural extent of the attention field was small (low uncertainty) or when it was large (high uncertainty) relative to the featural extent of the stimulus. These results for feature-based attention clearly differ from results of analogous experiments with spatial attention, yet both support key predictions of the normalization model of attention. PMID:22580017

  1. The Attentional Blink is Modulated by First Target Contrast: Implications of an Attention Capture Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    increases T1 processing time, this should cause a greater AB. The attention capture hypothesis suggests that T1 captures attention, which cannot be reallocated to T2 in time. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty decreases T1 saliency, this should cause a smaller AB. In two experiments we find support...... for an attention capture hypothesis. In Experiment 1 we find that AB magnitude increases with T1 contrast – but only when T1 is unmasked. In Experiment 2 we add Gaussian noise to targets and vary T1 contrast but keep T1 ‘s SNR constant. Again we find that AB magnitude increases with T1 contrast.......When two targets (T1 & T2) are presented in rapid succession, observers often fail to report T2 if they attend to T1. The bottleneck theory proposes that this attentional blink (AB) is due to T1 occupying a slow processing stage when T2 is presented. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty...

  2. Framing attention in Japanese and American comics: Cross-cultural differences in attentional structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil eCohn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books— the narrative frames in sequential images—highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics with mainstream Japanese manga to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer’s integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention.

  3. Attentional cartography: mapping the distribution of attention across time and space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J Eric T; Chan, David; Bennett, Patrick J; Pratt, Jay

    2015-10-01

    Decades of research have shown that the orienting of attention follows a reliable pattern of facilitation and then inhibition following a peripheral cue. However, the literature lacks a high-resolution spatiotemporal map of this pattern. Moreover, the use of visual placeholders to highlight potential stimulus locations is inconsistent. This is puzzling, given attention's well-known predilection for objects. In this article, we remedy these outstanding issues with a large-scale investigation charting the spatiotemporal distribution of attention. Participants detected targets presented at 121 possible locations 100, 200, 400, or 800 ms following an uninformative peripheral cue. The cued locations were presented with or without placeholders. With placeholders, the classic pattern of early facilitation and late inhibition was observed for targets appearing within the placeholders, and the spread of inhibition was severely limited to within the placeholders. Without placeholders, we observed inhibition shortly after cue presentation, upsetting the famously reliable effect of facilitation following a cue. Moreover, inhibition spread from the cued location, unlike when placeholders were present. This investigation has produced an eminently detailed spatiotemporal map of attentional orienting and illustrated the consequences of placeholder stimuli, with surprising results. PMID:26069197

  4. Divided Attention Can Enhance Memory Encoding: The Attentional Boost Effect in Implicit Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataro, Pietro; Mulligan, Neil W.; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2013-01-01

    Distraction during encoding has long been known to disrupt later memory performance. Contrary to this long-standing result, we show that detecting an infrequent target in a dual-task paradigm actually improves memory encoding for a concurrently presented word, above and beyond the performance reached in the full-attention condition. This absolute…

  5. The attentional blink is modulated by first target contrast: Implications of an attention capture hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Andersen, Tobias S

    2011-01-01

    When two targets (T1 & T2) are presented in rapid succession, observers often fail to report T2 if they attend to T1. The bottleneck theory proposes that this attentional blink (AB) is due to T1 occupying a slow processing stage when T2 is presented. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty...... increases T1 processing time, this should cause a greater AB. The attention capture hypothesis suggests that T1 captures attention, which cannot be reallocated to T2 in time. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty decreases T1 saliency, this should cause a smaller AB. In two experiments we find support...... for an attention capture hypothesis. In Experiment 1 we find that AB magnitude increases with T1 contrast – but only when T1 is unmasked. In Experiment 2 we add Gaussian noise to targets and vary T1 contrast but keep T1 ‘s SNR constant. Again we find that AB magnitude increases with T1 contrast....

  6. A History of the Pedagogy of Voluntary Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungdalh, Anders Kruse

    2016-01-01

    The article explores the pedagogical recommendations within late nineteenth century psychological literature on voluntary attention, focusing on what was then understood as pathological conditions of attention. The purpose of the article is double. First, to investigate the reasoning embedded in ...

  7. Transient Distraction and Attentional Control during a Sustained Selective Attention Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, Elise; Woldorff, Marty G

    2016-07-01

    Distracting stimuli in the environment can pull our attention away from our goal-directed tasks. fMRI studies have implicated regions in right frontal cortex as being particularly important for processing distractors [e.g., de Fockert, J. W., & Theeuwes, J. Role of frontal cortex in attentional capture by singleton distractors. Brain and Cognition, 80, 367-373, 2012; Demeter, E., Hernandez-Garcia, L., Sarter, M., & Lustig, C. Challenges to attention: A continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) study of the effects of distraction on sustained attention. Neuroimage, 54, 1518-1529, 2011]. Less is known, however, about the timing and sequence of how right frontal or other brain regions respond selectively to distractors and how distractors impinge upon the cascade of processes related to detecting and processing behaviorally relevant target stimuli. Here we used EEG and ERPs to investigate the neural consequences of a perceptually salient but task-irrelevant distractor on the detection of rare target stimuli embedded in a rapid, serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream. We found that distractors that occur during the presentation of a target interfere behaviorally with detection of those targets, reflected by reduced detection rates, and that these missed targets show a reduced amplitude of the long-latency, detection-related P3 component. We also found that distractors elicited a right-lateralized frontal negativity beginning at 100 msec, whose amplitude negatively correlated across participants with their distraction-related behavioral impairment. Finally, we also quantified the instantaneous amplitude of the steady-state visual evoked potentials elicited by the RSVP stream and found that the occurrence of a distractor resulted in a transient amplitude decrement of the steady-state visual evoked potential, presumably reflecting the pull of attention away from the RSVP stream when distracting stimuli occur in the environment. PMID:26967946

  8. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venke Arntsberg Grane

    Full Text Available We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36 and in healthy controls (n = 35. Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.. Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A. There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  9. Decoding attentional shifts from motor preparatory brain activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Bednark

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to the premotor theory of attention, movement preparation and shifts of attention are intrinsically linked because they are controlled by shared sensorimotor mechanisms. However, the precise nature of the coupling between attention and voluntary movement preparation is unclear. In the present study, we used multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI activity to investigate whether shifts of attention towards an effector are encoded in the pre-movement activity. Meth...

  10. Erratum to: Exogenous spatial attention decreases audiovisual integration

    OpenAIRE

    Stoep, N. van der; Stigchel, S. van der; Nijboer, T. C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Multisensory integration (MSI) and spatial attention are both mechanisms through which the processing of sensory information can be facilitated. Studies on the interaction between spatial attention and MSI have mainly focused on the interaction between endogenous spatial attention and MSI. Most of these studies have shown that endogenously attending a multisensory target enhances MSI. It is currently unclear, however, whether and how exogenous spatial attention and MSI interact. In the curren...

  11. Attention Bias Variability and Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Iacoviello, Brian M.; Wu, Gang; Abend, Rany; Murrough, James W.; Feder, Adriana; Fruchter, Eyal; Levinstein, Yoav; Wald, Ilan; Bailey, Christopher R.; Pine, Daniel S.; Neumeister, Alexander; Bar-Haim, Yair; Charney, Dennis S.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive theories implicate information-processing biases in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Results of attention-bias studies in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been inconsistent, suggesting biases towards and away from threat. Within-subject variability of attention biases in posttraumatic patients may be a useful marker for attentional control impairment and the development of posttrauma symptoms. This study reports 2 experiments investigating threat-related attention biases,...

  12. Amygdala lesions in rhesus macaques decrease attention to threat

    OpenAIRE

    Dal Monte, Olga; Costa, Vincent D; Noble, Pamela L.; Murray, Elisabeth A.; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from animal and human studies has suggested that the amygdala plays a role in detecting threat and in directing attention to the eyes. Nevertheless, there has been no systematic investigation of whether the amygdala specifically facilitates attention to the eyes or whether other features can also drive attention via amygdala processing. The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of amygdala lesions in rhesus monkeys on attentional capture by specific facial features, as...

  13. Fearful attention : Investigating event-related potentials in spider phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Norberg, Joakim

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that emotional pictures capture attention. Further, this effect was decreased by manipulating spatial attention. In contrast, studies produced mixed findings for effects of perceptual load on attention to emotional pictures. Emotional pictures can be phobic or nonphobic. Because phobia might be an evolutionary adaption, it is possible that effects of phobic pictures on attention differ from effects of nonphobic emotional pictures. The present thesis aimed at investigat...

  14. Sustained Attention in Children With Two Etiologies of Early Hydrocephalus

    OpenAIRE

    Swartwout, Maegan D.; Cirino, Paul T.; Hampson, Amy W.; Fletcher, Jack M.; BRANDT, MICHAEL E.; Dennis, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have shown that children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) and hydrocephalus have attention problems on parent ratings and difficulties in stimulus orienting associated with a posterior brain attention system. Less is known about response control and inhibition associated with an anterior brain attention system. Using the Gordon Vigilance Task (Gordon, 1983), we studied error rate, reaction time, and performance over time for sustained attention, a key anterior attentio...

  15. System and method for image mapping and visual attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, II, Richard A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method is described for mapping dense sensory data to a Sensory Ego Sphere (SES). Methods are also described for finding and ranking areas of interest in the images that form a complete visual scene on an SES. Further, attentional processing of image data is best done by performing attentional processing on individual full-size images from the image sequence, mapping each attentional location to the nearest node, and then summing all attentional locations at each node.

  16. Application of Attention Principles in e-environment

    OpenAIRE

    Suchý, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Attention is today a scarce resource, which is from physiological substance of the human brain to a certain extent limited. Abundance of information that affect the user who grasp the information, cause a mismatch between the information that is infinite and ever growing, and user attention, which is used during the processing of this information. From the perspective of Attention economy, there are principles that explain how attention works. This work aims to verify these principles of atte...

  17. Why is joint attention a pivotal skill in autism?

    OpenAIRE

    Charman, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Joint attention abilities play a crucial role in the development of autism. Impairments in joint attention are among the earliest signs of the disorder and joint attention skills relate to outcome, both in the 'natural course' of autism and through being targeted in early intervention programmes. In the current study, concurrent and longitudinal associations between joint attention and other social communication abilities measured in a sample of infants with autism and related pervasive devel...

  18. Orienting Attention Modulates Pain Perception: An ERP Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Sam C. C.; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.; Kwan, Anne S. K.; Ting, Kin-hung; Chui, Tak-yi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Research has shown that people with chronic pain have difficulty directing their attention away from pain. A mental strategy that incorporates focused attention and distraction has been found to modulate the perception of pain intensity. That strategy involves placing attention on the nociceptive stimulus felt and shifting attention to a self-generated sub-nociceptive image and rehearsing it. Event-related potential was used to study the possible processes associated with the foc...

  19. Distribution of attention modulates salience signals in early visual cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Mulckhuyse, M.; Belopolsky, A.V.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Talsma, D.; Theeuwes, J

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the extent to which people spread attention across the visual field plays a crucial role in visual selection and the occurrence of bottom-up driven attentional capture. Consistent with previous findings, we show that when attention was diffusely distributed across the visual field while searching for a shape singleton, an irrelevant salient color singleton captured attention. However, while using the very same displays and task, no capture was observed when ob...

  20. Neural bases of selective attention in action video game players

    OpenAIRE

    Bavelier, D.; Achtman, RL; M Mani; Föcker, J

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years, the very act of playing action video games has been shown to enhance several different aspects of visual selective attention. Yet little is known about the neural mechanisms that mediate such attentional benefits. A review of the aspects of attention enhanced in action game players suggests there are changes in the mechanisms that control attention allocation and its efficiency (Hubert-Wallander et al., 2010). The present study used brain imaging to test this hypothes...

  1. Functional deficits of the attentional networks in autism

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Jin; Bernardi, Silvia; Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Gu, Xiaosi; Martin, Laura; Park, Yunsoo; Liu, Xun; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha; Grodberg, David; Hollander, Eric; Hof, Patrick R.

    2012-01-01

    Attentional dysfunction is among the most consistent observations of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the neural nature of this deficit in ASD is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to identify the neurobehavioral correlates of attentional dysfunction in ASD. We used the Attention Network Test-Revised and functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine alerting, orienting, and executive control functions, as well as the neural substrates underlying these attentional functions in ...

  2. Dissociation Between Visual Attention and Visual Mental Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, William L.; Hsiao, Yaling; Kosslyn, Stephen Michael

    2010-01-01

    Visual mental imagery (which involves generating and transforming visual mental representations, i.e., seeing with the mind's eye) and visual attention appear to be distinct processes. However, some researchers have claimed that imagery effects can be explained by appeal to attention (and thus, that imagery is nothing more than a form of attention). In this study, we used a size manipulation to demonstrate that imagery and attention are distinct processes. We reasoned that if participants are...

  3. On the economics of superabundant information and scarce attention

    OpenAIRE

    Hefti, Andreas; Heinke, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature addressing the causes and consequences of limited attention in economics. We present a simple set-theoretic micro-structure describing the allocation of attention, and use this framework to explain the central notions of goal-and stimulus-driven attention mechanisms. After presenting empirical evidence on limited attention from psychology, marketing and internet research, we use our baseline setting to discuss a number of recent contribu...

  4. The development of attention skills in action video game players

    OpenAIRE

    Dye, M.W.G.; Green, C.S.; Bavelier, D

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that action video game play improves attentional resources, allowing gamers to better allocate their attention across both space and time. In order to further characterize the plastic changes resulting from playing these video games, we administered the Attentional Network Test (ANT) to action game players and non-playing controls aged between 7 and 22 years. By employing a mixture of cues and flankers, the ANT provides measures of how well attention is allocated to...

  5. Effects of Awareness on the Control of Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Taylor W; Kean, Hope H; Graziano, Michael S A

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies show that it is possible to attend to a stimulus without awareness of it. Whether attention and awareness are independent or have a specific relationship, however, remains debated. Here, we tested three aspects of visual attention with and without awareness of the visual stimulus. Metacontrast masking rendered participants either subjectively aware or not aware of the stimulus. Attention drawn to the stimulus was measured by using the stimulus as a cue in a spatial attention task. We found that attention was drawn to the stimulus regardless of whether or not people were aware of it. However, attention changed significantly in the absence of awareness in at least three ways. First, attention to a task-relevant stimulus was less stable over time. Second, inhibition of return, the automatic suppression of attention to a task-irrelevant stimulus, was reduced. Third, attention was more driven by the luminance contrast of the stimulus. These findings add to the growing information on the behavior of attention with and without awareness. The findings are also consistent with our recently proposed account of the relationship between attention and awareness. In the attention schema theory, awareness is the internal model of attention. Just as the brain contains a body schema that models the body and helps control the body, so it contains an attention schema that helps control attention. In that theory, in the absence of awareness, the control of attention should suffer in basic ways predictable from dynamical systems theory. The present results confirm some of those predictions. PMID:26836517

  6. Attentional flexibility and memory capacity in conductors and pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöllner, Clemens; Halpern, Andrea R

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with high working memory (WM) capacity also tend to have better selective and divided attention. Although both capacities are essential for skilled performance in many areas, evidence for potential training and expertise effects is scarce. We investigated the attentional flexibility of musical conductors by comparing them to equivalently trained pianists. Conductors must focus their attention both on individual instruments and on larger sections of different instruments. We studied students and professionals in both domains to assess the contributions of age and training to these skills. Participants completed WM span tests for auditory and visual (notated) pitches and timing durations, as well as long-term memory tests. In three dichotic attention tasks, they were asked to detect small pitch and timing deviations from two melodic streams presented in baseline (separate streams), selective-attention (concentrating on only one stream), and divided-attention (concentrating on targets in both streams simultaneously) conditions. Conductors were better than pianists in detecting timing deviations in divided attention, and experts detected more targets than students. We found no group differences for WM capacity or for pitch deviations in the attention tasks, even after controlling for the older age of the experts. Musicians' WM spans across multimodal conditions were positively related to selective and divided attention. High-WM participants also had shorter reaction times in selective attention. Taken together, conductors showed higher attentional flexibility in successfully switching between different foci of attention. PMID:26404532

  7. Effects of Familiarity and Maternal Attention on Infant Peer Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald; Lewis, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Hypothesizes that infants with attentive mothers will interact more positively with consistent partners than with matched strangers. Finds that when mothers were attentive infant dyads composed of consistent partners interacted more than stranger dyads. Suggest that withdrawal of maternal attention may be equivalent to physical separation by a…

  8. Erratum to: Exogenous spatial attention decreases audiovisual integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Stoep, N; Van der Stigchel, S; Nijboer, T C W

    2014-01-01

    Multisensory integration (MSI) and spatial attention are both mechanisms through which the processing of sensory information can be facilitated. Studies on the interaction between spatial attention and MSI have mainly focused on the interaction between endogenous spatial attention and MSI. Most of t

  9. Hemispheric Asymmetry in the Efficiency of Attentional Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanowicz, Dariusz; Marzecova, Anna; Jaskowski, Piotr; Wolski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that hemispheric asymmetry of attention has been widely studied, a clear picture of this complex phenomenon is still lacking. The aim of the present study was to provide an efficient and reliable measurement of potential hemispheric asymmetries of three attentional networks, i.e. alerting, orienting and executive attention.…

  10. Selective Attention to Perceptual Dimensions and Switching between Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiran, Nachshon; Dimov, Eduard; Ganel, Tzvi

    2013-01-01

    In the present experiments, the question being addressed was whether switching attention between perceptual dimensions and selective attention to dimensions are processes that compete over a common resource? Attention to perceptual dimensions is usually studied by requiring participants to ignore a never-relevant dimension. Selection failure…

  11. The Development of Attention and Response Inhibition in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartgis, Jami; Thomas, David G.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the development of attention and response inhibition from ages 5 to 7. Forty children (20 5-year-olds and 20 7-year-olds) completed four counterbalanced phases of a continuous performance task. Phase 1 was designed to measure attention without distraction, Phase 2 was designed to measure attention with…

  12. 5 CFR 551.425 - Time spent receiving medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time spent receiving medical attention... Relation to Other Activities § 551.425 Time spent receiving medical attention. (a) Time spent waiting for and receiving medical attention for illness or injury shall be considered hours of work if: (1)...

  13. Relating Dopaminergic and Cholinergic Polymorphisms to Spatial Attention in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markant, Julie; Cicchetti, Dante; Hetzel, Susan; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Early selective attention skills are a crucial building block for cognitive development, as attention orienting serves as a primary means by which infants interact with and learn from the environment. Although several studies have examined infants' attention orienting using the spatial cueing task, relatively few studies have examined…

  14. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section... Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and equipment manufacturers may only market devices for public use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal...

  15. Orienting Attention to Sound Object Representations Attenuates Change Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Kristina C.; Alain, Claude

    2012-01-01

    According to the object-based account of attention, multiple objects coexist in short-term memory (STM), and we can selectively attend to a particular object of interest. Although there is evidence that attention can be directed to visual object representations, the assumption that attention can be oriented to sound object representations has yet…

  16. Interventions Targeting Attention in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Elena; Watson, Linda R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The ability to focus and sustain one's attention is critical for learning. Children with autism demonstrate unusual characteristics of attention from infancy. It is reasonable to assume that early anomalies in attention influence a child's developmental trajectories. Therapeutic interventions for autism often focus on core features of…

  17. Developmental Changes in Infants' and Toddlers' Attention to Gender Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kristen E.; Bittinger, Kathleen; Smith, Amy; Madole, Kelly L.

    2001-01-01

    Three studies examined the emergence of attention to gender categories in toddlers. Results suggested that 18-month-olds showed little attention to gender on a sequential touching task. The possibility that they could not discriminate the dolls used in the task by gender was ruled out. There was a sharp increase in attention to gender between 18…

  18. Abnormal Spatial Asymmetry of Selective Attention in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Edgar; Mattingley, Jason B.; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia; English, Therese; Hester, Robert; Vance, Alasdair; Bellgrove, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Evidence for a selective attention abnormality in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been hard to identify using conventional methods from cognitive science. This study tested whether the presence of selective attention abnormalities in ADHD may vary as a function of perceptual load and target…

  19. Vigilance and Sustained Attention in Children and Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver; Walitza, Susanne; Sontag, Thomas A.; Laufkotter, Rainer; Linder, Martin; Lange, Klaus W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present article tests the hypothesis of a sustained attention deficit in children and adults suffering from ADHD. Method: Vigilance and sustained attention of 52 children with ADHD and 38 adults with ADHD were assessed using a computerized vigilance task. Furthermore, the attentional performance of healthy children (N = 52) and…

  20. The Development of Attention Skills in Action Video Game Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, M. W. G.; Green, C. S.; Bavelier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that action video game play improves attentional resources, allowing gamers to better allocate their attention across both space and time. In order to further characterize the plastic changes resulting from playing these video games, we administered the Attentional Network Test (ANT) to action game players and…

  1. 29 CFR 1926.23 - First aid and medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid and medical attention. 1926.23 Section 1926.23... Provisions § 1926.23 First aid and medical attention. First aid services and provisions for medical care... prescribing specific requirements for first aid, medical attention, and emergency facilities are contained...

  2. Collicular dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Paul G

    2008-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by (inter alia) an increase in distractibility. The current front-line pharmacotherapies for the treatment of ADHD, namely the psychostimulants methylphenidate and amphetamines, have clear abuse potential, hence there is a strong need to develop new drug treatments for this disorder. Central to this process is the identification of the pathophysiological changes which underlie ADHD. Given the heterogeneity of the disorder, multiple loci are probably involved, providing multiple potential therapeutic targets. Here, we hypothesise (Hypothesis 1) that one such locus is the superior colliculus (SC), a sensory structure intimately linked with distractibility and the production of eye and head movements. It is proposed that in ADHD, the colliculus is hyper-responsive, leading to the core symptom of increased distractibility. Hypothesis 1 is supported by: 1. ADHD patients show increased distractibility in tasks which are sensitive to collicular function; 2. ADHD patients have a general problem inhibiting saccades, the generation of which involves the SC; 3. Saccadic deficits in ADHD include defects in the production of saccadic types (anti-saccades and express saccades) which are particularly associated with the colliculus; 4. Covert shifts in attention (which also have been argued to involve the SC) are also impaired in ADHD; 5. Reading disorders are frequently co-morbid with ADHD; dyslexia (which is associated with eye movement problems) is linked to a specific visual perceptual deficit in the M pathway, a major recipient of which is the colliculus. Whether or not the SC is indeed hyper-responsive in ADHD as Hypothesis 1 suggests, the SC may well represent an important therapeutic target for drugs. In fact current psychostimulant therapies, which reduce distractibility, may already work at that level (Hypothesis 2), a contention which is supported by: 1. The

  3. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petermann Franz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Scientific Epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Thurber

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD continues to be controversial with arguments for and against its veracity being waged by individuals representing a variety of disciplines from behavioral scientists to philosophers. Our perspective focuses on the epistemological underpinnings of what is now commonly known as ADHD. Its ignominious history and current disputes may stem from a "pessimistic" epistemology, meaning that truth is only the province of persons in authority and power. The authoritative organizations that govern the diagnostic labels and criteria are the American Psychiatric Association and their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and the World Health Organization that sponsors the International Classification of Disease. We contrast the pessimistic epistemology with criteria for truth from the scientific method. Although scientific scrutiny has been and is being applied subsequent to "authoritarian edicts" of the disorder, we opine that ADHD currently does not have status beyond that of the "hypothetical construct." Moreover, current brain-based causal models have failed to provide rigorous supporting data that comes from testing falsifiable hypotheses.

  5. Current pharmacotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D S

    2013-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder in children and adults characterized by a persistent pattern of impulsiveness, inattention and hyperactivity. It affects about 3-10% of children and 2-5% of adolescents and adults and occurs about four times more commonly in boys than girls. The cause of ADHD is unknown, but it has strong genetic and environment components. The first-line treatment options for ADHD include behavioral therapy, pharmacotherapy with stimulants or both. Methylphenidate and amphetamine salts are the stimulant drugs of choice for ADHD treatment. Amphetamines act by increasing presynaptic release of dopamine and other biogenic amines in the brain. Methylphenidate inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine and therefore its pharmacology is identical to that of amphetamines. Lisdex-amfetamine is a prodrug of dextroamphetamine with low feasibility for abuse. Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is an alternative, non-stimulant drug for ADHD but it is less efficacious than stimulants. Stimulants are generally safe but are associated with adverse effects including headache, insomnia, anorexia and weight loss. There is increased awareness about serious cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse events with ADHD drugs including concern for growth suppression in children. Stimulants have a high potential for abuse and dependence, and should be handled safely to prevent misuse and abuse. PMID:24191257

  6. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. A CLINICAL LECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a serious problem to pediatric neurologists. The prevalence of ADHD in developed countries ranges from 1 to 20 %. ADHD is characterized by a triad of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes it as F90 and it is the most common conduct disorder in children. The etiology of ADHD remains disсutable to the present day; there are a few basic concepts of the origin of this disorder. Its manifestations may be a reason for family conflicts, poor peer relationships, social and school maladjustment, learning problems, lower academic performance, accidents and injuries, smoking, psychoactive substance abuse (toxicomania, narcomania, delinquencies, deviant social behavior, thus having a negative impact on all spheres of a patient’s life. The manifestations of ADHD may continue in adulthood, resulting in work and family life problems, low self-evaluation, alcohol and psychoactive substance abuse, and other unfavorable consequences. The authors describe the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic principles (diagnostic scales and tests, differential diagnosis (by setting out a large group of different diseases, the manifestations of which can mimic ADHD, treatment, and prognosis of the disorder. Within its therapeutic correction framework, the authors present the definition and general principles of Montessori therapy, including recommendations for parents and relatives to deal with children with ADHD. 

  7. Attentional control and word inhibition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henik, Avishai; Carter, Cameron S; Salo, Ruth; Chaderjian, Marc; Kraft, Louis; Nordahl, Thomas E; Robertson, Lynn C

    2002-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that schizophrenia patients do not utilize contextual information efficiently to modulate attentional performance. The goal of the current study was to compare the utilization of context in modulating responses to irrelevant information on the Stroop task between a group of schizophrenia outpatients and matched controls. A single-trial version of the Stroop task was used to investigate performance on the Stroop task under three expectancy conditions. Eleven schizophrenia outpatients (on and off antipsychotic medication) and sixteen matched controls were tested. The schizophrenia patients showed: (1) augmented facilitation; (2) interference comparable to normals; and (3) normal ability to reduce interference under certain experimental circumstances. Schizophrenia patients were able to utilize contextual information under certain conditions and could modulate the magnitude of irrelevant word interference, although they were not able to overcome the prepotent tendency to read the word during the Stroop task as effectively as normals, which was reflected in greater Stroop facilitation. This suggests that the integrity or impairment of cognitive control functions in schizophrenia is related to the complexity of the context representation required to support that function. PMID:12057826

  8. Action experience changes attention to kinematic cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney eFilippi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study used remote corneal reflection eye-tracking to examine the relationship between motor experience and action anticipation in 13-month-old infants. To measure online anticipation of actions infants watched videos where the actor’s hand provided kinematic information (in its orientation about the type of object that the actor was going to reach for. The actor’s hand orientation either matched the orientation of a rod (congruent cue or did not match the orientation of the rod (incongruent cue. To examine relations between motor experience and action anticipation, we used a 2 (reach first vs. observe first x 2 (congruent kinematic cue vs. incongruent kinematic cue between-subjects design. We show that 13-month-old infants in the observe first condition spontaneously generate rapid online visual predictions to congruent hand orientation cues and do not visually anticipate when presented incongruent cues. We further demonstrate that the speed that these infants generate predictions to congruent motor cues is correlated with their own ability to pre-shape their hands. Finally, we demonstrate that following reaching experience, infants generate rapid predictions to both congruent and incongruent hand shape cues—suggesting that short-term experience changes attention to kinematics.

  9. The Spatial Attention Network Interacts with Limbic and Monoaminergic Systems to Modulate Motivation-Induced Attention Shifts

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Aprajita; Gitelman, Darren R.; Small, Dana M.; Mesulam, M. Marsel

    2008-01-01

    How does the human brain integrate information from multiple domains to guide spatial attention according to motivational needs? To address this question, we measured hemodynamic responses to central cues predicting locations of peripheral attentional targets (food or tool images) in a novel covert spatial attention paradigm. The motivational relevance of food-related attentional targets was experimentally manipulated via hunger and satiety. Amygdala, posterior cingulate, locus coeruleus, and...

  10. Training-associated changes and stability of attention bias in youth: Implications for Attention Bias Modification Treatment for pediatric anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Britton, Jennifer C.; Bar-Haim, Yair; Clementi, Michelle A.; Sankin, Lindsey S.; Chen, Gang; Shechner, Tomer; Norcross, Maxine A.; Spiro, Carolyn N.; Lindstrom, Kara M.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Attention Bias Modification Treatment (ABMT), an emerging treatment for anxiety disorders, is thought to modify underlying, stable patterns of attention. Therefore, ABMT research should take into account the impact of attention bias stability on attention training response, especially in pediatric populations. ABMT research typically relies on the dot-probe task, where individuals detect a probe following an emotional-neutral stimulus pair. The current research presents two dot-probe experime...

  11. Emotion regulation meets emotional attention: the influence of emotion suppression on emotional attention depends on the nature of the distracters

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Julia; De Houwer, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested a crucial role of people’s current goals in attention to emotional information. This asks for research investigating how and what kinds of goals shape emotional attention. The present study investigated how the goal to suppress a negative emotional state influences attention to emotion-congruent events. After inducing disgust, we instructed participants to suppress all feelings of disgust during a subsequent dot probe task. Attention to disgusting images was modu...

  12. A Paradoxical Effect of Presession Attention on Stereotypy: Antecedent Attention as an Establishing, Not an Abolishing, Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Roantree, Christina F; Kennedy, Craig H

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that presession attention for problem behavior can serve as an abolishing operation when attention functions as a positive reinforcer. In the current study, we show that the stereotypy of a child with severe disabilities was undifferentiated during standard analogue functional analysis conditions. However, when noncontingent presession attention was provided, stereotypy occurred for social attention as a positive reinforcer, suggesting that the antecedent manipulat...

  13. The Effects of Attention Pre-Allocation and Target-Background Integration on Object-Based Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Fengpei; Jiao, Changyong; Zhao, Songpo; Dong, Huahua; Liu, Xiao; Yi, Yuji; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Object-based attention has been documented as an important mechanism with which to control attention in several studies. To date, two main hypotheses have been proposed to interpret object-based attention: attention spreading and prioritization of search. There is evidence that supports these hypotheses in the literature. In the present study, we sought to compare these two hypotheses systematically by manipulating two factors: the integration of the target and background and the presence of ...

  14. The Effects of Attention on the Trigeminal Blink Reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicatano, Edward J

    2016-04-01

    During top-down processing, higher cognitive processes modulate lower sensory processing. The present experiment tested the effects of directed attention on trigeminal reflex blinks in humans (n = 8). In separate sessions, participants either attended to blink-eliciting stimuli or were given no attentional instructions during stimulation of the supraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve. Attention to blink-eliciting stimuli significantly increased reflex blink amplitude and duration and shortened blink latency compared with the no attention condition. These results suggested that higher processes such as attention can modify the trigeminal blink reflex circuit. PMID:27166326

  15. Against the view that consciousness and attention are fully dissociable

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio eMarchetti

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I will try to show that the idea that there can be consciousness without some form of attention, and high-level top-down attention without consciousness, originates from a failure to notice the varieties of forms that top-down attention and consciousness can assume. I will present evidence that: there are various forms of attention and consciousness; not all forms of attention produce the same kind of consciousness; not all forms of consciousness are produced by the same kind o...

  16. Against the View that Consciousness and Attention are Fully Dissociable

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I will try to show that the idea that there can be consciousness without some form of attention, and high-level top-down attention without consciousness, originates from a failure to notice the varieties of forms that top-down attention and consciousness can assume. I will present evidence that: there are various forms of attention and consciousness; not all forms of attention produce the same kind of consciousness; not all forms of consciousness are produced by the same kind o...

  17. The Effects of Focused Attention on Inhibition and State Regulation in Children with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketch, Karen M.; Brodeur, Darlene A.; McGee, Robin

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of response rate and attention focusing on performance of ADHD, clinical-control (CRNA) and non-clinical control children in response inhibition tasks. All children completed the "Go-NoGo" task, a computer-based task of attention and impulsivity. Focused attention on this task was manipulated using a priming…

  18. Attention-Orienting and Attention-Holding Effects of Faces on 4- to 8-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNicola, Christopher A.; Holt, Nicholas A.; Lambert, Amy J.; Cashon, Cara H.

    2013-01-01

    Attention-orienting and attention-holding effects of faces were investigated in a sample of 64 children, aged 4 to 8 months old. A visual preference task was used, in which pairs of faces and toys were presented in eight 10-second trials. Effects of age and sitting-ability were examined. Attention-orienting toward faces was measured using the…

  19. Clinical Use of the Pediatric Attention Disorders Diagnostic Screener for Children at Risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Case Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Ashley; Reddy, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The Pediatric Attention Disorders Diagnostic Screener is a multidimensional, computerized screening tool designed to assess attention and global aspects of executive functioning in children at risk for attention disorders. The screener consists of a semi-structured diagnostic interview, brief parent and teacher rating scales, 3 computer-based…

  20. Selective and Sustained Attention as Predictors of Social Problems in Children with Typical and Disordered Attention Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Brendan F.; Brodeur, Darlene A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Stewart, Sherry H.; McGee, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Investigated the relationship between selective and sustained attention and social behavior in children with different degrees of attentional disturbance. Method: Participants were 101 6- to 12-year-old children, including 18 who were diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD), 61 who were clinically referred for…

  1. Focused attention, open monitoring and loving kindness meditation: effects on attention, conflict monitoring and creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LorenzaSColzato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Meditation is becoming increasingly popular as a topic for scientific research and theories on meditation are becoming ever more specific. We distinguish between what is called Focused Attention meditation, Open Monitoring meditation, and Loving kindness (or compassion meditation. Research suggests that these meditations have differential, dissociable effects on a wide range of cognitive (control processes, such as attentional selection, conflict monitoring, divergent and convergent thinking. Although research on exactly how the various meditations operate on these processes is still missing, different kinds of meditations are associated with different neural structures and different patterns of electroencephalographic activity. In this review we discuss recent findings on meditation and suggest how the different meditations may affect cognitive processes and we give suggestions for directions of future research.

  2. The mental wormhole: internal attention shifts without regard for distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoue, Ryan T; Berryhill, Marian E

    2012-08-01

    Attention operates perceptually on items in the environment, and internally on objects in visuospatial working memory. In the present study, we investigated whether spatial and temporal constraints affecting endogenous perceptual attention extend to internal attention. A retro-cue paradigm in which a cue is presented beyond the range of iconic memory and after stimulus encoding was used to manipulate shifts of internal attention. Participants' memories were tested for colored circles (Experiments 1, 2, 3a, 4) or for novel shapes (Experiment 3b) and their locations within an array. In these experiments, the time to shift internal attention (Experiments 1 and 3) and the eccentricity of encoded objects (Experiments 2-4) were manipulated. Our data showed that, unlike endogenous perceptual attention, internal shifts of attention are not modulated by stimulus eccentricity. Across several timing parameters and stimuli, we found that shifts of internal attention require a minimum quantal amount of time regardless of the object eccentricity at encoding. Our findings are consistent with the view that internal attention operates on objects whose spatial information is represented in relative terms. Although endogenous perceptual attention abides by the laws of space and time, internal attention can shift across spatial representations without regard for physical distance. PMID:22549808

  3. Joint attention revisited: Finding strengths among children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Sarah; Watson, Linda R

    2016-07-01

    Differences in joint attention are prominent for some children with autism and are often used as an indicator of the disorder. This study examined the joint attention competencies of young children with autism who demonstrated joint attention ability and compared them to children with developmental delays. A total of 40 children with autism and developmental delays were matched pairwise based on mental and chronological age. Videos of children engaging in play were coded for the frequency and forms (eye contact, gestures, affect, etc.) of joint attention. Additionally, concurrent language was compared among children with autism (N = 32) by their joint attention ability. Children with autism spectrum disorder entered into joint attention significantly less often than children with developmental delays, but once engaged used the forms of joint attention similarly. For the matched pairs, there were no differences in language, but the children with autism who used joint attention had significantly better language than children with autism who did not (even after controlling for mental age). There is a group of young children with autism who can use joint attention but do so at lower frequencies than children with developmental delays. Possible reasons include difficulty disengaging attention and limited intrinsic social motivation to share. Adult persistence is recommended to encourage joint attention. PMID:26148983

  4. Attentional switching forms a genetic link between attention problems and autistic traits in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Polderman, T.J.C.; Hoekstra, R. A.; Vinkhuyzen, A A E; Sullivan, P F; Van Der Sluis, S.; Posthuma, D.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and autistic traits often occur together. The pattern and etiology of co-occurrence are largely unknown, particularly in adults. This study investigated the co-occurrence between both traits in detail, and subsequently examined the etiology of the co-occurrence, using two independent adult population samples. Method. Data on ADHD traits (Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity) were collected in a population sample (S1, n=...

  5. Paying attention to attention in recognition memory: Insights from models and electrophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Dube, Chad; Payne, Lisa; Sekuler, Robert; Rotello, Caren M.

    2013-01-01

    Reliance on remembered facts or events requires memory for their sources, that is, the contexts in which those facts or events were embedded. Understanding of source retrieval has been stymied by the fact that uncontrolled fluctuations of attention during encoding can cloud important distinctions between competing theoretical accounts. To clarify the issue, we combined electrophysiology (high-density EEG recordings) with computational modeling of behavioral results. We manipulated subjects’ a...

  6. The effects of advertisement location and familiarity on selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Tanja Lund; Rodway, Paul

    2010-06-01

    This study comprised two experiments to examine the distracting effects of advertisement familiarity, location, and onset on the performance of a selective attention task. In Exp. 1, familiar advertisements presented in peripheral vision disrupted selective attention when the attention task was more demanding, suggesting that the distracting effect of advertisements is a product of task demands and advertisement familiarity and location. In Exp. 2, the onset of the advertisement shortly before, or after, the attention task captured attention and disrupted attentional performance. The onset of the advertisement before the attention task reduced target response time without an increase in errors and therefore facilitated performance. Despite being instructed to ignore the advertisements, the participants were able to recall a substantial proportion of the familiar advertisements. Implications for the presentation of advertisements during human-computer interaction were discussed. PMID:20681345

  7. Measuring and Modeling Shared Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-person teams are sometimes responsible for critical tasks, such as flying an airliner. Here we present a method using gaze tracking data to assess shared visual attention, a term we use to describe the situation where team members are attending to a common set of elements in the environment. Gaze data are quantized with respect to a set of N areas of interest (AOIs); these are then used to construct a time series of N dimensional vectors, with each vector component representing one of the AOIs, all set to 0 except for the component corresponding to the currently fixated AOI, which is set to 1. The resulting sequence of vectors can be averaged in time, with the result that each vector component represents the proportion of time that the corresponding AOI was fixated within the given time interval. We present two methods for comparing sequences of this sort, one based on computing the time-varying correlation of the averaged vectors, and another based on a chi-square test testing the hypothesis that the observed gaze proportions are drawn from identical probability distributions.We have evaluated the method using synthetic data sets, in which the behavior was modeled as a series of activities, each of which was modeled as a first-order Markov process. By tabulating distributions for pairs of identical and disparate activities, we are able to perform a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, allowing us to choose appropriate criteria and estimate error rates.We have applied the methods to data from airline crews, collected in a high-fidelity flight simulator (Haslbeck, Gontar Schubert, 2014). We conclude by considering the problem of automatic (blind) discovery of activities, using methods developed for text analysis.

  8. Attentional Biases in Currently Depressed Children: An Eye-Tracking Study of Biases in Sustained Attention to Emotional Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Ashley Johnson; Gibb, Brandon E

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theories state attentional biases contribute to the development and maintenance of depression. Like depressed adults, there is growing evidence for the presence of attentional biases to sad stimuli in depressed youth. Although the direction of this bias among children remains unclear, preliminary evidence indicates attentional avoidance of sad stimuli in children. This is the first known sudy to use eye-tracking to investigate the exact nature of attention biases among depressed children. To assess sustained attention, the current study used eye-tracking and a passive viewing task in which children viewed a series of four facial expressions (angry, happy, sad, neutral) presented simultatiously for 20 s on a computer screen. The current study compared the attentional allocation of currently depressed children (n = 19; M age = 11.21) to a group of never depressed children (n = 22; M age = 10.82). Consistent with earlier research with children, we found that children with current major or minor depression, compared to children with no history of depression, exhibited attentional avoidance of sad facial stimuil as well as some evidence for preferential attention to happy faces. This study provides additional evidence that although depressed children demonstrate mood congruent attentional biases like that observed depressed adults, the nature of these biases may reflect attentional avoidance of sad stimuli, rather than preferential attention. PMID:25010145

  9. Cognitive Control Network Contributions to Memory-Guided Visual Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Maya L; Stern, Chantal E; Michalka, Samantha W; Devaney, Kathryn J; Somers, David C

    2016-05-01

    Visual attentional capacity is severely limited, but humans excel in familiar visual contexts, in part because long-term memories guide efficient deployment of attention. To investigate the neural substrates that support memory-guided visual attention, we performed a set of functional MRI experiments that contrast long-term, memory-guided visuospatial attention with stimulus-guided visuospatial attention in a change detection task. Whereas thedorsal attention networkwas activated for both forms of attention, thecognitive control network(CCN) was preferentially activated during memory-guided attention. Three posterior nodes in the CCN, posterior precuneus, posterior callosal sulcus/mid-cingulate, and lateral intraparietal sulcus exhibited the greatest specificity for memory-guided attention. These 3 regions exhibit functional connectivity at rest, and we propose that they form a subnetwork within the broader CCN. Based on the task activation patterns, we conclude that the nodes of this subnetwork are preferentially recruited for long-term memory guidance of visuospatial attention. PMID:25750253

  10. Robotic Attention Processing And Its Application To Visual Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Matthew; Inoue, Hirochika

    1988-03-01

    This paper describes a method of real-time visual attention processing for robots performing visual guidance. This robot attention processing is based on a novel vision processor, the multi-window vision system that was developed at the University of Tokyo. The multi-window vision system is unique in that it only processes visual information inside local area windows. These local area windows are quite flexible in their ability to move anywhere on the visual screen, change their size and shape, and alter their pixel sampling rate. By using these windows for specific attention tasks, it is possible to perform high speed attention processing. The primary attention skills of detecting motion, tracking an object, and interpreting an image are all performed at high speed on the multi-window vision system. A basic robotic attention scheme using the attention skills was developed. The attention skills involved detection and tracking of salient visual features. The tracking and motion information thus obtained was utilized in producing the response to the visual stimulus. The response of the attention scheme was quick enough to be applicable to the real-time vision processing tasks of playing a video 'pong' game, and later using an automobile driving simulator. By detecting the motion of a 'ball' on a video screen and then tracking the movement, the attention scheme was able to control a 'paddle' in order to keep the ball in play. The response was faster than that of a human's, allowing the attention scheme to play the video game at higher speeds. Further, in the application to the driving simulator, the attention scheme was able to control both direction and velocity of a simulated vehicle following a lead car. These two applications show the potential of local visual processing in its use for robotic attention processing.

  11. ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC BIOFEEDBACK IMPROVES FOCUSED ATTENTION IN ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Sokhadze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available EEG biofeedback (so called neurofeedback is considered as an efficacious treatment for ADHD. We propose that operant conditioning of EEG in neurofeedback training mode, aimed to mitigate inattention and low arousal in ADHD, will be accompanied by changes in EEG bands' relative power. Patients were 18 children diagnosed with ADHD. The neurofeedback protocol (“Focus/Alertness” by Peak Achievement Trainer, Neurotek, KY used to train patients has focused attention training procedure, which according to specifications, represents wide band EEG amplitude suppression training. Quantitative EEG analysis was completed on each of 25 min long twelve sessions to determine the relative power of each of the EEG bands of interest throughout each session, and from the first session to the last session. Additional statistical analysis was performed to determine significant changes in relative power within sessions (from minute 1 to minute 25, and between sessions (from session 1 to session 12 for an individual patient. We performed analysis of relative power of Theta, Alpha, Low and High Beta, Theta/Alpha, Theta/Beta, and Theta/Low Beta and Theta/High Beta ratios. We performed also analysis between the “Focus”measure and changes in relative power of above EEG rhythms and their ratios. Additional secondary measures of patients’ post-neurofeedback outcomes were assessed using an audio-visual selective attention test (IVA + Plus and behavioral evaluation scores from Aberrant Behavior Checklist. We found that, as expected, Theta/Low Beta and Theta/Alpha ratios decreased significantly from Session 1 to Session 12 and from minute 1 to minute 25 within sessions. The ‘Focus” measure of protocol showed high negative correlation with both Theta/Alpha and Theta/Beta ratios. The findings regarding EEG changes resulting from self-regulation training along with behavioral evaluations will help in elucidation of neural mechanisms of neurofeedback aimed to improve

  12. The Role of Intrinsic Motivations in Attention Allocation and Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SilviaRossi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of attention and intrinsic motivations are of great interest within adaptive robotic systems, and can be exploited in order to guide, activate, and coordinate multiple concurrent behaviors. Attention allocation strategies represent key capabilities of human beings, which are strictly connected with action selection and execution mechanisms, while intrinsic motivations directly affect the allocation of attentional resources. In this paper we propose a model of Reinforcement Learning (RL, where both these capabilities are involved. RL is deployed to learn how to allocate attentional resources in a behavior-based robotic system, while action selection is obtained as a side effect of the resulting motivated attentional behaviors. Moreover, the influence of intrinsic motivations in attention orientation is obtained by introducing rewards associated with curiosity drives. In this way, the learning process is affected not only by goal-specific rewards, but also by intrinsic motivations.

  13. State-of-the-art in visual attention modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borji, Ali; Itti, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Modeling visual attention--particularly stimulus-driven, saliency-based attention--has been a very active research area over the past 25 years. Many different models of attention are now available which, aside from lending theoretical contributions to other fields, have demonstrated successful applications in computer vision, mobile robotics, and cognitive systems. Here we review, from a computational perspective, the basic concepts of attention implemented in these models. We present a taxonomy of nearly 65 models, which provides a critical comparison of approaches, their capabilities, and shortcomings. In particular, 13 criteria derived from behavioral and computational studies are formulated for qualitative comparison of attention models. Furthermore, we address several challenging issues with models, including biological plausibility of the computations, correlation with eye movement datasets, bottom-up and top-down dissociation, and constructing meaningful performance measures. Finally, we highlight current research trends in attention modeling and provide insights for future. PMID:22487985

  14. The production of information in the attention economy

    CERN Document Server

    Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca; Menczer, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Online traces of human activity offer novel opportunities to study the dynamics of complex knowledge exchange networks, and in particular how the relationship between demand and supply of information is mediated by competition for our limited individual attention. The emergent patterns of collective attention determine what new information is generated and consumed. Can we measure the relationship between demand and supply for new information about a topic? Here we propose a normalization method to compare attention bursts statistics across topics that have an heterogeneous distribution of attention. Through analysis of a massive dataset on traffic to Wikipedia, we find that the production of new knowledge is associated to significant shifts of collective attention, which we take as a proxy for its demand. What we observe is consistent with a scenario in which the allocation of attention toward a topic stimulates the demand for information about it, and in turn the supply of further novel information. Our att...

  15. Amygdala lesions in rhesus macaques decrease attention to threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Monte, Olga; Costa, Vincent D; Noble, Pamela L; Murray, Elisabeth A; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from animal and human studies has suggested that the amygdala plays a role in detecting threat and in directing attention to the eyes. Nevertheless, there has been no systematic investigation of whether the amygdala specifically facilitates attention to the eyes or whether other features can also drive attention via amygdala processing. The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of amygdala lesions in rhesus monkeys on attentional capture by specific facial features, as well as gaze patterns and changes in pupil dilation during free viewing. Here we show reduced attentional capture by threat stimuli, specifically the mouth, and reduced exploration of the eyes in free viewing in monkeys with amygdala lesions. Our findings support a role for the amygdala in detecting threat signals and in directing attention to the eye region of faces when freely viewing different expressions. PMID:26658670

  16. Emotional attention for erotic stimuli: Cognitive and brain mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennwald, Vanessa; Pool, Eva; Brosch, Tobias; Delplanque, Sylvain; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Sander, David

    2016-06-01

    It has long been posited that among emotional stimuli, only negative threatening information modulates early shifts of attention. However, in the last few decades there has been an increase in research showing that attention is also involuntarily oriented toward positive rewarding stimuli such as babies, food, and erotic information. Because reproduction-related stimuli have some of the largest effects among positive stimuli on emotional attention, the present work reviews recent literature and proposes that the cognitive and cerebral mechanisms underlying the involuntarily attentional orientation toward threat-related information are also sensitive to erotic information. More specifically, the recent research suggests that both types of information involuntarily orient attention due to their concern relevance and that the amygdala plays an important role in detecting concern-relevant stimuli, thereby enhancing perceptual processing and influencing emotional attentional processes. PMID:26179894

  17. [Attentional bias training in reducing symptoms of anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłosowska, Joanna; Blaut, Agata; Paulewicz, Borysław

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety is related to attentional bias, i.e. a tendency to pay attention to threatening stimuli. This occurs both in individuals suffering from anxiety disorders, and in healthy individuals with elevated levels of trait anxiety. This article is an analysis of a research paradigm, used to modify attentional bias (CBM-A Cognitive Bias Modification - Attention). A growing number of studies indicate that with the help of computer methods such as a modified version of the dot-probe task we can train individuals to direct attention away from threatening stimuli, which in turn reduces symptoms of anxiety. This effect was observed in adults, adolescents and children suffering from social phobia, generalised anxiety disorder and subclinical symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Effectiveness of this method constitutes the evidence for attentional bias being among the causes of anxiety disorders. The article also analyses the still not completely clear mechanisms of CBM-A and limitations of this method. PMID:25844410

  18. A world unglued: Simultanagnosia as a spatial restriction of attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten A. Dalrymple

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Simultanagnosia is a disorder of visual attention that leaves a patient’s world unglued: scenes and objects are perceived in a piecemeal manner. It is generally agreed that simultanagnosia is related to an impairment of attention, but it is unclear whether this impairment is object- or space-based in nature. We first consider the findings that support a concept of simultanagnosia as deficit of object-based attention. We then examine the evidence suggesting that simultanagnosia results from damage to a space-based attentional system, and in particular a model of simultanagnosia as a narrowed spatial window of attention. We ask whether seemingly object-based deficits can be explained by space-based mechanisms, and consider the evidence that object processing influences spatial deficits in this condition. Finally, we discuss limitations of a space-based attentional explanation.

  19. Attentional Control and Suppressing Negative Thought Intrusions in Pathological Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Elaine; Dutton, Kevin; Yates, Alan; Georgiou, George A.; Mouchlianitis, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior relies on the ability to effectively and efficiently ignore irrelevant information, an important component of attentional control. The current research found that fundamental difficulties in ignoring irrelevant material are related to dispositional differences in trait propensity to worry, suggesting a core deficit in attentional control in high worriers. The degree of deficit in attentional control correlated with the degree of difficulty in suppressing negative thought intrusions in a worry assessment task. A cognitive training procedure utilizing a flanker task was used in an attempt to improve attentional control. Although the cognitive training was largely ineffective, improvements in attentional control were associated with improvements in the ability to suppress worry-related thought intrusions. Across two studies, the findings indicate that the inability to control worry-related negative thought intrusions is associated with a general deficiency in attentional control. PMID:26504672

  20. The effect of masking in the attentional dwell time paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    A temporary functional blindness to the second of two spatially separated targets has been identified in numerous studies of temporal visual attention. This effect is known as attentional dwell time and is maximal 200 to 500 ms after presentation of the first target (e.g. Duncan, Ward, Shapiro......, 1994). In most studies of attentional dwell time, two masked targets have been used. Moore et al. (1996) have criticised the masking of the first target when measuring the attentional dwell time, finding a shorter attentional dwell time when the first mask was omitted. In the presented work, the effect...... produce an impairment of the second target. Hence, the attentional dwell time may be a combined effect arising from attending to both the first target and its mask....

  1. Attentional bias training in reducing symptoms of anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kłosowska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is related to attentional bias, i.e. a tendency to pay attention to threatening stimuli. This occurs both in individuals suffering from anxiety disorders, and in healthy individuals with elevated levels of trait anxiety. This article is an analysis of a research paradigm, used to modify attentional bias (CBM-A Cognitive Bias Modification – Attention. A growing number of studies indicate that with the help of computer methods such as a modified version of the dot-probe task we can train individuals to direct attention away from threatening stimuli, which in turn reduces symptoms of anxiety. This effect was observed in adults, adolescents and children suffering from social phobia, generalised anxiety disorder and subclinical symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Effectiveness of this method constitutes the evidence for attentional bias being among the causes of anxiety disorders. The article also analyses the still not completely clear mechanisms of CBM-A and limitations of this method.

  2. Selective and sustained attention in children with spina bifida myelomeningocele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Ida Dyhr; Habekost, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    large individual variation was evident in their performance patterns, which highlights the relevance of an effective case-based assessment method in this patient group. Overall, the study demonstrates the strengths of a new testing approach for evaluating attention function in children with SBM.......Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neural tube defect that has been related to deficits in several cognitive domains including attention. Attention function in children with SBM has often been studied using tasks that are confounded by complex motor demands or tasks that do not clearly...... distinguish perceptual from response-related components of attention. We used a verbal-report paradigm based on the Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990) and a new continuous performance test, the Dual Attention to Response Task (Dockree et al., 2006), for measuring parameters of selective and sustained...

  3. Training of Attention in Children With Low Arithmetical Achievement.

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Guarnera; Antonella D’Amico

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of attentional processes in arithmetical skills and examines if training of basic attentive skills may improve also working memory abilities reducing arithmetic difficulties. In order to study the efficacy of attentional treatment in arithmetic achievement and in enhancing working memory abilities a test-treatment-retest quasi experimental design was adopted. The research involved 14 children, attending fourth and fifth grades, with Arithmetical Learning Disabil...

  4. In search of earnings: Investor attention around earnings announcements

    OpenAIRE

    Eloranta, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: In this thesis, I study investor attention around earnings announcements through novel proxies formed from companies' Google search volumes and Wikipedia page views. Firstly, I examine the validity of these data sets as investor attention proxies and how Google and Wikipedia activity change around earnings announcements. In addition, I study whether firm characteristics or investor distraction affect the level of attention investors pay to an announcement. Finally...

  5. Object-based attentional facilitation and inhibition are neuropsychologically dissociated.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, D T; Ball, K.; Swalwell, R.; Schenk, T.

    2016-01-01

    Salient peripheral cues produce a transient shift of attention which is superseded by a sustained inhibitory effect. Cueing part of an object produces an inhibitory cueing effect (ICE) that spreads throughout the object. In dynamic scenes the ICE stays with objects as they move. We examined object-centred attentional facilitation and inhibition in a patient with visual form agnosia. There was no evidence of object-centred attentional facilitation. In contrast, object-centred ICE was observed ...

  6. The Role of Intrinsic Motivations in Attention Allocation and Shifting

    OpenAIRE

    SilviaRossi

    2014-01-01

    The concepts of attention and intrinsic motivations are of great interest within adaptive robotic systems, and can be exploited in order to guide, activate, and coordinate multiple concurrent behaviors. Attention allocation strategies represent key capabilities of human beings, which are strictly connected with action selection and execution mechanisms, while intrinsic motivations directly affect the allocation of attentional resources. In this paper we propose a model of Reinforcement Learni...

  7. The role of intrinsic motivations in attention allocation and shifting

    OpenAIRE

    Di Nocera, Dario; Finzi, Alberto; Rossi, Silvia; Staffa, Mariacarla

    2014-01-01

    The concepts of attention and intrinsic motivations are of great interest within adaptive robotic systems, and can be exploited in order to guide, activate, and coordinate multiple concurrent behaviors. Attention allocation strategies represent key capabilities of human beings, which are strictly connected with action selection and execution mechanisms, while intrinsic motivations directly affect the allocation of attentional resources. In this paper we propose a model of Reinforcement Learni...

  8. Eye gaze behavior as a measure of social attention

    OpenAIRE

    Smole, Kaja

    2014-01-01

    The thesis combined visual attention in a natural environment with behavioral observation. The aim of the thesis was to find out which factors elicit social attention. Social attention in real world settings is caught by several behaviors that are linked to socially relevant information. The hypothesis is that human motion is the basis for recognition and interpretation of social events. Gender, speed, and body motion of the people present in the scene are some of the cues that our brains use...

  9. Mechanisms of spatial and non-spatial auditory selective attention

    OpenAIRE

    Paltoglou, Aspasia Eleni

    2009-01-01

    Selective attention is a crucial function that encompasses all perceptual modalities and which enables us to focus on the behaviorally relevant information and ignore the rest. The main goal of the thesis is to test well-established hypotheses about the mechanisms of visual selective attention in the auditory domain using behavioral and neuroimaging methods. Two fMRI studies (Experiments 1 and 2) test the hypothesis of feature-specific attentional enhancement. This hypothesis states that ...

  10. ATTENTION MAINTENANCE IN NOVICE DRIVERS: ASSESSMENT AND TRAINING

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Anuj; Masserang, Kathleen M.; Divekar, Gautam; Reagan, Ian; Thomas, F. Dennis; Blomberg, Richard; Pollatsek, Alexander; Fisher, Donald

    2009-01-01

    All programs assessing attention maintenance inside the vehicle have required eye trackers and either a driving simulator or a specially equipped field vehicle. Ideally, one would like a way to assess attention maintenance that could be implemented on a desktop PC. Additionally, one would like to have a program that could be used to train novice drivers to maintain their attention more safely on the forward roadway. An experiment was run (a) to determine whether a program FOCAL (Focused Conce...

  11. Opposing effects of attention and consciousness on afterimages

    OpenAIRE

    van Boxtel, Jeroen J. A.; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Koch, Christof

    2010-01-01

    The brain's ability to handle sensory information is influenced by both selective attention and consciousness. There is no consensus on the exact relationship between these two processes and whether they are distinct. So far, no experiment has simultaneously manipulated both. We carried out a full factorial 2 × 2 study of the simultaneous influences of attention and consciousness (as assayed by visibility) on perception, correcting for possible concurrent changes in attention and consciousnes...

  12. Attenuation of Attention Bias in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, Nader; Najmi, Sadia; Morrison, Amanda S.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive theories of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) suggest that the disorder is characterized by an attention bias towards personally relevant threatening material. However, existing research on attention bias in OCD has yielded conflicting findings. One possibility that might account for the null findings is that attention bias may diminish over the course of the experiment. The present study tested this hypothesis using a visual dot-probe task with idiographic word selection. Results...

  13. CNTRICS final animal model task selection: Control of attention

    OpenAIRE

    Lustig, C.; Kozak, R; Sarter, M.; Young, J.W.; Robbins, T. W.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with impaired attention. The top-down control of attention, defined as the ability to guide and refocus attention in accordance with internal goals and representations, was identified by the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative as an important construct for task development and research. A recent CNTRICS meeting identified three tasks commonly used with rodent models as having high construct validity a...

  14. ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Purnamasari Tanoyo

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most occur neurobehavioral disorder in children, it is also chronically condition that most influence in school children, and it is a disorder of way of thinking that always find in children. ADHD is signed by decrease of attention ability, included increase of distractibilition, and difficulty to defense the attention; difficulty to stronghold impuls control; over activity and restless of motoric. The certain reason of ADHD is not know...

  15. Task specificity of attention training: the case of probability cuing

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.; Won, Bo-Yeong; Cistera, Julia D.; Rosenbaum, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Statistical regularities in our environment enhance perception and modulate the allocation of spatial attention. Surprisingly little is known about how learning-induced changes in spatial attention transfer across tasks. In this study, we investigated whether a spatial attentional bias learned in one task transfers to another. Most of the experiments began with a training phase in which a search target was more likely to be located in one quadrant of the screen than in the other quadrants. An...

  16. Emotion Facilitates Perception and Potentiates the Perceptual Benefits of Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth A. Phelps; Ling, Sam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2006-01-01

    Does emotion affect how people see? We investigated the effects of emotion and attention, as well as their conjoint effect, on contrast sensitivity, a dimension of early vision. We manipulated the emotional valence and the attentional distribution of cues preceding a target stimulus and asked observers to judge the orientation of the target as contrast varied. This study provides the first behavioral evidence that (a) emotion enhances contrast sensitivity irrespective of attention and (b) emo...

  17. Differences of monkey and human overt attention under natural conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Kruse, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Klaus-Peter; König, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys are widely used as animal models of human attention. Such research rests upon the assumption that similar mechanisms underlie attention in both species. Here, we directly compare the influence of low-level stimulus features on overt attention in monkeys and humans under natural conditions. We recorded eye-movements in humans and rhesus monkeys during free-viewing of natural images. We find that intrinsic low-level features, such luminance-contrast, texture-contrast and...

  18. Positive mood broadens visual attention to positive stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Wadlinger, Heather A.; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to investigate the impact of positive emotions on visual attention within the context of Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build model, eye tracking was used in two studies to measure visual attentional preferences of college students (n=58, n=26) to emotional pictures. Half of each sample experienced induced positive mood immediately before viewing slides of three similarly-valenced images, in varying central-peripheral arrays. Attentional breadth was determined by measuring the...

  19. Hierarchical Object-Based Visual Attention for Machine Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yaoru

    2003-01-01

    Human vision uses mechanisms of covert attention to selectively process interesting information and overt eye movements to extend this selectivity ability. Thus, visual tasks can be effectively dealt with by limited processing resources. Modelling visual attention for machine vision systems is not only critical but also challenging. In the machine vision literature there have been many conventional attention models developed but they are all space-based only and cannot perform ...

  20. Covert Shifts of Spatial Attention in the Macaque Monkey

    OpenAIRE

    Caspari, Natalie; Janssens, Thomas; Mantini, Dante; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vanduffel, Wim

    2015-01-01

    In the awake state, shifts of spatial attention alternate with periods of sustained attention at a fixed location or object. Human fMRI experiments revealed the critical role of the superior parietal lobule (SPL) in shifting spatial attention, a finding not predicted by human lesion studies and monkey electrophysiology. To investigate whether a potential homolog of the human SPL shifting region exists in monkeys (Macaca mulatta), we adopted an event-related fMRI paradigm that closely resemble...

  1. Volume Visual Attention Maps (VVAM) in ray-casting rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beristain, Andoni; Congote, John; Ruiz, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an extension visual attention maps for volume data visualization, where eye fixation points become rays in the 3D space, and the visual attention map becomes a volume. This Volume Visual Attention Map (VVAM) is used to interactively enhance a ray-casting based direct volume rendering (DVR) visualization. The practical application of this idea into the biomedical image visualization field is explored for interactive visualization. PMID:22356956

  2. The Problem of Attention Management in Innovation for Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, H.

    1995-01-01

    The problem of attention management is one of the main challenges in the transition to environmentally sustainable development paths. The design principle that attention is scarce is very different from a principle of "more information is better". This paper discusses the issue of "attention management" in various contexts, including R&D and innovation management, scientific communities, and technology policy. The question arising from this analysis is whether dependence on personal contact, ...

  3. Testing Neural Models of the Development of Infant Visual Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, John E.; Hunter, Sharon K.

    2002-01-01

    Several models of the development of infant visual attention have used information about neural development. Most of these models have been based on nonhuman animal studies and have relied on indirect measures of neural development in human infants. This article discusses methods for studying a “neurodevelopmental” model of infant visual attention using indirect and direct measures of cortical activity. We concentrate on the effect of attention on eye movement control and show how animal-base...

  4. Deficits in human visual spatial attention following thalamic lesions.

    OpenAIRE

    Rafal, R D; Posner, M I

    1987-01-01

    There has been speculation concerning the role that thalamic nuclei play in directing attention to locations in visual space [Crick, F. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 4586-4590]. We measured covert shifts of visual attention in three patients with unilateral thalamic hemorrhages shortly after the lesion and after a 6-month recovery period. The experiment measured reaction time to targets that occurred at locations to which attention had been cued (valid trials) or at a currently unatte...

  5. Emotional cuing to test attentional network functioning in trait anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Íñiguez, Consolación; Luis J Fuentes; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco; Campoy, Guillermo; Montoro, Pedro J.; Palmero Cantero, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The Attention Networks Test (ANT) has been widely used to assess the three attentional networks proposed by Posner and his collaborators. Here we present a version of the ANT that uses emotionally laden words as cues to evaluate the functioning of the attention networks and their interactions. University students participated in the task and the results replicated those found in previous studies with the original version of the test. Then, those with extreme scores on a trai...

  6. The effects of sequential attention shifts within visual working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi eLi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown conflicting data as to whether it is possible to sequentially shift spatial attention among visual working memory (VWM representations. The present study investigated this issue by asynchronously presenting attentional cues during the retention interval of a change detection task. In particular, we focused on two types of sequential attention shifts: 1 orienting attention to one location, and then withdrawing attention from it, and 2 switching the focus of attention from one location to another. In Experiment 1, a withdrawal cue was presented after a spatial retro-cue to measure the effect of withdrawing attention. The withdrawal cue significantly reduced the cost of invalid spatial cues, but surprisingly, did not attenuate the benefit of valid spatial cues. This indicates that the withdrawal cue only triggered the activation of facilitative components but not inhibitory components of attention. In Experiment 2, two spatial retro-cues were presented successively to examine the effect of switching the focus of attention. We observed benefits of both the first and second cues in sequential cueing, indicating that participants were able to reorient attention from one location to another within VWM, and the reallocation of attention did not attenuate memory at the first cued location. In Experiment 3, we found that reducing the validity of the preceding spatial cue did lead to a significant reduction in its benefit. However, performance at the first-cued location was still better than the neutral baseline or performance at the uncued locations, indicating that the first cue benefit might have been preserved both partially under automatic control and partially under voluntary control. Our findings revealed new properties of dynamic attentional control in VWM maintenance.

  7. Irrelevant stimulus processing in ADHD: catecholamine dynamics and attentional networks

    OpenAIRE

    FranciscoAboitiz; XimenaCarrasco; FranciscoZamorano; BarbaraPalma

    2014-01-01

    A cardinal symptom of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a general distractibility where children and adults shift their attentional focus to stimuli that are irrelevant to the ongoing behavior. This has been attributed to a deficit in dopaminergic signaling in cortico-striatal networks that regulate goal-directed behavior. Furthermore, recent imaging evidence points to an impairment of large scale, antagonistic brain networks that normally contribute to attentional engage...

  8. Attentional control and suppressing negative thought intrusions in pathological worry

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, E; Dutton, K; Yates, A.; Georgiou, GA; Mouchlianitis, E

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior relies on the ability to effectively and efficiently ignore irrelevant information, an important component of attentional control. The current research found that fundamental difficulties in ignoring irrelevant material are related to dispositional differences in trait propensity to worry, suggesting a core deficit in attentional control in high worriers. The degree of deficit in attentional control correlated with the degree of difficulty in suppressing negative thought int...

  9. Degraded attentional modulation of cortical neural populations in strabismic amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Chuan; Kim, Yee-Joon; Lai, Xin Jie; Verghese, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral studies have reported reduced spatial attention in amblyopia, a developmental disorder of spatial vision. However, the neural populations in the visual cortex linked with these behavioral spatial attention deficits have not been identified. Here, we use functional MRI–informed electroencephalography source imaging to measure the effect of attention on neural population activity in the visual cortex of human adult strabismic amblyopes who were stereoblind. We show that compared with...

  10. Atypical Attentional Networks and the Emergence of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Keehn, Brandon; Müller, Ralph-Axel; Townsend, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    The sociocommunicative impairments that define autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not present at birth but emerge gradually over the first two years of life. In typical development, basic attentional processes may provide a critical foundation for sociocommunicative abilities. Therefore early attentional dysfunction in ASD may result in atypical development of social communication. Prior research has demonstrated that persons with ASD exhibit early and lifelong impairments in attention. The p...

  11. Neural Effects of Auditory Distraction on Visual Attention in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Smucny, Jason; Rojas, Donald C.; Eichman, Lindsay C.; Tregellas, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Sensory flooding, particularly during auditory stimulation, is a common problem for patients with schizophrenia. The functional consequences of this impairment during cross-modal attention tasks, however, are unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine how auditory distraction differentially affects task-associated response during visual attention in patients and healthy controls. To that end, 21 outpatients with schizophrenia and 23 healthy comparison subjects performed a visual attent...

  12. Maternal DHA levels and Toddler Free-Play Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Kannass, Kathleen N.; Colombo, John; Carlson, Susan E

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels at birth and toddler free-play attention in the second year. Toddler free-play attention was assessed at 12 and 18 months, and maternal erythrocyte (red-blood cell; RBC) phospholipid DHA (percentage of total fatty acids) was measured from mothers at delivery. Overall, higher maternal DHA status at birth was associated with enhanced attentional functioning during the second year. Toddlers whose mothers had high...

  13. EEG biofeedback improves attentional bias in high trait anxiety individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Sheng; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Sijuan; Lin, Guiping; Sun, Peng; Wang, Tinghuai

    2013-01-01

    Background Emotion-related attentional bias is implicated in the aetiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback can obviously improve the anxiety disorders and reduce stress level, and can also enhance attention performance in healthy subjects. The present study examined the effects and mechanisms of EEG biofeedback training on the attentional bias of high trait anxiety (HTA) individuals toward negative stimuli. Results Event-related potentials were rec...

  14. Attention Training and the Threat Bias: An ERP Study

    OpenAIRE

    O’Toole, Laura; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety is characterized by exaggerated attention to threat. Several studies suggest that this threat bias plays a causal role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Furthermore, although the threat bias can be reduced in anxious individuals and induced in non-anxious individual, the attentional mechanisms underlying these changes remain unclear. To address this issue, 49 non-anxious adults were randomly assigned to either attentional training toward or training away from th...

  15. Training of Attention in Children With Low Arithmetical Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Guarnera; Antonella D’Amico

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of attentional processes in arithmetical skills and examines if training of basic attentive skills may improve also working memory abilities reducing arithmetic difficulties. In order to study the efficacy of attentional treatment in arithmetic achievement and in enhancing working memory abilities a test-treatment-retest quasi experimental design was adopted. The research involved 14 children, attending fourth and fifth grades, with Arithmetical Learning Disabil...

  16. Electrophysiological correlates of attention networks in childhood and early adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Abundis-Gutierrez, Alicia; Checa Fernández, Purificación; Castellanos, Concepción; Rueda Cuerva, Mª Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Attention has been related to functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control, which are associated with distinct brain networks. This study aimed at understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the development of attention functions during childhood. A total of 46 healthy 4–13-year-old children and 15 adults performed an adapted version of the Attention Network Task (ANT) while brain activation was registered with a high-density EEG system. Performance of the ANT revealed changes i...

  17. Joint attention, social cognition and recognition memory in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kwanguk Kim

    2012-01-01

    The early emerging capacity for Joint Attention, or socially coordinated visual attention, is thought to be integral to the development of social-cognition in childhood. Recent studies have also begun to suggest that joint attention affects adult cognition as well, but methodological limitations hamper research on this topic. To address this issue we developed a novel virtual reality (VR) paradigm that integrates eye-tracking and virtual avatar technology to measure two types of joint attenti...

  18. The Effect of Multimodal Trainings on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kaymak Özmen, Suna; Kafkas Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Bölümü

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effect of parent, teacher and attention training programs for daily problem behaviors of a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was analyzed through parent and teacher evaluations. To achieve this purpose, single case study was employed. At the beginning of the study, baseline data were gathered both at home and in school. When the baseline data was decided to be decisive, parent training, teacher training and attention training programs were applied c...

  19. Enhancing product label effectiveness by increasing attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    increase purchase likelihood of labeled products, attention must be guided to the label. We conducted a combined eye tracking and choice experiment manipulating the surface size and visual saliency of product labels. Results show a strong and significant increase in attention towards product labels which...... are larger and more visually salient. The effect on attention also carries over into increased purchase likelihood. Both marketers and policy makers can benefit from the methodology and findings which provide directions for designing product labels that enhance attention capture and purchase decisions....

  20. Gender differences associated with orienting attentional networks in healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gang; HU Pan-pan; FAN Jin; WANG Kai

    2013-01-01

    Background Selective attention is considered one of the main components of cognitive functioning.A number of studies have demonstrated gender differences in cognition.This study aimed to investigate the gender differences in selective attention in healthy subjects.Methods The present experiment examined the gender differences associated with the efficiency of three attentional networks:alerting,orienting,and executive control attention in 73 healthy subjects (38 males).All participants performed a modified version of the Attention Network Test (ANT).Results Females had higher orienting scores than males (t=2.172,P <0.05).Specifically,females were faster at covert orienting of attention to a spatially cued location.There were no gender differences between males and females in alerting (t=0.813,P >0.05) and executive control (t=0.945,P >0.05) attention networks.Conclusions There was a significant gender difference between males and females associated with the orienting network.Enhanced orienting attention in females may function to motivate females to direct their attention to a spatially cued location.