WorldWideScience

Sample records for attention lapses

  1. The influence of lapses of attention on working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Robison, Matthew K

    2016-02-01

    In three experiments, the influence of lapses of attention on working memory (WM) capacity measures was examined. Participants performed various change detection tasks while also reporting whether they were focused on the current task or whether they were unfocused and mind-wandering. Participants reported that they were mind-wandering roughly 27% of the time, and when participants reported mind-wandering, their performance was worse compared to when they reported being on-task. Low WM capacity individuals reported more mind-wandering and lapses of attention than high WM capacity individuals, and mind-wandering and filtering abilities were shown to make independent contributions to capacity estimates. These results provide direct support for the notion that the ability to focus attention on-task and prevent lapses of attention is an important contributor to performance on measures of WM capacity.

  2. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms are marginal. We hypothesize that basic deficits in sustaining attention explain more complex attentional dysfunction in persons with ADHD and relate to ADHD symptoms. Attentional function was analyzed by computing ex-Gaussian parameters for 3 time Blocks in a 20 min test of sustained alertness. Changes in performance across these blocks were analyzed by comparing adult persons with ADHD (n = 24) with healthy matched controls (n = 24) and correlated with neuropsychological measures of selective and divided attention as well as self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. We found a significantly steeper increase in the number of slow responses (ex-Gaussian parameter τ) in persons with ADHD with time on task in basic sustained alertness. They also performed significantly worse in tasks of sustained selective and divided attention. However, after controlling for an increase in τ during the alertness task, significant differences between groups disappeared for divided and partly selective attention. Increases in τ in the sustained alertness task correlated significantly with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. Our results provide evidence that very basic deficits in sustaining attention in adults with ADHD are related to infrequent slow responses (=attentional lapses), with changes over time being relevant for more complex attentional function and experienced ADHD symptoms in everyday life. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Attentional Lapses in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Blank Rather Than Wandering Thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Driessche, Charlotte; Bastian, Mikaël; Peyre, Hugo; Stordeur, Coline; Acquaviva, Éric; Bahadori, Sara; Delorme, Richard; Sackur, Jérôme

    2017-10-01

    People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulties sustaining their attention on external tasks. Such attentional lapses have often been characterized as the simple opposite of external sustained attention, but the different types of attentional lapses, and the subjective experiences to which they correspond, remain unspecified. In this study, we showed that unmedicated children (ages 6-12) with ADHD, when probed during a standard go/no-go task, reported more mind blanking (a mental state characterized by the absence of reportable content) than did control participants. This increase in mind blanking happened at the expense of both focused and wandering thoughts. We also found that methylphenidate reverted the level of mind blanking to baseline (i.e., the level of mind blanking reported by control children without ADHD). However, this restoration led to mind wandering more than to focused attention. In a second experiment, we extended these findings to adults who had subclinical ADHD. These results suggest that executive functions impaired in ADHD are required not only to sustain external attention but also to maintain an internal train of thought.

  4. Attention failures versus misplaced diligence: separating attention lapses from speed-accuracy trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Cheyne, James Allan; Smilek, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    In two studies of a GO-NOGO task assessing sustained attention, we examined the effects of (1) altering speed-accuracy trade-offs through instructions (emphasizing both speed and accuracy or accuracy only) and (2) auditory alerts distributed throughout the task. Instructions emphasizing accuracy reduced errors and changed the distribution of GO trial RTs. Additionally, correlations between errors and increasing RTs produced a U-function; excessively fast and slow RTs accounted for much of the variance of errors. Contrary to previous reports, alerts increased errors and RT variability. The results suggest that (1) standard instructions for sustained attention tasks, emphasizing speed and accuracy equally, produce errors arising from attempts to conform to the misleading requirement for speed, which become conflated with attention-lapse produced errors and (2) auditory alerts have complex, and sometimes deleterious, effects on attention. We argue that instructions emphasizing accuracy provide a more precise assessment of attention lapses in sustained attention tasks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Attention lapses in children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre, Gabriel G; Martin, Alba; Cervantes, Elizabeth; Guil, Rocio; Mestre, Jose M

    2017-08-01

    Attentional lapses are usually defined as temporary and often brief shifts of attention away from some primary task to unrelated internal information processing. This study addressed the incidence of attention lapses and differences in attentional functioning in 30 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 26 healthy children, and 29 children with spina bifida myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus (SBH). Assessments were conducted using computerized tonic and phasic attention tests, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Trail Making Test Form B (TMT-B). The group with SBH differed from normal controls on cognitive measures of attention and executive functions. The ADHD group obtained lower scores than the SBH group and healthy children. ANOVA results showed that there was an effect of shunt revisions and shunt-related infections on neuropsychological performance. Lapses of attention together with reaction time may thus represent important factors for the understanding of cognitive deficits in SBH.

  6. Minds "at attention": mindfulness training curbs attentional lapses in military cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amishi P Jha

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of mindfulness training (MT on attentional performance lapses associated with task-unrelated thought (i.e., mind wandering. Periods of persistent and intensive demands may compromise attention and increase off-task thinking. Here, we investigated if MT may mitigate these deleterious effects and promote cognitive resilience in military cohorts enduring a high-demand interval of predeployment training. To better understand which aspects of MT programs are most beneficial, three military cohorts were examined. Two of the three groups were provided MT. One group received an 8-hour, 8-week variant of Mindfulness-based Mind Fitness Training (MMFT emphasizing engagement in training exercises (training-focused MT, n = 40, a second group received a didactic-focused variant emphasizing content regarding stress and resilience (didactic-focused MT, n = 40, and the third group served as a no-training control (NTC, n = 24. Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART performance was indexed in all military groups and a no-training civilian group (CIV, n = 45 before (T1 and after (T2 the MT course period. Attentional performance (measured by A', a sensitivity index was lower in NTC vs. CIV at T2, suggesting that performance suffers after enduring a high-demand predeployment interval relative to a similar time period of civilian life. Yet, there were significantly fewer performance lapses in the military cohorts receiving MT relative to NTC, with training-focused MT outperforming didactic-focused MT at T2. From T1 to T2, A' degraded in NTC and didactic-focused MT but remained stable in training-focused MT and CIV. In sum, while protracted periods of high-demand military training may increase attentional performance lapses, practice-focused MT programs akin to training-focused MT may bolster attentional performance more than didactic-focused programs. As such, training-focused MT programs should be further examined in cohorts

  7. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of

  8. Global dynamics of selective attention and its lapses in primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Peter; Barczak, Annamaria; Neymotin, Samuel A; McGinnis, Tammy; Ross, Deborah; Javitt, Daniel C; O'Connell, Monica Noelle

    2016-12-01

    Previous research demonstrated that while selectively attending to relevant aspects of the external world, the brain extracts pertinent information by aligning its neuronal oscillations to key time points of stimuli or their sampling by sensory organs. This alignment mechanism is termed oscillatory entrainment. We investigated the global, long-timescale dynamics of this mechanism in the primary auditory cortex of nonhuman primates, and hypothesized that lapses of entrainment would correspond to lapses of attention. By examining electrophysiological and behavioral measures, we observed that besides the lack of entrainment by external stimuli, attentional lapses were also characterized by high-amplitude alpha oscillations, with alpha frequency structuring of neuronal ensemble and single-unit operations. Entrainment and alpha-oscillation-dominated periods were strongly anticorrelated and fluctuated rhythmically at an ultra-slow rate. Our results indicate that these two distinct brain states represent externally versus internally oriented computational resources engaged by large-scale task-positive and task-negative functional networks.

  9. The contribution of attentional lapses to individual differences in visual working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Kirsten C S; Mance, Irida; Fukuda, Keisuke; Vogel, Edward K

    2015-08-01

    Attentional control and working memory capacity are important cognitive abilities that substantially vary between individuals. Although much is known about how attentional control and working memory capacity relate to each other and to constructs like fluid intelligence, little is known about how trial-by-trial fluctuations in attentional engagement impact trial-by-trial working memory performance. Here, we employ a novel whole-report memory task that allowed us to distinguish between varying levels of attentional engagement in humans performing a working memory task. By characterizing low-performance trials, we can distinguish between models in which working memory performance failures are caused by either (1) complete lapses of attention or (2) variations in attentional control. We found that performance failures increase with set-size and strongly predict working memory capacity. Performance variability was best modeled by an attentional control model of attention, not a lapse model. We examined neural signatures of performance failures by measuring EEG activity while participants performed the whole-report task. The number of items correctly recalled in the memory task was predicted by frontal theta power, with decreased frontal theta power associated with poor performance on the task. In addition, we found that poor performance was not explained by failures of sensory encoding; the P1/N1 response and ocular artifact rates were equivalent for high- and low-performance trials. In all, we propose that attentional lapses alone cannot explain individual differences in working memory performance. Instead, we find that graded fluctuations in attentional control better explain the trial-by-trial differences in working memory that we observe.

  10. Minds “At Attention”: Mindfulness Training Curbs Attentional Lapses in Military Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Amishi P.; Morrison, Alexandra B.; Dainer-Best, Justin; Parker, Suzanne; Rostrup, Nina; Stanley, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the impact of mindfulness training (MT) on attentional performance lapses associated with task-unrelated thought (i.e., mind wandering). Periods of persistent and intensive demands may compromise attention and increase off-task thinking. Here, we investigated if MT may mitigate these deleterious effects and promote cognitive resilience in military cohorts enduring a high-demand interval of predeployment training. To better understand which aspects of MT programs are most beneficial, three military cohorts were examined. Two of the three groups were provided MT. One group received an 8-hour, 8-week variant of Mindfulness-based Mind Fitness Training (MMFT) emphasizing engagement in training exercises (training-focused MT, n = 40), a second group received a didactic-focused variant emphasizing content regarding stress and resilience (didactic-focused MT, n = 40), and the third group served as a no-training control (NTC, n = 24). Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) performance was indexed in all military groups and a no-training civilian group (CIV, n = 45) before (T1) and after (T2) the MT course period. Attentional performance (measured by A’, a sensitivity index) was lower in NTC vs. CIV at T2, suggesting that performance suffers after enduring a high-demand predeployment interval relative to a similar time period of civilian life. Yet, there were significantly fewer performance lapses in the military cohorts receiving MT relative to NTC, with training-focused MT outperforming didactic-focused MT at T2. From T1 to T2, A’ degraded in NTC and didactic-focused MT but remained stable in training-focused MT and CIV. In sum, while protracted periods of high-demand military training may increase attentional performance lapses, practice-focused MT programs akin to training-focused MT may bolster attentional performance more than didactic-focused programs. As such, training-focused MT programs should be further examined in cohorts experiencing

  11. Impaired sustained attention and lapses are present in patients with mild obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Gabriela Pontes; Guimarães, Thais Moura; Weaver, Terri E; Nery, Luiz E; E Silva, Luciana Oliveira; Badke, Luciana; Coelho, Glaury; Millani-Carneiro, Aline; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia

    2016-05-01

    Severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) directly affects the quality of life, mood, and sustained attention of individuals, but it has not yet been established in the literature, if these changes also affect patients with mild OSA. The purpose of this study was to investigate such negative effects on the parameters described above. A controlled study was held at the Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Department of Psychobiology. Thirty-nine mild OSA patients and 25 controls were included. Volunteers could be of both genders with body mass index (BMI) ≤35 kg/m(2) and age between 18 and 65 years. Both groups were subjected to full-night polysomnography (PSG), the subjective assessment of mood (Beck Inventory of Anxiety and Depression), Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), and the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) five times during the day. We considered mild OSA patients those with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) score between 5 and 15. The control group included subjects with AHI scores attention lapses compared with normal subjects.

  12. Serotonergic neurotransmission and lapses of attention in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: availability of tryptophan influences attentional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepf, Florian D; Gaber, Tilman J; Baurmann, David; Bubenzer, Sarah; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Stadler, Christina; Poustka, Fritz; Wöckel, Lars

    2010-08-01

    Deficiencies in serotonergic (5-HT) neurotransmission have frequently been linked to altered attention and memory processes. With attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) being associated with impaired attention and working memory, this study investigated the effects of a diminished 5-HT turnover achieved by rapid tryptophan depletion (RTD) on attentional performance in children and adolescents with ADHD. Twenty-two male patients with ADHD (aged 9-15 yr) received the RTD procedure Moja-De and a tryptophan (Trp)-balanced placebo (Pla) in a randomized, double-blind, within-subject crossover design on two separate study days. Lapses of attention (LA) and phasic alertness (PA) were assessed within the test battery for attentional performance under depleted and sham-depleted conditions 120 (T1), 220 (T2) and 300 (T3) min after intake of RTD/Pla. At T1 there was a significant main effect for RTD, indicating more LA under intake of a Trp-balanced Pla compared to diminished 5-HT neurotransmission. For T2/T3 there were no such effects. PA was not affected by the factors RTD/Pla and time. Interactions of 5-HT with other neurotransmitters as possible underlying neurochemical processes could be subject to further investigations involving healthy controls as regards altered attentional performance in children and adolescents.

  13. The Contribution of Attentional Lapses to Individual Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Kirsten C. S.; Mance, Irida; Fukuda, Keisuke; Vogel, Edward K.

    2015-01-01

    Attentional control and working memory capacity are important cognitive abilities that substantially vary between individuals. Although much is known about how attentional control and working memory capacity relate to each other and to constructs like fluid intelligence, little is known about how trial-by-trial fluctuations in attentional engagement impact trial-by-trial working memory performance. Here, we employ a novel whole-report memory task that allowed us to distinguish between varying...

  14. Stimulant Treatment Reduces Lapses in Attention among Children with ADHD: The Effects of Methylphenidate on Intra-Individual Response Time Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sarah V.; Hawk, Larry W., Jr.; Richards, Jerry B.; Shiels, Keri; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Waxmonsky, James G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that intra-individual variability in reaction time (RT) distributions of children with ADHD is characterized by a particularly large rightward skew that may reflect lapses in attention. The purpose of the study was to provide the first randomized, placebo-controlled test of the effects of the stimulant methylphenidate…

  15. Age Differences in Attention Lapses Mask Age Differences in Memory Failures: A Methodological Note on Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    James Allan Cheyne; Jonathan S. A. Carriere; Dan eSmilek

    2013-01-01

    Although objective measures of memory performance typically indicate memory declines with age, self-reported memory failures often show no relation to age. In contrast, self-reported attention failures are reliably negatively correlated with age. This contrast suggests the possibility that age-related awareness and reporting of memory failures might be masked by a concurrent decrease in attention failures, which would reduce encoding failures with age and hence reduce perceived memory failure...

  16. Sit still and pay attention: Using the Wii Balance-Board to detect lapses in concentration in children during psychophysical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Pete R

    2018-05-16

    During psychophysical testing, a loss of concentration can cause observers to answer incorrectly, even when the stimulus is clearly perceptible. Such lapses limit the accuracy and speed of many psychophysical measurements. This study evaluates an automated technique for detecting lapses based on body movement (postural instability). Thirty-five children (8-11 years of age) and 34 adults performed a typical psychophysical task (orientation discrimination) while seated on a Wii Fit Balance Board: a gaming device that measures center of pressure (CoP). Incorrect responses on suprathreshold catch trials provided the "reference standard" measure of when lapses in concentration occurred. Children exhibited significantly greater variability in CoP on lapse trials, indicating that postural instability provides a feasible, real-time index of concentration. Limitations and potential applications of this method are discussed.

  17. Selective neuronal lapses precede human cognitive lapses following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Yuval; Andrillon, Thomas; Marmelshtein, Amit; Suthana, Nanthia; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio; Fried, Itzhak

    2017-12-01

    Sleep deprivation is a major source of morbidity with widespread health effects, including increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, heart attack, and stroke. Moreover, sleep deprivation brings about vehicle accidents and medical errors and is therefore an urgent topic of investigation. During sleep deprivation, homeostatic and circadian processes interact to build up sleep pressure, which results in slow behavioral performance (cognitive lapses) typically attributed to attentional thalamic and frontoparietal circuits, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, through study of electroencephalograms (EEGs) in humans and local field potentials (LFPs) in nonhuman primates and rodents it was found that, during sleep deprivation, regional 'sleep-like' slow and theta (slow/theta) waves co-occur with impaired behavioral performance during wakefulness. Here we used intracranial electrodes to record single-neuron activities and LFPs in human neurosurgical patients performing a face/nonface categorization psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) over multiple experimental sessions, including a session after full-night sleep deprivation. We find that, just before cognitive lapses, the selective spiking responses of individual neurons in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) are attenuated, delayed, and lengthened. These 'neuronal lapses' are evident on a trial-by-trial basis when comparing the slowest behavioral PVT reaction times to the fastest. Furthermore, during cognitive lapses, LFPs exhibit a relative local increase in slow/theta activity that is correlated with degraded single-neuron responses and with baseline theta activity. Our results show that cognitive lapses involve local state-dependent changes in neuronal activity already present in the MTL.

  18. Functional Imaging of Audio-Visual Selective Attention in Monkeys and Humans: How do Lapses in Monkey Performance Affect Cross-Species Correspondences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Teemu; Muers, Ross S; Salo, Emma; Slater, Heather; Petkov, Christopher I

    2017-06-01

    The cross-species correspondences and differences in how attention modulates brain responses in humans and animal models are poorly understood. We trained 2 monkeys to perform an audio-visual selective attention task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), rewarding them to attend to stimuli in one modality while ignoring those in the other. Monkey fMRI identified regions strongly modulated by auditory or visual attention. Surprisingly, auditory attention-related modulations were much more restricted in monkeys than humans performing the same tasks during fMRI. Further analyses ruled out trivial explanations, suggesting that labile selective-attention performance was associated with inhomogeneous modulations in wide cortical regions in the monkeys. The findings provide initial insights into how audio-visual selective attention modulates the primate brain, identify sources for "lost" attention effects in monkeys, and carry implications for modeling the neurobiology of human cognition with nonhuman animals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Functional Imaging of Audio–Visual Selective Attention in Monkeys and Humans: How do Lapses in Monkey Performance Affect Cross-Species Correspondences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muers, Ross S.; Salo, Emma; Slater, Heather; Petkov, Christopher I.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The cross-species correspondences and differences in how attention modulates brain responses in humans and animal models are poorly understood. We trained 2 monkeys to perform an audio–visual selective attention task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), rewarding them to attend to stimuli in one modality while ignoring those in the other. Monkey fMRI identified regions strongly modulated by auditory or visual attention. Surprisingly, auditory attention-related modulations were much more restricted in monkeys than humans performing the same tasks during fMRI. Further analyses ruled out trivial explanations, suggesting that labile selective-attention performance was associated with inhomogeneous modulations in wide cortical regions in the monkeys. The findings provide initial insights into how audio–visual selective attention modulates the primate brain, identify sources for “lost” attention effects in monkeys, and carry implications for modeling the neurobiology of human cognition with nonhuman animals. PMID:28419201

  20. Lapse rate modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Giovanni, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    prepayment models for mortgage backed securities, this paper builds a Rational Expectation (RE) model describing the policyholders' behavior in lapsing the contract. A market model with stochastic interest rates is considered, and the pricing is carried out through numerical approximation...

  1. Lapse Rate Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Giovanni, Domenico

    prepayment models for mortgage backed securities, this paper builds a Rational Expectation (RE) model describing the policyholders' behavior in lapsing the contract. A market model with stochastic interest rates is considered, and the pricing is carried out through numerical approximation...

  2. Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Patrick M; Terry, Alvin V

    2015-01-01

    The ability to focus one's attention on important environmental stimuli while ignoring irrelevant stimuli is fundamental to human cognition and intellectual function. Attention is inextricably linked to perception, learning and memory, and executive function; however, it is often impaired in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Accordingly, attention is considered as an important therapeutic target in these disorders. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the most common behavioral paradigms of attention that have been used in animals (particularly rodents) and to review the literature where these tasks have been employed to elucidate neurobiological substrates of attention as well as to evaluate novel pharmacological agents for their potential as treatments for disorders of attention. These paradigms include two tasks of sustained attention that were developed as rodent analogues of the human Continuous Performance Task (CPT), the Five-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT) and the more recently introduced Five-Choice Continuous Performance Task (5C-CPT), and the Signal Detection Task (SDT) which was designed to emphasize temporal components of attention.

  3. Challenge and Error: Critical Events and Attention-Related Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, James Allan; Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Solman, Grayden J. F.; Smilek, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Attention lapses resulting from reactivity to task challenges and their consequences constitute a pervasive factor affecting everyday performance errors and accidents. A bidirectional model of attention lapses (error [image omitted] attention-lapse: Cheyne, Solman, Carriere, & Smilek, 2009) argues that errors beget errors by generating attention…

  4. A-3 Construction Time Lapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A time lapse from start to finish of steel erection for the 235-foot tall A-3 Test Stand. Ground work for the stand was broken in August 2008 and the final structural steel beam was placed April 9, 2009.

  5. Nähtamatud lapsed / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    UNICEFi palvel valmistasid kaheksa tuntud režissööri kassett-filmi maailma kannatavatest lastest "Kõik nähtamatud lapsed" ("All the Invisible Children") : Prantsusmaa - Itaalia 2005. Film on Sõpruse kino kavas

  6. Power-law-lapse time gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, R.T.

    1988-01-01

    The choice of time function for cosmological solutions of gravitational field equations is related to the action of the group of independent scale transformations of the unit of length along orthogonal spatial directions. This is accomplished by the introduction of lapse functions which depend explicitly on the spatial metric in an appropriately defined power-law fashion. The resulting power-law-lapse time gauges are the key to producing nearly all exact solutions of the class of models for which the field equations reduce to ordinary differential equations

  7. Lapse varajastest sotsialiseerumisvõimalustest / Inna Järva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järva, Inna

    1998-01-01

    Suhtlemine oma ema või täiskasvanutega on lapse üldise psüühilise arengu tähtsaim faktor. Ema ja lapse suhted sotsiaalsete teooriate valguses, lapse varajased sotsialiseerumise võimalused väikelaste mängukoolide kaudu (Ave Kumpase väikelapse mängukool)

  8. Predicting the Initial Lapse Using a Mobile Health Application after Alcohol Detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chih, Ming-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The prediction and prevention of the initial lapse--which is defined as the first lapse after a period of abstinence--is important because the initial lapse often leads to subsequent lapses (within the same lapse episode) or relapse. The prediction of the initial lapse may allow preemptive intervention to be possible. This dissertation reports on…

  9. Predictors of smoking lapse in a human laboratory paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Daniel J O; Bujarski, Spencer; Moallem, Nathasha R; Guzman, Iris; Shapiro, Jenessa R; Ray, Lara A

    2014-07-01

    During a smoking quit attempt, a single smoking lapse is highly predictive of future relapse. While several risk factors for a smoking lapse have been identified during clinical trials, a laboratory model of lapse was until recently unavailable and, therefore, it is unclear whether these characteristics also convey risk for lapse in a laboratory environment. The primary study goal was to examine whether real-world risk factors of lapse are also predictive of smoking behavior in a laboratory model of smoking lapse. After overnight abstinence, 77 smokers completed the McKee smoking lapse task, in which they were presented with the choice of smoking or delaying in exchange for monetary reinforcement. Primary outcome measures were the latency to initiate smoking behavior and the number of cigarettes smoked during the lapse. Several baseline measures of smoking behavior, mood, and individual traits were examined as predictive factors. Craving to relieve the discomfort of withdrawal, withdrawal severity, and tension level were negatively predictive of latency to smoke. In contrast, average number of cigarettes smoked per day, withdrawal severity, level of nicotine dependence, craving for the positive effects of smoking, and craving to relieve the discomfort of withdrawal were positively predictive of number of cigarettes smoked. The results suggest that real-world risk factors for smoking lapse are also predictive of smoking behavior in a laboratory model of lapse. Future studies using the McKee lapse task should account for between subject differences in the unique factors that independently predict each outcome measure.

  10. Time-Lapse Measurement of Wellbore Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguid, A.

    2017-12-01

    Well integrity is becoming more important as wells are used longer or repurposed. For CO2, shale gas, and other projects it has become apparent that wells represent the most likely unintended migration pathway for fluids out of the reservoir. Comprehensive logging programs have been employed to determine the condition of legacy wells in North America. These studies provide examples of assessment technologies. Logging programs have included pulsed neutron logging, ultrasonic well mapping, and cement bond logging. While these studies provide examples of what can be measured, they have only conducted a single round of logging and cannot show if the well has changed over time. Recent experience with time-lapse logging of three monitoring wells at a US Department of Energy sponsored CO2 project has shown the full value of similar tools. Time-lapse logging has shown that well integrity changes over time can be identified. It has also shown that the inclusion of and location of monitoring technologies in the well and the choice of construction materials must be carefully considered. Two of the wells were approximately eight years old at the time of study; they were constructed with steel and fiberglass casing sections and had lines on the outside of the casing running to the surface. The third well was 68 years old when it was studied and was originally constructed as a production well. Repeat logs were collected six or eight years after initial logging. Time-lapse logging showed the evolution of the wells. The results identified locations where cement degraded over time and locations that showed little change. The ultrasonic well maps show clearly that the lines used to connect the monitoring technology to the surface are visible and have a local effect on cement isolation. Testing and sampling was conducted along with logging. It provided insight into changes identified in the time-lapse log results. Point permeability testing was used to provide an in-situ point

  11. Lapse in Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Continuing Reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Fu Tsan

    Full Text Available The United States federal animal welfare regulations and the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals require that institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs conduct continuing reviews of all animal research activities. However, little is known about the lapse rate of IACUC continuing reviews, and how frequently investigators continue research activities during the lapse. It is also not clear what factors may contribute to an institution's lapse in IACUC continuing reviews. As part of the quality assurance program, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA has collected performance metric data for animal care and use programs since 2011. We analyzed IACUC continuing review performance data at 74-75 VA research facilities from 2011 through 2015. The IACUC continuing review lapse rates improved from 5.6% in 2011 to 2.7% in 2015. The rate of investigators continuing research activities during the lapse also decreased from 47.2% in 2012 to 7.4% in 2015. The type of IACUCs used and the size of animal research programs appeared to have no effect in facility's rates of lapse in IACUC continuing reviews. While approximately 80% of facilities reported no lapse in IACUC continuing reviews, approximately 14% of facilities had lapse rates of >10% each year. Some facilities appeared to be repeat offenders. Four facilities had IACUC lapse rates of >10% in at least 3 out of 5 years, suggesting a system problem in these facilities requiring remedial actions to improve their IACUC continuing review processes.

  12. The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomis, S.E.; Russell, J.M.; Verschuren, D.; Morrill, C.; De Cort, G.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Olago, D.; Eggermont, H.; Street-Perrott, F.A.; Kelly, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become lesssteep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountainenvironments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate

  13. Lapse ülalpidamise hind / Ene-Margit Tiit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tiit, Ene-Margit, 1934-

    2005-01-01

    Tutvustav artikkel sotsiaalministeeriumi tellimusel läbiviidud uuringust, mille eesmärgiks oli välja töötada lapse kõikidest vajadustest lähtuv ühtne metoodika lapse ülalpidamiskulude arvutamiseks ühes kuus. Tabelid. Diagrammid. Vt. ka lk. 15-16: Kaplan, Signe. Metoodika kasutamisvõimalusi

  14. The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomis, Shannon E; Russell, James M; Verschuren, Dirk; Morrill, Carrie; De Cort, Gijs; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Olago, Daniel; Eggermont, Hilde; Street-Perrott, F Alayne; Kelly, Meredith A

    The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become less steep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountain environments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate

  15. Time-Lapse Videos for Physics Education: Specific Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter

    2018-01-01

    There are many physics experiments with long time scales such that they are usually neither shown in the physics class room nor in student labs. However, they can be easily recorded with time-lapse cameras and the respective time-lapse videos allow qualitative and/or quantitative analysis of the underlying physics. Here, we present some examples…

  16. Susceptibility of memory consolidation during lapses in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Vincenzo; O'Shea, Michael; Benjamin, Paul R; Kemenes, Ildikó

    2013-01-01

    Memories that can be recalled several hours after learning may paradoxically become inaccessible for brief periods after their formation. This raises major questions about the function of these early memory lapses in the structure of memory consolidation. These questions are difficult to investigate because of the lack of information on the precise timing of lapses. However, the use of a single-trial conditioning paradigm in Lymnaea solves this problem. Here we use electrophysiological and behavioural experiments to reveal lapses in memory recall at 30 min and 2 h post conditioning. We show that only during these lapses is consolidation of long-term memory susceptible to interruption by external disturbance. These shared time points of memory lapse and susceptibility correspond to transitions between different phases of memory that have different molecular requirements. We propose that during periods of molecular transition memory recall is weakened, allowing novel sensory cues to block the consolidation of long-term memory.

  17. Time-lapse reveals that osteoclasts can move across the bone surface while resorbing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Kent; Delaissé, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    , clear real-time observations are still lacking. Herein, we used specific markers and time-lapse to monitor live the spatiotemporal generation of resorption events by osteoclasts cultured on bone slices. In accordance with the current view, we found alternating episodes of resorption and migration...... trenches. Compared to pit events, trench events show properties enabling higher aggressiveness: long duration (days), high erosion speed (two times faster) and long-distance erosion (several 100 µm). Simultaneous resorption and migration reflect a unique situation where epithelial/secretory and mesenchymal....../migratory characteristics are integrated into just one cell phenotype, and deserves attention in future research....

  18. Time-lapse videos for physics education: specific examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter

    2018-05-01

    There are many physics experiments with long time scales such that they are usually neither shown in the physics class room nor in student labs. However, they can be easily recorded with time-lapse cameras and the respective time-lapse videos allow qualitative and/or quantitative analysis of the underlying physics. Here, we present some examples from thermal physics (melting, evaporation, cooling) as well as diffusion processes

  19. Susceptibility of memory consolidation during lapses in recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Vincenzo; O’Shea, Michael; Benjamin, Paul R.; Kemenes, Ildikó

    2013-01-01

    Memories that can be recalled several hours after learning may paradoxically become inaccessible for brief periods after their formation. This raises major questions about the function of these early memory lapses in the structure of memory consolidation. These questions are difficult to investigate because of the lack of information on the precise timing of lapses. However, the use of a single-trial conditioning paradigm in Lymnaea solves this problem. Here we use electrophysiological and behavioural experiments to reveal lapses in memory recall at 30 min and 2 h post conditioning. We show that only during these lapses is consolidation of long-term memory susceptible to interruption by external disturbance. These shared time points of memory lapse and susceptibility correspond to transitions between different phases of memory that have different molecular requirements. We propose that during periods of molecular transition memory recall is weakened, allowing novel sensory cues to block the consolidation of long-term memory. PMID:23481386

  20. Lapse parimate huvide kaitse lapseröövi menetluses : [magistritöö] / Reeli Tambek ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Maarja Torga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tambek, Reeli

    2012-01-01

    Lapse parimatest huvidest, kahe Euroopa suurima kohtu erinevast praktikast ja sellest tingitud ohtudest, õige tasakaalu saavutamise vajadusest ning viisidest lapse parimate huvide ja lapse tagastamise kohustuse vahel

  1. Kohtu loal lapse nimel tehingute tegemine krediidiasutuses : [magistritöö] / Merily Saar ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Triin Göttig

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Merily, 1987-

    2013-01-01

    Varahooldusõigusest tulenevast lapse vara säilitamise kohustusest, perekonnaseadusest tulenevatest piirangutest vanema poolt lapse esindajana tehingute tegemisel, lapse nimel väärtpaberitehingute tegemisest

  2. TimeLapseAnalyzer: Multi-target analysis for live-cell imaging and time-lapse microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huth, Johannes; Buchholz, Malte; Kraus, Johann M.

    2011-01-01

    The direct observation of cells over time using time-lapse microscopy can provide deep insights into many important biological processes. Reliable analyses of motility, proliferation, invasive potential or mortality of cells are essential to many studies involving live cell imaging and can aid in...... counting and tube formation analysis in high throughput screening of live-cell experiments. TimeLapseAnalyzer is freely available (MATLAB, Open Source) at http://www.informatik.uniulm. de/ni/mitarbeiter/HKestler/tla......., we developed TimeLapseAnalyzer. Apart from general purpose image enhancements and segmentation procedures, this extensible, self-contained, modular cross-platform package provides dedicated modalities for fast and reliable analysis of multi-target cell tracking, scratch wound healing analysis, cell...

  3. Time-lapse controlled-source electromagnetics using interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunziker, J.W.; Slob, E.C.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.

    In time-lapse controlled-source electromagnetics, it is crucial that the source and the receivers are positioned at exactly the same location at all times of measurement. We use interferometry by multidimensional deconvolution (MDD) to overcome problems in repeatability of the source location.

  4. Andeka lapse arengukeskkond ja toimetulek koolis / Helle Sikka

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikka, Helle

    2001-01-01

    Andekuse mõistest ja selle arengust, andeka lapse isiksuseomadustest. 1998-2000.a. läbi viidud küsitlusuuringust, mille eesmärgiks oli selgitada andekate laste koolimeeldivust, hinnanguid õpetajatele, õpilaste asendit kaaslaste seas, õpilaste arvamusi oma isiksuseomaduste kohta ning andekate harrastusi ja huvisid

  5. Financial Barriers and Lapses in Treatment and Care of HIV-Infected Adults in a Southern State in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, David A; Kuwahara, Rita K; Javadi, Kamran; Kirby, Christine; Rosen, David L; Napravnik, Sonia; Farel, Claire

    2017-11-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) adherence has largely been considered from the perspective of an individual's behavior with less attention given to potential structural causes for lapses in treatment, such as the cost of medications and care. HIV medication expense is typically covered by third party payers. However, private insurance premiums and deductibles may rise, or policies terminated such as with a change in employment. Likewise, a patient's eligibility for publicly funded coverage like state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAP) or Medicaid can also be lost. We conducted a one-time survey of a sample of 300 patients receiving HIV care at a single large academic center in the south of United States to examine lapses in HIV therapy due to financial reasons. We found that during the prior year, financial issues including medication cost or coverage led to a lapse in ARVs in 10% (n = 31) of participants. However, of the 42% (n = 125) participants who had been enrolled in ADAP at any time during the prior year, 21% (n = 26) reported an ARV lapse due to problems with ADAP or medication cost. Respondents cited ADAP's required semi-annual renewal process and other administrative issues as the cause of ARV lapses. The median duration of missed ARVs was 2 weeks (range of financial burdens to care by respondents. In conclusion, although conducted at a single medical center and one state, this study suggests that a significant minority of HIV-infected patients encounter financial barriers to ARV access, and this is paradoxically more common among those enrolled in the state ADAP. Streamlining, supporting, and simplifying ADAP renewal procedures will likely reduce lapses in ARV adherence and persistence.

  6. Attention to Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael Eric

    In these years digital media and wireless networks are introduced in upper secondary schools in Denmark. This implies new “attentional objects” like updates on Facebook or tweets on Twitter within instant reach of the pupils and teachers. Also it implies new kinds of attention (awareness) like when...... pupils try to listen to the teacher and simultaneously participate in online games. To this new social setting the teachers has reacted with either prohibition or unconcern. What has not been realised is that the introduction of new media profoundly challenges the way attention hitherto has functioned...... as a psychic prerequisite for the social interaction between pupils and teachers. New kinds of “split attention” arise and new kinds of social mediation (regulation and “use”) of psychic attention become necessary if teaching in the new digital medium milieu shall be beneficial. In this paper we qualify...

  7. Are lapsed donors willing to resume blood donation, and what determines their motivation to do so?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Anne; Abraham, Charles; Ruiter, Robert A C; Schaalma, Herman P; de Kort, Wim L A M; Dijkstra, J Anneke; Veldhuizen, Ingrid J T

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the possibility of rerecruiting lapsed blood donors. Reasons for donation cessation, motivation to restart donation, and modifiable components of donation motivation were examined. We distinguished between lapsed donors who had passively withdrawn by merely not responding to donation invitations and donors who had contacted the blood bank to actively withdraw. A cross-sectional survey was sent to 400 actively lapsed donors and to 400 passively lapsed donors, measuring intention to restart donation and psychological correlates of restart intention. The data were analyzed using multiple regression analyses. The response rate among actively lapsed donors was higher than among passively lapsed donors (37% vs. 25%). Actively lapsed donors typically ceased donating because of physical reactions, while passively lapsed donors quit because of a busy lifestyle. Nonetheless, 51% of actively lapsed responders and 80% of passively lapsed responders were willing to restart donations. Multiple regression analysis showed that, for passively lapsed donors, cognitive attitude was the strongest correlate of intention to donate in the future (β=0.605, pattitude (β=0.239, pattitude was also the strongest correlate of intention (β=0.601, pattitude (β=0.345, pattitudes and self-efficacy could further raise such intentions. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  8. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Anita D; Jacobson, Lisa A; Wexler, Joanna L; Nebel, Mary Beth; Caffo, Brian S; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain-behavior associations with attentional control measures were examined for the late-developing CON and DMN in 50 children with ADHD and 50 typically-developing (TD) controls (ages 8-12 years). Children with ADHD had hyper-connectivity both within the CON and within the DMN. Full-brain behavioral associations were found for a number of between-network connections. Across both groups, more anti-correlation between DMN and occipital cortex supported better attentional control. However, in the TD group, this brain-behavior association was stronger and occurred for a more extensive set of DMN-occipital connections. Differential support for attentional control between the two groups occurred with a number of CON-DMN connections. For all CON-DMN connections identified, increased between-network anti-correlation was associated with better attentional control for the ADHD group, but worse attentional control in the TD group. A number of between-network connections with the medial frontal cortex, in particular, showed this relationship. Follow-up analyses revealed that these associations were specific to attentional control and were not due to individual differences in working memory, IQ, motor control, age, or scan motion. While CON-DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON-DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other

  9. Calibrating vadose zone models with time-lapse gravity data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars; Binning, Philip John; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The vadose zone plays an important role in the hydrologic cycle. Various geophysical methods can determine soil water content variations in time and space in volumes ranging from a few cubic centimeters to several cubic meters. In contrast to the established methods, time-lapse gravity measurements...... of changes in soil water content do not rely on a petrophysical relationship between the measured quantity and the water content but give a direct measure of the mass change in the soil. Only recently has the vadose zone been systematically incorporated when ground-based gravity data are used to infer...... hydrologic information. In this study, changes in the soil water content gave rise to a measurable signal in a forced infiltration experiment on a 107-m2 grassland area. Time-lapse gravity data were able to constrain the van Genuchten soil hydraulic parameters in both a synthetic example and a field...

  10. Definition of "banner clouds" based on time lapse movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Schween

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Banner clouds appear on the leeward side of a mountain and resemble a banner or a flag. This article provides a comprehensive definition of "banner clouds". It is based primarily on an extensive collection of time lapse movies, but previous attempts at an explanation of this phenomenon are also taken into account. The following ingredients are considered essential: the cloud must be attached to the mountain but not appear on the windward side; the cloud must originate from condensation of water vapour contained in the air (rather than consist of blowing snow; the cloud must be persistent; and the cloud must not be of convective nature. The definition is illustrated and discussed with the help of still images and time lapse movies taken at Mount Zugspitze in the Bavarian Alps.

  11. Definition of "banner clouds" based on time lapse movies

    OpenAIRE

    Schween , J. H.; Kuettner , J.; Reinert , D.; Reuder , J.; Wirth , V.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Banner clouds appear on the leeward side of a mountain and resemble a banner or a flag. This article provides a comprehensive definition of "banner clouds". It is based primarily on an extensive collection of time lapse movies, but previous attempts at an explanation of this phenomenon are also taken into account. The following ingredients are considered essential: the cloud must be attached to the mountain but not appear on the windward side; the cloud must originate ...

  12. Findings of negligence followed communication lapses in BC aneurysm case

    OpenAIRE

    Capen, K

    1997-01-01

    Negligence is sometimes established on the basis of lapses in communication and patient care management that, in hindsight, could have been avoided. A recent BC court case concerned a patient who died because of a ruptured aneurysm. A Supreme Court judge found that some of the physicians involved had failed in their duty to diagnose the patient's condition properly, or failed to communicate to one another significant signs of the patient's illness, and failed to refer him in time to the medic...

  13. Time-lapse Raman imaging of osteoblast differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Aya; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori; Chiu, Liang-Da; Morimoto, Chiaki; Fujita, Katsumasa; Takedachi, Masahide; Kawata, Satoshi; Murakami, Shinya; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2015-07-01

    Osteoblastic mineralization occurs during the early stages of bone formation. During this mineralization, hydroxyapatite (HA), a major component of bone, is synthesized, generating hard tissue. Many of the mechanisms driving biomineralization remain unclear because the traditional biochemical assays used to investigate them are destructive techniques incompatible with viable cells. To determine the temporal changes in mineralization-related biomolecules at mineralization spots, we performed time-lapse Raman imaging of mouse osteoblasts at a subcellular resolution throughout the mineralization process. Raman imaging enabled us to analyze the dynamics of the related biomolecules at mineralization spots throughout the entire process of mineralization. Here, we stimulated KUSA-A1 cells to differentiate into osteoblasts and conducted time-lapse Raman imaging on them every 4 hours for 24 hours, beginning 5 days after the stimulation. The HA and cytochrome c Raman bands were used as markers for osteoblastic mineralization and apoptosis. From the Raman images successfully acquired throughout the mineralization process, we found that β-carotene acts as a biomarker that indicates the initiation of osteoblastic mineralization. A fluctuation of cytochrome c concentration, which indicates cell apoptosis, was also observed during mineralization. We expect time-lapse Raman imaging to help us to further elucidate osteoblastic mineralization mechanisms that have previously been unobservable.

  14. Distinct coping strategies differentially predict urge levels and lapses in a smoking cessation attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S; Znoj, Hansjörg

    2013-06-01

    This study analysed mechanisms through which stress-coping and temptation-coping strategies were associated with lapses. Furthermore, we explored whether distinct coping strategies differentially predicted reduced lapse risk, lower urge levels, or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses during the first week of an unassisted smoking cessation attempt. Participants were recruited via the internet and mass media in Switzerland. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) with mobile devices was used to assess urge levels and lapses. Online questionnaires were used to measure smoking behaviours and coping variables at baseline, as well as smoking behaviour at the three-month follow-up. The sample consisted of 243 individuals, aged 20 to 40, who reported 4199 observations. Findings of multilevel regression analyses show that coping was mainly associated with a reduced lapse risk and not with lower urge levels or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses. 'Calming down' and 'commitment to change' predicted a lower lapse risk and also a weaker relation between urge levels and lapses. 'Stimulus control' predicted a lower lapse risk and lower urge levels. Conversely, 'task-orientation' and 'risk assessment' were related to higher lapse risk and 'risk assessment' also to higher urge levels. Disengagement coping i.e. 'eating or shopping', 'distraction', and 'mobilising social support' did not affect lapse risk. Promising coping strategies during the initial stage of smoking cessation attempt are targeted directly at reducing the lapse risk and are characterised by engagement with the stressor or one's reactions towards the stressor and a focus on positive consequences instead of health risks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Predictors of lapse in first week of smoking abstinence in PTSD and non-PTSD smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S; Dennis, Michelle F; Wilson, Sarah M; Dedert, Eric A

    2013-06-01

    Retrospective research suggests smokers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) lapse more quickly after their quit date. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) research is needed to confirm the presence of early smoking lapse in PTSD and form conceptualizations that inform intervention. Smokers with (n = 55) and without (n = 52) PTSD completed alarm-prompted EMA of situational and psychiatric variables the week before and after a quit date, and self-initiated EMA following smoking lapses. Blood samples at baseline and on the quit date allowed assessment of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA(S)). PTSD was related to shorter time to lapse (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.677, 95% CI: 1.106-2.544). Increased smoking abstinence self-efficacy was related to longer time to lapse (HR = 0.608, 95% CI: 0.430-0.860). Analyses of participants' real-time reports revealed that smokers with PTSD were more likely to attribute first-time lapses to negative affect ( = 5.412, p = .020), and trauma reminders (Fisher's exact p = .003**). Finally, the quit date decrease in DHEA(S) was related to shorter time to lapse (HR = 1.009, 95% CI: 1.000-1.018, p smoking lapse in PTSD, and add to evidence that early lapse occasions are more strongly related to trauma reminders, negative affect, and cravings in smokers with PTSD.

  16. Interferometric full-waveform inversion of time-lapse data

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Mrinal

    2017-08-17

    One of the key challenges associated with time-lapse surveys is ensuring the repeatability between the baseline and monitor surveys. Non-repeatability between the surveys is caused by varying environmental conditions over the course of different surveys. To overcome this challenge, we propose the use of interferometric full waveform inversion (IFWI) for inverting the velocity model from data recorded by baseline and monitor surveys. A known reflector is used as the reference reflector for IFWI, and the data are naturally redatumed to this reference reflector using natural reflections as the redatuming operator. This natural redatuming mitigates the artifacts introduced by the repeatability errors that originate above the reference reflector.

  17. Does Response Variability Predict Distractibility among Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Zachary W.; Roberts, Walter M.; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Increased intraindividual variability in response time (RTSD) has been observed reliably in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and has often been used as a measure of inattention. RTSD is assumed to reflect attentional lapses and distractibility, though evidence for the validity of this connection is lacking. We assessed whether RTSD…

  18. Predictive modeling of addiction lapses in a mobile health application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chih, Ming-Yuan; Patton, Timothy; McTavish, Fiona M; Isham, Andrew J; Judkins-Fisher, Chris L; Atwood, Amy K; Gustafson, David H

    2014-01-01

    The chronically relapsing nature of alcoholism leads to substantial personal, family, and societal costs. Addiction-comprehensive health enhancement support system (A-CHESS) is a smartphone application that aims to reduce relapse. To offer targeted support to patients who are at risk of lapses within the coming week, a Bayesian network model to predict such events was constructed using responses on 2,934 weekly surveys (called the Weekly Check-in) from 152 alcohol-dependent individuals who recently completed residential treatment. The Weekly Check-in is a self-monitoring service, provided in A-CHESS, to track patients' recovery progress. The model showed good predictability, with the area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.829 in the 10-fold cross-validation and 0.912 in the external validation. The sensitivity/specificity table assists the tradeoff decisions necessary to apply the model in practice. This study moves us closer to the goal of providing lapse prediction so that patients might receive more targeted and timely support. © 2013.

  19. Exploring Time-Lapse Photography as a Means for Qualitative Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persohn, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Collecting information via time-lapse photography is nothing new. Scientists and artists have been using this kind of data since the late 1800s. However, my research and experiments with time-lapse have shown that great potential may lie in its application to educational and social scientific research methods. This article is part history, part…

  20. Capturing change: the duality of time-lapse imagery to acquire data and depict ecological dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinley Buckley, Emma M.; Allen, Craig R.; Forsberg, Michael; Farrell, Michael; Caven, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the scientific and communicative value of time-lapse imagery by exploring applications for data collection and visualization. Time-lapse imagery has a myriad of possible applications to study and depict ecosystems and can operate at unique temporal and spatial scales to bridge the gap between large-scale satellite imagery projects and observational field research. Time-lapse data sequences, linking time-lapse imagery with data visualization, have the ability to make data come alive for a wider audience by connecting abstract numbers to images that root data in time and place. Utilizing imagery from the Platte Basin Timelapse Project, water inundation and vegetation phenology metrics are quantified via image analysis and then paired with passive monitoring data, including streamflow and water chemistry. Dynamic and interactive time-lapse data sequences elucidate the visible and invisible ecological dynamics of a significantly altered yet internationally important river system in central Nebraska.

  1. Capturing change: the duality of time-lapse imagery to acquire data and depict ecological dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma M. Brinley Buckley

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the scientific and communicative value of time-lapse imagery by exploring applications for data collection and visualization. Time-lapse imagery has a myriad of possible applications to study and depict ecosystems and can operate at unique temporal and spatial scales to bridge the gap between large-scale satellite imagery projects and observational field research. Time-lapse data sequences, linking time-lapse imagery with data visualization, have the ability to make data come alive for a wider audience by connecting abstract numbers to images that root data in time and place. Utilizing imagery from the Platte Basin Timelapse Project, water inundation and vegetation phenology metrics are quantified via image analysis and then paired with passive monitoring data, including streamflow and water chemistry. Dynamic and interactive time-lapse data sequences elucidate the visible and invisible ecological dynamics of a significantly altered yet internationally important river system in central Nebraska.

  2. Application of Machine Learning to Predict Dietary Lapses During Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Stephanie P; Zhang, Fengqing; Thomas, John G; Butryn, Meghan L; Herbert, James D; Forman, Evan M

    2018-05-01

    Individuals who adhere to dietary guidelines provided during weight loss interventions tend to be more successful with weight control. Any deviation from dietary guidelines can be referred to as a "lapse." There is a growing body of research showing that lapses are predictable using a variety of physiological, environmental, and psychological indicators. With recent technological advancements, it may be possible to assess these triggers and predict dietary lapses in real time. The current study sought to use machine learning techniques to predict lapses and evaluate the utility of combining both group- and individual-level data to enhance lapse prediction. The current study trained and tested a machine learning algorithm capable of predicting dietary lapses from a behavioral weight loss program among adults with overweight/obesity (n = 12). Participants were asked to follow a weight control diet for 6 weeks and complete ecological momentary assessment (EMA; repeated brief surveys delivered via smartphone) regarding dietary lapses and relevant triggers. WEKA decision trees were used to predict lapses with an accuracy of 0.72 for the group of participants. However, generalization of the group algorithm to each individual was poor, and as such, group- and individual-level data were combined to improve prediction. The findings suggest that 4 weeks of individual data collection is recommended to attain optimal model performance. The predictive algorithm could be utilized to provide in-the-moment interventions to prevent dietary lapses and therefore enhance weight losses. Furthermore, methods in the current study could be translated to other types of health behavior lapses.

  3. Time-lapse video sysem used to study nesting gyrfalcons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booms, Travis; Fuller, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    We used solar-powered time-lapse video photography to document nesting Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) food habits in central West Greenland from May to July in 2000 and 2001. We collected 2677.25 h of videotape from three nests, representing 94, 87, and 49% of the nestling period at each nest. The video recorded 921 deliveries of 832 prey items. We placed 95% of the items into prey categories. The image quality was good but did not reveal enough detail to identify most passerines to species. We found no evidence that Gyrfalcons were negatively affected by the video system after the initial camera set-up. The video system experienced some mechanical problems but proved reliable. The system likely can be used to effectively document the food habits and nesting behavior of other birds, especially those delivering large prey to a nest or other frequently used site.

  4. Calibrating Vadose Zone Models with Time-Lapse Gravity Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars; Hansen, A. B.; Looms, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    A change in soil water content is a change in mass stored in the subsurface. Given that the mass change is big enough, the change can be measured with a gravity meter. Attempts have been made with varying success over the last decades to use ground-based time-lapse gravity measurements to infer...... hydrogeological parameters. These studies focused on the saturated zone with specific yield as the most prominent target parameter. Any change in storage in the vadose zone has been considered as noise. Our modeling results show a measureable change in gravity from the vadose zone during a forced infiltration...... experiment on 10m by 10m grass land. Simulation studies show a potential for vadose zone model calibration using gravity data in conjunction with other geophysical data, e.g. cross-borehole georadar. We present early field data and calibration results from a forced infiltration experiment conducted over 30...

  5. Combined time-lapse cinematography and immuno-electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, B M; Goscicka, T; MacKenzie, J L; Gautam, A; Tate, M; Clark, J

    1990-04-01

    A method was developed to record interactions between mobile non-adherent immunocytes by time-lapse cinematography and then to study the same cells by immuno-electron microscopy, using monoclonal antibodies against surface components. For this purpose a modified stage was designed to fit an inverted microscope. The attachment included a device to cool the culture chamber with N2 gas, a micro-injector for monoclonal antibody and immuno-gold treatment, and two pairs of washing needles to change the medium without disturbance. The technique was first employed to study the formation of aggregates around the antigen-presenting cells in cultures containing cells from hyper-immunized animals. Recently peripheral blood cells from normal subjects and patients with immune deficiency syndromes were stimulated with pokeweed mitogen, cluster formation was recorded, and the cells were processed for immuno-electron microscopy.

  6. A Prototype System for Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Tomographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Luongo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A prototype system for time-lapse acquisition of 2D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT and time domain reflectometry (TDR measurements was installed in a test site affected by a landslide in Basilicata region (southern Italy. The aim of the system is to monitor in real-time the rainwater infiltration into the soil and obtain information about the variation of the water content in the first layers of the subsoil and the possible influence of this variation on landslide activity. A rain gauge placed in the test site gives information on the rainfall intensity and frequency and suggests the acquisition time interval. The installed system and the preliminary results are presented in this paper.

  7. Embryo selection: the role of time-lapse monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Peter

    2014-12-15

    In vitro fertilization has been available for over 3 decades. Its use is becoming more widespread worldwide, and in the developed world, up to 5% of children have been born following IVF. It is estimated that over 5 million children have been conceived in vitro. In addition to giving hope to infertile couples to have their own family, in vitro fertilization has also introduced risks as well. The risk of multiple gestation and the associated maternal and neonatal morbidity/mortality has increased significantly over the past few decades. While stricter transfer policies have eliminated the majority of the high-order multiples, these changes have not yet had much of an impact on the incidence of twins. A twin pregnancy can be avoided by the transfer of a single embryo only. However, the traditionally used method of morphologic embryo selection is not predictive enough to allow routine single embryo transfer; therefore, new screening tools are needed. Time-lapse embryo monitoring allows continuous, non-invasive embryo observation without the need to remove the embryo from optimal culturing conditions. The extra information on the cleavage pattern, morphologic changes and embryo development dynamics could help us identify embryos with a higher implantation potential. These technologic improvements enable us to objectively select the embryo(s) for transfer based on certain algorithms. In the past 5-6 years, numerous studies have been published that confirmed the safety of time-lapse technology. In addition, various markers have already been identified that are associated with the minimal likelihood of implantation and others that are predictive of blastocyst development, implantation potential, genetic health and pregnancy. Various groups have proposed different algorithms for embryo selection based on mostly retrospective data analysis. However, large prospective trials are needed to study the full benefit of these (and potentially new) algorithms before their

  8. When attention wanders: Pupillometric signatures of fluctuations in external attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Mahiko; Brown, Kevin; Battaglini, Luca; Smallwood, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Attention is not always directed to events in the external environment. On occasion our thoughts wander to people and places distant from the here and now. Sometimes, this lack of external attention can compromise ongoing task performance. In the current study we set out to understand the extent to which states of internal and external attention can be determined using pupillometry as an index of ongoing cognition. In two experiments we found that periods of slow responding were associated with elevations in the baseline pupil signal over three and a half seconds prior to a behavioural response. In the second experiment we found that unlike behavioural lapses, states of off-task thought, particularly those associated with a focus on the past and with an intrusive quality, were associated with reductions in the size of the pupil over the same window prior to the probe. These data show that both states of large and small baseline pupil size are linked to states when attention is not effectively focused on the external environment, although these states have different qualities. More generally, these findings illustrate that subjective and objective markers of task performance may not be equivalent and underscore the importance of developing objective indicators that can allow these different states to be understood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The association of positive emotion and first smoking lapse: An ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Christine; Li, Liang; Wu, Cai; Lam, Cho Y; Guo, Lin; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Spears, Claire A; Hoover, Diana S; Etcheverry, Paul E; Wetter, David W

    2017-11-01

    Individuals attempting to quit smoking typically have poor success rates, and the majority fail to maintain long-term abstinence. Although a large body of evidence documents the impact of negative affect on reducing abstinence, there is a much smaller body of research on positive emotions, which could be an important mechanism that is associated with successful cessation. As such, this study examined positive emotions in real-time via ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to determine whether discrete positive emotions were uniquely related to 2 cessation milestones: quit day lapse and first lapse. Participants were 391 smokers who received tobacco cessation treatment. EMAs were completed pre- and postquit, and positive emotion was assessed with 3 items (enthusiastic, happy, and relaxed) rated on 5-point Likert scales. Analyses examined the associations of the means and slopes of each emotion on the current day with the likelihood of lapse on the following day. When controlling for relevant covariates, prequit positive emotions were not related to quit day lapse. However, postquit positive emotions were associated with first lapse. Specifically, high levels of happiness and relaxation, as well as increasing levels of enthusiasm, happiness, and relaxation were related to a lower likelihood of next day lapse. These are some of the first real-time, real-world data to demonstrate that distinct positive emotions are associated with a lower risk of lapse during the postquit period among smokers attempting to quit. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Time-lapse imaging of neural development: zebrafish lead the way into the fourth dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Sandra; Wang, Fang; Sagasti, Alvaro

    2011-07-01

    Time-lapse imaging is often the only way to appreciate fully the many dynamic cell movements critical to neural development. Zebrafish possess many advantages that make them the best vertebrate model organism for live imaging of dynamic development events. This review will discuss technical considerations of time-lapse imaging experiments in zebrafish, describe selected examples of imaging studies in zebrafish that revealed new features or principles of neural development, and consider the promise and challenges of future time-lapse studies of neural development in zebrafish embryos and adults. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. First-order symmetrizable hyperbolic formulations of Einstein's equations including lapse and shift as dynamical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvi, Kashif

    2002-01-01

    First-order hyperbolic systems are promising as a basis for numerical integration of Einstein's equations. In previous work, the lapse and shift have typically not been considered part of the hyperbolic system and have been prescribed independently. This can be expensive computationally, especially if the prescription involves solving elliptic equations. Therefore, including the lapse and shift in the hyperbolic system could be advantageous for numerical work. In this paper, two first-order symmetrizable hyperbolic systems are presented that include the lapse and shift as dynamical fields and have only physical characteristic speeds

  12. Near-surface air temperature lapse rates in Xinjiang, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingxia; Zhang, Mingjun; Wang, Shengjie; Zhu, Xiaofan; Che, Yanjun

    2018-02-01

    Lapse rates of near-surface (2 m) air temperature are important parameters in hydrologic and climate simulations, especially for the mountainous areas without enough in-situ observations. In Xinjiang, northwestern China, the elevations range from higher than 7000 m to lower than sea level, but the existing long-term meteorological measurements are limited and distributed unevenly. To calculate lapse rates in Xinjiang, the daily data of near-surface air temperature ( T min, T ave, and T max) were measured by automatic weather stations from 2012 to 2014. All the in situ observation stations were gridded into a network of 1.5° (latitude) by 1.5° (longitude), and the spatial distribution and the daily, monthly, seasonal variations of lapse rates for T min, T ave, and T max in Xinjiang are analyzed. The Urumqi River Basin has been considered as a case to study the influence of elevation, aspect, and the wet and dry air conditions to the T min, T ave, and T max lapse rates. Results show that (1) the lapse rates for T min, T ave, and T max vary spatially during the observation period. The spatial diversity of T min lapse rates is larger than that of T ave, and that of T max is the smallest. For each season, T max lapse rates have more negative values than T ave lapse rates which are steeper than T min lapse rates. The weakest spatial diversity usually appears in July throughout a year. (2) The comparison for the three subregions (North, Middle, and South region) exhibits that lapse rates have similar day-to-day and month-to-month characteristics which present shallower values in winter months and steeper values in summer months. The T ave lapse rates in North region are shallower than those in Middle and South region, and the steepest T ave lapse rates of the three regions all appear in April. T min lapse rates are shallower than T max lapse rates. The maximum medians of T min and T max lapse rates for each grid in the three regions all appear in January, whereas the

  13. Effect of oxygen concentration on human embryo development evaluated by time-lapse monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl; Kirkegaard, Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    recently demonstrated to occur from first cleavage cycle in mice using time-lapse microscopy, with the largest impact on the pre-compaction stages. However, embryonic development in mice differs in many aspects from human embryonic development. The objective of this retrospective, descriptive study...... was to evaluate the influence of oxygen tension on human pre-implantation development using time-lapse monitoring. Materials and methods: Human embryos were cultured to the blastocyst stage in a time-lapse incubator (EmbryoScope™) in 20% O2 (group 1), 20% O2 for 24 hours followed by culture in 5% O2 (group 2......) or in 5% O2 (group 3). Eligible were patients with age 8 oocytes retrieved. Group 1 consisted of 120 IVF/ICSI embryos from 26 patients recruited to a study conducted to evaluate the safety of the time-lapse incubator by randomising 1:1 embryos from a patient to culture...

  14. Atmospheric Surface Layer Characterization: Preliminary Desert Lapse Rate Study 22-25 August 2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elliott, Doyle

    2003-01-01

    Results of the August 2000 Desert Lapse Rate (DLR) Experiment are presented. The DLR Experiment was performed to document the night-to-day transition effects on the desert Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL...

  15. Determinants of return behavior: a comparison of current and lapsed donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Marc; Glynn, Simone A; Schreiber, George B; Gélinas, Stéphanie; King, Melissa; Jones, Mike; Bethel, James; Tu, Yongling

    2007-10-01

    There is a need to identify factors explaining why some people stop donating blood. A random mail survey of first-time (FT) and repeat (RPT) current (donating within 6 months before survey) and lapsed (donating >2 years prior) donors was conducted. The self-administered questionnaire included questions on personal, social, and behavioral characteristics. Among 1280 current and 1672 lapsed donors with valid addresses, the participation rate was 66.8 and 39.2 percent, respectively. In FT donors, the odds of lapsing increased with education (odds ratio [OR], 2.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-3.55 for college or higher vs. Grade 12 or less education). Lapsed FT donors were more often asked to donate (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.32-2.70) and had less interest in incentives (p marketing strategies that appeal solely to altruistic values need to be further evaluated for their effectiveness.

  16. Lapse käsi Riigikogu käes / Aivar Jarne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jarne, Aivar, 1965-

    2003-01-01

    Rahvastikuprobleemidega toimetulekuks peab kogu lääne kultuuripiirkond ja iga maa omaette mõtlema, kuidas stimuleerida sündimust, suurendada lapse väärtust perekonnas ja vanemate jaoks, tõdeb autor

  17. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  18. Network Analysis of Time-Lapse Microscopy Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eSmedler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multicellular organisms rely on intercellular communication to regulate important cellular processes critical to life. To further our understanding of those processes there is a need to scrutinize dynamical signaling events and their functions in both cells and organisms. Here, we report a method and provide MATLAB code that analyzes time-lapse microscopy recordings to identify and characterize network structures within large cell populations, such as interconnected neurons. The approach is demonstrated using intracellular calcium (Ca2+ recordings in neural progenitors and cardiac myocytes, but could be applied to a wide variety of biosensors employed in diverse cell types and organisms. In this method, network structures are analyzed by applying cross-correlation signal processing and graph theory to single-cell recordings. The goal of the analysis is to determine if the single cell activity constitutes a network of interconnected cells and to decipher the properties of this network. The method can be applied in many fields of biology in which biosensors are used to monitor signaling events in living cells. Analyzing intercellular communication in cell ensembles can reveal essential network structures that provide important biological insights.

  19. History matching of time-lapse crosswell data using ensemble kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    de Matos Ravanelli, Fabio Miguel

    2015-09-03

    Data from crosswell seismic surveys is processed to provide crosswell time-lapse data to map fluid changes in a reservoir where time-lapse or 4D seismic data is unavailable or unreliable, such as in onshore reservoirs. The resultant processing results provide quantitative information for history matching purposes using a probabilistic approach to take in account uncertainties in the geological model and reduce uncertainties in reservoir production forecasts.

  20. Momentary factors during marijuana use as predictors of lapse during attempted abstinence in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrier, Lydia A; Sarda, Vishnudas; Jonestrask, Cassandra; Harris, Sion Kim

    2018-08-01

    Young adults using marijuana heavily often try multiple times to quit on their own. We sought to identify momentary experiences during marijuana use that could aid in predicting lapse when young adults subsequently attempt abstinence. Young adults (N=34) age 18-25 using marijuana ≥5days/week and planning to quit completed a survey of sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, marijuana expectancies, use motives, perceived social support, and confidence to abstain. They completed ecological momentary assessment (EMA) smartphone reports several times/day for two weeks prior to, then during two weeks of attempted abstinence. Use period EMA reports assessed affect, craving, accessibility, situational permissibility, use, and motivation to abstain. Baseline survey and EMA data were examined in relation to subsequent lapse during attempted abstinence. Nearly 3 in 4 participants (73.5%) reported lapsing during attempted abstinence from marijuana. On bivariate analyses, lower baseline dependence severity score, negative effect expectancies, perceived family support, and confidence to abstain were each associated with lapse. Of the use period EMA variables, greater percent of days with marijuana use, reports of easy accessibility, and reports of situational permissibility were each associated with lapse. Modeled together, negative effect expectancies, perceived family support, confidence to abstain, and situational permissibility during use were highly accurate in predicting lapse during attempted abstinence. Momentary factors may add to conventionally-surveyed characteristics to enhance prediction of lapse during attempted abstinence among young adults with heavy marijuana use. Momentary assessment prior to a quit attempt may thus enable more effective personalized approaches to preventing lapse. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Time-lapse seismic attribute analysis for a water-flooded reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Long; Sen, M K; Stoffa, P L; Seif, R K

    2008-01-01

    One of the goals of time-lapse seismic monitoring is the direct detection of the fluid front and two-phase contact area. However, several factors affect the quality of time-lapse seismic difference data and decrease detectability. One of these factors is random noise. In this paper, we propose five different methods aimed at improving the quality and detectability of noisy time-lapse seismic difference data. Common to these methods is the transform of the differences to a domain where the time-lapse signal and random noise are well separated. Our proposed methods include direct Fourier transform based spectral decomposition, bispectra, wavelet transform, singular value decomposition and hybrid methods. We also propose a method that combines multiple time-lapse difference data and gives a final difference which enhances the common part and attenuates the differences of the multiple difference images resulting in a better detectability than the original images. A synthetic time-lapse model is used to demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed methods

  2. Visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karla K; Horowitz, Todd S; Howe, Piers; Pedersini, Roccardo; Reijnen, Ester; Pinto, Yair; Kuzmova, Yoana; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2011-09-01

    A typical visual scene we encounter in everyday life is complex and filled with a huge amount of perceptual information. The term, 'visual attention' describes a set of mechanisms that limit some processing to a subset of incoming stimuli. Attentional mechanisms shape what we see and what we can act upon. They allow for concurrent selection of some (preferably, relevant) information and inhibition of other information. This selection permits the reduction of complexity and informational overload. Selection can be determined both by the 'bottom-up' saliency of information from the environment and by the 'top-down' state and goals of the perceiver. Attentional effects can take the form of modulating or enhancing the selected information. A central role for selective attention is to enable the 'binding' of selected information into unified and coherent representations of objects in the outside world. In the overview on visual attention presented here we review the mechanisms and consequences of selection and inhibition over space and time. We examine theoretical, behavioral and neurophysiologic work done on visual attention. We also discuss the relations between attention and other cognitive processes such as automaticity and awareness. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 503-514 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.127 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Capturing Attention When Attention "Blinks"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Serena; Chua, Fook K.

    2004-01-01

    Four experiments addressed the question of whether attention may be captured when the visual system is in the midst of an attentional blink (AB). Participants identified 2 target letters embedded among distractor letters in a rapid serial visual presentation sequence. In some trials, a square frame was inserted between the targets; as the only…

  4. Automated Ground-based Time-lapse Camera Monitoring of West Greenland ice sheet outlet Glaciers: Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Y.; Box, J. E.; Balog, J.; Lewinter, A.

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring Greenland outlet glaciers using remotely sensed data has drawn a great attention in earth science communities for decades and time series analysis of sensory data has provided important variability information of glacier flow by detecting speed and thickness changes, tracking features and acquiring model input. Thanks to advancements of commercial digital camera technology and increased solid state storage, we activated automatic ground-based time-lapse camera stations with high spatial/temporal resolution in west Greenland outlet and collected one-hour interval data continuous for more than one year at some but not all sites. We believe that important information of ice dynamics are contained in these data and that terrestrial mono-/stereo-photogrammetry can provide theoretical/practical fundamentals in data processing along with digital image processing techniques. Time-lapse images over periods in west Greenland indicate various phenomenon. Problematic is rain, snow, fog, shadows, freezing of water on camera enclosure window, image over-exposure, camera motion, sensor platform drift, and fox chewing of instrument cables, and the pecking of plastic window by ravens. Other problems include: feature identification, camera orientation, image registration, feature matching in image pairs, and feature tracking. Another obstacle is that non-metric digital camera contains large distortion to be compensated for precise photogrammetric use. Further, a massive number of images need to be processed in a way that is sufficiently computationally efficient. We meet these challenges by 1) identifying problems in possible photogrammetric processes, 2) categorizing them based on feasibility, and 3) clarifying limitation and alternatives, while emphasizing displacement computation and analyzing regional/temporal variability. We experiment with mono and stereo photogrammetric techniques in the aide of automatic correlation matching for efficiently handling the enormous

  5. A resource-control account of sustained attention: evidence from mind-wandering and vigilance paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, David R; Besner, Derek; Smilek, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Staying attentive is challenging enough when carrying out everyday tasks, such as reading or sitting through a lecture, and failures to do so can be frustrating and inconvenient. However, such lapses may even be life threatening, for example, if a pilot fails to monitor an oil-pressure gauge or if a long-haul truck driver fails to notice a car in his or her blind spot. Here, we explore two explanations of sustained-attention lapses. By one account, task monotony leads to an increasing preoccupation with internal thought (i.e., mind wandering). By another, task demands result in the depletion of information-processing resources that are needed to perform the task. A review of the sustained-attention literature suggests that neither theory, on its own, adequately explains the full range of findings. We propose a novel framework to explain why attention lapses as a function of time-on-task by combining aspects of two different theories of mind wandering: attentional resource (Smallwood & Schooler, 2006) and control failure (McVay & Kane, 2010). We then use our "resource-control" theory to explain performance decrements in sustained-attention tasks. We end by making some explicit predictions regarding mind wandering in general and sustained-attention performance in particular. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Sleep Deprivation Diminishes Attentional Control Effectiveness and Impairs Flexible Adaptation to Changing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M; Satterfield, Brieann C; Grant, Devon A; Honn, Kimberly A; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2017-11-22

    Insufficient sleep is a global public health problem resulting in catastrophic accidents, increased mortality, and hundreds of billions of dollars in lost productivity. Yet the effect of sleep deprivation (SD) on decision making and performance is often underestimated by fatigued individuals and is only beginning to be understood by scientists. The deleterious impact of SD is frequently attributed to lapses in vigilant attention, but this account fails to explain many SD-related problems, such as loss of situational awareness and perseveration. Using a laboratory study protocol, we show that SD individuals can maintain information in the focus of attention and anticipate likely correct responses, but their use of such a top-down attentional strategy is less effective at preventing errors caused by competing responses. Moreover, when the task environment requires flexibility, performance under SD suffers dramatically. The impairment in flexible shifting of attentional control we observed is distinct from lapses in vigilant attention, as corroborated by the specificity of the influence of a genetic biomarker, the dopaminergic polymorphism DRD2 C957T. Reduced effectiveness of top-down attentional control under SD, especially when conditions require flexibility, helps to explain maladaptive performance that is not readily explained by lapses in vigilant attention.

  7. Visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, K.K.; Horowitz, T.S.; Howe, P.; Pedersini, R.; Reijnen, E.; Pinto, Y.; Wolfe, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A typical visual scene we encounter in everyday life is complex and filled with a huge amount of perceptual information. The term, ‘visual attention’ describes a set of mechanisms that limit some processing to a subset of incoming stimuli. Attentional mechanisms shape what we see and what we can act

  8. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built

  9. Inter- and intra-observer variability of time-lapse annotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundvall, Linda; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Breth Knudsen, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    . This provides the basis for further investigation of embryo assessment and selection by time-lapse imaging in prospective trials. Study funding/competing interest(s): Research at the Fertility Clinic was funded by an unrestricted grant from Ferring and MSD. The authors have no competing interests to declare.......Study question: How consistent is the time-lapse annotation of dynamic and static morphologic parameters of embryo development, within and between observers? Summary answer: The assessment of dynamic parameters is characterized by almost perfect agreement within and between observers. What is known...... already: The commonly employed method used to assess embryos in IVF treatments is based on static evaluation of morphology in a microscope, but this is limited by substantial intra- and inter-observer variation. Time-lapse imaging has been proposed as a method to refine embryo selection by adding new...

  10. Physical activity adoption to adherence, lapse, and dropout: a self-determination theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnafick, Florence-Emilie; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Duda, Joan L

    2014-05-01

    Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, we aimed to explore and identify key motivational processes involved in the transition from a physically inactive to an active lifestyle, and the processes involved in lapse and dropout behavior within a walking program. We implemented a qualitative, longitudinal case study method, using semistructured interviews and theoretical thematic analyses. Fifteen women were interviewed over 10 months and three profiles were generated: (a) nonadherence, (b) lapse/readoption of physical activity, and (c) adherence. Internalization of walking behavior was key to adherence. Satisfaction of the needs for competence and relatedness were central for participation during exercise at the adoption stages, and autonomy was particularly pertinent in facilitating adherence. Those who lapsed and restarted physical activity experienced feelings of autonomy at the point of readoption. Sources of support were driving forces in the adoption and adherence phases.

  11. How does blastomere removal affect embryonic development? : A time-lapse analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob

    of the 6-10 cell embryo. It has been argued that blastomere removal does not affect embryonic development, but few studies have focussed on safety of the procedure. Recently, time-lapse studies on mice have suggested that blastomere removal affects embryonic development. The present study was conducted...... to evaluate the effect of blastomere biopsy on early human embryonic development using time-lapse analysis. Materials and methods: Couples undergoing IVF treatment or PGD were requested permission to include embryos in the project. The diagnosis healthy/diseased was made by analysis of a single blastomere....... For PGD 56 human embryos were biopsied 68 hours after fertilisation, the majority at the eight cell stage. As controls 43 non-biopsied embryos at the 6-8 cell stage were selected. All embryos were cultured until 5 days after fertilisation in a time-lapse incubator (EmbryoScope™). Key events such as time...

  12. Air and wet bulb temperature lapse rates and their impact on snowmaking in a Pyrenean ski resort

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Navarro-Serrano, F.; Azorín-Molina, C.; Sánchez-Navarrete, P.; Alonso-González, E.; Rico, I.; Morán-Tejeda, E.; Buisan, S.; Revuelto, J.; Pons, M.; Vicente-Serrano, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    A set of 17 air temperature and relative humidity sensors were used to analyze the temporal variability of surface air temperature (Tair), wet bulb temperature (Twb), and daily snowmaking hours (SM, number of hours per day with Twb identical temporal fluctuations. The Twb exhibited average lapse rates that were slightly steeper (- 5.2 °C/km) than those observed for Tair (- 4.9 °C/km). The less steep lapse rates and most thermal inversions were observed in December. Days having less (more) steep Tair and Twb lapse rates were observed under low (high) wind speeds and high (low) relative humidity and air pressure. The temporal dynamics of the SM lapse rates was more complex, as this involved consideration of the average Tair in the ski resort, in addition to the driving factors of the spatio-temporal variability of Twb. Thus, on a number of cold (warm) days, snowmaking was feasible at all elevations at the ski resort, independently of the slopes of the lapse rates. The SM exhibited an average daily lapse rate of 8.2 h/km, with a progressive trend of increase from December to March. Weather types over the Iberian Peninsula tightly control the driving factors of the Tair, Twb, and SM lapse rates (wind speed, relative humidity, and Tair), so the slopes of the lapse rates and the frequency of inversions in relation to elevation for the three variables are very dependent on the occurrence of specific weather types. The less steep lapse rates occurred associated with advections from the southeast, although low lapse rates also occurred during advections from the east and south, and under anticyclonic conditions. The steepest Tair and Twb lapse rates were observed during north and northwest advections, while the steepest rates for SM were observed during days of cyclonic circulation and advections from the northeast.

  13. Automatic segmentation of time-lapse microscopy images depicting a live Dharma embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharia, Eleni; Bondesson, Maria; Riu, Anne; Ducharme, Nicole A; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A

    2011-01-01

    Biological inferences about the toxicity of chemicals reached during experiments on the zebrafish Dharma embryo can be greatly affected by the analysis of the time-lapse microscopy images depicting the embryo. Among the stages of image analysis, automatic and accurate segmentation of the Dharma embryo is the most crucial and challenging. In this paper, an accurate and automatic segmentation approach for the segmentation of the Dharma embryo data obtained by fluorescent time-lapse microscopy is proposed. Experiments performed in four stacks of 3D images over time have shown promising results.

  14. Advances in interpretation of subsurface processes with time-lapse electrical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Kaminit; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Johnson, Tim B.; Slater, Lee D.

    2015-01-01

    Electrical geophysical methods, including electrical resistivity, time-domain induced polarization, and complex resistivity, have become commonly used to image the near subsurface. Here, we outline their utility for time-lapse imaging of hydrological, geochemical, and biogeochemical processes, focusing on new instrumentation, processing, and analysis techniques specific to monitoring. We review data collection procedures, parameters measured, and petrophysical relationships and then outline the state of the science with respect to inversion methodologies, including coupled inversion. We conclude by highlighting recent research focused on innovative applications of time-lapse imaging in hydrology, biology, ecology, and geochemistry, among other areas of interest.

  15. A randomized clinical trial comparing embryo culture in a conventional incubator with a time-lapse incubator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine; Hindkjaer, Johnny Juhl; Grøndahl, Marie Louise

    2012-01-01

    Time-lapse monitoring allows for a flexible embryo evaluation and potentially provides new dynamic markers of embryo competence. Before introducing time-lapse monitoring in a clinical setting, the safety of the instrument must be properly documented. Accordingly, the aim of this study...

  16. Application of a linear finite-frequency theory to time-lapse crosswell tomography in ultrasonic and numerical experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spetzler, J.; Sijacic, D.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Time-lapse seismic monitoring is the geophysical discipline whereby multiple data sets recorded at the same location but at different times are used to locate and quantify temporal changes in the elastic parameters of the subsurface. We validate a time-lapse monitoring method by crosswell tomography

  17. Aasta keeleteoks tunnistati "Lapse keelelist arengut toetavad mängud" / Mari Klein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Klein, Mari, 1979-

    2014-01-01

    Emakeelepäeval toimus Kuressaares Saaremaa Ühisgümnaasiumis 2013. aasta parima keeleteo konkursi lõpuüritus, kus tunnustati võitjaid. Peaauhinna võitsid Tallinna Ülikooli eesti keele professor Reili Argus ja Rocca al Mare Kooli eelkooliõpetaja Cattre Hein veebimänguga "Lapse keelelist arengut toetavad mängud"

  18. FY2014 Appropriations Lapse and the Department of Homeland Security: Impact and Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    and Programs Directorate (NPPD) • Office of Biometric Identity Management • Federal Protective Service Under the Federal Emergency Management...performance of excepted work during the period of the appropriations lapse. After appropriations are enacted, payroll centers will pay all excepted...four hours of work completely dedicated to de- activating a function, such as securing documents, completing payroll , etc.12 Presidential appointees

  19. Time-Lapse and Slow-Motion Tracking of Temperature Changes: Response Time of a Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggio, L.; Onorato, P.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2017-01-01

    We propose the use of a smartphone based time-lapse and slow-motion video techniques together with tracking analysis as valuable tools for investigating thermal processes such as the response time of a thermometer. The two simple experimental activities presented here, suitable also for high school and undergraduate students, allow one to measure…

  20. Probabilistic 3-D time-lapse inversion of magnetotelluric data: application to an enhanced geothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Carbajal, M.; Linde, N.; Peacock, J.; Zyserman, F. I.; Kalscheuer, T.; Thiel, S.

    2015-12-01

    Surface-based monitoring of mass transfer caused by injections and extractions in deep boreholes is crucial to maximize oil, gas and geothermal production. Inductive electromagnetic methods, such as magnetotellurics, are appealing for these applications due to their large penetration depths and sensitivity to changes in fluid conductivity and fracture connectivity. In this work, we propose a 3-D Markov chain Monte Carlo inversion of time-lapse magnetotelluric data to image mass transfer following a saline fluid injection. The inversion estimates the posterior probability density function of the resulting plume, and thereby quantifies model uncertainty. To decrease computation times, we base the parametrization on a reduced Legendre moment decomposition of the plume. A synthetic test shows that our methodology is effective when the electrical resistivity structure prior to the injection is well known. The centre of mass and spread of the plume are well retrieved. We then apply our inversion strategy to an injection experiment in an enhanced geothermal system at Paralana, South Australia, and compare it to a 3-D deterministic time-lapse inversion. The latter retrieves resistivity changes that are more shallow than the actual injection interval, whereas the probabilistic inversion retrieves plumes that are located at the correct depths and oriented in a preferential north-south direction. To explain the time-lapse data, the inversion requires unrealistically large resistivity changes with respect to the base model. We suggest that this is partly explained by unaccounted subsurface heterogeneities in the base model from which time-lapse changes are inferred.

  1. Vähihaiged lapsed jäädvustasid halli haiglaelu piltidele / Madis Filippov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Filippov, Madis

    2011-01-01

    Tallinna Lastehaigla onkoloogiaosakonnas ravitavate laste fotoringi näitus "Pildid teevad head" Sokos Hotel Viru konverentsikeskuses. Natalja Rogova, Kristen Saar ja Ralf Põllukivi räägivad oma fotodest ja elust haiglas. Samal teemal "Uus pilk elule: vähihaiged lapsed avasid fotonäituse" lk. 1

  2. A Typology of University Ethical Lapses: Types, Levels of Seriousness, and Originating Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Patricia C.; Chang, Pepe Lee

    2007-01-01

    Scandals ranging from National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) violations to falsified research results have fueled criticism of America's universities. Sports violations, research manipulation, gender discrimination, and other ethical lapses affect an entire institution as they have a spillover effect on its reputation. The results of…

  3. CellProfiler Tracer: exploring and validating high-throughput, time-lapse microscopy image data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark-Anthony; Carpenter, Anne E

    2015-11-04

    Time-lapse analysis of cellular images is an important and growing need in biology. Algorithms for cell tracking are widely available; what researchers have been missing is a single open-source software package to visualize standard tracking output (from software like CellProfiler) in a way that allows convenient assessment of track quality, especially for researchers tuning tracking parameters for high-content time-lapse experiments. This makes quality assessment and algorithm adjustment a substantial challenge, particularly when dealing with hundreds of time-lapse movies collected in a high-throughput manner. We present CellProfiler Tracer, a free and open-source tool that complements the object tracking functionality of the CellProfiler biological image analysis package. Tracer allows multi-parametric morphological data to be visualized on object tracks, providing visualizations that have already been validated within the scientific community for time-lapse experiments, and combining them with simple graph-based measures for highlighting possible tracking artifacts. CellProfiler Tracer is a useful, free tool for inspection and quality control of object tracking data, available from http://www.cellprofiler.org/tracer/.

  4. Lapse of time effects on tax evasion in an agent-based econophysics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Götz; Pickhardt, Michael

    2013-05-01

    We investigate an inhomogeneous Ising model in the context of tax evasion dynamics where different types of agents are parameterized via local temperatures and magnetic fields. In particular, we analyze the impact of lapse of time effects (i.e. backauditing) and endogenously determined penalty rates on tax compliance. Both features contribute to a microfoundation of agent-based econophysics models of tax evasion.

  5. Exploiting the airwave for time-lapse reservoir monitoring with CSEM on land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirianto, M.; Mulder, W.A.; Slob, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    In the application of controlled source electromagnetics for reservoir monitoring on land, repeatability errors in the source will mask the time-lapse signal due to hydrocarbon production when recording surface data close to the source. We demonstrate that at larger distances, the airwave will still

  6. Time-Lapse Monitoring of Subsurface Fluid Flow using Parsimonious Seismic Interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif; Li, Jing; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    of parsimonious seismic interferometry with the time-lapse mentoring idea with field examples, where we were able to record 30 different data sets within a 2-hour period. The recorded data are then processed to generate 30 snapshots that shows the spread of water

  7. Inter and intra-observer variability of time-lapse annotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundvall Germeys, Linda Karin M; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Knudsen, Ulla Breth

    . This provides the basis for further investigation of embryo assessment and selection by time-lapse imaging in prospective trials. Study funding/competing interest(s): Research at the Fertility Clinic was funded by an unrestricted grant from Ferring and MSD. The authors have no competing interests to declare....

  8. Latest time-lapse seismic data from Sleipner yield new insights into CO2 plume development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadwick, R.A.; Noy, D.; Arts, R.; Eiken, O.

    2009-01-01

    Since its inception in 1996, the CO2 injection operation at Sleipner has been monitored by 3D time-lapse seismic surveys. Striking images of the CO2 plume have been obtained, showing a multi-tier feature of high reflectivity, interpreted as arising from a number of thin layers of CO2 trapped beneath

  9. Time-lapse misorientation maps for the analysis of electron backscatter diffraction data from evolving microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wheeler, J.; Cross, A.; Drury, M.; Hough, R.M.; Mariani, E.; Piazolo, S.; Prior, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    A “time-lapse misorientation map” is defined here as a map which shows the orientation change at each point in an evolving crystalline microstructure between two different times. Electron backscatter diffraction data from in situ heating experiments can be used to produce such maps, which then

  10. Respiratory problems and anxiety sensitivity in smoking lapse among treatment seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Rodríguez-Cano, Rubén; Paulus, Daniel J; Kotov, Roman; Bromet, Evelyn; Gonzalez, Adam; Manning, Kara; Luft, Benjamin J

    2017-12-01

    The current study examined whether the interaction of lower respiratory symptoms and anxiety sensitivity is related to smoking lapse in the context of smoking cessation. Participants were adult daily smokers (N=60) exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster who were in a smoking cessation treatment program (75.0% male, 50.6years old [SD=9.2], and current smoking rate was 17.6 cigarettes per day (SD=10.6). Results indicated that the interaction between lower respiratory symptoms and anxiety sensitivity was a significant predictor of greater risk for lapse (i.e., lower survival time; B=0.005, OR=1.01, p=0.039). Follow-up analysis showed that greater respiratory symptoms were a significant predictor of lapse risk among those with high (B=0.116, OR=1.12, p=0.025), but not those with low (B=-0.048, OR=0.95, p=0.322), levels of anxiety sensitivity. The findings from the current study suggest that smokers with greater respiratory symptoms and higher levels of anxiety sensitivity may be associated with early lapse to smoking following smoking cessation treatment. Future work has the potential to inform the development of tailored cessation interventions for smokers who experience varying levels of lower respiratory symptoms and anxiety sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Developing an EEG based On-line Closed-loop Lapse Detection and Mitigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Te eWang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In America, sixty percent of adults reported that they have driven a motor vehicle while feeling drowsy, and at least 15-20% of fatal car accidents are fatigue-related. This study translates previous laboratory-oriented neurophysiological research to design, develop, and test an On-line Closed-loop Lapse Detection and Mitigation (OCLDM System featuring a mobile wireless dry-sensor EEG headgear and a cell-phone based real-time EEG processing platform. Eleven subjects participated in an event-related lane-keeping task, in which they were instructed to manipulate a randomly deviated, fixed-speed cruising car on a 4-lane highway. This was simulated in a 1st person view with an 8-screen and 8-projector immersive virtual-realty environment. When the subjects experienced lapses or failed to respond to events during the experiment, auditory feedback was delivered to rectify the performance decrements. However, the arousing auditory signals were not always effective. The EEG spectra exhibited statistically significant differences between effective and ineffective arousing signals, suggesting that EEG spectra could be used as a countermeasure of the efficacy of arousing signals. In this on-line pilot study, the proposed OCLDM System was able to continuously detect EEG signatures of fatigue, deliver arousing feedback to subjects suffering momentary cognitive lapses, and assess the efficacy of the feedback in near real-time to rectify cognitive lapses. The on-line testing results of the OCLDM System validated the efficacy of the arousing signals in improving subjects' response times to the subsequent lane-departure events. This study may lead to a practical on-line lapse detection and mitigation system in real-world environments.

  12. Developing an EEG-based on-line closed-loop lapse detection and mitigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Te; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Wei, Chun-Shu; Huang, Teng-Yi; Ko, Li-Wei; Lin, Chin-Teng; Cheng, Chung-Kuan; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In America, 60% of adults reported that they have driven a motor vehicle while feeling drowsy, and at least 15-20% of fatal car accidents are fatigue-related. This study translates previous laboratory-oriented neurophysiological research to design, develop, and test an On-line Closed-loop Lapse Detection and Mitigation (OCLDM) System featuring a mobile wireless dry-sensor EEG headgear and a cell-phone based real-time EEG processing platform. Eleven subjects participated in an event-related lane-keeping task, in which they were instructed to manipulate a randomly deviated, fixed-speed cruising car on a 4-lane highway. This was simulated in a 1st person view with an 8-screen and 8-projector immersive virtual-reality environment. When the subjects experienced lapses or failed to respond to events during the experiment, auditory warning was delivered to rectify the performance decrements. However, the arousing auditory signals were not always effective. The EEG spectra exhibited statistically significant differences between effective and ineffective arousing signals, suggesting that EEG spectra could be used as a countermeasure of the efficacy of arousing signals. In this on-line pilot study, the proposed OCLDM System was able to continuously detect EEG signatures of fatigue, deliver arousing warning to subjects suffering momentary cognitive lapses, and assess the efficacy of the warning in near real-time to rectify cognitive lapses. The on-line testing results of the OCLDM System validated the efficacy of the arousing signals in improving subjects' response times to the subsequent lane-departure events. This study may lead to a practical on-line lapse detection and mitigation system in real-world environments.

  13. Slope Environmental Lapse Rate (SELR of Temperature in the Monsoon Regime of the Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renoj J. Thayyen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The interplay of moisture, temperature, and precipitation forced through the orographic processes sustain and regulate the Himalayan cryospheric system. However, factors influencing the Slope Environmental Lapse Rate (SELR of temperature along the Himalayan mountain slopes and an appropriate modeling solution remain as a key knowledge gaps. The present study evaulates the SELR variations in the monsoon regime of the western Himalaya and proposes a modeling solution for the valley scale SELR assessment. SELR of selected station pairs in the Sutlej and Beas basins ranging between the elevation of 662–3,130 m a.s.l. and that of Garhwal Himalaya between 770 and 3,820 m a.s.l. were assessed in this study. Results suggest that the moisture–temperature interplay is not only forcing the seasonal variations, but also the elevation-depended variability of the temperature SELR. Temperature lapse rate constrianed to the nival–glacier regime is found to be comparable to the saturated adiabatic lapse rate (SALR and lower than the valley scale SELR. The study also suggests that the bi-modal pattern of the annual temperature lapse rates earlier observed in the Nepal Himalaya is extended up to upper Ganga, Sutlej, and Beas basins in the western Himalaya. This seasonal variability of SELR is found to be closly linked with the seasonal variations in the lifting condensation levels (LCLs over the region. Inter-annual variation in SELR of the nival–glacier regime are found to be significant while that of the valley scale SELR are more stable. We propose a simple preliminary but robust model for deriving the valley scale SELR of monsoon regime modifying the equation governing pseudo adiabatic lapse rate. The SELR modeling solution is achieved by deriving monthly SELR indices using the data of two station pairs in the Sutlej and Beas basins during the 1986–2005 period through K-fold cross validation. The model sucessfully captures seasonal SELR variations

  14. Enhancing attention in neurodegenerative diseases: current therapies and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Kanchan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We all experience at least occasional lapses in attention but in some neurological conditions, loss of attention is pervasive and debilitating. Treating deficits in attention first requires an understanding of the neurobiology of attention, which we now understand to be a set of different cognitive processes. Cholinesterase inhibitors are already established as effective attentional enhancers used in the treatment of certain dementias. Other stimulant agents such as modafanil, amphetamine and methylphenidate have demonstrated limited success in healthy individuals where attention is already optimal and clinical trials in patients with neurological disease are sparse. Dietary and lifestyle changes are gaining increasing prominence, as are experimental treatments such as deep brain stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation. As the therapeutic arsenal widens, clinicians will be able to match specific treatments to selective deficits in attention, giving patients a tailored management plan. Here we review common diseases that impair attention and emphasise how an understanding of attentional processing within the brain might lead to improved therapeutic strategies.

  15. Effect of oxygen concentration on human embryo development evaluated by time-lapse monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl; Kirkegaard, Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    -points for each cell division and blastocyst stages were registered until 120 hours after oocyte retrieval. Only 2PN embryos completing the first cleavage were evaluated. The groups were compared using one-way ANOVA or Kruskall-Wallis test. Estimates are reported as medians with 95% confidence intervals. Time......Introduction: Data from a number of studies indicate -but not unequivocally- that culture of embryos in 5% O2 compared to 20% O2 improves blastocyst formation in humans and various animal species and may yield better pregnancy rates in IVF. The detrimental effects of atmospheric oxygen were...... was to evaluate the influence of oxygen tension on human pre-implantation development using time-lapse monitoring. Materials and methods: Human embryos were cultured to the blastocyst stage in a time-lapse incubator (EmbryoScope™) in 20% O2 (group 1), 20% O2 for 24 hours followed by culture in 5% O2 (group 2...

  16. Time-Lapse Monitoring of Subsurface Fluid Flow using Parsimonious Seismic Interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif

    2017-04-21

    A typical small-scale seismic survey (such as 240 shot gathers) takes at least 16 working hours to be completed, which is a major obstacle in case of time-lapse monitoring experiments. This is especially true if the subject that needs to be monitored is rapidly changing. In this work, we will discuss how to decrease the recording time from 16 working hours to less than one hour of recording. Here, the virtual data has the same accuracy as the conventional data. We validate the efficacy of parsimonious seismic interferometry with the time-lapse mentoring idea with field examples, where we were able to record 30 different data sets within a 2-hour period. The recorded data are then processed to generate 30 snapshots that shows the spread of water from the ground surface down to a few meters.

  17. Capturing tissue repair in zebrafish larvae with time-lapse brightfield stereomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Thomas S; Brochu, Elizabeth A; Rieger, Sandra

    2015-01-31

    The zebrafish larval tail fin is ideal for studying tissue regeneration due to the simple architecture of the larval fin-fold, which comprises of two layers of skin that enclose undifferentiated mesenchyme, and because the larval tail fin regenerates rapidly within 2-3 days. Using this system, we demonstrate a method for capturing the repair dynamics of the amputated tail fin with time-lapse video brightfield stereomicroscopy. We demonstrate that fin amputation triggers a contraction of the amputation wound and extrusion of cells around the wound margin, leading to their subsequent clearance. Fin regeneration proceeds from proximal to distal direction after a short delay. In addition, developmental growth of the larva can be observed during all stages. The presented method provides an opportunity for observing and analyzing whole tissue-scale behaviors such as fin development and growth in a simple microscope setting, which is easily adaptable to any stereomicroscope with time-lapse capabilities.

  18. Near-surface temperature lapse rates in a mountainous catchment in the Chilean Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala; Schauwecker, S.; Pellicciotti, F.; McPhee, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    In mountainous areas, and in the Chilean Andes in particular, the irregular and sparse distribution of recording stations resolves insufficiently the variability of climatic factors such as precipitation, temperature and relative humidity. Assumptions about air temperature variability in space and time have a strong effect on the performance of hydrologic models that represent snow processes such as accumulation and ablation. These processes have large diurnal variations, and assumptions that average over longer time periods (days, weeks or months) may reduce the predictive capacity of these models under different climatic conditions from those for which they were calibrated. They also introduce large uncertainties when such models are used to predict processes with strong subdiurnal variability such as snowmelt dynamics. In many applications and modeling exercises, temperature is assumed to decrease linearly with elevation, using the free-air moist adiabatic lapse rate (MALR: 0.0065°C/m). Little evidence is provided for this assumption, however, and recent studies have shown that use of lapse rates that are uniform in space and constant in time is not appropriate. To explore the validity of this approach, near-surface (2 m) lapse rates were calculated and analyzed at different temporal resolution, based on a new data set of spatially distributed temperature sensors setup in a high elevation catchment of the dry Andes of Central Chile (approx. 33°S). Five minutes temperature data were collected between January 2011 and April 2011 in the Ojos de Agua catchment, using two Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) and 13 T-loggers (Hobo H8 Pro Temp with external data logger), ranging in altitude from 2230 to 3590 m.s.l.. The entire catchment was snow free during our experiment. We use this unique data set to understand the main controls over temperature variability in time and space, and test whether lapse rates can be used to describe the spatial variations of air

  19. Freeze core sampling to validate time-lapse resistivity monitoring of the hyporheic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran, Laura; Hughes, Brian; Nyquist, Jonathan; Ryan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A freeze core sampler was used to characterize hyporheic zone storage during a stream tracer test. The pore water from the frozen core showed tracer lingered in the hyporheic zone after the tracer had returned to background concentration in collocated well samples. These results confirmed evidence of lingering subsurface tracer seen in time-lapse electrical resistivity tomographs. The pore water exhibited brine exclusion (ion concentrations in ice lower than source water) in a sediment matrix, despite the fast freezing time. Although freeze core sampling provided qualitative evidence of lingering tracer, it proved difficult to quantify tracer concentration because the amount of brine exclusion during freezing could not be accurately determined. Nonetheless, the additional evidence for lingering tracer supports using time-lapse resistivity to detect regions of low fluid mobility within the hyporheic zone that can act as chemically reactive zones of importance in stream health. © 2012, The Author(s). GroundWater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  20. Impact of densitized lapse slicings on evolutions of a wobbling black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperhake, Ulrich; Smith, Kenneth L.; Kelly, Bernard; Laguna, Pablo; Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2004-01-01

    We present long-term stable and convergent evolutions of an excised wobbling black hole. Our results clearly demonstrate that the use of a densitized lapse function extends the lifetime of simulations dramatically. We also show the improvement in the stability of single static black holes when an algebraic densitized lapse condition is applied. In addition, we introduce a computationally inexpensive approach for tracking the location of the singularity suitable for mildly distorted black holes. The method is based on investigating the fall-off behavior and asymmetry of appropriate grid variables. This simple tracking method allows one to adjust the location of the excision region to follow the coordinate motion of the singularity

  1. Metoodika lapse emotsionaalse väärkohtlemise hindamiseks institutsionaalses keskkonnas / Triin Edovald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Edovald, Triin

    2001-01-01

    Uurimusest, mille eesmärgiks oli lapse emotsionaalse väärkohtlemise hindamise metoodika kohandamine lastekodu tingimustele. Uurimus viidi läbi ühes Tartu lastekodus, intervjueerides kuut kasvatajat ja vaadeldes kuue lastekodulapse ja tema usalduskasvataja vahelist suhtlemist ja tegevust eesmärgiga sisse viia võimalikud täpsustused ja muutused emotsionaalse väärkohtlemise hindamise metoodikasse kohandades seda lastekodu tingimustele

  2. Informing hydrological models with ground-based time-lapse relative gravimetry: potential and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Christiansen, Lars; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2011-01-01

    parameter uncertainty decreased significantly when TLRG data was included in the inversion. The forced infiltration experiment caused changes in unsaturated zone storage, which were monitored using TLRG and ground-penetrating radar. A numerical unsaturated zone model was subsequently conditioned on both......Coupled hydrogeophysical inversion emerges as an attractive option to improve the calibration and predictive capability of hydrological models. Recently, ground-based time-lapse relative gravity (TLRG) measurements have attracted increasing interest because there is a direct relationship between...

  3. Assessment of Time-Lapse in Visible and Thermal Face Recognition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farokhi, Sajad; Shamsuddin, Siti Mariyam; Flusser, Jan; Sheikh, Usman Ullah

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2012), s. 181-186 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : face recognition * moment invariants * Zernike moments Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/flusser-assessment of time-lapse in visible and thermal face recognition -j.pdf

  4. Seismic time-lapse imaging using Interferometric least-squares migration

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Mrinal

    2016-09-06

    One of the problems with 4D surveys is that the environmental conditions change over time so that the experiment is insufficiently repeatable. To mitigate this problem, we propose the use of interferometric least-squares migration (ILSM) to estimate the migration image for the baseline and monitor surveys. Here, a known reflector is used as the reference reflector for ILSM. Results with synthetic and field data show that ILSM can eliminate artifacts caused by non-repeatability in time-lapse surveys.

  5. Unscented Kalman filter assimilation of time-lapse self-potential data for monitoring solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yi-an; Liu, Lanbo; Zhu, Xiaoxiong

    2017-08-01

    Monitoring the extent and evolution of contaminant plumes in local and regional groundwater systems from existing landfills is critical in contamination control and remediation. The self-potential survey is an efficient and economical nondestructive geophysical technique that can be used to investigate underground contaminant plumes. Based on the unscented transform, we have built a Kalman filtering cycle to conduct time-lapse data assimilation for monitoring the transport of solute based on the solute transport experiment using a bench-scale physical model. The data assimilation was formed by modeling the evolution based on the random walk model and observation correcting based on the self-potential forward. Thus, monitoring self-potential data can be inverted by the data assimilation technique. As a result, we can reconstruct the dynamic process of the contaminant plume instead of using traditional frame-to-frame static inversion, which may cause inversion artifacts. The data assimilation inversion algorithm was evaluated through noise-added synthetic time-lapse self-potential data. The result of the numerical experiment shows validity, accuracy and tolerance to the noise of the dynamic inversion. To validate the proposed algorithm, we conducted a scaled-down sandbox self-potential observation experiment to generate time-lapse data that closely mimics the real-world contaminant monitoring setup. The results of physical experiments support the idea that the data assimilation method is a potentially useful approach for characterizing the transport of contamination plumes using the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) data assimilation technique applied to field time-lapse self-potential data.

  6. Evaluating four-dimensional time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography for monitoring DNAPL source zone remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Christopher; Gerhard, Jason I; Karaoulis, Marios; Tsourlos, Panagiotis; Giannopoulos, Antonios

    2014-07-01

    Practical, non-invasive tools do not currently exist for mapping the remediation of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) exhibits significant potential but has not yet become a practitioner's tool due to challenges in interpreting the survey results at real sites. This study explores the effectiveness of recently developed four-dimensional (4D, i.e., 3D space plus time) time-lapse surface ERT to monitor DNAPL source zone remediation. A laboratory experiment demonstrated the approach for mapping a changing NAPL distribution over time. A recently developed DNAPL-ERT numerical model was then employed to independently simulate the experiment, providing confidence that the DNAPL-ERT model is a reliable tool for simulating real systems. The numerical model was then used to evaluate the potential for this approach at the field scale. Four DNAPL source zones, exhibiting a range of complexity, were initially simulated, followed by modeled time-lapse ERT monitoring of complete DNAPL remediation by enhanced dissolution. 4D ERT inversion provided estimates of the regions of the source zone experiencing mass reduction with time. Results show that 4D time-lapse ERT has significant potential to map both the outline and the center of mass of the evolving treated portion of the source zone to within a few meters in each direction. In addition, the technique can provide a reasonable, albeit conservative, estimate of the DNAPL volume remediated with time: 25% underestimation in the upper 2m and up to 50% underestimation at late time between 2 and 4m depth. The technique is less reliable for identifying cleanup of DNAPL stringers outside the main DNAPL body. Overall, this study demonstrates that 4D time-lapse ERT has potential for mapping where and how quickly DNAPL mass changes in real time during site remediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Peeter Kreitzberg : võtame vaestelt lapsed ära! / Peeter Kreitzberg ; interv. Helen Urbanik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreitzberg, Peeter, 1948-2011

    2001-01-01

    Endine haridusminister tuli märtsi keskel konverentsil "Teine võimalus hariduses" välja ettepanekuga, et lastele peaks koolis käimine olema kohustuslik 18. eluaastani, riigi pansionidesse ja internaatidesse tuleks panna need lapsed, kelle pered ei jaksa neid üleval pidada. Autori täiendus 3. mai Eesti Ekspressi kirjade rubriigis (lk. A6) pealkirja all: Pakkusin vanematele võimalust, mitte vaeste laste konfiskeerimist. Autor: Keskerakond. Parlamendisaadik

  8. Time-lapse electrical surveys to locate infiltration zones in weathered hard rock tropical areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubda, M.; Descloitres, M.; Yalo, N.; Ribolzi, O.; Vouillamoz, J. M.; Boukari, M.; Hector, B.; Séguis, L.

    2017-07-01

    In West Africa, infiltration and groundwater recharge processes in hard rock areas are depending on climatic, surface and subsurface conditions, and are poorly documented. Part of the reason is that identification, location and monitoring of these processes is still a challenge. Here, we explore the potential for time-lapse electrical surveys to bring additional information on these processes for two different climate situations: a semi-arid Sahelian site (north of Burkina and a humid Sudanian site (north of Benin), respectively focusing on indirect (localized) and direct (diffuse) recharge processes. The methodology is based on surveys in dry season and rainy season on typical pond or gully using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and frequency electromagnetic (FEM) apparent conductivity mapping. The results show that in the Sahelian zone an indirect recharge occurs as expected, but infiltration doesn't takes place at the center of the pond to the aquifer, but occurs laterally in the banks. In Sudanian zone, the ERT survey shows a direct recharge process as expected, but also a complicated behavior of groundwater dilution, as well as the role of hardpans for fast infiltration. These processes are ascertained by groundwater monitoring in adjacent observing wells. At last, FEM time lapse mapping is found to be difficult to quantitatively interpreted due to the non-uniqueness of the model, clearly evidenced comparing FEM result to auger holes monitoring. Finally, we found that time-lapse ERT can be an efficient way to track infiltration processes across ponds and gullies in both climatic conditions, the Sahelian setting providing results easier to interpret, due to significant resistivity contrasts between dry and rain seasons. Both methods can be used for efficient implementation of punctual sensors for complementary studies. However, FEM time-lapse mapping remains difficult to practice without external information that renders this method less attractive for

  9. Probabilistic 3-D time-lapse inversion of magnetotelluric data: Application to an enhanced geothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Carbajal, Marina; Linde, Nicolas; Peacock, Jared R.; Zyserman, F. I.; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Thiel, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Surface-based monitoring of mass transfer caused by injections and extractions in deep boreholes is crucial to maximize oil, gas and geothermal production. Inductive electromagnetic methods, such as magnetotellurics, are appealing for these applications due to their large penetration depths and sensitivity to changes in fluid conductivity and fracture connectivity. In this work, we propose a 3-D Markov chain Monte Carlo inversion of time-lapse magnetotelluric data to image mass transfer following a saline fluid injection. The inversion estimates the posterior probability density function of the resulting plume, and thereby quantifies model uncertainty. To decrease computation times, we base the parametrization on a reduced Legendre moment decomposition of the plume. A synthetic test shows that our methodology is effective when the electrical resistivity structure prior to the injection is well known. The centre of mass and spread of the plume are well retrieved.We then apply our inversion strategy to an injection experiment in an enhanced geothermal system at Paralana, South Australia, and compare it to a 3-D deterministic time-lapse inversion. The latter retrieves resistivity changes that are more shallow than the actual injection interval, whereas the probabilistic inversion retrieves plumes that are located at the correct depths and oriented in a preferential north-south direction. To explain the time-lapse data, the inversion requires unrealistically large resistivity changes with respect to the base model. We suggest that this is partly explained by unaccounted subsurface heterogeneities in the base model from which time-lapse changes are inferred.

  10. Time-lapse seismic - repeatability versus usefulness and 2D versus 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landro, M.

    2017-12-01

    Time-lapse seismic has developed rapidly over the past decades, especially for monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs and subsurface storage of CO2. I will review and discuss some of the critical enabling factors for the commercial success of this technology. It was early realized that how well we are able to repeat our seismic experiment is crucial. However, it is always a question of detectability versus repeatability. For marine seismic, there are several factors limiting the repeatability: Weather conditions, positioning of sources and receivers and so on. I will discuss recent improvements in both acquisition and processing methods over the last decade. It is well known that repeated 3D seismic data is the most accurate tool for reservoir monitoring purposes. However, several examples show that 2D seismic data may be used for monitoring purposes despite lower repeatability. I will use examples from an underground blow out in the North Sea, and repeated 2D seismic lines acquired before and after the Tohoku earthquake in 2011 to illustrate this. A major challenge when using repeated 2D seismic for subsurface monitoring purposes is the lack of 3D calibration points and significantly less amount of data. For marine seismic acquisition, feathering issues and crossline dip effects become more critical compared to 3D seismic acquisition. Furthermore, the uncertainties arising from a non-ideal 2D seismic acquisition are hard to assess, since the 3D subsurface geometry has not been mapped. One way to shed more light on this challenge is to use 3D time lapse seismic modeling testing various crossline dips or geometries. Other ways are to use alternative data sources, such as bathymetry, time lapse gravity or electromagnetic data. The end result for all time-lapse monitoring projects is an interpretation associated with uncertainties, and for the 2D case these uncertainties are often large. The purpose of this talk is to discuss how to reduces and control these

  11. Calixarenes and cations: a time-lapse photography of the big-bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casnati, Alessandro

    2013-08-07

    The outstanding cation complexation properties emerging from the pioneering studies on calixarene ligands during a five-year period in the early 1980s triggered a big-bang burst of publications on such macrocycles that is still lasting at a distance of more than 30 years. A time-lapse photography of this timeframe is proposed which allows the readers to pinpoint the contributions of the different research groups.

  12. Time-lapse misorientation maps for the analysis of electron backscatter diffraction data from evolving microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, J.; Cross, A.; Drury, M.; Hough, R.M.; Mariani, E.; Piazolo, S.; Prior, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    A 'time-lapse misorientation map' is defined here as a map which shows the orientation change at each point in an evolving crystalline microstructure between two different times. Electron backscatter diffraction data from in situ heating experiments can be used to produce such maps, which then highlight areas of microstructural change and also yield statistics indicative of how far different types of boundary (with different misorientations) have moved.

  13. Lapsed kapsapõldudel mehe eest väljas / Anne Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Anne, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Kadarbiku talu peremees Ants Pak kasutab oma põldudel 8-12-aastaste laste tööd. Vt. samas: Vanemad tohivad lapsi tööle panna vaid oma tallu ja pereettevõttesse. Vt. samas Gert D Hankewitz interv. talu peremehe Ants Pakìga: Vanem ise sokutab lapse meile. Kommenteerivad Alar Tamm, Tarmo Kriis, Mailis Reps, Juhan Salum, Janno Järve, Aivo Tamm, Dmitri Jegorov ja Liivi Lents

  14. Seismic time-lapse imaging using Interferometric least-squares migration

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Mrinal; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    One of the problems with 4D surveys is that the environmental conditions change over time so that the experiment is insufficiently repeatable. To mitigate this problem, we propose the use of interferometric least-squares migration (ILSM) to estimate the migration image for the baseline and monitor surveys. Here, a known reflector is used as the reference reflector for ILSM. Results with synthetic and field data show that ILSM can eliminate artifacts caused by non-repeatability in time-lapse surveys.

  15. Inversion of time-domain induced polarization data based on time-lapse concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bitnarae; Nam, Myung Jin; Kim, Hee Joon

    2018-05-01

    Induced polarization (IP) surveys, measuring overvoltage phenomena of the medium, are widely and increasingly performed not only for exploration of mineral resources but also for engineering applications. Among several IP survey methods such as time-domain, frequency-domain and spectral IP surveys, this study introduces a noble inversion method for time-domain IP data to recover the chargeability structure of target medium. The inversion method employs the concept of 4D inversion of time-lapse resistivity data sets, considering the fact that measured voltage in time-domain IP survey is distorted by IP effects to increase from the instantaneous voltage measured at the moment the source current injection starts. Even though the increase is saturated very fast, we can consider the saturated and instantaneous voltages as a time-lapse data set. The 4D inversion method is one of the most powerful method for inverting time-lapse resistivity data sets. Using the developed IP inversion algorithm, we invert not only synthetic but also field IP data to show the effectiveness of the proposed method by comparing the recovered chargeability models with those from linear inversion that was used for the inversion of the field data in a previous study. Numerical results confirm that the proposed inversion method generates reliable chargeability models even though the anomalous bodies have large IP effects.

  16. An ecological momentary intervention for smoking cessation: The associations of just-in-time, tailored messages with lapse risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Emily T; Stevens, Elise M; Frank, Summer G; Kendzor, Darla E; Wetter, David W; Zvolensky, Michael J; Buckner, Julia D; Businelle, Michael S

    2018-03-01

    Smartphone apps can provide real-time, tailored interventions for smoking cessation. The current study examines the effectiveness of a smartphone-based smoking cessation application that assessed risk for imminent smoking lapse multiple times per day and provided messages tailored to current smoking lapse risk and specific lapse triggers. Participants (N=59) recruited from a safety-net hospital smoking cessation clinic completed phone-based ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) 5 times/day for 3 consecutive weeks (1week pre-quit, 2weeks post-quit). Risk for smoking lapse was estimated in real-time using a novel weighted lapse risk estimator. With each EMA, participants received messages tailored to current level of risk for imminent smoking lapse and self-reported presence of smoking urge, stress, cigarette availability, and motivation to quit. Generalized linear mixed model analyses determined whether messages tailored to specific lapse risk factors were associated with greater reductions in these triggers than messages not tailored to specific triggers. Overall, messages tailored to smoking urge, cigarette availability, or stress corresponded with greater reductions in those triggers than messages that were not tailored to specific triggers (p's=0.02 to <0.001). Although messages tailored to stress were associated with greater reductions in stress than messages not tailored to stress, the association was non-significant (p=0.892) when only moments of high stress were included in the analysis. Mobile technology can be used to conduct real-time smoking lapse risk assessment and provide tailored treatment content. Findings provide initial evidence that tailored content may impact users' urge to smoke, stress, and cigarette availability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Attention, Joint Attention, and Social Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Mundy, Peter; Newell, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Before social cognition there is joint processing of information about the attention of self and others. This joint attention requires the integrated activation of a distributed cortical network involving the anterior and posterior attention systems. In infancy, practice with the integrated activation of this distributed attention network is a major contributor to the development of social cognition. Thus, the functional neuroanatomies of social cognition and the anterior–posterior attention ...

  18. Inter-laboratory agreement on embryo classification and clinical decision: Conventional morphological assessment vs. time lapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Granados, Luis; Serrano, María; González-Utor, Antonio; Ortíz, Nereyda; Badajoz, Vicente; Olaya, Enrique; Prados, Nicolás; Boada, Montse; Castilla, Jose A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine inter-laboratory variability on embryo assessment using time-lapse platform and conventional morphological assessment. This study compares the data obtained from a pilot study of external quality control (EQC) of time lapse, performed in 2014, with the classical EQC of the Spanish Society for the Study of Reproductive Biology (ASEBIR) performed in 2013 and 2014. In total, 24 laboratories (8 using EmbryoScope™, 15 using Primo Vision™ and one with both platforms) took part in the pilot study. The clinics that used EmbryoScope™ analysed 31 embryos and those using Primo Vision™ analysed 35. The classical EQC was implemented by 39 clinics, based on an analysis of 25 embryos per year. Both groups were required to evaluate various qualitative morphological variables (cell fragmentation, the presence of vacuoles, blastomere asymmetry and multinucleation), to classify the embryos in accordance with ASEBIR criteria and to stipulate the clinical decision taken. In the EQC time-lapse pilot study, the groups were asked to determine, as well as the above characteristics, the embryo development times, the number, opposition and size of pronuclei, the direct division of 1 into 3 cells and/or of 3 into 5 cells and false divisions. The degree of agreement was determined by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficients and the coefficient of variation for the quantitative variables and the Gwet index for the qualitative variables. For both EmbryoScope™ and Primo Vision™, two periods of greater inter-laboratory variability were observed in the times of embryo development events. One peak of variability was recorded among the laboratories addressing the first embryo events (extrusion of the second polar body and the appearance of pronuclei); the second peak took place between the times corresponding to the 8-cell and morula stages. In most of the qualitative variables analysed regarding embryo development, there was almost

  19. Inter-laboratory agreement on embryo classification and clinical decision: Conventional morphological assessment vs. time lapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Martínez-Granados

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine inter-laboratory variability on embryo assessment using time-lapse platform and conventional morphological assessment. This study compares the data obtained from a pilot study of external quality control (EQC of time lapse, performed in 2014, with the classical EQC of the Spanish Society for the Study of Reproductive Biology (ASEBIR performed in 2013 and 2014. In total, 24 laboratories (8 using EmbryoScope™, 15 using Primo Vision™ and one with both platforms took part in the pilot study. The clinics that used EmbryoScope™ analysed 31 embryos and those using Primo Vision™ analysed 35. The classical EQC was implemented by 39 clinics, based on an analysis of 25 embryos per year. Both groups were required to evaluate various qualitative morphological variables (cell fragmentation, the presence of vacuoles, blastomere asymmetry and multinucleation, to classify the embryos in accordance with ASEBIR criteria and to stipulate the clinical decision taken. In the EQC time-lapse pilot study, the groups were asked to determine, as well as the above characteristics, the embryo development times, the number, opposition and size of pronuclei, the direct division of 1 into 3 cells and/or of 3 into 5 cells and false divisions. The degree of agreement was determined by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficients and the coefficient of variation for the quantitative variables and the Gwet index for the qualitative variables. For both EmbryoScope™ and Primo Vision™, two periods of greater inter-laboratory variability were observed in the times of embryo development events. One peak of variability was recorded among the laboratories addressing the first embryo events (extrusion of the second polar body and the appearance of pronuclei; the second peak took place between the times corresponding to the 8-cell and morula stages. In most of the qualitative variables analysed regarding embryo development, there

  20. The Attention Cascade Model and Attentional Blink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Shui-I

    2008-01-01

    An attention cascade model is proposed to account for attentional blinks in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of stimuli. Data were collected using single characters in a single RSVP stream at 10 Hz [Shih, S., & Reeves, A. (2007). "Attentional capture in rapid serial visual presentation." "Spatial Vision", 20(4), 301-315], and single words,…

  1. Network-targeted cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation improves attentional control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterman, Michael; Thai, Michelle; Okabe, Hidefusa; DeGutis, Joseph; Saad, Elyana; Laganiere, Simon E.; Halko, Mark A.

    2018-01-01

    Developing non-invasive brain stimulation interventions to improve attentional control is extremely relevant to a variety of neurologic and psychiatric populations, yet few studies have identified reliable biomarkers that can be readily modified to improve attentional control. One potential biomarker of attention is functional connectivity in the core cortical network supporting attention - the dorsal attention network (DAN). We used a network-targeted cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) procedure, intended to enhance cortical functional connectivity in the DAN. Specifically, in healthy young adults we administered intermittent theta burst TMS (iTBS) to the midline cerebellar node of the DAN and, as a control, the right cerebellar node of the default mode network (DMN). These cerebellar targets were localized using individual resting-state fMRI scans. Participants completed assessments of both sustained (gradual onset continuous performance task, gradCPT) and transient attentional control (attentional blink) immediately before and after stimulation, in two sessions (cerebellar DAN and DMN). Following cerebellar DAN stimulation, participants had significantly fewer attentional lapses (lower commission error rates) on the gradCPT. In contrast, stimulation to the cerebellar DMN did not affect gradCPT performance. Further, in the DAN condition, individuals with worse baseline gradCPT performance showed the greatest enhancement in gradCPT performance. These results suggest that temporarily increasing functional connectivity in the DAN via network-targeted cerebellar stimulation can enhance sustained attention, particularly in those with poor baseline performance. With regard to transient attention, TMS stimulation improved attentional blink performance across both stimulation sites, suggesting increasing functional connectivity in both networks can enhance this aspect of attention. These findings have important implications for intervention applications

  2. Rock Slope Monitoring from 4D Time-Lapse Structure from Motion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromer, Ryan; Abellan, Antonio; Chyz, Alex; Hutchinson, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry has become an important tool for studying earth surface processes because of its flexibility, ease of use, low cost and its capability of producing high quality 3-D surface models. A major benefit of SfM is that model accuracy is fit for purpose and surveys can be designed to meet a large range of spatial and temporal scales. In the Earth sciences, research in time-lapse SfM photogrammetry or videogrammetry is an area that is difficult to undertake due to complexities in acquiring, processing and managing large 4D datasets and represents an area with significant advancement potential (Eltner et al. 2016). In this study, we investigate the potential of 4D time-lapse SfM to monitor unstable rock slopes. We tested an array of statically mounted cameras collecting time-lapse photos of a limestone rock slope located along a highway in Canada. Our setup consisted of 8 DSLR cameras with 50 mm prime lenses spaced 2-3 m apart at a distance of 10 m from the slope. The portion of the rock slope monitored was 20 m wide and 6 m high. We collected data in four phases, each having 50 photographs taken simultaneously by each camera. The first phase of photographs was taken of the stable slope. In each successive phase, we gradually moved small, discrete blocks within the rock slope by 5-15 mm, simulating pre-failure deformation of rockfall. During the last phase we also removed discrete rock blocks, simulating rockfall. We used Agisoft Photoscan's 4D processing functionality and timeline tools to create 3D point clouds from the time-lapse photographs. These tools have the benefit of attaining better accuracy photo alignments as a greater number of photos are used. For change detection, we used the 4D filtering and calibration technique proposed by Kromer et al. (2015), which takes advantage of high degrees of spatial and temporal point redundancy to decrease measurement uncertainty. Preliminary results show that it is possible to attain

  3. Time-lapse refraction seismic tomography for the detection of ground ice degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hilbich

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The ice content of the subsurface is a major factor controlling the natural hazard potential of permafrost degradation in alpine terrain. Monitoring of changes in ice content is therefore similarly important as temperature monitoring in mountain permafrost. Although electrical resistivity tomography monitoring (ERTM proved to be a valuable tool for the observation of ice degradation, results are often ambiguous or contaminated by inversion artefacts. In theory, the sensitivity of P-wave velocity of seismic waves to phase changes between unfrozen water and ice is similar to the sensitivity of electric resistivity. Provided that the general conditions (lithology, stratigraphy, state of weathering, pore space remain unchanged over the observation period, temporal changes in the observed travel times of repeated seismic measurements should indicate changes in the ice and water content within the pores and fractures of the subsurface material. In this paper, a time-lapse refraction seismic tomography (TLST approach is applied as an independent method to ERTM at two test sites in the Swiss Alps. The approach was tested and validated based on a the comparison of time-lapse seismograms and analysis of reproducibility of the seismic signal, b the analysis of time-lapse travel time curves with respect to shifts in travel times and changes in P-wave velocities, and c the comparison of inverted tomograms including the quantification of velocity changes. Results show a high potential of the TLST approach concerning the detection of altered subsurface conditions caused by freezing and thawing processes. For velocity changes on the order of 3000 m/s even an unambiguous identification of significant ice loss is possible.

  4. Time-Lapse Electrical Geophysical Monitoring of Amendment-Based Biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy C; Versteeg, Roelof J; Day-Lewis, Frederick D; Major, William; Lane, John W

    2015-01-01

    Biostimulation is increasingly used to accelerate microbial remediation of recalcitrant groundwater contaminants. Effective application of biostimulation requires successful emplacement of amendment in the contaminant target zone. Verification of remediation performance requires postemplacement assessment and contaminant monitoring. Sampling-based approaches are expensive and provide low-density spatial and temporal information. Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is an effective geophysical method for determining temporal changes in subsurface electrical conductivity. Because remedial amendments and biostimulation-related biogeochemical processes often change subsurface electrical conductivity, ERT can complement and enhance sampling-based approaches for assessing emplacement and monitoring biostimulation-based remediation. Field studies demonstrating the ability of time-lapse ERT to monitor amendment emplacement and behavior were performed during a biostimulation remediation effort conducted at the Department of Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) Yard, in Brandywine, Maryland, United States. Geochemical fluid sampling was used to calibrate a petrophysical relation in order to predict groundwater indicators of amendment distribution. The petrophysical relations were field validated by comparing predictions to sequestered fluid sample results, thus demonstrating the potential of electrical geophysics for quantitative assessment of amendment-related geochemical properties. Crosshole radar zero-offset profile and borehole geophysical logging were also performed to augment the data set and validate interpretation. In addition to delineating amendment transport in the first 10 months after emplacement, the time-lapse ERT results show later changes in bulk electrical properties interpreted as mineral precipitation. Results support the use of more cost-effective surface-based ERT in conjunction with limited field sampling to improve spatial

  5. A state-space Bayesian framework for estimating biogeochemical transformations using time-lapse geophysical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.; Hubbard, S.; Williams, K.; Pride, S.; Li, L.; Steefel, C.; Slater, L.

    2009-04-15

    We develop a state-space Bayesian framework to combine time-lapse geophysical data with other types of information for quantitative estimation of biogeochemical parameters during bioremediation. We consider characteristics of end-products of biogeochemical transformations as state vectors, which evolve under constraints of local environments through evolution equations, and consider time-lapse geophysical data as available observations, which could be linked to the state vectors through petrophysical models. We estimate the state vectors and their associated unknown parameters over time using Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling methods. To demonstrate the use of the state-space approach, we apply it to complex resistivity data collected during laboratory column biostimulation experiments that were poised to precipitate iron and zinc sulfides during sulfate reduction. We develop a petrophysical model based on sphere-shaped cells to link the sulfide precipitate properties to the time-lapse geophysical attributes and estimate volume fraction of the sulfide precipitates, fraction of the dispersed, sulfide-encrusted cells, mean radius of the aggregated clusters, and permeability over the course of the experiments. Results of the case study suggest that the developed state-space approach permits the use of geophysical datasets for providing quantitative estimates of end-product characteristics and hydrological feedbacks associated with biogeochemical transformations. Although tested here on laboratory column experiment datasets, the developed framework provides the foundation needed for quantitative field-scale estimation of biogeochemical parameters over space and time using direct, but often sparse wellbore data with indirect, but more spatially extensive geophysical datasets.

  6. Time-lapse electrical geophysical monitoring of amendment-based biostimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy C.; Versteeg, Roelof J.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Major, William; Lane, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Biostimulation is increasingly used to accelerate microbial remediation of recalcitrant groundwater contaminants. Effective application of biostimulation requires successful emplacement of amendment in the contaminant target zone. Verification of remediation performance requires postemplacement assessment and contaminant monitoring. Sampling-based approaches are expensive and provide low-density spatial and temporal information. Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is an effective geophysical method for determining temporal changes in subsurface electrical conductivity. Because remedial amendments and biostimulation-related biogeochemical processes often change subsurface electrical conductivity, ERT can complement and enhance sampling-based approaches for assessing emplacement and monitoring biostimulation-based remediation.Field studies demonstrating the ability of time-lapse ERT to monitor amendment emplacement and behavior were performed during a biostimulation remediation effort conducted at the Department of Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) Yard, in Brandywine, Maryland, United States. Geochemical fluid sampling was used to calibrate a petrophysical relation in order to predict groundwater indicators of amendment distribution. The petrophysical relations were field validated by comparing predictions to sequestered fluid sample results, thus demonstrating the potential of electrical geophysics for quantitative assessment of amendment-related geochemical properties. Crosshole radar zero-offset profile and borehole geophysical logging were also performed to augment the data set and validate interpretation.In addition to delineating amendment transport in the first 10 months after emplacement, the time-lapse ERT results show later changes in bulk electrical properties interpreted as mineral precipitation. Results support the use of more cost-effective surface-based ERT in conjunction with limited field sampling to improve spatial

  7. Time-lapse 3D imaging of calcite precipitation in a microporous column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Jose R. A.; Withers, Philip J.

    2018-02-01

    Time-lapse X-ray computed tomography is used to image the evolution of calcite precipitation during flow through microporous quartz over the course of 400 h. The growth rate decreases by more than seven times, which is linked to the clogging of flow paths that restricts flow to some regions of the column. Fewer precipitates are observed as a function of column depth, which is found to be related to a differential nucleation density along the sample. A higher nucleation density closer to the inlet implies more crystal volume increase per unit of time without affecting the rate if normalized to the surface area of crystals. Our overall growth rates measured in porous media are orders of magnitude slower than growth rates derived from traditional precipitation experiments on free surfaces. Based on our time-lapse results we hypothesize a scenario where the evolving distribution of precipitates within a pore structure during precipitation progressively modifies the local transport through the pores. Within less permeable regions the saturation index may be lower than along the main flow paths. Therefore, the reactive crystal surfaces within those regions grow at a slower rate than that expected from the bulk fluid composition. Since the amount of reactive surface area within these less permeable regions increases over time, the overall growth rate decreases without a necessary significant change of the bulk fluid composition along more permeable flow paths. In conclusion, the overall growth rates in an evolving porous media expected from bulk fluid compositions alone can be overestimated due to the development of stagnant sub-regions where the reactive surface area is bath by a solution with lower saturation index. In this context we highlight the value of time-lapse 3D studies for understanding the dynamics of mineral precipitation in porous media.

  8. Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring, SoilCAM project highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, H. K.; Van Der Zee, S. E.; Wehrer, M.; Godio, A.; Pedersen, L. B.; Tsocano, G.

    2013-12-01

    The SoilCAM project (2008- 2012, EU-FP7-212663) aimed at improving methods for monitoring subsurace contaminant distribution and biodegradation. Two test sites were chosen, Oslo airport Gardermoen, Norway where de-icing agents infiltrate the soil during snowmelt and the Trecate site in Italy where an inland crude oil spill occurred in 1994. A number of geophysical investigation techniques were combined with soil and water sampling techniques. Data obtained from time-lapse measurements were further analysed by numerical modelling of flow and transport at different scales in order to characterise transport processes in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Laboratory experiments provided physical and biogeochemical data for model parameterisation and to select remediation methods. The geophysical techniques were used to map geological heterogeneities and to conduct time-lapse measurements of processes in the unsaturated zone. Both cross borehole and surface electrodes were used for electrical resistivity and induced polarisation surveys. Results showed clear indications of areas highly affected by de-icing chemicals along the runway at Oslo airport. The time lapse measurements along the runway at the airport showed infiltration patterns during snowmelt and were used to validate 2D unsaturated flow and transport simulations using SUTRA. The simulations illustrate the effect of layering geological structures and membranes, buried parallel to the runway, on the flow pattern. Complex interaction between bio-geo-chemical processes in a 1D vertical profile along the runway were described with the ORCHESTRA model. Smaller scale field site measurements revealed increase of iron and manganese during degradation of de-icing chemicals. At the Trecate site a combination of georadar, electrical resistivity and radio magneto telluric provided a broad outline of the geology down to 50 m. Anomalies in the Induced polarisation and electrical resistivity data from the cross borehole

  9. Imaging the developing heart: synchronized time-lapse microscopy during developmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Carl J.; Buckley, Charlotte; Mullins, John J.; Denvir, Martin A.; Taylor, Jonathan

    2018-02-01

    How do you use imaging to analyse the development of the heart, which not only changes shape but also undergoes constant, high-speed, quasi-periodic changes? We have integrated ideas from prospective and retrospective optical gating to capture long-term, phase-locked developmental time-lapse videos. In this paper we demonstrate the success of this approach over a key developmental time period: heart looping, where large changes in heart shape prevent previous prospective gating approaches from capturing phase- locked videos. We use the comparison with other approaches to in vivo heart imaging to highlight the importance of collecting the most appropriate data for the biological question.

  10. A software solution for recording circadian oscillator features in time-lapse live cell microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmon Patrick

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluorescent and bioluminescent time-lapse microscopy approaches have been successfully used to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying the mammalian circadian oscillator at the single cell level. However, most of the available software and common methods based on intensity-threshold segmentation and frame-to-frame tracking are not applicable in these experiments. This is due to cell movement and dramatic changes in the fluorescent/bioluminescent reporter protein during the circadian cycle, with the lowest expression level very close to the background intensity. At present, the standard approach to analyze data sets obtained from time lapse microscopy is either manual tracking or application of generic image-processing software/dedicated tracking software. To our knowledge, these existing software solutions for manual and automatic tracking have strong limitations in tracking individual cells if their plane shifts. Results In an attempt to improve existing methodology of time-lapse tracking of a large number of moving cells, we have developed a semi-automatic software package. It extracts the trajectory of the cells by tracking theirs displacements, makes the delineation of cell nucleus or whole cell, and finally yields measurements of various features, like reporter protein expression level or cell displacement. As an example, we present here single cell circadian pattern and motility analysis of NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts expressing a fluorescent circadian reporter protein. Using Circadian Gene Express plugin, we performed fast and nonbiased analysis of large fluorescent time lapse microscopy datasets. Conclusions Our software solution, Circadian Gene Express (CGE, is easy to use and allows precise and semi-automatic tracking of moving cells over longer period of time. In spite of significant circadian variations in protein expression with extremely low expression levels at the valley phase, CGE allows accurate and

  11. 3-D time-lapse electrical resistivity monitoring of injected CO2 in a shallow aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, Joseph A. J.A.; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.

    2013-01-01

    and 10 m and monitored its migration using 320 surface electrodes on a 126 m × 20 m grid. A fully automated acquisition system continuously collected data and uploaded it into an online database. The large amount of data allows for time-series analysis for data quality and noise estimation. A baseline...... inversion reveals the geology at the site consisting of aeolian sands near the surface and glacial sands below 5 m depth. Time-lapse inversions clearly image the dissolved CO2 plume with decreased electrical resistivity values. We can follow the CO2 plume as it spreads and moves with the groundwater...

  12. Segmentation Method of Time-Lapse Microscopy Images with the Focus on Biocompatibility Assessment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Jindřich; Císař, P.; Šroubek, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2016), s. 497-506 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29225S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LO1205; GA UK(CZ) 914813/2013; GA UK(CZ) SVV-2016-260332; CENAKVA(CZ) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0024 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : phase contrast microscopy * segmentation * biocompatibility assessment * time-lapse * cytotoxicity testing Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/soukupj-0460642.pdf

  13. A software solution for recording circadian oscillator features in time-lapse live cell microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Daniel; Unser, Michael; Salmon, Patrick; Dibner, Charna

    2010-07-06

    Fluorescent and bioluminescent time-lapse microscopy approaches have been successfully used to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying the mammalian circadian oscillator at the single cell level. However, most of the available software and common methods based on intensity-threshold segmentation and frame-to-frame tracking are not applicable in these experiments. This is due to cell movement and dramatic changes in the fluorescent/bioluminescent reporter protein during the circadian cycle, with the lowest expression level very close to the background intensity. At present, the standard approach to analyze data sets obtained from time lapse microscopy is either manual tracking or application of generic image-processing software/dedicated tracking software. To our knowledge, these existing software solutions for manual and automatic tracking have strong limitations in tracking individual cells if their plane shifts. In an attempt to improve existing methodology of time-lapse tracking of a large number of moving cells, we have developed a semi-automatic software package. It extracts the trajectory of the cells by tracking theirs displacements, makes the delineation of cell nucleus or whole cell, and finally yields measurements of various features, like reporter protein expression level or cell displacement. As an example, we present here single cell circadian pattern and motility analysis of NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts expressing a fluorescent circadian reporter protein. Using Circadian Gene Express plugin, we performed fast and nonbiased analysis of large fluorescent time lapse microscopy datasets. Our software solution, Circadian Gene Express (CGE), is easy to use and allows precise and semi-automatic tracking of moving cells over longer period of time. In spite of significant circadian variations in protein expression with extremely low expression levels at the valley phase, CGE allows accurate and efficient recording of large number of cell parameters, including

  14. Lapse in embryo transfer training does not negatively affect clinical pregnancy rates for reproductive endocrinology and infertility fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresowik, Jessica; Sparks, Amy; Duran, Eyup H; Shah, Divya K

    2015-03-01

    To compare rates of clinical pregnancy (CPR) and live birth (LBR) following embryo transfer (ET) performed by reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) fellows before and after a prolonged lapse in clinical training due to an 18-month research rotation. Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. All women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles with ET performed by REI fellows from August 2003 to July 2012. Eighteen-month lapse in clinical training of REI fellows. CPR and LBR before and after the lapse in clinical training were calculated and compared per fellow and as a composite group. Alternating logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds of clinical pregnancy and live birth following transfers performed before and after the lapse in training. Unadjusted odds of clinical pregnancy and live birth were similar between the two time periods both for individual fellows and for the composite group. Alternate logistic regression analysis revealed no significant difference in CPR (odds ratio [OR] 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-1.07) or LBR (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.94-1.18) after the lapse in training compared with before. A research rotation is common in REI fellowship training programs. This prolonged departure from clinical training does not appear to negatively affect pregnancy outcome following fellow ET. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Attention and Olfactory Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to ...

  16. EEG predictors of covert vigilant attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Adrien; Dähne, Sven; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Objective. The present study addressed the question whether neurophysiological signals exhibit characteristic modulations preceding a miss in a covert vigilant attention task which mimics a natural environment in which critical stimuli may appear in the periphery of the visual field. Approach. Subjective, behavioural and encephalographic (EEG) data of 12 participants performing a modified Mackworth Clock task were obtained and analysed offline. The stimulus consisted of a pointer performing regular ticks in a clockwise sequence across 42 dots arranged in a circle. Participants were requested to covertly attend to the pointer and press a response button as quickly as possible in the event of a jump, a rare and random event. Main results. Significant increases in response latencies and decreases in the detection rates were found as a function of time-on-task, a characteristic effect of sustained attention tasks known as the vigilance decrement. Subjective sleepiness showed a significant increase over the duration of the experiment. Increased activity in the α-frequency range (8-14 Hz) was observed emerging and gradually accumulating 10 s before a missed target. Additionally, a significant gradual attenuation of the P3 event-related component was found to antecede misses by 5 s. Significance. The results corroborate recent findings that behavioural errors are presaged by specific neurophysiological activity and demonstrate that lapses of attention can be predicted in a covert setting up to 10 s in advance reinforcing the prospective use of brain-computer interface (BCI) technology for the detection of waning vigilance in real-world scenarios. Combining these findings with real-time single-trial analysis from BCI may pave the way for cognitive states monitoring systems able to determine the current, and predict the near-future development of the brain's attentional processes.

  17. Time lapse imaging: is it time to incorporate this technology into routine clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, Priya; Maheshwari, Abha; Cutting, Rachel; Seenan, Susan; Patel, Anita; Khan, Khalid; Homburg, Roy

    2017-06-01

    Time-lapse imaging (TLI) systems for embryo incubation, assessment and selection are a novel technology available to in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. However, there is uncertainty about their clinical and cost-effectiveness and insufficient good quality evidence to warrant their routine use. Despite this, enthusiastic commercial marketing and slipping clinical equipoise have led to the widespread hasty introduction of this technology into practice, often at a considerable expense to the patient. We have reviewed the published literature and aim to summarize the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of these systems. These specialized incubators provide undisturbed embryo culture conditions and, by almost continuous monitoring of embryo development, generate morphokinetic parameters to aid embryo selection. They are thus hypothesized to improve outcomes following IVF. Although literature reports improved reproductive outcomes, these outcomes are largely surrogate and there is a paucity of studies reporting live births. The use of time lapse systems may reduce early pregnancy loss, increase elective single embryo transfers and limit multiple pregnancies through better embryo selection. However, the quality of the studies and hence the evidence so far, is low to moderate quality. We recommend further research producing robust high-quality evidence for and against the use of these systems.

  18. Time-lapse nanoscopy of friction in the non-Amontons and non-Coulomb regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Tadashi; Sato, Takaaki; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Oguma, Masatsugu; Itamura, Noriaki; Goda, Keisuke; Sasaki, Naruo; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-11

    Originally discovered by Leonard da Vinci in the 15th century, the force of friction is directly proportional to the applied load (known as Amontons' first law of friction). Furthermore, kinetic friction is independent of the sliding speed (known as Coulomb's law of friction). These empirical laws break down at high normal pressure (due to plastic deformation) and low sliding speed (in the transition regime between static friction and kinetic friction). An important example of this phenomenon is friction between the asperities of tectonic plates on the Earth. Despite its significance, little is known about the detailed mechanism of friction in this regime due to the lack of experimental methods. Here we demonstrate in situ time-lapse nanoscopy of friction between asperities sliding at ultralow speed (∼0.01 nm/s) under high normal pressure (∼GPa). This is made possible by compressing and rubbing a pair of nanometer-scale crystalline silicon anvils with electrostatic microactuators and monitoring its dynamical evolution with a transmission electron microscope. Our analysis of the time-lapse movie indicates that superplastic behavior is induced by decrystallization, plastic deformation, and atomic diffusion at the asperity-asperity interface. The results hold great promise for a better understanding of quasi-static friction under high pressure for geoscience, materials science, and nanotechnology.

  19. Tracking tracer breakthrough in the hyporheic zone using time‐lapse DC resistivity, Crabby Creek, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyquist, Jonathan E.; Toran, Laura; Fang, Allison C.; Ryan, Robert J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of the hyporheic zone is of critical importance for understanding stream ecology, contaminant transport, and groundwater‐surface water interaction. A salt water tracer test was used to probe the hyporheic zone of a recently re‐engineered portion of Crabby Creek, a stream located near Philadelphia, PA. The tracer solution was tracked through a 13.5 meter segment of the stream using both a network of 25 wells sampled every 5–15 minutes and time‐lapse electrical resistivity tomographs collected every 11 minutes for six hours, with additional tomographs collected every 100 minutes for an additional 16 hours. The comparison of tracer monitoring methods is of keen interest because tracer tests are one of the few techniques available for characterizing this dynamic zone, and logistically it is far easier to collect resistivity tomographs than to install and monitor a dense network of wells. Our results show that resistivity monitoring captured the essential shape of the breakthrough curve and may indicate portions of the stream where the tracer lingered in the hyporheic zone. Time‐lapse resistivity measurements, however, represent time averages over the period required to collect a tomographic data set, and spatial averages over a volume larger than captured by a well sample. Smoothing by the resistivity data inversion algorithm further blurs the resulting tomograph; consequently resistivity monitoring underestimates the degree of fine‐scale heterogeneity in the hyporheic zone.

  20. Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Investigations for Imaging the Grouting Injection in Shallow Subsurface Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The highway of Yongweol-ri, Muan-gun, south-western part of the South Korean Peninsula, is underlain by the abandoned of subsurface cavities, which were discovered in 2005. These cavities lie at shallow depths with the range of 5∼15 meters below the ground surface. Numerous subsidence events have repeatedly occurred in the past few years, damaging infrastructure and highway. As a result of continuing subsidence issues, the Korean Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources (KIGAM was requested by local administration to resolve the issue. The KIGAM used geophysical methods to delineate subsurface cavities and improve more refined understanding of the cavities network in the study area. Cement based grouting has been widely employed in the construction industry to reinforce subsurface ground. In this research work, time-lapse electrical resistivity surveys were accomplished to monitor the grouting injection in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway, which have provided a quasi-real-time monitoring for modifying the subsurface cavities related to ground reinforcement, which would be difficult with direct methods. The results obtained from time-lapse electrical resistivity technique have satisfactory imaged the grouting injection experiment in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway. Furthermore, the borehole camera confirmed the presence of grouting material in the subsurface cavities, and hence this procedure increases the mechanical resistance of subsurface cavities below the highway.

  1. Using a time lapse microgravity model for mapping seawater intrusion around Semarang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supriyadi,, E-mail: supriyadi@mail.unnes.ac.id; Khumaedi [Physics Department, Semarang State University (UNNES), D7 Building 2nd Floor FMIPA Sekaran Gunungpati (Indonesia); Yusuf, M. [Badan Meteologi Klimatologi Goefisika (BMKG), Jl.Angkasa I No.2 Kemayoran Jakarta Pusat (Indonesia); Agung, W. [Physics Department, Diponegoro University (UNDIP), Jl. Prof. Soedharto, Tembalang, Semarang (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    A modeling of time-lapse microgravity anomaly due to sea water intrusion has been conducted. It used field data of aquifer cross section, aquifer thickness and lithology of research area. Those data were then processed using Grav3D and Surfer. Modeling results indicated that the intrusion of sea water resulting in a time-lapse microgravity anomalies of 0.12 to 0.18 mGal, at soil layer density of 0.15 g/cm{sup 3} to 0.3 g/cm{sup 3} and at depth of 30 to 100 m. These imply that the areas experiencing seawater intrusion were Tanjung Mas, SPBE Bandarharjo, Brass, Old Market Boom and Johar as the microgravity measured there were in the range of 0.12 to 0.18 mGal and the density contrast were at 0.15 g/cm{sup 3} to 0.28 g/cm{sup 3}. Areas that experienced fluid reduction were Puri Anjasmoro, Kenconowungu and Puspowarno with microgravity changes from -0.06 mGal to -0.18 mGal.

  2. Stochastic modeling of oligodendrocyte generation in cell culture: model validation with time-lapse data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noble Mark

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is two-fold. The first objective is to validate the assumptions behind a stochastic model developed earlier by these authors to describe oligodendrocyte generation in cell culture. The second is to generate time-lapse data that may help biomathematicians to build stochastic models of cell proliferation and differentiation under other experimental scenarios. Results Using time-lapse video recording it is possible to follow the individual evolutions of different cells within each clone. This experimental technique is very laborious and cannot replace model-based quantitative inference from clonal data. However, it is unrivalled in validating the structure of a stochastic model intended to describe cell proliferation and differentiation at the clonal level. In this paper, such data are reported and analyzed for oligodendrocyte precursor cells cultured in vitro. Conclusion The results strongly support the validity of the most basic assumptions underpinning the previously proposed model of oligodendrocyte development in cell culture. However, there are some discrepancies; the most important is that the contribution of progenitor cell death to cell kinetics in this experimental system has been underestimated.

  3. Time-lapse crystallography snapshots of a double-strand break repair polymerase in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamsen, Joonas A; Beard, William A; Pedersen, Lars C; Shock, David D; Moon, Andrea F; Krahn, Juno M; Bebenek, Katarzyna; Kunkel, Thomas A; Wilson, Samuel H

    2017-08-15

    DNA polymerase (pol) μ is a DNA-dependent polymerase that incorporates nucleotides during gap-filling synthesis in the non-homologous end-joining pathway of double-strand break repair. Here we report time-lapse X-ray crystallography snapshots of catalytic events during gap-filling DNA synthesis by pol μ. Unique catalytic intermediates and active site conformational changes that underlie catalysis are uncovered, and a transient third (product) metal ion is observed in the product state. The product manganese coordinates phosphate oxygens of the inserted nucleotide and PP i . The product metal is not observed during DNA synthesis in the presence of magnesium. Kinetic analyses indicate that manganese increases the rate constant for deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphate insertion compared to magnesium. The likely product stabilization role of the manganese product metal in pol μ is discussed. These observations provide insight on structural attributes of this X-family double-strand break repair polymerase that impact its biological function in genome maintenance.DNA polymerase (pol) μ functions in DNA double-strand break repair. Here the authors use time-lapse X-ray crystallography to capture the states of pol µ during the conversion from pre-catalytic to product complex and observe a third transiently bound metal ion in the product state.

  4. The time-lapse AVO difference inversion for changes in reservoir parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longxiao, Zhi; Hanming, Gu; Yan, Li

    2016-12-01

    The result of conventional time-lapse seismic processing is the difference between the amplitude and the post-stack seismic data. Although stack processing can improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of seismic data, it also causes a considerable loss of important information about the amplitude changes and only gives the qualitative interpretation. To predict the changes in reservoir fluid more precisely and accurately, we also need the quantitative information of the reservoir. To achieve this aim, we develop the method of time-lapse AVO (amplitude versus offset) difference inversion. For the inversion of reservoir changes in elastic parameters, we apply the Gardner equation as the constraint and convert the three-parameter inversion of elastic parameter changes into a two-parameter inversion to make the inversion more stable. For the inversion of variations in the reservoir parameters, we infer the relation between the difference of the reflection coefficient and variations in the reservoir parameters, and then invert reservoir parameter changes directly. The results of the theoretical modeling computation and practical application show that our method can estimate the relative variations in reservoir density, P-wave and S-wave velocity, calculate reservoir changes in water saturation and effective pressure accurately, and then provide reference for the rational exploitation of the reservoir.

  5. Time lapse seismic observations and effects of reservoir compressibility at Teal South oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nayyer

    One of the original ocean-bottom time-lapse seismic studies was performed at the Teal South oil field in the Gulf of Mexico during the late 1990's. This work reexamines some aspects of previous work using modern analysis techniques to provide improved quantitative interpretations. Using three-dimensional volume visualization of legacy data and the two phases of post-production time-lapse data, I provide additional insight into the fluid migration pathways and the pressure communication between different reservoirs, separated by faults. This work supports a conclusion from previous studies that production from one reservoir caused regional pressure decline that in turn resulted in liberation of gas from multiple surrounding unproduced reservoirs. I also provide an explanation for unusual time-lapse changes in amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) data related to the compaction of the producing reservoir which, in turn, changed an isotropic medium to an anisotropic medium. In the first part of this work, I examine regional changes in seismic response due to the production of oil and gas from one reservoir. The previous studies primarily used two post-production ocean-bottom surveys (Phase I and Phase II), and not the legacy streamer data, due to the unavailability of legacy prestack data and very different acquisition parameters. In order to incorporate the legacy data in the present study, all three post-stack data sets were cross-equalized and examined using instantaneous amplitude and energy volumes. This approach appears quite effective and helps to suppress changes unrelated to production while emphasizing those large-amplitude changes that are related to production in this noisy (by current standards) suite of data. I examine the multiple data sets first by using the instantaneous amplitude and energy attributes, and then also examine specific apparent time-lapse changes through direct comparisons of seismic traces. In so doing, I identify time-delays that, when

  6. Analysis of compaction initiation in human embryos by using time-lapse cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Kyoko; Yumoto, Keitaro; Sugishima, Minako; Mizoguchi, Chizuru; Kai, Yoshiteru; Iba, Yumiko; Mio, Yasuyuki

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the initiation of compaction in human embryos in vitro by using time-lapse cinematography (TLC), with the goal of determining the precise timing of compaction and clarifying the morphological changes underlying the compaction process. One hundred and fifteen embryos donated by couples with no further need for embryo-transfer were used in this study. Donated embryos were thawed and processed, and then their morphological behavior during the initiation of compaction was dynamically observed via time-lapse cinematography (TLC) for 5 days. Although the initiation of compaction occurred throughout the period from the 4-cell to 16-cell stage, 99 (86.1 %) embryos initiated compaction at the 8-cell stage or later, with initiation at the 8-cell stage being most frequent (22.6 %). Of these 99 embryos, 49.5 % developed into good-quality blastocysts. In contrast, of the 16 (13.9 %) embryos that initiated compaction prior to the 8-cell stage, only 18.8 % developed into good-quality blastocysts. Embryos that initiated compaction before the 8-cell stage showed significantly higher numbers of multinucleated blastomeres, due to asynchronism in nuclear division at the third mitotic division resulting from cytokinetic failure. The initiation of compaction primarily occurs at the third mitotic division or later in human embryos. Embryos that initiate compaction before the 8-cell stage are usually associated with aberrant embryonic development (i.e., cytokinetic failure accompanied by karyokinesis).

  7. Possible mechanism of polyspermy block in human oocytes observed by time-lapse cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mio, Yasuyuki; Iwata, Kyoko; Yumoto, Keitaro; Kai, Yoshiteru; Sargant, Haruka C; Mizoguchi, Chizuru; Ueda, Minako; Tsuchie, Yuka; Imajo, Akifumi; Iba, Yumiko; Nishikori, Kyoko

    2012-09-01

    To analyze the fertilization process related to polyspermy block in human oocytes using an in vitro culturing system for time-lapse cinematography. We had 122 oocytes donated for this study from couples that provided informed consent. We recorded human oocytes at 2,000 to 2,800 frames every 10 s during the fertilization process and thereafter every 2 min using a new in vitro culture system originally developed by the authors for time-lapse cinematography. We displayed 30 frames per second for analysis of the polyspermy block during fertilization. Three oocytes showed the leading and following sperm within the zona pellucida in the same microscopic field. The dynamic images obtained during the fertilization process using this new system revealed that once a leading sperm penetrated the zona pellucida and attached to the oocyte membrane, a following sperm was arrested from further penetration into the zona pellucida within 10 s. The present results strongly suggest the existence of a novel mechanism of polyspermy block that takes place at the zona pellucida immediately after fertilization. These findings are clearly different from previous mechanisms describing polyspermy block as the oocyte membrane block to sperm penetration and the zona reaction. The finding presented herein thus represents a novel discovery about the highly complicated polyspermy block mechanism occurring in human oocytes.

  8. Time Lapse Electrical Resistivity to Connect Evapotranspiration and Groundwater Fluxes in the Critical Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, S. K.; Harmon, R. E.; Barnard, H. R.; Randall, J.; Singha, K.

    2017-12-01

    The critical zone (CZ)—an open system extending from canopy top to the base of groundwater—is a highly dynamic and heterogeneous environment. In forested terrain, trees make up a large component of the CZ. This work aims to quantify the connection between vegetation and subsurface water storage at a hillslope scale within a forested watershed in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon. To identify the mechanism(s) controlling the connection at the hillslope scale, we observe patterns in electrical conductivity using 2D-time lapse-DC resistivity. To compare inversions through time a representative error model was determined using L-curve criterion. Inverted data show high spatial variability in ground electrical conductivity and variation at both diel and seasonal timescales. These changes are most pronounced in areas corresponding to dense vegetation. The diel pattern in electrical conductivity is also observed in monitored sap flow sensors, water-level gauges, tensiometers, and sediment thermal probes. To quantify the temporal connection between these data over the course of the growing season a cross correlation analysis was conducted. Preliminary data show that over the course of the growing season transpiration becomes decoupled from both groundwater and soil moisture. Further decomposition of the inverted time lapse data will highlight spatial variability in electrical conductivity providing insight into the where, when, and how(s) of tree-modified subsurface storage.

  9. Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo Inversion of Time-Lapse Geophysical Data To Characterize the Vadose Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholer, Marie; Irving, James; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms

    Geophysical methods have the potential to provide valuable information on hydrological properties in the unsaturated zone. In particular, time-lapse geophysical data, when coupled with a hydrological model and inverted stochastically, may allow for the effective estimation of subsurface hydraulic...... parameters and their corresponding uncertainties. In this study, we use a Bayesian Markov-chain-Monte-Carlo (MCMC) inversion approach to investigate how much information regarding vadose zone hydraulic properties can be retrieved from time-lapse crosshole GPR data collected at the Arrenaes field site...

  10. Time-lapse seismic waveform modelling and attribute analysis using hydromechanical models for a deep reservoir undergoing depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y.-X.; Angus, D. A.; Blanchard, T. D.; Wang, G.-L.; Yuan, S.-Y.; Garcia, A.

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of fluids from subsurface reservoirs induces changes in pore pressure, leading not only to geomechanical changes, but also perturbations in seismic velocities and hence observable seismic attributes. Time-lapse seismic analysis can be used to estimate changes in subsurface hydromechanical properties and thus act as a monitoring tool for geological reservoirs. The ability to observe and quantify changes in fluid, stress and strain using seismic techniques has important implications for monitoring risk not only for petroleum applications but also for geological storage of CO2 and nuclear waste scenarios. In this paper, we integrate hydromechanical simulation results with rock physics models and full-waveform seismic modelling to assess time-lapse seismic attribute resolution for dynamic reservoir characterization and hydromechanical model calibration. The time-lapse seismic simulations use a dynamic elastic reservoir model based on a North Sea deep reservoir undergoing large pressure changes. The time-lapse seismic traveltime shifts and time strains calculated from the modelled and processed synthetic data sets (i.e. pre-stack and post-stack data) are in a reasonable agreement with the true earth models, indicating the feasibility of using 1-D strain rock physics transform and time-lapse seismic processing methodology. Estimated vertical traveltime shifts for the overburden and the majority of the reservoir are within ±1 ms of the true earth model values, indicating that the time-lapse technique is sufficiently accurate for predicting overburden velocity changes and hence geomechanical effects. Characterization of deeper structure below the overburden becomes less accurate, where more advanced time-lapse seismic processing and migration is needed to handle the complex geometry and strong lateral induced velocity changes. Nevertheless, both migrated full-offset pre-stack and near-offset post-stack data image the general features of both the overburden and

  11. Optimization of a Time-Lapse Gravity Network for Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appriou, D.; Strickland, C. E.; Ruprecht Yonkofski, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate what could be a comprehensive and optimal state of the art gravity monitoring network that would meet the UIC class VI regulation and insure that 90% of the CO2 injected remain underground. Time-lapse gravity surveys have a long history of effective applications of monitoring temporal density changes in the subsurface. For decades, gravity measurements have been used for a wide range of applications. The interest of time-lapse gravity surveys for monitoring carbon sequestration sites started recently. The success of their deployment in such sites depends upon a combination of favorable conditions, such as the reservoir geometry, depth, thickness, density change over time induced by the CO2 injection and the location of the instrument. In most cases, the density changes induced by the CO2 plume in the subsurface are not detectable from the surface but the use of borehole gravimeters can provide excellent results. In the framework of the National Assessment and Risk Partnership (NRAP) funded by the Department of Energy, the evaluation of the effectiveness of the gravity monitoring of a CO2 storage site has been assessed using multiple synthetic scenarios implemented on a community model developed for the Kimberlina site (e.g., fault leakage scenarios, borehole leakage). The Kimberlina carbon sequestration project was a pilot project located in southern San Joaquin Valley, California, aimed to safely inject 250,000 t CO2/yr for four years. Although the project was cancelled in 2012, the site characterization efforts resulted in the development of a geologic model. In this study, we present the results of the time-lapse gravity monitoring applied on different multiphase flow and reactive transport models developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (i.e., no leakage, permeable fault zone, wellbore leakage). Our monitoring approach considers an ideal network, consisting of multiple vertical and horizontal instrumented

  12. Active and passive electrical and seismic time-lapse monitoring of earthen embankments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittgers, Justin Bradley

    In this dissertation, I present research involving the application of active and passive geophysical data collection, data assimilation, and inverse modeling for the purpose of earthen embankment infrastructure assessment. Throughout the dissertation, I identify several data characteristics, and several challenges intrinsic to characterization and imaging of earthen embankments and anomalous seepage phenomena, from both a static and time-lapse geophysical monitoring perspective. I begin with the presentation of a field study conducted on a seeping earthen dam, involving static and independent inversions of active tomography data sets, and self-potential modeling of fluid flow within a confined aquifer. Additionally, I present results of active and passive time-lapse geophysical monitoring conducted during two meso-scale laboratory experiments involving the failure and self-healing of embankment filter materials via induced vertical cracking. Identified data signatures and trends, as well as 4D inversion results, are discussed as an underlying motivation for conducting subsequent research. Next, I present a new 4D acoustic emissions source localization algorithm that is applied to passive seismic monitoring data collected during a full-scale embankment failure test. Acoustic emissions localization results are then used to help spatially constrain 4D inversion of collocated self-potential monitoring data. I then turn to time-lapse joint inversion of active tomographic data sets applied to the characterization and monitoring of earthen embankments. Here, I develop a new technique for applying spatiotemporally varying structural joint inversion constraints. The new technique, referred to as Automatic Joint Constraints (AJC), is first demonstrated on a synthetic 2D joint model space, and is then applied to real geophysical monitoring data sets collected during a full-scale earthen embankment piping-failure test. Finally, I discuss some non-technical issues related to

  13. Timing divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendoorn, Hinze; Carlson, Thomas A; VanRullen, Rufin; Verstraten, Frans A J

    2010-11-01

    Visual attention can be divided over multiple objects or locations. However, there is no single theoretical framework within which the effects of dividing attention can be interpreted. In order to develop such a model, here we manipulated the stage of visual processing at which attention was divided, while simultaneously probing the costs of dividing attention on two dimensions. We show that dividing attention incurs dissociable time and precision costs, which depend on whether attention is divided during monitoring or during access. Dividing attention during monitoring resulted in progressively delayed access to attended locations as additional locations were monitored, as well as a one-off precision cost. When dividing attention during access, time costs were systematically lower at one of the accessed locations than at the other, indicating that divided attention during access, in fact, involves rapid sequential allocation of undivided attention. We propose a model in which divided attention is understood as the simultaneous parallel preparation and subsequent sequential execution of multiple shifts of undivided attention. This interpretation has the potential to bring together diverse findings from both the divided-attention and saccade preparation literature and provides a framework within which to integrate the broad spectrum of divided-attention methodologies.

  14. Sleep disturbance and deficits of sustained attention following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Samuel C; Stolwyk, Renerus J; New, Peter W; Anderson, Clare

    2016-01-01

    To simultaneously investigate the prevalence of and impact that the poststroke complications of daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, depression, and fatigue may be having upon deficits of sustained attention, as assessed using the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT). Twenty-two patients with stroke (mean age: 68.23 ± 12.17 years) and 20 healthy control participants (mean age: 68.1 ± 9.5 years) completed subjective measures of daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, fatigue, and depression and an objective measure of sustained attention as assessed using the PVT. Patients with stroke compared to controls showed heightened levels of fatigue (p = .001, η(2) = .29) and depression (p = .002, η(2) = .23), plus greater deficits of sustained attention as reflected by poorer performance across all PVT outcome measures including: slower mean reaction times (p = .002, η(2) = .22); increased number of lapses (p = .002, η(2) = .24); and greater variability in reaction time (RT) responses (p = .016, η(2) = .15). Reaction time distribution analysis suggested that daytime sleepiness and sleep quality had little influence across PVT performance; however, depressive symptomology was associated with longer RT responses, indicative of inattention, and fatigue impacted upon the entire distribution of PVT responses. PVT performance illustrated significant deficits across the domain of sustained attention for patients with stroke in comparison to healthy controls, in terms of inattention as well as slower sensory-motor speed. The common poststroke complications of depressive symptomology and fatigue appear to be associated with these deficits in sustained attention, warranting further investigation.

  15. Growth Rate and Morphology of a Single Calcium Carbonate Crystal on Polysulfone Film Measured with Time Lapse Raman Micro Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liszka, B.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Otto, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    The growth of single, self- nucleated calcium carbonate crystals on a polysulfone (PSU) film was investigated with high resolution, time lapse Raman imaging. The Raman images were acquired on the interface of the polymer with the crystal. The growth of crystals could thus be followed in time. PSU is

  16. Time-Lapse Joint Inversion of Cross-Well DC Resistivity and Seismic Data: A Numerical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Time-lapse joint inversion of geophysical data is required to image the evolution of oil reservoirs during production and enhanced oil recovery, CO2 sequestration, geothermal fields during production, and to monitor the evolution of contaminant plumes. Joint inversion schemes red...

  17. Micromechanical Time-Lapse X-ray CT Study of Fatigue Damage in Uni-Directional Fibre Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Lowe, Tristan; Withers, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    . The geometry of the cut-out is similar to that which will be used in the time-lapse study. As the micro-mechanical damage mechanisms are small features, it is necessary to obtain a high scan resolution which sets a limit to how large the field of view can be. Therefore, it is necessary to perform several scans...

  18. Land time-lapse CSEM : Collecting, modeling and inversion of CSEM data for a steam-injected oil field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaller, A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Geophysical methods are widely used for hydrocarbon exploration and time-lapse measurements. One method that can be applied in place of or in addition to the routinely used seismic method, is the Controlled-Source ElectroMagnetic (CSEM) method. The work described in this thesis explores various

  19. Time-lapse micro-tomography analysis of the deformation response of a gellan-gum-based scaffold

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kytýř, Daniel; Fenclová, Nela; Zlámal, Petr; Kumpová, Ivana; Fíla, Tomáš; Koudelka_ml., Petr; Gantar, A.; Novak, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2017), s. 397-402 ISSN 1580-2949 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : bone scaffold * gellan gum * time-lapse micro CT * digital volume correlation Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 0.436, year: 2016 http://mit.imt.si/Revija/izvodi/mit173/kytyr.pdf

  20. Mass conservative three-dimensional water tracer distribution from MCMC inversion of time-lapse GPR data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalov, E.; Linde, N.; Vrugt, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Time-lapse geophysical measurements are widely used to monitor the movement of water and solutes through the subsurface. Yet commonly used deterministic least squares inversions typically suffer from relatively poor mass recovery, spread overestimation, and limited ability to appropriately estimate

  1. Joint inversion of time-lapse VSP data for monitoring CO2 injection at the Farnsworth EOR field in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Gao, K.; Balch, R. S.; Huang, L.

    2016-12-01

    During the Development Phase (Phase III) of the U.S. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP), time-lapse 3D vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data were acquired to monitor CO2 injection/migration at the Farnsworth Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) field, in partnership with the industrial partner Chaparral Energy. The project is to inject a million tons of carbon dioxide into the target formation, the deep oil-bearing Morrow Formation in the Farnsworth Unit EOR field. Quantitative time-lapse seismic monitoring has the potential to track CO2 movement in geologic carbon storage sites. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has recently developed new full-waveform inversion methods to jointly invert time-lapse seismic data for changes in elastic and anisotropic parameters in target monitoring regions such as a CO2 reservoir. We apply our new joint inversion methods to time-lapse VSP data acquired at the Farnsworth EOR filed, and present some preliminary results showing geophysical properties changes in the reservoir.

  2. Calibrating vadose zone models with time-lapse gravity data: a forced infiltration experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars; Hansen, Allan Bo; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms

    A change in soil water content is a change in mass stored in the subsurface, and when large enough, can be measured with a gravity meter. Over the last few decades there has been increased use of ground-based time-lapse gravity measurements to infer hydrogeological parameters. These studies have...... focused on the saturated zone, with specific yield as the most prominent target parameter and with few exceptions, changes in storage in the vadose zone have been considered as noise. Here modeling results are presented suggesting that gravity changes will be measureable when soil moisture changes occur...... in the unsaturated zone. These results are confirmed by field measurements of gravity and georadar data at a forced infiltration experiment conducted over 14 days on a grassland area of 10 m by 10 m. An unsaturated zone infiltration model can be calibrated using the gravity data with good agreement to the field data...

  3. Slow speed—fast motion: time-lapse recordings in physics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter

    2018-05-01

    Video analysis with a 30 Hz frame rate is the standard tool in physics education. The development of affordable high-speed-cameras has extended the capabilities of the tool for much smaller time scales to the 1 ms range, using frame rates of typically up to 1000 frames s-1, allowing us to study transient physics phenomena happening too fast for the naked eye. Here we want to extend the range of phenomena which may be studied by video analysis in the opposite direction by focusing on much longer time scales ranging from minutes, hours to many days or even months. We discuss this time-lapse method, needed equipment and give a few hints of how to produce respective recordings for two specific experiments.

  4. Using time-lapse gravity for groundwater model calibration: An application to alluvial aquifer storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars; Binning, Philip John; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2011-01-01

    hydrogeophysical inversion to decrease parameter correlation in groundwater models. This is demonstrated for a model of riverbank infiltration where combined inversion successfully constrains hydraulic conductivity and specific yield in both an analytical and a numerical groundwater model. A sensitivity study...... shows that time-lapse gravity data are especially useful to constrain specific yield. Furthermore, we demonstrate that evapotranspiration, and riverbed conductance are better constrained by coupled inversion to gravity and head data than to head data alone. When estimating the four parameters...... simultaneously, the six correlation coefficients were reduced from unity when only head data were employed to significantly lower values when gravity and head data were combined. Our analysis reveals that the estimated parameter values are not very sensitive to the choice of weighting between head and gravity...

  5. Time-lapse seismic analysis of the North Sea Fulmar Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, David H.; McKenny, Robert S.; Burkhart, Tucker D.

    1998-12-31

    Time-lapse seismic analysis has been applied to two 3-D seismic surveys acquired over the central North Sea Fulmar field in a pre-production survey shot in 1977, reprocessed in 1987, and a survey in 1992. The Upper Jurassic reservoirs in the field have been under production since 1982. Differences in averaged impedance between the 1977 and 1992 surveys clearly show the effects of water influx and pressure decline. The changes observed in the seismic data are overall consistent with predictions obtained from a full-field, history-matched simulation. Differences in details may suggest areas of bypassed oil. Dta quality is not sufficient to serve as the sole basis for drilling decisions. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  6. A poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based device enabling time-lapse imaging with high spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Masahiko; Hoshida, Tetsushi; Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a regulator-free device that enables long-term incubation of mammalian cells for epi-fluorescence imaging, based on a concept that the size of sample to be gassed and heated is reduced to observation scale. A poly(dimethylsiloxane) block stamped on a coverslip works as a long-lasting supplier of CO 2 -rich gas to adjust bicarbonate-containing medium in a tiny chamber at physiological pH, and an oil-immersion objective warms cells across the coverslip. A time-lapse imaging experiment using HeLa cells stably expressing fluorescent cell-cycle indicators showed that the cells in the chamber proliferated with normal cell-cycle period over 2 days.

  7. Time-lapse cinematography in living Drosophila tissues: preparation of material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ilan; Parton, Richard M

    2006-11-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been an extraordinarily successful model organism for studying the genetic basis of development and evolution. It is arguably the best-understood complex multicellular model system, owing its success to many factors. Recent developments in imaging techniques, in particular sophisticated fluorescence microscopy methods and equipment, now allow cellular events to be studied at high resolution in living material. This ability has enabled the study of features that tend to be lost or damaged by fixation, such as transient or dynamic events. Although many of the techniques of live cell imaging in Drosophila are shared with the greater community of cell biologists working on other model systems, studying living fly tissues presents unique difficulties in keeping the cells alive, introducing fluorescent probes, and imaging through thick hazy cytoplasm. This protocol outlines the preparation of major tissue types amenable to study by time-lapse cinematography and different methods for keeping them alive.

  8. Time-lapse cinematography of the capillary tube cell migration inhibition test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, M A

    1980-01-01

    The kinetics of human and guinea pig cell migration inhibition have been studied using time-lapse cinematography of cells migrating from capillary tubes. Guinea pig and human cells exhibit markedly different kinetics in the absence of inhibitors. Specific antigen causes a dose-related inhibition of migration for up to 60 h using guinea pig cells and a peak of inhibition after 18 h using the human leucocyte system. The timing of measurement of maximum activity more critical for the latter test. The kinetics of lymphokine generation have been examined and the migration inhibitory activity of the plant mitogen (PHA), a Kurloff cell product and a continuous cell line supernatant have been compared with the inhibitory profiles of lymphokine preparations and specific antigen.

  9. Time-lapse cinematography of dynamic changes occurring during in vitro development of human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mio, Yasuyuki; Maeda, Kazuo

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify developmental changes of early human embryos by using time-lapse cinematography (TLC). For human ova, fertilization and cleavage, development of the blastocyst, and hatching, as well as consequent changes were repeatedly photographed at intervals of 5-6 days by using an inverse microscope under stabilized temperature and pH. Photographs were taken at 30 frames per second and the movies were studied. Cinematography has increased our understanding of the morphologic mechanisms of fertilization, development, and behavior of early human embryos, and has identified the increased risk of monozygotic twin pregnancy based on prolonged incubation in vitro to the blastocyst stage. Using TLC, we observed the fertilization of an ovum by a single spermatozoon, followed by early cleavages, formation of the morula, blastocyst hatching, changes in the embryonic plates, and the development of monozygotic twins from the incubated blastocysts.

  10. Low-cost motility tracking system (LOCOMOTIS for time-lapse microscopy applications and cell visualisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E Lynch

    Full Text Available Direct visualisation of cells for the purpose of studying their motility has typically required expensive microscopy equipment. However, recent advances in digital sensors mean that it is now possible to image cells for a fraction of the price of a standard microscope. Along with low-cost imaging there has also been a large increase in the availability of high quality, open-source analysis programs. In this study we describe the development and performance of an expandable cell motility system employing inexpensive, commercially available digital USB microscopes to image various cell types using time-lapse and perform tracking assays in proof-of-concept experiments. With this system we were able to measure and record three separate assays simultaneously on one personal computer using identical microscopes, and obtained tracking results comparable in quality to those from other studies that used standard, more expensive, equipment. The microscopes used in our system were capable of a maximum magnification of 413.6×. Although resolution was lower than that of a standard inverted microscope we found this difference to be indistinguishable at the magnification chosen for cell tracking experiments (206.8×. In preliminary cell culture experiments using our system, velocities (mean µm/min ± SE of 0.81 ± 0.01 (Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes on uncoated plates, 1.17 ± 0.004 (MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, 1.24 ± 0.006 (SC5 mouse Sertoli cells and 2.21 ± 0.01 (B. glabrata hemocytes on Poly-L-Lysine coated plates, were measured and are consistent with previous reports. We believe that this system, coupled with open-source analysis software, demonstrates that higher throughput time-lapse imaging of cells for the purpose of studying motility can be an affordable option for all researchers.

  11. Low-cost motility tracking system (LOCOMOTIS) for time-lapse microscopy applications and cell visualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Adam E; Triajianto, Junian; Routledge, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Direct visualisation of cells for the purpose of studying their motility has typically required expensive microscopy equipment. However, recent advances in digital sensors mean that it is now possible to image cells for a fraction of the price of a standard microscope. Along with low-cost imaging there has also been a large increase in the availability of high quality, open-source analysis programs. In this study we describe the development and performance of an expandable cell motility system employing inexpensive, commercially available digital USB microscopes to image various cell types using time-lapse and perform tracking assays in proof-of-concept experiments. With this system we were able to measure and record three separate assays simultaneously on one personal computer using identical microscopes, and obtained tracking results comparable in quality to those from other studies that used standard, more expensive, equipment. The microscopes used in our system were capable of a maximum magnification of 413.6×. Although resolution was lower than that of a standard inverted microscope we found this difference to be indistinguishable at the magnification chosen for cell tracking experiments (206.8×). In preliminary cell culture experiments using our system, velocities (mean µm/min ± SE) of 0.81 ± 0.01 (Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes on uncoated plates), 1.17 ± 0.004 (MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells), 1.24 ± 0.006 (SC5 mouse Sertoli cells) and 2.21 ± 0.01 (B. glabrata hemocytes on Poly-L-Lysine coated plates), were measured and are consistent with previous reports. We believe that this system, coupled with open-source analysis software, demonstrates that higher throughput time-lapse imaging of cells for the purpose of studying motility can be an affordable option for all researchers.

  12. Low-Cost Motility Tracking System (LOCOMOTIS) for Time-Lapse Microscopy Applications and Cell Visualisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Adam E.; Triajianto, Junian; Routledge, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Direct visualisation of cells for the purpose of studying their motility has typically required expensive microscopy equipment. However, recent advances in digital sensors mean that it is now possible to image cells for a fraction of the price of a standard microscope. Along with low-cost imaging there has also been a large increase in the availability of high quality, open-source analysis programs. In this study we describe the development and performance of an expandable cell motility system employing inexpensive, commercially available digital USB microscopes to image various cell types using time-lapse and perform tracking assays in proof-of-concept experiments. With this system we were able to measure and record three separate assays simultaneously on one personal computer using identical microscopes, and obtained tracking results comparable in quality to those from other studies that used standard, more expensive, equipment. The microscopes used in our system were capable of a maximum magnification of 413.6×. Although resolution was lower than that of a standard inverted microscope we found this difference to be indistinguishable at the magnification chosen for cell tracking experiments (206.8×). In preliminary cell culture experiments using our system, velocities (mean µm/min ± SE) of 0.81±0.01 (Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes on uncoated plates), 1.17±0.004 (MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells), 1.24±0.006 (SC5 mouse Sertoli cells) and 2.21±0.01 (B. glabrata hemocytes on Poly-L-Lysine coated plates), were measured and are consistent with previous reports. We believe that this system, coupled with open-source analysis software, demonstrates that higher throughput time-lapse imaging of cells for the purpose of studying motility can be an affordable option for all researchers. PMID:25121722

  13. Evaluating time-lapse ERT for monitoring DNAPL remediation via numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, C.; Karaoulis, M.; Gerhard, J.; Tsourlos, P.; Giannopoulos, A.

    2012-12-01

    Dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) remain a challenging geoenvironmental problem in the near subsurface. Numerous thermal, chemical, and biological treatment methods are being applied at sites but without a non-destructive, rapid technique to map the evolution of DNAPL mass in space and time, the degree of remedial success is difficult to quantify. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has long been presented as highly promising in this context but has not yet become a practitioner's tool due to challenges in interpreting the survey results at real sites where the initial condition (DNAPL mass, DNAPL distribution, subsurface heterogeneity) is typically unknown. Recently, a new numerical model was presented that couples DNAPL and ERT simulation at the field scale, providing a tool for optimizing ERT application and interpretation at DNAPL sites (Power et al., 2011, Fall AGU, H31D-1191). The objective of this study is to employ this tool to evaluate the effectiveness of time-lapse ERT to monitor DNAPL source zone remediation, taking advantage of new inversion methodologies that exploit the differences in the target over time. Several three-dimensional releases of chlorinated solvent DNAPLs into heterogeneous clayey sand at the field scale were generated, varying in the depth and complexity of the source zone (target). Over time, dissolution of the DNAPL in groundwater was simulated with simultaneous mapping via periodic ERT surveys. Both surface and borehole ERT surveys were conducted for comparison purposes. The latest four-dimensional ERT inversion algorithms were employed to generate time-lapse isosurfaces of the DNAPL source zone for all cases. This methodology provided a qualitative assessment of the ability of ERT to track DNAPL mass removal for complex source zones in realistically heterogeneous environments. In addition, it provided a quantitative comparison between the actual DNAPL mass removed and that interpreted by ERT as a function of depth below

  14. Quantifying Effusion Rates at Active Volcanoes through Integrated Time-Lapse Laser Scanning and Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Slatcher

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During volcanic eruptions, measurements of the rate at which magma is erupted underpin hazard assessments. For eruptions dominated by the effusion of lava, estimates are often made using satellite data; here, in a case study at Mount Etna (Sicily, we make the first measurements based on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS, and we also include explosive products. During the study period (17–21 July 2012, regular Strombolian explosions were occurring within the Bocca Nuova crater, producing a ~50 m-high scoria cone and a small lava flow field. TLS surveys over multi-day intervals determined a mean cone growth rate (effusive and explosive products of ~0.24 m3·s−1. Differences between 0.3-m resolution DEMs acquired at 10-minute intervals captured the evolution of a breakout lava flow lobe advancing at 0.01–0.03 m3·s−1. Partial occlusion within the crater prevented similar measurement of the main flow, but integrating TLS data with time-lapse imagery enabled lava viscosity (7.4 × 105 Pa·s to be derived from surface velocities and, hence, a flux of 0.11 m3·s−1 to be calculated. Total dense rock equivalent magma discharge estimates are ~0.1–0.2 m3·s−1 over the measurement period and suggest that simultaneous estimates from satellite data are somewhat overestimated. Our results support the use of integrated TLS and time-lapse photography for ground-truthing space-based measurements and highlight the value of interactive image analysis when automated approaches, such as particle image velocimetry (PIV, fail.

  15. Gliding motility of Babesia bovis merozoites visualized by time-lapse video microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Asada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Babesia bovis is an apicomplexan intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite that induces babesiosis in cattle after transmission by ticks. During specific stages of the apicomplexan parasite lifecycle, such as the sporozoites of Plasmodium falciparum and tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii, host cells are targeted for invasion using a unique, active process termed "gliding motility". However, it is not thoroughly understood how the merozoites of B. bovis target and invade host red blood cells (RBCs, and gliding motility has so far not been observed in the parasite. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gliding motility of B. bovis merozoites was revealed by time-lapse video microscopy. The recorded images revealed that the process included egress of the merozoites from the infected RBC, gliding motility, and subsequent invasion into new RBCs. The gliding motility of B. bovis merozoites was similar to the helical gliding of Toxoplasma tachyzoites. The trails left by the merozoites were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay using antiserum against B. bovis merozoite surface antigen 1. Inhibition of gliding motility by actin filament polymerization or depolymerization indicated that the gliding motility was driven by actomyosin dependent process. In addition, we revealed the timing of breakdown of the parasitophorous vacuole. Time-lapse image analysis of membrane-stained bovine RBCs showed formation and breakdown of the parasitophorous vacuole within ten minutes of invasion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of the gliding motility of B. bovis. Since merozoites of Plasmodium parasites do not glide on a substrate, the gliding motility of B. bovis merozoites is a notable finding.

  16. Vanemate töötamine välismaal - kuidas see mõjutab lapse elu : laste ja spetsialistide tõlgendused / Helen Pärna, Karmen Lai, Taimi Tulva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärna, Helen, 1983-

    2008-01-01

    Artikkel tugineb Helen Pärna magistriuurimusele. Ülevaade uurimustulemustest, mis puudutavad välismaale tööle läinud lapsevanemate lapse toimetulekut argieluga ning arutletakse selle üle, kuidas lapse lahusolek vanematest võib mõjutada lapse ja vanema vahelisi suhteid

  17. Mechanism of Perceptual Attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2000-01-01

    .... Attention may affect the perceived clarity of visual displays and improve performance. In this project, a powerful external noise method was developed to identify and characterize the effect of attention on perceptual performance in visual tasks...

  18. Mechanisms of Perceptual Attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dosher, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    .... Attention may affect the perceived clarity of visual displays and improve performance. In this project, a powerful external noise method was developed to identify and characterize the effect of attention on perceptual performance in visual tasks...

  19. Dynamics of Media Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, V.A.; Reinanda, R.; Hicks, J.; van Klinken, G.; Aziz-Alaoui, M.A.; Bertelle, C.; Liu, X.; Olivier, D.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of human attention dynamics analyses how attention is focused on specific topics, issues or people. In online social media, there are clear signs of exogenous shocks, bursty dynamics, and an exponential or powerlaw lifetime distribution. We here analyse the attention dynamics of traditional

  20. Attention and Representational Momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Amy; Freyd, Jennifer J

    1995-01-01

    Representational momentum, the tendency for memory to be distorted in the direction of an implied transformation, suggests that dynamics are an intrinsic part of perceptual representations. We examined the effect of attention on dynamic representation by testing for representational momentum under conditions of distraction. Forward memory shifts increase when attention is divided. Attention may be involved in halting but not in maintaining dynamic representations.

  1. Attention competition with advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  2. Principles of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas

    research as a field that is fundamentally fragmented. This book takes a different perspective and presents a unified theory of visual attention: the TVA model. The TVA model explains the many aspects of visual attention by just two mechanisms for selection of information: filtering and pigeonholing......The nature of attention is one of the oldest and most central problems in psychology. A huge amount of research has been produced on this subject in the last half century, especially on attention in the visual modality, but a general explanation has remained elusive. Many still view attention....... These mechanisms are described in a set of simple equations, which allow TVA to mathematically model a large number of classical results in the attention literature. The theory explains psychological and neuroscientific findings by the same equations; TVA is a complete theory of visual attention, linking mind...

  3. Attention Mosaics: Studies of Organizational Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Carvalho de Mesquita Ferreira (Luciana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOrganizational studies emphasizing the role of attention in organizational behavior depart from the idea that organizations, like individuals, have limited capacity to attend to environmental stimuli. The bounded capacity of the organizations to respond to stimuli is conditioned by the

  4. Reduction of nocturnal slow-wave activity affects daytime vigilance lapses and memory encoding but not reaction time or implicit learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Altena, Ellemarije; Vis, José C; Koene, Teddy; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2011-01-01

    Total sleep deprivation in healthy subjects has a profound effect on the performance on tasks measuring sustained attention or vigilance. We here report how a selective disruption of deep sleep only, that is, selective slow-wave activity (SWA) reduction, affects the performance of healthy well-sleeping subjects on several tasks: a "simple" and a "complex" vigilance task, a declarative learning task, and an implicit learning task despite unchanged duration of sleep. We used automated electroencephalogram (EEG) dependent acoustic feedback aimed at selective interference with-and reduction of-SWA. In a within-subject repeated measures crossover design, performance on the tasks was assessed in 13 elderly adults without sleep complaints after either SWA-reduction or after normal sleep. The number of vigilance lapses increased as a result of SWA reduction, irrespective of the type of vigilance task. Recognition on the declarative memory task was also affected by SWA reduction, associated with a decreased activation of the right hippocampus on encoding (measured with fMRI) suggesting a weaker memory trace. SWA reduction, however, did not affect reaction time on either of the vigilance tasks or implicit memory task performance. These findings suggest a specific role of slow oscillations in the subsequent daytime ability to maintain sustained attention and to encode novel declarative information but not to maintain response speed or to build implicit memories. Of particular interest is that selective SWA reduction can mimic some of the effects of total sleep deprivation, while not affecting sleep duration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bupropion improves attention but does not affect impulsive behavior in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Ashley; de Wit, Harriet

    2008-04-01

    Bupropion is an effective abstinence aid for cessation of smoking and possibly other drug use as well. There is evidence that bupropion improves attention and impulse control in certain patient populations, and improvements in these processes could mediate its efficacy as an abstinence aid. In the present study, we tested the effects of acute bupropion on measures of attention and impulsivity in healthy adults with d-amphetamine included as a positive control. Twenty-two nonsmokers (11 women) and 11 smokers (4 women) completed four 4-hr sessions where they received placebo, bupropion (150 or 300 mg), or d-amphetamine (20 mg) in capsules. Ninety minutes after capsule administration, participants were tested on attention with a simple reaction time task (SRT) and on impulsivity with the stop task, a delay and probability discounting task (DPD), and the balloon analogue risk task (BART). Participants also completed mood questionnaires during sessions. Bupropion (150 mg) decreased lapses in attention on the SRT, but did not affect performance on the stop task, DPD, or BART. Amphetamine decreased lapses in attention and speeded sensory motor processing time on the SRT but did not significantly affect responding on the stop task or DPD. On the BART, d-amphetamine tended to decrease risk taking in men but increased risk taking in women. Bupropion (300 mg) and d-amphetamine increased ratings of arousal. These results suggest that bupropion improves attention without affecting impulsive behavior in healthy adults. Improvements in attention may contribute to the effectiveness of bupropion as a pharmacotherapy for smoking.

  6. Monotoring of CO2 Sequestration at Sleipner Using Full Waveform Inversion in Time-lapse Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselet, A.; Singh, S. C.

    2007-12-01

    It is now widely admitted that recent increase of CO2 in the atmosphere is due to human activities. The consecutive greenhouse effect is a major ecological concern. Geological storage is one proposed way to reduce atmosphere CO2 emissions. The Sleipner methane field, North Sea, is the very first site where CO2 has been injected back into a deep saline aquifer. In 1996, the Norwegian company Statoil and its partners began the production of the methane. The extracted methane contains a relatively high ratio of CO2, between 4% and 9%, that has to be reduced below 2.5% before delivering into the pipeline. An environmental tax introduced in Norway as early as 1991 prompted the company to store the separated CO2 instead of releasing it into the atmosphere as usually done. The CO2 is injected at the base of the Utsira sands. This water bearing formation lies at a depth between 800 and 1000m and is sealed by a thick shale layer. Seismic monitoring is a key tool in this strategy from a security standpoint and for sequestration optimization itself. Consequently, 3D seismic data were acquired before injection in 1994 and after injection in 1999, 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. Well-log revealed that the reservoir is crossed by thin shale layers that are 1 to 10m thick. CO2 rises up and is confined vertically by the shale layers, favouring horizontal gas migration and creating gas bearing thin beds. Seismic imaging of the gas pockets is therefore a challenging problem because large velocity variations occur on very short distance. Classical processing of time-lapse data consists in subtracting repeated survey seismic traces from the pre- injection baseline traces to exhibit changes within the reservoir. This approach remains qualitative, providing only the shape and extent of the gas cloud. Instead, we propose to compare elastic models of the subsurface computed through 2D full wave form inversion, an advanced seismic imaging technique. This method is based on the wave equation

  7. In-situ, time-lapse study of extracellular polymeric substance discharge in Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bernard Haochih; Yu, Li-Chieh

    2017-02-01

    Streptococcus mutans is one of the main pathogens that cause tooth decay. By metabolizing carbohydrates, S. mutans emits extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) that adheres to the tooth surface and forms layers of biofilm. Periodontal disease occurs due to the low pH environment created by S. mutans biofilm, and such an acidic environment gradually erodes tooth enamel. Since the existence of EPS is essential in the formation of biofilm, the in-situ investigation of its generation and distribution in real time is the key to the control and suppression of S. mutans biofilm. Prior studies of the biofilm formation process by fluorescence microscope, scanning electron microscope, or spectroscope have roughly divided the mechanism into three stages: (1) initial attachment; (2) microcolonies; and (3) maturation. However, these analytical methods are incapable to observe real-time changes in different locations of the extracellular matrix, and to analyze mechanical properties for single bacteria in micro and nanoscale. Since atomic force microscopy (AFM) operates by precise control of tip-sample interaction forces in liquid and in air, living microorganisms can be analyzed under near-physiological conditions. Thus, analytical techniques based on AFM constitute powerful tools for the study of biological samples, both qualitatively and quantitatively. In this study, we used AFM to quantitatively track the changes of multiple nanomechanical properties of S. mutans, including dissipation energy, adhesion force, deformation, and elastic modulus at different metabolic stages. The data revealed that the bacterial extracellular matrix has a gradient distribution in stickiness, in which different stickiness indicates the variation of EPS compositions, freshness, and metabolic stages. In-situ, time-lapse AFM images showed the local generation and distribution of EPS at different times, in which the highest adhesion distributed along sides of the S. mutans cells. Through time-lapse

  8. Announcements to Attentive Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans; Herzig, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    -based announcement can also be described as an action model. We extend our logic by integrating attention change. Finally, we add the notion of common belief to the language, we exploit this to formalize the concept of joint attention, that has been widely discussed in the philosophical and cognitive science...... literature, and we provide a corresponding axiomatization. This axiomatization also employs the auxiliary notion of attention-based relativized common belief....

  9. TLM-Tracker: software for cell segmentation, tracking and lineage analysis in time-lapse microscopy movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Johannes; Leupold, Stefan; Biegler, Ilona; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Münch, Richard; Jahn, Dieter

    2012-09-01

    Time-lapse imaging in combination with fluorescence microscopy techniques enable the investigation of gene regulatory circuits and uncovered phenomena like culture heterogeneity. In this context, computational image processing for the analysis of single cell behaviour plays an increasing role in systems biology and mathematical modelling approaches. Consequently, we developed a software package with graphical user interface for the analysis of single bacterial cell behaviour. A new software called TLM-Tracker allows for the flexible and user-friendly interpretation for the segmentation, tracking and lineage analysis of microbial cells in time-lapse movies. The software package, including manual, tutorial video and examples, is available as Matlab code or executable binaries at http://www.tlmtracker.tu-bs.de.

  10. On the possibility of time-lapse ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhijia; Chen, Bai; Ren, Hugang; Pan, Yingtian

    2009-09-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that the cellular details of bladder epithelium embedded in speckle noise can be uncovered with time-lapse ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (TL-uOCT) by proper time-lapse frame averaging that takes advantage of cellular micromotion in fresh biological tissue ex vivo. Here, spectral-domain 3-D TL-uOCT is reported to further improve the image fidelity, and new experimental evidence is presented to differentiate normal and cancerous nuclei of rodent bladder epithelia. Results of animal cancer study reveal that despite a slight overestimation (e.g., cancerous (e.g., high-grade DN''~13 μm) urothelia, which may potentially be very useful for enhancing the diagnosis of nonpapillary bladder cancer. More animal study is being conducted to examine the utility to differentiate hyperplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ.

  11. Estimation of soil hydraulic parameters in the field by integrated hydrogeophysical inversion of time-lapse ground-penetrating radar data

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan; Weihermü ller, Lutz; Scharnagl, Benedikt; Kowalsky, Michael B.; Bechtold, Michel; Hubbard, Susan S.; Vereecken, Harry; Lambot, Sé bastien

    2012-01-01

    An integrated hydrogeophysical inversion approach was used to remotely infer the unsaturated soil hydraulic parameters from time-lapse ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data collected at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field. The GPR model

  12. Conservatism predicts lapses from vegetarian/vegan diets to meat consumption (through lower social justice concerns and social support).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Gordon; Earle, Megan

    2018-01-01

    Lapses from vegetarian and vegan (i.e., veg*n) food choices to meat consumption are very common, suggesting that sustaining veg*nism is challenging. But little is known about why people return to eating animals after initially deciding to avoid meat consumption. Several potential explanatory factors include personal inconvenience, meat cravings, awkwardness in social settings, or health/nutrition concerns. Here we test the degree to which political ideology predicts lapsing to meat consumption. Past research demonstrates that political ideology predicts present levels of meat consumption, whereby those higher in right-wing ideologies eat more animals, even after controlling for their hedonistic liking of meat (e.g., Dhont & Hodson, 2014). To what extent might political ideology predict whether one has lapsed from veg*n foods back to meat consumption? In a largely representative US community sample (N = 1313) of current and former veg*ns, those higher (vs. lower) in conservatism exhibited significantly greater odds of being a former than current veg*n, even after controlling for age, education, and gender. This ideology-lapsing relation was mediated (i.e., explained) by those higher (vs. lower) in conservatism: (a) adopting a veg*n diet for reasons less centered in justice concerns (animal rights, environment, feeding the poor); and (b) feeling socially unsupported in their endeavor. In contrast, factors such as differential meat craving or lifestyle inconvenience played little mediational role. These findings demonstrate that ideology and justice concerns are particularly relevant to understanding resilience in maintaining veg*n food choices. Implications for understanding why people eat meat, and how to develop intervention strategies, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Model-Based Generation of Synthetic 3D Time-Lapse Sequences of Motile Cells with Growing Filopodia

    OpenAIRE

    Sorokin , Dmitry ,; Peterlik , Igor; Ulman , Vladimír ,; Svoboda , David; Maška , Martin

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The existence of benchmark datasets is essential to objectively evaluate various image analysis methods. Nevertheless, manual annotations of fluorescence microscopy image data are very laborious and not often practicable, especially in the case of 3D+t experiments. In this work, we propose a simulation system capable of generating 3D time-lapse sequences of single motile cells with filopodial protrusions, accompanied by inherently generated ground truth. The system con...

  14. How to connect time-lapse recorded trajectories of motile microorganisms with dynamical models in continuous time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Li, Liang; Gradinaru, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    We provide a tool for data-driven modeling of motility, data being time-lapse recorded trajectories. Several mathematical properties of a model to be found can be gleaned from appropriate model-independent experimental statistics, if one understands how such statistics are distorted by the finite...... of these effects that are valid for any reasonable model for persistent random motion. Our findings are illustrated with experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations....

  15. Time-lapse three-dimensional inversion of complex conductivity data using an active time constrained (ATC) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoulis, M.; Revil, A.; Werkema, D.D.; Minsley, B.J.; Woodruff, W.F.; Kemna, A.

    2011-01-01

    Induced polarization (more precisely the magnitude and phase of impedance of the subsurface) is measured using a network of electrodes located at the ground surface or in boreholes. This method yields important information related to the distribution of permeability and contaminants in the shallow subsurface. We propose a new time-lapse 3-D modelling and inversion algorithm to image the evolution of complex conductivity over time. We discretize the subsurface using hexahedron cells. Each cell is assigned a complex resistivity or conductivity value. Using the finite-element approach, we model the in-phase and out-of-phase (quadrature) electrical potentials on the 3-D grid, which are then transformed into apparent complex resistivity. Inhomogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions are used at the boundary of the domain. The calculation of the Jacobian matrix is based on the principles of reciprocity. The goal of time-lapse inversion is to determine the change in the complex resistivity of each cell of the spatial grid as a function of time. Each model along the time axis is called a 'reference space model'. This approach can be simplified into an inverse problem looking for the optimum of several reference space models using the approximation that the material properties vary linearly in time between two subsequent reference models. Regularizations in both space domain and time domain reduce inversion artefacts and improve the stability of the inversion problem. In addition, the use of the time-lapse equations allows the simultaneous inversion of data obtained at different times in just one inversion step (4-D inversion). The advantages of this new inversion algorithm are demonstrated on synthetic time-lapse data resulting from the simulation of a salt tracer test in a heterogeneous random material described by an anisotropic semi-variogram. ?? 2011 The Authors Geophysical Journal International ?? 2011 RAS.

  16. Impact of Twitter intensity, time, and location on message lapse of bluebird's pursuit of fleas in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da'ar, Omar B; Yunus, Faisel; Md Hossain, Nassif; Househ, Mowafa

    The recent outbreak of bubonic plague in Madagascar reminds us of the continuing public health challenges posed by such deadly diseases in various parts of the world years after their eradication. This study examines the role of Twitter in public health disease surveillance with special focus on how Twitter intensity, time, and location issues explain Twitter plague message delay. We retrospectively analyzed the Twitter feeds of the 2014 bubonic plague outbreak in Madagascar. The analyses are based on the plague-related data available in the public domain between November 19th and 27th 2014. The data were compiled in March 2015. We calculated the time differential between the tweets and retweets, and analyzed various characteristics of the Tweets including Twitter intensity of the users. A total of 6873 Twitter users were included in the study, of which 52% tweeted plague-related information during the morning hours (before mid-day), and 87% of the tweets came from the west of the epicenter of the plague. More importantly, while session of tweet lease and relative location had effect on message lapse, absolute location did not. Additionally, we found no evidence of differential effect of location on message lapse based on relative location i.e. tweets from west or east nor number of following. However, there is evidence that more intense Twitter use appears to have significant effect on message lapse such that as the number of tweets became more intense, time differential between the tweets and retweets increased while higher number of retweets diminished message lapse. This study affirms that Twitter can play an important role in ongoing disease surveillance and the timely dissemination of information during public health emergencies independent of the time and space restrictions. Further ways should be explored to embed social media channels in routine public health practice. Copyright © 2017 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by

  17. Thermal erosion of a permafrost coastline: Improving process-based models using time-lapse photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobus, C.; Anderson, R.; Overeem, I.; Matell, N.; Clow, G.; Urban, F.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal erosion rates locally exceeding 30 m y-1 have been documented along Alaska's Beaufort Sea coastline, and a number of studies suggest that these erosion rates have accelerated as a result of climate change. However, a lack of direct observational evidence has limited our progress in quantifying the specific processes that connect climate change to coastal erosion rates in the Arctic. In particular, while longer ice-free periods are likely to lead to both warmer surface waters and longer fetch, the relative roles of thermal and mechanical (wave) erosion in driving coastal retreat have not been comprehensively quantified. We focus on a permafrost coastline in the northern National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPR-A), where coastal erosion rates have averaged 10-15 m y-1 over two years of direct monitoring. We take advantage of these extraordinary rates of coastal erosion to observe and quantify coastal erosion directly via time-lapse photography in combination with meteorological observations. Our observations indicate that the erosion of these bluffs is largely thermally driven, but that surface winds play a crucial role in exposing the frozen bluffs to the radiatively warmed seawater that drives melting of interstitial ice. To first order, erosion in this setting can be modeled using formulations developed to describe iceberg deterioration in the open ocean. These simple models provide a conceptual framework for evaluating how climate-induced changes in thermal and wave energy might influence future erosion rates in this setting.

  18. Monitoring of In-Situ Remediation By Time Lapse 3D Geo-Electric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanli, A. I.; Tildy, P.; Neducza, B.; Nagy, P.; Hegymegi, C.

    2017-12-01

    Injection of chemical oxidant solution to degrade the subsurface contaminants can be used for hydrocarbon contamination remediation. In this study, we developed a non-destructive measurement strategy to monitor oxidative in-situ remediation processes. The difficulties of the presented study originate from the small volume of conductive solution that can be used due to environmental considerations. Due to the effect of conductive groundwater and the high clay content of the targeted layer and the small volume of conductive solution that can be used due to environmental considerations, a site specific synthetic modelling is necessary for measurement design involving the results of preliminary 2D ERT measurements, electrical conductivity measurements of different active agents and expected resistivity changes calculated by soil resistivity modelling. Because of chemical biodegradation, the results of soil resistivity modelling have suggested that the reagent have complex effects on contaminated soils. As a result the plume of resistivity changes caused by the injected agent was determined showing strong fracturing effect because of the high pressure of injection. 3D time-lapse geo-electric measurements were proven to provide a usable monitoring tool for in-situ remediation as a result of our sophisticated tests and synthetic modelling.

  19. ESIAC: A data products system for ERTS imagery (time-lapse viewing and measuring)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W. E.; Serebreny, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    An Electronic Satellite Image Analysis Console (ESIAC) has been developed for visual analysis and objective measurement of earth resources imagery. The system is being employed to process imagery for use by USGS investigators in several different disciplines studying dynamic hydrologic conditions. The ESIAC provides facilities for storing registered image sequences in a magnetic video disc memory for subsequent recall, enhancement, and animated display in monochrome or color. The unique feature of the system is the capability to time-lapse the ERTS imagery and/or analytic displays of the imagery. Data products have included quantitative measurements of distances and areas, brightness profiles, and movie loops of selected themes. The applications of these data products are identified and include such diverse problem areas as measurement of snowfield extent, sediment plumes from estuary dicharge, playa inventory, phreatophyte and other vegetation changes. A comparative ranking of the electronic system in terms of accuracy, cost effectiveness and data output shows it to be a viable means of data analysis.

  20. Time-lapse analysis of potential cellular responsiveness to Johrei, a Japanese healing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Dan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Johrei is an alternative healing practice which involves the channeling of a purported universal healing energy to influence the health of another person. Despite little evidence to support the efficacy of such practices the use of such treatments is on the rise. Methods We assessed cultured human cancer cells for potential responsiveness to Johrei treatment from a short distance. Johrei treatment was delivered by practitioners who participated in teams of two, alternating every half hour for a total of four hours of treatment. The practitioners followed a defined set of mental procedures to minimize variability in mental states between experiments. An environmental chamber maintained optimal growth conditions for cells throughout the experiments. Computerized time-lapse microscopy allowed documentation of cancer cell proliferation and cell death before, during and after Johrei treatments. Results Comparing eight control experiments with eight Johrei intervention experiments, we found no evidence of a reproducible cellular response to Johrei treatment. Conclusion Cell death and proliferation rates of cultured human cancer cells do not appear responsive to Johrei treatment from a short distance.

  1. Non-rigid estimation of cell motion in calcium time-lapse images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachi, Siham; Lucumi Moreno, Edinson; Desmet, An-Sofie; Vanden Berghe, Pieter; Fleming, Ronan M. T.

    2016-03-01

    Calcium imaging is a widely used technique in neuroscience permitting the simultaneous monitoring of electro- physiological activity of hundreds of neurons at single cell resolution. Identification of neuronal activity requires rapid and reliable image analysis techniques, especially when neurons fire and move simultaneously over time. Traditionally, image segmentation is performed to extract individual neurons in the first frame of a calcium sequence. Thereafter, the mean intensity is calculated from the same region of interest in each frame to infer calcium signals. However, when cells move, deform and fire, this segmentation on its own generates artefacts and therefore biased neuronal activity. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop a more efficient cell tracking technique. We hereby present a novel vision-based cell tracking scheme using a thin-plate spline deformable model. The thin-plate spline warping is based on control points detected using the Fast from Accelerated Segment Test descriptor and tracked using the Lucas-Kanade optical flow. Our method is able to track neurons in calcium time-series, even when there are large changes in intensity, such as during a firing event. The robustness and efficiency of the proposed approach is validated on real calcium time-lapse images of a neuronal population.

  2. Monitoring the snowpack volume in a sinkhole on Mount Lebanon using time lapse Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chakra, C.; Gascoin, S.; Somma, J.; Drapeau, L.; Fanise, P.

    2017-12-01

    Lebanon is one of the richest country in the Middle East for water resources, thanks to its mountain ranges that trigger precipitation from the moist air masses coming from the Mediterranean Sea. Snowpack acts as natural water storage in winter and supply fresh water during spring and summer. Yet, Lebanon is facing a serious water scarcity problem due to: i) decreasing amount of precipitation and climate change; ii) major growth of population of original residence and large number of refugees during regional wars. Therefore, continuous and systematic monitoring of the Lebanese water resources is becoming crucial. The Mount Lebanon is made of karstic depressions named "sinkholes". It is important to monitor the snowmelt process inside these sinkholes because of their key role as "containers" of seasonal snow. By isolating the snowpack from sun radiation and wind, they slow down the natural melting process and sublimation, thus delaying as well the low water flow period. An observatory is set up to monitor the snowpack evolution in a pilot sinkhole located in Mount Lebanon. The system uses three time-lapse cameras and structure-from-motion principles to reconstruct the snow volume within the sinkhole. The approach is validated by standard topographic surveys. The results indicate that snow depth can be retrieved with an accuracy between 20 and 60 cm (residuals standard deviation) and a low bias of 50 cm after coregistration of the digital elevation models.

  3. Untangling cell tracks: Quantifying cell migration by time lapse image data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Carl-Magnus; Medyukhina, Anna; Belyaev, Ivan; Al-Zaben, Naim; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2018-03-01

    Automated microscopy has given researchers access to great amounts of live cell imaging data from in vitro and in vivo experiments. Much focus has been put on extracting cell tracks from such data using a plethora of segmentation and tracking algorithms, but further analysis is normally required to draw biologically relevant conclusions. Such relevant conclusions may be whether the migration is directed or not, whether the population has homogeneous or heterogeneous migration patterns. This review focuses on the analysis of cell migration data that are extracted from time lapse images. We discuss a range of measures and models used to analyze cell tracks independent of the biological system or the way the tracks were obtained. For single-cell migration, we focus on measures and models giving examples of biological systems where they have been applied, for example, migration of bacteria, fibroblasts, and immune cells. For collective migration, we describe the model systems wound healing, neural crest migration, and Drosophila gastrulation and discuss methods for cell migration within these systems. We also discuss the role of the extracellular matrix and subsequent differences between track analysis in vitro and in vivo. Besides methods and measures, we are putting special focus on the need for openly available data and code, as well as a lack of common vocabulary in cell track analysis. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  4. Direct prediction of spatially and temporally varying physical properties from time-lapse electrical resistance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Thomas; Oware, Erasmus; Caers, Jef

    2016-09-01

    Time-lapse applications of electrical methods have grown significantly over the last decade. However, the quantitative interpretation of tomograms in terms of physical properties, such as salinity, temperature or saturation, remains difficult. In many applications, geophysical models are transformed into hydrological models, but this transformation suffers from spatially and temporally varying resolution resulting from the regularization used by the deterministic inversion. In this study, we investigate a prediction-focused approach (PFA) to directly estimate subsurface physical properties with electrical resistance data, circumventing the need for classic tomographic inversions. First, we generate a prior set of resistance data and physical property forecast through hydrogeological and geophysical simulations mimicking the field experiment. We reduce the dimension of both the data and the forecast through principal component analysis in order to keep the most informative part of both sets in a reduced dimension space. Then, we apply canonical correlation analysis to explore the relationship between the data and the forecast in their reduced dimension space. If a linear relationship can be established, the posterior distribution of the forecast can be directly sampled using a Gaussian process regression where the field data scores are the conditioning data. In this paper, we demonstrate PFA for various physical property distributions. We also develop a framework to propagate the estimated noise level in the reduced dimension space. We validate the results by a Monte Carlo study on the posterior distribution and demonstrate that PFA yields accurate uncertainty for the cases studied.

  5. A clustering approach applied to time-lapse ERT interpretation - Case study of Lascaux cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shan; Sirieix, Colette; Riss, Joëlle; Malaurent, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    The Lascaux cave, located in southwest France, is one of the most important prehistoric cave in the world that shows Paleolithic paintings. This study aims to characterize the structure of the weathered epikarst setting located above the cave using Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) combined with local hydrogeological and climatic environmental data. Twenty ERT profiles were carried out for two years and helped us to record the seasonal and spatial variations of the electrical resistivity of the hydraulic upstream area of the Lascaux cave. The 20 interpreted resistivity models were merged into a single synthetic model using a multidimensional statistical method (Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering). The individual blocks from the synthetic model associated with a similar resistivity variability were gathered into 7 clusters. We combined the resistivity temporal variations with climatic and hydrogeological data to propose a geo-electrical model that relates to a conceptual geological model. We provide a geological interpretation for each cluster regarding epikarst features. The superficial clusters (no 1 & 2) are linked to effective rainfall and trees, probably a fractured limestone. Another two clusters (no 6 & 7) are linked to detrital formations (sand and clay respectively). The cluster 3 may correspond to a marly limestone that forms a non-permeable horizon. Finally, the electrical behavior of the last two clusters (no 4 & 5) is correlated with the variation of flow rate; they may be a privileged feed zone of the flow in the cave.

  6. Environmental Monitoring Of Leaks Using Time Lapsed Long Electrode Electrical Resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucker, D.F.; Fink, J.B.; Loke, M.H.; Myers, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Highly industrialized areas pose significant challenges for surface based electrical resistivity characterization and monitoring due to the high degree of metallic infrastructure. The infrastructure is typically several orders of magnitude more conductive than the desired targets, preventing the geophysicist from obtaining a clear picture of the subsurface. These challenges may be minimized if steel-cased wells are used as long electrodes. We demonstrate a method of using long electrodes in a complex nuclear waste facility to monitor a simulated leak from an underground storage tank. The leak was simulated by injecting high conductivity fluid in a perforated well and the resistivity measurements were made before and after the leak test. The data were processed in four dimensions, where a regularization procedure was applied in both the time and space domains. The results showed a lowered resistivity feature develop south of the injection site. The time lapsed regularization parameter had a strong influence on the differences in inverted resistivity between the pre and post datasets, potentially making calibration of the results to specific hydrogeologic parameters difficult.

  7. Exploring reflective 'critical incident' documentation of professionalism lapses in a medical undergraduate setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLachlan John C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring professionalism in undergraduate medical students is a difficult process, and no one method has currently emerged as the definitive means of assessment in this field. Student skills in reflection have been shown to be highly important in the development of professional behaviours. By studying student reflections on lapses in professional judgement, recorded as 'critical incidents', it is possible to explore themes which are significant for the development of professional behaviour in an undergraduate setting. Methods We examined critical incident reporting combined with optional written student reflection as a method for exploring professionalism in undergraduate medical students. 228 students split between Year 1 and 2 of one academic year of undergraduate medicine were studied retrospectively and a grounded theory approach to analysis was employed. Results This year generated 16 critical incident reports and corresponding student reflections, all of which were considered. In addition to identifying the nature of the critical incidents, 3 principal themes emerged. These were the impact and consequences of the report having been made, student reactions to the events (both positive and negative, and student responses regarding future actions. Conclusion This study indicates that unprofessional behaviour can be identified and challenged by both the faculty and the students involved, and suggests that positive behavioural changes might be made with the aim of preventing future occurrences. We provide a low cost approach of measuring and recording professional behaviour.

  8. Observation of human embryonic behavior in vitro by high-resolution time-lapse cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Kyoko; Mio, Yasuyuki

    2016-07-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has yielded vast amounts of information and knowledge on human embryonic development in vitro; however, still images provide limited data on dynamic changes in the developing embryos. Using our high-resolution time-lapse cinematography (hR-TLC) system, we were able to describe normal human embryonic development continuously from the fertilization process to the hatched blastocyst stage in detail. Our hR-TLC observation also showed the embryonic abnormality of a third polar body (PB)-like substance likely containing a small pronucleus being extruded and resulting in single-pronucleus (1PN) formation, while our molecular biological investigations suggested the possibility that some 1PN embryos could be diploid, carrying both maternal and paternal genomes. Furthermore, in some embryos the extruded third PB-like substance was eventually re-absorbed into the ooplasm resulting in the formation of an uneven-sized, two-PN zygote. In addition, other hR-TLC observations showed that cytokinetic failure was correlated with equal-sized, multi-nucleated blastomeres that were also observed in the embryo showing early initiation of compaction. Assessment combining our hR-TLC with molecular biological techniques enables a better understanding of embryonic development and potential improvements in ART outcomes.

  9. Metamorphosis revealed: time-lapse three-dimensional imaging inside a living chrysalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Tristan; Garwood, Russell J; Simonsen, Thomas J; Bradley, Robert S; Withers, Philip J

    2013-07-06

    Studies of model insects have greatly increased our understanding of animal development. Yet, they are limited in scope to this small pool of model species: a small number of representatives for a hyperdiverse group with highly varied developmental processes. One factor behind this narrow scope is the challenging nature of traditional methods of study, such as histology and dissection, which can preclude quantitative analysis and do not allow the development of a single individual to be followed. Here, we use high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT) to overcome these issues, and three-dimensionally image numerous lepidopteran pupae throughout their development. The resulting models are presented in the electronic supplementary material, as are figures and videos, documenting a single individual throughout development. They provide new insight and details of lepidopteran metamorphosis, and allow the measurement of tracheal and gut volume. Furthermore, this study demonstrates early and rapid development of the tracheae, which become visible in scans just 12 h after pupation. This suggests that there is less remodelling of the tracheal system than previously expected, and is methodologically important because the tracheal system is an often-understudied character system in development. In the future, this form of time-lapse CT-scanning could allow faster and more detailed developmental studies on a wider range of taxa than is presently possible.

  10. Agency, lapse in condom use and relationship intimacy among female sex workers in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Althea E; Figueroa, John Peter

    2018-05-01

    This paper explores barriers to consistent condom use among female sex workers in Jamaica in a qualitative study using grounded theory. Multiple perspectives were sought through 44 in-depth interviews conducted with female sex workers, clients, the partners of sex workers and facilitators of sex work. Poverty and lack of education or skills, severely limited support systems as well as childhood abuse served to push the majority of participants into sex work and created vulnerability to HIV and other STIs. Despite these constraints, women found ways to exercise agency, ensure condom use, adopt protective measures and gain economic advantage in various aspects of the Jamaican sex trade. Perceived relationship intimacy between sex workers and their clients and/or their main partners emerged as the main factor contributing to reduced risk perception and inconsistent condom use. Relationship intimacy, with associated trust and affirmation of self, is the most important factor influencing sexual decision-making with respect to lapse in condom use among female sex workers in Jamaica. Study findings provide important insights that can enhance individual psychosocial, interpersonal and community-based interventions as well as inform environmental, structural and policy interventions to reduce risk and vulnerability among female sex workers.

  11. Reservoir characterization using production data and time-lapse seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadashpour, Mohsen

    2009-12-15

    The most commonly encountered, and probably the most challenging task in reservoir engineering, is to describe the reservoir accurately and efficiently. An accurate description of a reservoir is crucial to the management of production and efficiency of oil recovery. Reservoir modeling is an important step in a reservoir's future performance, which is in direct proportion to reservoir management, risk analysis and making key economic decisions. The purpose of reservoir modeling is to not only build a model that is consistent with currently available data, but to build one that gives a good prediction of its future behavior. Updating a reservoir model to behave as closely as possible to the real reservoir is called history matching, and the estimation of reservoir properties using this method is known as parameter estimation problem, which is an inversion process. Parameter estimation is a time consuming and non-unique problem with a large solution space. Saturation and pressure changes, and porosity and permeability distributions are the most common parameters to estimate in the oil industry. These parameters must be specified in every node within a petroleum reservoir simulator. These parameters will be adjusted until the model prediction data match the observation data to a sufficient degree. The solution space reduction in this project is done by adding time-lapse seismic data as a new set of dynamic data to the traditional production histories. Time-lapse (or 4D) seismic consists of two or more 3D seismic surveys shot at different calendar times. Time-lapse seismic surveys produce images at different times in a reservoir's history. The seismic response of a reservoir may change due to changes in pressure, fluid saturation and temperature. These changes in seismic images due to a variation in saturation and pressure can be used as additional observation data. Time-lapse seismic data are dynamical measurements which have a high resolution in the

  12. Aberrant behavior of mouse embryo development after blastomere biopsy as observed through time-lapse cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugajin, Tomohisa; Terada, Yukihiro; Hasegawa, Hisataka; Velayo, Clarissa L; Nabeshima, Hiroshi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2010-05-15

    To analyze whether blastomere biopsy affects early embryonal growth as observed through time-lapse cinematography. Comparative prospective study between embryos in which a blastomere was removed and embryos in which a blastomere was not removed. An experimental laboratory of the university. We calculated the time between blastocele formation and the end of hatching, the time between the start and end of hatching, the number of contractions and expansions between blastocyst formation and the end of hatching, and the maximum diameter of the expanded blastocyst. In blastomere removal embryos, compaction began at the six-cell stage instead of at the eight-cell stage. We also found that hatching was delayed in these embryos as compared with matched controls. Moreover, the frequency of contraction and expansion movements after blastocyst formation was significantly higher in the blastomere removal group as compared with the control group. Finally, the maximum diameter of the expanded blastocyst just before hatching was not significantly different between both groups. These findings suggested that blastomere removal has an adverse effect on embryonic development around the time of hatching. Thus, future developments in preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening should involve further consideration and caution in light of the influence of blastomere biopsy on embryonal growth. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mathematical analysis of endothelial sibling pair cell-cell interactions using time-lapse cinematography data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L M; Ryan, U S; Absher, M; Olazabal, B M

    1982-01-01

    The sibling pairs from two different endothelial cell cultures were analysed by time-lapse cinematography. It was shown that wounded and regular (low density seeded) cultures differed in the behaviour patterns of their siblings. The cultures differed most significantly in the minimum interdivision time (IDT) which was 27% lower for the wounded culture. In the wounded culture there was a greater correlation of IDT values between sibling pairs. IDT values recorded both for paired and for unpaired cells were shorter for the wounded than for the regular culture. The mean IDT for unpaired cells was longer than the mean IDT for paired cells in the regular culture. Thus paired cells in the regular culture, had shorter IDTs, but not as short as in the wounded culture. It was significant that in the wounded culture the first generation of siblings were very close (less than 150 microns apart) at division. Overall the behaviour differences between the two cultures resulted in a higher rate of increase in cell numbers, and thus faster repair, of the wounded monolayer.

  14. Benefits of Sleep Extension on Sustained Attention and Sleep Pressure Before and During Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Pierrick J; Sauvet, Fabien; Leger, Damien; van Beers, Pascal; Bayon, Virginie; Bougard, Clément; Rabat, Arnaud; Millet, Guillaume Y; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of 6 nights of sleep extension on sustained attention and sleep pressure before and during total sleep deprivation and after a subsequent recovery sleep. Subjects participated in two experimental conditions (randomized cross-over design): extended sleep (EXT, 9.8 ± 0.1 h (mean ± SE) time in bed) and habitual sleep (HAB, 8.2 ± 0.1 h time in bed). In each condition, subjects performed two consecutive phases: (1) 6 nights of either EXT or HAB (2) three days in-laboratory: baseline, total sleep deprivation and after 10 h of recovery sleep. Residential sleep extension and sleep performance laboratory (continuous polysomnographic recording). 14 healthy men (age range: 26-37 years). EXT vs. HAB sleep durations prior to total sleep deprivation. Total sleep time and duration of all sleep stages during the 6 nights were significantly higher in EXT than HAB. EXT improved psychomotor vigilance task performance (PVT, both fewer lapses and faster speed) and reduced sleep pressure as evidenced by longer multiple sleep latencies (MSLT) at baseline compared to HAB. EXT limited PVT lapses and the number of involuntary microsleeps during total sleep deprivation. Differences in PVT lapses and speed and MSLT at baseline were maintained after one night of recovery sleep. Six nights of extended sleep improve sustained attention and reduce sleep pressure. Sleep extension also protects against psychomotor vigilance task lapses and microsleep degradation during total sleep deprivation. These beneficial effects persist after one night of recovery sleep. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. Prediction of in-vitro developmental competence of early cleavage-stage mouse embryos with compact time-lapse equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribenszky, Csaba; Losonczi, Eszter; Molnár, Miklós; Lang, Zsolt; Mátyás, Szabolcs; Rajczy, Klára; Molnár, Katalin; Kovács, Péter; Nagy, Péter; Conceicao, Jason; Vajta, Gábor

    2010-03-01

    Single blastocyst transfer is regarded as an efficient way to achieve high pregnancy rates and to avoid multiple pregnancies. Risk of cancellation of transfer due to a lack of available embryos may be reduced by early prediction of blastocyst development. Time-lapse investigation of mouse embryos shows that the time of the first and second cleavage (to the 2- and 3-cell stages, respectively) has a strong predictive value for further development in vitro, while cleavage from the 3-cell to the 4-cell stage has no predictive value. In humans, embryo fragmentation during preimplantation development has been associated with lower pregnancy rates and a higher incidence of developmental abnormalities. Analysis of time-lapse records shows that most fragmentation is reversible in the mouse and is resorbed in an average of 9 h. Daily or bi-daily microscopic checks of embryo development, applied routinely in human IVF laboratories, would fail to detect 36 or 72% of these fragmentations, respectively. Fragmentation occurring in a defined time frame has a strong predictive value for in-vitro embryo development. The practical compact system used in the present trial, based on the 'one camera per patient' principle, has eliminated the usual disadvantages of time-lapse investigations and is applicable for the routine follow-up of in-vitro embryo development. Copyright 2009 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Versatile Time-Lapse Camera System Developed by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory for Use at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Tim R.; Hoblitt, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Volcanoes can be difficult to study up close. Because it may be days, weeks, or even years between important events, direct observation is often impractical. In addition, volcanoes are often inaccessible due to their remote location and (or) harsh environmental conditions. An eruption adds another level of complexity to what already may be a difficult and dangerous situation. For these reasons, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) have, for years, built camera systems to act as surrogate eyes. With the recent advances in digital-camera technology, these eyes are rapidly improving. One type of photographic monitoring involves the use of near-real-time network-enabled cameras installed at permanent sites (Hoblitt and others, in press). Time-lapse camera-systems, on the other hand, provide an inexpensive, easily transportable monitoring option that offers more versatility in site location. While time-lapse systems lack near-real-time capability, they provide higher image resolution and can be rapidly deployed in areas where the use of sophisticated telemetry required by the networked cameras systems is not practical. This report describes the latest generation (as of 2008) time-lapse camera system used by HVO for photograph acquisition in remote and hazardous sites on Kilauea Volcano.

  17. A time-series method for automated measurement of changes in mitotic and interphase duration from time-lapse movies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic D Sigoillot

    Full Text Available Automated time-lapse microscopy can visualize proliferation of large numbers of individual cells, enabling accurate measurement of the frequency of cell division and the duration of interphase and mitosis. However, extraction of quantitative information by manual inspection of time-lapse movies is too time-consuming to be useful for analysis of large experiments.Here we present an automated time-series approach that can measure changes in the duration of mitosis and interphase in individual cells expressing fluorescent histone 2B. The approach requires analysis of only 2 features, nuclear area and average intensity. Compared to supervised learning approaches, this method reduces processing time and does not require generation of training data sets. We demonstrate that this method is as sensitive as manual analysis in identifying small changes in interphase or mitotic duration induced by drug or siRNA treatment.This approach should facilitate automated analysis of high-throughput time-lapse data sets to identify small molecules or gene products that influence timing of cell division.

  18. Exploring the use patterns of a mobile health application for alcohol addiction before the initial lapse after detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chih, Ming-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    How patients used Addiction-Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (A-CHESS)1, a mobile health intervention, while quitting drinking is worthy exploring. This study is to explore A-CHESS use patterns prior to the initial lapse reported after discharge from inpatient detoxification programs. 142 patients with alcohol addiction from two treatment agencies in the U.S. were included. A comprehensive set of A-CHESS use measures were developed based on a three-level system use framework and three A-CHESS service categories. In latent profile analyses, three A-CHESS system use patterns-inactive, passive, and active users-were found. Compared to the passive users (with the highest chance of the initial lapse), the active users (with the lowest chance of such behavior) participated more in online social activities, used more sessions, viewed more pages, and used A-CHESS longer. However, the chances of the initial lapse between A-CHESS user profiles were not statistically different. Implications of this finding were provided.

  19. Attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    2013-01-01

    satisfaction models. Although most theories were confirmed with regard to certain predictions, none of the theories adequately accounted for the role of attention during decision making. Several observations emerged concerning the drivers and down-stream effects of attention on choice, suggesting......This paper reviews studies on eye movements in decision making, and compares their observations to theoretical predictions concerning the role of attention in decision making. Four decision theories are examined: rational models, bounded rationality, evidence accumulation, and parallel constraint...... that attention processes plays an active role in constructing decisions. So far, decision theories have largely ignored the constructive role of attention by assuming that it is entirely determined by heuristics, or that it consists of stochastic information sampling. The empirical observations reveal...

  20. Lapse time and frequency-dependent attenuation of coda waves in the Zagros continental collision zone in Southwestern Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, H; Hamzehloo, H

    2008-01-01

    The coda Q, Q c , were estimated for the Zagros continental collision zone in southwestern Iran by analyzing the coda waves of 51 local earthquakes recorded on the three stations of the Iranian National Seismic Network (INSN) with magnitudes of between 3.1 and 4.9 recorded in the region during March and April 2006. Most of the analyzed events are foreshocks and aftershocks of the Darb-e-Astane earthquake which occurred on 31 March 2006 with a magnitude of 6.1 (IIEES). The earthquakes had an epicentral distance of between 120 and 200 km and a focal depth of about 18 km. The Q c values were computed at nine central frequencies of 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12.0, 16.0 and 20.0 Hz through eight lapse time windows from 25 to 60 s starting at double the time of the primary S-wave from the origin time using the time-domain coda-decay method of a single backscattering model. In this study the collected data were compared between the events that occurred before and after the main event (foreshocks and aftershocks). The analysis showed a significant variation in the value of coda, Q, for the study region in different lapse times and frequencies. The variation of the quality factor, Q c , before and after the main event was estimated at different lapse time windows to observe its effect with depth. The estimated average frequency-dependent relation of Q c for foreshocks varies from Q c = (144 ± 24)f (0.42±0.23) at 25 s to Q c = (85 ± 10)f (0.92±0.11) at 60 s lapse window time length, respectively. For aftershocks, it varies from Q c = (121 ± 55)f (0.97±0.26) at 25 s to Q c = (212 ± 59)f (0.82±0.15) at 60 s. The averages of Q c in all stations and lapse times window are obtained as Q c = 99f 0.84 and Q c = 178f 0.86 for foreshocks and aftershocks, respectively. The Q frequency relationship for foreshocks is similar to that for the South Carolina, Koyna, western Anatolia and Aleutian earthquakes, whereas for aftershocks it is similar to the Kumaun, NW Himalaya and

  1. [Thalamus and Attention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokoro, Kazuhiko; Sato, Hironobu; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Nagai, Yoshiko

    2015-12-01

    Attention is the process by which information and selection occurs, the thalamus plays an important role in the selective attention of visual and auditory information. Selective attention is a conscious effort; however, it occurs subconsciously, as well. The lateral geniculate body (LGB) filters visual information before it reaches the cortex (bottom-up attention). The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) provides a strong inhibitory input to both the LGB and pulvinar. This regulation involves focusing a spotlight on important information, as well as inhibiting unnecessary background information. Behavioral contexts more strongly modulate activity of the TRN and pulvinar influencing feedforward and feedback information transmission between the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortical areas (top-down attention). The medial geniculate body (MGB) filters auditory information the TRN inhibits the MGB. Attentional modulation occurring in the auditory pathway among the cochlea, cochlear nucleus, superior olivary complex, and inferior colliculus is more important than that of the MGB and TRN. We also discuss the attentional consequence of thalamic hemorrhage.

  2. STUDY OF TIME LAPSE IN FOREIGN BODY ASPIRATION IN RELATION TO CHEST X - RAY AND TYPE OF FOREIGN BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTI ON: Foreign body aspiration in pediatrics is a potentially fatal accident which will continue until children explore their surroundings with their hand and mouth. Pediatric aspirations will persist until mankind exists. Not all foreign body aspirations are witnessed hence chances of delay in diagnosing an aspiration are high. Delay in diagnosis depends on site and character of foreign body aspirated. The chest x - ray findings and type of foreign body extracted vary depending on the duration the foreign body remains in airway . OBJECTIVE: To study the X - ray finding in pediatric airway aspiration and its relation to time lapse, the type and site of lodgment of foreign body extracted via bronchoscopy. The type of foreign body in relation to time lapse in aspiration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a prospective study done in Bapuji child health institute and research center, JJM Medical College, Davangere . History and pre bronchoscopy x - Ray finding were noted for 65 children who were posted for suspicious bronchoscopy from August 2011 to September 2013. 11 children were excluded from study as they showed no foreign body on bronchoscopy. Time lapse in aspir ation and seeking medical care was noted. The bronchoscopic findings regarding site of foreign body lodgment and type of foreign body were recorded. The type of foreign body and variation of x - ray picture in relation to time lapse in aspiration were noted. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULT: It was observed that mean age was 28 months. About 80% of the cases were between 1 to 3 years age. 82% (n=53/54 were radio lucent foreign body, only 1.5% (n=1/54 were radio o paque. Site of lodgment of foreign body was right main bronchus in 48% (n=26/54, left main bronchus 46% (n=25/54 , tracheal 1.85% (n=1/54, subglottic 1.85% (n=1/54, carinal 1.85% (n=1/54, multiple site i.e. left bronchus +right bronchus+ carinal 1.85% (n=1/54. Groundnut was most common

  3. Iconic memory requires attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persuh, Marjan; Genzer, Boris; Melara, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change detection paradigm (Experiment 1) or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2). In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization) even when concurrently performing an easy visual search task (low load). However, when the concurrent search was made difficult (high load), observers' performance dropped to almost chance levels, while search accuracy held at single-task levels. The effects of attentional load remained the same across paradigms. The results suggest that, without attention, participants consolidate in iconic memory only gross representations of the visual scene, information too impoverished for successful detection of perceptual change or categorization of features.

  4. Iconic memory requires attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan ePersuh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change-detection paradigm (Experiment 1 or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2. In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization even when concurrently performing an easy visual search task (low load. However, when the concurrent search was made difficult (high load, observers’ performance dropped to almost chance levels, while search accuracy held at single-task levels. The effects of attentional load remained the same across paradigms. The results suggest that, without attention, participants consolidate in iconic memory only gross representations of the visual scene, information too impoverished for successful detection of perceptual change or categorization of features.

  5. Iconic memory requires attention

    OpenAIRE

    Persuh, Marjan; Genzer, Boris; Melara, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change detection paradigm (Experiment 1) or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2). In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization) even when co...

  6. Time lapse photography as an approach to understanding glide avalanche activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, Jordy; Peitzsch, Erich H.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    Avalanches resulting from glide cracks are notoriously difficult to forecast, but are a recurring problem for numerous avalanche forecasting programs. In some cases glide cracks are observed to open and then melt away in situ. In other cases, they open and then fail catastrophically as large, full-depth avalanches. Our understanding and management of these phenomena are currently limited. It is thought that an increase in the rate of snow gliding occurs prior to full-depth avalanche activity so frequent observation of glide crack movement can provide an index of instability. During spring 2011 in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA, we began an approach to track glide crack avalanche activity using a time-lapse camera focused on a southwest facing glide crack. This crack melted in-situ without failing as a glide avalanche, while other nearby glide cracks on north through southeast aspects failed. In spring 2012, a camera was aimed at a large and productive glide crack adjacent to the Going to the Sun Road. We captured three unique glide events in the field of view. Unfortunately, all of them either failed very quickly, or during periods of obscured view, so measurements of glide rate could not be obtained. However, we compared the hourly meteorological variables during the period of glide activity to the same variables prior to glide activity. The variables air temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, incoming and reflected long wave radiation, SWE, total precipitation, and snow depth were found to be statistically different for our cases examined. We propose that these are some of the potential precursors for glide avalanche activity, but do urge caution in their use, due to the simple approach and small data set size. It is hoped that by introducing a workable method to easily record glide crack movement, combined with ongoing analysis of the associated meteorological data, we will improve our understanding of when, or if, glide avalanche activity will ensue.

  7. Spatio-Temporal Variation and Monsoon Effect on the Temperature Lapse Rate of a Subtropical Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-An Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature lapse rate (TLR has been widely used in the prediction of mountain climate and vegetation and in many ecological models. The aims of this paper are to explore the spatio-temporal variations and monsoon effects on the TLR in the subtropical island of Taiwan with its steep Central Mountain Region (CMR. A TLR analysis using the 32-year monthly mean air temperatures and elevations from 219 weather stations (sea level to 3852 m a.s.l. was performed based on different geographical regions and monsoon exposures. The results revealed that the average TLR for all of Taiwan is -5.17°C km-1, with a general tendency to be steeper in summer and shallower in winter. The results are also shallower than the typical or global average TLR of -6.5°C km-1. During the prevailing northeast monsoon season (winter, the TLR exhibits a contrast between the windward side (steeper, -5.97°C km-1 and the leeward side (shallower, -4.51°C km-1. From the diagnosis on spatial characteristics of monthly cloud amount and vertical atmospheric profiles, this contrasting phenomenon may be explained by the warming effect of onshore stratus clouds (500 - 2500 m depth on cold and dry Siberian monsoon air on the windward side of the CMR. On the southwestern leeward side of the CMR, the low-level (1500 m, the weak ventilation atmosphere and temperature inversion make the TLR shallower than on the windward side.

  8. The altitudinal temperature lapse rates applied to high elevation rockfalls studies in the Western European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigrelli, Guido; Fratianni, Simona; Zampollo, Arianna; Turconi, Laura; Chiarle, Marta

    2018-02-01

    Temperature is one of the most important aspects of mountain climates. The relationships between air temperature and rockfalls at high-elevation sites are very important to know, but are also very difficult to study. In relation to this, a reliable method to estimate air temperatures at high-elevation sites is to apply the altitudinal temperature lapse rates (ATLR). The aims of this work are to quantify the values and the variability of the hourly ATLR and to apply this to estimated temperatures at high-elevation sites for rockfalls studies. To calculate ATLR prior the rockfalls, we used data acquired from two automatic weather stations that are located at an elevation above 2500 m. The sensors/instruments of these two stations are reliable because subjected to an accurate control and calibration once for year and the raw data have passed two automatic quality controls. Our study has yielded the following main results: (i) hourly ATLR increases slightly with increasing altitude, (ii) it is possible to estimate temperature at high-elevation sites with a good level of accuracy using ATLR, and (iii) temperature plays an important role on slope failures that occur at high-elevation sites and its importance is much more evident if the values oscillate around 0 °C with an amplitude of ±5 °C during the previous time-period. For these studies, it is not enough to improve the knowledge on air temperature, but it is necessary to develop an integrated knowledge of the thermal conditions of different materials involved in these processes (rock, debris, ice, water). Moreover, this integrated knowledge must be acquired by means of sensors and acquisition chains with known metrological traceability and uncertainty of measurements.

  9. Variation in Phenometric Lapse Rates in Pasture Resources across Four Rayons in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henebry, G. M.; Tomaszewska, M. A.; Kelgenbaeva, K.

    2017-12-01

    High elevation pasture resources form the foundation of agro-pastoralist livelihoods in Kyrgyzstan and elsewhere in montane Central Asia. We explore the temporal and the topographical variation in phenometric lapse rates (PLRs: the change in a phenometric as a function of elevation) across four rayons in two oblasts of the Kyrgyz Republic—Alay, At-Bashy, Chong Alay, and Naryn—with the aim of identifying and quantifying robust generic patterns in the PLRs. We evaluate two fundamental phenometrics derived from the downward convex quadratic model of land surface phenology that links the NDVI to accumulated growing degree-day (AGDD). The peak height (PH) is the maximum NDVI value obtained from the fitted model. The thermal time to peak (TTP) is the amount of AGDD required to reach the PH. We fitted sixteen years of Landsat NDVI data at 30 m spatial resolution to annual AGDD progressions derived from MODIS land surface temperature time series at 1 km spatial resolution, yielding maps for each phenometric. If the coefficient of determination was less than 0.5, then the model fit was deemed a failure. We classified the reliability of pasture resources into five classes based on the number of years of successful model fit: very persistent (14-16 y); persistent (11-13 y); marginal (7-10 y); occasional (4-6); and rare (1-3). We explore the interactive roles of elevation, slope, aspect, latitude, and rayon on the PLRs and pasture resource persistence to identify critical areas for resource management.

  10. Tracking snowmelt in the subsurface: time-lapse electrical resistivity imaging on an alpine hill slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, D.; Parsekian, A.; Hyde, K.; Beverly, D.; Speckman, H. N.; Ewers, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    In the mountain West region the winter snowpack provides more than 70% of our annual water supply. Modeling and predicting the timing and magnitude of snowmelt-driven water yield is difficult due to the complexities of hydrologic systems that move meltwater from snow to rivers. Particular challenges are understanding the temporal and spatial domain of subsurface hydraulic processes at relevant scales, which range from points to catchments. Subsurface characterization often requires borehole instrumentation, which is expensive and extremely difficult to install in remote, rugged terrain. Advancements in non-invasive geophysical methods allow us to monitor changes in geophysical parameters over time and infer changes in hydraulic processes. In the No-Name experimental catchment in the Medicine Bow National Forest in Wyoming, we are conducting a multi-season, time-lapse electrical resistivity imaging survey on a sub-alpine hill slope. This south-facing, partially forested slope ranges from 5 degrees to 35 degrees in steepness and consists of a soil mantle covering buried glacial talus deposits of unknown depth. A permanent grid of down-slope and cross-slope electrode arrays is monitored up to four times a day. The arrays span the entire vertical distance of the slope, from an exposed bedrock ridge to a seasonal drainage below, and cover treed and non-treed areas. Geophysical measurements are augmented by temperature and moisture time-series instrumented below the surface in a contiguous 3 meter borehole. A time-series of multiple resistivity models each day from May to July shows the changing distribution of subsurface moisture during a seasonal drying sequence punctuated by isolated rain events. Spatial patterns of changing moisture indicate that soil and gravel in the top two meters drain into a saturated layer parallel to the slope which overlies less saturated material. These results suggest that water from snowmelt and rain events tends to move down-slope beneath

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF LEAKS USING TIME LAPSED LONG ELECTRODE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.; Rucker, D.F.; Fink, J.B.; Loke, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Highly industrialized areas pose challenges for surface electrical resistivity characterization due to metallic infrastructure. The infrastructure is typically more conductive than the desired targets and will mask the deeper subsurface information. These challenges may be minimized if steel-cased wells are used as long electrodes in the area near the target. We demonstrate a method of using long electrodes to electrically monitor a simulated leak from an underground storage tank with both synthetic examples and a field demonstration. The synthetic examples place a simple target of varying electrical properties beneath a very low resistivity layer. The layer is meant to replicate the effects of infrastructure. Both surface and long electrodes are tested on the synthetic domain. The leak demonstration for the field experiment is simulated by injecting a high conductivity fluid in a perforated well within the S tank farm at Hanford, and the resistivity measurements are made before and after the leak test. All data are processed in four dimensions, where a regularization procedure is applied in both the time and space domains. The synthetic test case shows that the long electrode ERM could detect relative changes in resistivity that are commensurate with the differing target properties. The surface electrodes, on the other hand, had a more difficult time matching the original target's footprint. The field results shows a lowered resistivity feature develop south of the injection site after cessation of the injections. The time lapsed regularization parameter has a strong influence on the differences in inverted resistivity between the pre and post injection datasets, but the interpretation of the target is consistent across all values of the parameter. The long electrode ERM method may provide a tool for near real-time monitoring of leaking underground storage tanks.

  12. Applications of quantitative time lapse holographic imaging to the development of complex pharmaceutical nano formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Ed; Mendes, Livia; Pan, Jiayi; Costa, Daniel; Sarisozen, Can; Torchilin, Vladimir

    2018-02-01

    We rely on in vitro cellular cultures to evaluate the effects of the components of multifunctional nano-based formulations under development. We employ an incubator-adapted, label-free holographic imaging cytometer HoloMonitor M4® (Phase Holographic Imaging, Lund, Sweden) to obtain multi-day time-lapse sequences at 5- minute intervals. An automated stage allows hand-free acquisition of multiple fields of view. Our system is based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometry principle to create interference patterns which are deconvolved to produce images of the optical thickness of the field of view. These images are automatically segmented resulting in a full complement of quantitative morphological features, such as optical volume, thickness, and area amongst many others. Precise XY cell locations and the time of acquisition are also recorded. Visualization is best achieved by novel 4-Dimensional plots, where XY position is plotted overtime time (Z-directions) and cell-thickness is coded as color or gray scale brightness. Fundamental events of interest, i.e., cells undergoing mitosis or mitotic dysfunction, cell death, cell-to-cell interactions, motility are discernable. We use both 2D and 3D models of the tumor microenvironment. We report our new analysis method to track feature changes over time based on a 4-sample version of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Feature A is compared to Control A, and Feature B is compared to Control B to give a 2D probability plot of the feature changes over time. As a result, we efficiently obtain vectors quantifying feature changes over time in various sample conditions, i.e., changing compound concentrations or multi-compound combinations.

  13. Attention deficits and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Geneviève; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2014-09-01

    Building on previous work on the role of attention deficits associated with the regulation of executive control in psychiatric disorders, we examine whether these attention deficits are related to an interpersonal disturbance, the experience of divorce. Attentional capacities of 95 randomly selected couples from the general population were measured with a well-established task, the Attentional Network Task, which assesses the efficiency of 3 attention networks (that is, alerting, orienting, and executive control). Among the 190 participants, 32 had experienced a divorce in the past. ANCOVAs were used to compare divorced people in marital or cohabiting unions with people in first unions in their performance on this purely cognitive task. Our findings indicate that divorced people who are currently living in a cohabiting relationship show significantly lower executive control than other adults living as couples, after controlling for sex, age, income, and education. This subgroup of divorced people not only exhibit greater difficulty in responding to some stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones but also manifest cognitive deficits in conflict resolution. This study highlights the links between attention and the long-term maintenance of intimate relationships. Our results may have important implications for the identification of people at risk for divorce.

  14. Cognition, emotion, and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Deficits of attention, emotion, and cognition occur in individuals with alcohol abuse and addiction. This review elucidates the concepts of attention, emotion, and cognition and references research on the underlying neural networks and their compromise in alcohol use disorder. Neuroimaging research on adolescents with family history of alcoholism contributes to the understanding of pre-existing brain structural conditions and characterization of cognition and attention processes in high-risk individuals. Attention and cognition interact with other brain functions, including perceptual selection, salience, emotion, reward, and memory, through interconnected neural networks. Recent research reports compromised microstructural and functional network connectivity in alcoholism, which can have an effect on the dynamic tuning between brain systems, e.g., the frontally based executive control system, the limbic emotion system, and the midbrain-striatal reward system, thereby impeding cognitive flexibility and behavioral adaptation to changing environments. Finally, we introduce concepts of functional compensation, the capacity to generate attentional resources for performance enhancement, and brain structure recovery with abstinence. An understanding of the neural mechanisms of attention, emotion, and cognition will likely provide the basis for better treatment strategies for developing skills that enhance alcoholism therapy adherence and quality of life, and reduce the propensity for relapse. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Towards a Unified Developmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control…

  16. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D. Barber

    2015-01-01

    While CON–DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON–DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other hand, greater DMN–occipital anti-correlation supported better attentional control in TD children.

  17. Attention in Urban Foraging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm McCullough

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This position paper argues how there has to be much more to smart city learning than just wayshowing, and something better as augmented reality than covering the world with instructions. Attention has become something for many people to know better in an age of information superabundance. Embodied cognition explains how the work-ings of attention are not solely a foreground task, as if attention is something to pay. As digital media appear in ever more formats and contexts, their hybrids with physical form increasing influence how habitual engagement with persistent situations creates learning. Ambient information can just add to the distraction by multitasking, or it can support more favorable processes of shifting among different kinds of information with a particular intent. As one word for this latter process, foraging deserves more consideration in smart city learning

  18. Effect of time lapse on the diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography for detection of vertical root fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskandarloo, Amir; Shokri, Abbas, E-mail: Dr.a.shokri@gmail.com [Dental Research Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asl, Amin Mahdavi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalalzadeh, Mohsen [Department of Endodontics, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tayari, Maryam [Department of Pedodontics, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinipanah, Mohammad [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fardmal, Javad [Research Center for Health Sciences and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Accurate and early diagnosis of vertical root fractures (VRFs) is imperative to prevent extensive bone loss and unnecessary endodontic and prosthodontic treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of time lapse on the diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for VRFs in endodontically treated dog’s teeth. Forty eight incisors and premolars of three adult male dogs underwent root canal therapy. The teeth were assigned to two groups: VRFs were artificially induced in the first group (n=24) while the teeth in the second group remained intact (n=24). The CBCT scans were obtained by NewTom 3G unit immediately after inducing VRFs and after one, two, three, four, eight, 12 and 16 weeks. Three oral and maxillofacial radiologists blinded to the date of radiographs assessed the presence/absence of VRFs on CBCT scans. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values were calculated and data were analyzed using SPSS v.16 software and ANOVA. The total accuracy of detection of VRFs immediately after surgery, one, two, three, four, eight, 12 and 16 weeks was 67.3%, 68.7%, 66.6%, 64.6%, 64.5%, 69.4%, 68.7%, 68% respectively. The effect of time lapse on detection of VRFs was not significant (p>0.05). Overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CBCT for detection of VRFs were 74.3%, 62.2%, 67.2% respectively. Cone beam computed tomography is a valuable tool for detection of VRFs. Time lapse (four months) had no effect on detection of VRFs on CBCT scans. (author)

  19. Near real-time imaging of molasses injections using time-lapse electrical geophysics at the Brandywine DRMO, Brandywine, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, R. J.; Johnson, T.; Major, B.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Lane, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Enhanced bioremediation, which involves introduction of amendments to promote biodegradation, increasingly is used to accelerate cleanup of recalcitrant compounds and has been identified as the preferred remedial treatment at many contaminated sites. Although blind introduction of amendments can lead to sub-optimal or ineffective remediation, the distribution of amendment throughout the treatment zone is difficult to measure using conventional sampling. Because amendments and their degradation products commonly have electrical properties that differ from those of ambient soil, time-lapse electrical geophysical monitoring has the potential to verify amendment emplacement and distribution. In order for geophysical monitoring to be useful, however, results of the injection ideally should be accessible in near real time. In August 2010, we demonstrated the feasibility of near real-time, autonomous electrical geophysical monitoring of amendment injections at the former Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) in Brandywine, Maryland. Two injections of about 1000 gallons each of molasses, a widely used amendment for enhanced bioremediation, were monitored using measurements taken with borehole and surface electrodes. During the injections, multi-channel resistance data were recorded; data were transmitted to a server and processed using a parallel resistivity inversion code; and results in the form of time-lapse imagery subsequently were posted to a website. This process occurred automatically without human intervention. The resulting time-lapse imagery clearly showed the evolution of the molasses plume. The delay between measurements and online delivery of images was between 45 and 60 minutes, thus providing actionable information that could support decisions about field procedures and a check on whether amendment reached target zones. This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of using electrical imaging as a monitoring tool both during amendment emplacement

  20. Spatiotemporal monitoring of soil water content profiles in an irrigated field using probabilistic inversion of time-lapse EMI data

    KAUST Repository

    Moghadas, Davood

    2017-10-17

    Monitoring spatiotemporal variations of soil water content (θ) is important across a range of research fields, including agricultural engineering, hydrology, meteorology and climatology. Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems have proven to be useful tools in mapping soil apparent electrical conductivity (σa) and soil moisture. However, obtaining depth profile water content is an area that has not been fully explored using EMI. To examine this, we performed time-lapse EMI measurements using a CMD mini-Explorer sensor along a 10 m transect of a maize field over a 6 day period. Reference data were measured at the end of the profile via an excavated pit using 5TE capacitance sensors. In order to derive a time-lapse, depth-specific subsurface image of electrical conductivity (σ), we applied a probabilistic sampling approach, DREAM(ZS), on the measured EMI data. The inversely estimated σ values were subsequently converted to θ using the Rhoades et al. (1976) petrophysical relationship. The uncertainties in measured σa, as well as inaccuracies in the inverted data, introduced some discrepancies between estimated σ and reference values in time and space. Moreover, the disparity between the measurement footprints of the 5TE and CMD Mini-Explorer sensors also led to differences. The obtained θ permitted an accurate monitoring of the spatiotemporal distribution and variation of soil water content due to root water uptake and evaporation. The proposed EMI measurement and modeling technique also allowed for detecting temporal root zone soil moisture variations. The time-lapse θ monitoring approach developed using DREAM(ZS) thus appears to be a useful technique to understand spatiotemporal patterns of soil water content and provide insights into linked soil moisture vegetation processes and the dynamics of soil moisture/infiltration processes.

  1. Spatiotemporal monitoring of soil water content profiles in an irrigated field using probabilistic inversion of time-lapse EMI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadas, Davood; Jadoon, Khan Zaib; McCabe, Matthew F.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring spatiotemporal variations of soil water content (θ) is important across a range of research fields, including agricultural engineering, hydrology, meteorology and climatology. Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems have proven to be useful tools in mapping soil apparent electrical conductivity (σa) and soil moisture. However, obtaining depth profile water content is an area that has not been fully explored using EMI. To examine this, we performed time-lapse EMI measurements using a CMD mini-Explorer sensor along a 10 m transect of a maize field over a 6 day period. Reference data were measured at the end of the profile via an excavated pit using 5TE capacitance sensors. In order to derive a time-lapse, depth-specific subsurface image of electrical conductivity (σ), we applied a probabilistic sampling approach, DREAM(ZS) , on the measured EMI data. The inversely estimated σ values were subsequently converted to θ using the Rhoades et al. (1976) petrophysical relationship. The uncertainties in measured σa, as well as inaccuracies in the inverted data, introduced some discrepancies between estimated σ and reference values in time and space. Moreover, the disparity between the measurement footprints of the 5TE and CMD Mini-Explorer sensors also led to differences. The obtained θ permitted an accurate monitoring of the spatiotemporal distribution and variation of soil water content due to root water uptake and evaporation. The proposed EMI measurement and modeling technique also allowed for detecting temporal root zone soil moisture variations. The time-lapse θ monitoring approach developed using DREAM(ZS) thus appears to be a useful technique to understand spatiotemporal patterns of soil water content and provide insights into linked soil moisture vegetation processes and the dynamics of soil moisture/infiltration processes.

  2. Effect of time lapse on the diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography for detection of vertical root fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskandarloo, Amir; Shokri, Abbas; Asl, Amin Mahdavi; Jalalzadeh, Mohsen; Tayari, Maryam; Hosseinipanah, Mohammad; Fardmal, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and early diagnosis of vertical root fractures (VRFs) is imperative to prevent extensive bone loss and unnecessary endodontic and prosthodontic treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of time lapse on the diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for VRFs in endodontically treated dog’s teeth. Forty eight incisors and premolars of three adult male dogs underwent root canal therapy. The teeth were assigned to two groups: VRFs were artificially induced in the first group (n=24) while the teeth in the second group remained intact (n=24). The CBCT scans were obtained by NewTom 3G unit immediately after inducing VRFs and after one, two, three, four, eight, 12 and 16 weeks. Three oral and maxillofacial radiologists blinded to the date of radiographs assessed the presence/absence of VRFs on CBCT scans. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values were calculated and data were analyzed using SPSS v.16 software and ANOVA. The total accuracy of detection of VRFs immediately after surgery, one, two, three, four, eight, 12 and 16 weeks was 67.3%, 68.7%, 66.6%, 64.6%, 64.5%, 69.4%, 68.7%, 68% respectively. The effect of time lapse on detection of VRFs was not significant (p>0.05). Overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CBCT for detection of VRFs were 74.3%, 62.2%, 67.2% respectively. Cone beam computed tomography is a valuable tool for detection of VRFs. Time lapse (four months) had no effect on detection of VRFs on CBCT scans. (author)

  3. A multimethod Global Sensitivity Analysis to aid the calibration of geomechanical models via time-lapse seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D. C.; Angus, D. A.; Garcia, A.; Fisher, Q. J.; Parsons, S.; Kato, J.

    2018-03-01

    Time-lapse seismic attributes are used extensively in the history matching of production simulator models. However, although proven to contain information regarding production induced stress change, it is typically only loosely (i.e. qualitatively) used to calibrate geomechanical models. In this study we conduct a multimethod Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) to assess the feasibility and aid the quantitative calibration of geomechanical models via near-offset time-lapse seismic data. Specifically, the calibration of mechanical properties of the overburden. Via the GSA, we analyse the near-offset overburden seismic traveltimes from over 4000 perturbations of a Finite Element (FE) geomechanical model of a typical High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) reservoir in the North Sea. We find that, out of an initially large set of material properties, the near-offset overburden traveltimes are primarily affected by Young's modulus and the effective stress (i.e. Biot) coefficient. The unexpected significance of the Biot coefficient highlights the importance of modelling fluid flow and pore pressure outside of the reservoir. The FE model is complex and highly nonlinear. Multiple combinations of model parameters can yield equally possible model realizations. Consequently, numerical calibration via a large number of random model perturbations is unfeasible. However, the significant differences in traveltime results suggest that more sophisticated calibration methods could potentially be feasible for finding numerous suitable solutions. The results of the time-varying GSA demonstrate how acquiring multiple vintages of time-lapse seismic data can be advantageous. However, they also suggest that significant overburden near-offset seismic time-shifts, useful for model calibration, may take up to 3 yrs after the start of production to manifest. Due to the nonlinearity of the model behaviour, similar uncertainty in the reservoir mechanical properties appears to influence overburden

  4. Spatiotemporal monitoring of soil water content profiles in an irrigated field using probabilistic inversion of time-lapse EMI data

    KAUST Repository

    Moghadas, Davood; Jadoon, Khan Zaib; McCabe, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring spatiotemporal variations of soil water content (θ) is important across a range of research fields, including agricultural engineering, hydrology, meteorology and climatology. Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems have proven to be useful tools in mapping soil apparent electrical conductivity (σa) and soil moisture. However, obtaining depth profile water content is an area that has not been fully explored using EMI. To examine this, we performed time-lapse EMI measurements using a CMD mini-Explorer sensor along a 10 m transect of a maize field over a 6 day period. Reference data were measured at the end of the profile via an excavated pit using 5TE capacitance sensors. In order to derive a time-lapse, depth-specific subsurface image of electrical conductivity (σ), we applied a probabilistic sampling approach, DREAM(ZS), on the measured EMI data. The inversely estimated σ values were subsequently converted to θ using the Rhoades et al. (1976) petrophysical relationship. The uncertainties in measured σa, as well as inaccuracies in the inverted data, introduced some discrepancies between estimated σ and reference values in time and space. Moreover, the disparity between the measurement footprints of the 5TE and CMD Mini-Explorer sensors also led to differences. The obtained θ permitted an accurate monitoring of the spatiotemporal distribution and variation of soil water content due to root water uptake and evaporation. The proposed EMI measurement and modeling technique also allowed for detecting temporal root zone soil moisture variations. The time-lapse θ monitoring approach developed using DREAM(ZS) thus appears to be a useful technique to understand spatiotemporal patterns of soil water content and provide insights into linked soil moisture vegetation processes and the dynamics of soil moisture/infiltration processes.

  5. Analysis of Zebrafish Kidney Development with Time-lapse Imaging Using a Dissecting Microscope Equipped for Optical Sectioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner, Birgit; Schnerwitzki, Danny; Graf, Michael; Englert, Christoph

    2016-04-07

    In order to understand organogenesis, the spatial and temporal alterations that occur during development of tissues need to be recorded. The method described here allows time-lapse analysis of normal and impaired kidney development in zebrafish embryos by using a fluorescence dissecting microscope equipped for structured illumination and z-stack acquisition. To visualize nephrogenesis, transgenic zebrafish (Tg(wt1b:GFP)) with fluorescently labeled kidney structures were used. Renal defects were triggered by injection of an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide against the Wilms tumor gene wt1a, a factor known to be crucial for kidney development. The advantage of the experimental setup is the combination of a zoom microscope with simple strategies for re-adjusting movements in x, y or z direction without additional equipment. To circumvent focal drift that is induced by temperature variations and mechanical vibrations, an autofocus strategy was applied instead of utilizing a usually required environmental chamber. In order to re-adjust the positional changes due to a xy-drift, imaging chambers with imprinted relocation grids were employed. In comparison to more complex setups for time-lapse recording with optical sectioning such as confocal laser scanning or light sheet microscopes, a zoom microscope is easy to handle. Besides, it offers dissecting microscope-specific benefits such as high depth of field and an extended working distance. The method to study organogenesis presented here can also be used with fluorescence stereo microscopes not capable of optical sectioning. Although limited for high-throughput, this technique offers an alternative to more complex equipment that is normally used for time-lapse recording of developing tissues and organ dynamics.

  6. The Potential Impact of Biofield Treatment on Human Brain Tumor Cells: A Time-Lapse Video Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Study background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common subtype of primary brain tumor in adults. The aim was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment potential on human GBM and non-GBM brain cells using two time-lapse video microscopy technique. Methods: The human brain tumor, GBM cultured cells were divided into two groups viz. GBM control and GBM treatment. Similarly, human normal brain cultured cells (non-GBM) were taken and divided into two groups viz. non- GBM control and non-GB...

  7. A Dynamic Programming Model for Optimizing Frequency of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring in Geological CO2 Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjya, D.; Mukerji, T.; Mascarenhas, O.; Weyant, J.

    2005-12-01

    Designing a cost-effective and reliable monitoring program is crucial to the success of any geological CO2 storage project. Effective design entails determining both, the optimal measurement modality, as well as the frequency of monitoring the site. Time-lapse seismic provides the best spatial coverage and resolution for reservoir monitoring. Initial results from Sleipner (Norway) have demonstrated effective monitoring of CO2 plume movement. However, time-lapse seismic is an expensive monitoring technique especially over the long term life of a storage project and should be used judiciously. We present a mathematical model based on dynamic programming that can be used to estimate site-specific optimal frequency of time-lapse surveys. The dynamics of the CO2 sequestration process are simplified and modeled as a four state Markov process with transition probabilities. The states are M: injected CO2 safely migrating within the target zone; L: leakage from the target zone to the adjacent geosphere; R: safe migration after recovery from leakage state; and S: seepage from geosphere to the biosphere. The states are observed only when a monitoring survey is performed. We assume that the system may go to state S only from state L. We also assume that once observed to be in state L, remedial measures are always taken to bring it back to state R. Remediation benefits are captured by calculating the expected penalty if CO2 seeped into the biosphere. There is a trade-off between the conflicting objectives of minimum discounted costs of performing the next time-lapse survey and minimum risk of seepage and its associated costly consequences. A survey performed earlier would spot the leakage earlier. Remediation methods would have been utilized earlier, resulting in savings in costs attributed to excessive seepage. On the other hand, there are also costs for the survey and remedial measures. The problem is solved numerically using Bellman's optimality principal of dynamic

  8. 3D time-lapse analysis of Rab11/FIP5 complex: spatiotemporal dynamics during apical lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Anthony; Prekeris, Rytis

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent imaging of fixed cells grown in two-dimensional (2D) cultures is one of the most widely used techniques for observing protein localization and distribution within cells. Although this technique can also be applied to polarized epithelial cells that form three-dimensional (3D) cysts when grown in a Matrigel matrix suspension, there are still significant limitations in imaging cells fixed at a particular point in time. Here, we describe the use of 3D time-lapse imaging of live cells to observe the dynamics of apical membrane initiation site (AMIS) formation and lumen expansion in polarized epithelial cells.

  9. Characterization for capillary barriers effects in a sand box test using time-lapsed GPR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, S.; Ishii, N.; Morii, T.

    2017-12-01

    Capillary barriers have been known as the method to protect subsurface regions against infiltration from soil surface. It is caused by essentially heterogeneous structure in permeability or soil physical property and produce non-uniform infiltration process then, in order to estimate the actual situation of the capillary barrier effect, the site-characterization with imaging technique like geophysical prospecting is effective. In this study, we examine the applicability of GPR to characterization for capillary barriers. We built a sand box with 90x340x90cm in which a thin high-permeable gravel layer was embedded as a capillary barrier. We conducted an infiltration test in the sand box using porous tube array for irrigation. It is expected to lead to non-uniform flow of soil water induced by capillary barrier effects. We monitored this process by various types of GPR measurements, including time-lapsed common offset profiling (COP) with multi- frequency antenna and transmission measurements like cross-borehole radar. At first, we conducted GPR common-offset survey. It could show the depth of capillary barrier in sand box. After that we conducted the infiltration test and GPR monitoring for infiltration process. GPR profiles can detect the wetting front and estimate water content change in the soil layer above the capillary barrier. From spatial change in these results we can estimate the effect of capillary barrier and the zone where the break through occur or not. Based on these results, we will discuss the applicability of GPR for monitoring the phenomena around the capillary barrier of soil. At first, we conducted GPR common-offset survey. It could show the depth of capillary barrier in sand box. After that we conducted the infiltration test and GPR monitoring for infiltration process. GPR profiles can detect the wetting front and estimate water content change in the soil layer above the capillary barrier. From spatial change in these results we can estimate the

  10. A Novel Methodology for Characterizing Cell Subpopulations in Automated Time-lapse Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Hattab

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Time-lapse imaging of cell colonies in microfluidic chambers provides time series of bioimages, i.e., biomovies. They show the behavior of cells over time under controlled conditions. One of the main remaining bottlenecks in this area of research is the analysis of experimental data and the extraction of cell growth characteristics, such as lineage information. The extraction of the cell line by human observers is time-consuming and error-prone. Previously proposed methods often fail because of their reliance on the accurate detection of a single cell, which is not possible for high density, high diversity of cell shapes and numbers, and high-resolution images with high noise. Our task is to characterize subpopulations in biomovies. In order to shift the analysis of the data from individual cell level to cellular groups with similar fluorescence or even subpopulations, we propose to represent the cells by two new abstractions: the particle and the patch. We use a three-step framework: preprocessing, particle tracking, and construction of the patch lineage. First, preprocessing improves the signal-to-noise ratio and spatially aligns the biomovie frames. Second, cell sampling is performed by assuming particles, which represent a part of a cell, cell or group of contiguous cells in space. Particle analysis includes the following: particle tracking, trajectory linking, filtering, and color information, respectively. Particle tracking consists of following the spatiotemporal position of a particle and gives rise to coherent particle trajectories over time. Typical tracking problems may occur (e.g., appearance or disappearance of cells, spurious artifacts. They are effectively processed using trajectory linking and filtering. Third, the construction of the patch lineage consists in joining particle trajectories that share common attributes (i.e., proximity and fluorescence intensity and feature common ancestry. This step is based on patch finding

  11. A Modular and Affordable Time-Lapse Imaging and Incubation System Based on 3D-Printed Parts, a Smartphone, and Off-The-Shelf Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Vera, Rodrigo; Schwan, Emil; Fatsis-Kavalopoulos, Nikos; Kreuger, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging is a powerful tool for studying cellular dynamics and cell behavior over long periods of time to acquire detailed functional information. However, commercially available time-lapse imaging systems are expensive and this has limited a broader implementation of this technique in low-resource environments. Further, the availability of time-lapse imaging systems often present workflow bottlenecks in well-funded institutions. To address these limitations we have designed a modular and affordable time-lapse imaging and incubation system (ATLIS). The ATLIS enables the transformation of simple inverted microscopes into live cell imaging systems using custom-designed 3D-printed parts, a smartphone, and off-the-shelf electronic components. We demonstrate that the ATLIS provides stable environmental conditions to support normal cell behavior during live imaging experiments in both traditional and evaporation-sensitive microfluidic cell culture systems. Thus, the system presented here has the potential to increase the accessibility of time-lapse microscopy of living cells for the wider research community.

  12. A Modular and Affordable Time-Lapse Imaging and Incubation System Based on 3D-Printed Parts, a Smartphone, and Off-The-Shelf Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwan, Emil; Fatsis-Kavalopoulos, Nikos; Kreuger, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging is a powerful tool for studying cellular dynamics and cell behavior over long periods of time to acquire detailed functional information. However, commercially available time-lapse imaging systems are expensive and this has limited a broader implementation of this technique in low-resource environments. Further, the availability of time-lapse imaging systems often present workflow bottlenecks in well-funded institutions. To address these limitations we have designed a modular and affordable time-lapse imaging and incubation system (ATLIS). The ATLIS enables the transformation of simple inverted microscopes into live cell imaging systems using custom-designed 3D-printed parts, a smartphone, and off-the-shelf electronic components. We demonstrate that the ATLIS provides stable environmental conditions to support normal cell behavior during live imaging experiments in both traditional and evaporation-sensitive microfluidic cell culture systems. Thus, the system presented here has the potential to increase the accessibility of time-lapse microscopy of living cells for the wider research community. PMID:28002463

  13. Highway driving safety the day after using sleep medication: the direction of lapses and excursions out-of-lane in drowsy drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Mooren, Loes; Bervoets, Adriana C; Roth, Thomas

    2017-10-24

    The primary outcome measure of the on-road driving test is the Standard Deviation of Lateral Position. However, other outcome measures, such as lapses and excursions out-of-lane, also need to be considered as they may be related to crash risk. The aim of this study was to determine the direction of lapses and excursions out-of-lane (i.e. towards/into the adjacent traffic lane or towards/into the road shoulder). In total, data from 240 driving tests were re-analysed, and 628 lapses and 401 excursions out-of-lane were identified. The analyses revealed that lapses were made equally frequently over left (49.4%) and over right (43.3%). In contrast, excursions out-of-lane were almost exclusively directed over right into the (safer) road shoulder (97.3%). These findings suggest that drivers are unaware of having lapses, whereas excursions out-of-lane are events where the driver is aware of loss of vehicle control. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  14. Managerial Attention in International SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Jiasi

    2017-01-01

    Managerial attention affects organizational strategies and the resulting consequences. In the international business context, it is noted that how much attention managers give to the international marketplace, i.e., international attention, has profound implications for large global companies’

  15. Attention: Moral-Cognitive Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Yi-Fu

    1987-01-01

    This article is an essay on the importance of attention as a personal trait. Offers a definition of attention, reviews symptoms of inattention, and identifies the categories of objects which typically hold a person's attention. (JDH)

  16. Towards a near infrared spectroscopy-based estimation of operator attentional state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Derosière

    Full Text Available Given the critical risks to public health and safety that can involve lapses in attention (e.g., through implication in workplace accidents, researchers have sought to develop cognitive-state tracking technologies, capable of alerting individuals engaged in cognitively demanding tasks of potentially dangerous decrements in their levels of attention. The purpose of the present study was to address this issue through an investigation of the reliability of optical measures of cortical correlates of attention in conjunction with machine learning techniques to distinguish between states of full attention and states characterized by reduced attention capacity during a sustained attention task. Seven subjects engaged in a 30 minutes duration sustained attention reaction time task with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS monitoring over the prefrontal and the right parietal areas. NIRS signals from the first 10 minutes of the task were considered as characterizing the 'full attention' class, while the NIRS signals from the last 10 minutes of the task were considered as characterizing the 'attention decrement' class. A two-class support vector machine algorithm was exploited to distinguish between the two levels of attention using appropriate NIRS-derived signal features. Attention decrement occurred during the task as revealed by the significant increase in reaction time in the last 10 compared to the first 10 minutes of the task (p<.05. The results demonstrate relatively good classification accuracy, ranging from 65 to 90%. The highest classification accuracy results were obtained when exploiting the oxyhemoglobin signals (i.e., from 77 to 89%, depending on the cortical area considered rather than the deoxyhemoglobin signals (i.e., from 65 to 66%. Moreover, the classification accuracy increased to 90% when using signals from the right parietal area rather than from the prefrontal cortex. The results support the feasibility of developing cognitive tracking

  17. Are You Paying Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørmen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    and sustained. To study such attention practices, 16 semi-structured interviews with adult Danes are carried out. Through a thematic analysis of these interviews, the chapter explores how ways of attending relate to individual media and how patterns of daily life enable some practices and constrain others...

  18. Visual attention and stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathot, Sebastiaan; Theeuwes, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In the present review, we address the relationship between attention and visual stability. Even though with each eye, head and body movement the retinal image changes dramatically, we perceive the world as stable and are able to perform visually guided actions. However, visual stability is not as

  19. Deep Visual Attention Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we aim to predict human eye fixation with view-free scenes based on an end-to-end deep learning architecture. Although Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have made substantial improvement on human attention prediction, it is still needed to improve CNN based attention models by efficiently leveraging multi-scale features. Our visual attention network is proposed to capture hierarchical saliency information from deep, coarse layers with global saliency information to shallow, fine layers with local saliency response. Our model is based on a skip-layer network structure, which predicts human attention from multiple convolutional layers with various reception fields. Final saliency prediction is achieved via the cooperation of those global and local predictions. Our model is learned in a deep supervision manner, where supervision is directly fed into multi-level layers, instead of previous approaches of providing supervision only at the output layer and propagating this supervision back to earlier layers. Our model thus incorporates multi-level saliency predictions within a single network, which significantly decreases the redundancy of previous approaches of learning multiple network streams with different input scales. Extensive experimental analysis on various challenging benchmark datasets demonstrate our method yields state-of-the-art performance with competitive inference time.

  20. Automated visual attention manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Lambalgen, R. van; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a system for visual attention manipulation is introduced and formally described. This system is part of the design of a software agent that supports naval crew in her task to compile a tactical picture of the situation in the field. A case study is described in hich the system is used

  1. Laughter catches attention!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana P; Barros, Carla; Dias, Marcelo; Kotz, Sonja A

    2017-12-01

    In social interactions, emotionally salient and sudden changes in vocal expressions attract attention. However, only a few studies examined how emotion and attention interact in voice processing. We investigated neutral, happy (laughs) and angry (growls) vocalizations in a modified oddball task. Participants silently counted the targets in each block and rated the valence and arousal of the vocalizations. A combined event-related potential and time-frequency analysis focused on the P3 and pre-stimulus alpha power to capture attention effects in response to unexpected events. Whereas an early differentiation between emotionally salient and neutral vocalizations was reflected in the P3a response, the P3b was selectively enhanced for happy voices. The P3b modulation was predicted by pre-stimulus frontal alpha desynchronization, and by the perceived pleasantness of the targets. These findings indicate that vocal emotions may be differently processed based on task relevance and valence. Increased anticipation and attention to positive vocal cues (laughter) may reflect their high social relevance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Attention: oscillations and neuropharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deco, Gustavo; Thiele, Alexander

    2009-08-01

    Attention is a rich psychological and neurobiological construct that influences almost all aspects of cognitive behaviour. It enables enhanced processing of behaviourally relevant stimuli at the expense of irrelevant stimuli. At the cellular level, rhythmic synchronization at local and long-range spatial scales complements the attention-induced firing rate changes of neurons. The former is hypothesized to enable efficient communication between neuronal ensembles tuned to spatial and featural aspects of the attended stimulus. Recent modelling studies suggest that the rhythmic synchronization in the gamma range may be mediated by a fine balance between N-methyl-D-aspartate and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate postsynaptic currents, whereas other studies have highlighted the possible contribution of the neuromodulator acetylcholine. This review summarizes some recent modelling and experimental studies investigating mechanisms of attention in sensory areas and discusses possibilities of how glutamatergic and cholinergic systems could contribute to increased processing abilities at the cellular and network level during states of top-down attention.

  3. Attention Capture by Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  4. Examining the information content of time-lapse crosshole GPR data collected under different infiltration conditions to estimate unsaturated soil hydraulic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholer, M.; Irving, J.; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms

    2013-01-01

    Time-lapse geophysical data acquired during transient hydrological experiments are being increasingly employed to estimate subsurface hydraulic properties at the field scale. In particular, crosshole ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data, collected while water infiltrates into the subsurface either...... by natural or artificial means, have been demonstrated in a number of studies to contain valuable information concerning the hydraulic properties of the unsaturated zone. Previous work in this domain has considered a variety of infiltration conditions and different amounts of time-lapse GPR data...... of time-lapse zero-offset-profile (ZOP) GPR traveltime data, collected under three different infiltration conditions, for the estimation of van Genuchten–Mualem (VGM) parameters in a layered subsurface medium. Specifically, we systematically analyze synthetic and field GPR data acquired under natural...

  5. Blunted striatal response to monetary reward anticipation during smoking abstinence predicts lapse during a contingency-managed quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweitzer, Maggie M; Geier, Charles F; Denlinger, Rachel; Forbes, Erika E; Raiff, Bethany R; Dallery, Jesse; McClernon, F J; Donny, Eric C

    2016-03-01

    Tobacco smoking is associated with dysregulated reward processing within the striatum, characterized by hypersensitivity to smoking rewards and hyposensitivity to non-smoking rewards. This bias toward smoking reward at the expense of alternative rewards is further exacerbated by deprivation from smoking, which may contribute to difficulty maintaining abstinence during a quit attempt. We examined whether abstinence-induced changes in striatal processing of rewards predicted lapse likelihood during a quit attempt supported by contingency management (CM), in which abstinence from smoking was reinforced with money. Thirty-six non-treatment-seeking smokers participated in two functional MRI (fMRI) sessions, one following 24-h abstinence and one following smoking as usual. During each scan, participants completed a rewarded guessing task designed to elicit striatal activation in which they could earn smoking and monetary rewards delivered after the scan. Participants then engaged in a 3-week CM-supported quit attempt. As previously reported, 24-h abstinence was associated with increased striatal activation in anticipation of smoking reward and decreased activation in anticipation of monetary reward. Individuals exhibiting greater decrements in right striatal activation to monetary reward during abstinence (controlling for activation during non-abstinence) were more likely to lapse during CM (p reward. These results are consistent with a growing number of studies indicating the specific importance of disrupted striatal processing of non-drug reward in nicotine dependence and highlight the importance of individual differences in abstinence-induced deficits in striatal function for smoking cessation.

  6. Determination of residual oil saturation from time-lapse pulsed neutron capture logs in a large sandstone reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, E.V.; Salaita, G.N.; McCaffery, F.G.

    1991-01-01

    Cased hole logging with pulsed neutron tools finds extensive use for identifying zones of water breakthrough and monitoring oil-water contacts in oil reservoirs being depleted by waterflooding or natural water drive. Results of such surveys then find direct use for planning recompletions and water shutoff treatments. Pulsed neutron capture (PNC) logs are useful for estimating water saturation changes behind casing in the presence of a constant, high-salinity environment. PNC log surveys run at different times, i.e., in a time-lapse mode, are particularly amenable to quantitative analysis. The combined use of the original open hole and PNC time-lapse log information can then provide information on remaining or residual oil saturations in a reservoir. This paper reports analyses of historical pulsed neutron capture log data to assess residual oil saturation in naturally water-swept zones for selected wells from a large sandstone reservoir in the Middle East. Quantitative determination of oil saturations was aided by PNC log information obtained from a series of tests conducted in a new well in the same field

  7. MitoGen: A Framework for Generating 3D Synthetic Time-Lapse Sequences of Cell Populations in Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, David; Ulman, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The proper analysis of biological microscopy images is an important and complex task. Therefore, it requires verification of all steps involved in the process, including image segmentation and tracking algorithms. It is generally better to verify algorithms with computer-generated ground truth datasets, which, compared to manually annotated data, nowadays have reached high quality and can be produced in large quantities even for 3D time-lapse image sequences. Here, we propose a novel framework, called MitoGen, which is capable of generating ground truth datasets with fully 3D time-lapse sequences of synthetic fluorescence-stained cell populations. MitoGen shows biologically justified cell motility, shape and texture changes as well as cell divisions. Standard fluorescence microscopy phenomena such as photobleaching, blur with real point spread function (PSF), and several types of noise, are simulated to obtain realistic images. The MitoGen framework is scalable in both space and time. MitoGen generates visually plausible data that shows good agreement with real data in terms of image descriptors and mean square displacement (MSD) trajectory analysis. Additionally, it is also shown in this paper that four publicly available segmentation and tracking algorithms exhibit similar performance on both real and MitoGen-generated data. The implementation of MitoGen is freely available.

  8. Estimation of soil hydraulic parameters by integrated hydrogeophysical inversion of time-lapse GPR data measured at Selhausen, Germany

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan

    2012-06-01

    We present an integrated hydrogeophysical inversion approach that uses time-lapse off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data to estimate soil hydraulic parameters, and apply it to a dataset collected in the field. Off-ground GPR data are mainly sensitive to the near-surface water content profile and dynamics, and are thus related to soil hydraulic parameters, such as the parameters of the hydraulic conductivity and water retention functions. The hydrological simulator HYDRUS 1-D was used with a two-layer single- and dual-porosity model. To monitor the soil water content dynamics, time-lapse GPR and time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements were performed, whereby only GPR data was used in the inversion. The dual porosity model provided better results compared to the single porosity model for describing the soil water dynamics, which is supported by field observations of macropores. Furthermore, the GPR-derived water content profiles reconstructed from the integrated hydrogeophysical inversion were in good agreement with TDR observations. These results suggest that the proposed method is promising for non-invasive characterization of the shallow subsurface hydraulic properties and monitoring water dynamics at the field scale.

  9. Medical students' experiences of professional lapses and patient rights abuses in a South African health sciences faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Lauraine M H; Naidu, Claudia S; Keikelame, Mpoe J; Irlam, James

    2011-10-01

    To elicit South African medical students' experiences of witnessing patient rights abuses and professional lapses during their clinical training in order to inform an appropriate and effective response. During June and July 2009 at the University of Cape Town Faculty of Health Sciences, the authors surveyed 223 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-year medical students in selected clinical rotations concerning abuses they had observed. Volunteers were later interviewed individually. The authors coded interview transcripts for key themes using a constant-comparative grounded theory approach. Of 223 students surveyed, 183 (82%) responded, 130 (71%) of whom reported witnessing patient rights abuses and professional lapses, including physical abuse (38%), verbal abuse (37%), disrespect for patients' dignity (25%), and inadequately informing patients about their treatment (25%). Students attributed abuse to stressed health workers, overburdened facilities, and disempowered patients. Most students who witnessed abuse (59%) did not actively respond, and 64% of survey respondents felt unprepared or uncertain about challenging abuses in the future. Interviews with 28 students yielded detailed accounts of the abuses witnessed and of students' emotional reactions, coping strategies, and responses. Most students did not report abuses; they feared reprisal or doubted it would make a difference. This study demonstrates the disjunction between what these students were taught about human rights and ethics and what they witnessed in clinical settings. The high prevalence of patient rights abuses experienced by these students highlights the need to align medical ethics and human rights with medico-legal protocols in theory and clinical practice.

  10. A comparison of the cytotoxic activity of eosinophils and other cells by 51chromium release and time lapse microcinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, C.J.; Thomas, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Antibody dependent cytotoxicity of chicken erythrocytes by purified rat eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages and K cells has been compared by 51 Cr release and time lapse microcinematography. Techniques have been developed for purifying these effector cell types. Both eosinophils and neutrophils caused rapid release of 51 Cr from erythrocytes. Time lapse observations indicated that this was the result of phagocytosis. Eosinophils showed rapid membrane movement and repeatedly engulfed and regurgitated the erythrocytes. On the other hand, neutrophils became quiescent after phagocytosing erythrocytes, and remained quiescent until the remains of the cell were expelled. Neutrophils presumably have a mechanism for the release of soluble material, as 51 Cr was released rapidly. Macrophages showed a similar quiescence after phagocytosis, but in these cells there was apparently no rapid mechanism to expel material, as there was no significant 51 Cr release over 20 h. K cells appeared to damage chicken erythrocytes more slowly than they destroyed tumour cells. Mast cells caused antibody-independent cytotoxicity which can be attributed to the release of toxic materials. None of these effector cells produced the type of lysis seen with antibody and complement. (author)

  11. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Toward a Unified Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children’s performances in an attention switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control during the preschool years. The second literature encompasses a large and robust set of phenomena for the same developmental period that indicate a ...

  12. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity......, and measurements are highly reliable. As the method is theoretically founded, it also has high validity. TVA-based assessment has recently been used to investigate a broad range of neuropsychological and neurological conditions. We present the method, including the experimental paradigm and practical guidelines...... to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...

  13. Scene incongruity and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Arien; Clarke, Jason; Erol, Muge; Bert, John

    2017-02-01

    Does scene incongruity, (a mismatch between scene gist and a semantically incongruent object), capture attention and lead to conscious perception? We explored this question using 4 different procedures: Inattention (Experiment 1), Scene description (Experiment 2), Change detection (Experiment 3), and Iconic Memory (Experiment 4). We found no differences between scene incongruity and scene congruity in Experiments 1, 2, and 4, although in Experiment 3 change detection was faster for scenes containing an incongruent object. We offer an explanation for why the change detection results differ from the results of the other three experiments. In all four experiments, participants invariably failed to report the incongruity and routinely mis-described it by normalizing the incongruent object. None of the results supports the claim that semantic incongruity within a scene invariably captures attention and provide strong evidence of the dominant role of scene gist in determining what is perceived. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime O. Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered as among the most common yet serious brain disorders significant number of children are subjected to; the seriousness of which manifests in the ability of the disorder to continue to show up even after the childhood years, during the period of adolescence as well as adulthood. Considering the findings delivered by Brain Imaging Studies conducted on youth, it is revealed that people suffering from ADHD experiences del...

  15. Attention and Distraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to examine the interrelationship between attention and distraction in the reception of video installation art, a genre which is commonly associated with "immersion" and an intensified feeling of presence in the discourses on new media art and installation art. This tends to veil......, on the other hand, the cultural formations of television, film and computers have fundamentally re-configured "aesthetic experience."...

  16. Gaming the Attention Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Daniel; Lawhead, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The future of human computation (HC) benefits from examining tasks that agents already perform and designing environments to give those tasks computational significance. We call this natural human computation (NHC). We consider the possible future of NHC through the lens of Swarm!, an application under development for Google Glass. Swarm! motivates users to compute the solutions to a class of economic optimization problems by engaging the attention dynamics of crowds. We argue that anticipati...

  17. Intense dust episodes in the Mediterranean and possible effects on atmospheric lapse rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianastassiou, Nikos; Gkikas, Antonis; Papadimas, Christos D.; Gavrouzou, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Dust aerosols are major contributor to the atmospheric particulate matter, having significant effects on climate and weather patterns as well as on human health, not to mention others like agriculture or ocean chlorophyll. Moreover, these effects are maximized under conditions of massive dust concentration in the atmosphere, namely dust episodes or events. Such events are caused by uplifting and transport of dust from arid and semi-arid areas under favorable synoptic conditions. The Mediterranean basin, nearby to the greatest world deserts of North Africa and Middle East, frequently undergoes dust episodes. During such Mediterranean episodes, the number and mass concentration of dust is high, due to the proximity of its source areas. The dust episodes, through the direct interaction of dust primarily withthe shortwave but also with longwave radiation can lead to strong local warming in the atmosphere, possibly causing temperature inversion during daytime. The existence of such temperature inversions, associated with intense dust episodes in the Mediterranean, is the focus in this study. The methodology followed to achieve the scientific goal of the study consists in the use of a synergy of different data. This synergy enables: (i) the determination of intense dust episodes over the Mediterranean, (ii) the investigation and specification of temperature lapse rates and inversions during the days of dust episodes and (iii) the identification of vertical distribution of aerosols in the atmosphere over specific locations during the days of the episodes. These objectives are achieved through the use of data from: (i) the AERosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) network, (ii) the Upper Air Observations (radiosondes) database of the University of Wyoming (UoW) and (iii) the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) database. The study period spans the years from 2000 to 2013, constrained by the data availability of the databases. A key element of the methodology is the

  18. Confident failures: Lapses of working memory reveal a metacognitive blind spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Kirsten C S; Vogel, Edward K

    2017-07-01

    Working memory performance fluctuates dramatically from trial to trial. On many trials, performance is no better than chance. Here, we assessed participants' awareness of working memory failures. We used a whole-report visual working memory task to quantify both trial-by-trial performance and trial-by-trial subjective ratings of inattention to the task. In Experiment 1 (N = 41), participants were probed for task-unrelated thoughts immediately following 20% of trials. In Experiment 2 (N = 30), participants gave a rating of their attentional state following 25% of trials. Finally, in Experiments 3a (N = 44) and 3b (N = 34), participants reported confidence of every response using a simple mouse-click judgment. Attention-state ratings and off-task thoughts predicted the number of items correctly identified on each trial, replicating previous findings that subjective measures of attention state predict working memory performance. However, participants correctly identified failures on only around 28% of failure trials. Across experiments, participants' metacognitive judgments reliably predicted variation in working memory performance but consistently and severely underestimated the extent of failures. Further, individual differences in metacognitive accuracy correlated with overall working memory performance, suggesting that metacognitive monitoring may be key to working memory success.

  19. Highlights from the SoilCAM project: Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, H. K.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Wehrer, M.; Godio, A.; Pedersen, L. B.; Toscano, G.

    2012-04-01

    The SoilCAM project (Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring 2008-2012, EU-FP7-212663) is aimed at improving current methods for monitoring contaminant distribution and biodegradation in the subsurface. At two test sites, Oslo airport Gardermoen in Norway and the Trecate site in Italy, a number of geophysical techniques, lysimeter and other soil and water sampling techniques as well as numerical flow and transport modelling have been combined at different scales in order to characterise flow transport processes in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Laboratory experiments have provided data on physical and bio-geo-chemical parameters for use in models and to select remediation methods. The geophysical techniques were used to map geological heterogeneities and also conduct time-lapse measurements of processes in the unsaturated zone. Both cross borehole and surface electrodes were used for electrical resistivity and induced polarisation surveys. The geophysical surveys showed clear indications of areas highly affected by de-icing chemicals along the runway at Oslo airport. The time lapse measurements along the runway at the airport show infiltration patterns during snowmelt and are used to validate 2D unsaturated flow and transport simulations using SUTRA. The Orchestra model is used to describe the complex interaction between bio-geo-chemical processes in a 1D profile along the runway. The presence of installations such as a membrane along the runway highly affects the flow pattern and challenges the capacity of the numerical code. Smaller scale field site measurements have revealed the increase of iron and manganese during degradation of de-icing chemicals. The use of Nitrate to increase red-ox potential was tested, but results have not been analysed yet. So far it cannot be concluded that degradation process can be quantified indirectly by geophysical monitoring. At the Trecate site a combination of georadar, electrical

  20. Separating climate change signals into thermodynamic, lapse-rate and circulation effects: theory and application to the European summer climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner, Nico; Kotlarski, Sven; Fischer, Erich; Lüthi, Daniel; Zubler, Elias; Schär, Christoph

    2017-05-01

    Climate models robustly project a strong overall summer warming across Europe showing a characteristic north-south gradient with enhanced warming and drying in southern Europe. However, the processes that are responsible for this pattern are not fully understood. We here employ an extended surrogate or pseudo-warming approach to disentangle the contribution of different mechanisms to this response pattern. The basic idea of the surrogate technique is to use a regional climate model and apply a large-scale warming to the lateral boundary conditions of a present-day reference simulation, while maintaining the relative humidity (and thus implicitly increasing the specific moisture content). In comparison to previous studies, our approach includes two important extensions: first, different vertical warming profiles are applied in order to separate the effects of a mean warming from lapse-rate effects. Second, a twin-design is used, in which the climate change signals are not only added to present-day conditions, but also subtracted from a scenario experiment. We demonstrate that these extensions provide an elegant way to separate the full climate change signal into contributions from large-scale thermodynamic (TD), lapse-rate (LR), and circulation and other remaining effects (CO). The latter in particular include changes in land-ocean contrast and spatial variations of the SST warming patterns. We find that the TD effect yields a large-scale warming across Europe with no distinct latitudinal gradient. The LR effect, which is quantified for the first time in our study, leads to a stronger warming and some drying in southern Europe. It explains about 50 % of the warming amplification over the Iberian Peninsula, thus demonstrating the important role of lapse-rate changes. The effect is linked to an extending Hadley circulation. The CO effect as inherited from the driving GCM is shown to further amplify the north-south temperature change gradient. In terms of mean summer

  1. Attention, Predation, Counterintuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Bram Stoker’s seminal horror novel Dracula (1897) has been subjected to a vast number of different critical readings, many of which are deeply flawed, e.g. by proceeding from defunct psychological theories. Incorporating recent advances in evolutionary social science, I offer a biocultural reading...... of Dracula to account for the novel’s impact and resilience. Dracula connected squarely with late-Victorian anxieties, but the novel also appeals to trans-historical adaptive dispositions. I analyze Stoker’s use of narrative strategies to grab and sustain attention, and Count Dracula as a supercharged...

  2. Attention: the claustrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Yael; Atlan, Gal; Citri, Ami

    2015-08-01

    The claustrum is a mysterious thin sheet of neurons lying between the insular cortex and the striatum. It is reciprocally connected with almost all cortical areas, including motor, somatosensory, visual, auditory, limbic, associative, and prefrontal cortices. In addition, it receives neuromodulatory input from subcortical structures. A decade ago, Sir Francis Crick and Christof Koch published an influential review proposing the claustrum as the 'seat of consciousness', spurring a revival of interest in the claustrum. We review the literature on the claustrum, emphasizing recent discoveries, and develop a detailed hypothesis describing a role for the claustrum in the segregation of attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Attention to memory: orienting attention to sound object representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Kristina C; Alain, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Despite a growing acceptance that attention and memory interact, and that attention can be focused on an active internal mental representation (i.e., reflective attention), there has been a paucity of work focusing on reflective attention to 'sound objects' (i.e., mental representations of actual sound sources in the environment). Further research on the dynamic interactions between auditory attention and memory, as well as its degree of neuroplasticity, is important for understanding how sound objects are represented, maintained, and accessed in the brain. This knowledge can then guide the development of training programs to help individuals with attention and memory problems. This review article focuses on attention to memory with an emphasis on behavioral and neuroimaging studies that have begun to explore the mechanisms that mediate reflective attentional orienting in vision and more recently, in audition. Reflective attention refers to situations in which attention is oriented toward internal representations rather than focused on external stimuli. We propose four general principles underlying attention to short-term memory. Furthermore, we suggest that mechanisms involved in orienting attention to visual object representations may also apply for orienting attention to sound object representations.

  4. A locus coeruleus-norepinephrine account of individual differences in working memory capacity and attention control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Robison, Matthew K

    2017-08-01

    Studies examining individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) have suggested that low WMC individuals have particular deficits in attention control processes compared to high WMC individuals. In the current article we suggest that part of the WMC-attention control relation is due to variation in the functioning of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system (LC-NE). Specifically, we suggest that because of dysregulation of LC-NE functioning, the fronto-parietal control network for low WMC individuals is only weakly activated, resulting in greater default-mode network activity (and greater mind-wandering) for low WMC individuals compared to high WMC individuals. This results in disrupted attention control and overall more erratic performance (more lapses of attention) for low WMC individuals than for high WMC individuals. This framework is used to examine previous studies of individual differences in WMC and attention control, and new evidence is examined on the basis of predictions of the framework to pupillary responses as an indirect marker of LC-NE functioning.

  5. Haloperidol 2 mg impairs inhibition but not visuospatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logemann, H N Alexander; Böcker, Koen B E; Deschamps, Peter K H; van Harten, Peter N; Koning, Jeroen; Kemner, Chantal; Logemann-Molnár, Zsófia; Kenemans, J Leon

    2017-01-01

    The dopaminergic system has been implicated in visuospatial attention and inhibition, but the exact role has yet to be elucidated. Scarce literature suggests that attenuation of dopaminergic neurotransmission negatively affects attentional focusing and inhibition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluated the effect of dopaminergic antagonism on stopping performance. Dopaminergic neurotransmission was attenuated in 28 healthy male participants by using 2 mg haloperidol. A repeated-measures placebo-controlled crossover design was implemented, and performance indices of attention and inhibition were assessed in the visual spatial cueing task (VSC) and stop signal task (SST). Additionally, the effect of haloperidol on motoric parameters was assessed. It was expected that haloperidol as contrasted to placebo would result in a reduction of the "validity effect," the benefit of valid cueing as opposed to invalid cueing of a target in terms of reaction time. Furthermore, an increase in stop signal reaction time (SSRT) in the SST was expected. Results partially confirmed the hypothesis. Haloperidol negatively affected inhibitory motor control in the SST as indexed by SSRT, but there were no indications that haloperidol affected bias or disengagement in the VSC task as indicated by a lack of an effect on RTs. Pertaining to secondary parameters, motor activity increased significantly under haloperidol. Haloperidol negatively affected reaction time variability and errors in both tasks, as well as omissions in the SST, indicating a decreased sustained attention, an increase in premature responses, and an increase in lapses of attention, respectively.

  6. Time-lapse culture with morphokinetic embryo selection improves pregnancy and live birth chances and reduces early pregnancy loss: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribenszky, Csaba; Nilselid, Anna-Maria; Montag, Markus

    2017-11-01

    Embryo evaluation and selection is fundamental in clinical IVF. Time-lapse follow-up of embryo development comprises undisturbed culture and the application of the visual information to support embryo evaluation. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was carried out to study whether time-lapse monitoring with the prospective use of a morphokinetic algorithm for selection of embryos improves overall clinical outcome (pregnancy, early pregnancy loss, stillbirth and live birth rate) compared with embryo selection based on single time-point morphology in IVF cycles. The meta-analysis of five randomized controlled trials (n = 1637) showed that the application of time-lapse monitoring was associated with a significantly higher ongoing clinical pregnancy rate (51.0% versus 39.9%), with a pooled odds ratio of 1.542 (P loss (15.3% versus 21.3%; OR: 0.662; P = 0.019) and a significantly increased live birth rate (44.2% versus 31.3%; OR 1.668; P = 0.009). Difference in stillbirth was not significant between groups (4.7% versus 2.4%). Quality of the evidence was moderate to low owing to inconsistencies across the studies. Selective application and variability were also limitations. Although time-lapse is shown to significantly improve overall clinical outcome, further high-quality evidence is needed before universal conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Monitoring channel head erosion processes in response to an artificially induced abrupt base level change using time-lapse photography 2301

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headcut and channel extension in response to an abrupt base level change in 2004 of approximately 1m was studied in a 1.29 ha semiarid headwater drainage on the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) in southeastern Arizona, USA. Field observations and time-lapse photography were coupled with hy...

  8. Time-lapse analysis of methane quantity in Mary Lee group of coal seams using filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A.

    2013-01-01

    Coal seam degasification and its success are important for controlling methane, and thus for the health and safety of coal miners. During the course of degasification, properties of coal seams change. Thus, the changes in coal reservoir conditions and in-place gas content as well as methane emission potential into mines should be evaluated by examining time-dependent changes and the presence of major heterogeneities and geological discontinuities in the field. In this work, time-lapsed reservoir and fluid storage properties of the New Castle coal seam, Mary Lee/Blue Creek seam, and Jagger seam of Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, were determined from gas and water production history matching and production forecasting of vertical degasification wellbores. These properties were combined with isotherm and other important data to compute gas-in-place (GIP) and its change with time at borehole locations. Time-lapsed training images (TIs) of GIP and GIP difference corresponding to each coal and date were generated by using these point-wise data and Voronoi decomposition on the TI grid, which included faults as discontinuities for expansion of Voronoi regions. Filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulations, which were preferred in this study due to anisotropies and discontinuities in the area, were used to predict time-lapsed GIP distributions within the study area. Performed simulations were used for mapping spatial time-lapsed methane quantities as well as their uncertainties within the study area.

  9. A time-lapse gravity survey of the Coso geothermal field, China Lake Naval Air Weapons Station, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Geoffrey; Cronkite-Ratcliff, Collin; Blake, Kelly

    2018-04-19

    We have conducted a gravity survey of the Coso geothermal field to continue the time-lapse gravity study of the area initiated in 1991. In this report, we outline a method of processing the gravity data that minimizes the random errors and instrument bias introduced into the data by the Scintrex CG-5 relative gravimeters that were used. After processing, the standard deviation of the data was estimated to be ±13 microGals. These data reveal that the negative gravity anomaly over the Coso geothermal field, centered on gravity station CER1, is continuing to increase in magnitude over time. Preliminary modeling indicates that water-table drawdown at the location of CER1 is between 65 and 326 meters over the last two decades. We note, however, that several assumptions on which the model results depend, such as constant elevation and free-water level over the study period, still require verification.

  10. Visualization of conduit-matrix conductivity differences in a karst aquifer using time-lapse electrical resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Steven B.; Karaoulis, Marios; Fiebig, Florian; Maxwell, Reed M.; Revil, André; Martin, Jonathan B.; Graham, Wendy D.

    2012-12-01

    In the karstic upper Floridan aquifer, surface water flows into conduits of the groundwater system and may exchange with water in the aquifer matrix. This exchange has been hypothesized to occur based on differences in discharge at the Santa Fe River Sink-Rise system, north central Florida, but has yet to be visualized using any geophysical techniques. Using electrical resistivity tomography, we conducted a time-lapse study at two locations with mapped conduits connecting the Santa Fe River Sink to the Santa Fe River Rise to study changes of electrical conductivity during times of varying discharge over a six-week period. Our results show conductivity differences between matrix, conduit changes in resistivity occurring through time at the locations of mapped karst conduits, and changes in electrical conductivity during rainfall infiltration. These observations provide insight into time scales and matrix conduit conductivity differences, illustrating how surface water flow recharged to conduits may flow in a groundwater system in a karst aquifer.

  11. What does Attention in Neural Machine Translation Pay Attention to?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghader, H.; Monz, C.; Kondrak, G.; Watanabe, T.

    2017-01-01

    Attention in neural machine translation provides the possibility to encode relevant parts of the source sentence at each translation step. As a result, attention is considered to be an alignment model as well. However, there is no work that specifically studies attention and provides analysis of

  12. Altering attentional control settings causes persistent biases of visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Helen C; Smith, Daniel T; Knight, David C; Ellison, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Attentional control settings have an important role in guiding visual behaviour. Previous work within cognitive psychology has found that the deployment of general attentional control settings can be modulated by training. However, research has not yet established whether long-term modifications of one particular type of attentional control setting can be induced. To address this, we investigated persistent alterations to feature search mode, also known as an attentional bias, towards an arbitrary stimulus in healthy participants. Subjects were biased towards the colour green by an information sheet. Attentional bias was assessed using a change detection task. After an interval of either 1 or 2 weeks, participants were then retested on the same change detection task, tested on a different change detection task where colour was irrelevant, or were biased towards an alternative colour. One experiment included trials in which the distractor stimuli (but never the target stimuli) were green. The key finding was that green stimuli in the second task attracted attention, despite this impairing task performance. Furthermore, inducing a second attentional bias did not override the initial bias toward green objects. The attentional bias also persisted for at least two weeks. It is argued that this persistent attentional bias is mediated by a chronic change to participants' attentional control settings, which is aided by long-term representations involving contextual cueing. We speculate that similar changes to attentional control settings and continuous cueing may relate to attentional biases observed in psychopathologies. Targeting these biases may be a productive approach to treatment.

  13. Assessing Uncertainty and Repeatability in Time-Lapse VSP Monitoring of CO2 Injection in a Brine Aquifer, Frio Formation, Texas (A Case Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari, Siamak [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Daley, Thomas M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division

    2013-02-07

    This study was done to assess the repeatability and uncertainty of time-lapse VSP response to CO2 injection in the Frio formation near Houston Texas. A work flow was built to assess the effect of time-lapse injected CO2 into two Frio brine reservoir intervals, the ‘C’ sand (Frio1) and the ‘Blue sand’ (Frio2). The time-lapse seismic amplitude variations with sensor depth for both reservoirs Frio1 and Frio2 were computed by subtracting the seismic response of the base survey from each of the two monitor seismic surveys. Source site 1 has been considered as one of the best sites for evaluating the time-lapse response after injection. For site 1, the computed timelapse NRMS levels after processing had been compared to the estimated time-lapse NRMS level before processing for different control reflectors, and for brine aquifers Frio1, and Frio2 to quantify detectability of amplitude difference. As the main interest is to analyze the time-lapse amplitude variations, different scenarios have been considered. Three different survey scenarios were considered: the base survey which was performed before injection, monitor1 performed after the first injection operation, and monitor2 which was after the second injection. The first scenario was base-monitor1, the second was basemonitor2, and the third was monitor1-monitor2. We considered three ‘control’ reflections above the Frio to assist removal of overburden changes, and concluded that third control reflector (CR3) is the most favorable for the first scenario in terms of NRMS response, and first control reflector (CR1) is the most favorable for the second and third scenarios in terms of NRMS response. The NRMS parameter is shown to be a useful measure to assess the effect of processing on time-lapse data. The overall NRMS for the Frio VSP data set was found to be in the range of 30% to 80% following basic processing. This could be considered as an estimated baseline in assessing the utility

  14. OPTICAL FLOW APPLIED TO TIME-LAPSE IMAGE SERIES TO ESTIMATE GLACIER MOTION IN THE SOUTHERN PATAGONIA ICE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lannutti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we assessed the feasibility of using optical flow to obtain the motion estimation of a glacier. In general, former investigations used to detect glacier changes involve solutions that require repeated observations which are many times based on extensive field work. Taking into account glaciers are usually located in geographically complex and hard to access areas, deploying time-lapse imaging sensors, optical flow may provide an efficient solution at good spatial and temporal resolution to describe mass motion. Several studies in computer vision and image processing community have used this method to detect large displacements. Therefore, we carried out a test of the proposed Large Displacement Optical Flow method at the Viedma Glacier, located at South Patagonia Icefield, Argentina. We collected monoscopic terrestrial time-lapse imagery, acquired by a calibrated camera at every 24 hour from April 2014 until April 2015. A filter based on temporal correlation and RGB color discretization between the images was applied to minimize errors related to changes in lighting, shadows, clouds and snow. This selection allowed discarding images that do not follow a sequence of similarity. Our results show a flow field in the direction of the glacier movement with acceleration in the terminus. We analyzed the errors between image pairs, and the matching generally appears to be adequate, although some areas show random gross errors related to the presence of changes in lighting. The proposed technique allowed the determination of glacier motion during one year, providing accurate and reliable motion data for subsequent analysis.

  15. Time-lapse ERT and DTS for seasonal and short-term monitoring of an alpine river hyporheic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaga, Jacopo; Laura, Busato; Mariateresa, Perri; Giorgio, Cassiani

    2016-04-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) is the area located beneath and adjacent to rivers and streams, where the interactions between surface water and groundwater take place. This complex physical domain allows the transport of several substances from a stream to the unconfined aquifer below, and vice versa, thus playing a fundamental role in the river ecosystem. The importance of the hyporheic zone makes its characterization a goal shared by several disciplines, which range from applied geophysics to biogeochemistry, from hydraulics to ecology. The frontier field of HZ characterization stays in applied non-invasive methodologies as Electrical Resistivity Tomography - ERT - and Distributed Temperature Sensing - DTS. ERT is commonly applied in cross-well configuration or with a superficial electrodes deployment while DTS is used in hydro-geophysics in the last decade, revealing a wide applicability to the typical issues of this field of study. DTS for hydro-geophysics studies is based on Raman scattering and employs heat as tracer and uses a fiber-optic cable to acquire temperature values. We applied both techniques for an alpine river case studies located in Val di Sole, TN, Italy. The collected measurements allow high-resolution characterization of the hyporheic zone, overcoming the critical problem of invasive measurements under riverbeds. In this work, we present the preliminary results regarding the characterization of the hyporheic zone of the alpine river obtained combining ERT and DTS time-lapse measurements. The data collection benefits from an innovative instrumentation deployment, which consists of both an ERT multicore cable and a DTS fiber-optic located in two separated boreholes drilled 5m under the watercourse and perpendicular to it. In particular we present the first year monitoring results and a short time-lapse monitoring experiment conducted during summer 2015. The site and the results here described are part of the EU FP7 CLIMB (Climate Induced Changes on the

  16. Preliminary observations on polar body extrusion and pronuclear formation in human oocytes using time-lapse video cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, D; Flaherty, S P; Barry, M F; Matthews, C D

    1997-03-01

    In this study, we have used time-lapse video cinematography to study fertilization in 50 human oocytes that had undergone intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Time-lapse recording commenced shortly after ICSI and proceeded for 17-20 h. Oocytes were cultured in an environmental chamber which was maintained under standard culture conditions. Overall, 38 oocytes (76%) were fertilized normally, and the fertilization rate and embryo quality were not significantly different from 487 sibling oocytes cultured in a conventional incubator. Normal fertilization followed a defined course of events, although the timing of these events varied markedly between oocytes. In 35 of the 38 fertilized oocytes (92%), there were circular waves of granulation within the ooplasm which had a periodicity of 20-53 min. The sperm head decondensed during this granulation phase. The second polar body was then extruded, and this was followed by the central formation of the male pronucleus. The female pronucleus formed in the cytoplasm adjacent to the second polar body at the same time as, or slightly after, the male pronucleus, and was subsequently drawn towards the male pronucleus until the two abutted. Both pronuclei then increased in size, the nucleoli moved around within the pronuclei and some nucleoli coalesced. During pronuclear growth, the organelles contracted from the cortex towards the centre of the oocyte, leaving a clear cortical zone. The oocyte decreased in diameter from 112 to 106 microm (P cinematography is an excellent tool for studying fertilization and early embryo development, and have demonstrated that human fertilization comprises numerous complex dynamic events.

  17. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused by ...

  18. Culture, attention, and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Igor; Ellsworth, Phoebe C; Hong, Ying-yi

    2012-02-01

    This research provides experimental evidence for cultural influence on one of the most basic elements of emotional processing: attention to positive versus negative stimuli. To this end, we focused on Russian culture, which is characterized by brooding and melancholy. In Study 1, Russians spent significantly more time looking at negative than positive pictures, whereas Americans did not show this tendency. In Study 2, Russian Latvians were randomly primed with symbols of each culture, after which we measured the speed of recognition for positive versus negative trait words. Biculturals were significantly faster in recognizing negative words (as compared with baseline) when primed with Russian versus Latvian cultural symbols. Greater identification with Russian culture facilitated this effect. We provide a theoretical discussion of mental processes underlying cultural differences in emotion research.

  19. Attention and apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, T; Treisman, A

    1994-01-01

    Two dissociations between short- and long-range motion in visual search are reported. Previous research has shown parallel processing for short-range motion and apparently serial processing for long-range motion. This finding has been replicated and it has also been found that search for short-range targets can be impaired both by using bicontrast stimuli, and by prior adaptation to the target direction of motion. Neither factor impaired search in long-range motion displays. Adaptation actually facilitated search with long-range displays, which is attributed to response-level effects. A feature-integration account of apparent motion is proposed. In this theory, short-range motion depends on specialized motion feature detectors operating in parallel across the display, but subject to selective adaptation, whereas attention is needed to link successive elements when they appear at greater separations, or across opposite contrasts.

  20. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  1. Attentional Push: Augmenting Salience with Shared Attention Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Gorji, Siavash; Clark, James J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel visual attention tracking technique based on Shared Attention modeling. Our proposed method models the viewer as a participant in the activity occurring in the scene. We go beyond image salience and instead of only computing the power of an image region to pull attention to it, we also consider the strength with which other regions of the image push attention to the region in question. We use the term Attentional Push to refer to the power of image regions to direct and man...

  2. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function. PMID:26075234

  3. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hirano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64% showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5% showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23% showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9% showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  4. Chewing and attention: a positive effect on sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  5. Social Image Captioning: Exploring Visual Attention and User Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leiquan; Chu, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Weishan; Wei, Yiwei; Sun, Weichen; Wu, Chunlei

    2018-02-22

    Image captioning with a natural language has been an emerging trend. However, the social image, associated with a set of user-contributed tags, has been rarely investigated for a similar task. The user-contributed tags, which could reflect the user attention, have been neglected in conventional image captioning. Most existing image captioning models cannot be applied directly to social image captioning. In this work, a dual attention model is proposed for social image captioning by combining the visual attention and user attention simultaneously.Visual attention is used to compress a large mount of salient visual information, while user attention is applied to adjust the description of the social images with user-contributed tags. Experiments conducted on the Microsoft (MS) COCO dataset demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method of dual attention.

  6. Social Image Captioning: Exploring Visual Attention and User Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiquan Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Image captioning with a natural language has been an emerging trend. However, the social image, associated with a set of user-contributed tags, has been rarely investigated for a similar task. The user-contributed tags, which could reflect the user attention, have been neglected in conventional image captioning. Most existing image captioning models cannot be applied directly to social image captioning. In this work, a dual attention model is proposed for social image captioning by combining the visual attention and user attention simultaneously.Visual attention is used to compress a large mount of salient visual information, while user attention is applied to adjust the description of the social images with user-contributed tags. Experiments conducted on the Microsoft (MS COCO dataset demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method of dual attention.

  7. Preparatory attention in visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battistoni, E.; Stein, T.; Peelen, M.V.

    Top-down attention is the mechanism that allows us to selectively process goal-relevant aspects of a scene while ignoring irrelevant aspects. A large body of research has characterized the effects of attention on neural activity evoked by a visual stimulus. However, attention also includes a

  8. Attention, media and fuel efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoenes, Stefan [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Cologne Graduate School; Gores, Timo [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Cologne Graduate School

    2012-08-15

    This study examines attention effects in the market for hybrid vehicles. We show that local media coverage, gasoline price changes and unprecedented record gasoline prices have a significant causal impact on the consumers' attention. As attention is not directly observable, we analyze online search behavior as a proxy for the revealed consumer attention. Our study is based on weekly panel data of local newspaper coverage, gasoline prices and Google search trends for 19 metropolitan areas in the US. Additionally, we use monthly state-level panel data to show that the adoption rate of the hybrid vehicle technology is robustly related to our measure of attention.

  9. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  10. Perceptual organization and visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual organization--the processes structuring visual information into coherent units--and visual attention--the processes by which some visual information in a scene is selected--are crucial for the perception of our visual environment and to visuomotor behavior. Recent research points to important relations between attentional and organizational processes. Several studies demonstrated that perceptual organization constrains attentional selectivity, and other studies suggest that attention can also constrain perceptual organization. In this chapter I focus on two aspects of the relationship between perceptual organization and attention. The first addresses the question of whether or not perceptual organization can take place without attention. I present findings demonstrating that some forms of grouping and figure-ground segmentation can occur without attention, whereas others require controlled attentional processing, depending on the processes involved and the conditions prevailing for each process. These findings challenge the traditional view, which assumes that perceptual organization is a unitary entity that operates preattentively. The second issue addresses the question of whether perceptual organization can affect the automatic deployment of attention. I present findings showing that the mere organization of some elements in the visual field by Gestalt factors into a coherent perceptual unit (an "object"), with no abrupt onset or any other unique transient, can capture attention automatically in a stimulus-driven manner. Taken together, the findings discussed in this chapter demonstrate the multifaceted, interactive relations between perceptual organization and visual attention.

  11. Cognitive maps and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Oliver; Nadel, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive map theory suggested that exploring an environment and attending to a stimulus should lead to its integration into an allocentric environmental representation. We here report that directed attention in the form of exploration serves to gather information needed to determine an optimal spatial strategy, given task demands and characteristics of the environment. Attended environmental features may integrate into spatial representations if they meet the requirements of the optimal spatial strategy: when learning involves a cognitive mapping strategy, cues with high codability (e.g., concrete objects) will be incorporated into a map, but cues with low codability (e.g., abstract paintings) will not. However, instructions encouraging map learning can lead to the incorporation of cues with low codability. On the other hand, if spatial learning is not map-based, abstract cues can and will be used to encode locations. Since exploration appears to determine what strategy to apply and whether or not to encode a cue, recognition memory for environmental features is independent of whether or not a cue is part of a spatial representation. In fact, when abstract cues were used in a way that was not map-based, or when they were not used for spatial navigation at all, they were nevertheless recognized as familiar. Thus, the relation between exploratory activity on the one hand and spatial strategy and memory on the other appears more complex than initially suggested by cognitive map theory.

  12. Attention Networks and Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael ePosner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The term consciousness is an important one in the vernacular of the western literature in many fields. It is no wonder that scientists have assumed that consciousness will be found as a component of the human brain and that we will come to understand its neural basis. However, there is rather little in common between consciousness as the neurologist would use it to diagnose the vegetative state, how the feminist would use it to support raising male consciousness of the economic plight of women and as the philosopher would use it when defining the really hard question of the subjective state of awareness induced by sensory qualities. When faced with this kind of problem it is usual to subdivide the term into more manageable perhaps partly operational definitions. Three meanings that capture aspects of consciousness are: (1 the neurology of the state of mind allowing coherent orientation to time and place (2 the selection of sensory or memorial information for awareness and (3 the voluntary control over overt responses. In each of these cases the mechanisms of consciousness overlap with one or more of the attentional networks that have been studied with the methods of cognitive neuroscience. In this paper we explore t

  13. The impact of social threat cues on a card sorting task with attentional-shifting demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohlman, Jan; DeVito, Alyssa

    2017-12-01

    The current study investigated social anxiety and attentional control using two versions of a task designed to tap intentional shifting of attention and set switching: the standard Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST; Heaton, 1981) and a modified version that included emotionally salient pictorial stimuli, the Emotional Faces Card Sorting Test (EFCST). A Group (lower-, higher-SPS) by Condition (WCST, EFCST) by Sorting Rule (color, form, number) interaction was expected in which the higher-SPS EFCST group would have worse overall performance and make more perseverative errors than the other groups. No differences were predicted on nonperseverative errors, which are typically caused by brief attentional lapses. Participants were 80 undergraduate students who scored in the upper and lower quartile of the distribution on the Social Phobia Scale (SPS; Mattick & Clarke, 1998) were randomly assigned to complete either the WCST or EFCST. On the WCST, the higher-SPS group showed performance similar to that of the lower-SPS group. On the EFCST, the higher-SPS group evidenced more perseverative errors in the condition that depicted angry faces. Interpretations based on a non-clinical sample limit the generalisability of the conclusions. Reliability of this new measure has yet to be established. Successful completion of the WCST requires more than set-shifting processes. These results suggest that the higher-SPS group in the EFCST condition might have had trouble disengaging attention from threat-related cues, despite ongoing corrective feedback. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Amador-Campos,Juan A.; Aznar-Casanova,J. Antonio; Bezerra,Izabela; Torro-Alves,Nelson; Sánchez,Manuel M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]). Method: Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, p...

  15. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We ...

  16. Attention without awareness: Attentional modulation of perceptual grouping without awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Yu

    2018-04-01

    Perceptual grouping is the process through which the perceptual system combines local stimuli into a more global perceptual unit. Previous studies have shown attention to be a modulatory factor for perceptual grouping. However, these studies mainly used explicit measurements, and, thus, whether attention can modulate perceptual grouping without awareness is still relatively unexplored. To clarify the relationship between attention and perceptual grouping, the present study aims to explore how attention interacts with perceptual grouping without awareness. The task was to judge the relative lengths of two centrally presented horizontal bars while a railway-shaped pattern defined by color similarity was presented in the background. Although the observers were unaware of the railway-shaped pattern, their line-length judgment was biased by that pattern, which induced a Ponzo illusion, indicating grouping without awareness. More importantly, an attentional modulatory effect without awareness was manifested as evident by the observer's performance being more often biased when the railway-shaped pattern was formed by an attended color than when it was formed by an unattended one. Also, the attentional modulation effect was shown to be dynamic, being more pronounced with a short presentation time than a longer one. The results of the present study not only clarify the relationship between attention and perceptual grouping but also further contribute to our understanding of attention and awareness by corroborating the dissociation between attention and awareness.

  17. Characteristics of liquid product from the pyrolysis of waste plastic mixture at low and high temperatures: influence of lapse time of reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyong-Hwan; Shin, Dae-Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis of a waste plastic mixture (high-density polyethylene: low-density polyethylene: polypropylene: polystyrene = 3:2:3:1) into a liquid product was carried out in a stirred semi-batch reactor at low (350 degrees C) and high (400 degrees C) temperatures. The effect of lapse time of reaction in the reactor and also degradation temperature on the characteristics of the liquid product from pyrolysis of the mixture was investigated. Liquid products were described by cumulative amount distribution, paraffin, olefin, naphthene and aromatic (PONA) distribution and molecular weight distribution. Their characteristic was quite differed with a lapse time of reaction and also at a low and high degradation temperatures, because of the different physicochemical properties of the plastic types in the mixture. With increase of lapse time of reaction, the order for the main products in PONA components obtained at 350 degrees C was firstly aromatic products and then olefin products, while at 400 degrees C the order was firstly aromatic products, then olefin products and finally paraffin products. The experiments also showed from the molecular weight distribution of liquid PONA components that the paraffin and olefin products had a wide distribution by mainly random scission of polymer, but in the case of olefin products were produced by an end-chain scission mechanism as well as random scission mechanism, as evidenced by much more light olefin products. This phenomenon was evident at a higher degradation temperature. Also, both the light olefin and naphthene products with a molecular weight of around 120, as a main product, showed a similar trend as a function of lapse time, which had a maximum fraction at 343 min (at 350 degrees C) and 83 min (at 400 degrees C). Among PONA components, the highest concentrations of aromatic products were obtained with a molecular weight of around 100 at the fastest lapse time of reaction, regardless of degradation temperature. It was

  18. Characteristics of liquid product from the pyrolysis of waste plastic mixture at low and high temperatures: Influence of lapse time of reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyong-Hwan; Shin, Dae-Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis of a waste plastic mixture (high-density polyethylene: low-density polyethylene: polypropylene: polystyrene = 3:2:3:1) into a liquid product was carried out in a stirred semi-batch reactor at low (350 deg. C) and high (400 deg. C) temperatures. The effect of lapse time of reaction in the reactor and also degradation temperature on the characteristics of the liquid product from pyrolysis of the mixture was investigated. Liquid products were described by cumulative amount distribution, paraffin, olefin, naphthene and aromatic (PONA) distribution and molecular weight distribution. Their characteristic was quite differed with a lapse time of reaction and also at a low and high degradation temperatures, because of the different physicochemical properties of the plastic types in the mixture. With increase of lapse time of reaction, the order for the main products in PONA components obtained at 350 deg. C was firstly aromatic products and then olefin products, while at 400 deg. C the order was firstly aromatic products, then olefin products and finally paraffin products. The experiments also showed from the molecular weight distribution of liquid PONA components that the paraffin and olefin products had a wide distribution by mainly random scission of polymer, but in the case of olefin products were produced by an end-chain scission mechanism as well as random scission mechanism, as evidenced by much more light olefin products. This phenomenon was evident at a higher degradation temperature. Also, both the light olefin and naphthene products with a molecular weight of around 120, as a main product, showed a similar trend as a function of lapse time, which had a maximum fraction at 343 min (at 350 deg. C) and 83 min (at 400 deg. C). Among PONA components, the highest concentrations of aromatic products were obtained with a molecular weight of around 100 at the fastest lapse time of reaction, regardless of degradation temperature. It was concluded that the

  19. Attentional capture and engagement during the attentional blink: A "camera" metaphor of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivony, Alon; Lamy, Dominique

    2016-11-01

    Identification of a target is impaired when it follows a previous target within 500 ms, suggesting that our attentional system suffers from severe temporal limitations. Although control-disruption theories posit that such impairment, known as the attentional blink (AB), reflects a difficulty in matching incoming information with the current attentional set, disrupted-engagement theories propose that it reflects a delay in later processes leading to transient enhancement of potential targets. Here, we used a variant of the contingent-capture rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm (Folk, Ester, & Troemel, 2009) to adjudicate these competing accounts. Our results show that a salient distractor that shares the target color captures attention to the same extent whether it appears within or outside the blink, thereby invalidating the notion that control over the attentional set is compromised during the blink. In addition, our results show that during the blink, not the attention-capturing object itself but the item immediately following it, is selected, indicating that the AB manifests as a delay between attentional capture and attentional engagement. We therefore conclude that attentional capture and attentional engagement can be dissociated as separate stages of attentional selection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Time-lapse gravity and levelling in the sinkhole-endangered urban area of Bad Frankenhausen, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobe, Martin; Gabriel, Gerald; Weise, Adelheid; Krawczyk, Charlotte; Vogel, Detlef

    2017-04-01

    Sinkholes, resulting from subrosion in the subsurface, can reach diameters of several hundred meters and thus pose a severe hazard for infrastructure and inhabitants in urban areas. Subrosion is the leaching of readily-soluble rocks, such as rock salt, gypsum, anhydrite and limestone by ground or meteoric water and leads to mass transport and relocation. Two scenarios of sinkhole evolution are conceivable: First, the surface subsides continuously in order to compensate for the mass loss. Second, the mass relocation leads to development of subsurface cavities. If they reach a critical size and the cover layers are not supported anymore, the surface collapses abruptly. To improve the understanding of subrosion processes and the related surface deformation a case study is conducted in Bad Frankenhausen, Germany, where subrosion leaches the Zechstein evaporates of the Permian. One part of the study is to analyse the spatiotemporal development of sinkholes by applying time-lapse observations. Therefore, we established a monitoring network consisting of 15 gravity and additional levelling points covering the main sinkhole areas in the city centre. In March 2014, the baseline survey was carried out. Since then, quarterly measurement campaigns are performed. In each campaign four different gravity meters are used to collect a statistical significant amount of data and to control the plausibility of our data. The gravity measurements are complemented by levelling surveys. The rectification of the time-lapse gravity data comprises the correction for jumps and systematic errors, as well as for well calculable influences, such as earth tides and air pressure changes. Furthermore, special interest was applied to seasonal changes of hydrological parameters such as soil moisture or groundwater level. We found the hydrological influence to be in the single digit up to the lower two-digit µGal range, depending on the season and the station. The standard deviations of the adjusted

  1. Attention in a bayesian framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise Emma; Sahani, Maneesh

    2012-01-01

    , and include both selective phenomena, where attention is invoked by cues that point to particular stimuli, and integrative phenomena, where attention is invoked dynamically by endogenous processing. However, most previous Bayesian accounts of attention have focused on describing relatively simple experimental...... selective and integrative roles, and thus cannot be easily extended to complex environments. We suggest that the resource bottleneck stems from the computational intractability of exact perceptual inference in complex settings, and that attention reflects an evolved mechanism for approximate inference which...... can be shaped to refine the local accuracy of perception. We show that this approach extends the simple picture of attention as prior, so as to provide a unified and computationally driven account of both selective and integrative attentional phenomena....

  2. Selective attention within the foveola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Martina; Rucci, Michele; Carrasco, Marisa

    2017-10-01

    Efficient control of attentional resources and high-acuity vision are both fundamental for survival. Shifts in visual attention are known to covertly enhance processing at locations away from the center of gaze, where visual resolution is low. It is unknown, however, whether selective spatial attention operates where the observer is already looking-that is, within the high-acuity foveola, the small yet disproportionally important rod-free region of the retina. Using new methods for precisely controlling retinal stimulation, here we show that covert attention flexibly improves and speeds up both detection and discrimination at loci only a fraction of a degree apart within the foveola. These findings reveal a surprisingly precise control of attention and its involvement in fine spatial vision. They show that the commonly studied covert shifts of attention away from the fovea are the expression of a global mechanism that exerts its action across the entire visual field.

  3. Analysis of embryo morphokinetics, multinucleation and cleavage anomalies using continuous time-lapse monitoring in blastocyst transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Nina; Ploskonka, Stephanie; Goodman, Linnea R; Austin, Cynthia; Goldberg, Jeffrey; Falcone, Tommaso

    2014-06-20

    Time-lapse imaging combined with embryo morphokinetics may offer a non-invasive means for improving embryo selection. Data from clinics worldwide are necessary to compare and ultimately develop embryo classifications models using kinetic data. The primary objective of this study was to determine if there were kinetic differences between embryos with limited potential and those more often associated with in vitro blastocyst formation and/or implantation. We also wanted to compare putative kinetic markers for embryo selection as proposed by other laboratories to what we were observing in our own laboratory setting. Kinetic data and cycle outcomes were retrospectively analyzed in patients age 39 and younger with 7 or more zygotes cultured in the Embryoscope. Timing of specific events from the point of insemination were determined using time-lapse (TL) imaging. The following kinetic markers were assessed: time to syngamy (tPNf), t2, time to two cells (c), 3c (t3), 4c ( t4), 5c (t5), 8c (t8), morula (tMor), start of blastulation (tSB); tBL, blastocyst (tBL); expanded blastocyst (tEBL). Durations of the second (cc2) and third (cc3) cell cycles, the t5-t2 interval as well as time to complete synchronous divisions s1, s2 and s3 were calculated. Incidence and impact on development of nuclear and cleavage anomalies were also assessed. A total of 648 embryos transferred on day 5 were analyzed. The clinical pregnancy and implantation rate were 72% and 50%, respectively. Morphokinetic data showed that tPNf, t2,t4, t8, s1, s2,s3 and cc2 were significantly different in embryos forming blastocysts (ET or frozen) versus those with limited potential either failing to blastulate or else forming poor quality blastocysts ,ultimately discarded. Comparison of embryo kinetics in cycles with all embryos implanting (KID+) versus no implantation (KID-) suggested that markers of embryo competence to implant may be different from ability to form a blastocyst. The incidence of multinucleation

  4. An effective assay for high cellular resolution time-lapse imaging of sensory placode formation and morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Raman M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vertebrate peripheral nervous system contains sensory neurons that arise from ectodermal placodes. Placodal cells ingress to move inside the head to form sensory neurons of the cranial ganglia. To date, however, the process of placodal cell ingression and underlying cellular behavior are poorly understood as studies have relied upon static analyses on fixed tissues. Visualizing placodal cell behavior requires an ability to distinguish the surface ectoderm from the underlying mesenchyme. This necessitates high resolution imaging along the z-plane which is difficult to accomplish in whole embryos. To address this issue, we have developed an imaging system using cranial slices that allows direct visualization of placode formation. Results We demonstrate an effective imaging assay for capturing placode development at single cell resolution using chick embryonic tissue ex vivo. This provides the first time-lapse imaging of mitoses in the trigeminal placodal ectoderm, ingression, and intercellular contacts of placodal cells. Cell divisions with varied orientations were found in the placodal ectoderm all along the apical-basal axis. Placodal cells initially have short cytoplasmic processes during ingression as young neurons and mature over time to elaborate long axonal processes in the mesenchyme. Interestingly, the time-lapse imaging data reveal that these delaminating placodal neurons begin ingression early on from within the ectoderm, where they start to move and continue on to exit as individual or strings of neurons through common openings on the basal side of the epithelium. Furthermore, dynamic intercellular contacts are abundant among the delaminating placodal neurons, between these and the already delaminated cells, as well as among cells in the forming ganglion. Conclusions This new imaging assay provides a powerful method to analyze directly development of placode-derived sensory neurons and subsequent ganglia

  5. CPAP Adherence is Associated With Attentional Improvements in a Group of Primarily Male Patients With Moderate to Severe OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Sean; Liu, Lin; Zamora, Tania; Hamilton, Joanne; Stepnowsky, Carl

    2017-12-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a widespread condition that adversely affects physical health and cognitive functioning. The prevailing treatment for OSA is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), but therapeutic benefits are dependent on consistent use. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between CPAP adherence and measures of sustained attention in patients with OSA. Our hypothesis was that the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) would be sensitive to attention-related improvements resulting from CPAP use. This study was a secondary analysis of a larger clinical trial. Treatment adherence was determined from CPAP use data. Validated sleep-related questionnaires and a sustained-attention and alertness test (PVT) were administered to participants at baseline and at the 6-month time point. Over a 6-month time period, the average CPAP adherence was 3.32 h/night (standard deviation [SD] = 2.53), average improvement in PVT minor lapses was -4.77 (SD = 13.2), and average improvement in PVT reaction time was -73.1 milliseconds (standard deviation = 211). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that higher CPAP adherence was significantly associated with a greater reduction in minor lapses in attention after 6 months of continuous treatment with CPAP therapy (β = -0.72, standard error = 0.34, P = .037). The results of this study showed that higher levels of CPAP adherence were associated with significant improvements in vigilance. Because the PVT is a performance-based measure that is not influenced by prior learning and is not subjective, it may be an important supplement to patient self-reported assessments. Name: Effect of Self-Management on Improving Sleep Apnea Outcomes, URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00310310, Identifier: NCT00310310. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  6. Advertising, Attention, and Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Focke, Florens; Ruenzi, Stefan; Ungeheuer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the impact of product market advertising on investor attention and financial market outcomes. Using daily advertising data allows us to identify short-term effects of advertising. We measure daily investor attention based the company's number of Wikipedia page views. We show that TV and newspaper advertising positively impacts short-term investor attention. It also positively impacts turnover and liquidity, but the effects are not economically significant. Most importantly, ass...

  7. Measuring the amplification of attention

    OpenAIRE

    Blaser, Erik; Sperling, George; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    1999-01-01

    An ambiguous motion paradigm, in which the direction of apparent motion is determined by salience (i.e., the extent to which an area is perceived as figure versus ground), is used to assay the amplification of color by attention to color. In the red–green colored gratings used in these experiments, without attention instructions, salience depends on the chromaticity difference between colored stripes embedded in the motion sequence and the yellow background. Selective attention to red (or to ...

  8. Preparatory attention in visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistoni, Elisa; Stein, Timo; Peelen, Marius V

    2017-05-01

    Top-down attention is the mechanism that allows us to selectively process goal-relevant aspects of a scene while ignoring irrelevant aspects. A large body of research has characterized the effects of attention on neural activity evoked by a visual stimulus. However, attention also includes a preparatory phase before stimulus onset in which the attended dimension is internally represented. Here, we review neurophysiological, functional magnetic resonance imaging, magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies investigating the neural basis of preparatory attention, both when attention is directed to a location in space and when it is directed to nonspatial stimulus attributes (content-based attention) ranging from low-level features to object categories. Results show that both spatial and content-based attention lead to increased baseline activity in neural populations that selectively code for the attended attribute. TMS studies provide evidence that this preparatory activity is causally related to subsequent attentional selection and behavioral performance. Attention thus acts by preactivating selective neurons in the visual cortex before stimulus onset. This appears to be a general mechanism that can operate on multiple levels of representation. We discuss the functional relevance of this mechanism, its limitations, and its relation to working memory, imagery, and expectation. We conclude by outlining open questions and future directions. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henik Avishai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test - interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. Results The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. Conclusions These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  10. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenazi, Sarit; Henik, Avishai

    2010-01-07

    Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test-interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  11. The attention habit: how reward learning shapes attentional selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-04-01

    There is growing consensus that reward plays an important role in the control of attention. Until recently, reward was thought to influence attention indirectly by modulating task-specific motivation and its effects on voluntary control over selection. Such an account was consistent with the goal-directed (endogenous) versus stimulus-driven (exogenous) framework that had long dominated the field of attention research. Now, a different perspective is emerging. Demonstrations that previously reward-associated stimuli can automatically capture attention even when physically inconspicuous and task-irrelevant challenge previously held assumptions about attentional control. The idea that attentional selection can be value driven, reflecting a distinct and previously unrecognized control mechanism, has gained traction. Since these early demonstrations, the influence of reward learning on attention has rapidly become an area of intense investigation, sparking many new insights. The result is an emerging picture of how the reward system of the brain automatically biases information processing. Here, I review the progress that has been made in this area, synthesizing a wealth of recent evidence to provide an integrated, up-to-date account of value-driven attention and some of its broader implications. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Attentional Capture with Rapidly Changing Attentional Control Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric; Johnston, James C.

    2010-01-01

    The classic theory of spatial attention hypothesized 2 modes, voluntary and involuntary. Folk, Remington, and Johnston (1992) reported that even involuntary attention capture by stimuli requires a match between stimulus properties and what the observer is looking for. This surprising conclusion has been confirmed by many subsequent studies. In…

  13. Bayesian Markov-Chain-Monte-Carlo inversion of time-lapse crosshole GPR data to characterize the vadose zone at the Arrenaes Site, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholer, Marie; Irving, James; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms

    2012-01-01

    We examined to what extent time-lapse crosshole ground-penetrating radar traveltimes, measured during a forced infiltration experiment at the Arreneas field site in Denmark, could help to quantify vadose zone hydraulic properties and their corresponding uncertainties using a Bayesian Markov...... distributions compared with the corresponding priors, which in turn significantly improves knowledge of soil hydraulic properties. Overall, the results obtained clearly demonstrate the value of the information contained in time-lapse GPR data for characterizing vadose zone dynamics.......-chain-Monte-Carlo inversion approach with different priors. The ground-penetrating radar (GPR) geophysical method has the potential to provide valuable information on the hydraulic properties of the vadose zone because of its strong sensitivity to soil water content. In particular, recent evidence has suggested...

  14. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus RNA and antibody in first-time, lapsed, and repeat blood donations across five international regions and relative efficacy of alternative screening scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Roberta; Lelie, Nico; Custer, Brian; Busch, Michael; Kleinman, Steven

    2013-10-01

    Twenty-one blood organizations from five geographical regions provided HIV individual donation (ID)-NAT and serology data on 11,787,610 donations. Infections were classified as anti-HIV-/RNA+ window period (WP), anti-HIV+/RNA+ concordant positive (CP) or anti-HIV+/RNA- elite controller (EC). Residual risk and efficacy of several screening scenarios were estimated for first time, lapsed and repeat donations. WP residual risk estimates assumed a 50% infectious dose of 3.16 virions and a 50% detection limit of 2.7 HIV RNA copies/mL for ID-NAT and 10,000 copies/mL for p24Ag. Infectivity for CP (100%) and EC (2.2%) donations was estimated based on viral load distributions and 100-fold reduced infectivity by antibody neutralization as reported elsewhere. Efficacy was calculated as proportion of transmission risk removed from baseline (i.e. in absence of any screening). There was no significant difference in transmission risk between lapsed and repeat donations in any region. Risk was 3.8-fold higher in first time than combined lapsed/repeat donations in South Africa but not in other regions. Screening strategies were most efficacious at interdicting infectious transfusions in first time (98.7-99.8%) followed by lapsed (97.6-99.7%) and repeat (86.8-97.7%) donations in all regions combined. In each donor category the efficacy of ID-NAT alone (97.7-99.8%) was superior to that of minipool (MP)-NAT/anti-HIV (95.0-99.6%) and p24 Ag/anti-HIV (89.8-99.1%). Efficacy patterns were similar by donor/donation status in each region despite large differences in HIV prevalence and transmission risk. As similar data become available for HBV and HCV, this modeling may be useful in cost effectiveness analyses of alternative testing scenarios. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. Lapses, infidelities, and creative adaptations: lessons from evaluation of a participatory market development approach in the Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Douglas; Rotondo, Emma; Paz Ybarnegaray, Rodrigo; Hareau, Guy; Devaux, André; Thiele, Graham

    2013-08-01

    Participatory approaches are frequently recommended for international development programs, but few have been evaluated. From 2007 to 2010 the Andean Change Alliance evaluated an agricultural research and development approach known as the "Participatory Market Chain Approach" (PMCA). Based on a study of four cases, this paper examines the fidelity of implementation, the factors that influenced implementation and results, and the PMCA change model. We identify three types of deviation from the intervention protocol (lapses, creative adaptations, and true infidelities) and five groups of variables that influenced PMCA implementation and results (attributes of the macro context, the market chain, the key actors, rules in use, and the capacity development strategy). There was insufficient information to test the validity of the PMCA change model, but results were greatest where the PMCA was implemented with highest fidelity. Our analysis suggests that the single most critical component of the PMCA is engagement of market agents - not just farmers - throughout the exercise. We present four lessons for planning and evaluating participatory approaches related to the use of action and change models, the importance of monitoring implementation fidelity, the limits of baseline survey data for outcome evaluation, and the importance of capacity development for implementers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Relationship between Cell Number, Division Behavior and Developmental Potential of Cleavage Stage Human Embryos: A Time-Lapse Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyi Kong

    Full Text Available Day 3 cleavage embryo transfer is routine in many assisted reproductive technology centers today. Embryos are usually selected according to cell number, cell symmetry and fragmentation for transfer. Many studies have showed the relationship between cell number and embryo developmental potential. However, there is limited understanding of embryo division behavior and their association with embryo cell number and developmental potential. A retrospective and observational study was conducted to investigate how different division behaviors affect cell number and developmental potential of day 3 embryos by time-lapse imaging. Based on cell number at day 3, the embryos (from 104 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI treatment cycles, n = 799 were classified as follows: less than 5 cells (10C; n = 42. Division behavior, morphokinetic parameters and blastocyst formation rate were analyzed in 5 groups of day 3 embryos with different cell numbers. In 10C embryos increased compared to 7-8C embryos (45.8%, 33.3% vs. 11.1%, respectively. In ≥5C embryos, FR and DC significantly reduced developmental potential, whereas 10C. In NB embryos, the cell cycle elongation or shortening was the main cause for abnormally low or high cell number, respectively. After excluding embryos with abnormal division behaviors, the developmental potential, implantation rate and live birth rate of day 3 embryos increased with cell number.

  17. Through the Looking Glass: Time-lapse Microscopy and Longitudinal Tracking of Single Cells to Study Anti-cancer Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Russell T; Orth, James D

    2016-05-14

    The response of single cells to anti-cancer drugs contributes significantly in determining the population response, and therefore is a major contributing factor in the overall outcome. Immunoblotting, flow cytometry and fixed cell experiments are often used to study how cells respond to anti-cancer drugs. These methods are important, but they have several shortcomings. Variability in drug responses between cancer and normal cells, and between cells of different cancer origin, and transient and rare responses are difficult to understand using population averaging assays and without being able to directly track and analyze them longitudinally. The microscope is particularly well suited to image live cells. Advancements in technology enable us to routinely image cells at a resolution that enables not only cell tracking, but also the observation of a variety of cellular responses. We describe an approach in detail that allows for the continuous time-lapse imaging of cells during the drug response for essentially as long as desired, typically up to 96 hr. Using variations of the approach, cells can be monitored for weeks. With the employment of genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors numerous processes, pathways and responses can be followed. We show examples that include tracking and quantification of cell growth and cell cycle progression, chromosome dynamics, DNA damage, and cell death. We also discuss variations of the technique and its flexibility, and highlight some common pitfalls.

  18. A Sparse Bayesian Imaging Technique for Efficient Recovery of Reservoir Channels With Time-Lapse Seismic Measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Sana, Furrukh

    2016-06-01

    Subsurface reservoir flow channels are characterized by high-permeability values and serve as preferred pathways for fluid propagation. Accurate estimation of their geophysical structures is thus of great importance for the oil industry. The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a widely used statistical technique for estimating subsurface reservoir model parameters. However, accurate reconstruction of the subsurface geological features with the EnKF is challenging because of the limited measurements available from the wells and the smoothing effects imposed by the \\\\ell _{2} -norm nature of its update step. A new EnKF scheme based on sparse domain representation was introduced by Sana et al. (2015) to incorporate useful prior structural information in the estimation process for efficient recovery of subsurface channels. In this paper, we extend this work in two ways: 1) investigate the effects of incorporating time-lapse seismic data on the channel reconstruction; and 2) explore a Bayesian sparse reconstruction algorithm with the potential ability to reduce the computational requirements. Numerical results suggest that the performance of the new sparse Bayesian based EnKF scheme is enhanced with the availability of seismic measurements, leading to further improvement in the recovery of flow channels structures. The sparse Bayesian approach further provides a computationally efficient framework for enforcing a sparse solution, especially with the possibility of using high sparsity rates through the inclusion of seismic data.

  19. A derivative-free approach for the estimation of porosity and permeability using time-lapse seismic and production data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadashpour, Mohsen; Kleppe, Jon; Landrø, Martin; Echeverria Ciaurri, David; Mukerji, Tapan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we apply a derivative-free optimization algorithm to estimate porosity and permeability from time-lapse seismic data and production data from a real reservoir (Norne field). In some circumstances, obtaining gradient information (exact and/or approximate) can be problematic e.g. derivatives are not available from a commercial simulator, or results are needed within a very short time frame. Derivative-free optimization approaches can be very time consuming because they often require many simulations. Typically, one iteration roughly needs as many simulations as the number of optimization variables. In this work, we propose two ways to significantly increase the efficiency of an optimization methodology in model inversion problems. First, by principal component analysis we decrease the number of optimization variables while keeping geostatistical consistency, and second, noticing that some optimization methods are very amenable to being parallelized, we apply them within a distributed computing framework. If we combine all this, the model inversion approach can be robust, fairly efficient and very simple to implement. In this paper, we apply the methodology to two cases: a semi-synthetic model with noisy data, and a case based entirely on field data. The results show that the derivative-free approach presented is robust against noise in the data

  20. Comparative effects of ionizing radiation on cycle time and mitotic duration. A time-lapse cinematography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Hooghe, M.C.; Hemon, D.; Valleron, A.J.; Malaise, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co γ rays on the length of the intermitotic period, the duration of mitosis, and the division probability of EMT6 cells have been studied in vitro using time-lapse cinematography. Irradiation increases the duration of the mitosis and of the cycle in comparable proportions: both parameters are practically doubled by a dose of 10 Gy. When daughters of irradiated cells die, the mitotic delay and lengthening of mitosis of their mother cells are longer than average. Mitotic delay and lengthening of mitosis depend on the age of cells at the moment of irradiation. The mitotic delay increases progressively when cells are irradiated during the first 8 h of their cycle (i.e., before the transition point), whereas mitosis is slightly prolonged. On the other hand, when the cells are irradiated after this transition point the mitotic delay decreases markedly, whereas the lengthening of mitosis increases sharply. These results tend to indicate that two different mechanisms are responsible for mitotic delay and prolongation of mitosis observed after irradiation

  1. A Sparse Bayesian Imaging Technique for Efficient Recovery of Reservoir Channels With Time-Lapse Seismic Measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Sana, Furrukh; Ravanelli, Fabio; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Subsurface reservoir flow channels are characterized by high-permeability values and serve as preferred pathways for fluid propagation. Accurate estimation of their geophysical structures is thus of great importance for the oil industry. The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a widely used statistical technique for estimating subsurface reservoir model parameters. However, accurate reconstruction of the subsurface geological features with the EnKF is challenging because of the limited measurements available from the wells and the smoothing effects imposed by the \\ell _{2} -norm nature of its update step. A new EnKF scheme based on sparse domain representation was introduced by Sana et al. (2015) to incorporate useful prior structural information in the estimation process for efficient recovery of subsurface channels. In this paper, we extend this work in two ways: 1) investigate the effects of incorporating time-lapse seismic data on the channel reconstruction; and 2) explore a Bayesian sparse reconstruction algorithm with the potential ability to reduce the computational requirements. Numerical results suggest that the performance of the new sparse Bayesian based EnKF scheme is enhanced with the availability of seismic measurements, leading to further improvement in the recovery of flow channels structures. The sparse Bayesian approach further provides a computationally efficient framework for enforcing a sparse solution, especially with the possibility of using high sparsity rates through the inclusion of seismic data.

  2. Technical note: Stage and water width measurement of a mountain stream using a simple time-lapse camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Leduc

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing applied to river monitoring adds complementary information useful for understanding the system behaviour. In this paper, we present a method for visual stage gauging and water surface width measurement using a ground-based time-lapse camera and a fully automatic image analysis algorithm for flow monitoring at a river cross section of a steep, bouldery channel. The remote stage measurement was coupled with a water level logger (pressure transducer on site and shows that the image-based method gives a reliable estimate of the water height variation and daily flow record when validated against the pressure transducer (R = 0.91. From the remotely sensed pictures, we also extracted the water width and show that it is possible to correlate water surface width and stage. The images also provide valuable ancillary information for interpreting and understanding flow hydraulics and site weather conditions. This image-based gauging method is a reliable, informative and inexpensive alternative or adjunct to conventional stage measurement especially for remote sites.

  3. Comparative effects of ionizing radiation on cycle time and mitotic duration. A time-lapse cinematography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Hooghe, M.C. (Institut de Recherches sur le Cancer, Lille, France); Hemon, D.; Valleron, A.J.; Malaise, E.P.

    1980-03-01

    The effects of /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. rays on the length of the intermitotic period, the duration of mitosis, and the division probability of EMT6 cells have been studied in vitro using time-lapse cinematography. Irradiation increases the duration of the mitosis and of the cycle in comparable proportions: both parameters are practically doubled by a dose of 10 Gy. When daughters of irradiated cells die, the mitotic delay and lengthening of mitosis of their mother cells are longer than average. Mitotic delay and lengthening of mitosis depend on the age of cells at the moment of irradiation. The mitotic delay increases progressively when cells are irradiated during the first 8 h of their cycle (i.e., before the transition point), whereas mitosis is slightly prolonged. On the other hand, when the cells are irradiated after this transition point the mitotic delay decreases markedly, whereas the lengthening of mitosis increases sharply. These results tend to indicate that two different mechanisms are responsible for mitotic delay and prolongation of mitosis observed after irradiation.

  4. The sexual phase of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata: cytological and time-lapse cinematography characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Eleonora; Amato, Alberto; Ferrante, Maria Immacolata; Montresor, Marina

    2016-11-01

    Pseudo-nitzschia is a thoroughly studied pennate diatom genus for ecological and biological reasons. Many species in this genus, including Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata, can produce domoic acid, a toxin responsible for amnesic shellfish poisoning. Physiological, phylogenetic and biological features of P. multistriata were studied extensively in the past. Life cycle stages, including the sexual phase, fundamental in diatoms to restore the maximum cell size and avoid miniaturization to death, have been well described for this species. P. multistriata is heterothallic; sexual reproduction is induced when strains of opposite mating type are mixed, and proceeds with cells producing two functionally anisogamous gametes each; however, detailed cytological information for this process is missing. By means of confocal laser scanning microscopy and nuclear staining, we followed the nuclear fate during meiosis, and using time-lapse cinematography, we timed every step of the sexual reproduction process from mate pairing to initial cell hatching. The present paper depicts cytological aspects during gametogenesis in P. multistriata, shedding light on the chloroplast behaviour during sexual reproduction, finely describing the timing of the sexual phases and providing reference data for further studies on the molecular control of this fundamental process.

  5. Paying More Attention to Attention: Improving the Performance of Convolutional Neural Networks via Attention Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Zagoruyko, Sergey; Komodakis, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Attention plays a critical role in human visual experience. Furthermore, it has recently been demonstrated that attention can also play an important role in the context of applying artificial neural networks to a variety of tasks from fields such as computer vision and NLP. In this work we show that, by properly defining attention for convolutional neural networks, we can actually use this type of information in order to significantly improve the performance of a student CNN network by forcin...

  6. Caffeine Modulates Attention Network Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a flanker task designed to test Posner's three visual attention network functions: alerting, orienting, and executive control [Posner, M. I. (2004). "Cognitive neuroscience of attention". New York, NY: Guilford Press]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind…

  7. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  8. Concrete Operations and Attentional Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Michael; Lindenberger, Ulman

    1989-01-01

    To test predictions regarding the attentional capacity requirements of Piaget's stage of concrete operations, a battery of concrete operational tasks and two measures of attentional capacity were administered to 120 first-, second-, and third-graders. Findings concern class inclusion, transitivity of length and weight, and multiplication of…

  9. Practicing the Attentional Dwell Away?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the time course of visual attention have identified a temporary functional blindness to the second of two spatially separated targets: attending to one visual stimulus may lead to impairments in identifying a second stimulus presented about 200-500 ms later than the first. The phenomenon...... is known as the attentional dwell time (e.g. Duncan, Ward, Shapiro, 1994). Previous studies of attentional dwell time have all used naive subjects running few (.... The results suggest that the majority of subjects may learn to optimize their performance reducing the attentional dwell time effect substantially. Further, the reduction in the attentional dwell time effect seems to be closely linked to the ability of the subject to inhibit eye movements while performing...

  10. What Attracts Decision Makers' Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Eric; Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2011-01-01

    portfolio meetings. The study seeks to investigate how managers allocate their attention and the role of different factors for their attention. Observations also make it possible to compare prior research and expectations with the actual observed behavior of decision makers. Design....../methodology/approach – The present analysis draws on insights from previous research into decision making in product and portfolio management and studies on organizational decision making. The authors frame why the attention of decision makers is so critical in complex situations. Data for this study were collected through direct......Purpose – Managers' attention is a scarce resource in complex innovation settings. Prior research on the factors to which managers pay attention is mostly based on surveys. The present study aims to address the need for knowledge about the behavior of decision makers based on observations from...

  11. Social reward shapes attentional biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Paying attention to stimuli that predict a reward outcome is important for an organism to survive and thrive. When visual stimuli are associated with tangible, extrinsic rewards such as money or food, these stimuli acquire high attentional priority and come to automatically capture attention. In humans and other primates, however, many behaviors are not motivated directly by such extrinsic rewards, but rather by the social feedback that results from performing those behaviors. In the present study, I examine whether positive social feedback can similarly influence attentional bias. The results show that stimuli previously associated with a high probability of positive social feedback elicit value-driven attentional capture, much like stimuli associated with extrinsic rewards. Unlike with extrinsic rewards, however, such stimuli also influence task-specific motivation. My findings offer a potential mechanism by which social reward shapes the information that we prioritize when perceiving the world around us.

  12. Brain activity associated with selective attention, divided attention and distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Emma; Salmela, Viljami; Salmi, Juha; Numminen, Jussi; Alho, Kimmo

    2017-06-01

    Top-down controlled selective or divided attention to sounds and visual objects, as well as bottom-up triggered attention to auditory and visual distractors, has been widely investigated. However, no study has systematically compared brain activations related to all these types of attention. To this end, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity in participants performing a tone pitch or a foveal grating orientation discrimination task, or both, distracted by novel sounds not sharing frequencies with the tones or by extrafoveal visual textures. To force focusing of attention to tones or gratings, or both, task difficulty was kept constantly high with an adaptive staircase method. A whole brain analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed fronto-parietal attention networks for both selective auditory and visual attention. A subsequent conjunction analysis indicated partial overlaps of these networks. However, like some previous studies, the present results also suggest segregation of prefrontal areas involved in the control of auditory and visual attention. The ANOVA also suggested, and another conjunction analysis confirmed, an additional activity enhancement in the left middle frontal gyrus related to divided attention supporting the role of this area in top-down integration of dual task performance. Distractors expectedly disrupted task performance. However, contrary to our expectations, activations specifically related to the distractors were found only in the auditory and visual cortices. This suggests gating of the distractors from further processing perhaps due to strictly focused attention in the current demanding discrimination tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Combining segmentation and attention: a new foveal attention model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca eMarfil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial vision systems cannot process all the information that they receive from the world in real time because it is highly expensive and inefficient in terms of computational cost. Inspired by biological perception systems, articial attention models pursuit to select only the relevant part of the scene. Besides, it is well established that the units of attention on human vision are not merely spatial but closely related to perceptual objects (proto-objects. This implies a strong bidirectional relationship between segmentation and attention processes. Therefore, while the segmentation process is the responsible to extract the proto-objects from the scene, attention can guide segmentation, arising the concept of foveal attention. When the focus of attention is deployed from one visual unit to another, the rest of the scene is perceived but at a lower resolution that the focused object. The result is a multi-resolution visual perception in which the fovea, a dimple on the central retina, provides the highest resolution vision. In this paper, a bottom-up foveal attention model is presented. In this model the input image is a foveal image represented using a Cartesian Foveal Geometry (CFG, which encodes the field of view of the sensor as a fovea (placed in the focus of attention surrounded by a set of concentric rings with decreasing resolution. Then multirresolution perceptual segmentation is performed by building a foveal polygon using the Bounded Irregular Pyramid (BIP. Bottom-up attention is enclosed in the same structure, allowing to set the fovea over the most salient image proto-object. Saliency is computed as a linear combination of multiple low level features such us colour and intensity contrast, symmetry, orientation and roundness. Obtained results from natural images show that the performance of the combination of hierarchical foveal segmentation and saliency estimation is good in terms of accuracy and speed.

  14. Capture of exogenous attention modulates the attentional blink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    When two targets (T1 & T2) are presented in rapid succession, observers often fail to report T2 if they attend to T1. Bottleneck theories propose that this attentional blink (AB) is due to T1 occupying a slow processing stage when T2 is presented. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty increases...... T1 processing time, this should cause a greater AB. Attention capture hypotheses suggest that T1 captures attention, which cannot be reallocated to T2 in time. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty, decreases saliency, this should cause a smaller AB. Studies examining how T1 difficulty affects...... with T1 contrast energy. Our results indicate that T1 capture modulates the AB. We suggest that this effect has confounded previous studies on the effect of T1 difficulty. In an electrophysiological version of the study we will further examine the implied relation between attention capture and the AB....

  15. Brain Connectivity and Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Emily L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Emerging hypotheses suggest that efficient cognitive functioning requires the integration of separate, but interconnected cortical networks in the brain. Although task-related measures of brain activity suggest that a frontoparietal network is associated with the control of attention, little is known regarding how components within this distributed network act together or with other networks to achieve various attentional functions. This review considers both functional and structural studies of brain connectivity, as complemented by behavioral and task-related neuroimaging data. These studies show converging results: The frontal and parietal cortical regions are active together, over time, and identifiable frontoparietal networks are active in relation to specific task demands. However, the spontaneous, low-frequency fluctuations of brain activity that occur in the resting state, without specific task demands, also exhibit patterns of connectivity that closely resemble the task-related, frontoparietal attention networks. Both task-related and resting-state networks exhibit consistent relations to behavioral measures of attention. Further, anatomical structure, particularly white matter pathways as defined by diffusion tensor imaging, places constraints on intrinsic functional connectivity. Lastly, connectivity analyses applied to investigate cognitive differences across individuals in both healthy and diseased states suggest that disconnection of attentional networks is linked to deficits in cognitive functioning, and in extreme cases, to disorders of attention. Thus, comprehensive theories of visual attention and their clinical translation depend on the continued integration of behavioral, task-related neuroimaging, and brain connectivity measures. PMID:23597177

  16. Selective attention without a neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauzlis, Richard J; Bogadhi, Amarender R; Herman, James P; Bollimunta, Anil

    2018-05-01

    Selective attention refers to the ability to restrict neural processing and behavioral responses to a relevant subset of available stimuli, while simultaneously excluding other valid stimuli from consideration. In primates and other mammals, descriptions of this ability typically emphasize the neural processing that takes place in the cerebral neocortex. However, non-mammals such as birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish, which completely lack a neocortex, also have the ability to selectively attend. In this article, we survey the behavioral evidence for selective attention in non-mammals, and review the midbrain and forebrain structures that are responsible. The ancestral forms of selective attention are presumably selective orienting behaviors, such as prey-catching and predator avoidance. These behaviors depend critically on a set of subcortical structures, including the optic tectum (OT), thalamus and striatum, that are highly conserved across vertebrate evolution. In contrast, the contributions of different pallial regions in the forebrain to selective attention have been subject to more substantial changes and reorganization. This evolutionary perspective makes plain that selective attention is not a function achieved de novo with the emergence of the neocortex, but instead is implemented by circuits accrued and modified over hundreds of millions of years, beginning well before the forebrain contained a neocortex. Determining how older subcortical circuits interact with the more recently evolved components in the neocortex will likely be crucial for understanding the complex properties of selective attention in primates and other mammals, and for identifying the etiology of attention disorders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Extended attention span training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  18. Attentional modulation of reflex cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Thomas; Silva, Mitchell; Davenport, Paul W; Van Diest, Ilse; Dupont, Lieven J; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2014-07-01

    Reflex cough is a defensive response generated in the brainstem in response to chemical and mechanical stimulation of the airways. However, converging evidence shows that reflex cough is also influenced by central neural control processes. In this study, we investigate whether reflex cough can be modulated by attentional focus on either external stimuli or internal cough-related stimuli. Healthy volunteers (N = 24; seven men; age range, 18-25 years) completed four blocks of citric acid-induced cough challenges while, simultaneously, auditory stimuli were presented. Within each block, four concentrations were administered (30, 100, 300 and 1,000 mM, randomized). During two subsequent blocks, participants focused their attention externally (counting tones). During the other two blocks, participants focused their attention internally (counting coughs). The order of attentional focus was counterbalanced across participants. Ratings of the urge to cough were collected after each challenge. Cough frequency was determined by audio recording. Cough frequency was higher when participants focused their attention internally vs externally (P Reflex cough can be modulated by attentional focus. Internally focused attention may be a mechanism involved in excessive (idiopathic) cough, while an external focus may be introduced as part of treatments targeting excessive cough.

  19. Attention modulates visual size adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Sylvia; Fink, Gereon R; Weidner, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The current study determined in healthy subjects (n = 16) whether size adaptation occurs at early, i.e., preattentive, levels of processing or whether higher cognitive processes such as attention can modulate the illusion. To investigate this issue, bottom-up stimulation was kept constant across conditions by using a single adaptation display containing both small and large adapter stimuli. Subjects' attention was directed to either the large or small adapter stimulus by means of a luminance detection task. When attention was directed toward the small as compared to the large adapter, the perceived size of the subsequent target was significantly increased. Data suggest that different size adaptation effects can be induced by one and the same stimulus depending on the current allocation of attention. This indicates that size adaptation is subject to attentional modulation. These findings are in line with previous research showing that transient as well as sustained attention modulates visual features, such as contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency, and influences adaptation in other contexts, such as motion adaptation (Alais & Blake, 1999; Lankheet & Verstraten, 1995). Based on a recently suggested model (Pooresmaeili, Arrighi, Biagi, & Morrone, 2013), according to which perceptual adaptation is based on local excitation and inhibition in V1, we conclude that guiding attention can boost these local processes in one or the other direction by increasing the weight of the attended adapter. In sum, perceptual adaptation, although reflected in changes of neural activity at early levels (as shown in the aforementioned study), is nevertheless subject to higher-order modulation.

  20. External noise distinguishes attention mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z L; Dosher, B A

    1998-05-01

    We developed and tested a powerful method for identifying and characterizing the effect of attention on performance in visual tasks as due to signal enhancement, distractor exclusion, or internal noise suppression. Based on a noisy Perceptual Template Model (PTM) of a human observer, the method adds increasing amounts of external noise (white gaussian random noise) to the visual stimulus and observes the effect on performance of a perceptual task for attended and unattended stimuli. The three mechanisms of attention yield three "signature" patterns of performance. The general framework for characterizing the mechanisms of attention is used here to investigate the attentional mechanisms in a concurrent location-cued orientation discrimination task. Test stimuli--Gabor patches tilted slightly to the right or left--always appeared on both the left and the right of fixation, and varied independently. Observers were cued on each trial to attend to the left, the right, or evenly to both stimuli, and decide the direction of tilt of both test stimuli. For eight levels of added external noise and three attention conditions (attended, unattended, and equal), subjects' contrast threshold levels were determined. At low levels of external noise, attention affected threshold contrast: threshold contrasts for non-attended stimuli were systematically higher than for equal attention stimuli, which were, in turn, higher than for attended stimuli. Specifically, when the rms contrast of the external noise is below 10%, there is a consistent 17% elevation of contrast threshold from attended to unattended condition across all three subjects. For higher levels of external noise, attention conditions did not affect threshold contrast values at all. These strong results are characteristic of a signal enhancement, or equivalently, an internal additive noise reduction mechanism of attention.

  1. Cold-Blooded Attention: Finger Temperature Predicts Attentional Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Rodrigo C; Moënne-Loccoz, Cristóbal; Maldonado, Pedro E

    2017-01-01

    Thermal stress has been shown to increase the chances of unsafe behavior during industrial and driving performances due to reductions in mental and attentional resources. Nonetheless, establishing appropriate safety standards regarding environmental temperature has been a major problem, as modulations are also be affected by the task type, complexity, workload, duration, and previous experience with the task. To bypass this attentional and thermoregulatory problem, we focused on the body rather than environmental temperature. Specifically, we measured tympanic, forehead, finger and environmental temperatures accompanied by a battery of attentional tasks. We considered a 10 min baseline period wherein subjects were instructed to sit and relax, followed by three attentional tasks: a continuous performance task (CPT), a flanker task (FT) and a counting task (CT). Using multiple linear regression models, we evaluated which variable(s) were the best predictors of performance. The results showed a decrement in finger temperature due to instruction and task engagement that was absent when the subject was instructed to relax. No changes were observed in tympanic or forehead temperatures, while the environmental temperature remained almost constant for each subject. Specifically, the magnitude of the change in finger temperature was the best predictor of performance in all three attentional tasks. The results presented here suggest that finger temperature can be used as a predictor of alertness, as it predicted performance in attentional tasks better than environmental temperature. These findings strongly support that peripheral temperature can be used as a tool to prevent unsafe behaviors and accidents.

  2. Cold-Blooded Attention: Finger Temperature Predicts Attentional Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo C. Vergara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal stress has been shown to increase the chances of unsafe behavior during industrial and driving performances due to reductions in mental and attentional resources. Nonetheless, establishing appropriate safety standards regarding environmental temperature has been a major problem, as modulations are also be affected by the task type, complexity, workload, duration, and previous experience with the task. To bypass this attentional and thermoregulatory problem, we focused on the body rather than environmental temperature. Specifically, we measured tympanic, forehead, finger and environmental temperatures accompanied by a battery of attentional tasks. We considered a 10 min baseline period wherein subjects were instructed to sit and relax, followed by three attentional tasks: a continuous performance task (CPT, a flanker task (FT and a counting task (CT. Using multiple linear regression models, we evaluated which variable(s were the best predictors of performance. The results showed a decrement in finger temperature due to instruction and task engagement that was absent when the subject was instructed to relax. No changes were observed in tympanic or forehead temperatures, while the environmental temperature remained almost constant for each subject. Specifically, the magnitude of the change in finger temperature was the best predictor of performance in all three attentional tasks. The results presented here suggest that finger temperature can be used as a predictor of alertness, as it predicted performance in attentional tasks better than environmental temperature. These findings strongly support that peripheral temperature can be used as a tool to prevent unsafe behaviors and accidents.

  3. Assessing attentional systems in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Maria; Martella, Diana; Ruggiero, Maria Cleonice; Maccari, Lisa; Paloscia, Claudio; Rosa, Caterina; Pasini, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency and interactions of attentional systems in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by considering the effects of reinforcement and auditory warning on each component of attention. Thirty-six drug-naïve children (18 children with ADHD/18 typically developing children) performed two revised versions of the Attentional Network Test, which assess the efficiency of alerting, orienting, and executive systems. In feedback trials, children received feedback about their accuracy, whereas in the no-feedback trials, feedback was not given. In both conditions, children with ADHD performed more slowly than did typically developing children. They also showed impairments in the ability to disengage attention and in executive functioning, which improved when alertness was increased by administering the auditory warning. The performance of the attentional networks appeared to be modulated by the absence or the presence of reinforcement. We suggest that the observed executive system deficit in children with ADHD could depend on their low level of arousal rather than being an independent disorder. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  4. Early vision and visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT, based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constructs of FIT, like types of visual search and the role of the attention. The following review describes the main studies of early vision and visual attention.

  5. Driving behaviour in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Madeleine J; van Loon, Editha; Daley, David; Chapman, Peter; Hollis, Chris

    2015-07-28

    Little is known about the impact of cognitive impairments on driving in adults with ADHD. The present study compared the performance of adults with and without ADHD in a driving simulator on two different routes: an urban route which we hypothesised would exacerbate weak impulse control in ADHD and a motorway route, to challenge deficits in sustained attention. Adults with (n = 22, 16 males) and without (n = 21, 18 males) ADHD completed a simulated driving session while eye movement data were recorded simultaneously. Participants also completed the Manchester Driving Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS). Measures of driving performance included average speed, proportion distance travelled over speed limit (speeding) and lane deviation. These variables and the eye movement measures (spread of fixations, mean fixation duration) were compared between groups and routes. Also, driving behaviours, including responses to programmed events, were categorised and the frequencies within categories were compared between groups. Finally, speech analysis was performed to compare emotional verbal expressions during driving between groups. ADHD participants reported significantly more Violations and Lapses on the DBQ than control participants and significantly more accidents. Average speed and speeding were also higher but did not interact with route type. ADHD participants showed poorer vehicle control, greater levels of frustration with other road users (including greater frequencies of negative comments) and a trend for less safe driving when changing lanes/overtaking on the motorway. These effects were predicted by hyperactive/impulsive CAARS scores. They were also more likely to cause a crash/near miss when an event occurred on the urban route. The results suggest that difficulty regulating and controlling impulsive behavior, reflected in speeding, frustration with other road users, less safety when changing lanes on the

  6. Measuring the amplification of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, E; Sperling, G; Lu, Z L

    1999-09-28

    An ambiguous motion paradigm, in which the direction of apparent motion is determined by salience (i.e., the extent to which an area is perceived as figure versus ground), is used to assay the amplification of color by attention to color. In the red-green colored gratings used in these experiments, without attention instructions, salience depends on the chromaticity difference between colored stripes embedded in the motion sequence and the yellow background. Selective attention to red (or to green) alters the perceived direction of motion and is found to be equivalent to increasing the physical redness (or greenness) by 25-117%, depending on the observer and color. Whereas attention to a color drastically alters the salience of that color, it leaves color appearance unchanged. A computational model, which embodies separate, parallel pathways for object perception and for salience, accounts for 99% of the variance of the experimental data.

  7. Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as methylphenidate (Ritalin) or dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), which are stimulants that decrease impulsivity and hyperactivity and increase attention. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the generic versions ...

  8. Visual attention in posterior stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Charlotte; Petersen, Anders; Iversen, Helle K

    Objective: Impaired visual attention is common following strokes in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, particularly in the right hemisphere. However, attentional effects of more posterior lesions are less clear. The aim of this study was to characterize visual processing speed...... and apprehension span following posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke. We also relate these attentional parameters to visual word recognition, as previous studies have suggested that reduced visual speed and span may explain pure alexia. Methods: Nine patients with MR-verified focal lesions in the PCA......-territory (four left PCA; four right PCA; one bilateral, all >1 year post stroke) were compared to 25 controls using single case statistics. Visual attention was characterized by a whole report paradigm allowing for hemifield-specific speed and span measurements. We also characterized visual field defects...

  9. 2D Time-lapse Resistivity Monitoring of an Organic Produced Gas Plume in a Landfill using ERT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, N. D.; Mendonça, C. A.; Doherty, R.

    2014-12-01

    This project has the objective to study a landfill located on the margins of Tietê River, in São Paulo, Brazil, using the electroresistivity tomography method (ERT). Due to huge organic matter concentrations in the São Paulo Basin quaternary sediments, there is subsurface depth related biogas accumulation (CH4 and CO2), induced by anaerobic degradation of the organic matter. 2D resistivity sections were obtained from a test area since March 2012, a total of 7 databases, being the last one dated from October 2013. The studied line has the length of 56m, the electrode interval is of 2m. In addition, there are two boreholes along the line (one with 3 electrodes and the other one with 2) in order to improve data quality and precision. The boreholes also have a multi-level sampling system that indicates the fluid (gas or water) presence in relation to depth. With our results it was possible to map the gas plume position and its area of extension in the sections as it is a positive resistivity anomaly, with the gas level having approximately 5m depth. With the time-lapse analysis (Matlab script) between the obtained 2D resistivity sections from the site, it was possible to map how the biogas volume and position change in the landfill in relation to time. Our preliminary results show a preferential gas pathway through the subsurface studied area. A consistent relation between the gas depth and obtained microbiological data from archea and bacteria population was also observed.

  10. SEGMENTATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TIME LAPSE IMAGE SEQUENCES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF SHORE LINES CAPTURED BY HAND-HELD SMARTPHONE CAMERAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kröhnert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of globally environmental issues gains importance since the last years with still rising trends. Especially disastrous floods may cause in serious damage within very short times. Although conventional gauging stations provide reliable information about prevailing water levels, they are highly cost-intensive and thus just sparsely installed. Smartphones with inbuilt cameras, powerful processing units and low-cost positioning systems seem to be very suitable wide-spread measurement devices that could be used for geo-crowdsourcing purposes. Thus, we aim for the development of a versatile mobile water level measurement system to establish a densified hydrological network of water levels with high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper addresses a key issue of the entire system: the detection of running water shore lines in smartphone images. Flowing water never appears equally in close-range images even if the extrinsics remain unchanged. Its non-rigid behavior impedes the use of good practices for image segmentation as a prerequisite for water line detection. Consequently, we use a hand-held time lapse image sequence instead of a single image that provides the time component to determine a spatio-temporal texture image. Using a region growing concept, the texture is analyzed for immutable shore and dynamic water areas. Finally, the prevalent shore line is examined by the resultant shapes. For method validation, various study areas are observed from several distances covering urban and rural flowing waters with different characteristics. Future work provides a transformation of the water line into object space by image-to-geometry intersection.

  11. Impact of Time Lapse on ASCP Board of Certification Medical Laboratory Scientist (MLS) and Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT) Examination Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Karen A; Fenn, JoAnn P; Freeman, Vicki S; Fisher, Patrick B; Genzen, Jonathan R; Goodyear, Nancy; Houston, Mary Lunz; O'Brien, Mary Elizabeth; Tanabe, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Research in several professional fields has demonstrated that delays (time lapse) in taking certification examinations may result in poorer performance by examinees. Thirteen states and/or territories require licensure for laboratory personnel. A core component of licensure is passing a certification exam. Also, many facilities in states that do not require licensure require certification for employment or preferentially hire certified individuals. To analyze examinee performance on the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) Board of Certification (BOC) Medical Laboratory Scientist (MLS) and Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT) certification examinations to determine whether delays in taking the examination from the time of program completion are associated with poorer performance. We obtained examination data from April 2013 through December 2014 to look for changes in mean (SD) exam scaled scores and overall pass/fail rates. First-time examinees (MLS: n = 6037; MLT, n = 3920) were divided into 3-month categories based on the interval of time between date of program completion and taking the certification exam. We observed significant decreases in mean (SD) scaled scores and pass rates after the first quarter in MLS and MLT examinations for applicants who delayed taking their examination until the second, third, and fourth quarter after completing their training programs. Those who take the ASCP BOC MLS and MLT examinations are encouraged to do so shortly after completion of their educational training programs. Delays in taking an exam are generally not beneficial to the examinee and result in poorer performance on the exam. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP).

  12. Near-surface air temperature lapse rate in a humid mountainous terrain on the southern slopes of the eastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattel, Dambaru Ballab; Yao, Tandong; Panday, Prajjwal Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Based on climatic data from 18 stations on the southern slopes of the eastern Himalayas in Bhutan for the period from 1996 to 2009, this paper investigates monthly characteristics of the near-surface air temperature lapse rate (TLR). The station elevations used in this study range from 300 to 2760 m a. s. l. TLRs were evaluated using a linear regression model. The monthly values of maximum TLRs were always smaller than those of the minimum TLRs, which is in contrast to results from the surrounding mountainous regions. In this study, annual patterns of TLRs were somewhat consistent, particularly in the summer; during the other seasons, patterns contrasted to results from the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (China) and were almost comparable to results from Nepal. The shallowest observed values for TLRs in summer are due to intense latent heating at the higher elevation, associated with water vapor condensation from moist convection and evapotranspiration, and decreasing sensible heating at lower elevation, due to heavier rainfall, cloud, and forest cover. When compared to summer, the steeper TLRs in the non-monsoon season are due to sensible heating at the lower elevations, corresponding to dry and clear weather seasons, as well as increasing cooling at higher elevations, particularly in winter due to snow and cloud cover. Owing to lower albedo and higher aerodynamic roughness of forested areas, the TLRs were considerably reduced in daytime because of the dissipation of sensible heat to the atmospheric boundary layer. The distinct variation in diurnal TLR range is due to the diurnal variation in net radiation associated with reduced turbulent heating in the day and increased turbulent heating in the night, in addition to the effect of moisture and cloud cover. The shallower values of TLRs in this study when compared with the surrounding mountainous regions are due to high humidity, as well as the differing elevations and local climates.

  13. Time-lapse Mise-á-la-Masse measurements and modeling for tracer test monitoring in a shallow aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Maria Teresa; De Vita, Pantaleone; Masciale, Rita; Portoghese, Ivan; Chirico, Giovanni Battista; Cassiani, Giorgio

    2018-06-01

    The main goal of this study is to evaluate the reliability of the Mise-á-la-Masse (MALM) technique associated with saline tracer tests for the characterization of groundwater flow direction and velocity. The experimental site is located in the upper part of the Alento River alluvial plain (Campania Region, Southern Italy). In this paper we present the hydrogeological setting, the experimental setup and the relevant field results. Subsequently, we compare those data against the simulated results obtained with a 3D resistivity model of the test area, coupled with a model describing the Advection - Dispersion equation for continuous tracer injection. In particular, we calculate a series of 3D forward solutions starting from a reference model, all derived from electrical tomography results, but taking into consideration different values of mean flow velocity and directions. Each electrical resistivity 3D model is used to produce synthetic voltage maps for MALM surveys. Finally, the synthetic MALM voltage maps are compared with the ones measured in the field in order to assess the information content of the MALM dataset with respect to the groundwater field characteristics. The results demonstrate that the information content of the MALM data is sufficient to define important characteristics of the aquifer geometry and properties. This work shows how a combination of three-dimensional time-lapse modeling of flow, tracer transport and electrical current can substantially contribute towards a quantitative interpretation of MALM measurements during a saline tracer test. This approach can thus revive the use of MALM as a practical, low cost field technique for tracer test monitoring and aquifer hydrodynamic characterization.

  14. ViCAR: An Adaptive and Landmark-Free Registration of Time Lapse Image Data from Microfluidics Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Hattab

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand gene function in bacterial life cycles, time lapse bioimaging is applied in combination with different marker protocols in so called microfluidics chambers (i.e., a multi-well plate. In one experiment, a series of T images is recorded for one visual field, with a pixel resolution of 60 nm/px. Any (semi-automatic analysis of the data is hampered by a strong image noise, low contrast and, last but not least, considerable irregular shifts during the acquisition. Image registration corrects such shifts enabling next steps of the analysis (e.g., feature extraction or tracking. Image alignment faces two obstacles in this microscopic context: (a highly dynamic structural changes in the sample (i.e., colony growth and (b an individual data set-specific sample environment which makes the application of landmarks-based alignments almost impossible. We present a computational image registration solution, we refer to as ViCAR: (Visual (Cues based (Adaptive (Registration, for such microfluidics experiments, consisting of (1 the detection of particular polygons (outlined and segmented ones, referred to as visual cues, (2 the adaptive retrieval of three coordinates throughout different sets of frames, and finally (3 an image registration based on the relation of these points correcting both rotation and translation. We tested ViCAR with different data sets and have found that it provides an effective spatial alignment thereby paving the way to extract temporal features pertinent to each resulting bacterial colony. By using ViCAR, we achieved an image registration with 99.9% of image closeness, based on the average rmsd of 4.10−2 pixels, and superior results compared to a state of the art algorithm.

  15. Single-cell time-lapse analysis of depletion of the universally conserved essential protein YgjD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann Martin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The essential Escherichia coli gene ygjD belongs to a universally conserved group of genes whose function has been the focus of a number of recent studies. Here, we put ygjD under control of an inducible promoter, and used time-lapse microscopy and single cell analysis to investigate the phenotypic consequences of the depletion of YgjD protein from growing cells. Results We show that loss of YgjD leads to a marked decrease in cell size and termination of cell division. The transition towards smaller size occurs in a controlled manner: cell elongation and cell division remain coupled, but cell size at division decreases. We also find evidence that depletion of YgjD leads to the synthesis of the intracellular signaling molecule (pppGpp, inducing a cellular reaction resembling the stringent response. Concomitant deletion of the relA and spoT genes - leading to a strain that is uncapable of synthesizing (pppGpp - abrogates the decrease in cell size, but does not prevent termination of cell division upon YgjD depletion. Conclusions Depletion of YgjD protein from growing cells leads to a decrease in cell size that is contingent on (pppGpp, and to a termination of cell division. The combination of single-cell timelapse microscopy and statistical analysis can give detailed insights into the phenotypic consequences of the loss of essential genes, and can thus serve as a new tool to study the function of essential genes.

  16. Pre-stack estimation of time-lapse seismic velocity changes : an example from the Sleipner CO2-sequestration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaderi, A.; Landro, M.; Ghaderi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is being injected into a shallow sand formation at around a 1,000 metre depth at the Sleipner Field located in the North Sea. It is expected that the CO 2 injected in the bottom of the formation, will form a plume consisting of CO 2 accumulating in thin lenses during migration up through the reservoir. Several studies have been published using stacked seismic data from 1994, 1999, 2001 and 2002. A thorough analysis of post-stack seismic data from the Sleipner CO2-Sequestration Pilot Project was conducted. Interpretation of seismic data is usually done on post-stack data. For a given subsurface reflection point, seismic data are acquired for various incidence angles, typically 40 angles. These 40 seismic signals are stacked together in order to reduce noise. The term pre-stack refers to seismic data prior to this step. For hydrocarbon-related 4-dimensional seismic studies, travel time shift estimations have been used. This paper compared pre-stack and post-stack estimation of average velocity changes based on measured 4-dimensional travel time shifts. It is more practical to compare estimated velocity changes than the actual travel time changes, since the time shifts vary with offset for pre-stack time-lapse seismic analysis. It was concluded that the pre-stack method gives smaller velocity changes when estimated between two key horizons. Therefore, pre-stack travel time analysis in addition to conventional post-stack analysis is recommended. 6 refs., 12 figs

  17. Segmentation of Environmental Time Lapse Image Sequences for the Determination of Shore Lines Captured by Hand-Held Smartphone Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröhnert, M.; Meichsner, R.

    2017-09-01

    The relevance of globally environmental issues gains importance since the last years with still rising trends. Especially disastrous floods may cause in serious damage within very short times. Although conventional gauging stations provide reliable information about prevailing water levels, they are highly cost-intensive and thus just sparsely installed. Smartphones with inbuilt cameras, powerful processing units and low-cost positioning systems seem to be very suitable wide-spread measurement devices that could be used for geo-crowdsourcing purposes. Thus, we aim for the development of a versatile mobile water level measurement system to establish a densified hydrological network of water levels with high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper addresses a key issue of the entire system: the detection of running water shore lines in smartphone images. Flowing water never appears equally in close-range images even if the extrinsics remain unchanged. Its non-rigid behavior impedes the use of good practices for image segmentation as a prerequisite for water line detection. Consequently, we use a hand-held time lapse image sequence instead of a single image that provides the time component to determine a spatio-temporal texture image. Using a region growing concept, the texture is analyzed for immutable shore and dynamic water areas. Finally, the prevalent shore line is examined by the resultant shapes. For method validation, various study areas are observed from several distances covering urban and rural flowing waters with different characteristics. Future work provides a transformation of the water line into object space by image-to-geometry intersection.

  18. Documentation of normal and leukemic myelopoietic progenitor cells with high-resolution phase-contrast time-lapse cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, I T

    2001-08-01

    The high-resolution phase-contrast, time-lapse cinematography using oil immersion lenses and 16-mm film demonstrates the kinetic cell events as maturation, locomotion, mitosis, and apoptosis of cells cultivated at 37 degrees C for up to 10 days. 0.5 v/v frozen-thawed sera with presumably high cytokine concentrations were added to the plasma or agar clot. Vital progenitor cells from human bone marrow and blood have a large, bright, unstructured nucleus with a large nucleolus and a narrow rim of cytoplasm (nuclear/cytoplasmic volume ratio = 0.7). Their nuclei are 6-14 micrometer in diameter and double their volume within 8 h. Many (70%) move at a mean speed of 2 micrometer/min, and many (30%) multiply with alpha-2alpha mitoses, generating progenitor cell families. Various disturbances during the course of mitosis lead to the formation of polyploid cells, thereby yielding the megakaryocytic cell line. Some of the progenitor cells undergo asymmetric alpha-alphan mitoses: One of the two initially identical daughter cells remains a progenitor cell in the morphological sense, whereas the other daughter cell - depending on the size of its mother cell - matures in the same culture medium to form a granulocytopoietic, monocytopoietic or erythrocytopoietic cell line. - In acute myeloid leukemias (AML), the blasts and their nuclei are slightly larger than the corresponding progenitor cells and move faster (5 micrometer/min). Symmetric alpha-2alpha mitoses permit unlimited multiplication of the leukemic blasts if contact with cytotoxic lymphocytes does not render them apoptotic. This results in more stromal cells than normal. Granulocytopenia, monocytopenia, and anemia occur due to the genetic impairment of signaling control for asymmetric alpha-alphan mitoses, and thrombocytopenia occurs due to the reduction in polyploidization. Copyright 2001 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

  19. Proliferation of pulmonary endothelial cells: time-lapse cinematography of growth to confluence and restitution of monolayer after wounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, U S; Absher, M; Olazabal, B M; Brown, L M; Ryan, J W

    1982-01-01

    A fundamental characteristic of vascular endothelium is that it exists as a monolayer, a condition that must be met in both vascular growth and repair. Maintenance of the monolayer is important both for the exchange of nutrients and for interactions between blood solutes and endothelial enzymes and transport systems. We have used time-lapse cinematography to compare proliferative behavior of bovine pulmonary endothelial cells in (1) establishment of a monolayer from a low-density seed (7.5 X 10(4) cells in a 60 mm dish) and (2) restitution of a confluent monolayer (approx. 2.9 x 10(6) cells in a 60 mm dish) following a mechanical wound (removal of cells from an area 5 x 15 mm by scraping). Culture 2 was not refed after wounding. In culture 2, approx. 30% of the cells accounted for repopulation (confluence in 40 hr). In culture 1, all cells entered into division. Participating cells of culture 2 began division immediately (69 divisions/filmed area in 10 hr, vs. four divisions in culture 1). Interdivision times (IDT) were longer and relatively constant in culture 1 until near confluence; none were less than 10 h, whereas in 2, 24% of the IDT's were less than or equal to 10 hr. Remarkably, IDTs of culture 2 decreased steadily until confluence was re-established. Cell migration in culture 1 was multidirectional while direction of migration in culture 2 was always into the wound area. Mean migration rate (MIG) in culture 2 was related to the site of origin of the cells, those dividing farthest from the unwounded area had fastest MIGs. Neither culture formed more than a single layer of cells. Although the cell kinetics of cultures 1 and 2 differed, the same goal, confluence, was achieved in either case.

  20. Dividing Attention Increases Operational Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleen McCrink

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When adding or subtracting two quantities, adults often compute an estimated outcome that is larger or smaller, respectively, than the actual outcome, a bias referred to as “operational momentum”. The effects of attention on operational momentum were investigated. Participants viewed a display in which two arrays of objects were added, or one array was subtracted from another array, and judged whether a subsequent outcome (probe array contained the correct or incorrect number of objects. In a baseline condition, only the arrays to be added or subtracted were viewed. In divided attention conditions, participants simultaneously viewed a sequence of colors or shapes, and judged which color (a non-spatial judgment or shape (a spatial judgment was repeated. Operational momentum occurred in all conditions, but was higher in divided attention conditions than in the baseline condition, primarily for addition problems. This pattern suggests that dividing attention, rather than decreasing operational momentum by decreasing attentional shifts, actually increased operational momentum. These results are consistent with a heightened use of arithmetic heuristics under conditions of divided attention.

  1. Enhanced attention amplifies face adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Evangelista, Emma; Ewing, Louise; Peters, Marianne; Taylor, Libby

    2011-08-15

    Perceptual adaptation not only produces striking perceptual aftereffects, but also enhances coding efficiency and discrimination by calibrating coding mechanisms to prevailing inputs. Attention to simple stimuli increases adaptation, potentially enhancing its functional benefits. Here we show that attention also increases adaptation to faces. In Experiment 1, face identity aftereffects increased when attention to adapting faces was increased using a change detection task. In Experiment 2, figural (distortion) face aftereffects increased when attention was increased using a snap game (detecting immediate repeats) during adaptation. Both were large effects. Contributions of low-level adaptation were reduced using free viewing (both experiments) and a size change between adapt and test faces (Experiment 2). We suggest that attention may enhance adaptation throughout the entire cortical visual pathway, with functional benefits well beyond the immediate advantages of selective processing of potentially important stimuli. These results highlight the potential to facilitate adaptive updating of face-coding mechanisms by strategic deployment of attentional resources. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Attentional Networks and Biological Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramouli Chandrasekaran

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to see meaningful actions when presented with pointlight traces of human movement is commonly referred to as the perception of biological motion. While traditionalexplanations have emphasized the spontaneous and automatic nature of this ability, morerecent findings suggest that attention may play a larger role than is typically assumed. Intwo studies we show that the speed and accuracy of responding to point-light stimuli is highly correlated with the ability to control selective attention. In our first experiment we measured thresholds for determining the walking direction of a masked point-light figure, and performance on a range of attention-related tasks in the same set of observers. Mask-density thresholds for the direction discrimination task varied quite considerably from observer to observer and this variation was highly correlated with performance on both Stroop and flanker interference tasks. Other components of attention, such as orienting, alerting and visual search efficiency, showed no such relationship. In a second experiment, we examined the relationship between the ability to determine the orientation of unmasked point-light actions and Stroop interference, again finding a strong correlation. Our results are consistent with previous research suggesting that biological motion processing may requite attention, and specifically implicate networks of attention related to executive control and selection.

  3. Selective Attention, Diffused Attention, and the Development of Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei (Sophia); Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    How do people learn categories and what changes with development? The current study attempts to address these questions by focusing on the role of attention in the development of categorization. In Experiment 1, participants (adults, 7-year-olds, and 4-year-olds) were trained with novel categories consisting of deterministic and probabilistic features, and their categorization and memory for features were tested. In Experiment 2, participants’ attention was directed to the deterministic feature, and in Experiment 3 it was directed to the probabilistic features. Attentional cuing affected categorization and memory in adults and 7-year-olds: these participants relied on the cued features in their categorization and exhibited better memory of cued than of non-cued features. In contrast, in 4-year-olds attentional cueing affected only categorization, but not memory: these participants exhibited equally good memory for both cued and non-cued features. Furthermore, across the experiments, 4-year-olds remembered non-cued features better than adults. These results coupled with computational simulations provide novel evidence (1) pointing to differences in category representation and mechanisms of categorization across development, (2) elucidating the role of attention in the development of categorization, and (3) suggesting an important distinction between representation and decision factors in categorization early in development. These issues are discussed with respect to theories of categorization and its development. PMID:27721103

  4. Selective attention, diffused attention, and the development of categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei Sophia; Sloutsky, Vladimir M

    2016-12-01

    How do people learn categories and what changes with development? The current study attempts to address these questions by focusing on the role of attention in the development of categorization. In Experiment 1, participants (adults, 7-year-olds, and 4-year-olds) were trained with novel categories consisting of deterministic and probabilistic features, and their categorization and memory for features were tested. In Experiment 2, participants' attention was directed to the deterministic feature, and in Experiment 3 it was directed to the probabilistic features. Attentional cueing affected categorization and memory in adults and 7-year-olds: these participants relied on the cued features in their categorization and exhibited better memory of cued than of non-cued features. In contrast, in 4-year-olds attentional cueing affected only categorization, but not memory: these participants exhibited equally good memory for both cued and non-cued features. Furthermore, across the experiments, 4-year-olds remembered non-cued features better than adults. These results coupled with computational simulations provide novel evidence (1) pointing to differences in category representation and mechanisms of categorization across development, (2) elucidating the role of attention in the development of categorization, and (3) suggesting an important distinction between representation and decision factors in categorization early in development. These issues are discussed with respect to theories of categorization and its development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Attentional impairment in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbes, Zeineb; Bouden, Asma; Amado, Isabelle; Chantal Bourdel, Marie; Tabbane, Karim; Béchir Halayem, Mohamed

    2009-10-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder currently defined by clinical history and behavioral report of impairment. The Attention Network test (ANT) gives measures of different aspects of the complex process of attention. We ask if children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) will show a characteristic pattern of deficits on this test. The sample included 40 children (M=9 years) who performed the "Attention network test". Children with an ADHD diagnosis (N=20) were compared to a control group (N=20). The group of children with ADHD showed slower reaction times in all conditions (mean RT=866 ms; SD=234,063). Children with ADHD showed a significant impairment in their executive control system compared to healthy subjects, with slower reaction times in incongruent conditions and lower accuracy scores (RT=1064 ms; F(1.38) p=0.02). Our results showed that spatial orienting and alerting in ADHD was no different than controls (p=0,68). ADHD group showed a greater variable response (p=0,0001). The present study showed that impairment in executive control system and variability measures are the characteristic pattern of deficits in children with ADHD.

  6. A Systematic Review of Attention Biases in Opioid, Cannabis, Stimulant Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Melvyn; Ying, Jiangbo; Wing, Tracey; Song, Guo; Fung, Daniel S S; Smith, Helen

    2018-06-01

    Background : Opiates, cannabis, and amphetamines are highly abused, and use of these substances are prevalent disorders. Psychological interventions are crucial given that they help individuals maintain abstinence following a lapse or relapse into substance use. Advances in experimental psychology have suggested that automatic attention biases might be responsible for relapse. Prior reviews have provided evidence for the presence of these biases in addictive disorders and the effectiveness of bias modification. However, the prior studies are limited, as they failed to include trials involving participants with these prevalent addictive disorders or have failed to adopt a systematic approach in evidence synthesis. Objectives : The primary aim of this current systematic review is to synthesise the current evidence for attention biases amongst opioid use, cannabis use, and stimulant use disorders. The secondary aim is to determine the efficacy of attention bias modification interventions and other addictions related outcomes. Methods : A search was conducted from November 2017 to January 2018 on PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Science Direct, Cochrane Central, and Scopus. The selection process of the articles was in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. A qualitative synthesis was undertaken. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Results : Six randomised trials were identified. The evidence synthesized from these trials have provided strong evidence that attentional biases are present in opioid and stimulant use disorders. Evidence synthesis for other secondary outcome measures could not be performed given the heterogeneity in the measures reported and the limited number of trials. The risk of bias assessment for the included trials revealed a high risk of selection and attrition bias. Conclusions : This review demonstrates the potential need for interventions targeting attention

  7. Does mindfulness meditation improve attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Farahmand, Pantea; Chaplin, Margaret; Sarro, Lauren

    2015-12-22

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mindfulness training, derived from Eastern meditation practices, may improve self-regulation of attention. It may also be a useful strategy to augment standard ADHD treatments and may be used as a potential tool to reduce impairments in patients with residual symptoms of ADHD. Clinically, this would manifest by an increased ability to suppress task-unrelated thoughts and distractions resulting in improved attention, completion of tasks and potential improvement in occupational and social function.

  8. Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    "The Advanced Montessori Method, Volume 1" was published in 1918 in English and is considered a seminal work along with "The Montessori Method." In the foreword to this book, Mario Montessori writes: "...the refulgent figure of the child, Dr. Montessori pointed out, who had found his own path to mental health, who…

  9. Estimation of soil hydraulic parameters in the field by integrated hydrogeophysical inversion of time-lapse ground-penetrating radar data

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan

    2012-01-01

    An integrated hydrogeophysical inversion approach was used to remotely infer the unsaturated soil hydraulic parameters from time-lapse ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data collected at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field. The GPR model combines a full-waveform solution of Maxwell\\'s equations for three-dimensional wave propaga- tion in planar layered media together with global reflection and transmission functions to account for the antenna and its interactions with the medium. The hydrological simu- lator HYDRUS-1D was used with a two layer single- and dual-porosity model. The radar model was coupled to the hydrodynamic model, such that the soil electrical properties (permitivity and conductivity) that serve as input to the GPR model become a function of the hydrodynamic model output (water content), thereby permiting estimation of the soil hydraulic parameters from the GPR data in an inversion loop. To monitor the soil water con- tent dynamics, time-lapse GPR and time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements were performed, whereby only GPR data was used in the inversion. Significant effects of water dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR data and in particular precipitation and evaporation events were clearly visible. The dual porosity model provided betier results compared to the single porosity model for describing the soil water dynamics, which is sup- ported by field observations of macropores. Furthermore, the GPR-derived water content profiles reconstructed from the integrated hydrogeophysical inversion were in good agree- ment with TDR observations. These results suggest that the proposed method is promising for non-invasive characterization of the shallow subsurface hydraulic properties and moni- toring water dynamics at the field scale. © Soil Science Society of America.

  10. Time-lapse changes of P- and S-wave velocities and shear wave splitting in the first year after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, Japan: shallow subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawazaki, Kaoru; Snieder, Roel

    2013-04-01

    We detect time-lapse changes in P- and S-wave velocities (hereafter, VP and VS, respectively) and shear wave splitting parameters associated with the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, Japan, at depths between 0 and 504 m. We estimate not only medium parameters but also the 95 per cent confidence interval of the estimated velocity change by applying a new least squares inversion scheme to the deconvolution analysis of KiK-net vertical array records. Up to 6 per cent VS reduction is observed at more than half of the analysed KiK-net stations in northeastern Japan with over 95 per cent confidence in the first month after the main shock. There is a considerable correlation between the S-wave traveltime delay and the maximum horizontal dynamic strain (MDS) by the main shock motion when the strain exceeds 5 × 10- 4 on the ground surface. This correlation is not clearly observed for MDS at the borehole bottom. On the contrary, VP and shear wave splitting parameters do not show systematic changes after the Tohoku earthquake. These results indicate that the time-lapse change is concentrated near the ground surface, especially in loosely packed soil layers. We conclude that the behaviour of VP, VS and shear wave splitting parameters are explained by the generation of omnidirectional cracks near the ground surface and by the diffusion of water in the porous subsurface. Recovery of VS should be related to healing of the crack which is proportional to the logarithm of the lapse time after the main shock and/or to decompaction after shaking.

  11. Supramodal Executive Control of Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFREDO eSPAGNA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The human attentional system can be subdivided into three functional networks of alerting, orienting, and executive control. Although these networks have been extensively studied in the visuospatial modality, whether the same mechanisms are deployed across different sensory modalities remains unclear. In this study we used the attention network test for visuospatial modality, in addition to two auditory variants with spatial and frequency manipulations to examine cross-modal correlations between network functions. Results showed that among the visual and auditory tasks the effects of executive control, but not effects of alerting and orienting were significantly correlated. These findings suggest that while alerting and orienting functions rely more upon modality specific processes, the executive control of attention coordinates complex behavior via supramodal mechanisms.

  12. Grasp cueing and joint attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschentscher, Nadja; Fischer, Martin H

    2008-10-01

    We studied how two different hand posture cues affect joint attention in normal observers. Visual targets appeared over lateralized objects, with different delays after centrally presented hand postures. Attention was cued by either hand direction or the congruency between hand aperture and object size. Participants pressed a button when they detected a target. Direction cues alone facilitated target detection following short delays but aperture cues alone were ineffective. In contrast, when hand postures combined direction and aperture cues, aperture congruency effects without directional congruency effects emerged and persisted, but only for power grips. These results suggest that parallel parameter specification makes joint attention mechanisms exquisitely sensitive to the timing and content of contextual cues.

  13. No iconic memory without attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Arien; Erol, Muge; Clarke, Jason; Bert, John

    2016-02-01

    The experiments reported extend the findings of our earlier paper, (Mack, Erol, & Clarke, 2015) and allow us to reject Bachmann and Aru's critique of our conclusion (2015) that IM requires attention. They suggested our manipulations, which diverted attention from a letter reporting task in a dual task procedure where the task-cue occurred after the array disappeared, might only have affected access to IM and not the "existence of the phenomenal experience". By further decreasing the probability of reporting letters to only 10% and adding a final trial in which the letter matrix was either completely absent or distorted, we found more than half our subjects were unaware of its absence, or distortion i.e., were inattentionally blind. We take this as powerful evidence against the existence of any phenomenal experience component of iconic memory and consistent with the view that iconic memory demands attention and that conscious perception does as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Timing attention : Cuing target onset interval attenuates the attentional blink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, S; Johnson, A

    Three experiments tested whether the attentional blink (AB; a deficit in reporting the second of two targets when it occurs 200-500 msec after the first) can be attenuated by providing information about the target onset asynchrony (TOA) of the second target relative to the first. Blocking the TOA

  15. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Campos, Juan A; Aznar-Casanova, J Antonio; Bezerra, Izabela; Torro-Alves, Nelson; Sánchez, Manuel M

    2015-01-01

    To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]). Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, participants simply had to identify a target letter (T1), whereas in the dual task, they had to identify a target letter (T1) and a probe letter (T2). The ADHD and control groups were equivalent in their single-task performance. However, in the dual-task condition, there were significant between-group differences in the rate of detection of the probe letter (T2) at lag + 1 and lag + 4. The ADHD group exhibited a larger overall AB compared with controls. Our findings provide support for a link between ADHD and attentional blink.

  16. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Amador-Campos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task in which two letters (T1 and T2 were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB].Method:Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, participants simply had to identify a target letter (T1, whereas in the dual task, they had to identify a target letter (T1 and a probe letter (T2.Results:The ADHD and control groups were equivalent in their single-task performance. However, in the dual-task condition, there were significant between-group differences in the rate of detection of the probe letter (T2 at lag + 1 and lag + 4. The ADHD group exhibited a larger overall AB compared with controls.Conclusion:Our findings provide support for a link between ADHD and attentional blink.

  17. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  18. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  19. Time-Lapse Monitoring of an Engineering Scaled Excavation at Federal District, Brazil by Passive Ambient NoiseInterferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Soto, M., Sr.; Hussain, Y.; Martinez-Carvajal, H., Sr.; Martino, S., Sr.; Rocha, M., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    gave Rayleigh wave velocity changes (dv/v=-dt/t). These changes correlated well with initiation and propagation of fracture at the face of this normal slope. It is concluded that cost effective technique, PANI has a good potential for the monitoring of time lapse changes of evolving fractures.

  20. Attention processes in chronic fatigue syndrome: attentional bias for health-related threat and the role of attentional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ruihua; Moss-Morris, Rona; Risdale, Anna; Lynch, Jeannette; Jeevaratnam, Preshan; Bradley, Brendan P; Mogg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural models of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) propose that attention processes, specifically, enhanced selective attention to health-threat related cues, may play an important role in symptom maintenance. The current study investigated attentional bias towards health-threat stimuli in CFS. It also examined whether individuals with CFS have impaired executive attention, and whether this was related to attentional bias. 27 participants with CFS and 35 healthy controls completed a Visual Probe Task measuring attentional bias, and an Attention Network Test measuring executive attention, alerting and orienting. Participants also completed self-report measures of CFS and mood symptoms. Compared to the control group, the CFS group showed greater attentional bias for health-threat words than pictures; and the CFS group was significantly impaired in executive attention. Furthermore, CFS individuals with poor executive attention showed greater attentional bias to health-threat related words, compared not only to controls but also to CFS individuals with good executive attention. Thus, this study revealed a significant relationship between attentional bias and executive attention in CFS: attentional bias to threat was primarily evident in those with impaired executive attention control. Taking account of individual differences in executive attention control in current intervention models may be beneficial for CFS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Soovimatud lapsed / Jaak Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Jaak

    2007-01-01

    60-nda Cannes'i filmifestivali filme : Christian Mungiu "Neli kuud, kolm nädalat ja kaks päeva" (Rumeenia) ; Ethan ja Joel Coen'i "Pole maad vanadele meestele" ("No Country for Old Men" ; Ameerika Ühendriigid), Andrei Zvjagintsevi "Pagendus" (Izgnanije" ; muusika Arvo Pärdilt ; Venemaa) ; Kadri Kõusaare "Magnus"

  2. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Overview Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental health disorder that includes a combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty paying attention, ...

  3. Modality-specificity of Selective Attention Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Hannah J.; Amitay, Sygal

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish the modality specificity and generality of selective attention networks. Method: Forty-eight young adults completed a battery of four auditory and visual selective attention tests based upon the Attention Network framework: the visual and auditory Attention Network Tests (vANT, aANT), the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA), and the Test of Attention in Listening (TAiL). These provided independent measures for auditory and visual alerting, orienting, and conflict resoluti...

  4. System for assessing classroom attention.

    OpenAIRE

    Raca Mirko; Dillenbourg Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give a preview of our system for automatically evaluating attention in the classroom. We demonstrate our current behaviour metrics and preliminary observations on how they reflect the reactions of people to the given lecture. We also introduce foundations of our hypothesis on peripheral awareness of students during lectures.

  5. Joint Attention and Anthropological Difference

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2014), s. 59-70 ISSN 1718-0198 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP401/10/1164 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : joint attention * anthropological difference * phenomenology * great apes * shared intentionality Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  6. Attention: A Machine Learning Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai

    2012-01-01

    We review a statistical machine learning model of top-down task driven attention based on the notion of ‘gist’. In this framework we consider the task to be represented as a classification problem with two sets of features — a gist of coarse grained global features and a larger set of low...

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-10

    This podcast discusses Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, the most common behavioral disorder in children. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment.  Created: 4/10/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  8. Cumulative Development of Attentional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.

    1982-01-01

    Describes current work in selective attention within a framework of research conducted over the past century. Presents evidence that findings at the level of performance, subjective experience, and neural systems can be linked, even though these findings are not yet reducible to a single theory. (Author/GC)

  9. Thinking of God Moves Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasteen, Alison L.; Burdzy, Donna C.; Pratt, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The concepts of God and Devil are well known across many cultures and religions, and often involve spatial metaphors, but it is not well known if our mental representations of these concepts affect visual cognition. To examine if exposure to divine concepts produces shifts of attention, participants completed a target detection task in which they…

  10. Attention & Cognitive Style, FY 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John C.

    A study is presented which concentrates on the development of a cognitive style assessment instrument for 3- to 8-year-olds and on a series of studies designed to evaluate the role of stylistic and attentional processes in the development of various competencies in young children. This report incorporates a manual for users, a technical report on…

  11. Attentional Bias in Math Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly eRubinsten

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math. Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of math anxiety and 13 with low levels of math anxiety were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of 6 types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, were presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks. Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in math anxiety. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words. These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense math anxiety symptoms.

  12. Attentional bias in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Eidlin, Hili; Wohl, Hadas; Akibli, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety (MA) as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math). Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of MA and 13 with low levels of MA) were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of six types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, was presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks) that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks). Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in MA. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words). These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense MA symptoms.

  13. Attentional episodes in visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

    Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks

  14. Modelling of Attentional Dwell Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    . This confinement of attentional resources leads to the impairment in identifying the second target. With the model, we are able to produce close fits to data from the traditional two target dwell time paradigm. A dwell-time experiment with three targets has also been carried out for individual subjects...... and the model has been extended to fit these data....

  15. The attentional blink in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popple, Ariella V; Levi, Dennis M

    2008-10-31

    Amblyopia is a disorder of visual acuity in one eye, thought to arise from suppression by the other eye during development of the visual cortex. In the attentional blink, the second of two targets (T2) in a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) stream is difficult to detect and identify when it appears shortly but not immediately after the first target (T1). We investigated the attentional blink seen through amblyopic eyes and found that it was less finely tuned in time than when the 12 amblyopic observers viewed the stimuli with their preferred eyes. T2 performance was slightly better through amblyopic eyes two frames after T1 but worse one frame after T1. Previously (A. V. Popple & D. M. Levi, 2007), we showed that when the targets were red letters in a stream of gray letters (or vice versa), normal observers frequently confused T2 with the letters before and after it (neighbor errors). Observers viewing through their amblyopic eyes made significantly fewer neighbor errors and more T2 responses consisting of letters that were never presented. In normal observers, T1 (on the rare occasions when it was reported incorrectly) was often confused with the letter immediately after it. Viewing through their amblyopic eyes, observers with amblyopia made more responses to the letter immediately before T1. These results suggest that childhood suppression of the input from amblyopic eyes disrupts attentive processing. We hypothesize reduced connectivity between monocularly tuned lower visual areas, subcortical structures that drive foveal attention, and more frontal regions of the brain responsible for letter recognition and working memory. Perhaps when viewing through their amblyopic eyes, the observers were still processing the letter identity of a prior distractor when the color flash associated with the target was detected. After T1, unfocused temporal attention may have bound together erroneously the features of succeeding letters, resulting in the appearance of

  16. Application of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring for the Control and Optimization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Toelle

    2008-11-30

    This project, 'Application of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring for the Control and Optimization of CO{sub 2} Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations', investigated the potential for monitoring CO{sub 2} floods in carbonate reservoirs through the use of standard p-wave seismic data. This primarily involved the use of 4D seismic (time lapse seismic) in an attempt to observe and map the movement of the injected CO{sub 2} through a carbonate reservoir. The differences between certain seismic attributes, such as amplitude, were used for this purpose. This technique has recently been shown to be effective in CO{sub 2} monitoring in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects, such as Weyborne. This study was conducted in the Charlton 30/31 field in the northern Michigan Basin, which is a Silurian pinnacle reef that completed its primary production in 1997 and was scheduled for enhanced oil recovery using injected CO{sub 2}. Prior to injection an initial 'Base' 3D survey was obtained over the field and was then processed and interpreted. CO{sub 2} injection within the main portion of the reef was conducted intermittently during 13 months starting in August 2005. During this time, 29,000 tons of CO{sub 2} was injected into the Guelph formation, historically known as the Niagaran Brown formation. By September 2006, the reservoir pressure within the reef had risen to approximately 2000 lbs and oil and water production from the one producing well within the field had increased significantly. The determination of the reservoir's porosity distribution, a critical aspect of reservoir characterization and simulation, proved to be a significant portion of this project. In order to relate the differences observed between the seismic attributes seen on the multiple 3D seismic surveys and the actual location of the CO{sub 2}, a predictive reservoir simulation model was developed based on seismic attributes obtained from the base 3D seismic survey and available well data. This

  17. Human treadmill walking needs attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Olivier

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to assess the attentional requirements of steady state treadmill walking in human subjects using a dual task paradigm. The extent of decrement of a secondary (cognitive RT task provides a measure of the attentional resources required to maintain performance of the primary (locomotor task. Varying the level of difficulty of the reaction time (RT task is used to verify the priority of allocation of attentional resources. Methods 11 healthy adult subjects were required to walk while simultaneously performing a RT task. Participants were instructed to bite a pressure transducer placed in the mouth as quickly as possible in response to an unpredictable electrical stimulation applied on the back of the neck. Each subject was tested under five different experimental conditions: simple RT task alone and while walking, recognition RT task alone and while walking, walking alone. A foot switch system composed of a pressure sensitive sensor was placed under the heel and forefoot of each foot to determine the gait cycle duration. Results Gait cycle duration was unchanged (p > 0.05 by the addition of the RT task. Regardless of the level of difficulty of the RT task, the RTs were longer during treadmill walking than in sitting conditions (p 0.05 was found between the attentional demand of the walking task and the decrement of performance found in the RT task under varying levels of difficulty. This finding suggests that the healthy subjects prioritized the control of walking at the expense of cognitive performance. Conclusion We conclude that treadmill walking in young adults is not a purely automatic task. The methodology and outcome measures used in this study provide an assessment of the attentional resources required by walking on the treadmill at a steady state.

  18. Time-lapse 3-D measurements of a glucose biosensor in multicellular spheroids by light sheet fluorescence microscopy in commercial 96-well plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maioli, Vincent; Chennell, George; Sparks, Hugh; Lana, Tobia; Kumar, Sunil; Carling, David; Sardini, Alessandro; Dunsby, Chris

    2016-11-25

    Light sheet fluorescence microscopy has previously been demonstrated on a commercially available inverted fluorescence microscope frame using the method of oblique plane microscopy (OPM). In this paper, OPM is adapted to allow time-lapse 3-D imaging of 3-D biological cultures in commercially available glass-bottomed 96-well plates using a stage-scanning OPM approach (ssOPM). Time-lapse 3-D imaging of multicellular spheroids expressing a glucose Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor is demonstrated in 16 fields of view with image acquisition at 10 minute intervals. As a proof-of-principle, the ssOPM system is also used to acquire a dose response curve with the concentration of glucose in the culture medium being varied across 42 wells of a 96-well plate with the whole acquisition taking 9 min. The 3-D image data enable the FRET ratio to be measured as a function of distance from the surface of the spheroid. Overall, the results demonstrate the capability of the OPM system to measure spatio-temporal changes in FRET ratio in 3-D in multicellular spheroids over time in a multi-well plate format.

  19. Assessment of human embryo development using morphological criteria in an era of time-lapse, algorithms and 'OMICS': is looking good still important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, David K; Balaban, Basak

    2016-10-01

    With the worldwide move towards single embryo transfer there has been a renewed focus on the requirement for reliable means of assessing embryo viability. In an era of 'OMICS' technologies, and algorithms created through the use of time-lapse microscopy, the actual appearance of the human embryo as it progresses through each successive developmental stage to the blastocyst appears to have been somewhat neglected in recent years. Here we review the key features of the human preimplantation embryo and consider the relationship between morphological characteristics and developmental potential. Further, the impact of the culture environment on morphological traits, how key morphological qualities reflect aspects of embryo physiology, and how computer-assisted analysis of embryo morphology may facilitate a more quantitative approach to selection are discussed. The clinical introduction of time-lapse systems has reopened our eyes and given us a new vantage point from which to view the beauty of the initial stages of human life. Rather than a future in which the morphology of the embryo is deemed irrelevant, we propose that key features, such as multinucleation, cell size and blastocyst differentiation should be included in future iterations of selection/deselection algorithms. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved.For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. In-vivo third-harmonic generation microscopy at 1550nm three-dimensional long-term time-lapse studies in living C. elegans embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviles-Espinosa, Rodrigo; Santos, Susana I. C. O.; Brodschelm, Andreas; Kaenders, Wilhelm G.; Alonso-Ortega, Cesar; Artigas, David; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2011-03-01

    In-vivo microscopic long term time-lapse studies require controlled imaging conditions to preserve sample viability. Therefore it is crucial to meet specific exposure conditions as these may limit the applicability of established techniques. In this work we demonstrate the use of third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy for long term time-lapse three-dimensional studies (4D) in living Caenorhabditis elegans embryos employing a 1550 nm femtosecond fiber laser. We take advantage of the fact that THG only requires the existence of interfaces to generate signal or a change in the refractive index or in the χ3 nonlinear coefficient, therefore no markers are required. In addition, by using this wavelength the emitted THG signal is generated at visible wavelengths (516 nm) enabling the use of standard collection optics and detectors operating near their maximum efficiency. This enables the reduction of the incident light intensity at the sample plane allowing to image the sample for several hours. THG signal is obtained through all embryo development stages, providing different tissue/structure information. By means of control samples, we demonstrate that the expected water absorption at this wavelength does not severely compromise sample viability. Certainly, this technique reduces the complexity of sample preparation (i.e. genetic modification) required by established linear and nonlinear fluorescence based techniques. We demonstrate the non-invasiveness, reduced specimen interference, and strong potential of this particular wavelength to be used to perform long-term 4D recordings.

  1. Visual attention: The past 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on covert attention and how it alters early vision. I explain why attention is considered a selective process, the constructs of covert attention, spatial endogenous and exogenous attention, and feature-based attention. I explain how in the last 25 years research on attention has characterized the effects of covert attention on spatial filters and how attention influences the selection of stimuli of interest. This review includes the effects of spatial attention on discriminability and appearance in tasks mediated by contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution; the effects of feature-based attention on basic visual processes, and a comparison of the effects of spatial and feature-based attention. The emphasis of this review is on psychophysical studies, but relevant electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies and models regarding how and where neuronal responses are modulated are also discussed. PMID:21549742

  2. Towards a trust and attention based management concept : paying attention to attention first

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henny van Lienden; Marco Oteman

    2014-01-01

    Last year in Klagenfurt a poster was presented, in which a first attempt was made to combine institutional economic theory with organizational theory under the motto: transaction costs can be influenced! A framework of 4 theories was constructed of Social Capital theory, Attention Theory, Proactive

  3. Paying attention to attention: evidence for an attentional contribution to the size congruity effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risko, Evan F; Maloney, Erin A; Fugelsang, Jonathan A

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the mechanisms supporting our comprehension of magnitude information represents a key goal in cognitive psychology. A major phenomenon employed in the pursuit of this goal has been the physical size congruity effect-namely, the observation that comparing the relative numerical sizes of two numbers is influenced by their relative physical sizes. The standard account of the physical size congruity effect attributes it to the automatic influence of the comparison of irrelevant physical magnitudes on numerical judgments. Here we develop an alternative account of this effect on the basis of the operation of attention in the typical size congruity display and the temporal dynamics of number comparison. We also provide a test of a number of predictions derived from this alternative account by combining a physical size congruity manipulation with a manipulation designed to alter the operation of attention within the typical size congruity display (i.e., a manipulation of the relative onsets of the digits). This test provides evidence consistent with an attentional contribution to the size congruity effect. Implications for our understanding of magnitude and the interactions between attention and magnitude are discussed.

  4. Time-Lapse Analysis of Methane Quantity in the Mary Lee Group of Coal Seams Using Filter-Based Multiple-Point Geostatistical Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, C Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A

    2013-08-01

    Coal seam degasification and its success are important for controlling methane, and thus for the health and safety of coal miners. During the course of degasification, properties of coal seams change. Thus, the changes in coal reservoir conditions and in-place gas content as well as methane emission potential into mines should be evaluated by examining time-dependent changes and the presence of major heterogeneities and geological discontinuities in the field. In this work, time-lapsed reservoir and fluid storage properties of the New Castle coal seam, Mary Lee/Blue Creek seam, and Jagger seam of Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, were determined from gas and water production history matching and production forecasting of vertical degasification wellbores. These properties were combined with isotherm and other important data to compute gas-in-place (GIP) and its change with time at borehole locations. Time-lapsed training images (TIs) of GIP and GIP difference corresponding to each coal and date were generated by using these point-wise data and Voronoi decomposition on the TI grid, which included faults as discontinuities for expansion of Voronoi regions. Filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulations, which were preferred in this study due to anisotropies and discontinuities in the area, were used to predict time-lapsed GIP distributions within the study area. Performed simulations were used for mapping spatial time-lapsed methane quantities as well as their uncertainties within the study area. The systematic approach presented in this paper is the first time in literature that history matching, TIs of GIPs and filter simulations are used for degasification performance evaluation and for assessing GIP for mining safety. Results from this study showed that using production history matching of coalbed methane wells to determine time-lapsed reservoir data could be used to compute spatial GIP and representative GIP TIs generated through Voronoi decomposition

  5. A Real Attention-Getter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    While most parents would agree that playing videos games is the antithesis of time well spent for their children, recent advances involving NASA biofeedback technology are proving otherwise. The same techniques used to measure brain activity in NASA pilots during flight simulation exercises are now a part of a revolutionary video game system that is helping to improve overall mental awareness for Americans of all ages, including those who suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

  6. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, D C

    1990-09-01

    The attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common chronic disorder of childhood. No precise definition or approach to treatment is universally accepted; however, an extensive literature exists on which to base a rational approach to management. Symptomatic treatment with stimulant medication in selected patients is effective and safe, but not curative. Successful outcome depends on multimodality therapy, involving parents, teachers, and other professionals. Associated conditions, including learning disorders and emotional disturbance, must be identified and dealt with.

  7. Early vision and visual attention

    OpenAIRE

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2003-01-01

    The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT), based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constru...

  8. Spatial attention during saccade decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonikaitis, Donatas; Klapetek, Anna; Deubel, Heiner

    2017-07-01

    Behavioral measures of decision making are usually limited to observations of decision outcomes. In the present study, we made use of the fact that oculomotor and sensory selection are closely linked to track oculomotor decision making before oculomotor responses are made. We asked participants to make a saccadic eye movement to one of two memorized target locations and observed that visual sensitivity increased at both the chosen and the nonchosen saccade target locations, with a clear bias toward the chosen target. The time course of changes in visual sensitivity was related to saccadic latency, with the competition between the chosen and nonchosen targets resolved faster before short-latency saccades. On error trials, we observed an increased competition between the chosen and nonchosen targets. Moreover, oculomotor selection and visual sensitivity were influenced by top-down and bottom-up factors as well as by selection history and predicted the direction of saccades. Our findings demonstrate that saccade decisions have direct visual consequences and show that decision making can be traced in the human oculomotor system well before choices are made. Our results also indicate a strong association between decision making, saccade target selection, and visual sensitivity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that saccadic decisions can be tracked by measuring spatial attention. Spatial attention is allocated in parallel to the two competing saccade targets, and the time course of spatial attention differs for fast-slow and for correct-erroneous decisions. Saccade decisions take the form of a competition between potential saccade goals, which is associated with spatial attention allocation to those locations. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  10. 29 CFR 785.43 - Medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical attention. 785.43 Section 785.43 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.43 Medical attention. Time spent by an employee in waiting for and receiving medical attention on the premises or at the direction...

  11. The pharmacology of visuospatial attention and inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logemann, H.N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Attention and inhibition are of vital importance in everyday functioning. Problems of attention and inhibition are central to disorders such as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Both bias and disengagement key components of visuospatial attention. Bias refers to neuronal signals that

  12. Attentional Disengagement in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lense, Miriam D.; Key, Alexandra P.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a distinctive behavioral and cognitive profile, including widespread problems with attention. However, the specific nature of their attentional difficulties, such as inappropriate attentional allocation and/or poor attentional disengagement abilities, has yet to be…

  13. Does imminent threat capture and hold attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Ernst H W; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan; Verschuere, Bruno; De Houwer, Jan

    2004-09-01

    According to models of attention and emotion, threat captures and holds attention. In behavioral tasks, robust evidence has been found for attentional holding but not for attentional capture by threat. An important explanation for the absence of attentional capture effects is that the visual stimuli used posed no genuine threat. The present study investigated whether visual cues that signal an aversive white noise can elicit attentional capture and holding effects. Cues presented in an attentional task were simultaneously provided with a threat value through an aversive conditioning procedure. Response latencies showed that threatening cues captured and held attention. These results support recent views on attention to threat, proposing that imminent threat captures attention in everyone. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Abnormal late visual responses and alpha oscillations in neurofibromatosis type 1: a link to visual and attention deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) affects several areas of cognitive function including visual processing and attention. We investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the visual deficits of children and adolescents with NF1 by studying visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and brain oscillations during visual stimulation and rest periods. Methods Electroencephalogram/event-related potential (EEG/ERP) responses were measured during visual processing (NF1 n = 17; controls n = 19) and idle periods with eyes closed and eyes open (NF1 n = 12; controls n = 14). Visual stimulation was chosen to bias activation of the three detection mechanisms: achromatic, red-green and blue-yellow. Results We found significant differences between the groups for late chromatic VEPs and a specific enhancement in the amplitude of the parieto-occipital alpha amplitude both during visual stimulation and idle periods. Alpha modulation and the negative influence of alpha oscillations in visual performance were found in both groups. Conclusions Our findings suggest abnormal later stages of visual processing and enhanced amplitude of alpha oscillations supporting the existence of deficits in basic sensory processing in NF1. Given the link between alpha oscillations, visual perception and attention, these results indicate a neural mechanism that might underlie the visual sensitivity deficits and increased lapses of attention observed in individuals with NF1. PMID:24559228

  15. Components of Attention in Synesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Nordfang, Maria; Pedersen, Michael Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    -color synesthesia (Mattingley, 2009). Results from the present experiment show that synesthesia affects both speed of processing (C) and the number of objects that can be retained in visual short-term memory (K). Participants were faster at encoding characters that were colored congruently with their synesthesia....... In addition, the capacity of the visual short-term memory increased slightly in the congruent compared to the incongruent condition. Interestingly, congruent trials compared to incongruent trials did not seem to afford bene¿ ts to attentional selectivity (a), nor did they affect the threshold for visual...

  16. Visual Attention to Radar Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, N.; Richards, M.; Brophy, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model is described which predicts the allocation of attention to the features of a radar display. It uses the growth of uncertainty and the probability of near collision to call the eye to a feature of the display. The main source of uncertainty is forgetting following a fixation, which is modelled as a two dimensional diffusion process. The model was used to predict information overload in intercept controllers, and preliminary validation obtained by recording eye movements of intercept controllers in simulated and live (practice) interception.

  17. Reducing attentional capture of emotion by broadening attention: increased global attention reduces early electrophysiological responses to negative stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Philip A; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2012-05-01

    Decades of research has shown the influence of emotion on attentional capture, and more recently, the influence of emotion on neurophysiological processes related to attentional capture. The current research tested whether some of the earliest neurophysiological underpinnings of emotive attentional processes can be influenced by attentional manipulations of broadening versus narrowing. Previous research has shown that negative affects high in motivational intensity (e.g., disgust, fear) cause a relative narrowing of attentional scope (Gable and Harmon-Jones, 2010a; Easterbrook, 1959). Because of the strong link between motivation and attention, attentional scope should also influence the attentional capture of negative stimuli. The current study manipulated a local attentional scope or global attentional scope, then measured attentional capture towards disgust and neutral pictures using the N1 event-related potential component. Results revealed that a manipulated global attentional scope reduced N1 amplitude towards disgust pictures compared to a manipulated local attentional scope. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Speed of Feature-Based Attention: Attentional Advantage Is Slow, but Selection Is Fast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liqiang

    2010-01-01

    When paying attention to a feature (e.g., red), no attentional advantage is gained in perceiving items with this feature in very brief displays. Therefore, feature-based attention seems to be slow. In previous feature-based attention studies, attention has often been measured as the difference in performance in a secondary task. In our recent work…

  19. Deficient attention is hard to find: applying the perceptual load model of selective attention to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L; Nigg, Joel T; Carr, Thomas H

    2005-11-01

    Whether selective attention is a primary deficit in childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) remains in active debate. We used the perceptual load paradigm to examine both early and late selective attention in children with the Primarily Inattentive (ADHD-I) and Combined subtypes (ADHD-C) of ADHD. No evidence emerged for selective attention deficits in either of the subtypes, but sluggish cognitive tempo was associated with abnormal early selection. At least some, and possibly most, children with DSM-IV ADHD have normal selective attention. Results support the move away from theories of attention dysfunction as primary in ADHD-C. In ADHD-I, this was one of the first formal tests of posterior attention network dysfunction, and results did not support that theory. However, ADHD children with sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) warrant more study for possible early selective attention deficits.

  20. Application of RVA and Time-Lapse Photography to Explore Effects of Extent of Chlorination, Milling Extraction Rate, and Particle-Size Reduction of Flour on Cake-Baking Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three factors (extent of chlorination, milling extraction rate and particle-size reduction) in the cake-bakeing functionality of Croplan 594W flour were explored by Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA) and time-lapse photography. The extent of chlorination and milling extraction rate showed dramatic effects,...

  1. Raputatud lapse sündroomi mõiste, olemus, tuvastamine ja ennetamine : [bakalaureusetöö] / Hettel Varik ; Tartu Ülikooli Õigusinstituut ; juhendaja: Endla Ülviste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Varik, Hettel

    2006-01-01

    Raputatud lapse sündroomi (RLS) mõiste, olemus ja probleemi teadvustamine, RLS-i põhjustanud tegevuse kui kuriteo tuvastamine, süüteo subjektiivse koosseisu sisustamine, kohtulahendid, RLS-i vältimise võimalikkusest, RLS-i tekitaja karistamine

  2. Time-lapse cinematography study of the germinal vesicle behaviour in mouse primary oocytes treated with activators of protein kinases A and C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, H; Mulnard, J

    1988-12-01

    A passive erratic movement of the germinal vesicle (GV), already visible in small incompetent oocytes, is followed by an active scalloping of the nuclear membrane soon before GV breakdown (GVBD) in cultured competent oocytes. Maturation can be inhibited by activators of protein kinase A (PK-A) and protein kinase C (PK-C). Our time-lapse cinematography analysis allowed us to describe an unexpected behaviour of the GV when PK-C, but not PK-A, is activated: GV undergoes a displacement toward the cortex according to the same biological clock which triggers the programmed translocation of the spindle in control oocytes. It is concluded that, when oocytes become committed to undergo maturation, the cytoplasm acquires a PK-A-controlled "centrifugal displacement property" which is not restricted to the spindle.

  3. Improvements of a COMS Land Surface Temperature Retrieval Algorithm Based on the Temperature Lapse Rate and Water Vapor/Aerosol Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-Ra Cho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Meteorological Satellite Center in Korea retrieves land surface temperature (LST by applying the split-window LST algorithm (CSW_v1.0 to Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS data. Considerable errors were detected under conditions of high water vapor content or temperature lapse rates during validation with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS LST because of the too simplified LST algorithm. In this study, six types of LST retrieval equations (CSW_v2.0 were developed to upgrade the CSW_v1.0. These methods were developed by classifying “dry,” “normal,” and “wet” cases for day and night and considering the relative sizes of brightness temperature difference (BTD values. Similar to CSW_v1.0, the LST retrieved by CSW_v2.0 had a correlation coefficient of 0.99 with the prescribed LST and a slightly larger bias of −0.03 K from 0.00K; the root mean square error (RMSE improved from 1.41 K to 1.39 K. In general, CSW_v2.0 improved the retrieval accuracy compared to CSW_v1.0, especially when the lapse rate was high (mid-day and dawn and the water vapor content was high. The spatial distributions of LST retrieved by CSW_v2.0 were found to be similar to the MODIS LST independently of the season, day/night, and geographic locations. The validation using one year’s MODIS LST data showed that CSW_v2.0 improved the retrieval accuracy of LST in terms of correlations (from 0.988 to 0.989, bias (from −1.009 K to 0.292 K, and RMSEs (from 2.613 K to 2.237 K.

  4. MONITORING EROSION OF STONE SURFACES USING TIME-LAPSE AND PTM PHOTOGRAPHY: FIELD STUDY OF A 14TH CENTURY MONASTERY IN YORKSHIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehne, E.; Pinchin, S.

    2009-12-01

    Evaluating stone weathering rates and their relationship to environmental fluctuations is an important challenge in understanding the critical zone and also in efforts to prevent the loss of important cultural heritage in stone, such as monuments, sculpture and archaeological sites. Repeat photography has been widely used to evaluate geological processes such as the retreat of glaciers and the weathering of stone surfaces. However, a fundamental difficulty is that the images are often shot under differing lighting conditions, making the interpretation of stone surface loss particularly challenging. Two developments in photographic documentation show promise for improving the situation. One is the use of digital time-lapse methods to provide more frequent images to correlate stone surface loss with ongoing environmental changes. The other is a relatively new method known as polynomial transform mapping (PTM), which integrates multiple photographs taken at different angles to document more comprehensively the texture of stone surfaces. Using Java-based software, the viewer can control the precise angle of the light source in an interpolated, high-quality image. PTM can produce raking light images from any angle, as well as images with ‘normal’ illumination. We present here results based on several years of macro-photography, time-lapse imaging, and PTM imaging of rapidly eroding stone surfaces at the site of Howden Minster in Yorkshire, UK, which suffers from salt weathering. The images show that surface loss is episodic rather than continuous and in some cases is related to unusual environmental conditions, such as high winds and condensation events. Damage was also found to be synchronous, with surface change (flaking, granular disintegration, and loss of flakes) occurring at the same time in different stone blocks. Crystallization pressure from phase transitions in magnesium sulfate salts appears to be the main cause of the loss of stone surfaces.

  5. Three-dimensional quantification of orthodontic root resorption with time-lapsed imaging of micro-computed tomography in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chongshi; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yan; Fan, Yubo; Deng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Despite various X-ray approaches have been widely used to monitor root resorption after orthodontic treatment, a non-invasive and accurate method is highly desirable for long-term follow up. The aim of this study was to build a non-invasive method to quantify longitudinal orthodontic root resorption with time-lapsed images of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) in a rodent model. Twenty male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (aged 6-8 weeks, weighing 180-220 g) were used in this study. A 25 g orthodontic force generated by nickel-titanium coil spring was applied to the right maxillary first molar for each rat, while contralateral first molar was severed as a control. Micro-CT scan was performed at day 0 (before orthodontic load) and days 3, 7, 14, and 28 after orthodontic load. Resorption of mesial root of maxillary first molars at bilateral sides was calculated from micro-CT images with registration algorithm via reconstruction, superimposition and partition operations. Obvious resorption of mesial root of maxillary first molar can be detected at day 14 and day 28 at orthodontic side. Most of the resorption occurred in the apical region at distal side and cervical region at mesiolingual side. Desirable development of molar root of rats was identified from day 0 to day 28 at control side. The development of root concentrated on apical region. This non-invasive 3D quantification method with registration algorithm can be used in longitudinal study of root resorption. Obvious root resorption in rat molar can be observed three-dimensionally at day 14 and day 28 after orthodontic load. This indicates that registration algorithm combined with time-lapsed images provides clinic potential application in detection and quantification of root contour.

  6. Noninferiority, randomized, controlled trial comparing embryo development using media developed for sequential or undisturbed culture in a time-lapse setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardarson, Thorir; Bungum, Mona; Conaghan, Joe; Meintjes, Marius; Chantilis, Samuel J; Molnar, Laszlo; Gunnarsson, Kristina; Wikland, Matts

    2015-12-01

    To study whether a culture medium that allows undisturbed culture supports human embryo development to the blastocyst stage equivalently to a well-established sequential media. Randomized, double-blinded sibling trial. Independent in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. One hundred twenty-eight patients, with 1,356 zygotes randomized into two study arms. Embryos randomly allocated into two study arms to compare embryo development on a time-lapse system using a single-step medium or sequential media. Percentage of good-quality blastocysts on day 5. Percentage of day 5 good-quality blastocysts was 21.1% (standard deviation [SD] ± 21.6%) and 22.2% (SD ± 22.1%) in the single-step time-lapse medium (G-TL) and the sequential media (G-1/G-2) groups, respectively. The mean difference (-1.2; 95% CI, -6.0; 3.6) between the two media systems for the primary end point was less than the noninferiority margin of -8%. There was a statistically significantly lower number of good-quality embryos on day 3 in the G-TL group [50.7% (SD ± 30.6%) vs. 60.8% (SD ± 30.7%)]. Four out of the 11 measured morphokinetic parameters were statistically significantly different for the two media used. The mean levels of ammonium concentration in the media at the end of the culture period was statistically significantly lower in the G-TL group as compared with the G-2 group. We have shown that a single-step culture medium supports blastocyst development equivalently to established sequential media. The ammonium concentrations were lower in the single-step media, and the measured morphokinetic parameters were modified somewhat. NCT01939626. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling of time-lapse multi-scale seismic monitoring of CO2 injected into a fault zone to enhance the characterization of permeability in enhanced geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Borgia, A.; Daley, T. M.; Oldenburg, C. M.; Jung, Y.; Lee, K. J.; Doughty, C.; Altundas, B.; Chugunov, N.; Ramakrishnan, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface permeable faults and fracture networks play a critical role for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) by providing conduits for fluid flow. Characterization of the permeable flow paths before and after stimulation is necessary to evaluate and optimize energy extraction. To provide insight into the feasibility of using CO2 as a contrast agent to enhance fault characterization by seismic methods, we model seismic monitoring of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) injected into a fault. During the CO2 injection, the original brine is replaced by scCO2, which leads to variations in geophysical properties of the formation. To explore the technical feasibility of the approach, we present modeling results for different time-lapse seismic methods including surface seismic, vertical seismic profiling (VSP), and a cross-well survey. We simulate the injection and production of CO2 into a normal fault in a system based on the Brady's geothermal field and model pressure and saturation variations in the fault zone using TOUGH2-ECO2N. The simulation results provide changing fluid properties during the injection, such as saturation and salinity changes, which allow us to estimate corresponding changes in seismic properties of the fault and the formation. We model the response of the system to active seismic monitoring in time-lapse mode using an anisotropic finite difference method with modifications for fracture compliance. Results to date show that even narrow fault and fracture zones filled with CO2 can be better detected using the VSP and cross-well survey geometry, while it would be difficult to image the CO2 plume by using surface seismic methods.

  8. Interpretaion of synthetic seismic time-lapse monitoring data for Korea CCS project based on the acoustic-elastic coupled inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J.; Min, D.; Kim, W.; Huh, C.; Kang, S.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) is one of the promising methods to reduce the CO2 emission. To evaluate the success of the CCS project, various geophysical monitoring techniques have been applied. Among them, the time-lapse seismic monitoring is one of the effective methods to investigate the migration of CO2 plume. To monitor the injected CO2 plume accurately, it is needed to interpret seismic monitoring data using not only the imaging technique but also the full waveform inversion, because subsurface material properties can be estimated through the inversion. However, previous works for interpreting seismic monitoring data are mainly based on the imaging technique. In this study, we perform the frequency-domain full waveform inversion for synthetic data obtained by the acoustic-elastic coupled modeling for the geological model made after Ulleung Basin, which is one of the CO2 storage prospects in Korea. We suppose the injection layer is located in fault-related anticlines in the Dolgorae Deformed Belt and, for more realistic situation, we contaminate the synthetic monitoring data with random noise and outliers. We perform the time-lapse full waveform inversion in two scenarios. One scenario is that the injected CO2 plume migrates within the injection layer and is stably captured. The other scenario is that the injected CO2 plume leaks through the weak part of the cap rock. Using the inverted P- and S-wave velocities and Poisson's ratio, we were able to detect the migration of the injected CO2 plume. Acknowledgment This work was financially supported by the Brain Korea 21 project of Energy Systems Engineering, the "Development of Technology for CO2 Marine Geological Storage" program funded by the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs (MLTM) of Korea and the Korea CCS R&D Center (KCRC) grant funded by the Korea government (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology) (No. 2012-0008926).

  9. Forcing Mechanisms for the Variations of Near-surface Temperature Lapse Rates along the Himalayas, Tibetan Plateau (HTP) and Their Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattel, D. B.; Yao, T.; Ullah, K.; Islam, G. M. T.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the monthly characteristics of near-surface temperature lapse rates (TLRs) (i.e., governed by surface energy balance) based on the 176 stations 30-year (1980 to 2010) dataset covering a wide range of topography, climatic regime and relief (4801 m) in the HTP and its surroundings. Empirical analysis based on techniques in thermodynamics and hydrostatic system were used to obtain the results. Steepest TLRs in summer is due to strong dry convection and shallowest in winter is due to inversion effect is the general pattern of TLR that reported in previous studies in other mountainous region. Result of this study reports a contrast variation of TLRs from general patterns, and suggest distinct forcing mechanisms in an annual cycle. Shallower lapse rate occurs in summer throughout the regions is due to strong heat exchange process within the boundary layer, corresponding to the warm and moist atmospheric conditions. There is a systematic differences of TLRs in winter between the northern and southern slopes the Himalayas. Steeper TLRs in winter on the northern slopes is due to intense cooling at higher elevations, corresponding to the continental dry and cold air surges, and considerable snow-temperature feedback. The differences in elevation and topography, as well as the distinct variation of turbulent heating and cooling, explain the contrast TLRs (shallower) values in winter on the southern slopes. Distinct diurnal variations of TLRs and its magnitudes between alpine, dry, humid and coastal regions is due to the variations of adiabatic mixing during the daytime in the boundary layer i.e., associated with the variations in net radiations, elevation, surface roughness and sea surface temperature. The findings of this study is useful to determine the temperature range for accurately modelling in various field such as hydrology, glaciology, ecology, forestry, agriculture, as well as inevitable for climate downscaling in complex mountainous terrain.

  10. Automated profiling of individual cell-cell interactions from high-throughput time-lapse imaging microscopy in nanowell grids (TIMING).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merouane, Amine; Rey-Villamizar, Nicolas; Lu, Yanbin; Liadi, Ivan; Romain, Gabrielle; Lu, Jennifer; Singh, Harjeet; Cooper, Laurence J N; Varadarajan, Navin; Roysam, Badrinath

    2015-10-01

    There is a need for effective automated methods for profiling dynamic cell-cell interactions with single-cell resolution from high-throughput time-lapse imaging data, especially, the interactions between immune effector cells and tumor cells in adoptive immunotherapy. Fluorescently labeled human T cells, natural killer cells (NK), and various target cells (NALM6, K562, EL4) were co-incubated on polydimethylsiloxane arrays of sub-nanoliter wells (nanowells), and imaged using multi-channel time-lapse microscopy. The proposed cell segmentation and tracking algorithms account for cell variability and exploit the nanowell confinement property to increase the yield of correctly analyzed nanowells from 45% (existing algorithms) to 98% for wells containing one effector and a single target, enabling automated quantification of cell locations, morphologies, movements, interactions, and deaths without the need for manual proofreading. Automated analysis of recordings from 12 different experiments demonstrated automated nanowell delineation accuracy >99%, automated cell segmentation accuracy >95%, and automated cell tracking accuracy of 90%, with default parameters, despite variations in illumination, staining, imaging noise, cell morphology, and cell clustering. An example analysis revealed that NK cells efficiently discriminate between live and dead targets by altering the duration of conjugation. The data also demonstrated that cytotoxic cells display higher motility than non-killers, both before and during contact. broysam@central.uh.edu or nvaradar@central.uh.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Deficient Attention Is Hard to Find: Applying the Perceptual Load Model of Selective Attention to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Carr, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Whether selective attention is a primary deficit in childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) remains in active debate. Methods: We used the "perceptual load" paradigm to examine both early and late selective attention in children with the Primarily Inattentive (ADHD-I) and Combined subtypes (ADHD-C) of ADHD. Results:…

  12. Social Attention, Joint Attention and Sustained Attention in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Williams Syndrome: Convergences and Divergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanti, Giacomo; Fanning, Peter A. J.; Hocking, Darren R.; Sievers, Stephanie; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    There is limited knowledge on shared and syndrome-specific attentional profiles in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS). Using eye-tracking, we examined attentional profiles of 35 preschoolers with ASD, 22 preschoolers with WS and 20 typically developing children across social and non-social dimensions of attention. Children…

  13. A Reevaluation of the Attentional Inertia Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractAnderson's (1983) theory about children's attention behavior during television viewing hypothesizes that attention behavior is affected by positive feedback (the inertia hypothesis) and the degree to which a child understands the television program. During an experiment, neither

  14. When Might Sunburn Require Medical Attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need medical attention? When might sunburn require medical attention? Answers from Lawrence E. Gibson, M.D. Consult ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  15. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... September 2014 Print this issue Focusing on ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder En español Send us your comments ... might be signs of a developmental disorder called attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. ADHD is a common ...

  16. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tube DysfunctionStrep ThroatAnemiaHyperthyroidismOpioid AddictionDiabetesCroup Home Diseases and Conditions Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Condition Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( ...

  17. On the evolution of conscious attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladjian, Harry Haroutioun; Montemayor, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    This paper aims to clarify the relationship between consciousness and attention through theoretical considerations about evolution. Specifically, we will argue that the empirical findings on attention and the basic considerations concerning the evolution of the different forms of attention demonstrate that consciousness and attention must be dissociated regardless of which definition of these terms one uses. To the best of our knowledge, no extant view on the relationship between consciousness and attention has this advantage. Because of this characteristic, this paper presents a principled and neutral way to settle debates concerning the relationship between consciousness and attention, without falling into disputes about the meaning of these terms. A decisive conclusion of this approach is that extreme views on the relationship between consciousness and attention must be rejected, including identity and full dissociation views. There is an overlap between the two within conscious attention, but developing a full understanding of this mechanism requires further empirical investigations.

  18. Effects of Psychological Attention on Pronoun Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jennifer E.; Lao, Shin-Yi C.

    2015-01-01

    Pronoun comprehension is facilitated for referents that are focused in the discourse context. Discourse focus has been described as a function of attention, especially shared attention, but few studies have explicitly tested this idea. Two experiments used an exogenous capture cue paradigm to demonstrate that listeners’ visual attention at the onset of a story influences their preferences during pronoun resolution later in the story. In both experiments trial-initial attention modulated listeners’ transitory biases while considering referents for the pronoun, whether it was in response to the capture cue or not. These biases even had a small influence on listeners’ final interpretation of the pronoun. These results provide independently-motivated evidence that the listener’s attention influences the on-line processes of pronoun comprehension. Trial-initial attentional shifts were made on the basis of non-shared, private information, demonstrating that attentional effects on pronoun comprehension are not restricted to shared attention among interlocutors. PMID:26191533

  19. Acute sleep deprivation and circadian misalignment associated with transition onto the first night of work impairs visual selective attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayantara Santhi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Overnight operations pose a challenge because our circadian biology promotes sleepiness and dissipates wakefulness at night. Since the circadian effect on cognitive functions magnifies with increasing sleep pressure, cognitive deficits associated with night work are likely to be most acute with extended wakefulness, such as during the transition from a day shift to night shift.To test this hypothesis we measured selective attention (with visual search, vigilance (with Psychomotor Vigilance Task [PVT] and alertness (with a visual analog scale in a shift work simulation protocol, which included four day shifts followed by three night shifts. There was a nocturnal decline in cognitive processes, some of which were most pronounced on the first night shift. The nighttime decrease in visual search sensitivity was most pronounced on the first night compared with subsequent nights (p = .04, and this was accompanied by a trend towards selective attention becoming 'fast and sloppy'. The nighttime increase in attentional lapses on the PVT was significantly greater on the first night compared to subsequent nights (p<.05 indicating an impaired ability to sustain focus. The nighttime decrease in subjective alertness was also greatest on the first night compared with subsequent nights (p<.05.These nocturnal deficits in attention and alertness offer some insight into why occupational errors, accidents, and injuries are pronounced during night work compared to day work. Examination of the nighttime vulnerabilities underlying the deployment of attention can be informative for the design of optimal work schedules and the implementation of effective countermeasures for performance deficits during night work.

  20. Attention theory and training research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, James G., Jr.; Wickens, Christopher D.; Lintern, Gavan; Harwood, Kelly

    1987-01-01

    This study used elements of attention theory as a methodological basis to decompose a complex training task in order to improve training efficiency. The complex task was a microcomputer flight simulation where subjects were required to control the stability of their own helicopter while acquiring and engaging enemy helicopers in a threat enviroment. Subjects were divided into whole-task, part-task, and part/open loop adaptive task groups in a transfer of training paradigm. The effect of reducing mental workload at the early stages of learning was examined with respect to the degree that subordinate elements of the complex task could be automated through practice of consistent, learnable stimulus-response relationships. Results revealed trends suggesting the benefit of isolating consistently mapped sub-tasks for part-task training and the presence of a time-sharing skill over and above the skill required for the separate subtasks.

  1. Modality-specificity of Selective Attention Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Hannah J; Amitay, Sygal

    2015-01-01

    To establish the modality specificity and generality of selective attention networks. Forty-eight young adults completed a battery of four auditory and visual selective attention tests based upon the Attention Network framework: the visual and auditory Attention Network Tests (vANT, aANT), the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA), and the Test of Attention in Listening (TAiL). These provided independent measures for auditory and visual alerting, orienting, and conflict resolution networks. The measures were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis to assess underlying attention constructs. The analysis yielded a four-component solution. The first component comprised of a range of measures from the TEA and was labeled "general attention." The third component was labeled "auditory attention," as it only contained measures from the TAiL using pitch as the attended stimulus feature. The second and fourth components were labeled as "spatial orienting" and "spatial conflict," respectively-they were comprised of orienting and conflict resolution measures from the vANT, aANT, and TAiL attend-location task-all tasks based upon spatial judgments (e.g., the direction of a target arrow or sound location). These results do not support our a-priori hypothesis that attention networks are either modality specific or supramodal. Auditory attention separated into selectively attending to spatial and non-spatial features, with the auditory spatial attention loading onto the same factor as visual spatial attention, suggesting spatial attention is supramodal. However, since our study did not include a non-spatial measure of visual attention, further research will be required to ascertain whether non-spatial attention is modality-specific.

  2. Visual attention shifting in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Annette E; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal visual attention has been frequently observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Abnormal shifting of visual attention is related to abnormal development of social cognition and has been identified as a key neuropsychological finding in ASD. Better characterizing attention shifting in ASD and its relationship with social functioning may help to identify new targets for intervention and improving social communication in these disorders. Thus, the current study investigated deficits in attention shifting in ASD as well as relationships between attention shifting and social communication in ASD and neurotypicals (NT). To investigate deficits in visual attention shifting in ASD, 20 ASD and 20 age- and gender-matched NT completed visual search (VS) and Navon tasks with attention-shifting demands as well as a set-shifting task. VS was a feature search task with targets defined in one of two dimensions; Navon required identification of a target letter presented at the global or local level. Psychomotor and processing speed were entered as covariates. Relationships between visual attention shifting, set shifting, and social functioning were also examined. ASD and NT showed comparable costs of shifting attention. However, psychomotor and processing speed were slower in ASD than in NT, and psychomotor and processing speed were positively correlated with attention-shifting costs on Navon and VS, respectively, for both groups. Attention shifting on VS and Navon were correlated among NT, while attention shifting on Navon was correlated with set shifting among ASD. Attention-shifting costs on Navon were positively correlated with restricted and repetitive behaviors among ASD. Relationships between attention shifting and psychomotor and processing speed, as well as relationships between measures of different aspects of visual attention shifting, suggest inefficient top-down influences over preattentive visual processing in ASD. Inefficient attention shifting may be

  3. Attracting the attention of a fly

    OpenAIRE

    Sareen, Preeti; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Organisms with complex visual systems rarely respond to just the sum of all visual stimuli impinging on their eyes. Often, they restrict their responses to stimuli in a temporarily selected region of the visual field (selective visual attention). Here, we investigate visual attention in the fly Drosophila during tethered flight at a torque meter. Flies can actively shift their attention; however, their attention can be guided to a certain location by external cues. Using visual cues, we can d...

  4. Investor attention and FX market volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, John; Kita, Arben; Wang, Qingwei

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between investors’ active attention, measured by a Google search volume index (SVI), and the dynamics of currency prices. Investor attention is correlated with the trading activities of large FX market participants. Investor attention comoves with comtemporaneous FX market volatility and predicts subsequent FX market volatility, after controlling for macroeconomic fundamentals. In addition, investor attention is related to the currency risk premium. Our results sugge...

  5. Everyday Attention Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…

  6. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... attention deficit disorder (ADD)” is used rather than “attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)” in some data sources. More data Tables ...

  7. Attention and the Art of Scientific Publishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Klamer (Arjo); H.P. van Dalen (Hendrik)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractAttention is the coordination device, which makes modern science work the way it does. A typical characteristic of attention in the scientific world is that those who seek attention are the same people who are giving it. Another important feature within groups is the skewed distribution

  8. Perceptual Load Influences Selective Attention across Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couperus, Jane W.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that visual selective attention develops across childhood. However, there is relatively little understanding of the neurological changes that accompany this development, particularly in the context of adult theories of selective attention, such as N. Lavie's (1995) perceptual load theory of attention. This study examined visual…

  9. Does perceptual learning require consciousness or attention?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwese, J.D.I.; Post, R.A.G.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that visual attention and consciousness are separate [Koch, C., & Tsuchiya, N. Attention and consciousness:Two distinct brain processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 16-22, 2007] and possibly even orthogonal processes [Lamme, V. A. F. Why visual attention and awareness are

  10. When are attention and saccade preparation dissociated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belopolsky, A.V.; Theeuwes, J.

    2009-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of visual attention, it is crucial to know the relationship between attention and saccades. Some theories propose a close relationship, whereas others view the attention and saccade systems as completely independent. One possible way to resolve this controversy is to

  11. Attention to Faces in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Jones, Nicola; Brown, Philippa H.; Robinson, Lucy J.; Langton, Stephen R. H.; Bruce, Vicki; Riby, Leigh M.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with distinct social behaviours. One component of the WS social phenotype is atypically prolonged face fixation. This behaviour co-exists with attention difficulties. Attention is multi-faceted and may impact on gaze behaviour in several ways. Four experiments assessed (i) attention capture by faces, (ii)…

  12. Context-Dependent Control over Attentional Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosman, Joshua D.; Vecera, Shaun P.

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that the likelihood of a salient item capturing attention is dependent on the "attentional set" an individual employs in a given situation. The instantiation of an attentional set is often viewed as a strategic, voluntary process, relying on working memory systems that represent immediate task…

  13. Persistence of Value-Driven Attentional Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A.; Yantis, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Stimuli that have previously been associated with the delivery of reward involuntarily capture attention when presented as unrewarded and task-irrelevant distractors in a subsequent visual search task. It is unknown how long such effects of reward learning on attention persist. One possibility is that value-driven attentional biases are plastic…

  14. Subtypes of children with attention disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, E.F.J.M.; Das-Smaal, E.A.; Jong, de P.F.

    1996-01-01

    Subtypes of children with attentional problems were investigated using cluster analysis. Subjects were 9-year-old-elementary school children (N = 443). The test battery administered to these children comprised a comprehensive set of common attention tests, covering different aspects of attentional

  15. Attention deficit and attention training in early twentieth-century Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Ando, Mizuho; Kumagai, Keiko

    2015-06-01

    Yuzero Motora (1856-1912), regarded as the first professional Japanese psychologist, tried to address students' attention difficulties through attention training methods of his own design. His reports contain the first description of ADHD-like symptoms in the history of Japan. Motora viewed "distractibility" as the irregular transition of attention. Students with low scores and attention difficulties who participated in Motora's exercises showed improvement in arithmetic, psychological testing, and certain aspects of daily life. This article describes Motora's theoretical conception of attention and attention training methodology, the history of attention deficit and attention training, and the significance of Motora's experiments.

  16. Reduced memory and attention performance in a population-based sample of young adults with a moderate lifetime use of cannabis, ecstasy and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indlekofer, F; Piechatzek, M; Daamen, M; Glasmacher, C; Lieb, R; Pfister, H; Tucha, O; Lange, K W; Wittchen, H U; Schütz, C G

    2009-07-01

    Regular use of illegal drugs is suspected to cause cognitive impairments. Two substances have received heightened attention: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'ecstasy') and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC or 'cannabis'). Preclinical evidence, as well as human studies examining regular ecstasy consumers, indicated that ecstasy use may have negative effects on learning, verbal memory and complex attentional functions. Cannabis has also been linked to symptoms of inattention and deficits in learning and memory. Most of the published studies in this field of research recruited participants by means of newspaper advertisements or by using word-of-mouth strategies. Because participants were usually aware that their drug use was critical to the research design, this awareness may have caused selection bias or created expectation effects. Focussing on attention and memory, this study aimed to assess cognitive functioning in a community-based representative sample that was derived from a large-scale epidemiological study. Available data concerning drug use history allowed sampling of subjects with varying degrees of lifetime drug experiences. Cognitive functioning was examined in 284 young participants, between 22 and 34 years. In general, their lifetime drug experience was moderate. Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery, including measures for verbal learning, memory and various attentional functions. Linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between cognitive functioning and lifetime experience of drug use. Ecstasy and cannabis use were significantly related to poorer episodic memory function in a dose-related manner. For attentional measures, decrements of small effect sizes were found. Error measures in tonic and phasic alertness tasks, selective attention task and vigilance showed small but significant effects, suggesting a stronger tendency to experience lapses of attention. No indication for differences in

  17. Prefrontal control of attention to threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly V Peers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Attentional control refers to the regulatory processes that ensure that our actions are in accordance with our goals. Dual-system accounts view temperament as consisting of both individual variation in emotionality (e.g. trait anxiety and variation in regulatory attentional mechanisms that act to modulate emotionality. Increasing evidence links trait variation in attentional control to clinical mood and anxiety disorder symptoms, independent of trait emotionality. Attentional biases to threat have been robustly linked to mood and anxiety disorders. However, the role of variation in attentional control in influencing such biases, and the neural underpinnings of trait variation in attentional control, are unknown. Here, we show, that individual differences in trait attentional control, even when accounting for trait and state anxiety, are related to the magnitude of an attentional blink following threat-related targets. Moreover, we demonstrate that activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, is observed specifically in relation to control of attention over threatening stimuli, in line with neural theories of attentional control, such as guided activation theory. These results have key implications for neurocognitive theories of attentional bias and emotional resilience.

  18. Consciousness and Attention: On sufficiency and necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J A Van Boxtel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has slowly corroded a belief that selective attention and consciousness are so tightly entangled that they cannot be individually examined. In this review, we summarize psychophysical and neurophysiological evidence for a dissociation between top-down attention and consciousness. The evidence includes recent findings that show subjects can attend to perceptually invisible objects. More contentious is the finding that subjects can become conscious of an isolated object, or the gist of the scene in the near absence of top-down attention; we critically re-examine the possibility of ‘complete’ absence of top-down attention. We also cover the recent flurry of studies that utilized independent manipulation of attention and consciousness. These studies have shown paradoxical effects of attention, including examples where top-down attention and consciousness have opposing effects, leading us to strengthen and revise our previous views. Neuroimaging studies with EEG, MEG and fMRI are uncovering the distinct neuronal correlates of selective attention and consciousness in dissociative paradigms. These findings point to a functional dissociation: attention as analyzer and consciousness as synthesizer. Separating the effects of selective visual attention from those of visual consciousness is of paramount importance to untangle the neural substrates of consciousness from those for attention.

  19. The role of attention in illusory conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsal, Y; Meiran, N; Lavie, N

    1994-03-01

    In five experiments, we investigated the effects of attention on illusory conjunctions formed between features of unrelated objects. The first three experiments used a weak manipulation of attention and found that illusory conjunctions formed either among features receiving high attentional priority or among features receiving low attentional priority were not more frequent than were conjunctions formed between mixed features of different attentional priority. The last two experiments used a strong manipulation of attention and failed to reveal any evidence of true illusory conjunctions. The results are inconsistent with the feature-integration theory, which predicts that when attention is focused on a subset of items, illusory conjunctions ought to occur within and outside of the attended subset, but not between the attended and unattended items.

  20. Association between the attention deficits and delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Opora

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the society we can find a lot of prejudices concerning AD/HD. The article contains facts and evidence based on research presenting that the delinquency is very often a distant complication of attention deficits but it doesn’t mean that a child with attention deficits has to be delinquent. The article describes the association between the attention deficits and delinquency. There are presented some risk factors coming from the attention deficits and protective factors which let the child follow the social norms. The research was based on 108 delinquent juveniles staying under the probation supervision. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the frequency of the attention deficits among delinquent juveniles staying under supervision. The research findings concern also the association between the attention deficit and external behavioural disorders. In the summary several conditions are described which are important to protect children with attention deficit from delinquency.